Zullo, Lucas; Horton, Sarah; Eaddy, Michael; King, Jessica; Hughes, Jennifer; Diederich, Andrew; Kennard, Betsy; Emslie, Graham; Stewart, Sunita
Although insomnia has been repeatedly linked with suicide ideation, the reason for the linkage is not clear. The Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) proposes that three core variables (thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability) are the final common pathway for all risk factors for suicide ideation and behavior. Recent research has suggested that insomnia may be associated with suicide ideation independently of the IPTS. We examined cross-sectional data from 151 psychiatric inpatients (ages 12-17) to determine if the association between insomnia symptoms and a continuous measure of suicide risk (measured as increasingly severe ideation and plan) was explained by the framework of the IPTS. When all IPTS variables and depressive symptoms were included in the model, insomnia symptoms did not contribute unique variance to suicide risk. Perceived burdensomeness and depressive symptoms were found to explain the relationship between insomnia symptoms and suicide risk. Our findings suggest that improved sleep might reduce suicide risk, that management of interpersonal need cognitions might reduce risk in the presence of insomnia symptoms, and reinforce the independent role of depressive symptoms in suicide risk in clinical samples of adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Christoffersen, Mogens; Poulsen, Henrik Day; Nielsen, Anne
was also found among adolescents who had psychiatric disorder or a physical handicap, those who had been sentenced, were addicted to drugs, or had unstable education and unemployment records. A common feature of these significant risk factors seemed to be stigmatisation or social exclusion......This paper has been submitted to a journal for consideration, so please do not quote without permission. Adolescents' first-time suicide attempt tends to be characterized by parental psychiatric disorder or suicidal behaviour, family violence, especially child abuse and neglect. An increased risk...
Grossman, David C.; And Others
Examines risk factors for adolescent suicide among Navajos by comparing survey responses of students having attempted suicide with those of other students. A history of mental health problems, alienation from family and community, and having a friend commit suicide put students at a higher risk for suicide. (CJS)
Hooven, Carole; Snedker, Karen A.; Thompson, Elaine Adams
Young adult suicide is an important social problem, yet little is known about how risk for young adult suicide develops from earlier life stages. In this study the authors report on 759 young adults who were potential high school dropouts as youth. At both adolescence and young adulthood, measures of suicide risk status and related suicide risk…
Lyon, Maureen E.; Benoit, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Regina M.; Getson, Pamela R.; Silber, Tomas; Walsh, Thomas
Evaluates risk factors in African American adolescent suicide attempters (n=51) and nonsuicidal (n=124) adolescents. Results show that threat of separation from a parental figure, insomnia, neglect, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and failing grades were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. Unexpected findings include high levels of…
Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Lai, Hsiao-Jung; Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Hsu, Min-Tao
: Suicide is the ninth leading cause of death in adolescents aged 15-19 years in Taiwan. Suicidal ideation is an important predictor of committing suicide among adolescents. : The aim of this study was to examine the important risk factors, the protective factors, and the role of protective factors on the relationship of risk factors to suicidal ideation among Taiwanese adolescents aged 15-19 years. : By adopting a cross-sectional study, senior high school students (n = 577) aged 15-19 years in southern Taiwan were recruited for this study. An anonymous self-reported questionnaire was used to collect demographic characteristics, risk factors, protective factors, and suicidal ideation of the sample. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify the important risk and protective factors and the interaction between risk and protective factors on suicidal ideation. : Nearly 18% (n = 101) of the participants reported having suicidal ideation during the past 12 months. Gender (female; odds ratio [OR] = 4.23), life stress (OR = 1.03), depression (OR = 3.44), peer suicidal ideation (OR = 4.15), and bullying victimization (OR = 1.81) were important risk factors of suicidal ideation among the targeted sample. In addition, self-esteem (OR = 0.92) and emotional adaptation (OR = 0.88) were important protective factors of suicidal ideation. Self-esteem and emotional adaptation were not used to moderate the negative effects of life stress, depression, perceived peer suicidal ideation, and bullying victimization on suicidal ideation. The final model explained 40.6% of the total variance in suicidal ideation and correctly predicted 86.1% of participants with suicidal ideation. : Suicidal ideation prevention programs should be targeted to female adolescents. School-based efforts that provide adolescents with self-esteem enhancement, emotional regulation skills training, positive peer norms for life, coping skills for managing stress and depression, and antibullying programs
Ida F. Dancyger; Victor M. Fornari
This review examines the literature during the past 10 years about suicide risk and suicide during adolescence and young adulthood of individuals with eating disorders. Epidemiological surveys are summarized, including suicide rates, parasuicidal behaviors, associated risk factors, and comorbid psychopathology. Critical implications for the comprehensive assessment and treatment planning, including safety considerations, are discussed. Two clinical cases of women with long-standing eating dis...
A review of international statistics indicates that youth suicide rates are not increasing in all nations. Furthermore, it is suggested that the quality of life in nations is improving and that this improvement itself may increase the risk of suicide, especially in youth with narcissistic personality traits and antisocial personality disorder…
Ida F. Dancyger
Full Text Available This review examines the literature during the past 10 years about suicide risk and suicide during adolescence and young adulthood of individuals with eating disorders. Epidemiological surveys are summarized, including suicide rates, parasuicidal behaviors, associated risk factors, and comorbid psychopathology. Critical implications for the comprehensive assessment and treatment planning, including safety considerations, are discussed. Two clinical cases of women with long-standing eating disorders are described to highlight both the pragmatic considerations and the complex clinical challenges of working with patients with eating disorders who become suicidal. The potentially life-threatening issues of safety have not received sufficient attention, neither in the medical literature nor by the treating clinicians. All health care professionals who are treating patients with an eating disorder must be keenly aware of the serious risks of suicidal behavior and of suicide in this population.
Hedeland, Rikke Lindgaard; Teilmann, Grete; Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby
AIM: This study explored the relationships between suicidal adolescents and their parents, siblings and friends. It examined how much adolescents talked to their parents before suicide attempts, the frequency of self-mutilation, the extent of suicidal ideation, previous suicide attempts and suici...... this feeling and the duration of suicidal ideation (p = 0.01) and self-mutilation (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Early risk factors for suicide were dissociated relationships with parents, siblings and friends, feeling unheard, self-mutilation and extended suicidal ideation........ The study used questionnaires and medical and child psychiatric records. RESULTS: The study group were ten times more likely to report dissociated parental relationships than the control group (41.5% versus 4%), and there were significant relationships between these reports and feelings of not being heard...
Stoelb, Matt; Chiriboga, Jennifer
This comprehensive assessment process model includes primary, secondary, and situational risk factors and their combined implications and significance in determining an adolescent's level or risk for suicide. Empirical data and clinical intuition are integrated to form a working client model that guides the professional in continuously reassessing…
Full Text Available Background:To investigate the predisposing and precipitating risk factors for suicide ideations and suicide attempts in young and adolescent females,we tried to introduce a holistic model of suicidal behavior in young and adolescent girls. Methods: This study is based on the survey studies and was cross-sectional. Considering high rates of suicide attempts in provinces of Iran,three provinces (Kermanshah, Hamedan,Ilam which had the highest rates of completed suicide were selected. Then among female high school students (aged 14 to 21 years, in two stages a representative sample was selected by a multi-clusteral and simple randomized sampling methods. The research data were gathered by administering (1 The inventory of predisposing and precipitating factors of suicide, demographic and family characteristics (based on the literature review (2 Symptom Check List (SCL 90-R (3Suicidality Subscale of the Depressive Symptom Index (DSI-SS (4 Center for Epidemiological Studies (CED- SSI (5 Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS and (6 Child Abuse Self Report Scale (CASRS.Then,subjects were characterized by dividing them in to two categories: at risk,and low risk. The scores of 2 categories were analyzed and discussed. Results: Relationships were found between suicide ideations and psychological problems and disorders (especially depression.Also,the students who reported suicide ideation and suicide attempt had a history of being abused. Based on the results,predisposing and precipitating risk factors and also some protective factors of suicide ideations and suicide attempts were found and a theoretical model was presented.Conclusion: Some predisposing,precipitating and protective factors can predict suicide ideation and suicide attempts significantly.
Full Text Available Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age.
Ortin, Ana; Lake, Alison M; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S
High sensation seeking in adolescence is associated with engagement in risk-taking behaviors, especially substance use. Although depressed adolescents are prone to increased risk-taking, and suicidal behavior can be considered within the spectrum of risk-taking behaviors, the relationships between sensation seeking, depression, and suicidal behavior have not been explored. A self-report questionnaire assessing sensation seeking, depression, substance use problems, and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts was completed by 9th- through 12th-grade students (n=2189) in six New York State high-schools from 2002 through 2004. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine main and interaction effects between sensation seeking and the four clinical variables. High sensation seeking was positively associated with depressive symptoms and substance use problems. The main effects of sensation seeking on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts remained significant after controlling for depression and substance use. The association between sensation seeking and suicide attempts was moderated by substance use problems. The schools were suburban and predominantly white, limiting the generalizability of the results. Other mental disorders with potential implications for sensation seeking and for suicidal behavior, such as bipolar disorders, were not assessed. The finding that sensation seeking makes an independent contribution to the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts is consistent with findings in literature on novelty seeking and impulsivity. The associations between sensation seeking, depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior may be compatible with the presence of an underlying temperamental dysregulation. Screening for sensation seeking may contribute to the reduction of adolescent suicide risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Russell, Stephen T; Toomey, Russell B
There is strong consensus in the research literature that adolescent and adult men who report same-sex sexual orientations, identities, and behaviors are at higher risk for suicide. Recent studies of general adolescent suicide risk have identified developmental trajectories that peak during the teenage years. Because the adolescent years are characterized by the development and heightened awareness of gender roles and sexual scripts closely tied to dominant cultural ideals of masculinity and heterosexuality, an adolescent-focused developmental trajectory for suicide risk might be particularly relevant for males with adolescent same-sex sexual orientations. We provide the first prospective examination of adolescent-specific risk for suicidality based on adolescent same-sex sexual orientation using data from the United States, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Tracing suicide ideation and attempts across four assessments from adolescence (Wave 1 average age 15.3 years) to young adulthood (Wave 4 average age 28.2), we documented that the risk for suicidal thoughts and attempts for adolescent same-sex attracted males is developmental in nature. Specifically, the risk for suicidal thoughts and attempts for males with same-sex attractions is largely limited to the adolescent years. These results offer new insights for suicide prevention and intervention for male adolescents and adults with same-sex sexual orientations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conway, Paul Maurice; Erlangsen, Annette; Teasdale, Thomas William; Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Larsen, Kim Juul
Using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), we examined the predictive and incremental predictive validity of past-month suicidal behavior and ideation for short-term suicidal behavior among adolescents at high risk of suicide. The study was conducted in 2014 on a sample of 85 adolescents (90.6% females) who participated at follow-up (85.9%) out of the 99 (49.7%) baseline respondents. All adolescents were recruited from a specialized suicide-prevention clinic in Denmark. Through multivariate logistic regression analyses, we examined whether baseline suicidal behavior predicted subsequent suicidal behavior (actual attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, including preparatory acts, aborted, interrupted and actual attempts; mean follow-up of 80.8 days, SD = 52.4). Furthermore, we examined whether suicidal ideation severity and intensity incrementally predicted suicidal behavior at follow-up over and above suicidal behavior at baseline. Actual suicide attempts at baseline strongly predicted suicide attempts at follow-up. Baseline suicidal ideation severity and intensity did not significantly predict future actual attempts over and above baseline attempts. The suicidal ideation intensity items deterrents and duration were significant predictors of subsequent actual attempts after adjustment for baseline suicide attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, respectively. Suicidal ideation severity and intensity, and the intensity items frequency, duration and deterrents, all significantly predicted any type of suicidal behavior at follow-up, also after adjusting for baseline suicidal behavior. The present study points to an incremental predictive validity of the C-SSRS suicidal ideation scales for short-term suicidal behavior of any type among high-risk adolescents.
Berona, Johnny; Czyz, Ewa; Horwitz, Adam G.; Gipson, Polly Y.
Abstract Objective: The feasibility and concurrent validity of adolescent suicide risk screening in medical emergency departments (EDs) has been documented. The objectives of this short-term prospective study of adolescents who screened positive for suicide risk in the ED were: 1) to examine adolescents' rate of suicidal behavior during the 2 months following their ED visits and compare it with reported rates for psychiatric samples; and 2) to identify possible predictors of acute risk for suicidal behavior in this at-risk sample. Method: Participants were 81 adolescents, ages 14–19 years, seeking services for psychiatric and nonpsychiatric chief complaints, who screened positive for suicide risk because of recent suicidal ideation, a suicide attempt, and/or depression plus alcohol or substance misuse. A comprehensive assessment of suicidal behavior, using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, was conducted at baseline and 2 month follow-up. Results: Six adolescents (7.4%) reported a suicide attempt and 15 (18.5%) engaged in some type of suicidal behavior (actual, aborted, or interrupted suicide attempt; preparatory behavior) during the 2 months following their ED visit. These rates suggest that this screen identified a high-risk sample. Furthermore, adolescents who screened positive for suicidal ideation and/or attempt plus depression and alcohol/substance misuse were most likely to engage in future suicidal behavior (38.9%). Conclusions: In this study, use of a higher screen threshold (multiple suicide risk factors) showed promise for identifying highly elevated acute risk for suicidal behavior. PMID:25746114
Full Text Available The article describes the main techniques used in empirical studies abroad for diagnostics of risks of suicidal behavior in children and adolescents in population sampling: Beck Self-Rating Depression Inventory, The Hopelessness Scale for Children, Inventory of Suicide Orientation, Self-Destructive Thought Assessment Scale, The Life-Attitudes Schedule, A measure of adolescent potential for suicide (MAPS, Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale in adolescent samples, PATHOS, The Reasons for Living Inventory, Suicide Probability Scale (SPS, Validity of the Self-Harm Behavior Questionnaire
Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Larsen, Kim Juul; Horwood, John L
BACKGROUND: Assessment and screening are often the first step in planning interventions to help adolescents at risk of suicide. Causes of suicidal thoughts and behavior are multifaceted and it is important for clinical work that assessment reflects this complexity. AIMS: To investigate whether...... a general psychological Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) is associated with a validated suicide rating scale (C-SSRS). METHOD: An observational study of self-reported suicidality (C-SSRS), psychological distress (K10), and resiliency (READ) in three adolescent samples: suicide clinic (N = 147...... was significantly lower in the suicide clinic sample. READ was predictive of levels of suicidality within all samples independently of general psychological distress (K10). LIMITATIONS: The study did not examine other early childhood factors that may contribute to individual resiliency or suicidality. CONCLUSION...
Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish
Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are more common in Latina adolescents than White or African-American adolescents. Several health risk behaviors have been identified as being associated with Latina adolescent suicides. However, to date, no study has identified the consistency and stability of these risk behaviors over time. This study utilized the national Youth Risk Behaviors Survey from 2001 to 2013 to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and health risk behaviors associated with suicidal behaviors in Latina adolescents. Our analysis found the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts varied significantly over the 13-year study span, decreasing from 2001 to 2009 and increased from 2011 to 2013. The analyses found 11 health risk behaviors that were significantly associated with both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts that did not vary over time. The stability of these 11 health risk behaviors associated with suicidal behaviors could be useful to school personnel to identify early at risk Latina adolescents who may benefit from school and community mental health resources.
Vander Stoep, Ann; Adrian, Molly; Mc Cauley, Elizabeth; Crowell, Sheila E.; Stone, Andrea; Flynn, Cynthia
This study investigates the early manifestation of co-occurring depression and conduct problems as a predictor of heightened risk for later suicidal ideation and behavior in a community sample of 521 adolescents. Self-reported symptoms of depression and conduct problems were evaluated in early 6th grade. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were…
Jiang, Yongwen; Perry, Donald K; Hesser, Jana E
Suicide is the third-leading cause of death among high school students in the U.S. This study examined the relationships among indicators of depressed mood, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and demographics and risk behaviors in Rhode Island high school students. Data from Rhode Island's 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were utilized for this study. The statewide sample contained 2210 randomly selected public high school students. Data were analyzed in 2008 to model for each of five depressed mood/suicide indicators using multivariable logistic regression. By examining depressed mood and suicide indicators through a multivariable approach, the strongest predictors were identified, for multiple as well as specific suicide indicators. These predictors included being female, having low grades, speaking a language other than English at home, being lesbian/gay/bisexual/unsure of sexual orientation, not going to school as a result of feeling unsafe, having been a victim of forced sexual intercourse, being a current cigarette smoker, and having a self-perception of being overweight. The strength of associations between three factors (immigrant status, feeling unsafe, and having forced sex) and suicide indicators adds new information about potential predictors of suicidal behavior in adolescents. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam
Youth suicide represents an area of important public and mental health concern. Although diagnostic correlates (e.g., depression) of suicidality have been identified, very few studies of youth have analyzed relationships between empirically-derived dimensions of psychopathology, representing broader dimensions of risk, and different suicidality…
Im, Yeojin; Oh, Won-Oak; Suk, Minhyun
This study identified risk factors for suicide ideation among adolescents through a secondary analysis using data collected over five years from the 5th-9th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey. We analyzed 370,568 students' responses to questions about suicidality. The risk factors for suicide ideation included demographic characteristics, such as gender (girls), low grades, low economic status, and not living with one or both parents. Behavioral and mental health risk factors affecting suicide ideation were depression, low sleep satisfaction, high stress, alcohol consumption, smoking, and sexual activity. Health care providers should particularly target adolescents manifesting the above risk factors when developing suicide prevention programs for them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Kun; Aseltine, Robert H
The purpose of this study is to use statewide data on inpatient hospitalizations for suicide attempts and suicide mortality to identify communities and school districts at risk for adolescent suicide. Five years of data (2010-2014) from the Office of the Connecticut Medical Examiner and the Connecticut Hospital Inpatient Discharge Database were analyzed. A mixed-effects Poisson regression model was used to assess whether suicide attempt/mortality rates in the state's 119 school districts were significantly better or worse than expected after adjusting for 10 community-level characteristics. Ten districts were at significantly higher risk for suicidal behavior, with suicide mortality/hospitalization rates ranging from 154% to 241% of their expected rates, after accounting for their community characteristics. Four districts were identified as having significantly lower risk for suicide attempts than expected after accounting for community-level advantages and disadvantages. Data capturing hospitalization for suicide attempts and suicide deaths can inform prevention activities by identifying high-risk areas to which resources should be allocated, as well as low-risk areas that may provide insight into the best practices in suicide prevention. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bouvard, M P; Doyen, C
With 1500 death each year, suicide does represent the second cause of death in young people (between 15 and 25 years). There is a clear increase of suicide rate during adolescence, with an higher rate of suicide attempts in females, but an higher mortality in boys. Suicidal behaviors in adolescents are clinically characterized by impulsivity, rhythmicity (during schooling) and seasonality. Risks factors are numerous. However, psychiatric disorders represent the main one, especially depressive states, conduct disorders and their association. In adolescents familial and environment events may have an important role in suicidal behaviors, especially the role of imitation behavior. These different factors interact and constitute dynamic models. The role of each factor can be involved differently considering the sex. Dangerosity of suicide in adolescents should not be under-estimated, as it has been the case in the past. It is particularly true if we consider the high rate of recidive (approximatively 50%) in this population. These data emphasized the importance of a careful evaluation of all suicidal adolescents more precisely of depressive symptoms and aggressive and/or delinquent behavior and of prevention.
Tan, Ling; Xia, Tiansheng; Reece, Christy
The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of suicide ideation among primary, middle and high school students. We used multilevel modelling to investigate suicide ideation among 12,733 Chinese children and adolescents aged 9-18 years from wide range of areas across China. Approximately, 32.09% of children and adolescents reported suicide ideation, with females were more likely to report suicide ideation than males (38.09% vs. 29.95%). Our results showed that the risk factors in primary school students were different from middle and high school student groups, whereas significant risk factors for middle and high school students were similar. The city's standard of living as indicated by the Engel coefficient and the city's divorce rate were positively associated with the prevalence of suicide ideation; in contrast, the school's pupil-to-teacher ratio was negatively correlated with elevated suicide ideation. Significant risk factors for suicide ideation included study anxiety, self-accusation tendency, impulsive tendency, terror tendency and physical symptoms. These results have important implications for the prevention of suicide, suggesting that both contextual (city-level) and compositional (individual-level) factors could be important targets for prevention and intervention for children and adolescents at risk of suicide ideation. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Ran, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Zhen; Fan, Mei; Li, Rong-Hui; Li, Yuan-Hao; Ou, Guo Jing; Jiang, Zhe; Tong, Yu-Zhen; Fang, Ding-Zhi
Suicidal ideation is a common phenomenon in survivors after disaster event. To identify the change of suicidal ideation, and to test hypotheses concerning the suicidal ideation, depression and PTSD symptoms among adolescent survivors after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. The suicidal ideation among high school students at 6, 12 and 18 months after the Wenchuan earthquake were investigated. Subjects included 737 student survivors in an affected high school. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory (C-BDI) were used to measure the symptoms of PTSD and depression. The rates of suicidal ideation among the adolescent survivors at 6-, 12- and 18-month after the earthquake were 35.6%, 35.6% and 30.7% respectively. Depression symptoms in the 18-month follow-up, suicidal ideations at 6 and 12 months after the earthquake were the independent risk factors of suicidal ideation in the 18-month follow-up. Depression symptoms were the strongest predictor of suicidal ideation after earthquake. An increased rate of suicidal ideation after the earthquake may be mainly due to depression but not to PTSD symptoms. The disaster-related psychological sequelae and the risk factors of suicidal ideation, especially depression symptoms, should be considered in the mental health services and suicide prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Brent, David A.
This review examines the descriptive epidemiology, and risk and protective factors for youth suicide and suicidal behavior. A model of youth suicidal behavior is articulated, whereby suicidal behavior ensues as a result of an interaction of socio-cultural, developmental, psychiatric, psychological, and family-environmental factors. On the basis of…
Adolescents are at higher risk for suicide attempts than other age groups. Suicide is now the second leading cause of death in the United States for ages 12 to 18; moreover, the risk of suicide is significantly higher for adoptive teens. In fact, adoptive teenagers have a four times higher rate of suicide attempts than biological children, perhaps due to the underlying nature of adoption, which can involve a pervasive sense of grief and loss for the adoptee. Unresolved anger and sadness from feelings of abandonment-especially when transitioning to adolescence-can cause a seemingly functional child to dissociate through self-harm and eventually demonstrate suicidal behavior. Little evidence-based research exists on the risk factors for adoptive teens who resort to suicidal behavior. Thus, it is vitally important for school nurses to understand the emotional stressors that adolescent adoptees face throughout life to help identify teens at risk for suicide. School districts and registered nurses are well positioned to address this critical health issue through education, assessment, and intervention.
Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Abdeen, Ziad; Walsh, Sophie D; Radwan, Qasrowi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya
Based conceptually on Problem Behavior Theory, Normalization Theory and theories of adolescent ethnic identity formation this study explores relationships between individual and cumulative multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among mid-adolescents in three different populations in the Middle East. Data from the 2004 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children in the Middle-East (HBSC-ME) study included 8345 10th-grade pupils in three populations: Jewish Israelis (1770), Arab Israelis (2185), and Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank (4390). We considered risk behaviors and factors including tobacco use, bullying, medically-attended injuries, excessive time with friends, parental disconnectedness, negative school experience, truancy and poor academic performance. Substantial population differences for suicidal tendency and risk behaviors were observed, with notably high levels of suicidal ideation and behavior among Arab-Israeli youth and higher levels of risk behaviors among the Jewish and Arab-Israeli youth. For all populations suicidal tendency was at least 4 times higher among adolescents reporting 4+ risk behaviors, suggesting that similar psychosocial determinants affect patterns of risk behaviors and suicidal tendency. Results highlight the importance of understanding cultural contexts of risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Watkins, Adam M.; Lizotte, Alan J.
The aim of this research is to assess if home firearm access increases the risk of nonfatal suicidal attempts among adolescents. Such a gun focus has largely been limited to case-control studies on completed suicides. This line of research has found that household gun access increases the risk of suicide due to features of available firearms…
Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.
There is much empirical literature on factors for adolescent suicide risk, but body image and disordered eating are rarely included in these models. In the current study, disordered eating and body image were examined as risk factors for suicide ideation since these factors are prevalent in adolescence, particularly for females. It was…
Sharaf, Amira Y; Thompson, Elaine A; Walsh, Elaine
If and how family support and self-esteem might interact to protect against adolescent suicide risk is not well understood. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the moderating effect of family support on the relationship between self-esteem and suicide risk behaviors among potential high school dropouts (N = 849), using questionnaires and in-depth assessment interviews. Family support moderated the impact of self-esteem on suicide risk; the ameliorating effect of self-esteem was stronger among adolescents with low versus high family support. Self-esteem influences adolescent suicide risk behaviors for youth with low as well as high family support. Interventions designed to strengthen both self-esteem and support resources are appropriate.
Wei, Han-Ting; Lan, Wen-Hsuan; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Bai, Ya-Mei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Su, Tung-Ping; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Mu-Hong
To assess the independent or comorbid effect of conduct and mood disorders on the risk of suicide. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to derive data for 3711 adolescents aged 12-17 years with conduct disorder and 14 844 age- and sex-matched controls between 2001 and 2009. The participants were followed up to the end of 2011, and those who attempted suicide during the follow-up period were identified. Adolescents with conduct disorder had a higher incidence of suicide (0.9% vs 0.1%; P suicide at a younger age (17.38 ± 2.04 vs 20.52 ± 1.70 years of age) than did the controls. The Cox proportional hazards regression model, after adjustment for demographic data and psychiatric comorbidities, determined that conduct disorder was an independent risk factor for subsequent suicide attempts (hazard ratio, 5.17; 95% CI, 2.29-11.70). The sensitivity after those with other psychiatric comorbidities were excluded revealed a consistent finding (hazard ratio, 10.32; 95% CI, 3.71-28.71). Adolescents with conduct disorder had an increased risk of suicide attempts over the next decade. Future studies are required to clarify the underlying pathophysiology and elucidate whether prompt intervention for conduct disorder could reduce this risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Every year, almost one million people commit suicide worldwide which is approximately 1.5% of all deaths. Thus suicide is 10th leading cause of death globally and the third leading cause of death among children and adolescents ages 10 to 24 years. Little is known about the characteristics of successive attempts among individuals who survive the first suicide attempt. It is very important to identify risk factors that can be predictive of future suicide attempts. Subjects with one suicide attempt had an increased risk for a future attempt. Most children and adolescents with suicidal behavior have at least one psychiatric disorder with mood disorders being the most common. A thorough examination of risk factors, the impact of suicidal behavior on patients and on their families and communities, and recommended directions for future research are main focus of this review.
Ahmad, NoorAni; Cheong, Siew Man; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman
Adolescence is the time of greatest risk for the first onset of suicidal behaviors. This study aimed to identify the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation among Malaysian adolescents. Data from the 2012 Malaysia Global School-based Student Health Survey, a nationwide study using a 2-stage cluster sampling design, were analyzed. The survey used a self-administered validated bilingual questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 7.9%. Analysis revealed that suicidal ideation was positively associated with depression, anxiety, stress, substance use, being bullied, and being abused at home, either physically or verbally. In addition, suicidal ideation was significantly higher among females and among the Indians and Chinese. Having close friends and married parents were strongly protective against suicidal ideation. Understanding the risk and protective factors is important in providing comprehensive management for suicidal ideation. © 2014 APJPH.
Kim, Sun Mi; Baek, Ji Hyun; Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Young Sik; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A
We determined risk factors that discriminate between suicide attempt (SA) adolescents and suicidal ideation only (SI only) adolescents using data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (12-19 years; N = 73,238). In males, heavy alcohol use, drug use, and high perceived sadness/hopelessness showed significant effects on the presence of SA versus the presence of SI only. In females, along with these variables, low academic achievement, poor perceived health status, high perceived stress, and unhealthy coping strategy were also significantly related to the presence of SA versus SI only. Therefore, clinical interventions targeting adolescents' psychological distress are warranted to prevent suicide. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.
Kuramoto-Crawford, S Janet; Ali, Mir M; Wilcox, Holly C
Few studies have addressed on the role of parent-child connectedness (PCC) on adolescents' risk for suicidal ideation from a longitudinal, developmental perspective. This study examined PCC during adolescence and risk of suicidal ideation into adulthood among a nationally representative sample of American adolescents. The study includes 13,234 adolescents aged 11-18 from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) who were surveyed during adolescence (1994-1995) and then again in early adulthood (2008-2009). Multinomial logistic regression estimated the association between PCC during adolescence and having ideation during the adolescence period only, in adulthood only, and in both adolescence and adulthood as compared with those without suicidal ideation. After adjusting for depressive symptoms and other parent and adolescent characteristics, adolescents in two-parent households who reported higher PCC during adolescence had lower relative risk of having ideation during adolescence alone and in both adolescence and adulthood. In mother-only households, higher mother connectedness was also associated with decreased risk of having adolescent ideation. PCC is an important modifiable target for the prevention of suicidal ideation from adolescence into adulthood.
Joe, Sean; Scott, Marquisha Lawrence; Banks, Andrae
We reviewed the controlled studies that report outcome findings for Black adolescent males 24 years of age and younger at risk of suicide. Our review identified 48 articles published from 2000 to 2015, 33 that met our initial criteria for full-text articles review, resulting in 6 that met all inclusion criteria. We sought to understand what works…
Field, T; Diego, M; Sanders, C E
Adolescent suicidal ideation and its relationship to other variables was tapped by a self-report questionnaire administered to 88 high school seniors. Eighteen percent responded positively to the statement "sometimes I feel suicidal." Those who reported suicidal ideation were found to differ from those who did not on a number of variables, including family relationships (quality of relationship with mother, intimacy with parents, and closeness to siblings), family history of depression (maternal depression), peer relations (quality of peer relationships, popularity, and number of friends), emotional well-being (happiness, anger, and depression), drug use (cigarettes, marijuana, and cocaine), and grade point average. Stepwise regression indicated that happiness explained 46% of the variance in suicidal ideation, and number of friends, anger, and marijuana use explained an additional 20%, for a total of 66% of the variance. While 34% of the variance remained unexplained, it is suggested that the questions used to measure these four variables be included in global screenings to identify adolescents at risk for suicidal ideation.
Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Luby, Joan L; Joshi, Paramjit T; Wagner, Karen D; Emslie, Graham J; Walkup, John T; Axelson, David A; Joiner, Thomas E
Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk for suicide. Sleep disturbances are common among youth with bipolar disorder and are also independently implicated in suicide risk; thus, comorbid sleep disorders may amplify suicide risk in this clinical population. This study examined the effects of comorbid sleep disorders on suicide risk among youth with bipolar disorder. We conducted secondary analyses of baseline data from the Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study, a randomized controlled trial of individuals aged 6-15 years (mean ± SD = 10.2 ± 2.7 years) with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder (N = 379). Sleep disorders (i.e., nightmare, sleep terror, and sleepwalking disorders) and suicide risk were assessed via the WASH-U-KSADS and the CDRS-R, respectively. We constructed uncontrolled logistic regression models as well as models controlling for trauma history, a generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) diagnosis, and depression symptoms. Participants with a current comorbid nightmare disorder versus those without were nearly twice as likely to screen positive for suicide risk in an uncontrolled model and models controlling for trauma history, a GAD diagnosis, and depression symptoms. Neither a current comorbid sleep terror disorder nor a sleepwalking disorder was significantly associated with suicide risk. This pattern of findings remained consistent for both current and lifetime sleep disorder diagnoses. Youth with bipolar I disorder and a comorbid nightmare disorder appear to be at heightened suicide risk. Implications for assessment and treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bloch, Michael H
Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death in young people ages 10-19 (CDC, 2015). Current statistics suggest that in the US one in every seven youths has seriously considered or made a plan to commit suicide and one in every 13 youths has attempted suicide in the previous year (CDC, 2015). Suicide represents a - if not the - major public health problem in adolescents. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Diana C. Toro G
Full Text Available Objective: To explore the possible association between the risk of suicide, depression, consumption of psychoactive and family dysfunction in school adolescents. Methodology: It was administered a self-administered survey to a random sample of 779 adolescents to assess the risk of suicide, depression, psychoactive substance use and family dysfunction, the instruments were used ISO-30, CDI-LA-II CIDI and Family Apgar respectively. The analysis used the technique of case-control method. Results:The prevalence of suicide risk was between 23.0% and 26.5%. Depression and family dysfunction were positively associated with suicide risk, with a disparity ratio of 4.3 and 2.0 respectively. Conclusions: The results show the magnitude of a problem that must take into account the educational authorities, the municipal administration and parents. A priority is to strengthen programs for adolescent depression screening, and also require to the State better treatments for depression (not just limited to the drug. We must promote the strategy of school parents in educational institutions, emphasizing issues related to mental health and stress the importance of communication, cooperation, affection and respect among family members.
Andover Margaret S
Full Text Available Abstract Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI are distinct behaviors differing in intent, form, and function, the behaviors co-occur at a high rate in both adults and adolescents. Researchers have begun to investigate the association between attempted suicide and NSSI among adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to present current research on this association. First, we discuss definitional issues associated with self-injurious behaviors. Next, we present research on the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and NSSI, including prevalence and associations with self-injury characteristics. We then discuss psychosocial variables associated with engaging in both NSSI and attempted suicide or one type of self-injury alone. Finally, we present the research to date on risk factors uniquely associated with either attempted suicide or NSSI. Implications for mental health professionals and future avenues of research are discussed.
Isacsson, Göran; Rich, Charles L
Government agencies have issued warnings about the use of antidepressant medications in children, adolescents, and young adults since 2003. The statements warn that such medications may cause de novo 'suicidality' in some people. This review explores the data on the treatment of depression that led to these warnings and subsequent data that are relevant to the warnings. It also addresses the effectiveness of antidepressant treatment in general and the relationship of suicide rates to antidepressant treatment. It concludes that the decisions for the 'black box' warnings were based on biased data and invalid assumptions. Furthermore, the decisions were unsupported by the observational data regarding suicide in young people that existed in 2003. The following recommendations would seem to follow from these observations. First, drug authorities should re-evaluate the basis for their imposed warnings on antidepressant medicines, and analyze the actual public health consequences the warnings have had. In the absence of substantial evidence supporting the warnings, they should be removed. Second, physicians and other providers with prescription privileges should continue to be educated regarding the importance of aggressively treating depression in young people, using antidepressants when indicated. Third, physicians and other professionals who treat depressed young people must always be aware of the risk of suicide (albeit quite low) and observe them closely for any signs of increased risk of suicide. This is necessary regardless of the type of treatment being provided.
There is no other such complex physical, biological, somatic, mental, psychological, psychiatric, cultural, social and spiritual phenomenon and general public health problem, so much unexplained, meaningless, so tragic, painful, and unreasonable, so difficult, contradictory and mystified like suicide. In spite of the several already identified background factors, we do not and we can not know the real reasons behind suicide, because suicide is multi-causal, and can never be traced back to one single cause, but there are always many biological, psychological-psychiatric, historical, social and cultural factors involved in its development. However, the strongest suicide risk factor is an unrecognized and untreated mental disorder. Suicide among young people is one of the most serious public health problems. In Hungary 1395 young people lost their lives due to suicide in the 24> age group between 2000-2010, 1150 males and 245 females. According to epidemiological studies, 24.7% of children and adolescents suffer from some form of behaviour-, conduct- or other psychiatric disorders. Among adolescents (aged 15-24) suicide was the first leading cause of death in 2010. Despite great advances in the psychopharmacology and psychotherapy of mental disorders, suicides persist as a major cause of mortality, especially among the 15-24-year old population. Victims of suicide are not healthy individuals. They always suffer from psychiatric or mental, physical or somatic, cultural (social, historical, mythological) and spiritual disorders. The author tries to classify suicide protective and risk factors according to physical-biological, mental-psychological, cultural-social, and spiritual aspects. However, it must be remembered that these factors are not necessarily present in each and every case and may vary from one country to another, one person to another, depending on cultural, political, (spiritual) and economical features. Risk and protective factors can occur (1) at the
May 9, 2008 ... Adolescents with suicidal tendencies have a rather distinct set of problems compared with ... Disorders (4th edition, text revision) (DSM IV)1 represent a fairly standardised approach. ... Depressed mood. Reduced interest in ...
Pirruccello, Linda M
Suicide is the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young people in the United States. The etiology of suicide in this population has eluded policy makers, researchers, and communities. Although many suicide prevention programs have been developed and implemented, few are evidence-based in their effectiveness in decreasing suicide rates. In one northern California community, adolescent suicide has risen above the state's average. Two nurses led an effort to develop and implement an innovative grassroots community suicide prevention project targeted at eliminating any further teen suicide. The project consisted of a Teen Resource Card, a community resource brochure targeted at teens, and education for the public and school officials to raise awareness about this issue. This article describes this project for other communities to use as a model. Risk and protective factors are described, and a comprehensive background of adolescent suicide is provided.
Paschall, Mallie J; Bersamin, Melina
This study examined whether an increase in the availability of mental health services at school-based health centers (SBHCs) in Oregon public schools was associated with the likelihood of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and substance use behaviors among adolescents who experienced a depressive episode in the past year. The study sample included 168 Oregon public middle and high schools and 9073 students who participated in the Oregon Healthy Teens Survey (OHT) in 2013 and 2015. Twenty-five schools had an SBHC, and 14 of those schools increased availability of mental health services from 2013 to 2015. The OHT included questions about having a depressive episode, suicidal ideation, attempting suicide in the past year, and substance use behaviors in the past 30days. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were conducted in 2017 to examine associations between increasing mental health services and the likelihood of these outcomes. Analysis results indicated that students at SBHC schools that increased mental health services were less likely to report any suicidal ideation [odds ratio (OR) (95% C.I.)=0.66 (0.55, 0.81)], suicide attempts [OR (95% C.I.)=0.71 (0.56, 0.89)] and cigarette smoking [OR (95% C.I.)=0.77 (0.63, 0.94)] from 2013 to 2015 compared to students in all other schools. Lower frequencies of cigarette, marijuana and unauthorized prescription drug use were also observed in SBHC schools that increased mental health services relative to other schools with SBHCs. This study suggests that mental health services provided by SBHCs may help reduce suicide risk and substance use behaviors among at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Romanowicz, Magdalena; O'Connor, Stephen S; Schak, Kathryn M; Swintak, Cosima C; Lineberry, Timothy W
Suicide is the third leading cause of death in the United States for youth 12-17 years or age. Acute psychiatric hospitalization represents a clear worst point clinically and acute suicide risk is the most common reason for psychiatric admission. We sought to determine factors associated with differences in individual suicide risk assessment for children and adolescents during acute psychiatric admission. Study participants were 1153 youth consecutively admitted to an inpatient psychiatry unit who completed a self-administered Suicide Status Form (SSF) within 24h of admission. Additional information on suicide risk factors was obtained through medical chart abstraction. Females reported significantly greater psychological pain, stress, hopelessness, and self-hate on the SSF and were significantly more likely to have made a suicide attempt just prior to the index hospital admission (OR=1.59, SE=0.29; CI=1.12-2.26), report a family history of suicide (OR=2.02, SE=0.33; CI=1.47-2.78), and had experienced a greater number of inpatient psychiatry admissions related to suicidal ideation (RR=1.33, SE=0.13; CI=1.10-1.61). High school aged youth and those with a primary diagnosis of depression displayed consistently elevated SSF scores and risk factors for suicide compared to comparison groups. Diagnosis was determined through chart abstraction. Responses to access to firearm question had missing data for 46% of the total sample. Systematic administration of a suicide-specific measure at admission may help clinicians improve identification of suicide risk factors in youth in inpatient psychiatry settings. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ferrer, Laia; Kirchner, Teresa
Adolescents with adjustment disorder (AD) are at risk of presenting suicidal symptoms. Certain personality traits are linked to suicidal tendencies. There is a lack of information about the link between suicide and personality patterns in adolescents with AD. To identify the personality characteristics that predispose to or prevent the development of suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescents with AD. We recruited 108 adolescents with AD at a public mental health center near Barcelona (Spain). They were administered the Inventario de Riesgo Suicida para Adolescentes (IRIS) to assess suicidal symptoms, as well as the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the 16PF Adolescent Personality Questionnaire (16PF-APQ) to appraise personality features. Doleful personality emerged as the principal risk for suicidal symptoms. The conforming personality pattern exerted a protective effect, and emotional stability was associated with low levels of suicidal tendencies. Among the Big Five factors, anxiety had the highest explanatory power for suicidal tendencies. Certain personality characteristics are associated with heightened or reduced risk of suicidal tendencies in adolescents with AD. Their identification is important for clinicians designing treatment programs for these patients.
Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju
We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt groups and we examined significant predictors of suicide attempts. Gender differences in suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were also analyzed. Among 106 depressed participants, 50 (47.2%) adolescents were classified in the suicide attempt group. Generally, the suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt group shared similar clinical characteristics. The suicide attempt group had more females, more major depressive disorder diagnoses, more depressive episodes, and higher suicidal ideation than the non-suicide attempt group. Suicidal ideation was the only significant predictor of suicidal attempt, regardless of gender. Higher suicidal ideation frequency scores and more non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors were shown in the female suicide attempt group than the male suicide attempt group. It is recommended that suicidal ideation be assessed regularly and managed rigorously to decrease suicide risks in depressive adolescents. PMID:27776392
Brinkman-Sull, David C.; Overholser, James C.; Silverman, Eden
Investigates potential predictors of suicidal behavior in adolescent psychiatric patients (N=60) during an 18-month follow-up period. Follow-up suicidality was most strongly predicted by high intake levels of hopelessness, and an increase in or persistent problems with depression. Proposes a model in which the impact of family functioning on…
Conclusions: This study identified three major themes related to suicide attempt among adolescents in the context. As a result, suicide prevention and care provision should formulate a comprehensive method, considering the interaction of medical besides individual, familiar, and social factors in their assessment and care provision.
GILETTA, MATTEO; HASTINGS, PAUL D.; RUDOLPH, KAREN D.; BAUER, DANIEL J.; NOCK, MATTHEW K.; PRINSTEIN, MITCHELL J.
Poor physiological self-regulation has been proposed as a potential biological vulnerability for adolescent suicidality. This study tested this hypothesis by examining the effect of parasympathetic stress responses on future suicide ideation. In addition, drawing from multilevel developmental psychopathology theories, the interplay between parasympathetic regulation and friendship support, conceptualized as an external source of regulation, was examined. At baseline, 132 adolescent females (M age = 14.59, SD = 1.39) with a history of mental health concerns participated in an in vivo interpersonal stressor (a laboratory speech task) and completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms and perceived support within a close same-age female friendship. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was measured before and during the speech task. Suicide ideation was assessed at baseline and at 3, 6, and 9 months follow-up. The results revealed that females with greater relative RSA decreases to the laboratory stressor were at higher risk for reporting suicide ideation over the subsequent 9 months. Moreover, parasympathetic responses moderated the effect of friendship support on suicide ideation; among females with mild changes or higher relative increases in RSA, but not more pronounced RSA decreases, friendship support reduced risk for future suicide ideation. Findings highlight the crucial role of physiological and external regulation sources as protective factors for youth suicidality. PMID:28031059
Wetzler, Scott; And Others
Examines the characteristics of suicidality and psychopathology (including depression, aggression, impulsivity, and stressful life events) among four groups of depressed adolescent outpatients. The nonsuicidal group was differentiated from the three suicidal groups on the basis of suicidality and psychopathology. The three suicidal groups were…
Koren, Dan; Rothschild-Yakar, Lily; Lacoua, Liza
), an established marker for CHR, and suicidality/self-harm in this population. The goal of this pilot study was to assess the association between SD, depression and suicidal ideation and behaviour among non-help-seeking adolescents from the community. METHOD: A total of 100 community-dwelling adolescents (age...... to derive a binary diagnosis of unipolar depression, as well as to measure suicidal ideation and behaviour and self-harm. RESULTS: In a multiple regression analysis, SD accounted for variance in depressive symptoms and suicidality/self-harm over and above that accounted for by APS. Moreover, SD accounted...... for variance in suicidality/self-harm over and above that accounted for by depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: These pilot results suggest that SD might be a unique dimension of vulnerability to depression and suicidality/self-harm in adolescence. Also, they encourage assessment of SD as part of a suicide risk...
Fergusson, D M; Woodward, L J; Horwood, L J
This study examined associations between childhood circumstances, adolescent mental health and life events, and the development of suicidal behaviour in young people aged between 15 and 21 years. Data were gathered over the course of a 21-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 children born in New Zealand. The measures collected included: (1) patterns of suicidal behaviour (ideation, attempt) (15-21 years); (2) social background, family functioning, parental and individual adjustment during childhood (0-16 years); and (3) time dynamics of mental health and stressful life events during adolescence and early adulthood (15-21 years). By the age of 21 years, 28.8% of the sample reported having thought about killing themselves and 7.5% reported having made a suicide attempt. The childhood profile of those at greatest risk of suicidal behaviour was that of a young person reared in a family environment characterized by socio-economic adversity, marital disruption, poor parent-child attachment and exposure to sexual abuse, and who as a young adolescent showed high rates of neuroticism and novelty seeking. With the exception of the socio-economic and personality measures, the effects of childhood factors were largely mediated by mental health problems and exposure to stressful life events during adolescence and early adulthood. Mental health problems including depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorder, and to some extent conduct disorder, in addition to exposure to adverse life events, were significantly associated with the onset of suicidal behaviours. Findings support a life course model of the aetiology of suicidal behaviour in which risk of developing suicidal behaviour depends on accumulative exposure to a series of social, family, personality and mental health factors.
Barzilay, S; Feldman, D; Snir, A; Apter, A; Carli, V; Hoven, C W; Wasserman, C; Sarchiapone, M; Wasserman, D
Joiner's interpersonal theory of suicide (IPTS) proposes that suicide results from the combination of a perception of burdening others, social alienation, and the capability for self-harm. The theory gained some empirical support, however the overall model has yet to be tested. This study aimed to test the main predictions of IPTS in a large community sample of Israeli adolescents. 1196 Israeli Jewish and Arab high-school pupils participating in the SEYLE project completed a self-report questionnaire measuring perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, health risk behaviors, and non-suicidal self-injury (risk variables), and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (outcome measures). The data were tested in cross-sectional regression models. Consistent with IPTS, perceived burdensomeness was found to interact with thwarted belongingness, predicting suicidal ideation. Depression mediated most of the effect of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness on suicidal ideation. Acquired capability for self-harm, as measured by health risk behaviors and direct non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors, predicted suicide attempt. However, this mechanism operated independently from ideation rather than in interaction with it, at variance with IPTS-based predictions. The cross-sectional design precludes conclusions about causality and directionality. Proxy measures were used to test the interpersonal theory constructs. The findings support some of the IPTS predictions but not all, and imply two separate pathways for suicidal behavior in adolescents: one related to internalizing psychopathology and the other to self-harm behaviors. This conceptualization has clinical implications for the differential identification of adolescents at risk for suicidal behavior and for the development of prevention strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kerr, David C. R.; Washburn, Jason J.; Feingold, Alan; Kramer, Anne C.; Ivey, Asha Z.; King, Cheryl A.
The consequences of aggression on problem course and suicide risk were examined in 270 acutely suicidal adolescents (ages 12-17 years; 184 girls). Participants were assessed during psychiatric hospitalization (T1), 6-months post-hospitalization (T2), and 15 or more months post-hospitalization (T3). Study variables included self- and…
Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key PointsSouth Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA.Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents.To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity.
Martin, G; Waite, S
Part of a series of studies into early detection in adolescent suicide, this study investigated relationships between parenting style and suicidal thoughts, acts and depression. Students (mean age 15 years) from 4 randomly chosen high schools completed self-report questionnaires containing the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and the Youth Self Report, which provided information about suicide ideation, deliberate self-harm and depression. Significant differences for mean scores on the PBI subscales were noted between cases and noncases of depression, suicidal thoughts and deliberate self-harm. Assignment by adolescents of their parents to the "affectionless control" quadrant of the PBI doubles the relative risk for suicidal thoughts, increases the relative risk for deliberate self-harm 3-fold and increases the relative risk for depression 5-fold. It seems that the PBI may play a role in identification of vulnerable adolescents; further, it both elucidates aspects of adolescent-parent interaction and points toward areas for intervention with at-risk adolescents. We recommend the use of the PBI in early detection studies of adolescent suicide.
Full Text Available Objective: Suicide is a complex phenomenon associated with pyschological, biological and social factors. Suicide has been reported as the second or third most common cause of death in children and adolescents worldwide. Suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents will be discussed in the frame of motivational definition. Method: Published research studies and reviews on children and adolescent suicides have been reviewed. Furthermore, classical papers have been searched to obtain knowledge about suicide behavior. Results: It is reported that firearms have been the most important effect in adolescent suicide. Both fatal and nonfatal suicidal behaviors have been linked consistently to negative parent-child relationships, depression, substance use, overall number of life stressors, gender and impulsive behaviors. Discussion: Future efforts to investigate suicidal behavior should use new research methodologies that may lead to identification of the interactions between environmental factors and constitutional and biological factors that are associated with risk for suicidal behavior. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(2.000: 88-97
Calhoun, Casey D.; Hastings, Paul D.; Rudolph, Karen D.; Nock, Matthew K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Adopting a multi-level approach, this study examined risk factors for adolescent suicidal ideation, with specific attention to (a) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress responses and (b) the interplay between HPA-axis and other risk factors from multiple domains (i.e., psychological, interpersonal and biological). Participants were 138 adolescent females (Mage=14.13 years, SD=1.40) at risk for suicidal behaviors. At baseline, lifetime suicidal ideation and a number of risk factors were assessed (i.e., depressive symptoms, impulsiveness, pubertal status and peer stress). Participants were exposed to a psychosocial stress task and HPA-axis responses were assessed by measuring cortisol levels pre- and post-stressor. At 3 months post-baseline, suicidal ideation again was assessed. Using group-based trajectory modeling, three groups of cortisol stress-response patterns were identified (i.e., hyporesponsive, normative, and hyperresponsive). As compared to females in the normative and hyporesponsive group, females in the hyperresponsive group were more likely to report a lifetime history of suicidal ideation at baseline, above and beyond the effects of the other predictors. Moreover, as compared to females in the normative group, females in the hyperresponsive group were at increased risk for reporting suicidal ideation 3 months later, after controlling for prior ideation. No interactions between cortisol group and the other risk factors were significant, with the exception of a non-significant trend between impulsiveness and cortisol group on lifetime suicidal ideation. Findings highlight the importance of HPA-axis responses to acute stressors as a risk factor for suicidal ideation among adolescents. PMID:24958308
Full Text Available Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST and suicidal attempts (SA with the level of physical activity (PA among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA, moderate PA (MPA, and low PA (LPA and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation.
Giletta, M.; Calhoun, C.D.; Hastings, P.D.; Rudolph, K.D.; Nock, M.K.; Prinstein, M.J.
Adopting a multi-level approach, this study examined risk factors for adolescent suicidal ideation, with specific attention to (a) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress responses and (b) the interplay between HPA-axis and other risk factors from multiple domains (i.e., psychological,
Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; van de Looij – Jansen, Petra M.; de Waart, Frouwkje G.; Raat, Hein
Purpose To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. Methods A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181). Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between these variables while controlling for baseline problems. Additionally, we tested whether gender differences in mental health and suicidal ideation were present for the two types of bullying. Results There was a significant interaction between gender and traditional bullying victimization and between gender and cyber bullying victimization on mental health problems. Among boys, traditional and cyber bullying victimization were not related to mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. Among girls, both traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. No significant interaction between gender and traditional or cyber bullying victimization on suicidal ideation was found. Traditional bullying victimization was associated with suicidal ideation, whereas cyber bullying victimization was not associated with suicidal ideation after controlling for baseline suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, whereas traditional, as well as cyber bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among girls. These findings stress the importance of programs aimed at reducing bullying behavior, especially
Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M; de Waart, Frouwkje G; Raat, Hein
To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181). Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between these variables while controlling for baseline problems. Additionally, we tested whether gender differences in mental health and suicidal ideation were present for the two types of bullying. There was a significant interaction between gender and traditional bullying victimization and between gender and cyber bullying victimization on mental health problems. Among boys, traditional and cyber bullying victimization were not related to mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. Among girls, both traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. No significant interaction between gender and traditional or cyber bullying victimization on suicidal ideation was found. Traditional bullying victimization was associated with suicidal ideation, whereas cyber bullying victimization was not associated with suicidal ideation after controlling for baseline suicidal ideation. Traditional bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, whereas traditional, as well as cyber bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among girls. These findings stress the importance of programs aimed at reducing bullying behavior, especially because early-onset mental health problems
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. METHODS: A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181. Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between these variables while controlling for baseline problems. Additionally, we tested whether gender differences in mental health and suicidal ideation were present for the two types of bullying. RESULTS: There was a significant interaction between gender and traditional bullying victimization and between gender and cyber bullying victimization on mental health problems. Among boys, traditional and cyber bullying victimization were not related to mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. Among girls, both traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. No significant interaction between gender and traditional or cyber bullying victimization on suicidal ideation was found. Traditional bullying victimization was associated with suicidal ideation, whereas cyber bullying victimization was not associated with suicidal ideation after controlling for baseline suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, whereas traditional, as well as cyber bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among girls. These findings stress the importance of programs aimed at reducing bullying
Balazs, Judit; Miklosi, Monika; Kereszteny, Agnes; Hoven, Christina W.; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Apter, Alan; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Cosman, Doina; Cotter, Padraig; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Marusic, Dragan; Postuvan, Vita; Resch, Franz; Saiz, Pilar A.; Sisask, Merike; Snir, Avigal; Tubiana, Alexandra; Varnik, Airi; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta
Background: Subthreshold-depression and anxiety have been associated with significant impairments in adults. This study investigates the characteristics of adolescent subthreshold-depression and anxiety with a focus on suicidality, using both categorical and dimensional diagnostic models. Methods: Data were drawn from the Saving and Empowering…
Giletta, M.; Hastings, Paul D.; Rudolph, Karen D.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Nock, Matthew K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Poor physiological self-regulation has been proposed as a potential biological vulnerability for adolescent suicidality. This study tested this hypothesis by examining the effect of parasympathetic stress responses on future suicide ideation. In addition, drawing from multilevel developmental
Kiss, Ligia; Yun, Katherine; Pocock, Nicola; Zimmerman, Cathy
Human trafficking and exploitation of children have profound health consequences. To our knowledge, this study represents the largest survey on the health of child and adolescent survivors of human trafficking. To describe experiences of abuse and exploitation, mental health outcomes, and suicidal behavior among children and adolescents in posttrafficking services. We also examine how exposures to violence, exploitation, and abuse affect the mental health and suicidal behavior of trafficked children. A survey was conducted with 387 children and adolescents aged 10 to 17 years in posttrafficking services in Cambodia, Thailand, or Vietnam, which along with Laos, Myanmar, and Yunnan Province, China, compose the Greater Mekong Subregion. Participants were interviewed within 2 weeks of entering services from October 2011 through May 2013. Depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, suicidal ideation, self-injury, and suicide attempts. Among the 387 children and adolescent study participants, most (82%) were female. Twelve percent had tried to harm or kill themselves in the month before the interview. Fifty-six percent screened positive for depression, 33% for an anxiety disorder, and 26% for posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse at home was reported by 20%. Physical violence while trafficked was reported by 41% of boys and 19% of girls. Twenty-three percent of girls and 1 boy reported sexual violence. Mental health symptoms were strongly associated with recent self-harm and suicide attempts. Severe physical violence was associated with depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.55; 95% CI, 1.64-7.71), anxiety (AOR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.12-4.05), and suicidal ideation (AOR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.77-7.67). Sexual violence while trafficked was associated with depression (AOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.22-4.23) and suicidal ideation (AOR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.80-6.54). Children and adolescents in posttrafficking care showed high symptom levels of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress
Giletta, M.; Prinstein, M.J.; Abela, J.R.Z.; Gibb, B.E.; Barrocas, A.L.; Hankin, B.L.
Objective: This study expanded knowledge about the development of suicide ideation and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents by investigating (a) peer experiences as predictors of trajectories of suicide ideation and NSSI, (b) the joint development of suicide ideation and NSSI, and (c)
Valdivia, Mario; Silva, Daniel; Sanhueza, Félix; Cova, Félix; Melipillán, Roberto
Suicide mortality rates are increasing among teenagers. To study the prevalence and predictive factors of suicide attempts among Chilean adolescents. A random sample of 195 teenagers aged 16 ± 1 years (53% males) answered an anonymous survey about their demographic features, substance abuse, the Osaka suicidal ideation questionnaire, Smilksten familial Apgar. Beck hopelessness scale, Beck depression scale and Coppersmith self-esteem inventory. Twenty five percent of respondents had attempted suicide at least in one occasion during their lives. These attempts were significantly associated with female gender, absent parents, family dysfunction, drug abuse, smoking, low self-esteem, hopelessness, depression and recent suicidal ideation. A logistic regression analysis accepted female gender, smoking and recent suicidal ideation as significant independent predictors of suicide attempt. Suicide attempted is common among teenagers and its predictors are female sex, smoking and previous suicidal ideation.
Lee, Seulki; Shin, Aesun
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease which has been known to negatively influence the mental health of patients. However, only a few studies have explored the prevalence of psychiatric problems among AD patients, particularly among adolescents. In this study, we aimed to assess the association of AD with depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors among adolescents by analyzing data from the 2013 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationwide web-based survey. Data from 72,435 adolescent middle and high school students in Korea were analyzed. Students self-reported AD diagnosed by a doctor and yes-or-no answers to questions about depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, suicide planning, and suicide attempts were analyzed. Relationships between AD and depressive symptoms or suicidal behaviors were tested by logistic regression models after controlling for potential confounding factors. The proportion of adolescents who had AD was 6.8%. The proportion of adolescents reporting depressive feelings was 31.0%, suicide ideation was 16.3%, suicide planning was 5.8%, and suicide attempts was 4.2%. Compared to adolescents without AD, adolescents with AD were significantly more likely to experience depressive feelings (odds ratio [OR]: 1.27, 95% confidence interval [Cl]: 1.19-1.36), suicide ideation (OR: 1.34, 95% Cl: 1.24-1.45), suicide planning (OR: 1.46, 95% Cl: 1.32-1.65), and suicide attempts (OR: 1.51, 95% Cl: 1.33-1.72). In the multivariate model, the relationships between AD and suicide ideation (OR: 1.26, 95% Cl:1.16-1.36), suicide planning (OR: 1.28, 95% Cl:1.14-1.44), and suicide attempt (OR: 1.29, 95% Cl:1.13-1.49) were statistically significant. Adolescents who have AD are associated with a higher prevalence of depression symptoms and suicidal behaviors. Adolescent AD patients may need interventions from clinicians and caregivers that use a holistic approach to prevent psychological comorbidities, although further research is needed to clarify this
Shilubane, Hilda N; Ruiter, Robert A C; Bos, Arjan E R; van den Borne, Bart; James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S
Suicide is a prevalent problem among young people in Southern Africa, but prevention programs are largely absent. This survey aimed to identify the behavioral and psychosocial correlates of suicidal ideation among adolescents in Limpopo. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to establish a representative sample of 591 adolescents. Bivariate correlations and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Findings show that suicidal ideation is prevalent among adolescents. The psychosocial factors perceived social support and negative feelings about the family and the behavioral factors forced sexual intercourse and physical violence by the partner were found to increase the risk of suicidal ideation. Depression mediated the relationship between these psychosocial and behavioral risk factors and suicidal ideation. This study increased our understanding of the psychosocial and behavioral predictors of adolescent suicidal ideation. The findings provide target points for future intervention programs and call for supportive structures to assist adolescents with suicidal ideation.
Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta
This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group ("invisible" risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the "invisible" risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the "invisible" group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The "invisible" group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2014 World Psychiatric Association.
Hammerton, G; Zammit, S; Thapar, A; Collishaw, S
It is well-established that offspring of depressed mothers are at increased risk for suicidal ideation. However, pathways involved in the transmission of risk for suicidal ideation from depressed mothers to offspring are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of potential mediators of this association, including maternal suicide attempt, offspring psychiatric disorder and the parent-child relationship. Data were utilized from a population-based birth cohort (ALSPAC). Three distinct classes of maternal depression symptoms across the first 11 years of the child's life had already been identified (minimal, moderate, chronic-severe). Offspring suicidal ideation was assessed at age 16 years. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling. There was evidence for increased risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms compared to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms (odds ratio 3.04, 95% confidence interval 2.19-4.21). The majority of this association was explained through maternal suicide attempt and offspring psychiatric disorder. There was also evidence for an independent indirect effect via the parent-child relationship in middle childhood. There was no longer evidence of a direct effect of maternal depression on offspring suicidal ideation after accounting for all three mediators. The pattern of results was similar when examining mechanisms for maternal moderate depression symptoms. Findings highlight that suicide prevention efforts in offspring of depressed mothers should be particularly targeted at both offspring with a psychiatric disorder and offspring whose mothers have made a suicide attempt. Interventions aimed at improving the parent-child relationship may also be beneficial.
Wong, Shane Shucheng; Zhou, Bo; Goebert, Deborah; Hishinuma, Earl S
Substance use is associated with suicidal ideation, planning and attempts among adolescents, but it is unclear how this association varies across different types and number of substances. This study examined the association between patterns of substance use and suicidality among a nationally representative sample of high school students in the United States during the last decade. Data from the 2001 to 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey including 73,183 high school students were analyzed. Logistic regression analyses examined the association between lifetime use of ten common substances of abuse (alcohol, cocaine, ecstasy, hallucinogens, heroin, inhalants, marijuana, methamphetamines, steroids, and tobacco) and four measures of suicidality over the last year (suicidal ideation, suicide plan, suicide attempt, and severe suicide attempt requiring medical attention), controlling for potential confounders (socio-demographic variables, interpersonal violence, sexual intercourse, and symptoms of depression and eating disorder). Among the ten substances, univariate analysis demonstrates that adolescents reporting a history of heroin use have the strongest association with suicidal ideation, suicide plan, suicide attempts and severe suicide attempts in the last year (odds ratio = 5.0, 5.9, 12.0, and 23.6 compared to non-users), followed by users of methamphetamines (OR = 4.3-13.1) and steroids (OR = 3.7-11.8). Cocaine, ecstasy, hallucinogens and inhalants had a moderate association with suicidality (OR = 3.1-10.8). Users of marijuana, alcohol and tobacco also had an increased odds ratio of suicidality (OR = 1.9-5.2). The association between each of ten substances and the four measures of suicidality remained significant with multivariate analysis controlling for multiple confounders (p suicide attempts. The seven illicit substances had a stronger association with severe suicide attempts as compared to all other confounding risk factors except depression. The number of
Full Text Available Suicide attempts and suicidal behaviours represent a complex problem, with high prevalence in adolescence. The management of youth suicidal behaviour may occur in diverse contexts of child and adolescent psychiatric activity, not only in the emergency room, but also in liaison work and ambulatory consultation. In suicidal crisis intervention it ́s fundamental to involve the youth and the family as this represents a crucial moment for clinical assessment and treatment compliance. This review on child and adolescent suicidal behaviour focuses on characterizing and understanding the developmental features of these behaviours, risk and protection factors and it offers orientations about assessment and acute management of children and adolescents who present with suicidal behaviour.
Garland, A F; Zigler, E
The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters.
Stenager, Kirstina; Qin, Ping
BACKGROUND: Both individual and familial histories of mental illness are substantial risk factors for suicide in young people. AIM: To explore suicide risk among adolescents and young adults according to detailed aspects of individual and parental psychiatric admission history. METHODS: A nested...... case-control study was undertaken using data from Danish population registers to include 4,142 suicide cases and 82,840 matched controls aged 9-35 years. Data were analyzed with conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: A history of hospitalized psychiatric illness was a strong risk factor for suicide......, affective disorders or substance abuse disorders. At the same time, a parental psychiatric history constituted a substantial risk factor for suicide in young people, in particular, if having a mother admitted for psychiatric illness. The elevated risk associated with parental psychiatric history was greater...
Wohlfarth, Tamar D.; van Zwieten, Barbara J.; Lekkerkerker, Frits J.; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C.; Ruis, Jerry R.; Elferink, Andre J. A.; Storosum, Jitschak G.
Antidepressants use in paediatric patients has been linked with risk of suicidal behaviours. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to examine whether all antidepressants are associated with such risk. All 22 paediatric short-term placebo-controlled trials of SSRIs and NSRIs that were submitted to
Straus, Murray A.; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman
Studied large national sample of U.S. adults, finding that almost one-half recalled having been corporally punished during adolescence. Data analysis revealed that children who experienced corporal punishment in adolescence had increased risk later in life of depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts, alcohol abuse, physical abuse of children, and…
Stenager, Kirstina; Qin, Ping
BACKGROUND: Both individual and familial histories of mental illness are substantial risk factors for suicide in young people. AIM: To explore suicide risk among adolescents and young adults according to detailed aspects of individual and parental psychiatric admission history. METHODS: A nested...... case-control study was undertaken using data from Danish population registers to include 4,142 suicide cases and 82,840 matched controls aged 9-35 years. Data were analyzed with conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: A history of hospitalized psychiatric illness was a strong risk factor for suicide...... in adolescents and young adults, and the effect of such a history was greater in females than males. The elevated risk peaked in the two periods immediately after admission and discharge for both sexes, and exceeded in females who had multiple admissions and in males who were diagnosed with schizophrenia...
Foster, Katherine T; Li, Ningfei; McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Gray, Kevin M
Cannabis continues to rise in popularity as the perception of its harmfulness decreases and evidence of its deleterious developmental effect increases. While internalizing distress and suicide risk have been linked with cannabis use problems [DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (CUD); DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence] it remains unclear how this association varies over the course of development in treatment-seeking men and women. The current study utilized the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) to conduct a cross-sectional comparison of internalizing distress and suicide risk among men (n=437) and women (n=163) spanning ages 18-50 who met DSM-5 criteria for CUD. Interactions between gender and developmental stage (i.e., late adolescence, early adulthood, and middle adulthood) were observed for suicide risk and anxiety but not depression problems. Specifically, women seeking CUD treatment in late adolescence and middle adulthood exhibited significantly higher rates of anxiety and suicide risk compared to men seeking treatment during the same developmental stages. Internalizing distress and suicide risk did not differ between treatment-seeking men and women in the early adult stage. Overall, results suggest that the structure of risk for CUD may differ in men and women across the lifespan and that women presenting for CUD treatment during late adolescence and middle adulthood may uniquely benefit from intervention designed to address these elevations in anxiety and suicide risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Conclusion: Our study confirms some previous Western reports that adolescents with depressive disorders commonly manifest suicide attempts. There are, however, some cultural differences in risk factors. School-related problems play an important role in Taiwan among the adolescent suicides, and prior suicide attempts predict future suicidal behavior. Enhancing school-based screening for adolescents with suicide risk and transferring them to psychiatric professionals for intervention is important. We should focus suicide prevention resources mainly on the adolescent population with psychiatric illness, prior suicide attempts, and with high risk factors.
Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Wichstrom, Lars; Haldorsen, Tor
Some risk and protective factors differ in their importance to suicidal and nonsuicidal people. In this research we explore the cross-sectional differences between risk factors among suicidal adolescents and nonsuicidal adolescents by focusing on self-esteem. Sixty-five suicidal and 390 nonsuicidal adolescents were compared on Harter's…
Tan, L; Yang, Q H; Chen, J L; Zou, H X; Xia, T S; Liu, Y
The objective of this study was to investigate the contributions of mental health status and attitudes towards suicide on suicidal ideation in a sample of 6568 Chinese children and adolescents in China. Attitudes towards suicide were investigated as a possible moderator and mediator of the influence of mental health status on suicidal ideation. Descriptive statistical analyses, Pearson correlation analyses and hierarchical regression analyses were adopted as methods of data analyses. Approximately 35.38% of children and adolescents in our study reported having suicidal ideation. Mental health status and attitudes towards suicide both had an independent effect on the severity of suicidal ideation. Results indicated that mental health status was positively associated with suicidal ideation, while attitudes towards suicide were negatively associated with suicidal ideation. Moderation analysis showed that the impact of mental health status on suicidal ideation was significantly greater among children and adolescents who reported favourable attitudes towards suicide. Attitudes towards suicide partially mediated the link between mental health status and the severity of suicidal ideation. Specifically, students who experienced poorer mental health status might be more likely to report significantly more favourable attitudes towards suicide, which in turn promote greater suicidal ideation. These results have implications for the prevention of youth suicide, suggesting that mental health status and attitudes towards suicide could be important targets for prevention and intervention for children and adolescents at risk of suicidal ideation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jena, S.; Sidhartha, T.
In the USA, suicide ranked as the third leading cause of death for adolescents in 1999. Non-fatal suicidal behaviours are suicidal thought, specific suicidal plan and suicide attempt. Prospective studies have emphasized the high subsequent suicide rates in clinically presenting suicide attempters. This study was planned to critically review the existing international literature on this area, and compare, if possible, with the Indian data. Both electronic and manual search for published and un...
Full Text Available The study examines the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, and associated factors among school-going urban adolescents in Peru. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of 916 secondary school adolescents in 2014. A structured questionnaire adapted from Global School-based Student Health Survey was used to obtain information. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models at 5% level of significance. Overall, 26.3% reported having suicidal ideation, and 17.5% reported having attempted suicide during the past 12 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, smoking and sexual intercourse initiation were significantly associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation, while female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, alcohol and illicit drug use were related to suicide attempt. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts observed in the survey area is relatively high. Female adolescents are particularly vulnerable to report suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Interventions that address the issue of violence against adolescents, fighting with peers, health risk behaviors particularly initiation of smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use and encourage supportive role of parents may reduce the risk of suicidal behaviors.
Auerbach, Randy P; Stewart, Jeremy G; Johnson, Sheri L
Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents, and impulsivity has emerged as a promising marker of risk. The present study tested whether distinct domains of impulsivity are differentially associated with suicide ideation, plans, and attempts. Adolescents (n = 381; boys = 106, girls = 275) aged 13-19 years (M = 15.62, SD = 1.41) were recruited from an acute, residential treatment program. Within 48 h of admission to the hospital, participants were administered structured clinical interviews assessing mental health disorders and suicidality. Following these interviews, participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing symptom severity and impulsivity. Consistent with past research, an exploratory factor analysis of our 90-item impulsivity instrument resulted in a three-factor solution: Pervasive Influence of Feelings, Feelings Trigger Action, and Lack of Follow-Through. Concurrent analysis of these factors confirmed hypotheses of unique associations with suicide ideation and attempts in the past month. Specifically, whereas Pervasive Influence of Feelings (i.e., tendency for emotions to shape thoughts about the self and the future) is uniquely associated with greater suicidal ideation, Feelings Trigger Action (i.e., impulsive behavioral reactivity to emotions) is uniquely associated with the occurrence of suicide attempts, even after controlling for current psychiatric diagnoses and symptoms. Exploratory gender analyses revealed that these effects were significant in female but not male adolescents. These findings provide new insight about how specific domains of impulsivity differentially increase risk for suicide ideation and attempts. Implications for early identification and prevention of youth suicide are discussed.
It’s a fact that suicide is one of the top three causes of death among 15-to-24 years old around the world. Due to this, and in spite of the inherent difficulties in this type of studies, many researches have been put into place, with the primary intention of identifying its etiopathogenesis, in order to establish suicide prevention strategies and provide effective mental health care. To date, the main risk factors, among others, known to be associated with suicidal behavior in this age group are depression, hopelessness, dysfunctional families, substance abuse, school failure and harassment. This review highlights the fact that the sociological characteristics of postmodernity are influencing the phenomenology of the suicidal behavior among children and adolescents today.
Wilcox, Holly C.
Depression, substance abuse, and aggressive behavior disorders have shown to be among the most influential risk factors for suicide in community and clinical studies of adolescents and adults. Increasing evidence suggests that adolescents who use and abuse alcohol and drugs are at increased risk for suicidal ideation, attempted suicide, and completed suicide, although conclusive evidence has not yet been presented suggesting that drug use causes suicidal thoughts and behaviors. This paper rev...
Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Objective To examine psychosocial correlates of specific aspects of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology (i.e., dietary restriction, body dissatisfaction, binge eating, and self-induced vomiting) in psychiatrically-hospitalized adolescent girls and boys. Method Four hundred and ninety-two psychiatric inpatients (286 girls and 206 boys), aged 12 to 19 years, completed self-report measures of psychosocial and behavioral functioning including measures of suicide risk and ED psychopathology. Associations between ED psychopathology and psychosocial functioning were examined separately by sex and after controlling for depressive/negative affect using Beck Depression Inventory scores. Results Among boys and girls, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was significantly associated with anxiety, low self-esteem, and current distress regarding childhood abuse. Among girls, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was significantly related to hopelessness and suicidality. Among boys, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was positively related to self-reported history of sexual abuse and various externalizing problems (drug abuse, violence, and impulsivity). Conclusion In psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents, ED psychopathology may be an important marker of broad psychosocial distress and behavioral problems among girls and boys although the nature of the specific associations differs by sex. PMID:20152294
Stenager, Kirstina; Qin, Ping
Both individual and familial histories of mental illness are substantial risk factors for suicide in young people. To explore suicide risk among adolescents and young adults according to detailed aspects of individual and parental psychiatric admission history. A nested case-control study was undertaken using data from Danish population registers to include 4,142 suicide cases and 82,840 matched controls aged 9-35 years. Data were analyzed with conditional logistic regression. A history of hospitalized psychiatric illness was a strong risk factor for suicide in adolescents and young adults, and the effect of such a history was greater in females than males. The elevated risk peaked in the two periods immediately after admission and discharge for both sexes, and exceeded in females who had multiple admissions and in males who were diagnosed with schizophrenia, affective disorders or substance abuse disorders. At the same time, a parental psychiatric history constituted a substantial risk factor for suicide in young people, in particular, if having a mother admitted for psychiatric illness. The elevated risk associated with parental psychiatric history was greater in females than in males, and tended to be more prominent during the first few years after admission of a parent. Prevention strategies should aim at improving treatment and care to young people with psychiatric problems and at providing social support and psychological consultation to children with parental psychiatric illness.
Ganz, Debora; Sher, Leo
The act of adolescent suicide continues to threaten adolescent populations in New York City (NYC). Consistent positive correlations have been found between a plethora of risk factors present in NYC adolescent populations and suicidal ideations and behaviors. Psychiatric conditions that may contribute to the rate of adolescent suicide in NYC include depression, bipolar disorder, substance abuse and schizophrenia. Unique factors that have been found to contribute to increased rates of completed suicides in NYC include the phenomena of railway suicides and suicide tourism. Homelessness and income inequality in NYC have also been consistently correlated with increased suicidality; with one study finding suicide attempts reported by a significant percentage of new admissions to homeless shelters. Adolescent populations in NYC that have been identified as particularly vulnerable to suicidality include runaway youth, homosexual youth, victimized adolescents and adolescents with a recent history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Longitudinal studies in NYC have found that physical and sexual abuse is highly predictive of adolescent suicidality, with variations by ethnic group. Currently, there is a disturbing lack of sufficient research on adolescent suicide in NYC, specifically regarding causal factors, the effects of television on suicide, comorbid suicidality and drug abuse, and cultural factors contributing to suicide. This dearth of literature may be related to the ethical problems inherent in suicide research, self reports and/or post mortem analyses.
Donald M. Dougherty
Full Text Available Adolescent suicidal behaviors and substance use are disturbingly common. Research suggests overlap of some of the etiological mechanisms for both adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use, yet clear understanding of the complex relations between these behaviors and their causal underpinnings is lacking. A growing body of evidence and a diathesis model (Mann et al. 1999; Mann, 2003 highlight the importance of impulse control as a proximal risk factor for adolescent suicidal and substance use behaviors. This literature review extends current theory on the relationships between adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use by: (1 examining how, when, and to what extent adolescent development is affected by poor impulse control, stressful life events, substance use behavior, and biological factors; (2 presenting proposed causal mechanisms by which these risk factors interact to increase risk for suicidal behaviors and substance use; and (3 proposing specific new hypotheses to extend the diathesis model to adolescents at risk for suicide and substance use. More specifically, new hypotheses are presented that predict bidirectional relationships between stressful life events and genetic markers of 5-HT dysregulation; substance use behavior and impulsivity; and substance use behavior and suicide attempts. The importance of distinguishing between different developmental trajectories of suicidal and substance use behaviors, and the effects of specific risk and protective mechanisms are discussed. Use of new statistical approaches that provide for the comparison of latent growth curves and latent class models is recommended to identify differences in developmental trajectories of suicidal behavior and substance use. Knowledge gained from these prospective longitudinal methods should lead to greater understanding on the timing, duration, and extent to which specific risk and protective factors influence the outcomes of suicidal behavior and substance
Brausch, Amy M; Gutierrez, Peter M
As suicide attempts and self-injury remain predominant health risks among adolescents, it is increasingly important to be able to distinguish features of self-harming adolescents from those who are at risk for suicidal behaviors. The current study examined differences between groups of adolescents with varying levels of self-harmful behavior in a sample of 373 high school students with a mean age of 15.04 (SD = 1.05). The sample was 48% female and the distribution of ethnicity was as follows: 35% Caucasian, 37.2% African-American, 16% Multi-ethnic, 9.2% Hispanic, and 2.3% Asian. The sample was divided into three groups: no history of self-harm, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) only, and NSSI in addition to a suicide attempt. Differences in depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, social support, self-esteem, body satisfaction, and disordered eating were explored. Results indicated significant differences between the three groups on all variables, with the no self-harm group reporting the lowest levels of risk factors and highest levels of protective factors. Further analyses were conducted to examine specific differences between the two self-harm groups. Adolescents in the NSSI group were found to have fewer depressive symptoms, lower suicidal ideation, and greater self-esteem and parental support than the group that also had attempted suicide. The clinical implications of assessing these specific psychosocial correlates for at-risk adolescents are discussed.
Galaif, Elisha R; Sussman, Steve; Newcomb, Michael D; Locke, Thomas F
Suicide is a serious health problem as it is currently the third leading cause of death for teenagers between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Depression, which is also a serious problem for adolescents, is the most significant biological and psychological risk factor for teen suicide. Alcohol use remains extremely widespread among today’s teenagers and is related to both suicidality and depression. Suicidality refers to the occurrence of suicidal thoughts or suicidal behavior. The consensus in e...
George, Ancel; van den Berg, Henriette S
Increased rates of suicide among adolescents aged 15-24 years have led to suicides becoming the third leading cause of death in the Unites States. South African statistics show an equally worrying trend as suicide constitutes 11.5% of the total deaths for the age group 11-20 years (Stark et al. 2010). A national youth risk behaviour survey done in South Africa has re-emphasised the need for concern, as adolescent suicidal behaviour increased between 2002 and 2008 (Reddy et al. 2010). The objective was to investigate the influence of risk and protective factors (psychosocial and individual factors) on suicidal ideation. The Integrated Stress and Coping Process model was used as guiding theory for the inclusion of personal and contextual stressors and resources including coping strategies as potential risk and protective factors, in their relationship to suicidal ideation. A purposive, stratified sampling technique was used to study 381 adolescents in the Northern Cape Province. The instruments used were a suicidal ideation questionnaire; a biographical questionnaire; a self-esteem scale; and a survey examining stressors and resources relevant to adolescents. Suicidal ideation was significantly higher in the South African sample than in an American sample. Avoidant coping strategies (denial, emotional venting and restraint coping), negative life events and stressful romantic relationships contributed to higher levels of suicidal ideation while self-esteem and adaptive coping (acceptance and seeking social support for instrumental reasons) reduced these levels. A lack of self-esteem, ineffective coping and particular stressors contributed significantly to the vulnerability of adolescents. Future studies should explore a wider range of dispositional factors that influence effective coping and adjustment in addressing adolescent suicidal ideation.
Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Nock, Matthew
The study examines data from the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey to study the prevalence and risk factors for suicide ideation, plan, and attempt among Mexican adolescents. The results reveal patterns of the risk factors and suggest that intervention should focus on adolescents with mental disorders to effectively prevent suicides.
Chiu, Yu-Ching; Tseng, Chin-Yuan; Lin, Fu-Gong
This study examined familial and peer related factors as predictors of suicidal ideation in school students. Total 2896 participants were included from Taiwan Youth Project released data, a longitudinal survey of adolescent suicidal ideation at ages 15, 18, and 20. Logistic regression analysis risk factors associated with adolescent suicidal ideation reveled differences during the developmental stages. After adjusted for psychological symptoms, effect of quarrels with parents on suicidal ideation lasts in early and middle stages; in the late adolescent stage, only cigarette or alcohol use remained significant. Girls who reported quarrels with parents had the highest level of suicidal ideation before age 18. Stage- and gender-specific differences may provide appropriate intervention strategies for parents and teachers preventing adolescent suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Lee, GyuYoung; Ham, Ok Kyung
Suicidal ideation poses a serious threat to the well-being of adolescents and is the strongest risk factor for suicide. Indeed, Korea ranks first among Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries regarding the age-standardized suicide rates. In the present study, we examined multiple levels of factors associated with the suicidal ideation of adolescents in Korea by applying the Ecological Models of Health Behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 860 adolescents. The instruments included the Beck Depression Inventory and the Adolescent Mental Health and Problem Behavior Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression. Sixteen percent of participants reported suicidal ideation. Intrapersonal (sleep disturbance, Internet game addiction, destructive behavior, and depressive symptoms) and interpersonal factors (family conflicts and peer victimization) were associated with suicidal ideation. Because multiple factors were associated with suicidal ideation among adolescents, both intrapersonal (sleep disturbance, Internet game addiction, and depression) and interpersonal factors (family conflicts and peer problems) should be considered in the development of suicide-prevention programs. These programs could include campaigns changing the norms (permissive attitudes toward school violence) and the development of strict and rigorous school non-violence policies. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Holmes, Kristin; Sher, Leo
The aim of this paper is to assess the possible consequences of adolescent physical, emotional and sexual dating violence through a review of the literature on the topic. An electronic search of major biomedical bibliographic databases (Pubmed, ISI, PsycINFO) was used to retrieve articles providing information on the prevalence rates, risk factors, associated consequences and possible preventive measures for adolescent dating violence across different populations. Currently, there have been few longitudinal studies conducted to identify potential risk factors for entering a violent dating relationship in adolescence. Risky behaviors such as early sexual intercourse may predispose someone for victimization. Dating violence itself is also a predictor of future dating violence. Adolescent dating violence was associated with an increase in other violence-related behaviors, substance use, depression, poorer educational outcomes, posttraumatic stress, unhealthy weight control and risky sexual behavior. The association between adolescent dating violence and an increase in suicidal behavior is a major public health concern. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies so that a causal relationship between dating violence and suicidality may be better understood.
Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Chang, Wan-Ting; Lin, Jin-Jia; Li, Chung-Yi
Suicide method used by adolescents was examined to determine if it was the same as that employed by their suicidal parents. Six hundred eighty adolescents completed suicide between 1997 and 2007, of whom 12 had parents who had previously died by suicide. The suicide method used by these adolescents was compared with that employed by their suicidal…
R. Bannink (Rienke); S.M.L. Broeren (Suzanne); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); F. de Waart (Frouwkje); H. Raat (Hein)
textabstractPurpose: To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. Methods: A
Shaffer, David; And Others
Examined relationship between suicidal behavior and homosexuality in adolescence in an unselected, matched sample. Found no evidence that suicide is a common characteristic of gay youth, or that when suicide does occur among gay teenagers, that it is a direct consequence of stigmatization or lack of support. (JBJ)
Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang
Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academ...
Ibrahim, Norhayati; Amit, Noh; Suen, Melia Wong Yuin
Background There has been a drastic increase in the rate of suicides over the past 45 years in Malaysia. The statistics show that adolescents aged between 16 and 19 years old are at high risk of committing suicide. This could be attributed to issues relating to the developmental stage of adolescents. During this stage, adolescents face challenges and are exposed to various stressful experiences and risk factors relating to suicide. Method The present study examined psychological factors (i.e....
... Suicide is when people harm themselves with the intention to end their lives and they die as ... B C D I statement USPSTF Recommendation Grades Definition Recommended. Recommended. Recommendation depends on the patient’s situation. ...
Keyes, M. A.; Malone, S. M.; Sharma, A.
OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide att...... of the risk of suicide attempt in adopted offspring may inform the larger investigation of suicidality in all adolescents and young adults.......OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide...... attempt. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, which included 692 adopted and 540 nonadopted offspring and was conducted at the University of Minnesota from 1998 to 2008. Adoptees were systematically ascertained from records of 3 large Minnesota adoption...
Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta
This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group (“invisible” risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the “invisible” risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the “invisible” group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The “invisible” group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. PMID:24497256
Full Text Available Background: Young adults are at increased risk for suicidal behavior and there is growing concern about racial differences in suicidal ideation, especially in the younger population. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess suicidal ideation in school going tribal and nontribal adolescents and to study its relationships with psychological well-being, depression, and anxiety. Materials and Methods: A total of 259 students of Classes X, XI, and XII of three Schools of Ranchi, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria, were screened for suicidal ideation by Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ and psychological well-being by General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12. The level of anxiety and depression was assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS. Results: Overall 33.2% of the adolescents had suicidal ideation out of which 34.2% were tribal-students and 32.8% nontribal-students with no significant intergroup difference. Psychological discomfort (GHQ-12 Score ≥3 was noticed in 59.1% of adolescents, but no racial difference was found. However, the mean HADS depression score was significantly higher in tribal adolescents, more so in tribal boys than nontribal adolescents or boys, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation of SIQ total score in all the adolescents with GHQ-12 total score, HADS total score, HADS anxiety score, and HADS depression score. Conclusion: There were no racial differences in suicidal ideation and psychological discomfort among tribal and nontribal adolescents. Tribal adolescents, and more specifically tribal boys, had more depression than their nontribal counterparts. Suicidal ideation was positively correlated with psychological discomfort, anxiety, and depression.
King, Cheryl A; Gipson, Polly Y; Horwitz, Adam G; Opperman, Kiel J
Previous research has documented the feasibility of screening in emergency departments for adolescent suicide risk. This randomized trial examined the effectiveness of Teen Options for Change (TOC), an intervention for adolescents seeking general medical emergency services who screen positive for suicide risk. Participants were 49 youths, ages 14 to 19, seeking services for nonpsychiatric emergencies. They screened positive for suicide risk because of recent suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, or depression plus substance abuse. Youths were randomly assigned to the TOC intervention or to enhanced treatment as usual. Depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and two months later. Adolescents assigned to TOC showed greater reductions in depression than adolescents assigned to the comparison group (Cohen's d=1.07, a large effect size). Hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and substance abuse outcomes trended positively (nonsignificantly), with small to moderate effect sizes. TOC may be a promising, brief intervention for adolescents seeking emergency services and at risk of suicide.
Rasic, Daniel; Kisely, Steve; Langille, Donald B
We examined relationships of measures of personal importance of religion and frequency of attendance at religious services with risk of depression and risk behaviours in high school students in Cape Breton, Canada. We examined the impact of confounding and explanatory factors on these relationships. Data were drawn from self-report surveys of adolescents aged 15-19 (N=1615) at three high schools in May, 2006. We used logistic regression to assess associations of religious importance and religious service attendance with risk of depression, suicidal behaviour, binge drinking and frequent marijuana use, controlling in multivariate models for sociodemographic factors, family structure and social capital. Among females, higher personal importance of religion was associated with decreased odds of depression, suicidal ideation, drinking and marijuana use, while more religious attendance was protective for substance use behaviours and suicidal ideation. In males, both measures of religiosity were associated with decreased substance use. In multivariate models, religious importance had weak protective effects for depression and suicidal thinking in females, which were respectively modified by social trust and substance use. Attendance was protective for suicidal thinking in females, and was modified by depression. These associations were not seen in males. Attendance was consistently associated with less substance use in females, while importance was not. Importance was consistently protective for marijuana use and attendance was protective for binge drinking in males. This was a cross-sectional self-report survey and causality cannot be inferred. Protective associations of measures of religiosity are seen in Canadian adolescents, as they are elsewhere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Salvo G, Lilian; Castro S, Andrea
Suicide and suicide attempts are public health problems. Their prevention requives the detection of predictor factors. To determine the predictive valué of loneliness, impulsivity and alcohol use on suicidal behavior in adolescents. Suicidal behavior, Loneliness (UCLA), Impulsivity (Barratt) scales and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), were applied to 763 high school students aged 14 to 19 years (49% males), living in Chillan, Chile. Nineteen percent of participants had attempted suicide and 34.3% had suicidal ideation. Loneliness, impulsivity and alcohol use were directly related to suicidal behavior. These predictors explained 31 % of the suicidal behavior. The most important risk factor was loneliness, followed by femóle gender, impulsivity and alcohol use. Loneliness, impulsivity and alcohol use are risk factors for suicide among adolescents. Women are at higher risk than men.
Merrick, Joav; Merrick, Efrat; Morad, Mohammed; Kandel, Isack
It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption and in fact the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.
Full Text Available It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption, and in fact, the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.
Czyz, Ewa K; Horwitz, Adam G; Yeguez, Carlos E; Ewell Foster, Cynthia J; King, Cheryl A
This study of adolescents seeking emergency department (ED) services and their parents examined parents' self-efficacy beliefs to engage in suicide prevention activities, whether these beliefs varied based on teens' characteristics, and the extent to which they were associated with adolescents' suicide-related outcomes. Participants included 162 adolescents (57% female, 81.5% Caucasian), ages 13-17, and their parents. At index visit, parents rated their self-efficacy to engage in suicide prevention activities and their expectations regarding their teen's future suicide risk. Adolescents' ED visits for suicide-related concerns and suicide attempts were assessed 4 months later. Parents endorsed high self-efficacy to engage in most suicide prevention activities. At the same time, they endorsed considerable doubt in being able to keep their child safe if the teen has thoughts of suicide and in their child not attempting suicide in the future. Parents whose teens experienced follow-up suicide-related outcomes endorsed, at clinically meaningful effect sizes, lower self-efficacy for recognizing suicide warning signs, for obtaining the teen's commitment to refrain from suicide, and for encouraging their teen to cope, as well as lower confidence that their teen will not attempt suicide; self-efficacy to recognize warning signs was at trend level. Despite endorsing high self-efficacy for the majority of suicide prevention activities, parents of high-risk teens expressed less confidence in their capacity to influence their teen's suicidal behavior, which could undermine parents' effort to implement these strategies. The relationship between parental self-efficacy and youth suicide-related outcomes points to its potential value in guiding clinical decision making and interventions.
Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; van de Looij – Jansen, Petra M.; de Waart, Frouwkje G.; Raat, Hein
textabstractPurpose: To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. Methods: A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181). Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status an...
Full Text Available There exists little scientific production on autolytic behaviour in homeless people, despite the fact that it is one of the groups that is more at risk. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of previous attempted suicide and suicide risk and its connection with the main risk factors. In order to do so, central tendency and dispersion measures, correlations, contingence tables, and average comparison tables according to type of variable and normality were used. The Plutchik suicide-risk test was used in order to determine the risk of suicide, and specific tests for the main risk factors analysed. The main results show a 24.7% suicide rate and 45.2% (n = 66 displayed suicide risk. The main predictive factor of the risk of suicide was the daily consumption of alcohol (OR = 1.011, p less than .001, followed by being a woman (OR = 1.381, p = .021. It is necessary to design and apply suicide prevention strategies for this population.
Selby, Edward A.; Yen, Shirley
Few studies have longitudinally examined suicidal ideation in those with adolescent-onset BPD. The current study aimed to examine the trajectory of suicidal ideation in adolescents with BPD longitudinally over six months, with follow-ups at 2, 4, and 6 months post-hospitalization for elevated suicide risk. Resulted indicated that the BPD group exhibited a greater decrease in suicidal ideation in the months following hospitalization than those without a BPD diagnosis. The findings of this study indicated that suicidal ideation in adolescents with BPD is not stable, and although ideation may decrease quickly after hospitalization, regular assessment of ideation is recommended. PMID:24112120
Zhao, Jiubo; Zhao, Jingbo; Xiao, Rong; Yang, Xueling; Zhang, Xiaoyuan
To explore the incidence of suicide exposure and its association with suicide risk in Chinese college students, and study the modulatory effects of suicide exposure on the relations between life events and suicide risks. A total of 8202 college students from 12 Chinese colleges and universities in mainland China completed a cross-sectional survey that included suicidal behaviors questionnaire-revised (SBQ-R), Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), suicide exposure questionnaire, social and demographic characteristics questionnaire. The incidence of exposure to suicide events involving close relatives and acquaintances were 3.9% and 11.8% among sampled Chinese college students, respectively. Students exposed to suicide events involving close relatives had significantly higher total SBQ-R scores than those who did not (5.51∓2.44 vs 4.68∓2.11, P0.05), but exposure to acquaintance suicide events moderated the effects of life events on suicide risk (P<0.01), and the college students with a high level of life events and history of acquaintance suicide had the highest risk for suicide. In Chinese college students, the risk of suicide is closely associated with exposure to suicide events and life events, and exposure to suicide events involving acquaintances can modulate the effects of life events on suicide risk.
Suicide and attempted suicide are major health problems. Approximately 1400 people die from suicide every year in Sweden and ten times more attempt suicide. Patients with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis have an increased risk of suicide and suicide rates have been suggested to be as high as 10%. Important risk factors include a prior suicide attempt and depressive disorder. Low concentrations of monoamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been related to suicida...
Katz, Laurence Y; Au, Wendy; Singal, Deepa; Brownell, Marni; Roos, Noralou; Martens, Patricia J; Chateau, Dan; Enns, Murray W; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Sareen, Jitender
Few population studies have examined the psychiatric outcomes of children and adolescents in the child welfare system, and no studies have compared outcomes before and after entry into care. Our objective was to assess the relative rate (RR) of suicide, attempted suicide, admission to hospital and visits to physicians' offices among children and adolescents in care compared with those not in care. We also examined these outcomes within the child welfare population before and after entry into care. We used population-level data to identify children and adolescents 5 to 17 years of age who were in care in Manitoba for the first time between Apr. 1, 1997, and Mar. 31, 2006, and a comparison cohort not in care. We compared the two cohorts to obtain RRs for the specified outcomes. We also determined RRs within the child welfare population relative to the same population two years before entry into care. We identified 8279 children and adolescents in care for the first time and a comparison cohort of 353 050 children and adolescents not in care. Outcome rates were higher among those in care than in the comparison cohort for suicide (adjusted RR 3.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.11-5.95), attempted suicide (adjusted RR 2.11, 95% CI 1.84-2.43) and all other outcomes. However, adjusted RRs for attempted suicide (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.21-0.34), admissions to hospital and physician visits decreased after entry into care. Children and adolescents in care were at greater risk of suicide and attempting suicide than those who were not in care. Rates of suicide attempts and hospital admissions within this population were highest before entry into care and decreased thereafter.
Forrest, Lauren N; Zuromski, Kelly L; Dodd, Dorian R; Smith, April R
The relation between binge-eating disorder (BED) and suicidality (i.e., suicide ideation, plan, and/or attempt) has not been studied extensively, and it is unknown whether BED is uniquely associated with suicidality when adjusting for comorbid psychopathology. Moreover, the course of suicidality in BED has not been determined and it is unknown whether BED precedes suicidality or vice versa. A total of 10,123 adolescents and 2,980 adults from two nationally representative surveys were administered diagnostic interviews assessing psychopathology and suicidality, as well the retrospectively reported ages of onset. Among adults and adolescents, BED was associated with elevated odds of suicide ideation, plan, and attempt at a univariate level, but BED was not associated with elevated odds of suicidality when adjusting for comorbid psychopathology. Kaplan-Meier estimates of temporal patterns displayed that most adolescents experienced suicidality onset following BED onset, whereas most adults experienced suicidality onset prior to BED onset. BED, comorbid disorders, and suicidality share common factors and interrelations, and individuals with BED and comorbid disorders may be at particularly high risk for suicidal outcomes. The presence of BED in adolescence may serve as a marker for more severe symptomatology that precedes the occurrence of suicidality. Research is needed to understand how eating disorder symptoms, comorbid symptoms, and suicidality affect one another over time. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:40-49). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kuramoto, S Janet; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Runeson, Bo; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas; Wilcox, Holly C
We examined whether the risk for psychiatric morbidity requiring inpatient care was higher for offspring who experienced parental suicide, compared with offspring of fatal accident decedents, and whether the association varied according to the deceased parent's gender. Children and adolescents (0-17 years of age) who experienced maternal (N = 5600) or paternal (N = 17,847) suicide in 1973-2003 in Sweden were identified by using national, longitudinal, population-based registries. Cox regression modeling was used to compare psychiatric hospitalization risks among offspring of suicide decedents and propensity score-matched offspring of accident decedents. Offspring of maternal suicide decedents had increased risk of suicide-attempt hospitalization, after controlling for psychiatric hospitalization for decedents and surviving parents, compared with offspring of maternal accidental decedents. Offspring of paternal suicide decedents had similar risk of suicide-attempt hospitalization, compared with offspring of accident decedents, but had increased risk of hospitalization attributable to depressive and anxiety disorders. The magnitude of risks for offspring suicide-attempt hospitalization was greater for those who experienced maternal versus paternal suicide, compared with their respective control offspring (interaction P = .05; offspring of maternal decedents, adjusted hazard ratio: 1.80 [95% confidence interval: 1.19-2.74]; offspring of paternal decedents, adjusted hazard ratio: 1.14 [95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.35]). Maternal suicide is associated with increased risk of suicide-attempt hospitalization for offspring, beyond the risk associated with maternal accidental death. However, paternal suicide is not associated with suicide-attempt hospitalization. Future studies should examine factors that might differ between offspring who experience maternal versus paternal suicide, including genetic or early environmental determinants.
... due to another medical disorder Relationship Between Depression & Suicide: 1. Depression is the psychiatric diagnosis most commonly associated with ... of patients with treated depression eventually die by suicide. xiv 4. Depression is present in at least 50 percent of ...
Czyz, E.K.; King, C.A.
Objective A period of particularly high risk for suicide attempts among adolescent inpatients is within 12 months after discharge. However, little is known about longitudinal trajectories of suicidal ideation in this high-risk group and how these relate to post-hospitalization suicide attempts and rehospitalizations. Our objectives were to identify these trajectories and examine their relationships with post-hospitalization psychiatric crises. We also examined predictors of trajectory group membership. Method Participants (N=376; ages 13-17; 72% females) were assessed at hospitalization and 3, 6, and 12 months later. Trajectory groups, and their predictors, were identified with latent class growth modeling. We used logistic regression to examine associations between trajectory groups and likelihood of suicide attempts and rehospitalization, controlling for attempt history. Results Three trajectory groups were identified: (1) subclinical ideators (31.6%); (2) elevated ideators with rapidly declining ideation (57.4%); and (3) chronically elevated ideators (10.9%). Adolescents in the chronically elevated ideation group had 2.29[(CI=1.08,4.85), p=0.03] and 4.15[(CI=1.65,10.44), psuicide and 3.23[(CI=1.37,7.69), p=0.01] and 11.20[(CI=4.33,29.01), psuicidal ideation. Conclusions Results suggest that suicidal ideation severity at hospitalization may not be an adequate marker for subsequent suicidal crises. It is important to identify adolescents vulnerable to persisting suicidal ideation, as they are at highest risk of psychiatric crises. Addressing hopelessness may facilitate faster declines in ideation after hospitalization. Results also highlight a need for consistent monitoring of these adolescents' suicidal ideation after discharge. PMID:24079705
Chen, Paul C Y; Lee, Lai Kah; Wong, Kam Cheong; Kaur, Jagmohni
This study was undertaken to examine factors relating to adolescent suicide behavior. This was a cross-sectional school survey of 4,500 adolescent students based on a structured questionnaire. Data were collected using the supervised self-administered questionnaire (modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance in the Malaysian National Language, Bahasa Malaysia). Seven percent (312 of 4,454) of the adolescent students had seriously considered attempting suicide. Among the adolescents, 4.6% had attempted suicide at least once during the 12 months preceding the survey. Female adolescents were more likely to put their suicidal thoughts into suicidal action than were male adolescents. Malay and Indian people are more likely than the Chinese to respond, "Felt sad and hopeless." However, Malay adolescents had the lowest rate of attempted suicide. Based on multiple logistic regression, factors significantly related to urban adolescents' suicide behavior are "Felt sad or hopeless," "Number of days felt unsafe to go to school," "Riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol," "Physical fight," and "Number of days absent from school." In comparison, factors relating to rural adolescents' suicide behavior are "Felt sad or hopeless," "Physical fight," "Physical fight resulting in injury," and "Drive a vehicle after drinking alcohol." Adolescent suicide behavior should be viewed as a serious problem. Measures can be taken to prevent suicide by looking at the factors significantly linked to suicidal behavior among adolescents. Steps can then be taken to identify adolescents who have serious suicidal ideation so that intervention can be taken to reduce the suicidal rate.
Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin S.; Gould, Madelyn S.
Objective: To assess the association between bullying behavior and depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents. Method: A self-report survey was completed by 9th-through 12th-grade students (n = 2342) in six New York State high schools from 2002 through 2004. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the association…
Cavaiola, Alan A.; Lavender, Neil
Study explores distinctions between chemically dependent suicide attempters, chemically dependent nonsuicidal adolescents, and high school students with no history of chemical dependency (N=250). Results reveal that there were significant differences between the chemically dependent groups. It was also found that the majority of suicidal gestures…
Kuhlberg, Jill A; Peña, Juan B; Zayas, Luis H
Adolescent Latinas continue to report higher levels of suicide attempts than their African-American and White peers. The phenomenon is still not understood and is theorized to be the result of the confluence of many cultural, familial, and individual level factors. In Latino cultures, belief in the importance of the family, the value known as familism, appears to protect youth's emotional and behavioral health, but parent-adolescent conflict has been found to be a risk factor for suicide attempts. The role of familism in relation to parent-adolescent conflict, self-esteem, internalizing behaviors, and suicide attempts has not been studied extensively. To address this question, we interviewed 226 adolescent Latinas, 50% of whom had histories of suicide attempts. Using path analysis, familism as a cultural asset was associated with lower levels of parent-adolescent conflict, but higher levels of internalizing behaviors, while self-esteem and internalizing behaviors mediated the relationship between parent-adolescent conflict and suicide attempts. Our findings point to the importance of family involvement in culturally competent suicide prevention and intervention programs. Reducing parent-daughter conflict and fostering closer family ties has the added effect of improving self-esteem and shrinking the likelihood of suicide attempts.
Balis, Theodora; Postolache, Teodor T.
Suicide is the third-leading cause of death for adolescents between 15 and 24 years of age in the United States and its rate has been increasing. Factors that contribute to rate of, risks for, or protection against depression and suicide may be different for people from cultures with different values and health beliefs. Although typically seen as affecting Caucasians more than other groups in the U.S., the rates of suicide among African Americans, Latinos, and others have been increasing. 87 ...
Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.
Parents’ aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents’ aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes in youths’ behavior can be deleterious, such as when adolescents manifest suicidal behaviors. We examined aspirations expressed by 12 Latina adolescent suicide...
Elba Cruz Rodríguez
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional analítico de caso y control, con el objetivo de identificar los factores de riesgo relacionados con el intento suicida en los adolescentes del municipio Pinar del Río, en el período comprendido de enero a junio del 2009. El universo del estudio estuvo constituido por la población de 10 a 19 años con intento suicida, quedando conformada la muestra por 36 casos contra 72 controles, seleccionados por un pareo de 1:2, se analizaron los factores de riesgo individuales y familiares asociados al intento suicida. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante la aplicación de un cuestionario diseñado por la autora de la investigación, se determinó la asociación entre los factores de riesgo y el intento suicida, a través de la prueba de Chi cuadrado y la razón de productos cruzados (OR con estimación puntual y por intervalos de confianza; entre los principales resultados se encontró asociación estadística significativa al intento suicida, de los siguientes factores de riesgo: la presencia de adolescentes con desordenes mentales como depresión y retraso mental, dificultades escolares e internamiento invo luntario y el antecedente de suicidio por otro miembro del hogar.An observational, analytical case-control study was carried out with the purpose of identifying the risk factors related to suicide attempt in adolescents in Pinar del Rio municipality from January to June 2009. The target group was comprised of the total population from 10 to 19 years old with suicide attempts; the sample consisted of 36 cases vs. 72 controls, chosen by a matching of 1:2, individual and familial risks factors associated with suicide attempt were analyzed as well. Data were obtained by means of the application of a questionnaire designed by the author of the study, the association between the risk factors and suicide attempt was determined using chi square test and the reason of crossed products ratio by punctual estimation and by
Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Sherr, Lorraine
This is the first known prospective study of child suicidal behavior in sub-Saharan Africa. Aims were to determine whether (1) cumulative exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) predicts later suicidality and (2) heightened risks are mediated by mental health disorder and drug/alcohol misuse. Longitudinal repeated interviews were conducted 1 year apart (97% retention) with 3,515 adolescents aged 10-18 years in South Africa (56% female; areas from urban/rural sites within two provinces and door-to-door sampling included all homes with a resident adolescent. Measures included past-month suicide attempts, planning, and ideation, mental health disorders, drug/alcohol use, and ACE, for example, parental death by AIDS or homicide, abuse, and exposure to community violence. Analyses included multivariate logistic regression and multiple mediation tests. Past-month suicidality rates were 3.2% of adolescents attempting, 5.8% planning, and 7.2% reporting ideation. After controlling for baseline suicidality and sociodemographics, a strong, graded relationship was shown between cumulative ACE and all suicide behaviors 1 year later. Baseline mental health, but not drug/alcohol misuse, mediated relationships between ACE and subsequent suicidality. Suicide attempts rose from 1.9% among adolescents with no ACE to 6.3% among adolescents with >5 ACEs (cumulative odds ratio [OR], 2.46; confidence interval [CI], 1.00-6.05); for suicide planning, from 2.4% to 12.5% (cumulative OR, 4.40; CI, 2.08-9.29); and for suicide ideation, from 4.2% to 15.6% (cumulative OR, 2.99; CI, 1.68-5.53). Preventing and mitigating childhood adversities have the potential to reduce suicidality. Among adolescents already exposed to adversities, effective mental health services may buffer against future suicidality. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Puuskari, Varpu; Aalto-Setälä, Terhi; Komulainen, Erkki; Marttunen, Mauri
Studies have emphasized screening for psychiatric disorders, especially suicide risk in emergency departments. Psychiatric disorders and experimentation with alcohol increase in adolescence and intoxications among patients challenge the staff in emergency departments. This study examined the degree of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicidal behavior in adolescents, and the extent to which they differed from non-suicidal patients in terms of alcohol use, psychological distress, self-esteem, and perceived social support. The study comprised 120 adolescents, a mean age of 14.2 years. Of them 60% were females. We collected data on the clinical characteristics and assessed the patient's psychiatric status using self-report scales and analyzed blood samples for alcohol. A consulting psychiatrist interviewed each patient before discharge to evaluate potential SI or suicide attempt (SA) using structured and semi-structured scales. Of the 120 patients 20% had SI or had made a SA. High psychological distress in girls, low blood alcohol levels (BALs), as well as low scores on self-esteem, on social support and on familial support were associated with patients with SI/SA. Logistic regression showed that the most significant variables with suicidal patients included low BAL and low self-esteem and high alcohol consumption. Psychological distress had a direct and mediational role in the suicidal patients. Adolescents referred to the pediatric emergency department with intoxication displaying high psychological distress and low self-esteem represent a high-risk group of teens. In this group, careful assessment of mental health status, screening for suicidal ideation, and SAs seems warranted.
Grøholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Wichstrøm, Lars; Haldorsen, Tor
Some risk and protective factors differ in their importance to suicidal and nonsuicidal people. In this research we explore the cross-sectional differences between risk factors among suicidal adolescents and nonsuicidal adolescents by focusing on self-esteem. Sixty-five suicidal and 390 nonsuicidal adolescents were compared on Harter's Self-Perceived Profile for Adolescents, self-concept stability, seeking support, loneliness, and depression. Self-concept stability, loneliness, and peer support correlated differently with self-esteem. In multivariate regression analyses, variance in self-esteem was explained by depression and loneliness, and among nonsuicidal adolescents also by self-concept stability, support, and competencies. Loneliness and self-concept stability related differently to self-esteem in suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents. When the aim is to enhance self-esteem, this difference may delineate suicidal subgroups that need special interventions.
Margarit Soler, Adriana; Martínez Sanchez, Lídia; Martínez Monseny, Antonio; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, Victoria; Picouto González, María Dolores; Villar Cabeza, Francisco; Luaces Cubells, Carles
Suicide attempt in adolescents is a major global health problem. In order to prevent them, the risks factors need to be identified. The present study evaluates the clinical and epidemiological aspects of adolescent patients after attempted suicide, who were seen in an emergency department. Description of retrospective study of patients younger than 18 years who visited emergency department unit after a suicide attempt, during the period from 2008 to 2012. A total of 241 patients were included, of whom 203 were female. The median age of the patients was 15.6 years. Psiquiatric history was present in 65.1% of the patients. The most frequent suicide mechanism was drug overdose (94.2%). Attempted suicide ideation was more common in males and in patients with previous attempts, and were also more related to sequels. Moreover, patients with an overdose were associated with psychiatric history and clinical toxicity. Patients with any of the following characteristics; male, psychiatric history, a history of previous suicide attempts and/or clinical toxicity at the time of the visit in the emergency center, were more associated suicidal ideation before the attempt. Therefore, they had greater severity and risk repeating the attempt. They require a careful psychiatric evaluation and close monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Hepp, Urs; Stulz, Niklaus; Unger-Köppel, Jürg; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta
Although relatively rare, suicide is a leading cause of death in children and adolescents in the Western world. This study examined whether children and adolescents are drawn to other methods of suicide than adults. Swiss suicides from 1998 to 2007 were examined. The main methods of suicide were analysed with respect to age and gender. Of the 12,226 suicides which took place in this 10-year period, 333 were committed by children and adolescents (226 males, 107 females). The most prevalent methods of suicide in children and adolescents 0-19 years were hanging, jumping from heights and railway-suicides (both genders), intoxication (females) and firearms (males). Compared to adults, railway-suicides were over-represented in young males and females (both P suicide chosen by children and adolescents. Restricting access to most favoured methods of suicide might be an important strategy in suicide prevention.
Juan Carlos Sánchez-Sosa
Full Text Available This study tested a model of suicidal ideation in adolescents through a transverse type explanatory study. A stratified random sample of 1285 Mexican students from middle and high school was used. The questionnaires had an acceptable reliability index. The model is contrasted using the structural equations technique and the statistical package EQS 6.1, which explained the 33.10 of variance. The results showed satisfactory levels of absolute goodness of fit (RMSEA =. 41, GFI =. 953, AGFI =. 939 and comparative goodness of fit (CFI =. 951, IFI =. 958; NFI =. 925, NNFI =. 943. Finally, the Psychosocial Suicide Ideation Model (MEPIS, in Spanish conforms well to the data and was compatible with the theoretical model proposed, in that it integrates a contextual structure showing a significant indirect relationship of family functioning and problems of school integration with the dependent variable. In addition, it was also observed that there was a direct and significant relation between school victimization, depressive symptoms, eating risk behavior and suicidal ideation.
Alasaarela, Lauri; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Riipinen, Pirkko
This study examines the association of self-reported impulsivity to nonsuicidal self-injury, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and completed suicides in a clinical sample of 508 Finnish adolescents (aged 12-17) treated in psychiatric inpatient care between April 2001 and March 2006. The Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime interview was used to gather information on psychiatric disorders, impulsivity, and suicidality of the adolescents. Mortality data were obtained from the national cause of death register. In adolescent girls, impulsivity was significantly associated with suicidal ideation and attempts and completed suicides in adolescent boys. Of adolescent boys with impulsivity, 10.4% had died by suicide during the follow-up time. For preventive purposes, health care professionals are encouraged asked adolescents targeted questions about impulsivity and to consider the associated risk of suicidality identified in this study.
Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xian; Li, Nini; Ye, Baojuan
In a sample of 1252 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.00 years), this study examined the direct relations between gratitude and adolescents' suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. This study also examined indirect relations between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts via two self-system beliefs--coping efficacy and self-esteem.…
Williams, Susan G.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Wornell, Cory; Finnegan, Heather
Adolescents transitioning to high school may be at greater risk of depression and suicide if they are victims of bullying behavior. This study explored sex differences in bullying victimization (physical, verbal/social, and cyberbullying) and the impact on depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in ninth-grade students (N = 233). Females…
Burrows, Stephanie; Laflamme, Lucie
Knowledge of suicide epidemiology in low- and middle-income settings is important for both well-tailored policies and an increased global understanding of suicide macro-determinants. Adolescents are an important target group in that respect, and those from South Africa are a particular concern, given the additional challenges associated with dramatic political, economic, and health transition. This study presents a profile of adolescent suicide occurrence and sex, race, and city differences. Adolescents aged 10-19 years in post-apartheid urban South Africa. Sex-, race- and city-specific suicide rates were calculated for two age groups (10-14, 15-19 years). Using logistic regression, odds ratios were compiled, first adjusting for age, then additionally for sex, race, and city. Female subjects, those classified as 'coloured' (denoting mixed racial origin), and those living in Tshwane were used as reference groups. Proportions (with 95% confidence intervals) of leading suicide methods were compared. Suicide rates were considerably higher among older adolescents and varied by sex, race, and city. Males had more than twice the odds of committing suicide compared with females. In the fully adjusted model, differences between races were not significant, but city-level differences remained. The leading suicide method was hanging for males and both hanging and poisoning for females. In contemporary urban South Africa, male sex, and city of residence, but not race, were associated with the commission of adolescent suicide, which tends to occur by quite specific methods. The findings warrant research into the possible underlying contextual, demographic, and individual mechanisms.
Liu, Xianchen; Sun, Zhenxiao; Yang, Yanyun
Suicidal risk begins to increase during adolescence and is associated with multiple biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors. This study examined the prevalence and psychosocial factors of parent-reported suicidal behavior in Chinese adolescents. A community sample of 1920 adolescents in China participated in an epidemiological study. Parents completed a structured questionnaire including child suicidal behavior, illness history, mental health problems, family history, parenting, and family environment. Multiple logistic regression was used for data analysis. Overall, 2.4% of the sample talked about suicide in the previous 6 months, 3.2% had deliberately hurt themselves or attempted suicide, and 5.1% had either suicidal talk or self-harm. The rate of suicidal behavior increased as adolescents aged. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that the following factors were significantly associated with elevated risk for suicidal behavior: depressive/anxious symptoms, poor maternal health, family conflict, and physical punishment of parental discipline style. Suicidal behavior was reported by parents. No causal relationships could be made based on cross-sectional data. The prevalence rate of parent-reported suicidal behavior is markedly lower than self-reported rate in previous research. Depressive/anxious symptoms and multiple family environmental factors are associated with suicidal behavior in Chinese adolescents.
Bossarte, Robert M.; Simon, Thomas R.; Swahn, Monica H.
To understand the co-occurrence of multiple types of violence, the authors developed a behavioral typology based on self-reports of suicidal behaviors, physical violence, and psychological abuse. Using a sample of dating adolescents from a high-risk school district, they identified five clusters of behaviors among the 1,653 students who reported…
Wolff, Jennifer; Frazier, Elisabeth A.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Burke, Taylor; Sloan, Emma; Spirito, Anthony
Although non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SA) frequently co-occur among youth, there is increasing evidence that both the risk factors and the phenomenology of the behaviors are distinct. This study examined how individuals who engage in NSSI only, individuals who attempt suicide only, and those who have histories of both NSSI and at least one suicide attempt may differ in terms of cognitions and perceived social support. Participants were 185 adolescents (78.1% female) b...
Donath, Carolin; Graessel, Elmar; Baier, Dirk; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas
Background Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are serious but not rare conditions in adolescents. However, there are several research and practical suicide-prevention initiatives that discuss the possibility of preventing serious self-harm. Profound knowledge about risk and protective factors is therefore necessary. The aim of this study is a) to clarify the role of parenting behavior and parenting styles in adolescents’ suicide attempts and b) to identify other statistically significant ...
Gijzen, M.W.M.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Rasing, S.P.A.; Smit, H.F.E.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Background: Since 2010, suicide has been the most important cause of mortality in youth aged 15 to 29 years in the Netherlands. Depression is an important risk factor for suicidal behaviors (i.e., suicide ideation, deliberate self-harm, planning, and suicide attempts) in adolescents. Adolescents who
Maraš, J S; Kolundžija, K; Dukić, O; Marković, J; Okanović, P; Stokin, B; Mitrović, D; Ivanović-Kovačević, S
In most countries, suicide is second or third leading cause of death in youth. Suicidal tendencies among youth have been the subject of extensive research. Reports of increased rate of suicide attempts in the past few decades indicate that this phenomenon has not been fully understood. The aim of this study was to better understand the phenomenon of adolescent suicide behavior by defining some specific psychological characteristics of adolescents who were hospitalized at the psychiatric ward because of the suicide attempt. 62 participants were assigned to two groups: clinical (adolescents who were hospitalized after a suicide attempt) and non-clinical (adolescents without psychiatric symptoms). They filled in a series of instruments: a questionnaire examining adolescents' demographic characteristics, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, Youth Self Report. Compared to the non-clinical populaton adolescents attempting suicide had significantly more frequent suicidal thoughts (χ2 = 18.627, df = 1, p self-esteem (t = 4.23, p suicide attempt.
Giupponi, Giancarlo; Maniscalco, Ignazio; Mathà, Sandra; Ficco, Carlotta; Pernther, Georg; Sanna, Livia; Pompili, Maurizio; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Conca, Andreas
The somatoform disorders include a group of complex disorders consist of somatic symptoms for which there are no identifiable organic cause or pathogenetic mechanisms. Given the importance of these disorders and the need to clarify the diagnosis of somatoform disorder affecting the suicide risk, we took into consideration the scientific literature to investigate the correlation between the two conditions. We performed a bibliographic search through Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, SciELO, ORCID, Google Scholar, DOAJ using the following terms: somatoform, somatization disorder, pain disorder AND psychological factor, suicide, parasuicide, suicidality. In all studies reported in our review, the suicidal behavior risk is high. But in the majority, the data are relatively unreliable because it takes into account the category nosographic "Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders", too wide to be able to identify the clinical characteristics of patients at risk of only somatoform disorder. Several studies conclude that psychiatric comorbidity increases the suicide risk: patients with two or more psychiatric disorders are more likely to commit a suicide attempt; in particular if there is a axis I diagnosis, the risk reduplicate. The somatization disorder seems to have a significant psychiatric comorbidity in particular with anxious and affective disorders spectrum.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Academically typically achieving adolescents were compared with students having academic difficulty on stress and suicidal ideas. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 75 academically typically achieving adolescents were compared with 105 students with academic difficulty and 52 students with specific learning disability (SLD. Academic functioning was assessed using teacher's screening instrument, intelligence quotient, and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences index for SLD. Stress and suicidal ideas were assessed using general health questionnaire, suicide risk-11, and Mooney Problem Checklist (MPC. Appropriate statistical methods were applied. Results: Three groups were comparable on age, gender, mother's working status, being only child, nuclear family, self-reported academic decline, and type of school. About half of adolescents reported psychological problems on General Health Questionnaire (mean score >3 in all the groups. Academically typically achieving adolescents showed higher stressors in peer relationships, planning for future and suicidal ideation compared to adolescents with academic difficulty. Adolescents face stress regarding worry about examinations, family not understanding what child has to do in school, unfair tests, too much work in some subjects, afraid of failure in school work, not spending enough time in studies, parental expectations, wanting to be more popular, worried about a family member, planning for the future, and fear of the future. Significant positive correlation was seen between General Health Questionnaire scores and all four subscales of MPC. Suicidal ideas showed a negative correlation with MPC. Interpretations and Conclusions: Adolescents experience considerable stress in multiple areas irrespective of their academic ability and performance. Hence, assessment and management of stress among adolescents must extend beyond academic difficulties.
Woźniak, Ewelina; Talarowska, Monika; Orzechowska, Agata; Florkowski, Antoni; Gałecki, Piotr
Suicide is the act of a fatal outcome. People who think about suicide perceive death as a way to avoid problems. Suicide attempts by children and young people likely to arise from the fact that the identified single or co-occurring mental disorders. was to illustrate the suicide problem, which is increasingly frequent attempts to take their own life for children and youth. Its main objective is to determine the prevalence and determinants of suicide attempts made by young people. The study group consisted of patients Babinski Hospital in Lodz. The study included 18 patients, 9 boys and 9 girls. Research methodology is based on the stories of young patients diseases. In order to verify the prevalence of trial and / or thoughts, suicidal tendencies among children and adolescents, was used as a research,tool - a survey of its own design. The survey consists of 21 questions about basic information on the state of social, physical and mental patients. Subjective verification made disseminate ideas, trends and / or suicide attempts among children and adolescents in most reflects the actual collection of information gathered by various authors. Children coming from families reconstructed and largely incomplete exhibit suicidal behavior. The main risk factors indicating the attempt on his own life are mental disorders: depression and behavioral disorders. Family situation of young people: conflicts between the father and the mother, violence, physical / mental, has a significant effect on the risk of an attempt on his own life. Superficial self-mutilation, is the main way to make a suicide bombing.
Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Hong, Jin Pyo
The lethality of the suicide method is a strong risk factor for completed suicide. We examined whether the annual change in the pattern of suicide methods was related to the annual change in suicide rates among adolescents in South Korea and the United States. We analyzed annual data for the 2000-2009 period for South Korea and the 2000-2008 period for the United States to examine time trends in the suicide rates and suicide methods of adolescents aged 10-19 years in two countries. Data on suicide methods were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database. Suicide rates among adolescents in the United States have remained relatively steady since 2000, whereas the suicide among Korean adolescents has increased. Between 2000 and 2009, the most common suicide method among Korean adolescents was jumping for boys and girls, whereas it was hanging for girls and firearms for boys in the United States. Along with the annual increase in suicide rates in South Korea, the incidences of jumping among males and hanging (and recently jumping) among females have increased steadily, whereas suicide by self-poisoning steadily decreased. In the United States, between 2000 and 2008, the proportion of suicides committed by hanging increased, whereas those committed using firearms steadily decreased, particularly among adolescent females. These findings suggest that the increased use of lethal suicide methods is reflected in the increase in suicide rates in Korean adolescents. The most fruitful approach to addressing the rises in jumping suicides among Korean adolescents and hanging suicides among adolescents in the United States may be through population-based initiatives to reduce the physical availability (e.g., limiting access to or fencing off tall structures) and the social acceptability (e.g., effective and responsible regulations for reporting suicide) of these methods. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association
Kõlves, Kairi; de Leo, Diego
There are notable differences in suicide methods between countries. The aim of this paper is to analyse and describe suicide methods in children and adolescents aged 10-19 years in different countries/territories worldwide. Suicide data by ICD-10 X codes were obtained from the WHO Mortality Database and population data from the World Bank. In total, 101 countries or territories, have data at least for 5 years in 2000-2009. Cluster analysis by suicide methods was performed for countries/territories with at least 10 suicide cases separately by gender (74 for males and 71 for females) in 2000-2009. The most frequent suicide method was hanging, followed by poisoning by pesticides for females and firearms for males. Cluster analyses of similarities in the country/territory level suicide method patterns by gender identified four clusters for both gender. Hanging and poisoning by pesticides defined the clusters of countries/territories by their suicide patterns in youth for both genders. In addition, a mixed method and a jumping from height cluster were identified for females and two mixed method clusters for males. A number of geographical similarities were observed. Overall, the patterns of suicide methods in children and adolescents reflect lethality, availability and acceptability of suicide means similarly to country specific patterns of all ages. Means restriction has very good potential in preventing youth suicides in different countries. It is also crucial to consider cognitive availability influenced by sensationalised media reporting and/or provision of technical details about specific methods.
Lee, Sang Ah; Jang, Suk Yong; Shin, Jaeyong; Ju, Yeong Jun; Nam, Jin Young; Park, Eun Cheol
Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents globally, and body weight is also a recognized reason for adolescent suicide. Therefore, we investigated the association between weight control behaviors (WCB) and suicide ideation and attempt, focusing on inappropriate weight control measures. We used data from the 2014 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, representing a total of 35,224 boys and 34,361 girls aged 12 to 18 years. Adolescents were classified into groups based on WCB: appropriate WCB, inappropriate WCB, and no WCB. We performed logistic regression models to examine associations between WCB and suicide ideation and attempt, controlling for covariates. Both boys and girls with inappropriate WCB were more likely to report suicide ideation and attempt. Underweight and normal weight boys with inappropriate WCB were more likely to think or attempt suicide, and underweight girls with inappropriate WCB were also more likely to attempt suicide. Among five common WCB combinations, the combination of "regular exercise, fasting, eating less" was highly associated with suicide ideation and attempt. We confirmed that inappropriate WCB is associated with suicide ideation and attempt among Korean adolescents. Given the high incidence rate of suicide among adolescents and the adverse effect of inappropriate WCB, encouraging adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is imperative.
Ibrahim, Norhayati; Amit, Noh; Suen, Melia Wong Yuin
There has been a drastic increase in the rate of suicides over the past 45 years in Malaysia. The statistics show that adolescents aged between 16 and 19 years old are at high risk of committing suicide. This could be attributed to issues relating to the developmental stage of adolescents. During this stage, adolescents face challenges and are exposed to various stressful experiences and risk factors relating to suicide. The present study examined psychological factors (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress) as predictors for suicidal ideation among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 190 students (103 males and 87 females), aged 15 to 19 years old from two different schools in Kuala Lumpur. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21-item version (DASS-21) was used to measure depression, anxiety and stress among the students, and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) to measure suicidal ideation. The data were analysed using Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis. The results show that 11.10%, 10.00%, and 9.50% of the students reported that they were experiencing severe depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. There were significant correlations between depression, anxiety, and stress with suicidal ideation. However, only depression was identified as a predictor for suicidal ideation. Hence, this study extends the role of depression in predicting suicidal ideation among adolescents in the Malaysian context. The findings imply that teenagers should be assisted in strengthening their positive coping strategies in managing distress to reduce depression and suicidal ideation.
Hauser, Marta; Galling, Britta; Correll, Christoph U
Objective Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with poor outcomes, including suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA). However, frequencies and risk factors of SI/SA and targeted intervention trials for SI/SA in PBD have not been reviewed systematically. Methods We conducted a systematic PubMed review, searching for articles reporting on prevalences/incidences, correlates and intervention studies targeting SI/SA in PBD. Weighted means were calculated, followed by an exploratory meta-regression of SI and SA correlates. Results Fourteen studies (n = 1,595) with 52.1% males aged 14.4 years reported data on SI/SA prevalence (N = 13, n = 1,508) and/or correlates (N = 10, n = 1,348) in PBD. Weighted mean prevalences were: past SI = 57.4%, past SA = 21.3%, current SI = 50.4%, and current SA = 25.5%; incidences (mean: 42 months follow-up were: SI = 14.6% and SA = 14.7%. Regarding significant correlates, SI (N = 3) was associated with a higher percentage of Caucasian race, narrow (as opposed to broad) PBD phenotype, younger age, and higher quality of life than SA. Significant correlates of SA (N = 10) included female gender, older age, earlier illness onset, more severe/episodic PBD, mixed episodes, comorbid disorders, past self-injurious behavior/SI/SA, physical/sexual abuse, parental depression, family history of suicidality, and poor family functioning. Race, socioeconomic status, living situation, and life events were not clearly associated with SA. In a meta-regression analysis, bipolar I disorder and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were significantly associated with SA. Only one open label study targeting the reduction of SI/SA in PBD was identified. Conclusions SI and SA are highly common but under-investigated in PBD. Exploration of predictors and protective factors is imperative for the establishment of effective preventive and intervention strategies, which are urgently needed. PMID:23829436
Ferrer, Laia; Kirchner, Teresa
Although Adjustment Disorder (AD) is a prevalent diagnosis in adolescent mental health services and linked to suicidal tendency in adolescence, little research exists examining prevalence and gender differences of suicidal symptoms among AD patients using standardized instruments. The present study aims to assess the presence of suicidal tendency in a clinical sample of Spanish adolescents with AD analyzing gender differences. Ninety-seven adolescents with AD were recruited at a public mental health center and included in the AD sample; they were administered the Inventario de Riesgo Suicida para Adolescentes (Suicide Risk Inventory for Adolescents-IRIS) and the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). Ninety-nine community adolescents were recruited and administered the IRIS inventory. The community sample works as a contrast group. Girls with AD show higher levels of suicidal symptoms than boys on both the IRIS Suicidal Ideation and Intention scale (t=8.15, p<.001) and the MACI Suicidal Tendency scale (t=6.6, p<.001). Girls with AD scored significantly higher than girls from the community contrast group sample in the IRIS Suicidal Ideation and Intention scale, but boys with AD presented no differences with regard to boys form the community contrast group sample. Compared with normative clinical samples of the MACI, no differences in the Suicidal Tendency scale scores were found between AD and normative girls, but AD boys showed significantly lower mean scores than normative boys. Suicidal symptoms were presented by 27% of girls and 18% of boys, although only 6% of the girls and none of the boys presented clear suicidal tendencies. Considering suicidal tendencies in adolescents with Adjustment Disorder is important-especially in girls, who present high suicidal tendencies in relation both to boys and to community peers and the normative clinical population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Borschmann, Rohan; Stark, Patrick; Prakash, Chidambaram; Sawyer, Susan M
Self-harm and suicidal behaviour is most prevalent during adolescence, but little is known about the risk profile of adolescents admitted to hospital for suicidal behaviour. Young people who self-harm are at an increased risk of mortality compared to those who do not self-harm; adolescents admitted to hospital for suicidal behaviour are particularly at risk. The aim of this study was to generate a risk profile of adolescents admitted to hospital with suicidal behaviour. We conducted a 12-month retrospective audit of adolescent admissions to the mental health inpatient unit at a tertiary children's hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Routinely collected data were used to generate a risk profile. We found that 212 of 271 (78.2%) admissions were due to suicidal behaviour. Of these, 107 (51%) adolescents were diagnosed with one or more mental disorders at discharge, most commonly major depressive disorder. Beyond known distal determinants of health risk, the proximal risk profile of these adolescents included factors relating to gender, substance use, prior mental health diagnoses and prior admission to hospital. Poor sleep was also a risk factor, with 159 (75%) reporting a recent history of sleeping problems. The very high proportion of admissions to the mental health inpatient unit due to suicidal behaviour reinforces the importance of finding effective methods of identification of the risk processes underpinning suicidal behaviours to reduce the unnecessary waste of young lives by suicide. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Oscar Javier Mamani-Benito
Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to determine the effectiveness of an intervention program to develop emotional intelligence in a risk group. The methodology involves a quasi experimental design, with intact group, the same that was submitted to an evaluation before and after an intervention. The population consists of 33 female adolescents identified with suicidal ideation, and the instruments applied were Beck's suicidal ideation scale and BarOn Ice's emotional intelligence inventory. The results evidenced the finding of significant differences (p < 0.05 in the levels of both suicidal ideation (Z = -4.596 and emotional intelligence dimensions: intrapersonal (t = -7.815, stress management (t = 10.294 and general mood (t = 7.178. The prevalence of emotional intelligence affected in subjects with suicidal ideation is corroborated; so, the results agree with studies that support that the emotional intelligence modulates the suicidal risk. Therefore, it has been shown that the effectiveness of the intervention program allowed the development of emotional intelligence in the aforementioned dimensions. Consequently, the levels of suicidal ideation in the at-risk population were reduced.
Pitman, Alexandra; Osborn, David; King, Michael
to psychiatric care for parents bereaved by the suicide of an offspring, increased risk of suicide in mothers bereaved by an adult child's suicide, and increased risk of depression in offspring bereaved by the suicide of a parent. Some evidence was shown for increased rejection and shame in people bereaved......Between 48 million and 500 million people are thought to experience suicide bereavement every year. Over the past decade, increased policy attention has been directed towards suicide bereavement, but with little evidence to describe the effect of exposure or to provide appropriate responses. We...... used a systematic approach to carry out a narrative review of studies of the effect of suicide bereavement on mortality, mental health, and social functioning, and compared them with effects from other bereavements. We found 57 studies that satisfied strict inclusion criteria. Results from...
van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul; Tanilon, Jenny
Peer victimization is related to an increased chance of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation or suicide attempts using meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were searched for articles from 1910 to 2013. The search terms were bully*, teas*, victim*, mobbing, ragging, and harassment in combination with the term suic*. Of the 491 studies identified, 34 reported on the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation, with a total of 284,375 participants. Nine studies reported on the relationship between peer victimization and suicide attempts, with a total of 70,102 participants. STUDY SELECTION Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported an effect size on the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation or suicide attempt in children or adolescents. Two observers independently coded the effect sizes from the articles. Data were pooled using a random effects model. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This study focused on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Peer victimization was hypothesized to be related to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. RESULTS Peer victimization was found to be related to both suicidal ideation (odds ratio, 2.23 [95% CI, 2.10-2.37]) and suicide attempts (2.55 [1.95 -3.34]) among children and adolescents. Analyses indicated that these results were not attributable to publication bias. Results were not moderated by sex, age, or study quality. Cyberbullying was more strongly related to suicidal ideation compared with traditional bullying. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Peer victimization is a risk factor for child and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Schools should use evidence-based practices to reduce bullying.
Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Youn, Tak; Kim, Byung Soo; Park, Jong Ik; Kim, Haesoo; Lee, Hyo Chu; Hong, Jin Pyo
Past attempted suicide is a strong predictor of future suicide risk, but the risk varies among suicide attempters. Hence, it is important to clarify distinguishing features of lifetime attempters with a high level of current suicide risk for efficient preventive management. We compared characteristics of suicide attempts and clinical characteristics among high-, moderate-, and low-risk attempters. Among the total of 6022 participants in the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 193 reported a suicide attempt in their lifetime, 36 of which had high, 126 moderate, and 30 low levels of current suicide risk (1 incomplete response). High-risk suicide attempters had more past attempts compared with moderate- and low-risk suicide attempters. Suicide attempts were closely linked to a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities regardless of degree of current level of suicide risk, but the relative risk for having at least one mental disorder was the highest in high-risk attempters. Specifically, the relative risks for depressive disorder, anxiety disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders were higher in high-risk attempters, and relative risk for somatoform disorder was higher in low-risk attempters than others. Our findings indicated that special attention is required for suicide attempters with a history of repeated attempts and current mental disorders, particularly anxiety disorders.
Manceaux, Pauline; Jacques, Denis; Zdanowicz, Nicolas
Teen suicide is a major public health problem. In the United States, it is the third cause of death among the 10-24 year olds. Adolescence involves numerous changes, whether physical, social, emotional or hormonal. At a neurobiological level, a teenager's nervous system is also affected and undergoes significant modifications. We conducted a systematic review of electronic literature published between January 1990 and August 2014 via MEDLINE, PubMED and PsychINFO to list articles concerning the risk of teen depression and suicide risks in adolescents as well as those relating to the adolescent's neuro-anatomical brain and the effect that puberty has on it. When analyzing the various studies, it is clear that all support the idea that adolescence is a special period, both at neuroanatomical and biological levels. The risk of impulsiveness and depression is explained, anatomically, by a faster maturation of the limbic system, and biologically, by a higher sensitivity of the serotoninergic system and to glucocorticoids, which themselves are influenced by the specific hormonal environment during this period. Moreover and above all, adolescence is a vulnerable time for many reasons: physical, hormonal, social, cognitive, and emotional changes, self-development, etc. We should not restrict it to structural neurological changes without taking into account the other factors or compartmentalize young people into a reductive model based on determinism. Adolescence is a time of change, transformation, and adaptation. The hormonal events that occur during this period have significant effects on brain development, neuro-cerebral chemistry, adolescent behavior and risks of depression. It is important to try to prevent suicide and depression in adolescents considering its entirety and complexity but also by paying attention to neuro-biological factors even if, at present, many research projects are currently underway to develop an appropriate drug therapy strategy.
Li, Dongping; Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui
Background: School factors play important roles in adolescent suicide. However, little is known about how school climate is associated with adolescent suicide. This study examined the relationship between perceived school climate and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and whether these relations were explained by adolescent sleep…
This study examines the relative risk for suicide attempts (SA) among high-school students self-identifying with one or more disability classifications (nine); assesses the extent to which youth with disabilities are disproportionately vulnerable to risk factors that predict suicidal behavior among all adolescents; and explores whether disability status adds to risk for SA after accounting for a comprehensive set of known risk and protective factors for SA. Analyses using Wisconsin's 2012 Dane County Youth Assessment Survey data found that youth in each disability category were 3-9 times more likely to report suicide attempt(s) relative to peers, and the endorsement of multiple disabilities tripled the risk SA relative to youth reporting a single disability. Some disability sub-groups, including youth reporting autism spectrum disorder, hearing, and vision impairments reported surprisingly high rates of SA. While youth with disabilities reported disproportionate exposure to adversity in every life domain examined, similar to youth reporting SA, disability status added unique risk for suicidal behavior. This suggests that disability may be a 'fundamental cause' of suicidal behavior, a question that requires further investigation.
Skinner, Robin; McFaull, Steven
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for young Canadians (10-19 years of age)--a disturbing trend that has shown little improvement in recent years. Our objective was to examine suicide trends among Canadian children and adolescents. We conducted a retrospective analysis of standardized suicide rates using Statistics Canada mortality data for the period spanning from 1980 to 2008. We analyzed the data by sex and by suicide method over time for two age groups: 10-14 year olds (children) and 15-19 year olds (adolescents). We quantified annual trends by calculating the average annual percent change (AAPC). We found an average annual decrease of 1.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.5 to -0.4) in the suicide rate for children and adolescents, but stratification by age and sex showed significant variation. We saw an increase in suicide by suffocation among female children (AAPC = 8.1%, 95% CI 6.0 to 10.4) and adolescents (AAPC = 8.0%, 95% CI 6.2 to 9.8). In addition, we noted a decrease in suicides involving poisoning and firearms during the study period. Our results show that suicide rates in Canada are increasing among female children and adolescents and decreasing among male children and adolescents. Limiting access to lethal means has some potential to mitigate risk. However, suffocation, which has become the predominant method for committing suicide for these age groups, is not amenable to this type of primary prevention.
Rutter, Philip A.; Soucar, Emil
Study examines the relationship between sexual orientation and youth suicide risk. The suicide risk demonstrated by sexual minorities in this study was no greater than that of their heterosexual peers. Youth who reported more external support demonstrated lower overall suicide risk and, specifically, lower levels of hostility, hopelessness, and…
Park, Subin; Kim, Chang Yoon; Hong, Jin Pyo
Compared with the general population, adolescent psychiatric patients are subject to premature death from all causes, but suicide-specific mortality rates in this population have not been carefully investigated. Therefore, we examined the high mortality due to unnatural causes, particularly suicide, using standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) relative to sex, diagnosis, and type of psychiatric service. A total of 3,029 patients aged 10-19 years presented to the outpatient clinic of a general hospital in Seoul, Korea, or were admitted to that hospital for psychiatric disorders from January 1995 to December 2006. Unnatural causes mortality risk and suicide mortality risk in these patients were compared with those in sex- and age-matched subjects from the general Korean population. The SMR for unnatural causes was 4.6, and for suicide it was 7.8. Female subjects, the young, and inpatients had the highest risks for unnatural causes of death or suicide. Among the different diagnostic groups, patients with psychotic disorders, affective disorders, and personality disorders had significantly increased SMRs for unnatural causes, and those with psychotic disorders, affective disorders, and disruptive behavioral disorders had significantly increased SMRs for suicide. The risks of unnatural death and suicide are high in adolescent psychiatric inpatients in Korea, but not as high in adolescent outpatients. Effective preventative measures are required to reduce suicide mortality in adolescent psychiatric patients, particularly female patients admitted for general psychiatric care. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Rienzo, Barbara A; Miller, M David; Pigg, R Morgan; Dodd, Virginia J
Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for adolescents. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate that the adolescent suicide rate increased 18% between 2003 and 2004. Sport may represent a promising protective factor against adolescent suicide. This study examined the relative risk of hopelessness and suicidality associated with physical activity and sport participation. Data from the CDC's 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression modeling was used to compare the odds of hopelessness and suicidality in students who engaged in various levels of physical activity to inactive students. Similar analyses were performed comparing risks of athletes to nonathletes, and the risks of highly involved athletes to nonathletes. Findings showed that frequent, vigorous activity reduced the risk of hopelessness and suicidality among male adolescents. However, low levels of activity actually increased the risk of feeling hopeless among young females. Yet, for both males and females, sport participation protected against hopelessness and suicidality. These findings indicate that involvement in sport confers unique psychosocial benefits that protect adolescents against suicidality. Findings suggest that mechanisms other than physical activity contribute to the protective association between sport and reduced suicidality. Social support and integration may account for some of the differences found in suicidality between athletes and nonathletes.
Hill, Ryan M; Oosterhoff, Benjamin; Kaplow, Julie B
Although a large number of risk markers for suicide ideation have been identified, little guidance has been provided to prospectively identify adolescents at risk for suicide ideation within community settings. The current study addressed this gap in the literature by utilizing classification tree analysis (CTA) to provide a decision-making model for screening adolescents at risk for suicide ideation. Participants were N = 4,799 youth (Mage = 16.15 years, SD = 1.63) who completed both Waves 1 and 2 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. CTA was used to generate a series of decision rules for identifying adolescents at risk for reporting suicide ideation at Wave 2. Findings revealed 3 distinct solutions with varying sensitivity and specificity for identifying adolescents who reported suicide ideation. Sensitivity of the classification trees ranged from 44.6% to 77.6%. The tree with greatest specificity and lowest sensitivity was based on a history of suicide ideation. The tree with moderate sensitivity and high specificity was based on depressive symptoms, suicide attempts or suicide among family and friends, and social support. The most sensitive but least specific tree utilized these factors and gender, ethnicity, hours of sleep, school-related factors, and future orientation. These classification trees offer community organizations options for instituting large-scale screenings for suicide ideation risk depending on the available resources and modality of services to be provided. This study provides a theoretically and empirically driven model for prospectively identifying adolescents at risk for suicide ideation and has implications for preventive interventions among at-risk youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Trksak, George H; Lee, Young Sik
Suicide among adolescents is an emerging global public health problem as well as a socioeconomic problem. Stress-coping strategies have been shown to be associated with suicidal ideation. We examined coping behaviors related to suicidal ideation and gender differences in adolescents using the data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ages 12-19 years; N = 73,238). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between suicidal ideation and specific coping behaviors while controlling for potentially confounding variables. In both male and female groups, the coping behavior "drinking alcoholic beverages" and "smoking cigarettes" were positively associated with suicidal ideation. "Watching TV," "playing online/mobile games," and "sleeping" were negatively associated with suicidal ideation in both groups. In males, "engaging in sports" was negatively related to suicidal ideation. In females, "venting by talking to others" and "eating" were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the effects of coping behaviors on adolescent suicidal ideation, and that developing adaptive coping strategies may function to reduce suicidality. Future studies are needed to examine whether improving coping skills can reduce suicidal ideation in a gender-specific manner.
Paniagua-Suárez, Ramón E.; González-Posada, Carlos M.; Rueda-Ramírez, Sandra M.
Inventory of Suicide Orientation--ISO 30, it is a self-report scale that measures risk of adolescents suicide orientation. Although the risk of adolescents suicide is on the public agenda in Colombia actually, there is no study to analyze the psychometric properties of ISO 30, and for this reason, the present study is conducted with a random…
Serrani Azcurra, Daniel
Adolescent suicide is a major public health issue, and early and accurate detection is of great concern. There are many reliable instruments for this purpose, such as the Columbia-Suicide severity rating scale (C-SSRS), but no validation exists for Spanish speaking Latin American adolescents. To assess psychometric properties and cut-off scores of the C-SSRS in Spanish speaking adolescents. Exploratory assessment with principal component analysis (PCA) and Varimax rotation, and confirmatory analysis (CFA) were performed on two groups with 782 and 834 participants respectively (N=1616). Mean age was 24.8 years. A Receiver operator analysis was applied to distinguish between control and suicide-risk subgroups adolescents. Promax rotation yielded two 10-items factors, for suicide ideation and behavior respectively. C-SSRS was positively correlated with other suicide risk scales, such as Beck Depression Inventory-II, Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, or PHQ-9. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution as the best goodness of fit model. C-SSRS showed adequate ability to detect suicide risk group with positive predictive value of 68.3%. ROC analyses showed cutoff scores of ≥ 6 and ≥ 4 for suicide ideation and behavior scales respectively. This research offers data supporting psychometric validity and reliability of C-SSRS in nonclinical Spanish-speaking students. Added benefits are flexible scoring and management easiness. This questionnaire yields data on distinct aspects of suicidality, being more parsimonious than separate administration of a bunch of questionnaires.
Amanda L. Divin
Full Text Available Adolescence represents a vulnerable time for the development of both drug use/abuse and mental illness. Although previous research has substantiated a relationship between drug use and suicidal behavior, little research has examined this relationship with non-medical prescription drug use. Given the growing prevalence of non-medical prescription drug use (NMPDU among adolescents, this study explored the association between NMPDU and suicidal behavior. Nationally representative data were derived from 16, 410 adolescents who completed the 2009 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Approximately 19.8% of participants reported lifetime NMPDU. NMPDU was associated with significantly increased odds of suicidal behavior (P < 0.01, with seriously considering attempting suicide and making a plan about attempting suicide representing the strongest correlates for males and females. Results suggest the importance of 1 continued reinforcement of drug education programs in high school begun at earlier ages and 2 mental health care and screenings among adolescents.
Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Jones, Richard N; Spirito, Anthony
Puerto Rican adolescents, as well as other Latinos/as, have been identified at higher risk for suicidal ideation and attempts compared to other ethnic groups. However, research designed to better understand suicidality among Puerto Rican adolescents is rare. A socio-cognitive vulnerability model of suicidal ideation was tested in adolescents living in Puerto Rico. Multiple group path analyses were performed to assess the effect of self-reported socio-environmental and vulnerability factors on suicidal ideation, by sex, in 233 students from the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico. Overall, the model explained a large amount of the variance in suicidal ideation (r 2 = .59 for females and r2 = .48 for males). Depressive symptoms had the strongest total effect on suicidal ideation for both sexes (r = .69 for females and r = .53 for males) and negative life events were the most salient socio-environmental factor. Hopelessness had a direct effect on suicidal ideation for males only. Externalizing behaviors had a direct effect on suicidal ideation for both males and females, but it was particularly strong for females. Results support the mediating role of vulnerability factors and the differential importance of socio-environmental and vulnerability factors in understanding suicidal ideation among Puerto Rican adolescents. The relevance of exploring different developmental paths to suicidal ideation, separately by sex, is discussed.
Becker, Daniel F; Grilo, Carlos M
To examine psychological correlates of suicidality and violent behaviour in hospitalized adolescents and the extent to which these associations may be affected by their sex. A sample of 487 psychiatric inpatients (207 male, 280 female), aged 12 to 19 years, completed a battery of psychometrically sound self-report measures of psychological functioning, substance abuse, suicidality, and violent behaviour. We conducted multiple regression analyses to determine the joint and independent predictors of suicide risk and violence risk. In subsequent analyses, we examined these associations separately by sex. Multiple regression analysis revealed that 9 variables (sex, age, hopelessness, self-esteem, depression, impulsivity, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and violence risk) jointly predicted suicide risk and that an analogous model predicted violence risk. However, we found several differences with respect to which variables made significant independent contributions to these 2 predictive models. Female sex, low self-esteem, depression, drug abuse, and violence risk made independent contributions to suicide risk. Male sex, younger age, hopelessness, impulsivity, drug abuse, and suicide risk made independent contributions to violence risk. We observed a few additional differences when we considered male and female subjects separately. We found overlapping but distinctive patterns of prediction for suicide risk and violence risk, as well as some differences between male and female subjects. These results may reflect distinct psychological and behavioural pathways for suicidality and violence in adolescent psychiatric patients and differing risk factors for each sex. Such differences have potential implications for prevention and treatment programs.
Vitiello, Benedetto; Silva, Susan G; Rohde, Paul; Kratochvil, Christopher J; Kennard, Betsy D; Reinecke, Mark A; Mayes, Taryn L; Posner, Kelly; May, Diane E; March, John S
The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) database was analyzed to determine whether suicidal events (attempts and ideation) occurred early in treatment, could be predicted by severity of depression or other clinical characteristics, and were preceded by clinical deterioration or symptoms of increased irritability, akathisia, sleep disruption, or mania. TADS was a 36-week randomized, controlled clinical trial of pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatments involving 439 youths with major depressive disorder (DSM-IV criteria). Suicidal events were defined according to the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicidal Assessment. Patients were randomly assigned into the study between spring 2000 and summer 2003. Forty-four patients (10.0%) had at least 1 suicidal event (no suicide occurred). Events occurred 0.4 to 31.1 weeks (mean +/- SD = 11.9 +/- 8.2) after starting TADS treatment, with no difference in event timing for patients receiving medication versus those not receiving medication. Severity of self-rated pretreatment suicidal ideation (Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire adapted for adolescents score > or = 31) and depressive symptoms (Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale score > or = 91) predicted occurrence of suicidal events during treatment (P depression and insufficient improvement without evidence of medication-induced behavioral activation as a precursor. Severity of self-rated suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms predicted emergence of suicidality during treatment. Risk for suicidal events did not decrease after the first month of treatment, suggesting the need for careful clinical monitoring for several months after starting treatment. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Boivin, Michel; Arseneault, Louise; Turecki, Gustavo; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Renaud, Johanne; Séguin, Jean R; Tremblay, Richard E; Côté, Sylvana M
To test whether adolescents who are victimized by peers are at heightened risk for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, using both cross-sectional and prospective investigations. Participants are from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, a general population sample of children born in Quebec in 1997 through 1998 and followed up until 15 years of age. Information about victimization and serious suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in the past year was obtained at ages 13 and 15 years from self-reports (N = 1,168). Victims reported concurrently higher rates of suicidal ideation at age 13 years (11.6-14.7%) and suicide attempt at age 15 years (5.4-6.8%) compared to those who had not been victimized (2.7-4.1% for suicidal ideation and 1.6-1.9% for suicide attempt). Being victimized by peers at 13 years predicted suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] = 2.27; 95% CI = 1.25-4.12) and suicide attempt (OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.36-6.82) 2 years later, even after adjusting for baseline suicidality and mental health problems and a series of confounders (socioeconomic status, intelligence, family's functioning and structure, hostile-reactive parenting, maternal lifetime suicidal ideation/suicide attempt). Those who were victimized at both 13 and 15 years had the highest risk of suicidal ideation (OR = 5.41, 95% CI = 2.53-11.53) and suicide attempt (OR = 5.85, 95% CI = 2.12-16.18) at 15 years. Victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt over and above concurrent suicidality and prior mental health problems. The longer the history of victimization, the greater the risk. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Current suicide prevention strategies often include suicide education based on the premise that education can lead to recognition of those at risk of suicide and others who are prepared can respond and potentially save lives. As suicide is a leading cause of death for young people, it is relevant to explore how suicide education is made available…
Talib, Mansor Abu; Abdollahi, Abbas
Suicide is an important public health problem for adolescents, and it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the etiology of suicide among adolescent students. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the associations between hopelessness, depression, spirituality, and suicidal behavior, and to examine spirituality as a moderator between hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among 1376 Malaysian adolescent students. The participants completed measures of depression, hopelessness, daily spiritual experience, and suicidal behavior. Structural equation modeling indicated that adolescent students high in hopelessness and depression, but also high in spirituality, had less suicidal behavior than others. These findings reinforce the importance of spirituality as a protective factor against hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among Malaysian adolescent students.
Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz
The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and…
Portzky, Gwendolyn; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees
This study aimed at the investigation of psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors of adolescent suicide by means of a case-control psychological autopsy study. Relatives and other informants of 19 suicide victims and 19 matched psychiatric controls were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview schedule. Psychiatric controls included…
Kirkcaldy, Bruce; Richardson-Vejlgaard, Randall; Siefen, Georg
A sample of 2553 children and adolescents in a psychiatry clinic in Germany were assessed using a structured interview inventory that included history of self-injurious behaviour, suicidal intent and socially disruptive and threatening behaviour, and diverse socio-demographic variables (the basis documentation or 'Ba-Do'). Birth order was associated with both suicidal and self-injurious behaviour, middle children being most likely to exhibit such behaviour. Females were more than twice as likely to have self-injured than males. Comparisons of birth order groups within gender found no significant differences in suicidal behaviour between birth positions for males, however among females, middle children were much more likely to have attempted suicide. Conversely, there was no difference in self-injurious behaviour among birth positions in females, but among males, middle children were significantly more likely to have self-injured than firstborns, only children or lastborns. The number of siblings in the family was significantly correlated with both suicidal history (r = 0.12, p < 0.001) and self-injurious behaviour (r = 0.10, p < 0.001). The risk of suicidal behaviour was highest for those with four or more siblings.
Liang, Sugai; Yan, Jing; Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Cuizhen; Situ, Minging; Du, Na; Fu, Xueyin; Huang, Yi
Self-harm behaviors are predominant health risks among adolescents. This study aimed to elucidate the lifetime prevalence and differences in social psychological factors between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempt (SA) among Chinese adolescents. Data were collected from 2131 middle school students with a mean age of 13.92 (SD 1.63) years (49.1% girls). Participants were asked to self-report NSSI and SA over their lifetime. Post hoc tests pairwise comparisons and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate differences and similarities between subjects with NSSI and attempted suicide. The prevalence of lifetime NSSI and SA endorsed by the participants were 23.2% and 3.2%, respectively, and the co-occurrence of these two behaviors (NSSI+SA) was reported to 2.3%. Boys were comparable with girls in the prevalence rate of NSSI, but not in the rate of SA. It revealed that single-child was not the risk factor for self-harm behavior in Mainland China, but lower higher family cohesion and adaptability. Factors that distinguished the NSSI+SA group from the NSSI only group were female gender, lower grade, impulsivity, health risk behaviors and family cohesion. Being female gender, single-parent family, depressive symptoms and impulsivity were factors differentiating attempted suicide from NSSI. Our findings suggest that Chinese adolescents engaging both in NSSI and SA had severe suicidal attempts and were different from those who engaged in NSSI alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Baetens, I.; Claes, L.; Muehlenkamp, J.; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, P.
The present study investigated the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal self-injury (SSI) in a sample of 1,417 Flemish adolescents aged 12 to 18, as well as psychosocial differences between adolescents engaging in NSSI and adolescents engaging in SSI. Participants completed an
Saarinen, P I; Lehtonen, J; Lönnqvist, J
The aim of this study was to investigate interactional factors related to the recognition of suicide risk in patients with schizophrenia. The study focused on 17 schizophrenia patients who had committed suicide during the National Suicide Prevention Project in Finland between April 1, 1987, and March 31, 1988, in the province of Kuopio. Consensus case reports were assembled by using the psychological autopsy method. Study methods included structured and in-depth interviews of next of kin and interviews of health care or social services workers who had treated the suicide victims. Male and female patients with schizophrenia committed suicide in equal proportions. Most had suffered from schizophrenia for more than 15 years; all but one had been receiving psychiatric treatment at the time of suicide. Retrospective assessment indicated that 59 percent of the patients were clinically depressed at the time of suicide. In 76 percent of the cases, the mental health professionals involved in treatment had not believed that there was a risk of suicide during their last contact with the patient. In 29 percent of the cases, the patient's paranoid ideas concerning treatment personnel had increased. Patients' withdrawal from human relationships because of depression was related to loss of the treatment professionals' concern for the patients. The findings in this descriptive study suggest that withdrawal by a patient with schizophrenia and an increase in the patient's paranoid behavior should be regarded as signals of risk of suicide.
Ludi, Erica; Ballard, Elizabeth D.; Greenbaum, Rachel; Pao, Maryland; Bridge, Jeffrey; Reynolds, William; Horowitz, Lisa
Children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID), often diagnosed with co-morbid psychiatric disorders, are a vulnerable population who may be at risk for developing suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated that direct suicide screening can rapidly and effectively detect suicide risk and facilitate further clinical evaluation and management. Currently, there are no measures that screen for suicide risk designed specifically for individuals with ID. A review of the literature was conducted: 1) to estimate the prevalence of suicidal thoughts, behaviors and deaths by suicide in children and adolescents with ID; 2) to describe associations between youth with ID and suicide risk; 3) to identify the limitations of commonly used suicide screening measures developed for non-ID youth. The literature review confirms that suicide risk exists in this population; youth with ID think about, attempt and die by suicide. Standardized suicide risk screening is challenged by the lack of measures developed for this population. A summary of the findings is followed by a discussion of the practical clinical considerations surrounding the assessment of suicide risk in youth with ID. PMID:22668827
Ludi, Erica; Ballard, Elizabeth D; Greenbaum, Rachel; Pao, Maryland; Bridge, Jeffrey; Reynolds, William; Horowitz, Lisa
Children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (IDs), often diagnosed with comorbid psychiatric disorders, are a vulnerable population who may be at risk for developing suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated that direct suicide screening can rapidly and effectively detect suicide risk and facilitate further clinical evaluation and management. Currently, there are no measures that screen for suicide risk designed specifically for individuals with ID. A review of the literature was conducted to (1) estimate the prevalence of suicidal thoughts, behaviors, and deaths by suicide in children and adolescents with ID; (2) describe associations between youth with ID and suicide risk; and (3) identify the limitations of commonly used suicide screening measures developed for non-ID youth. The literature review confirms that suicide risk exists in this population; youth with ID think about, attempt, and die by suicide. Standardized suicide risk screening is challenged by the lack of measures developed for this population. A summary of the findings is followed by a discussion of the practical clinical considerations surrounding the assessment of suicide risk in youth with ID.
Peyre, Hugo; Hoertel, Nicolas; Stordeur, Coline; Lebeau, Gaële; Blanco, Carlos; McMahon, Kibby; Basmaci, Romain; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric; Delorme, Richard
To investigate whether risk factors for suicide attempts differ in children and adolescents and to categorize adulthood mental health outcomes of child and adolescent suicide attempters in the general population. Using a large (N = 34,653), nationally representative US adult sample, the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we examined whether individuals who first attempted suicide during childhood (under the age of 13 years) differ from those who first attempted suicide during adolescence (13 through 17 years) in (1) contributing factors for first suicide attempt, including mental disorders and traumatic experiences that occurred before the first suicide attempt, parental history of mental disorders, and family poverty and (2) adulthood mental health outcomes, including lifetime and current prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and quality of life measures. Suicide attempts during childhood (n = 104) were more strongly related to childhood maltreatment, while suicide attempts during adolescence (n = 415) were more strongly associated with major depressive episode. Compared to first suicide attempts during adolescence, first attempts during childhood were associated with increased risk for multiple suicide attempts (61.3% vs 32.6%), several psychiatric disorders (mania, hypomania, and panic disorder), and poorer social functioning during adulthood (all P values childhood maltreatment and early intervention for psychiatric disorders may have broad benefits to reduce not only the suffering of these children and adolescents, but also the burden of suicide. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav
Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide.
Kwaku Oppong Asante
Full Text Available Suicide is recognised as the third leading cause of death among adolescents globally. There is however limited data on the prevalence and factors associated with suicide particularly in Ghana. To explore the prevalence and risk and protective factors associated with suicide in Ghana, a nationwide Global School-based Student Health Survey data collected among senior high school adolescents in Ghana was used. The prevalence of suicidal behaviours was 18.2%, 22.5% and 22.2% for suicidal ideation, suicidal plan and suicidal attempt respectively. In the final analysis, anxiety increases the odds of suicidal behaviour, even after controlling for other variables. Loneliness increases the odds of suicidal behaviour but after adjusting for other factors the odds remained for only suicidal plan. Being bullied, physically attacked, involved in a physical fight and food insecurity remained risk factors for suicidal behaviour (i.e. ideation, plan and attempt after adjusting for other factors. Truancy was found as a risk factor for both suicidal ideation and plans but such effect diminished for suicidal plan after adjusting for other variables. Increasing number of close friends remained a risk factor for both suicidal plan and attempt but such effect diminished for suicidal ideation after adjusting for other variables. Parental understanding of adolescents’ problems and worries remained a significant protective factor for all the indices of suicidal behaviour after adjusting for other variables. Parental respect for privacy was protective of suicidal attempt but was not significant after adjusting for other variables. Early identification and intervention for at-risk adolescents in senior high schools, for example those experiencing different forms of physical abuse, drug and substance use and hunger can potentially reduce the prevalence of suicide among this population in Ghana.
Horowitz, Lisa M; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Pao, Maryland; Boudreaux, Edwin D
This paper focuses on the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force's Aspirational Goal 2 (screening for suicide risk) as it pertains specifically to children, adolescents, and young adults. Two assumptions are forwarded: (1) strategies for screening youth for suicide risk need to be tailored developmentally; and (2) we must use instruments that were created and tested specifically for suicide risk detection and developed specifically for youth. Recommendations for shifting the current paradigm include universal suicide screening for youth in medical settings with validated instruments. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Gijzen, M.W.M. (Mandy W.M.); Creemers, D.H.M. (Daan H.M.); Rasing, S.P.A. (Sanne P.A.); F. Smit (Filip); R.C.M.E. Engels (Rutger)
textabstractBackground: Since 2010, suicide has been the most important cause of mortality in youth aged 15 to 29 years in the Netherlands. Depression is an important risk factor for suicidal behaviors (i.e., suicide ideation, deliberate self-harm, planning, and suicide attempts) in adolescents.
Dori, Galit A.; Overholser, James C.
Depressed adolescents who had never attempted suicide were compared to depressed adolescents who had attempted suicide. Results showed suicidal adolescents experienced significantly greater depression and hopelessness than did nonsuicidal adolescents. However, suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents reported similar low levels of self esteem.…
Humensky, Jennifer L.; Gil, Rosa M.; Mazzula, Silvia; Diaz, Samantha; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto
Life is Precious (LIP) was developed to help reduce suicidal behavior in Latina adolescents. As part of an external evaluation of the LIP program, we conducted focus groups with adolescent participants and mothers to learn whether participants and families believe that the activities of LIP address risks for suicidal behavior. Four focus groups…
Serra, Giulia; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; De Chiara, Lavinia; Napoletano, Flavia; Koukopoulos, Alexia; Sani, Gabriele; Faedda, Gianni L; Girardi, Paolo; Reginaldi, Daniela; Baldessarini, Ross J
The objective of this study was to identify the predictive value of juvenile factors for adult suicidal behavior. We reviewed clinical records to compare factors identified in childhood and adolescence between adult suicidal versus nonsuicidal major affective disorder subjects. Suicide attempts occurred in 23.1% of subjects. Age-at-first-symptom was 14.2 vs. 20.2 years among suicidal versus nonsuicidal subjects (p suicidal versus non-suicidal subjects by multivariate analysis were: depressive symptoms, hyper-emotionality, younger-at-first-affective-episode, family suicide history, childhood mood-swings, and adolescence low self-esteem. Presence of one factor yielded a Bayesian sensitivity of 64%, specificity of 50%, and negative predictive power of 86%. Several juvenile factors were associated with adult suicidal behavior; their absence was strongly associated with a lack of adult suicidal behavior.
Introduction: Suicide is a major Public Health concern and self-esteem is given growing interest in our society.Objectives: To assess the correlation between self-esteem and suicidal intent, independently of depression, and to examine the relationship between the different dimensions of self-esteem (total, general, familial, professional and social). We also studied whether poor self-esteem was predictive of suicidal risk.Methods: Two studies were conducted among a Suicide Prevention Departme...
Brabant, Marie-Eve; Hebert, Martine; Chagnon, Francois
This study explored the clinical profiles of 77 female teenager survivors of sexual abuse and examined the association of abuse-related and personal variables with suicidal ideations. Analyses revealed that 64% of participants experienced suicidal ideations. Findings from classification and regression tree analysis indicated that depression,…
Karakoç Demirkaya S
Full Text Available Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya,1 Mustafa Deniz Tutkunkardaş,2 Nahit Motavalli Mukaddes3 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Adnan Menderes University School of Medicine, Aydin, 2Department of Child Psychiatry, Istanbul School of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, 3Istanbul Institute of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey Objectives: Considering that suicide is one of the most common reasons of adolescent death worldwide, there is a lack of clinical awareness on suicidal behaviors of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The present study aims to assess the rate of suicidality (suicidal ideation, behaviors and attempts and associated risk factors for suicidality in high functioning ASD.Methods: Medical records of 55 adolescents (six girls, 49 boys, aged between 7–20 years, with diagnosis of ASD were reviewed. The participants were all able to speak fluently and had no significant limitations in intellectual functioning. Clinical assessment of participants was carried out on the basis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition, Text Revision criteria and Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version. Eskin’s Suicide Screening Questionnaire and sociodemographic data form including detailed history of suicidal behaviors were used. The study group was also divided into suicidal and non-suicidal groups for the purpose of comparing the results.Results: The rate of suicidal behaviors was 29% and suicide attempt was 12.7%. Types of suicidality were behaviors (43.7%, thoughts (37.5%, and verbal declarations (18.7%. A number of bizarre acts were recorded. Rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders and disruptive behaviors were 23.6%, 43.6% and 65.4% respectively. Groups with the psychotic features, positive family history for suicidal behaviors and completed suicide showed more suicidality than
Full Text Available Suicide is the third cause of death at the age group 10–19 in the world. There are inter multiple risk factors of suicidal behaviours. In the case of children of alcoholics the increased number of suicide attempts is explained by genetic predisposition and accumulation of environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to check whether parental alcoholism is associated with the number and repetition of suicide attempts and the age at which the first suicide attempt occurred among hospitalized psychiatric adolescents. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis – based on medical documentation – of 119 patients aged 13–18, treated during 2013–2014 at the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry in Łódź for: schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders, mood disorders, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, behavioural and emotional disorders according to ICD-10. The exclusion criteria were other psychiatric diagnoses, incomplete family history and lack of information about intended self-harm behaviours. The patients were selected at random. The number and repetition of suicide attempts, the age at which the first suicide attempt occurred, parental alcoholism and family history of suicidal behaviours were examined. Analyses were carried out using Statistica 9.1. Results: Parental alcoholism did not statistically significantly affect (p > 0.05the prevalence or repetition of suicide attempts among psychiatrically treated adolescents. The first suicide attempts were not made by adolescents – also considering the gender, diagnosis, and familial suicidal behaviours. Conclusions: In almost half of the examined psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents at least one parent met the parental alcoholism criteria. Suicide attempts occurred in over 50% of the examined patients, with somewhat higher incidence in girls whose parents met the parental alcoholism criteria, as compared to those without parental alcoholism
Liu, X C; Chen, H; Liu, Z Z; Wang, J Y; Jia, C X
Suicidal behaviour is prevalent among adolescents and is a significant predictor of future suicide attempts (SAs) and suicide death. Data on the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of suicidal behaviour in Chinese adolescents are limited. This study was aimed to examine the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors of suicidal behaviour, including suicidal thought (ST), suicide plan (SP) and SA, in a large sample of Chinese adolescents. This report represents the first wave data of an ongoing longitudinal study, Shandong Adolescent Behavior and Health Cohort. Participants included 11 831 adolescent students from three counties of Shandong, China. The mean age of participants was 15.0 (s.d. = 1.5) and 51% were boys. In November-December 2015, participants completed a structured adolescent health questionnaire, including ST, SP and SA, characteristics of most recent SA, demographics, substance use, hopelessness, impulsivity and internalising and externalising behavioural problems. The lifetime and last-year prevalence rates were 17.6 and 10.7% for ST in males, 23.5 and 14.7% for ST in females, 8.9 and 2.9% for SP in males, 10.7 and 3.8% for SP in females, 3.4 and 1.3% for SA in males, and 4.6 and 1.8% for SA in females, respectively. The mean age of first SA was 12-13 years. Stabbing/cutting was the most common method to attempt suicide. Approximately 24% of male attempters and 16% of female attempters were medically treated. More than 70% of attempters had no preparatory action. Female gender, smoking, drinking, internalising and externalising problems, hopelessness, suicidal history of friends and acquaintances, poor family economic status and poor parental relationship were all significantly associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviour. Suicidal behaviour in Chinese adolescents is prevalent but less than that previously reported in Western peers. While females are more likely to attempt suicide, males are more likely to use lethal methods
Lahti, Anniina; Harju, Aleksi; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Räsänen, Pirkko
Despite the large amount of research on adolescent suicidality, there are few detailed studies illustrating the characteristics of child and adolescent completed suicide. Our study presents the characteristics of child and adolescent suicides occurring over a period of 25 years within a large geographical area in Northern Finland, with a special focus on gender differences. The study sample included all 58 suicides among children and adolescents (suicide victims were male. Violent suicide methods predominated in both genders (males 98%, females 83%). While symptoms of mental illness were common, only a minority (15% of males and 17% of females) had a previous history of psychiatric hospitalization. 17% of females but none of the males had been hospitalized previously due to self-poisoning. A greater proportion of females than males had a history of self-cutting (33% vs. 7%) and previous suicide attempts (25% vs. 4%). 48% of males and 58% of females were under the influence of alcohol at the time of their suicide, and alcohol intoxication was related to suicides during the night. One fifth of the adolescents screened positive for substances other than alcohol. The results of this study indicate that there are similarities but also some differences in the characteristics of male and female suicides in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The annual worldwide suicide rate currently averages approximately 13 per 100,000 individuals per year (0.013% per year, with higher average rates for men than for women in all but a few countries, very low rates in children, and relatively high rates in elderly men. Suicide rates vary markedly between countries, reflecting in part differences in case-identification and reporting procedures. Rates of attempted suicide in the general population average 20–30 times higher than rates of completed suicide, but are probably under-reported. Research on the relationship between pharmacotherapy and suicidal behavior was rare until a decade ago. Most ecological studies and large clinical studies have found that a general reduction in suicide rates is significantly correlated with higher rates of prescribing modern antidepressants. However, ecological, cohort and case-control studies and data from brief, randomized, controlled trials in patients with acute affective disorders have found increases, particularly in young patients and particularly for the risk of suicide attempts, as well as increases in suicidal ideation in young patients. whether antidepressants are associated with specific aspects of suicidality (e.g., higher rates of completed suicide, attempted suicide and suicidal ideation in younger patients with major affective disorders remains a highly controversial question. In light of this gap this paper analyzes research on the relationship between suicidality and antidepressant treatment.
Wilburn, Victor R.; Smith, Delores E.
The relationships among stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents were examined in a group of college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both stress and self-esteem were significantly related to suicidal ideation; low self-esteem and stressful life events significantly predicted suicidal ideation. The…
King, Cheryl A.; And Others
Identifies specific predictors of suicidal behavior in 100 adolescents during a 6-month follow-up period after psychiatric hospitalization. Eighteen percent reported suicidal behavior during the follow-up period, and this behavior was associated with suicidal thoughts, family dysfunction, and dysthymia. It was not associated with initial…
Lin, I-Hsuan; Ko, Chih-Hung; Chang, Yu-Ping; Liu, Tai-Ling; Wang, Peng-Wei; Lin, Huang-Chi; Huang, Mei-Feng; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Yen, Cheng-Fang
The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations of suicidal ideation and attempt with Internet addiction and Internet activities in a large representative Taiwanese adolescent population. 9510 adolescent students aged 12-18 years were selected using a stratified random sampling strategy in southern Taiwan and completed the questionnaires. The five questions from the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia were used to inquire as to the participants' suicidal ideation and attempt in the past one month. The Chen Internet Addiction Scale was used to assess participants' Internet addiction. The kinds of Internet activities that the adolescents participated in were also recorded. The associations of suicidal ideation and attempt with Internet addiction and Internet activities were examined using logistic regression analysis to control for the effects of demographic characteristics, depression, family support and self-esteem. After controlling for the effects of demographic characteristics, depression, family support and self-esteem, Internet addiction was significantly associated with suicidal ideation and suicidal attempt. Online gaming, MSN, online searching for information, and online studying were associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation. While online gaming, chatting, watching movies, shopping, and gambling were associated with an increased risk of suicidal attempt, watching online news was associated with a reduced risk of suicidal attempt. The results of this study indicated that adolescents with Internet addiction have higher risks of suicidal ideation and attempt than those without. Meanwhile, different kinds of Internet activities have various associations with the risks of suicidal ideation and attempt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brausch, Amy M; Decker, Kristina M
The current study investigated risk factors for suicidal ideation in a community sample of 392 adolescents (males 51.9 %; females 48.1 %), while also evaluating self-esteem, perceived parent support, and perceived peer support as protective factors and potential moderators between suicidal ideation and the 3 risk factors. Disordered eating, depression, parent support, and peer support were found to be significant predictors of current suicidal ideation, but body satisfaction was not. The relationship between depression and suicidal ideation was significantly moderated by both self-esteem and parent support, while the relationship between disordered eating and suicidal ideation was significantly moderated by peer support. Results underscore the importance of examining protective factors for suicide risk, as they have the potential to reduce suicidal ideation in adolescents.
Alavi, Nazanin; Roberts, Nasreen; Sutton, Chloe; Axas, Nicholas; Repetti, Leanne
To examine the prevalence of bullying victimization among adolescents referred for urgent psychiatric consultation, to study the association between bullying victimization and suicidality, and to examine the relation between different types of bullying and suicidality. A retrospective chart review was conducted for all adolescents referred to a hospital-based urgent consultation clinic. Our study sample consisted of adolescents with a history of bullying victimization. The Research Ethics Board of Queen's University provided approval. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS (IBM SPSS Inc, Armonk, NY). Chi-square tests were used for sex, suicidal ideation, history of physical and sexual abuse, and time and type of bullying, and an independent sample t test was used for age. The prevalence of bullying victimization was 48.5% (182 of 375). There was a significant association between being bullied and suicidal ideation (P = 0.01), and between sex and suicidal ideation (P ≤ 0.001). Victims of cyberbullying reported more suicidal ideation than those who experienced physical or verbal bullying (P = 0.04). Bullying victimization, especially cyberbullying, is associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation among adolescents referred for psychiatric risk assessment. The detailed history of the type and duration of bullying experienced by the victims should be considered when conducting a psychiatric risk assessment.
Klein, Dena A; Miller, Alec L
Although research to date on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for adolescents has its limitations, growing evidence suggests that DBT is a promising treatment for adolescents with a range of problematic behaviors, including but not limited to suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injury. This article introduces dialectical behavior therapy's theoretical underpinnings, describes its adaptation for suicidal adolescents, and provides a brief review of the empirical literature evaluating DBT with adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chin, Young Ran; Choi, Kyungwon
Using data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, this study seeks to investigate associations of suicide attempts with family, individual, and behavioral factors on the basis of gender. Among male adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, who had poor subjective academic achievement, depression, experiences of smoking and sexual coitus, drug abuse, suicidal ideation and plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Among the female adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, had depression, low self-rated health, experiences of drug abuse and sexual coitus, and expressed unhappiness, suicidal ideation and suicide plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Thus, the development of a suicide prevention program for Korean adolescents requires different approaches for males and females.
Radeloff, Daniel; Lempp, Thomas; Albowitz, Marius; Oddo, Silvia; Toennes, Stefan W; Schmidt, Peter H; Freitag, Christine M; Kettner, Mattias
Updated and regional data about the circumstances of death and the psychosocial backgrounds of suicides can be helpful for improving suicide-preventive strategies in childhood and adolescence. All known cases of completed suicide in the period from 1996 to 2008 in persons ≤ 21 years of age from the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Frankfurt/Main were analysed in a retrospective study. We included 78 cases and matched them with a comparative sample of 1,797 adult suicides of persons > 21 years of age. Within the chosen period there was a 44 % decrease in incidence of suicide in the group of ≤ 21-year-olds. The fraction of incarcerated persons in this group was 8.0 % compared to 2.56 % in the adult group. Differences from suicide in adulthood were also demonstrated in terms of suicide-related substance abuse (less detection of alcohol, more frequent detection of illicit drugs) and choice of methods (more deaths by being hit by a train). Incarcerated adolescents are an important risk group for suicidal tendency and need increased, well-directed preventive measures. Clinical adolescent psychiatry should pay special attention to the indications in this study of an age-dependent association of drug use in suicide.
Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann
This study of 2,722 adolescents aged 14-18 years explored whether parental involvement can protect against adolescent suicide attempts. Compared to their counterparts suicide attempters were more likely to have been in trouble with the police, to report lower levels of parental interest and academic motivation, and to report suicidal ideation and using alcohol or an illegal drug when they feel stressed. They were also less likely to reside with both parents. The association between parental involvement and suicidal behaviour was not stronger for sons than for daughters or for adolescents who had experienced family disruption than for those who grew up in two-parent families.
Flamarique, I.; Santosh, P.; Zuddas, A.; Arango, C.; Purper-Ouakil, D.; Hoekstra, P. J.; Coghill, D.; Schulze, U.; Dittmann, R. W.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Lievesley, K.; Frongia, R.; Llorente, C.; Mendez, I.; Sala, R.; Fiori, F.; Castro-Fornieles, J.
Background: To create a self-reported, internet-based questionnaire for the assessment of suicide risk in children and adolescents. Methods: As part of the EU project `Suicidality: Treatment Occurring in Paediatrics' (STOP project), we developed web-based Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs)
Flamarique, I.; Santosh, P.; Zuddas, A.; Arango, C.; Purper-Ouakil, D.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Coghill, D.; Schulze, U.; Dittmann, R.W.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Lievesley, K.; Frongia, R.; Llorente, C.; Mendez, I.; Sala, R.; Fiori, F.; Castro-Fornieles, J.
BACKGROUND: To create a self-reported, internet-based questionnaire for the assessment of suicide risk in children and adolescents. METHODS: As part of the EU project 'Suicidality: Treatment Occurring in Paediatrics' (STOP project), we developed web-based Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs)
Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xian; Li, Nini; Ye, Baojuan
In a sample of 1252 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.00 years), this study examined the direct relations between gratitude and adolescents' suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. This study also examined indirect relations between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts via two self-system beliefs--coping efficacy and self-esteem. Finally, this study examined the extent to which stressful life events moderated the direct and indirect relations between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The odds of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were lower among adolescents who scored higher on gratitude, after controlling for demographic variables. Self-esteem mediated the relations between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, while the mediating role of coping efficacy was not significant. Moreover, stressful life events moderated the mediated path through self-esteem. This indirect effect was stronger for adolescents low on stressful life events than that for those high on stressful life events. This study discusses the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tørmoen, Anita J; Rossow, Ingeborg; Mork, Erlend; Mehlum, Lars
Studies have shown that adolescents with a history of both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm report more mental health problems and other psychosocial problems than adolescents who report only one or none of these types of self-harm. The current study aimed to examine the use of child and adolescent psychiatric services by adolescents with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm, compared to other adolescents, and to assess the psychosocial variables that characterize adolescents with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm who report contact. Data on lifetime self-harm, contact with child and adolescent psychiatric services, and various psychosocial risk factors were collected in a cross-sectional sample (response rate = 92.7%) of 11,440 adolescents aged 14-17 years who participated in a school survey in Oslo, Norway. Adolescents who reported any self-harm were more likely than other adolescents to have used child and adolescent psychiatric services, with a particularly elevated likelihood among those with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm (OR = 9.3). This finding remained significant even when controlling for psychosocial variables. In adolescents with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm, symptoms of depression, eating problems, and the use of illicit drugs were associated with a higher likelihood of contact with child and adolescent psychiatric services, whereas a non-Western immigrant background was associated with a lower likelihood. In this study, adolescents who reported self-harm were significantly more likely than other adolescents to have used child and adolescent psychiatric services, and adolescents who reported a history of both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more likely to have used such services, even after controlling for other psychosocial risk factors. In this high-risk subsample, various psychosocial problems increased the probability of contact with child and
Cooper, Gregory D.; Clements, Paul Thomas; Holt, Karyn E.
Adolescent suicide is a preventable tragedy yet is still the third leading cause of death in young people of age 10-24. Contrary to the idea that childhood bullying is a normal part of growing up or a rite of passage, it is now correlated with adolescent suicidality. An integrative review of the contemporary, extant literature was conducted to…
This article highlights findings of a study on the suicides of three academically talented male adolescents. Results of the psychological autopsies are reported in terms of commonalities with adolescent suicide in the general population; commonalities among the three cases related to their giftedness; and themes emerging across the cases,…
Results: The results of t-test and chi-square analyses indicated that adolescents who reported suicidal ideation or behaviour in the previous year experienced lower levels of connection and regulation and higher levels of conflict and psychological control in the parent-child relationship than non-suicidal adolescents. Family ...
Full Text Available There has been a drastic increase in the rate of suicides over the past 45 years in Malaysia. The statistics show that adolescents aged between 16 and 19 years old are at high risk of committing suicide. This could be attributed to issues relating to the developmental stage of adolescents. During this stage, adolescents face challenges and are exposed to various stressful experiences and risk factors relating to suicide.The present study examined psychological factors (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress as predictors for suicidal ideation among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 190 students (103 males and 87 females, aged 15 to 19 years old from two different schools in Kuala Lumpur. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21-item version (DASS-21 was used to measure depression, anxiety and stress among the students, and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS to measure suicidal ideation. The data were analysed using Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis.The results show that 11.10%, 10.00%, and 9.50% of the students reported that they were experiencing severe depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. There were significant correlations between depression, anxiety, and stress with suicidal ideation. However, only depression was identified as a predictor for suicidal ideation.Hence, this study extends the role of depression in predicting suicidal ideation among adolescents in the Malaysian context. The findings imply that teenagers should be assisted in strengthening their positive coping strategies in managing distress to reduce depression and suicidal ideation.
O. V. Vihristyuk
Full Text Available The article provides an overview of international sources that attempt to identify the effect of mass media information messages concerning suicide on the public. We concern the possibility of imitative suicides after media coverage of suicide incidents (“Werter syndrome”, providing data on suicides increase following media reports on this topic. We discuss the data obtained by surveys conducted among Internet users of pro-suicidal web sites. On the example of recent international research, we note that despite the contradicting research results, the mass media impact on suicidal adolescents and young adults is possible, especially among young people most affected by external influences. The analysis of causes, motives and methods of suicide among adolescents and young people, as described by media, showed that among the causes dominate family and peers conflicts, among the motives – “protest"”, “revenge” (48% and “call” (16.6%. Pre-suicidal period in 75% of patients was characterized as affective and stressful. The article emphasizes that simplification of media reports and their focusing on one of the suicide risk factors (family, school, or Internet cannot see the whole picture of suicidal behavior as a set of internal and external factors and their interaction.
Martin, Graham; Richardson, Angela S; Bergen, Helen A; Roeger, Leigh; Allison, Stephen
There is currently a need for research into indicators that could be used by non-clinical professionals working with young people, to inform the need for referral for further clinical assessment of those at risk of suicide. Participants of this repeated measures longitudinal study, were 2603, 2485, and 2246 school students aged 13, 14, and 15, respectively, from 27 South Australian Schools. Perceived academic performance, self-esteem and locus of control are significantly associated with suicidality. Further, logistic regression of longitudinal results suggests that perceived academic performance, over and above self-esteem and locus of control, in some instances, is a good long-term predictor of suicidality.
Fordwood, Samantha R.; Asarnow, Joan R.; Huizar, Diana P.; Reise, Steven P.
Although depression is strongly associated with suicide attempts and suicide deaths, most depressed youth do not make an attempt, indicating the need to identify additional risk factors. We examined suicide attempts among 451 depressed primary care patients, 13 to 21 years of age. In bivariate analyses, youth classified as suicide attempters…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze how family systems influence adolescents' suicidal ideation. The participants were 534 adolescents (51.1% female and 48.9% male, with ages ranging from 14 to 18 years (M=16.18; SD=1.14. The instruments used were the following: Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale, Psychological Separation Inventory and Questionnaire of Suicidal Ideation. Results have shown that adolescents with higher suicidal ideation belong to the so-called unbalanced families (with low cohesion and flexibility and have a conflictual dependence to their parents. On the other hand, adolescents that belong to balanced families revealed lower suicidal ideation. In conclusion, the family's cohesion and flexibility are protective factors against adolescents' suicidal ideation.
Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won
Suicide attempts in kleptomania have received little investigation. This study examined rates, correlates, and predictors of suicide attempts in kleptomania. A total of 107 adolescent and adult subjects (n = 32 [29.9%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed with standard measures of symptom...... severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment. Subjects had high rates of suicide attempts (24.3%). The suicide attempt in 92.3% of those who attempted suicide was attributed specifically to kleptomania. Suicide attempts were associated with current and life-time bipolar disorder (p = .047......) and lifetime personality disorder (p = .049). Individuals with kleptomania have high rates of suicide attempts. Bipolar disorder is associated with suicide attempts in individuals with kleptomania and underscores the importance of carefully assessing and monitoring suicidality in patients with kleptomania....
Odlaug, Brian L; Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won
Suicide attempts in kleptomania have received little investigation. This study examined rates, correlates, and predictors of suicide attempts in kleptomania. A total of 107 adolescent and adult subjects (n = 32 [29.9%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed with standard measures of symptom severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment. Subjects had high rates of suicide attempts (24.3%). The suicide attempt in 92.3% of those who attempted suicide was attributed specifically to kleptomania. Suicide attempts were associated with current and life-time bipolar disorder (p = .047) and lifetime personality disorder (p = .049). Individuals with kleptomania have high rates of suicide attempts. Bipolar disorder is associated with suicide attempts in individuals with kleptomania and underscores the importance of carefully assessing and monitoring suicidality in patients with kleptomania.
Ferrara, Pietro; Ianniello, Francesca; Cutrona, Costanza; Quintarelli, Fabio; Vena, Flaminia; Del Volgo, Valentina; Caporale, Olga; Malamisura, Monica; De Angelis, Maria Chiara; Gatto, Antonio; Chiaretti, Antonio; Riccardi, Riccardo
Suicidal behaviors are among the leading causes of death worldwide. The large spread of suicide suggests that educational programs and literature to parents or guardians should include information about the potential risks and potential consequences of the onset of the idea of suicide in children. We identified 55 cases of suicide among children and young adults Italy between 1st January, 2011 and 31st December, 2013. The results point to the need to increase our understanding of the dramatic rise in suicidal behaviors during childhood/adolescence and of the causal pathways linking these behaviors to child-adolescent mental disorders. During routine care visits, pediatricians should be skilled to recognize risk factors for adolescent suicide in order to intervene appropriately.
Sharmin Salam, Shumona; Alonge, Olakunle; Islam, Md Irteja; Hoque, Dewan Md Emdadul; Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Ul Baset, Md Kamran; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; El Arifeen, Shams
The aim of the paper is to quantify the burden and risk factors of fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviors in rural Bangladesh. A census was carried out in seven sub-districts encompassing 1.16 million people. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at the household level. Descriptive analyses were done to quantify the burden and Poisson regression was run to determine on risk factors. The estimated rates of fatal and non-fatal suicide were 3.29 and 9.86 per 100,000 person years (PY) observed, respectively. The risk of suicide was significantly higher by 6.31 times among 15-17 and 4.04 times among 18-24 olds compared to 25-64 years old. Married adolescents were 22 times more likely to commit suicide compared to never-married people. Compared to Chandpur/Comilla district, the risk of suicide was significantly higher in Narshingdi. Students had significantly lower risk of non-fatal suicidal behavior compared to skilled laborers. The risk of non-fatal suicidal behavior was lower in Sherpur compared to Chandpur/Comilla. Among adolescents, unskilled laborers were 16 times more likely to attempt suicide than students. The common methods for fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviors were hanging and poisoning. Suicide is a major public health problem in Bangladesh that needs to be addressed with targeted interventions.
Suicide has been considered a large public health concern in recent years because suicide mortality has been increasing rapidly. This study was done to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of a suicide attempt among adolescents in South Korea. The data of the 2006 Youth Health Risk Behavior web-based Survey collected by the Korean Center for Disease Control was analyzed using logistic regression for this study. The prevalence of a suicide attempt was 5.2% in South Korea. The risk factors of a suicide attempt were suicidal ideation (odds 31.83), depression (odds 7.98), drug use (odds 4.67), currently smoking (odds 3.19), feeling unhappiness (odds 2.77), stress (odds 2.60), currently drinking alcohol (odds 2.39), sexual activity (odds 2.33), living with neither parent (odds 2.24), initial alcohol drinking by age 9 (odds 1.80), health status (odds 2.15), skipped breakfast (odds 1.75), disease (odds 1.65), and school records (odds 1.22). Suicide screening and prevention programs should be developed, considering these risk factors. Suicide prevention programs should be applied to the at risk population prior to a suicide attempt.
Wild, Lauren G; Flisher, Alan J; Lombard, Carl
This study aimed to disentangle the influence of depression and self-esteem on suicidal behaviour in adolescence. Grades 8 and 11 students in Cape Town, South Africa (n = 939) completed questionnaires assessing suicidal ideation and behaviour, depression, and self-esteem with respect to family, peers, school, sports/athletics, body image and global self-worth. Data were analysed using a series of multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for gender, grade, race and the sampling strategy. Results indicated that depression and low self-esteem in the family context were independently associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Moreover, low family self-esteem significantly differentiated suicide attempters from ideators. Screening for depression and low self-esteem in the family context is discussed as a possible strategy for helping to identify adolescents at risk for suicide attempts.
-neglectful mother’s parenting style, but rare family time together and rare electronic media communication with parents were inversely associated with suicidal behaviour. The boys, 15-year-olds and adolescents who indicated often activities together with their families were more likely than their counterparts to report suicide attempts treated by a doctor or nurse. Conclusion The young people of Lithuania are at particular risk for suicides. A non-intact family structure and weak family functioning are significant predictors of suicidal ideation and attempts among adolescents of Lithuania. It is essential to consider family life practices in planning intervention programs for prevention of suicides among adolescents.
Chung, Ming-Shun; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Sun, Wen-Jung; Lin, Chieh-Nan; Kuo, Chien-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Che; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Cheng, Hui-Ping; Chou, Pesus
The aim of this study is to investigate the association among depressive disorder, adjustment disorder, sleep disturbance, and suicidal ideation in Taiwanese adolescent. We recruited 607 students (grades 5-9) to fill out the investigation of basic data and sleep disturbance. Psychiatrists then used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Kid to interview these students to assess their suicidal ideation and psychiatric diagnosis. Multiple logistic regression with forward conditionals was used to find the risk factors for multivariate analysis. Female, age, depressive disorder, adjustment disorder, and poor sleep all contributed to adolescent suicidal ideation in univariate analysis. However, poor sleep became non-significant under the control of depressive disorder and adjustment disorder. We found that both depressive disorder and adjustment disorder play important roles in sleep and adolescent suicidal ideation. After controlling both depressive disorder and adjustment disorder, sleep disturbance was no longer a risk of adolescent suicidal ideation. We also confirm the indirect influence of sleep on suicidal ideation in adolescent. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Inchausti, Félix; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Laura; Aritio Solana, Rebeca; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Sánchez-García, M ª Ángeles; Lucas-Molina, Beatriz; Domínguez, César; Foncea, David; Espinosa, Virginia; Gorría, Ana; Urbiola-Merina, Elena; Fernández, Marta; Merina Díaz, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Carmen; Aures, Marta; Campos, María S; Domínguez-Garrido, Elena; Pérez de Albéniz Iturriaga, Alicia
Suicide is a current public health problem and among the main causes of mortality in adolescents and young adults. The main goal of this study was to analyse suicidal ideation in a representative sample of Spanish adolescents. Specifically, the prevalence rates of suicide ideation, the psychometric properties of the Paykel Suicide Scale (PSS) scores, and the socio-emotional adjustment of adolescents at risk for suicide were analysed. The sample consisted of 1,664 participants (M=16.12 years, SD=1.36, range 14-19 years), selected by stratified sampling by clusters. The instruments used were the PSS, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Personal Wellbeing Index-School Children, and the Oviedo Infrequency Scale. The results showed that 4.1% of the sample indicated that they had tried to commit suicide in the previous year. Statistically significant differences were found according to gender but not according to age in the PSS mean scores. The analysis of the internal structure of the PSS showed that the one-dimensional model presented excellent goodness of fit indexes. This model showed measurement invariance across gender. The reliability of the scores, estimated with ordinal alpha, was 0.93. Participants who reported suicide ideation showed poorer mental health status and lower life satisfaction compared to the non-suicide ideation group. Suicidal ideation is present during adolescence and is associated with poor subjective well-being and increased emotional and behavioural problems. PSS seems to show adequate psychometric behaviour to assess suicidal ideation in adolescents. These findings have clear implications, both in health and education systems, to improve the promotion of emotional well-being and prevention of psychological and psychiatric problems in this sector of the population. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Madhav P Bhatta
Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of multiple adverse life experiences (sexual abuse, homelessness, running away, and substance abuse in the family on suicide ideation and suicide attempt among adolescents at an urban juvenile detention facility in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample included a total of 3,156 adolescents processed at a juvenile detention facility in an urban area in Ohio between 2003 and 2007. The participants, interacting anonymously with a voice enabled computer, self-administered a questionnaire with 100 items related to health risk behaviors. RESULTS: Overall 19.0% reported ever having thought about suicide (suicide ideation and 11.9% reported ever having attempted suicide (suicide attempt. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis those reporting sexual abuse (Odds Ratio = 2.75; 95% confidence interval = 2.08-3.63 and homelessness (1.51; 1.17-1.94 were associated with increased odds of suicide ideation, while sexual abuse (3.01; 2.22-4.08, homelessness (1.49; 1.12-1.98, and running away from home (1.38; 1.06-1.81 were associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt. Those experiencing all four adverse events were 7.81 times more likely (2.41-25.37 to report having ever attempted suicide than those who experienced none of the adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the high prevalence of adverse life experiences and their association with suicidal behaviors in detained adolescents, these factors should not only be included in the suicide screening tools at the intake and during detention, but should also be used for the intervention programming for suicide prevention.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to better understand the phenomenon of suicidal behavior of adolescents by establishing relations between characteristics of a family system and suicidal ideation, as well as determining the influence of family and individual factors on suicidal ideation in adolescents. The systemic family therapy was used as the theoretical framework for this investigation. The study sample included 96 adolescents, aged 14-21 years, who assessed the functionality of their own families that were in the adolescent phase of a family life cycle at the time of the study. Participants were assigned to one of the three groups: the first consisted of adolescents who had previously attempted suicide, the second of adolescents who had another psychiatric problem at the time of the study, and the third was made up of adolescents who had never had psychiatric or psychological problems. The following instruments were used: Self-report Family Inventory (SFI, Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI, Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale, and Beck’s Suicidal Ideation Scale (SIS. The results suggest that family has a significant, but indirect influence on suicidal ideation in adolescents. Suicidal ideation is primarily related to adolescents’ individual characteristics, which are indeed strongly influenced by family functionality.
Juan, Wang; Jian-Xiong, Deng; Lan, Guo; Yuan, He; Xue, Gao; Jing-Hui, Huang; Guo-Liang, Huang; Ci-Yong, Lu
To investigate the prevalence of non-medical use of psychoactive prescription drug (NMUPD) among adolescents and to explore the associations between non-medical psychoactive prescription drug use and depressive symptoms, poor sleep quality, deliberate self-harm, and suicide. A two-stage stratified cluster sample design produced a representative sample of 12-19-year-old students in grades 1-6 who attended public middle schools in Guangdong province. Prevalence estimates (SE) of non-medical psychoactive prescription drug use were calculated, and logistic regression was used to examine its association with depressive symptoms, poor sleep quality, deliberate self-harm, and suicide. Overall, 7.5% of adolescents reported non-medical use of opioids, and 4.8% of adolescents reported non-medical use of sedatives. Lifetime, last-year, and last-month non-medical use of opioids and sedatives were positively associated with depressive symptoms, poor sleep quality, deliberate self-harm, suicidal ideation, and suicidal attempts among different gender and age-group adolescents. Those who reported last month non-medical use of opioids and sedatives had the greatest odds of reporting depressive symptoms, poor sleep quality, deliberate self-harm, suicidal ideation, and suicidal attempts. Males who were last month non-medical users of opioids or sedative had 8.9 or 10.7 times greater odds of reporting a suicidal attempt, and 8.8 or 9.8 times greater odds of reporting a suicidal attempt were observed among adolescents aged 16-19 who were last-month non-medical users of opioids or sedatives. These findings provide evidence for improving adolescents' suicide prevention strategy by targeting supervision on high risk current non-medical users of psychoactive drug. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alba Cortés Alfaro
Full Text Available Introducción: las tentativas de suicidio se han incrementado considerablemente antes de los 20 años en las últimas décadas. Objetivos: identificar los factores de riesgo asociados con los intentos suicidas en adolescentes de 10 a 19 años. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico (casos controles pareados de los adolescentes que tuvieron intento de suicidio en la provincia de Cienfuegos durante el segundo semestre de 2007. Se calcularon porcentajes y medias aritméticas, para identificar asociación se utilizó la prueba chi cuadrado de Mantel y Haenszel y cálculo de odds ratio, sus intervalos de confianza y significación para a= 0,05. Resultados: se identificó asociación con el intento de suicidio de las variables siguientes: deseos de hacerse daño, elaboración de planes anteriores para cometer dicho acto, presencia de desesperanza, maltrato físico, disputa, desconfianza y malas relaciones con los padres, antecedentes familiares de suicidio y enfermedad psiquiátrica, sentirse atormentado, y problemas con la pareja, entre otros. Se encontró que un 9,0 % de los adolescentes estudiados manifestaron no arrepentimiento o sin crítica de lo ocurrido. Conclusiones: existieron factores personales y familiares asociados con los intentos de suicidio, así como un alto porcentaje de adolescentes que intentaron suicidarse con crítica o arrepentimiento de lo ocurrido.Introduction: suicide attempts have increased before the twenties in past decades. Objectives: to identify the risk factors associated with the suicide attempts in adolescents aged 10-19. Methods: an analytical study (matched case-controls was conducted in adolescents with a suicide attempt in the Cienfuegos province during the second semester of 2007. The percentages and arithmetic means were estimated to identify the association we used the Mantel-Haenszel Chi2 test and the odds-ratio calculus, its confidence and signification interval (IC for a= 0,05. Results: the
Kocić Sanja S.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. World Health Organization (WHO in its plan for health policy until the year 2010, has taken reduction of risk factors of suicide as its 12th aim. Because of the fact that the problem of suicide is also significant health problem in our society, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of life period as a risk factor for suicide in the area of the town of Kragujevac. Methods. In total 211 persons, both sexes, aged between 17 and 91 years, from the area of the town of Kragujevac, who had been committed a suicide during the period from 1996 to 2005, were included in a retrospective study. This study included the analysis of: conditions prior to suicide, locations of suicide, motives for suicide, the ways of committing suicide. For statistical analysis χ2 test and univariante regression model were used. Results. Average rate of suicide, in analyzed period, moved from 8.7 to 27 with a mean value of 14.6± 6.9. Suicide rates were the lowest in the age group from 15 to 24 years and the highest in the age group above 65 years (p < 0.05. Among the presuicidal conditions, within any age groups the presence of mental disease dominated as a factor for suicide, but within the oldest one in which organic diseases prevailed as a factor for suicide (p < 0.05. Statistically significant fact is that a house (flat was the main location for committing suicide in any age groups. Motives for suicide were significantly different within the groups and they were mostly unknown. Committing suicide by hanging was the most frequent way of suicide among any age groups. Univariant regression analysis failed to show any impact of age on the analyzed factors. Conclusion. Because of the fact that an average rate of suicide in elderly increases it is obligatory to primarily determine risk factors for suicide among people more than 65 years of age. Physicians should play the most important role in that.
Full Text Available Objective: Suicide is defined as finishing life delibrately upon conditions that be done by individual’s own desire and own hand. Suicide is a major problem in social health and hygiene and it’s rate is now increasing among individuals at 15-24 age range. This study has preformed to detect risk factors and major fundamental agent been used in suicide. Materials & Methods: This is a descriptive cross – sectional study. Statistical unit in this present study, obtained from individuals that committed suicide and hospitalized in Fatemi and Booali hospitals of Ardebil. Sample quantity was 218 cases whom have been from both two sex and from all ages. Clinical interview has derived from patients and their first-degree relatives and appropriate tests of MMPI were done. The results have been analysed with descriptive statistics of SPSS soft ware. Results: In this study the most cases of committing suicide were within 15-25 age span, with the following group profiles. Female (61%, married individuals (53.22%, educated individuals with high school and diploma (35.78%, and moderate socio – ecnomic status (57.34. Sixty one point forty seven (61.47% of these individuals were afflicted by psychological disorders white 58.72 precent were afflicted with personality disorders. The most used method for suicide was taking drugs and toxins (90.83%. Family problem with spouse has been founded as most common cause of suicide. Conclusion: This study is revealing that the prevalence of different risk factors, with play a role in commiting suicide, are as follow Moderate socio-economic condition, low education, end of adolescence and beginning of youth, female sex, being married, family problems especially among new married couple, psychiatric and personality disorders and finally an easy access to drugs and toxins. As considering their psychological profile, they had suspicion, pessimism, motive misinterpretation, high occupation of mind and a desire to
Holder-Nevins, D; James, K; Bridgelal-Nagassar, R; Bailey, A; Thompson, E; Eldemire, H; Sewell, C; Abel, W D
Suicide is increasingly acknowledged as a global problem. Yet little is known worldwide about suicide rates among adolescents. Several social factors that exist in Jamaica present as stressors and may predispose to suicide. Ascertaining prevailing patterns and associated factors is important for crafting interventions. This paper establishes adolescent suicide rates for the years 2007-2010 in Jamaica and provides related epidemiological data. Data pertaining to suicides were extracted from standardized data collected by the police. Information regarding the number of suicides among adolescents, 9-19 years of age, was reviewed for the years 2007-2010. Sociodemographic characteristics of cases: gender, location and occupation along with related variables were also examined. Variation of rates over time was ascertained. Statistically significant associations were determined by reference to p-values and confidence intervals. The incidence for suicide in adolescents was 1.1 per 100 000. Rates for males were significantly higher than females. Most suicide cases were students and the majority of cases was from rural areas (65%). Hanging was the main method used to commit suicide (96.2%). Items of clothing were commonly used for this purpose. Male adolescent suicide rates showed an upward trend in contrast to the downward trend for females in the four-year period studied. Continued surveillance is needed for greater understanding of adolescent suicides. Collaboration among health services, parents, schools and communities is integral in prevention efforts. Recent media coverage of suicides provides a window of opportunity to galvanize support for research and the development of intervention strategies.
Dougherty, Donald M; Mathias, Charles W; Marsh-Richard, Dawn M; Prevette, Kristen N; Dawes, Michael A; Hatzis, Erin S; Palmes, Guy; Nouvion, Sylvain O
This study examined clinical characteristics and laboratory-measured impulsive behavior of adolescents engaging in either non-suicidal self-injury with (NSSI+SA; n=25) or without (NSSI-Only; n=31) suicide attempts. We hypothesized that adolescent with NSSI+SI would exhibit more severe clinical symptoms and higher levels of behavioral impulsivity compared to adolescents with NSSI-Only. Adolescents were recruited from an inpatient psychiatric hospital unit and the two groups were compared on demographic characteristics, psychopathology, self-reported clinical ratings, methods of non-suicidal self-injury, and two laboratory impulsivity measures. Primary evaluations were conducted during psychiatric hospitalization, and a subset of those tested during hospitalization was retested 4-6 weeks after discharge. During hospitalization, NSSI+SA patients reported worse depression, hopelessness, and impulsivity on standard clinical measures, and demonstrated elevated impulsivity on a reward-directed laboratory measure compared to NSSI-Only patients. In the follow-up analyses, depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and laboratory impulsivity were improved for both groups, but the NSSI+SA group still exhibited significantly more depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and impulsivity than the NSSI-Only group. Risk assessments for adolescents with NSSI+SA should include consideration not only of the severity of clinical symptoms but of the current level impulsivity as well.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that patients suffering from depression or schizophrenia often have immunological alterations that can be detected in the blood. Others reported a possible link between inflammation, a microgliosis and the blood-brain barrier (BBB in suicidal patients. Serum S100B is a marker of BBB function commonly used to study cerebrovascular wall function. METHODS: We measured levels of S100B in serum of 40 adolescents with acute psychosis, 24 adolescents with mood disorders and 20 healthy controls. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM-IV TR criteria. We evaluated suicidal ideation using the suicidality subscale of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale for Children (BPRS-C. RESULTS: Serum S100B levels were significantly higher (p<0.05 and correlated to severity of suicidal ideation in patients with psychosis or mood disorders, independent of psychiatric diagnosis. Patients with a BPRS-C suicidality subscores of 1-4 (low suicidality had mean serum S100B values +/- SEM of 0.152+/-0.020 ng/mL (n = 34 compared to those with BPRS-C suicidality subscores of 5-7 (high suicidality with a mean of 0.354+/-0.044 ng/mL (n = 30. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Our data support the use of S100B as an adjunctive biomarker to assess suicidal risk in patients with mood disorders or schizophrenia.
Ramey, Heather L.; Busseri, Michael A.; Khanna, Nishad; Rose-Krasnor, Linda
Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents in many industrialized countries. We report evidence from a mediation model linking greater youth activity engagement, spanning behavioral and psychological components, with lower suicide risk through five hypothesized intrapersonal and interpersonal mediating factors. Self-report survey data…
May, Alexis; Klonsky, E. David
The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is used by the United States Centers for Disease Control to estimate rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in adolescents. This study investigated the validity of the YRBS suicidality items by examining their relationship to criterion variables including loneliness, anxiety, depression, substance use, and…
Park, Subin; Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Bae, Jeong-Hoon; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong
Objective We aimed to examine the rates, correlates, methods, and precipitating factors of suicide attempts among adolescent patients admitted for psychiatric inpatient care from 1999 to 2010 in a university hospital in Korea. Methods The subjects consisted of 728 patients who were admitted for psychiatric inpatient care in a university hospital over a 12-year period and who were aged 10-19 years at the time of admission. We retrospectively investigated the information on suicidal behaviors and other clinical information by reviewing the subjects' electronic medical records. Whether these patients had completed their suicide on 31 December 2010 was determined by a link to the database of the National Statistical Office. Results Among 728 subjects, 21.7% had suicidal ideation at admission, and 10.7% admitted for suicidal attempts. Female gender, divorced/widowed parents, and the presence of mood disorders were associated with a significantly increased likelihood of suicide attempts. Most common method of suicide attempts was cutting, and most common reason for suicide attempts was relationship problems within the primary support group. A diagnosis of schizophrenia was associated with increased risk of death by suicide after discharge. Conclusion These results highlight the role of specific psychosocial factor (e.g., relational problems) and psychiatric disorders (e.g., mood disorders) in the suicide attempts of Korean adolescents, and the need for effective prevention strategies for adolescents at risk for suicide. PMID:25670943
Prinstein, M.J.; Nock, M.K.; Simon, V.A.; Aikins, J.W.; Cheah, C.S.L.; Spirito, A.
Remarkably little is known regarding the temporal course of adolescent suicidal ideation and behavior, the prediction of suicidal attempts from changes in suicidal ideation, or the prediction of suicidal attempts after accounting for suicidal ideation as a predictor. A sample of 143 adolescents
Barzilay, Shira; Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Apter, Alan; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Hoven, Christina W; Sarchiapone, Marco; Balazs, Judit; Kereszteny, Agnes; Brunner, Romuald; Kaess, Michael; Bobes, Julio; Saiz, Pilar; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Banzer, Raphaela; Corcoran, Paul; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Postuvan, Vita; Podlogar, Tina; Sisask, Merike; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta
To examine risk and protective factors moderating the associations between three types of bullying victimization (physical, verbal, and relational bullying) with suicide ideation/attempts in a large representative sample of European adolescents. We analyzed cross-sectional data on 11,110 students (mean age = 14.9, standard deviation = .89) recruited from 168 schools in 10 European Union countries involved in the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe study. A self-report questionnaire was used to measure victimization types, depression, anxiety, parental and peer support, and suicide ideation and attempts. For each outcome, we applied hierarchical nonlinear models controlling for sociodemographics. Prevalence of victimization was 9.4% physical, 36.1% verbal, and 33.0% relational. Boys were more likely to be physically and verbally victimized, whereas girls were more prone to relational victimization. Physical victimization was associated with suicide ideation, and relational victimization was associated with suicide attempts. Other associations between victimization and suicidality (ideation/attempts) were identified through analysis of interactions with additional risk and protective factors. Specifically, verbal victimization was associated with suicide ideation among adolescents with depression who perceived low parental support. Similarly, low peer support increased the associations between verbal victimization and suicide ideation. Verbal victimization was associated with suicide attempts among adolescents with anxiety who perceived low parental support. Findings support the development of prevention strategies for adolescent victims of bullying who may be at elevated risk for suicide ideation/behavior, by taking into account gender, the type of bullying, symptomatology, and availability of interpersonal support. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Iancu, Iulian; Sapir, Anna Piccone; Shaked, Ginette; Poreh, Amir; Dannon, Pinhas Nadim; Chelben, Joseph; Kotler, Moshe
Schizophrenia patients display a high suicidal risk, although this risk is difficult to predict. One of the variables associated with increased suicide risk is smoking. In the present study, we assessed the suicidal risk in schizophrenia patients, smokers and nonsmokers. We also evaluated the impact of various variables such as psychotic symptoms, impulsivity, and extra-pyramidal side effects on suicidal risk. Sixty-one schizophrenia patients responded to a battery of measures, including the suicidal risk scale (SRS), the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), the impulsivity control scale, and the Simpson Angus Scale for extrapyramidal side effects. The effect of smoking on the various measures, especially suicidal risk, was examined. Schizophrenia patients who smoke obtained higher PANSS scores (both total score and positive and negative subscales), but did not differ on the Simpson Angus scale of extrapyramidal side effects. They also exhibited higher suicide risk as reflected by higher scores on the SRS, and a trend for higher impulsivity as measured by the impulsivity control scale. Women that smoked had higher SRS scores as compared with female nonsmokers, and also higher than in males, smokers and nonsmokers. Smoking and a history of suicide attempt predicted in our regression analysis a higher SRS score. When conducting separate analyses for the male and female patients, the significant contributors were the PANSS total score among the males and the number of pack-years among the female patients. Despite hints toward the role of smoking in suicidal behavior in Schizophrenia, especially among female patients, more studies are needed to elucidate the association between smoking and suicidality in schizophrenia patients.
Reigstad, Bjørn; Kvernmo, Siv
Little is known about connections between adolescent suicide attempts (SA) and concurrent adversities. In a cross-sectional study, the authors wanted to investigate prevalences, additive effects of adversities, family and peer relations, gender, divorce and poverty, and ethnic differences between Sami and non-Sami youth. In an adolescent community population encompassing 4881 adolescents of 15-16 years of age, youth with and without self-reports of attempted suicide the last year were compared on 12 concurrent adversities, on scales assessing family and peer functioning, and on sociodemographic variables. The prevalence of attempted suicide the last year was 5.3%, and more girls (8.8%) than boys (1.8%). All 12 concurrent adversities were strongly related to SA. The suicide attempters reported two and a half times as many adversities as non-attempters. A strong multiple additive relationship was found. Multivariately, among boys, the strongest risk factors were suicide among friends (OR = 9.4), and suicide in the family or in the neighbourhood (OR = 4.8). Among girls, sexual abuse (OR = 5.2) and parent mental problems (OR = 4.6) were strongest related to SA. Suicide attempters reported more divorce and poverty, more conflicts with parents, and less family support and involvement. Totally, Sami youth reported more SA and more concurrent adversities than non-Sami peers. Adolescent suicide attempters are heavily burdened with concurrent adversities. Clinicians should be aware of gender differences in risk factors, and should ask about abuse and suicide or attempts among relatives and peers. A family perspective in clinical work is needed.
Zhang, Xiaoyun; Wu, Li-Tzy
Objective To examine reciprocal associations between substance use (cigarette smoking, use of alcohol, marijuana, and other illegal drugs) and suicidal ideation among adolescents and young adults (aged 11–21 at wave 1; aged 24–32 at wave 4). Methods Four waves public-use Add Health data were used in the analysis (N= 3,342). Respondents were surveyed in 1995, 1996, 2001–2002, and 2008–2009. Current regular smoking, past-year alcohol use, past-year marijuana use, and ever use of other illegal drugs as well as past-year suicidal ideation were measured at the four waves (1995, 1996, 2001–2002, and 2008–2009). Fixed effects models with lagged dependent variables were modeled to test unidirectional associations between substance use and suicidal ideation, and nonrecursive models with feedback loops combining correlated fixed factors were conducted to examine reciprocal relations between each substance use and suicidal ideation, respectively. Results After adjusting for the latent time-invariant effects and lagged effects of dependent variables, the unidirectional associations from substance use to suicidal ideation were consistently significant, and vice versa. Nonrecursive model results showed that use of cigarette or alcohol increased risk of suicidal ideation, while suicidal ideation was not associated with cigarette or alcohol use. Reversely, drug use (marijuana and other drugs) did not increase risk of suicidal ideation, but suicidal ideation increased risk of illicit drug use. Conclusion The results suggest that relations between substance use and suicidal ideation are unidirectional, with cigarette or alcohol use increasing risk of suicidal ideation and suicidal ideation increasing risk of illicit drug use. PMID:24969957
Restrepo-Bernal, Diana; Bonfante-Olivares, Laura; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Berbesi-Fernández, Dedsy; Sierra-Hincapié, Gloria
Suicide is a public health problem. In Colombia, teenagers are considered a group at high risk for suicidal behavior. To explore the possible association between suicidal behavior and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents of Medellin. Observational, cross-sectional, analytical study. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied to a total of 447 adolescents and the sociodemographic, clinical, familiar, and life event variables of interest were analyzed. The descriptive analysis of qualitative variables are presented as absolute values and frequencies, and the age was described with median [interquartile range]. A logistic regression model was constructed with explanatory variables that showed statistical association. Data were analyzed with SPSS® software version 21.0. Of the total, 59.1% were female, and the median age was 16 [14-18] years. Suicidal behavior was presented in 31% of females and 23% of males. Attention deficit was present in 6.3% of adolescents. The logistic regression analysis showed that the variables that best explained the suicidal behavior of adolescents were: female sex, post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and cocaine use. The diagnosis and early intervention of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children may be a useful strategy in the prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Sheftall, Arielle H; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Campo, John V; Bridge, Jeffrey A
Suicide in elementary school-aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5-11 years and 12-14 years) were conducted by using the χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school-aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos Silva
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the prevalence and factors associated with suicidal ideation among Brazilian adolescents. The instrument designed for the research was used considering three models with outcomes that identified the following: (a adolescent had considered suicide, (b adolescents have planned suicide, and (c adolescents have attempted suicide. Logistic Regression was used in all models with significance level of 5%. An association between being female and suicidal ideation (OR=2.18, CI 95% 1.60 to 2.97, suicide planning (OR=1.80, CI 95% = 1.26–2.56, and suicide attempt (OR=2.91, CI 95% 1.79 to 4.75 was found. Violent behavior/involvement in fights was associated with thinking about suicide (OR=2.00, CI 95% = 1.43 to 2.81, suicide planning (OR=1.65, CI 95% = 1.10–2.46, and suicide attempt (OR=2.35, CI 95% = 1.49 to 3.70. For cigarette consumption, association was found with suicide ideation (OR=1.62, CI 95% 1.03 to 2.55, planning (OR=1.88, CI 95% = 1.15 to 3.08, and attempt (OR=2.35, CI 95% 1.37 to 4.03. For alcohol consumption, association was found with suicide ideation (OR=1.93, CI 95% 1.47 to 2.54, planning (OR=2.22, CI 95% 1.61 to 3.08, and attempt (OR=1.73, CI 95% 1.15 to 2.59. It was concluded that suicidal ideation was associated with female sex, involvement in fights, and illicit drug use.
Björkenstam, Emma; Hjern, Anders; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Kosidou, Kyriaki
Childhood adversity (CA) is associated with an increased risk of suicide in young adulthood that might be explained by maladaptive trajectories during adolescence. Although adolescent violent offending is linked with suicide, little is known about its role in the association between CA and suicide. To examine whether adolescent violent offending mediates the association between CA and suicide in early adulthood. This population-based, longitudinal cohort study with a follow-up time spanning 5 to 9 years included 476 103 individuals born in Sweden between 1984 and 1988. The study population was prospectively followed up from 20 years of age until December 31, 2013, with respect to suicide. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2013. Register-based CAs included parental death, parental substance abuse and psychiatric disorder, parental criminal offending, parental separation, public assistance recipiency, child welfare intervention, and residential instability. Adolescent violent offending was defined as being convicted of a violent crime between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Estimates of risk of suicide after 20 years of age (from 2004 if born in 1984 and from 2008 if born in 1988) until the end of 2013 were calculated as incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression analysis. Adjustments were made for demographics and psychiatric disorder. In addition, binary mediation analysis with logistic regression was used. A total of 476 103 individuals (231 699 [48.7%] female) were included in the study. Those with a conviction for violent offending had been exposed to all CAs to a greater extent than those with no violent offending. Cumulative CA was associated with risk of suicide in nonconvicted (adjusted IRR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5-3.9) and convicted youths, who had a higher risk of suicide (adjusted IRR, 8.5; 95% CI, 4.6-15.7). Adolescent violent offending partly mediated the association between CA and suicide. Individuals
Emmanuel Nii-Boye Quarshie
Full Text Available Adolescent suicide is now a major health concern for many countries. However, there is paucity of systematic studies and lack of official statistics on adolescent suicide in Ghana. Mass media coverage of adolescent suicide (even though crude, at least, may reflect the reality of the phenomenon. With an ecological orientation, this study used qualitative content analysis to analyse the pattern of 44 media reports of adolescent suicide in Ghana from January 2001 through September 2014. Results showed that hanging was the dominant method used. The behaviour usually takes place within or near the adolescent's home environment. The act was often attributed to precursors within the microsystem (family and school of the deceased. This study serves a seminal function for future empirical studies aimed at deeper examination of the phenomenon in order to inform prevention programmes.
Sharaf, Amira Y; Thompson, Elaine A; Abd El-Salam, Hoda F
Suicidal adolescents, compared to their nonsuicidal peers, tend to perceive their parents as less "caring" and more "controlling"-which characterizes the "affectionless control" parenting style. Research findings are inconsistent regarding the distinct influence of mother versus father parenting on youth suicide intent; moreover, the influence of parents' joint parenting styles on suicide intent has not been investigated. Using a cross-sectional design and large sample (N = 150 youth, 13-21 years old), currently hospitalized in a treatment center in Egypt for a recent suicide attempt, data were collected using the Suicide Intent Scale, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Seventy percent of youth reported high suicide intent. Mother and father parenting styles, assessed independently, were not associated with adolescent suicide intent. The joint effect of both parents' parenting style, however, was positively associated with suicide intent (Wald χ(2) = 8.79, p = .03). Suicide intent was stronger among adolescents who experienced neglectful compared with optimal parenting style (B = 1.93, Wald χ(2) = 4.28, p = .04). The findings have direct implications for mental health nursing interventions, signaling the critical need to engage both parents in family-based interventions to address youth suicidal behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Overholser, J C; Adams, D M; Lehnert, K L; Brinkman, D C
Self-esteem can play an important role in suicidal tendencies among adolescents. The present study was designed to examine the relationship between self-esteem deficits and suicidal tendencies in 254 adolescent psychiatric inpatients and 288 high school students. The direct relationship between self-esteem and suicidal tendencies was examined by assessing suicidal ideation and history of suicide attempts. An indirect relationship between self-esteem and suicidality was examined by assessing depression and hopelessness. Differences were found across gender and hospitalization status, with males reporting higher self-esteem than females and high school students scoring higher in self-esteem than psychiatric inpatients. However, correlations among variables remained similar across gender and hospitalization status. Thus, low self-esteem was related to higher levels of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and an increased likelihood of having previously attempted suicide. Furthermore, self-esteem added to the understanding of suicidal ideation beyond what could be explained by depression and hopelessness. Low self-esteem was closely related to feelings of depression, hopelessness, and suicidal tendencies. Assessment of adolescents should include an evaluation of self-esteem, and therapy should attempt to address any self-esteem deficits.
Full Text Available Suicide remains a serious health care problem and a sentinel event tracked by The Joint Commission. Nurses are pivotal in evaluating risk and preventing suicide. Analysis of nurses' barriers to risk management may lead to interventions to improve management of suicidal patients. These data emerged from a random survey of 454 oncology nurses' attitudes, knowledge of suicide, and justifications for euthanasia. Instruments included a vignette of a suicidal patient and a suicide attitude questionnaire. Results. Psychological factors (emotions, unresolved grief, communication, and negative judgments about suicide complicate the nurse's assessment and treatment of suicidal patients. Some nurses (=122 indicated that euthanasia was never justified and 11 were unsure of justifications and evaluated each case on its merits. Justifications for euthanasia included poor symptom control, poor quality of life, incurable illness or permanent disability, terminal illness, and terminal illness with inadequate symptom control or impending death, patient autonomy, and clinical organ death. The nurses indicated some confusion and misconceptions about definitions and examples of euthanasia, assisted suicide, and double effect. Strategies for interdisciplinary clinical intervention are suggested to identify and resolve these psychosocial barriers.
Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar; Nair, M K C; Chandra, Abhiram; Subramaniam, Vinod Shanmukham; Bincymol, K; George, Babu; Samuel, Beulah
The risk of suicidal behavior associated with Anxiety Disorders (AD) among adolescents is known. However, concurrent mood disorders complicate these findings, and no data is available from India as well as from the community. This study aimed to address the suicidal risk associated with AD from different perspectives. The authors prospectively collected data for 500 adolescents in a community with independent, trained raters. Risk for suicidal behavior was measured with SADPERSONS scale, socio-economic status with Modified Kuppuswamy Scale, depression and anxiety disorders with Beck Depression Inventory and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders respectively. The relationship between predictors and need for preventive action was analyzed with univariate and multivariate regression analyses and a predictive model was built. Suicidal behavior was increased by the presence of AD (adjusted OR = 6.28), the number of co-morbid AD (adjusted OR = 2.04), severity of the AD (adjusted OR = 4.98). Being a boy increased the risk of suicidal behavior associated with AD (adjusted OR = 9.37), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (adjusted OR = 5.65), Separation Anxiety Disorder (unadjusted OR = 3.28), Social Anxiety Disorder (unadjusted OR = 5.91) while controlling for the confounding effect of Depressive Disorder. Gender did not have an influence on Panic Disorder. Presence of AD and co-morbid Depressive Disorder significantly contributed to a risk model for suicidal behavior. Anxiety Disorder is associated with the risk for potential suicidal behavior. Adolescent boys with AD and Depressive Disorder need to be identified as the high risk group for suicide prevention in the community.
Kang, Eun-Ho; Hyun, Min Kyung; Choi, Seong Mi; Kim, Ji-Min; Kim, Gyung-Mee; Woo, Jong-Min
The suicide rate in South Korea was the highest among the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries in 2011. Although the suicide rate in adolescents is lower than that of adults and is reported to be decreasing in young males in some countries, it has consistently increased in recent years in South Korea. We aimed to determine the prevalence, pattern, and predictors of suicidal ideation and attempt in the past 12 months. A total sample of 72,623 adolescents aged 12-18 years who responded to a web-based anonymous self-reported survey between September and October 2010 was used for the analysis. The suicidal ideation and suicide attempt rates were 19.1% and 4.9%, respectively. Being female, having a poor perceived socioeconomic status and a poor perceived academic performance, subjective feelings of depression, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, perceived general medical health, and experiences of any involvement with sexual intercourse were the contributing factors that predicted elevated risks for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. In contrast to previous reports in other countries, the suicide attempt rate in Korean female adolescents peaked at age 13 years, and there were no differences in suicidal ideation in females by age. There were no differences in both suicidal ideation and attempt rates in males by age. A multidisciplinary approach that takes into consideration the characteristics of Korean adolescents with suicidal ideation or suicide attempt is warranted for developing prevention and treatment programs. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.
Gulbas, Lauren E.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M.; Tyler, Tee R.; Zayas, Luis H.
To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to...
Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Wang, August G
BACKGROUND: A family history of completed suicide and psychiatric illness has been identified as risk factors for suicide. AIMS: To examine the risk of offspring suicide in relation to parental history of suicide and other parental risk factors. METHOD: The study population consisted of 7,177 adult...... the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. RESULTS: Forty-eight cohort members, 77 mothers and 133 fathers had committed suicide during the follow-up. Independent of parental psychiatric illness and social status, parental suicide significantly increased suicide risk in offspring (hazard ratio 4...
Sørensen, Holger; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Wang, August
BACKGROUND: A family history of completed suicide and psychiatric illness has been identified as risk factors for suicide. AIMS: To examine the risk of offspring suicide in relation to parental history of suicide and other parental risk factors. METHOD: The study population consisted of 7,177 adult...... the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. RESULTS: Forty-eight cohort members, 77 mothers and 133 fathers had committed suicide during the follow-up. Independent of parental psychiatric illness and social status, parental suicide significantly increased suicide risk in offspring (hazard ratio 4...
Saavedra, Javier; López, Marcelino
Many studies have demonstrated that the risk of suicide in prison is higher than in the general population. This study has two aims. First, to explore the risk of suicide in men sentenced in Andalusian prisons. And second, to study the sociodemographic, criminal and, especially, psychopathological factors associated with this risk. An assessment was made of 472 sentenced inmates in two Andalusian prisons, and included a sociodemographic interview, the IPDE personality disorders questionnaire, the SCID-I diagnostic interview (DSMIV), and the Plutchick suicide risk questionnaire. The interviewers were experienced clinical psychologists with training in prison environments. Adjusted ORs were calculated using a logistic regression. A risk of committing suicide was detected in 33.5% of the sample. The diagnoses (lifetime prevalence) of affective disorder (adjusted OR 3329), substance dependence disorders (adjusted OR 2733), personality disorders (adjusted OR 3115) and anxiety disorder (adjusted OR 1650), as well as a family psychiatric history (adjusted OR 1650), were the predictors that remained as risk factors after the regression analysis. No socio-demographic risk factor was significant in the regression analysis. The psychopathological variables are essential and the most powerful factors to explain suicide risk in prisons. A correct and systematic diagnosis, and an appropriate treatment by mental health professionals during the imprisonment are essential to prevent the risk of suicide. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Kitagawa, Yuko; Ando, Shuntaro; Yamasaki, Syudo; Foo, Jerome Clifford; Okazaki, Yuji; Shimodera, Shinji; Nishida, Atsushi; Togo, Fumiharu; Sasaki, Tsukasa
Suicide is a leading cause of death in adolescents, but detection of its risk is often challenging. Many mental illnesses share the common symptom of appetite loss and it is also known that people who suffer from these illnesses are at greater risk of suicide. However, the relationship between appetite loss and suicide risk has yet to be examined. For adolescents in particular, questions about appetite loss may be easier to answer than sensitive questions regarding mental health. The present study aims to investigate the association of appetite loss with suicidal ideation and self-harm in adolescents. Rates of adolescents with suicidal ideation or self-harm associated with appetite-loss were examined in 18,250 Japanese junior and senior high school students (aged 12-18) using a self-report questionnaire. Insomnia, a physical symptom which has previously been associated with suicide risk, was also controlled for in the analysis. Results showed that rates of adolescents with suicidal ideation or self-harm significantly increased according to the degree of self-reported appetite loss. Similar results were observed for insomnia. Odds ratios (ORs) for suicidal ideation and self-harm were 5.5 and 4.1 for adolescents with appetite loss compared to those without it, and the ORs were 5.5 and 3.5 for those with insomnia compared to those without it, respectively, adjusting for sex and age (p appetite loss was highly associated with suicidal ideation and self-harm in adolescents; adolescents reporting physical symptoms such as loss of appetite or insomnia should be given careful attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maimon, David; Browning, Christopher R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
The suicide rate among American adolescents between the ages of 14–25 has dramatically increased during the last 50 years, and this fact has been the focus of extensive social-scientific investigation. To date, however, research focusing on the joint effects of mental health, family, and contextual-level predictors on adolescents’ suicidal behaviors is scarce. Drawing on Durkheim’s classic macro-level approach to suicide and collective efficacy theory, we use data from the Project on Human De...
Ballard, Elizabeth D; Cwik, Mary; Van Eck, Kathryn; Goldstein, Mitchell; Alfes, Clarissa; Wilson, Mary Ellen; Virden, Jane M; Horowitz, Lisa M; Wilcox, Holly C
The pediatric emergency department (ED) is a critical location for the identification of children and adolescents at risk for suicide. Screening instruments that can be easily incorporated into clinical practice in EDs to identify and intervene with patients at increased suicide risk is a promising suicide prevention strategy and patient safety objective. This study is a retrospective review of the implementation of a brief suicide screen for pediatric psychiatric ED patients as standard of care. The Ask Suicide Screening Questions (ASQ) was implemented in an urban pediatric ED for patients with psychiatric presenting complaints. Nursing compliance rates, identification of at-risk patients, and sensitivity for repeated ED visits were evaluated using medical records from 970 patients. The ASQ was implemented with a compliance rate of 79 %. Fifty-three percent of the patients who screened positive (237/448) did not present to the ED with suicide-related complaints. These identified patients were more likely to be male, African American, and have externalizing behavior diagnoses. The ASQ demonstrated a sensitivity of 93 % and specificity of 43 % to predict return ED visits with suicide-related presenting complaints within 6 months of the index visit. Brief suicide screening instruments can be incorporated into standard of care in pediatric ED settings. Such screens can identify patients who do not directly report suicide-related presenting complaints at triage and who may be at particular risk for future suicidal behavior. Results have the potential to inform suicide prevention strategies in pediatric EDs.
Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J; English, Diana J; Dubowitz, Howard; Narasimhan, Subasri; Everson, Mark D
Although there is a well-known link between adverse experiences and suicidal ideation, there has been little study of the effects of recent adverse experiences on suicidal ideation in teenagers. This study examined the association between recent adverse experiences and suicidal ideation in a sample of 740 at-risk 16-year-old youth in the LONGSCAN studies, as well as potential mediators. 8.9% of the youth reported suicidal ideation. Recent adverse experiences, as a class, were associated with suicidal ideation; both recent physical abuse and recent psychological maltreatment were uniquely associated with suicidal ideation. The links between recent adverse experiences and suicidal ideation were significantly mediated by psychological distress. There were also significant main effect associations between both internalizing behavioral problems and low positive achievement expectations and suicidal ideation. Recent adverse experiences are important in understanding suicidal ideation in high risk youth. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sedillo, P. J.
Little empirical research has been conducted regarding suicide and suicidal ideation about gay gifted adolescents, so most of what is presented in the literature is based on theories and assumptions. One key assumption was that the psychological challenges of gay gifted youth stemming from sexual identity and giftedness contribute to suicidal…
Zayas, Luis H.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Alvarez-Sanchez, Thyria; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.
We examined the role of acculturation, familism and Latina mother-daughter relations in suicide attempts by comparing 65 adolescents with recent suicide attempts and their mothers to 75 teens without any attempts and their mothers. Attempters and non-attempters were similar in acculturation and familistic attitudes but attempters report…
Martin, Graham; Richardson, Angela S.; Bergen, Helen A.; Roeger, Leigh; Allison, Stephen
Introduction: There is currently a need for research into indicators that could be used by non-clinical professionals working with young people, to inform the need for referral for further clinical assessment of those at risk of suicide. Method: Participants of this repeated measures longitudinal study, were 2603, 2485, and 2246 school students…
Kokkevi, Anna; Rotsika, Vassiliki; Arapaki, Angeliki; Richardson, Clive
Suicide is the second commonest cause of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15-35 years in Europe. Suicide attempts are a strong risk indicator for suicide. This article examines psychosocial factors associated with self-reported suicide attempts in adolescents in Greece and whether the reported increase in suicide attempts from 1984 to 2007 was accompanied by changes in the pattern of related psychosocial factors. Data were taken from nationwide probability sample surveys of Greek high school students aged 14-18 years in 1984 (n = 10,507) and 2007 (n = 9873). Logistic regression analysis was used to relate any self-reported suicide attempts to basic sociodemographic and psychosocial variables including family and psychological characteristics, and substance use. Female gender, smoking, illicit drug use, low socio-economic status, not living with both parents, dissatisfaction with relationship with parents, visits to a doctor for psychological problems, depression, anti-social behaviour and low self-esteem were risk factors for self-reported attempted suicide by adolescents in both surveys. Significant interaction terms showed that the effects of gender and illicit drug use were smaller in 2007 than in 1984. However, low self-esteem became significantly more important. Several common psychosocial factors seem to be steadily related to self-reported suicide attempts by Greek adolescents in 1984 and 2007. However, the increase in self-reported suicide attempts between 1984 and 2007 has been accompanied by changes in the relative importance of correlates.
Kirkcaldy, Bruce D; Brown, Jennifer; Siefen, Rainer G
The present study examines the unique and shared risk factors for suicidal behaviour, self-injury, and externally focussed aggressive behaviour among German youths and adolescents of both sexes. Also explored is the issue of multiple maladaptive behaviours and whether or not these are interrelated. The period of the sample comprised 2002-2003 admissions (N = 3694) to a clinic for child and adolescent psychiatry and psychosomatics. Measures were taken from medical-psychological documentation ("Ba-Do") and self-report questionnaire and included items relating to self-injurious behaviour, suicidal intent and socially disruptive and threatening behaviour (FAPS). Self and expert ratings of suicidal and self-injurious behaviour were significantly statistically correlated. Overt aggression was unrelated to suicidal behaviour. Suicidal and self-injurious behaviour were more common among female than male adolescents. Age, disharmony within the family and excessive parental demands were major global determinants of suicidal behaviour for both genders, but unrelated to self-injurious or socially disruptive behaviour, the latter being more associated with parental under-involvement and feelings of hostile rejection. Intelligence and age were significant predictors of overt aggression among females; intellectual functioning, number of siblings and disability among family members emerged as major determinants of suicidal behaviour among males. Findings are discussed in terms of practice interventions.
Shimodera, Shinji; Koike, Shinsuke; Usami, Satoshi; Toriyama, Rie; Kanata, Sho; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Okazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Atsushi
Although several studies have reported that child physical abuse increased the risk for bullying involvement, the effect of current violence from adult family members (CVA) on bullying involvement and suicidal feelings among adolescents has not been sufficiently examined. This study investigated the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and the interaction effect of CVA and bullying involvement on suicidal feelings. This cross-sectional study used data from a school-based survey with a general population of adolescents (grades 7 to 12). Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire completed by 17,530 students. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings. The overall response rate was 90.2%. The odds of students being characterized as bullies, victims, and bully-victims were higher among adolescents with CVA than without CVA (odds ratios (OR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI), [2.3–3.7], 4.6 [3.6–5.8], and 5.8 [4.4–7.6], respectively). Both CVA (OR = 3.4 [95% CI 2.7–4.3]) and bullying (bullies, victims, and bully-victims; OR = 2.0 [95% CI 1.6–2.6], 4.0 [3.1–5.1], 4.1 [3.0–5.6], respectively), were associated with increased odds of current suicidal feelings after adjusting for confounding factors. Furthermore, positive additive effects of CVA and all three types of bullying involvement on suicidal feelings were found. For example, bully-victims with CVA had about 19-fold higher odds of suicidal feelings compared with uninvolved adolescents without CVA. This study, although correlational, suggested that CVA avoidance might prevent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings in adolescents. PMID:27711150
Fujikawa, Shinya; Ando, Shuntaro; Shimodera, Shinji; Koike, Shinsuke; Usami, Satoshi; Toriyama, Rie; Kanata, Sho; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Okazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Atsushi
Although several studies have reported that child physical abuse increased the risk for bullying involvement, the effect of current violence from adult family members (CVA) on bullying involvement and suicidal feelings among adolescents has not been sufficiently examined. This study investigated the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and the interaction effect of CVA and bullying involvement on suicidal feelings. This cross-sectional study used data from a school-based survey with a general population of adolescents (grades 7 to 12). Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire completed by 17,530 students. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings. The overall response rate was 90.2%. The odds of students being characterized as bullies, victims, and bully-victims were higher among adolescents with CVA than without CVA (odds ratios (OR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI), [2.3-3.7], 4.6 [3.6-5.8], and 5.8 [4.4-7.6], respectively). Both CVA (OR = 3.4 [95% CI 2.7-4.3]) and bullying (bullies, victims, and bully-victims; OR = 2.0 [95% CI 1.6-2.6], 4.0 [3.1-5.1], 4.1 [3.0-5.6], respectively), were associated with increased odds of current suicidal feelings after adjusting for confounding factors. Furthermore, positive additive effects of CVA and all three types of bullying involvement on suicidal feelings were found. For example, bully-victims with CVA had about 19-fold higher odds of suicidal feelings compared with uninvolved adolescents without CVA. This study, although correlational, suggested that CVA avoidance might prevent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings in adolescents.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased mortality rates among previous child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP patients have been found in Scandinavian studies up to the 1980s. The suicide risk in this group has been estimated to be almost five times higher than expected. This article addresses two questions: Do Swedish CAP patients continue to risk premature death and what kind of information related to psychiatric symptoms and/or behavior problems can predict later suicide? Methods Hospital files, Sweden's census databases (including immigration and emigration and administrative databases (including the Swedish Hospital Discharge register and the Persons Convicted of Offences register, and the Cause of Death register were examined to determine the mortality rate in a group of 1,400 former CAP inpatients and outpatients over a period of 12–33 years. Observed and expected numbers of deceased were calculated with the prospective method and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR method. The relative risk or the risk ratio (RR is presented with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Significance level tests were made using two-by-two tables and chi-square tests. The Cox proportional-hazards regression model was used for survival analysis. Results Twenty-four males and 14 females died. Compared with the general population, the standardized mortality ratio in this group of CAP patients was significantly higher in both sexes. Behavioral problems, school problems, and co-morbid alcohol or drug abuse and criminality (including alcohol-related crimes were found to be important predictors. Thirty-two deaths were attributed to suicide, intoxication, drug overdose, or accident; one patient died of an alcohol abuse-related disorder, and five patients died of natural causes. Suicide was the most common cause of death, but only 2 of these 19 cases were initially admitted for attempted suicide. Conclusion We suggest that suicide and death prevention among CAP patients may not be a
The instruments used were a suicidal ideation questionnaire; a biographical questionnaire; a self-esteem scale; and a survey examining stressors and resources relevant to adolescents. Results: Suicidal ideation was significantly higher in the South African sample than in an American sample. Avoidant coping strategies ...
Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sirvyte, Dainora; Zemaitiene, Nida
particular risk for suicides. A non-intact family structure and weak family functioning are significant predictors of suicidal ideation and attempts among adolescents of Lithuania. It is essential to consider family life practices in planning intervention programs for prevention of suicides among adolescents.
Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Innamorati, Marco; De Pisa, Eleonora; Iliceto, Paolo; Puccinno, Marianna; Fiori Nastro, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo
The aim of this study was to study suicide risk in subjects exposed to mobbing, that is, systematic psychological harassment in the workplace. Such psychological harassment, unique to the workplace, threatens both the emotional well-being and professional ability of its victims. The items of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) that assess suicide risk were studied in 102 individuals who were exposed to mobbing. The results indicated that individuals exposed to mobbing had clear differences on the MMPI-2 from normative samples. In addition, those who appeared to be at risk for suicide differed in their scores from those not at risk. Implications for psychopathology and suicide preventions are discussed.
Hull-Blanks, Elva E.; Kerr, Barbara A.; Robinson Kurpius, Sharon E.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships among suicidality, substance use, self-esteem, family structure, and eight personality characteristics (harm avoidance, impulsivity, aggression, social recognition, cognitive structure, succorance, abasement, and achievement) with 337 talented, at-risk, adolescent girls. Results…
Background Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are serious but not rare conditions in adolescents. However, there are several research and practical suicide-prevention initiatives that discuss the possibility of preventing serious self-harm. Profound knowledge about risk and protective factors is therefore necessary. The aim of this study is a) to clarify the role of parenting behavior and parenting styles in adolescents’ suicide attempts and b) to identify other statistically significant and clinically relevant risk and protective factors for suicide attempts in a representative sample of German adolescents. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was conducted. In this survey, the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was investigated as well as potential predictors including parenting behavior. A three-step statistical analysis was carried out: I) As basic model, the association between parenting and suicide attempts was explored via binary logistic regression controlled for age and sex. II) The predictive values of 13 additional potential risk/protective factors were analyzed with single binary logistic regression analyses for each predictor alone. Non-significant predictors were excluded in Step III. III) In a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, all significant predictor variables from Step II and the parenting styles were included after testing for multicollinearity. Results Three parental variables showed a relevant association with suicide attempts in adolescents – (all protective): mother’s warmth and father’s warmth in childhood and mother’s control in adolescence (Step I). In the full model (Step III), Authoritative parenting (protective: OR: .79) and Rejecting-Neglecting parenting (risk: OR: 1.63) were identified as significant predictors (p < .001) for suicidal attempts. Seven further variables were interpreted to be
Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Euton, Stephanie J; Jones, Jamie N; Schmidt, Norman B
There has been interest in the relationship between homosexuality, gender role and suicide risk. Though homosexuals are more likely to identify as cross-gender, research has not simultaneously examined sexual orientation and gender role in assessing suicide risk. In the current study, the unique and interactive effects of sexual orientation and gender role were assessed in regard to suicidal ideation, related psychopathology and measures of coping. 77 participants were recruited from an undergraduate psychology subject pool (n=47) or from gay, lesbian and transgender student organizations (n=30) and assessed on measures of gender role, homosexuality, and psychopathology. Consistent with expectations, cross-gender role (i.e., personality traits associated with the opposite sex) is a unique predictor of suicidal symptoms. Moreover, gender role accounted for more of the overall variance in suicidal symptoms, positive problem orientation, peer acceptance and support, than sexual orientation. After accounting for gender role, sexual orientation contributed little to the variance in suicidal symptoms, associated pathology and problem-solving deficits. There was no support for gender role by sexual orientation interaction effects. The cross-sectional nature of the data limits statements regarding causality. Cross-gendered individuals, regardless of sexual orientation, appear to have higher risk for suicidal symptoms. Researchers and clinicians should assess gender role in evaluations of youth samples.
Steele, Ian H; Thrower, Natasha; Noroian, Paul; Saleh, Fabian M
Suicide is a troubling, preventable phenomenon. Prior to attempts, individuals often seek help, prompting practitioners to perform risk assessments that ideally use evidence-based risk management strategies. A literature review was performed using Harvard Countway Library of Medicine, Google Scholar, PubMed. Key words used were "Forensic Science," "Suicide Risk Management," "Pediatric Suicide Risk Factors," "Adult Suicide Risk Factors," "Geriatric Suicide Risk Factors," "Suicide Risk Assessment." Parameters limited articles to studies/reviews completed in the past twenty years in the United States. Results indicated predictors of suicide in juveniles were insomnia, burdensomeness, and recent conflicts with family or a romantic partner. Adults had greater risk if male, substance abusing, with marital/job loss. Elderly individuals with multiple medical comorbidities, hopelessness, and isolation were at higher risk. Everyone evaluated should be screened for access to firearms. Management of suicide risk involves providing the least restrictive form of treatment which maintains an individual's safety. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Chang, C-F; Lai, E C-C; Yeh, M-K
Aims A high rate of suicide has been reported in patients who sustain fractures, but the association remains uncertain in the context of other factors. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fractures and the risk of suicide in this contextual setting. Patients and Methods We performed a case-control study of patients aged 40 years or older who died by suicide between 2000 and 2011. We included patients' demographics, physical and mental health problems, and socioeconomic factors. We performed conditional logistic regression to evaluate the associations between fractures and the risk of suicide. Results We included a total of 34 794 patients who died by suicide and 139 176 control patients. We found that fractures as a homogenous group (adjusted odds ratios (aOR), 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43 to 1.53), and specifically pelvic (aOR 2.04; 95% CI 1.68 to 2.47) and spinal fractures (aOR 1.53; 95% CI 1.43 to 1.64), were associated with a higher risk of suicide. In addition, we found that patients who had a lower income, had never married, had lower levels of educational attainment, or had coexistent physical and mental conditions such as anxiety, mood disorders, and psychosis-related disorders had a higher risk of suicide. Conclusion Fractures, specifically those of the hip and spine, were associated with an increased risk of suicide. The findings suggest that greater clinical attention should be given to this risk in patients with fractures, especially for those with additional risk factors. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:780-6.
Donath, Carolin; Graessel, Elmar; Baier, Dirk; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas
Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are serious but not rare conditions in adolescents. However, there are several research and practical suicide-prevention initiatives that discuss the possibility of preventing serious self-harm. Profound knowledge about risk and protective factors is therefore necessary. The aim of this study is a) to clarify the role of parenting behavior and parenting styles in adolescents' suicide attempts and b) to identify other statistically significant and clinically relevant risk and protective factors for suicide attempts in a representative sample of German adolescents. In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was conducted. In this survey, the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was investigated as well as potential predictors including parenting behavior. A three-step statistical analysis was carried out: I) As basic model, the association between parenting and suicide attempts was explored via binary logistic regression controlled for age and sex. II) The predictive values of 13 additional potential risk/protective factors were analyzed with single binary logistic regression analyses for each predictor alone. Non-significant predictors were excluded in Step III. III) In a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, all significant predictor variables from Step II and the parenting styles were included after testing for multicollinearity. Three parental variables showed a relevant association with suicide attempts in adolescents - (all protective): mother's warmth and father's warmth in childhood and mother's control in adolescence (Step I). In the full model (Step III), Authoritative parenting (protective: OR: .79) and Rejecting-Neglecting parenting (risk: OR: 1.63) were identified as significant predictors (p parental separation events. Parenting style does matter. While children of Authoritative parents profit, children of
Wang, Peng-Wei; Yen, Cheng-Fang
Background Adolescent suicidal behavior may consist of different symptoms, including suicidal ideation, suicidal planning and suicidal attempts. Adolescent substance use behavior may contribute to adolescent suicidal behavior. However, research on the relationships between specific substance use and individual suicidal behavior is insufficient, as adolescents may not use only one substance or develop only one facet of suicidal behavior. Latent variables permit us to describe the relationships...
T.S. Pavlova; G.S. Bannikov
We propose three current models, formulated over the last decade and not yet published in Russian, focused on teenage suicide: the development model of suicidal behavior in adolescents (J.A. Bridge, T.R. Goldstein, D.A. Brent); interpersonal model of (T.E. Joiner); some recent developments in the cognitive theory (A. Spirito, J.D. Matthews, A. Wenzel, A.T. Beck). Four groups of psychological aid targets for adolescents with suicidal tendencies are revealed: 1) targets of the current emotional...
Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete
trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during......People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time...... admission. Most studies are based on low power, thus compromising quality and generalisability. The few studies with sufficient statistical power mainly identified non-modifiable risk predictors such as male gender, diagnosis, or recent deliberate self-harm. Also, the predictive value of these predictors...
Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete
People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time...... trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during...... is low. It would be of great benefit if future studies would be based on large samples while focusing on modifiable predictors over the course of an admission, such as hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and family/social situations. This would improve our chances of developing better risk assessment...
Wilcox, Holly C; Fullerton, Janice M; Glowinski, Anne L; Benke, Kelly; Kamali, Masoud; Hulvershorn, Leslie A; Stapp, Emma K; Edenberg, Howard J; Roberts, Gloria M P; Ghaziuddin, Neera; Fisher, Carrie; Brucksch, Christine; Frankland, Andrew; Toma, Claudio; Shaw, Alex D; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Miller, Leslie; McInnis, Melvin G; Mitchell, Philip B; Nurnberger, John I
Bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the most heritable psychiatric conditions and is associated with high suicide risk. To explore the reasons for this link, this study examined the interaction between traumatic stress and BD polygenic risk score in relation to suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescent and young adult offspring and relatives of persons with BD (BD-relatives) compared with adolescent and young adult offspring of individuals without psychiatric disorders (controls). Data were collected from 4 sites in the United States and 1 site in Australia from 2006 through 2012. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare rates of ideation, attempts, and NSSI between BD-relatives (n = 307) and controls (n = 166) and to determine the contribution of demographic factors, traumatic stress exposure, lifetime mood or substance (alcohol/drug) use disorders, and BD polygenic risk score. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and mood and substance use disorders, BD-relatives were at increased risk for suicidal ideation and attempts but not for NSSI. Independent of BD-relative versus control status, demographic factors, or mood and substance use disorders, exposure to trauma within the past year (including bullying, sexual abuse, and domestic violence) was associated with suicide attempts (p = .014), and BD polygenic risk score was marginally associated with attempts (p = .061). Importantly, the interaction between BD polygenic risk score and traumatic event exposures was significantly associated with attempts, independent of demographics, relative versus control status, and mood and substance use disorders (p = .041). BD-relatives are at increased risk for suicide attempts and ideation, especially if they are exposed to trauma and have evidence of increased genetic vulnerability. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sundaram, V; Qin, Ping; Zøllner, L.
There is a dearth of knowledge about factors correlated with suicide risk among minority groups in Western societies. In the present study we compared suicide risk among persons with foreign background with that of the majority population to determine whether certain minority groups...... are at a particular risk for suicide, as well as to illuminate gender differences herein. Suicide risk was generally higher among persons with foreign background compared with the majority population and the risk was highest among Nordic-born persons. Overall, suicide risk was significantly lower among Asian......-born persons; however, there were gender differences in correlations between ethnicity and suicide risk...
Xu, Hui-lan; Xiao, Shui-yuan; Feng, Shan-shan; Chen, Xi-xi
To understand the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal ideation among college students and to provide a scientific basis for promoting psychological health and suicide prevention. 623 college students at Central South University were selected using stratified cluster sampling and administered a suicide ideation questionnaire, a Symptom Check List (SCL-90), an Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), a Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) and a questionnaire about background information. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify risk factors for suicide ideation. One year prior to our investigation, 14.6% of respondents had suicide ideation, 2.5% had made a specific suicide plan, and 1.8% had made a suicide attempt. The main risk factors for suicide ideation were dissatisfaction with the selected major of study, limited social support, recent negative life events and depressive tendency. The prevalence of suicide ideation among these college students was high. Appropriate measures focusing on the risk factors identified in this study should be urgently developed to prevent suicides in college students.
Full Text Available Marco Mula2, Gail S Bell1, Josemir W Sander1,31Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, UCL Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom; 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neurology, Amedeo Avogadro University, University Hospital Maggiore della Carità, Novara, Italy; 3SEIN – Epilepsy Institute in the Netherlands Foundation, Heemstede, The NetherlandsAbstract: Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration issued an alert about an increased risk for suicidality during treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs for different indications, including epilepsy. We discuss the issue of suicide in epilepsy with special attention to AEDs and the assessment of suicide in people with epilepsy. It has been suggested that early medical treatment with AEDs might potentially reduce suicide risk of people with epilepsy, but it is of great importance that the choice of drug is tailored to the mental state of the patient. The issue of suicidality in epilepsy is likely to represent an example of how the underdiagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, the lack of input from professionals (eg, psychologists, social workers, and psychiatrists, and the delay in an optimized AED therapy may worsen the prognosis of the condition with the occurrence of severe complications such as suicide.Keywords: epilepsy, suicide, adverse effect, depression
Suicide is the tenth most common cause of death in the United States. People may consider suicide when they are hopeless and can't see ... event. People who have the highest risk of suicide are white men. But women and teens report ...
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Weismoore, Julie T.; Renshaw, Keith D.
A large body of research suggests that child maltreatment (CM) is associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. These studies, however, have not been critically examined and summarized in a manner that allows us to draw firm conclusions and make recommendations for future research and clinical work in this area. In this review, we evaluated all of the research literature to date examining the relationship between CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Results generally suggest that childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect are associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts across community, clinical, and high-risk samples, using cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs. In most studies, these associations remain significant when controlling for covariates such as youth demographics, mental health, family, and peer-related variables. When different forms of CM are examined in the same multivariate analysis, most research suggests that each form of CM maintains an independent association with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, a subset of studies yielded evidence to suggest that sexual abuse and emotional abuse may be relatively more important in explaining suicidal behavior than physical abuse or neglect. Research also suggests an additive effect—each form of CM contributes unique variance to adolescent suicide attempts. We discuss the current limitations of this literature and offer recommendations for future research. We conclude with an overview of the clinical implications of this research, including careful, detailed screening of CM history, past suicidal behavior, and current suicidal ideation, as well as the need for integrated treatment approaches that effectively address both CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:23568617
Christiansen, Erik; Juul Larsen, Kim; Agerbo, Esben
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the Danish epidemiological long-term incidence rates for suicide attempts in the general population of children and adolescents, and to analyze the impact from single and multiple risk factors on the risk of suicide attempts. METHOD: We used longitudinal register data from ...... on the increase in the period studied. Individuals exposed to multiple risk factors are at the highest risk for suicide attempts, and when spotted or in contact with authorities they should be given proper care and treatment to prevent suicide attempts and death.......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the Danish epidemiological long-term incidence rates for suicide attempts in the general population of children and adolescents, and to analyze the impact from single and multiple risk factors on the risk of suicide attempts. METHOD: We used longitudinal register data from...... a total cohort of all individuals born between 1983 and 1989 and living in Denmark to calculate incidence rates. From the cohort, we identified all who have attempted suicide, and matched 50 controls to each case. A nested case-control design was used to estimate the impact from risk factors on the risk...
Villa-Manzano, Alberto Iram; Robles-Romero, Miguel Angel; Gutiérrez-Román, Elsa Armida; Martínez-Arriaga, María Guadalupe; Valadez-Toscano, Francisco Javier; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos E
A better understanding of risk factors for suicide in general population is crucial for the design of suicide prevention programs. Our objective was to identify personal and family risk factors in suicide attempters. Case-control design. We searched in patients with an acute intoxication, those subjects with and intoxication attributable to suicide attempt. These patients were matched with controls by gender and the date of intoxication. We use a structured questionnaire to identify personal characteristics, family features and network support. Odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval were obtained. 25 cases and 25 controls were evaluated. The risk factors associated with suicide attempt adjusted by age, were being a student and smoking habits. Family violence background showed OR = 3.8 (IC 95 % = 1.1-13), family disintegration a OR = 8.5 (IC 95 % = 2.1-35), critical events background OR = 8.8 (IC 95 % = 2.1-36), poor self-esteem OR = 8.2 (IC 95 % 2-35), depression OR = 22 (IC 95 % = 3-190), anxiety OR = 9 (IC 95 % = 2-47), family dysfunction OR = 25 (IC 95 % = 4-151). The principal risk factor for suicide attempt was family dysfunction and psychological traits.
Wilburn, Victor R; Smith, Delores E
The relationships among stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents were examined in a group of college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both stress and self-esteem were significantly related to suicidal ideation; low self-esteem and stressful life events significantly predicted suicidal ideation. The hypothesis that self-esteem would moderate the effects of life stressors on suicidal ideation was supported at the .06 level. A significant minority of the sample indicated having thoughts severe enough to be classified as clinical suicidal ideation. In general, participants who had experienced negative life events in the 6 to 12 months prior to participating in the study had lower self-esteem than those who had similar stresses within the prior six months. However, the opposite was true for clinical suicidal ideators; those who experienced negative life stressors recently had lower self-esteem than those who experienced negative life events six months to a year in the past.
Kessing, Lars Vedel; Søndergård, Lars; Kvist, Kajsa
CONTEXT: Prior observational studies suggest that treatment with lithium may be associated with reduced risk of suicide in bipolar disorder. However, these studies are biased toward patients with the most severe disorders, and the relation to sex and age has seldom been investigated. OBJECTIVE......: To investigate whether treatment with lithium reduces the risk of suicide in a nationwide study. DESIGN: An observational cohort study with linkage of registers of all prescribed lithium and recorded suicides in Denmark during a period from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 1999. SETTING: All patients treated...... with lithium in Denmark, ie, within community psychiatry, private specialist practice settings, and general practice. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 13 186 patients who purchased at least 1 prescription of lithium and 1.2 million subjects from the general population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All suicides identified...
Abrutyn, Seth; Mueller, Anna S
Though Durkheim argued that strong social relationships protect individuals from suicide, we posit that these relationships have the potential to increase individuals' vulnerability when they expose them to suicidality. Using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we evaluate whether new suicidal thoughts and attempts are in part responses to exposure to the suicide attempts of role models, specifically friends and family. We find that the suicide attempts of role models do in fact trigger new suicidal thoughts and in some cases attempts, even after significant controls are introduced. Moreover, we find that these effects fade with time, that girls are more vulnerable to them than boys, and that the relationship to the role model-for teenagers at least-matters. Friends appear to be more salient role models for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that exposure to suicidal behaviors in significant others may teach individuals new ways to deal with emotional distress, namely by becoming suicidal. This reinforces the idea that the structure - and content - of social networks conditions their role in preventing suicidality. Specifically, social ties can be conduits of not just social support, but also anti-social behaviors, like suicidality.
Abrutyn, Seth; Mueller, Anna S.
Though Durkheim argued that strong social relationships protect individuals from suicide, we posit that these relationships have the potential to increase individuals’ vulnerability when they expose them to suicidality. Using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we evaluate whether new suicidal thoughts and attempts are in part responses to exposure to the suicide attempts of role models, specifically friends and family. We find that the suicide attempts of role models do in fact trigger new suicidal thoughts and in some cases attempts, even after significant controls are introduced. Moreover, we find that these effects fade with time, that girls are more vulnerable to them than boys, and that the relationship to the role model—for teenagers at least—matters. Friends appear to be more salient role models for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that exposure to suicidal behaviors in significant others may teach individuals new ways to deal with emotional distress, namely by becoming suicidal. This reinforces the idea that the structure – and content – of social networks conditions their role in preventing suicidality. Specifically, social ties can be conduits of not just social support, but also anti-social behaviors, like suicidality. PMID:26069341
Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa
Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both countries, depression was the most predominant predictor to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Unique predictors of suicidal youth in each country were also found. In America, attempted suicide was predicted by poor body image, whereas in Korea attempted suicide was predicted by medical diagnosis such as asthma, concern about weight, and alcohol consumption. The value of our approach lies in the comparative analysis of analogous and unique characteristics of suicidal youths in these two huge data sets from different countries. These results should be helpful for school and mental health care providers to plan interventions for youth at risk of suicide to prevent suicidal completion in these nations.
Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Bhana, Arvin; Lombard, Carl
Associations among six different domains of self-esteem (peers, school, family, sports/athletics, body image, and global self-worth) and risk behaviors related to substance use and suicidality were investigated in a sample of South African adolescents. Students enrolled in Grades 8 and 11 at independent secondary schools in Cape Town (N = 116)…
Linker, Julie; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon; Silberg, Judy L.
The co-occurrence of suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disturbance is likely explained in part by correlated genetic and environmental risk factors. Little is known about the specific nature of these associations. Structured interviews on 2,814 twins from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and Young…
Price, James H.; Khubchandani, Jagdish
Background: The United States has more than 90% of all youth firearm deaths that occur in high-income countries. Purpose: We summarize the epidemiological literature on the prevalence, risk factors, and protective factors associated with adolescent homicides and suicides and the role of firearms in the loss of these lives. Methods: A systematic…
Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Brausch, Amy M.
Attitudes towards the body have been largely overlooked as a potential risk factor for adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) despite theorizing that a negative body image may play a critical role in the development of this behavior. The current study used structural equation modeling to evaluate the fit of a theoretical model specifying body…
Nickerson, Amanda B.; Slater, Evan D.
This study examined the extent to which violent behavior and peer victimization were associated with suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts in a nationally representative sample of 11,113 adolescents who completed the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Boys were more likely to be involved in physical fighting and weapon carrying, whereas girls were…
Hill, Ryan M; Castellanos, Daniel; Pettit, Jeremy W
This paper reviews empirical evidence of the association between suicide-related behaviors and anxiety among children and adolescents. It begins with a review of suicide-related behaviors and anxiety, discusses methodological issues related to measurement, and reviews empirical findings published since the last review of this topic in 1988. Evidence is summarized on four criteria necessary to establish anxiety as a causal risk factor for suicide-related behaviors among children and adolescents. There is consistent evidence for a significant association between anxiety and suicide-related behaviors (Criterion 1). Evidence that the influence of anxiety on suicide-related behaviors is not due to a third variable (Criterion 2) is mixed and hindered by methodological limitations. The literature is also unclear as to whether anxiety temporally precedes suicide-related behaviors (Criterion 3). Finally, this review found no evidence to support or refute anxiety's stability independent of and across instances of suicide-related behaviors (Criterion 4). Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pierson, Eric E.
The past two decades have seen a rapid increase in the number and types of psychopharmacological medications that are available for the treatment of depression in children and adolescents. Parents and adolescents often raise questions as to the potential increase in suicidal ideation associated with the use of primarily selective serotonin…
Full Text Available In recent years, there have been a number of claims and counterclaims from suicide research using time series and longitudinal data; in particular, the linkage of increased antidepressant prescriptions to a decrease in suicide rates. Suicide time series appear to have a memory compounded with seasonal and cyclic effects. Failure to take into account these properties may lead to misleading conclusions, e.g., a downward blip is interpreted as the result of current knowledge and public health policies, while an upward blip is explained as suicide being complex depending on many variables requiring further research. In previous publications, I argued that this misuse of time series data is the result of an uncritical acceptance of a medical model that links mental ill-health to suicide. The consequences of such research behaviour are further increases in antidepressant prescriptions and medications to those who should not be prescribed them, with adverse effects showing across the population, e.g., the prescription of antidepressants to very young children (some under 1 year of age in New Zealand. Moreover, the New Zealand Evidence-based Health Care Bulletin recommends an authoritarian approach for every interaction with a young person to check their psychosocial well-being. When viewed holistically, this kind of human behaviour makes researchers, policy makers (politicians, treatment, and practitioners, and society in general part of the problem rather than the solution. This paper explores some dynamic aspects of suicide, using only official data with particular reference to youth suicide, and suggests that the medical model of suicide is only an attempt to treat depression without addressing suicide, and recommends the creation of a unified database through understanding the society that individuals live in. It is hoped that this paper will stimulate debate and the collaboration of international experts regardless of their school of thought.
Gulbas, Lauren E.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M.; Tyler, Tee R.; Zayas, Luis H.
To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to focus attention on factors in the sociocultural environment that shape suicidal and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors. Through analysis of qualitative interviews conducted with girls who used NSSI (n = 18), attempted suicide (n = 29), used NSSI and attempted suicide (n = 8,) and had no reported lifetime history of self-harm (n = 28), we describe the sociocultural factors that shaped psychosocial vulnerabilities and gave rise to decisions to use NSSI or attempt suicide. Our analysis revealed that adolescents who engaged in NSSI perceived their negative feelings as something that could be controlled through self-injurious acts, whereas powerlessness was a theme underlying the emotional states of girls who attempted suicide. When NSSI ceased to function as a mechanism for control, girls came to sudden decisions to attempt suicide. Most teens identified specific, and often multiple, situations that induced these intense affective states and shaped decisions to inflict self-harm. Two situational experiences emerged as particularly salient and promising for subsequent studies on self-harmful behaviors among Latina adolescents: transnational stress and bullying. We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice. PMID:26052816
Akkaya-Kalayci, Türkan; Popow, Christian; Winkler, Dietmar; Bingöl, R Hülya; Demir, Türkay; Özlü, Zeliha
Suicidal attempts are steadily increasing in societies with rapid urbanisation and dramatic social changes in places like Istanbul. Stress related to internal migration may increase suicidal behaviour. We investigated the impact of internal migration and culture on suicide attempts among youth in Istanbul. We retrospectively analysed the records of 210 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, who presented at the Emergency Outpatient Clinic of the Department of Pediatrics at Cerrahpaşa Medical School in Istanbul because of suicide attempts between January 2008 and December 2010. The majority of patients (78.95%, N = 165) had a background of internal migration, mostly (65%, N = 136) originating from regions with large cultural differences compared with that of Istanbul. Noticeably, more migrants than non-migrants (18.8% vs. 6.8%) and more patients originating from regions with large cultural differences chose high-risk methods for suicide attempts (20.7% vs. 8.1%). Internal migration can be considered a serious risk factor for suicidal behaviour. Furthermore, the degree of cultural differences between the area of origin and the new environment can be of vital importance. Healthcare measures should, therefore, focus on internal migration as a risk factor for youth suicidal behaviour and provide assistance for appropriate resettlement and integration in countries with increased mobility.
Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul
Background: There seems to be an increased risk of children and adolescents committing or attempting suicide after contact with a psychiatric department. Children and adolescents living in families with low socio-economic status (SES) might have an especially increased suicide attempt risk. Methods: A complete extraction of Danish register data…
Steck, Nicole; Egger, Matthias; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Kupferschmid, Stephan
Suicide in adolescents is the second most common cause of death in this age group and an important public health problem. We examined sociodemographic factors associated with suicide in Swiss adolescents and analysed time trends in youth suicide in the Swiss National Cohort (SNC). The SNC is a longitudinal study of the whole Swiss resident population, based on linkage of census and mortality records. We identified suicides in adolescents aged 10-18 years from 1991 to 2013. A total of 2.396 million adolescents were included and 592 suicides were recorded, corresponding to a rate of 3.7 per 100,000 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-4.0]. Rates increased with age from 0.0 per 100,000 at age 10 years to 14.8 per 100,000 (95% CI 12.6-17.5) at 18 years in boys, and from 0.0 to 5.4 per 100,000 (4.1-7.2) in girls. Being a boy, living in a single parent household, being an only or middle-born child, and living in rural regions were factors associated with a higher rate of suicide. Hanging was the most common method in boys, and railway suicides were most frequent in girls. There was no clear evidence for an increase or decrease over calendar time. We conclude that familial and socioeconomic factors including type of household, birth order and urbanity are associated with youth suicide in Switzerland. These factors should be considered when designing prevention programmes for youth suicide.
Manor, Iris; Vincent, Michel; Tyano, Sam
We shall try to demonstrate the difference between two wishes--the wish to die and the wish to commit suicide -- as they express themselves during adolescence. First, death is seen as irreversible, while the suicidal act, at least during adolescence, is seen as reversible. While thoughts of suicide may be a part of normal adolescence, and the…
Coryell, William; Yolken, Robert; Butcher, Brandon; Burns, Trudy; Dindo, Lilian; Schlechte, Janet; Calarge, Chadi
Latent infection with toxoplasmosis is a prevalent condition that has been linked in animal studies to high-risk behaviors, and in humans, to suicide and suicide attempts. This analysis investigated a relationship between suicide attempt history and toxoplasmosis titers in a group of older adolescents who had recently begun treatment with an SSRI. Of 108 participants, 17 (15.7 %) had a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt. All were given structured and unstructured diagnostic interviews and provided blood samples. Two individuals (11.9%) with a past suicide attempt, and two (2.1%) without this history, had toxoplasmosis titers ≥ 10 IU/ml (p = 0.166). Those with a past suicide attempt had mean toxoplasmosis titers that were significantly different (p = 0.018) from those of patients who lacked this history. An ROC analysis suggested a lower optimal threshold for distinguishing patients with and without suicide attempts (3.6 IU/ml) than that customarily used to identify seropositivity. Toxoplasmosis titers may quantify a proneness to suicidal behavior in younger individuals being treated with antidepressants.
Hart, Shelley R; Musci, Rashelle J; Ialongo, Nicholas; Ballard, Elizabeth D; Wilcox, Holly C
Within the context of the recent release of the 2012 National Suicide Prevention Strategy, and as the third leading cause of death for individuals 10- to 24-years-old, suicide prevention is a national priority. A consistently reported and robust risk factor for suicide is a prior suicide attempt; however few studies have investigated the consistency of self-reported lifetime suicide attempts. The goal of this study is to describe the prevalence and characteristics of inconsistent reporting of suicide attempt in a longitudinal cohort of participants annually assessed in 12 waves of data collected from middle school (age 12) to early adulthood (age 22). Among this cohort (n = 678), we compared those who consistently, inconsistently, and never reported a suicide attempt according to demographic and clinical variables. Almost 90% (88.5%) of our sample inconsistently reported a lifetime suicide attempt. Consistent and inconsistent reporters of lifetime suicide attempt did not differ on demographic or clinical variables with the exception of higher rates of lifetime suicidal ideation among consistent reporters (P adolescents. Inconsistent and consistent reporters of suicide attempt differ on few demographic or clinical variables; further prospective research should investigate the reasons for inconsistent reporting as well as the validity and stability of reporting in predicting future suicidal behavior. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Morales-Vives, Fabia; Dueñas, Jorge Manuel
In recent years, suicide rates have increased in adolescents and the young population, so these age groups are considered as populations at risk. Considering that suicidal ideation is the first sign of possible future suicide behavior, the objective of this study is to determine the relative importance of psychological maturity, personality, depression and life satisfaction in predicting suicidal ideation in adolescents. Results show that depressive symptoms is the variable that best predicts suicidal ideation, but psychological maturity, life satisfaction and emotional stability are predictors as well (R2 = .51, p emotional stability has an indirect relationship with suicidal ideation, through its relationship with depressive symptoms, life satisfaction and identity. Two Multigroup Structural Equation Models were proposed to better understand the relationships between these variables for each sex. The results show that the fit of the model that includes the variable Self-reliance is better for boys than for girls (chi-square contributions of 8.175 for girls and 1.978 for boys) unlike the other model (chi-square contributions of 0.288 for girls and 1.650 for boys). These results suggest that the psychological maturity subscale Self-reliance play a role in suicidal ideation in males but not in females. Although there have been no previous studies on the role of psychological maturity as a predictor of suicidal phenomena, the current study suggests that it is a feature to be considered in the prediction of adolescent suicidal ideation.
Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…
Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.; McCullars, Adrianne
Suicide is currently the third leading cause of death among youth; it has been named a public health concern. A number of programs have been developed to prevent suicide; many of these involve intervening with youth who are known to be at-risk because of their depression, expressed suicide ideation, or previous suicide attempts. This paper serves…
Gromatsky, Molly A; Waszczuk, Monika A; Perlman, Greg; Salis, Katie Lee; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman
Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), a significant risk factor for suicidal behavior, is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and personality traits, particularly those characterized by poor self-regulation. Some parental psychopathology and personality traits have also been identified as risk factors for adolescent NSSI, but specific parental characteristics and mechanisms involved in this association have not been systematically examined. The current study comprehensively investigated the contribution of parental psychopathology and personality to adolescent NSSI using data from the baseline wave of the Adolescent Development of Emotion and Personality Traits (ADEPT) study of 550 adolescent girls (mean age = 14.39 years, SD = 0.63) and their biological parents. We first investigated whether parental lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, and personality and clinical (rumination, self-criticism, emotional reliance) traits were associated with adolescent NSSI. We also tested whether adolescent history of psychiatric illness, personality, and clinical traits mediated the associations between parental characteristics and adolescent NSSI. Parental substance use disorder, adult-ADHD symptoms, self-criticism, and lower agreeableness and conscientiousness were associated with offspring's NSSI. These associations were mediated through adolescent characteristics. In contrast, parental mood and anxiety disorders and neuroticism were unrelated to adolescent NSSI. The results suggest that parental traits and disorders characterized by self-regulatory difficulties and lack of support constitute risk factors for self-injury in adolescent girls, acting via adolescent traits. This demonstrates that parental influences play a significant role in the etiology of adolescent NSSI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Song, Juyoung; Song, Tae Min; Seo, Dong-Chul; Jin, Jae Hyun
To investigate online search activity of suicide-related words in South Korean adolescents through data mining of social media Web sites as the suicide rate in South Korea is one of the highest in the world. Out of more than 2.35 billion posts for 2 years from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012 on 163 social media Web sites in South Korea, 99,693 suicide-related documents were retrieved by Crawler and analyzed using text mining and opinion mining. These data were further combined with monthly employment rate, monthly rental prices index, monthly youth suicide rate, and monthly number of reported bully victims to fit multilevel models as well as structural equation models. The link from grade pressure to suicide risk showed the largest standardized path coefficient (beta = .357, p < .001) in structural models and a significant random effect (p < .01) in multilevel models. Depression was a partial mediator between suicide risk and grade pressure, low body image, victims of bullying, and concerns about disease. The largest total effect was observed in the grade pressure to depression to suicide risk. The multilevel models indicate about 27% of the variance in the daily suicide-related word search activity is explained by month-to-month variations. A lower employment rate, a higher rental prices index, and more bullying were associated with an increased suicide-related word search activity. Academic pressure appears to be the biggest contributor to Korean adolescents' suicide risk. Real-time suicide-related word search activity monitoring and response system needs to be developed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jason R Randall
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Research on factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts has been conducted largely in developed countries. Research on West African countries in particular is lacking. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Global School-based Health Survey conducted in Benin in 2009. This was a cross-sectional study of three grades, spanning Junior and Senior High, which sampled a total of 2,690 adolescents. Data on the occurrence of demographic, psycho-social and socio-environmental risk factors were tested using multinomial logistic regression for their association with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. RESULTS: The survey indicated that 23.2% had thought about suicide and 28.3% had made a suicide attempt in the previous year. Anxiety, loneliness, being bullied, alcohol misuse, illicit drug use, and lack of parental support were independently related to the ideation outcomes, suicidal ideation without planning and suicidal ideation with planning. Multinomial regression analysis, using one suicide attempt and multiple suicide attempts as outcomes, revealed that female sex, anxiety, loneliness, being physically attacked, and illicit drug use were associated these outcomes. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of suicide attempts reported in the survey is relatively high. It is possible that there are cultural factors that could explain this finding. Our research indicates that many factors are related to the occurrence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among youth in Benin. Illicit drug use and violence in particular are associated with a high rate of suicide attempts in Benin. Measures to address these issues may reduce the risk of self-inflicted violence.
Zayas, Luis H.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Álvarez-Sánchez, Thyria; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.
We examined the role of acculturation, familism and Latina mother-daughter relations in suicide attempts by comparing 65 adolescents with recent suicide attempts and their mothers to 75 teens without any attempts and their mothers. Attempters and non-attempters were similar in acculturation and familistic attitudes but attempters report significantly less mutuality and communication with their mothers than non-attempters. Mothers of attempters reported lower mutuality and communication with t...
Mohammad Behnampoor 1 , Mohamad Reza Havasian2 , Halime Aali3 , Fatemeh Parooei4 , Morteza Salarzaei4 , Zohreh Mahmoodi
Addiction and drug abuse are among the issues that have been greatly adverted by the clinical psychologists and psychiatrists. Suicide attempt, like other social phenomena, is not uni-causal; a variety of factors affects this phenomenon. Thus, having an exact awareness of suicide factors and studying the importance of the factors seem necessary. The present research aims at studying suicidal thoughts, depression, anxiety, and stress among adolescent suicide attempters abusing drug and adolesc...
Seymour, Karen E; Jones, Richard N; Cushman, Grace K; Galvan, Thania; Puzia, Megan E; Kim, Kerri L; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P
Little is known about the bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying and differentiating suicide attempts from non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents. Adolescents who attempt suicide or engage in NSSI often report significant interpersonal and social difficulties. Emotional face recognition ability is a fundamental skill required for successful social interactions, and deficits in this ability may provide insight into the unique brain-behavior interactions underlying suicide attempts versus NSSI in adolescents. Therefore, we examined emotional face recognition ability among three mutually exclusive groups: (1) inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide (SA, n = 30); (2) inpatient adolescents engaged in NSSI (NSSI, n = 30); and (3) typically developing controls (TDC, n = 30) without psychiatric illness. Participants included adolescents aged 13-17 years, matched on age, gender and full-scale IQ. Emotional face recognition was evaluated using the diagnostic assessment of nonverbal accuracy (DANVA-2). Compared to TDC youth, adolescents with NSSI made more errors on child fearful and adult sad face recognition while controlling for psychopathology and medication status (ps face recognition between NSSI and SA groups. Secondary analyses showed that compared to inpatients without major depression, those with major depression made fewer errors on adult sad face recognition even when controlling for group status (p recognition errors on adult happy faces even when controlling for group status (p face recognition than TDC, but not inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide. Further results suggest the importance of psychopathology in emotional face recognition. Replication of these preliminary results and examination of the role of context-dependent emotional processing are needed moving forward.
Olliac, Bertrand; Ouss, Lisa; Charrier, Annaëlle
Suicide remains one of the leading causes of death among young people, and suicidal ideation and behavior are relatively common in healthy and clinical populations. Suicide risk in childhood and adolescence is often approached from the perspective of nosographic categories to which predictive variables for suicidal acts are often linked. The cascading effects resulting from altered clock genes in a pediatric population could participate in biological rhythm abnormalities and the emergence of suicide attempts through impaired regulation of circadian rhythms and emotional states with neurodevelopmental effects. Also, early trauma and stressful life events can alter the expression of clock genes and contribute to the emergence of suicide attempts. Alteration of clock genes might lead to desynchronized and abnormal circadian rhythms impairing in turn the synchronization between external and internal rhythms and therefore the adaptation of the individual to his/her internal and external environment with the development of psychiatric disorders associated with increased risk for suicide attempts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miller, Adam Bryant; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Giletta, M.; Hastings, Paul D.; Rudolph, Karen D.; Nock, Matthew K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Objective: This study tests a novel, within-person model that reexamines depression and stress as risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescent girls with and without sexual/physical abuse histories. Method: This longitudinal study includes data from 220 adolescent girls between
Vadini, Francesco; Calella, Giulio; Pieri, Alessandro; Ricci, Elena; Fulcheri, Mario; Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; De Risio, Alfredo; Sciacca, Antonina; Santilli, Francesca; Parruti, Giustino
Worldwide, prisoners are at high risk of suicide. Reducing the number of suicides in jails and prisons is an international priority. Several risk factors for suicide attempts, such as historical, prison-related, psychosocial and clinical factors, have been found in prisoners. We assessed whether demographic, conviction-related and neuro-behavioral variables might be associated with current suicide risk and lifetime suicide attempts in two large central Italy prisons. On a preliminary sample of 254 detainees within an ongoing project, we assessed whether demographic, conviction-related, psychiatric, cognitive variables and illness comorbidity might be associated with current suicide risk and lifetime suicide attempts in two large central Italy prisons. Psychiatric disorders and suicide risk was evaluated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. We also have identified the detainees with clear-cut previous suicide attempts. The cognitive function was assessed with a brief neuropsychological battery including trail making A, trail making B, Digit Span, and Symbol Digit test. Impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Cumulative illness was evaluated with Charlson Comorbidity Index. Impairment in global cognitive function was the strongest predictor of both high suicide risk and lifetime suicide attempts (both p impulsivity, and illness comorbidity. Limitation LIMITATION: Cross-sectional study design and relatively small sample size. Cognitive deficits may improve our understanding of the suicidal vulnerability and should be systematically included in the assessment of suicide risk, as potential predictors of suicidal acts and targets of preventive interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pan, Pei-Yin; Yeh, Chin-Bin
To explore the role of Internet addiction in the development of self-harm/suicidal behavior among adolescents after 1-year of follow-up. We conducted this 1-year, prospective cohort study of 1861 adolescents (mean age 15.93 years) attending a senior high school in Taiwan; 1735 respondents (93.2%) were classified as having no history of self-harm/suicidal attempts in the initial assessment and were referred to as the "noncase" cohort. The Chen Internet Addiction Scale was used to identify individuals with Internet addiction. The participants were evaluated for self-harm/suicidal behavior again 1 year later and the "noncase" cohort was selected for statistical analysis. To examine the relationship between Internet addiction and self-harm/suicidal behavior, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using Internet addiction at baseline as the predictor for newly developed self-harm/suicidal behavior in the next year, after adjustment for potential confounding variables. The prevalence rate of Internet addiction at baseline was 23.0%. There were 59 students (3.9%) who were identified as having developed new self-harm/suicidal behaviors on follow-up assessments. After controlling for the effects of potential confounders, the relative risk of newly emerging self-harm/suicidal behavior for participants who were classified as Internet addicted was 2.41 (95% CI 1.16-4.99, P = .018) when compared with those without Internet addiction. Our findings indicate that Internet addiction is prospectively associated with the incidence of self-harm/suicidal behavior in adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Leeuwen, Nikki; Rodgers, Rachel; Régner, Isabelle; Chabrol, Henri
This study explored the contributions of sociocultural and psychopathological factors to suicidal ideation among adolescents. A sample of 292 French high school students with an immigrant background completed a questionnaire assessing suicidal ideation, borderline personality traits, depressive symptoms, parental attachment, life events, acculturation orientations, ethnic identity, cannabis and alcohol consumption, socioeconomic status and academic failure. Although stressful life events, depressive symptoms, and individualism were risk factors, and attachment to parents a protective factor for both boys and girls, some gender differences emerged. Borderline traits (risk factor), assimilation and marginalization (both protective factors) were significant predictors only among girls.
Miloseva, Lence; Cuijpers, Pim; Stojcev, Saso; Niklewski, Gunter; Richter, Kneginja; Jovevska, Svetlana; Arsova, Roza; Serafimov, Aleksandar
Introduction: In recent years, researchers and clinicians do not treat passive suicidal ideation as a clinically relevant risk factor for suicide, while underestimating the strength of this desire to die, compared with making a plan for suicide in individuals having active suicidal ideation. This research study is clinically prospective, cross-sequential, but also partly retrospective because it involves also variables from the past, such as patients’ history data (number of suicidal attempts...
The use of suicide risk screening tools is a critical component of a comprehensive approach to suicide risk assessment. Since nurses frequently spend more time with patients than any other healthcare professional, they are in key positions to detect and prevent suicidal behavior in youth. To inform nurses about suicide risk screening tools for the youth population. Suicide risk screening tools are research-based standardized instruments that are used to identify people who may be at risk for suicide. A literature search was performed using the Athabasca University Library Resource, the databases of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar. Nurses are cautioned to utilize suicide risk screening tools as only part of the suicide risk assessment in youth populations and avoid the danger of relying on tools that may result in a blind application of evidence to the detriment of clinical experience and judgement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lian, Qiguo; Zuo, Xiayun; Mao, Yanyan; Luo, Shan; Zhang, Shucheng; Tu, Xiaowen; Lou, Chaohua; Zhou, Weijin
Although there is much literature on adolescent suicide, combined effects of depression and anorexia nervosa on suicide were rarely investigated. The aims of this study are to examine the association between anorexia nervosa and suicidal thoughts and explore the interaction between anorexia nervosa and depression. This is a cross-sectional study, in the study, a sample of 8,746 Chinese adolescents was selected by multistage stratified method in 2012/2013 from 20 middle schools in 7 provinces across China Mainland. Multilevel logistic model was introduced to explore association between anorexia nervosa and suicidal thoughts. And subgroup analyses were conducted on participants with or without depression. Multilevel logistic model revealed that demographic variables, including academic achievement, were not the predictive risk factors of suicidal thoughts. Those who suffered from worse severity of perceived anorexia nervosa were at increased risk of thinking about suicide. The interaction between depression and anorexia nervosa was significant, however, subgroup analyses showed that the associations were significant only among the adolescents without depression. Our results indicate that all levels of anorexia nervosa serve as predictable indicators of suicidal thoughts in Chinese adolescents, and the effects of anorexia nervosa are modified by depression status.
Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Ertelt, Troy W.; Miller, Alec L.; Claes, Laurence
Background: There is little research on how specific borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms relate to suicide attempts or suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) within adolescent populations, which is important to know given the recent proposal of an NSSI disorder. Even less well known is whether specific BPD symptoms distinguish NSSI…
Im, Jeong-Soo; Choi, Soon Ho; Hong, Duho; Seo, Hwa Jeong; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo
This study was conducted to examine differences in proximal risk factors and suicide methods by sex and age in the national suicide mortality data in Korea. Data were collected from the National Police Agency and the National Statistical Office of Korea on suicide completers from 2004 to 2006. The 31,711 suicide case records were used to analyze suicide rates, methods, and proximal risk factors by sex and age. Suicide rate increased with age, especially in men. The most common proximal risk factor for suicide was medical illness in both sexes. The most common proximal risk factor for subjects younger than 30 years was found to be a conflict in relationships with family members, partner, or friends. Medical illness was found to increase in prevalence as a risk factor with age. Hanging/Suffocation was the most common suicide method used by both sexes. The use of drug/pesticide poisoning to suicide increased with age. A fall from height or hanging/suffocation was more popular in the younger age groups. Because proximal risk factors and suicide methods varied with sex and age, different suicide prevention measures are required after consideration of both of these parameters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Richard T; Case, Brady G; Spirito, Anthony
Based on the interpersonal theory of suicide, pain habituation that occurs with injection substance use may raise risk for a suicide attempt. The current study tested whether injection substance use, relative to painless routes of substance administration, was related to greater risk for suicide attempts. We also assessed whether this risk was specific to suicide attempts and not suicidal ideation or suicide plans. Data on 2095 substance-using adolescents aged 12-17 who endorsed clinically significant depression symptoms and answered questions on suicidal thoughts and behavior were drawn from the 2004-2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a nationally representative household survey. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between injection substance use and suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts. Injection substance use was associated with suicide attempts (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.75-5.23) but not ideation or plans. These findings were not accounted for by sex, age, race/ethnicity, family income, abuse and dependence symptoms, and depression symptoms. Among ideators, injection substance use was associated with suicide attempts (OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.58-5.06), but not plans. Among suicide planners, injection substance use was associated with suicide attempts (OR = 5.16, 95% CI = 1.88-14.17). Consistent with the interpersonal theory of suicide, adolescent injection drug use was associated with specific risk for suicide attempts but not ideation or planning. Hence, consideration of the manner in which adolescents use substances is important in evaluating suicide risk in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zainum, Khairul; Cohen, Marta C
Suicide is a catastrophic event to both families and communities yet it is potentially preventable. This study aims to determine incidence and patterns of suicide in children and young adolescents in our region, raise awareness of this entity as a potentially preventable cause of death in this age group, and identify its possible associated risk factors. We retrospectively reviewed suicide cases presenting as sudden unexpected death in children and adolescents that underwent coronial post-mortems at our institution. This is the largest pathological review of completed suicide in children and young adolescents within a single institution in the United Kingdom. We identified 23 suicide cases during a 12 year period from 2003 to 2015, in which 18 cases (78%) were male and 5 cases (22%) were female. The age range was from 8 to 16 years (mean age 12.82 +/- 2.52 SD). With the exception of one case, all of the victims were Caucasian. The majority, 19 cases (81%), were found dead inside their place of residence, 15 of whom were discovered in their own bedrooms. Twenty-one cases (91%) died from neck compression due to hanging; 6 cases (26%) had used the cord of a dressing gown and 5 (22%) opted to use a belt as the ligature. Two cases (9%) that died from multiple-drug toxicity were female. In 7 cases (30.5%) there was evidence of self-harm and in 3 cases (13%) there was a history of previous suicide attempts. Petechial hemorrhages were found at autopsy in more than half of hanging victims and only three cases (14%) displayed dual distribution of post-mortem hypostasis (back and legs). Seven victims (30.5%) left some form of suicide message to family members and friends, 2 of which wrote the message on their arm. Parental separation, conflict with parents, and depression, were common amongst decedents prior to committing suicide. Substance abuse was uncommon in suicide within our cases. Valuable information is available from thorough review of suicide data in children and
Majdoub, Wael; Mosbahi, Amal; Naouar, Maroua; Beji, Meriem; Mannai, Jihene; Turki, Elyes
This study presents the characteristics of child and adolescent suicides which occurred in Kairouan, Tunisia. Data were collected from autopsy records of the Forensic Department of the University Hospital Ibn El Jazzar of Kairouan. General characteristics of suicides among children and adolescents (under the age of 18) between 2009 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 49 cases, with a female predominance (61.2%) and a mean age of 15.4 ± 2.1, were registered. Most of the victims were from rural areas (93.1%). In most cases, suicide occurred in the victim's home or the surrounding area (73.4%). The identified precipitating factors were family problems in 55.1%, and school issues in 12.2%. The most common suicide method was hanging (69.38%) for both genders, followed by self-immolation for males and poisoning for females, the majority using pesticides. This study offers useful information to understand the risk factors in Tunisian child and adolescent suicides and provides a basis for the development of urgently needed preventive strategies.
Park, Eun-Hee; Hong, Narei; Jon, Duk-In; Hong, Hyun Ju; Jung, Myung Hun
As South Korea has the highest incidence of completed suicides, the present study aimed to investigate the predictive power of the variables that have been associated with suicide attempts in Korean patients diagnosed with depression. Hundred participants were divided into two groups: suicide attempters (31%) and suicide non-attempters (69%). Participants with a history of more than one suicidal attempt were assigned to the suicide attempter group. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the predictive strengths of the variables that were likely to be associated with suicide attempts. After controlling for the effects of such variables as the severity of depressive symptoms, life stress events and impulsivity, the severity of past suicidal ideation was the most important predictive factor for discriminating suicide attempters from suicide non-attempters. The odds ratio for attempting suicide relative to not attempting suicide increased by a factor of 4.408 for each unit of increase in suicidal ideation. The present study suggests that the most severe suicidal ideation throughout one's entire life should not be overlooked and may be a major predictor of the risk of suicide.
Lewitzka, Ute; Doucette, Sarah; Seemüller, Florian; Grof, Paul; Duffy, Anne C
Suicidal behaviour in youth is a major public health concern worldwide, and youth in the early stages of a primary mood disorder are an identifiable high-risk population. Neurobiological research in youth at risk for suicidality has sought to investigate the most promising parameters from research in adults. The present paper provides an overview of the current findings of neurobiological research in children and adolescents with mood disorders and suicidality including genetic/epigenetic findings, neuro-hormonal and immunological investigations. Longitudinal research in high-risk youth is a powerful way to investigate the influences and their pathways in determining suicidal risk in the context of a developing mood disorder. In the meantime, there are clear clinical indicators of risk to help identify youth who would benefit from close surveillance and early intervention.
Hunt, Claire Y.
This document presents guidelines for school staff to use in responding to an adolescent suicide. It gives statistics on teenage suicides and suicide attempts and examines characteristics of high-risk adolescents. Behavior patterns associated with adolescent suicide are described, paying close attention to the patterns of depression, substance…
Holi, Matti Mikael; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Karlsson, Linnea; Tuisku, Virpi; Kiviruusu, Olli; Ruuttu, Titta; Marttunen, Mauri
Accurate assessment of suicidality is of major importance. We aimed to evaluate trained clinicians' ability to assess suicidality against a structured assessment made by trained raters. Treating clinicians classified 218 adolescent psychiatric outpatients suffering from a depressive mood disorder into three classes: 1-no suicidal ideation, 2-suicidal ideation, no suicidal acts, 3-suicidal or self-harming acts. This classification was compared with a classification with identical content derived from the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS-PL) made by trained raters. The convergence was assessed by kappa- and weighted kappa tests. The clinicians' classification to class 1 (no suicidal ideation) was 85%, class 2 (suicidal ideation) 50%, and class 3 (suicidal acts) 10% concurrent with the K-SADS evaluation (gamma2 = 37.1, df 4, p = 0.000). Weighted kappa for the agreement of the measures was 0.335 (CI = 0.198-0.471, p < 0.0001). The clinicians under-detected suicidal and self-harm acts, but over-detected suicidal ideation. There was only a modest agreement between the trained clinicians' suicidality evaluation and the K-SADS evaluation, especially concerning suicidal or self-harming acts. We suggest a wider use of structured scales in clinical and research settings to improve reliable detection of adolescents with suicidality.
Miller, Matthew; Barber, Catherine; White, Richard A; Azrael, Deborah
On an average day in the United States, more than 100 Americans die by suicide; half of these suicides involve the use of firearms. In this ecological study, we used linear regression techniques and recently available state-level measures of suicide attempt rates to assess whether, and if so, to what extent, the well-established relationship between household firearm ownership rates and suicide mortality persists after accounting for rates of underlying suicidal behavior. After controlling for state-level suicide attempt rates (2008-2009), higher rates of firearm ownership (assessed in 2004) were strongly associated with higher rates of overall suicide and firearm suicide, but not with nonfirearm suicide (2008-2009). Furthermore, suicide attempt rates were not significantly related to gun ownership levels. These findings suggest that firearm ownership rates, independent of underlying rates of suicidal behavior, largely determine variations in suicide mortality across the 50 states. Our results support the hypothesis that firearms in the home impose suicide risk above and beyond the baseline risk and help explain why, year after year, several thousand more Americans die by suicide in states with higher than average household firearm ownership compared with states with lower than average firearm ownership.
assessing behavioral and cognitive markers of risk for suicide among U.S. Army National Guard personnel. Journal of Environmental Research and Public Policy...effective ways to prevent injury and death from suicide • No reliable method for predicting suicide risk in military personnel • Behavioral (e.g...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0632 TITLE: Technologies for Assessing Behavioral and Cognitive Markers of Suicide Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Brian
Christiansen, Erik; Agerbo, Esben; Bilenberg, Niels
BACKGROUND: SSRIs are widely used in the treatment of mental illness for both children and adults. Studies have found a slightly increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in young people using SSRIs but SSRIs' impact on risk for suicides in youth is not well-established. AIM......: Is there indication that SSRIs might raise risk for suicide attempts in young people? METHODS: We used an observational register-based historical cohort design, a large cohort of all Danish individuals born in 1983-1989 (n = 392,458) and a propensity score approach to analyse the impact from SSRIs on risk for suicide...... attempts. Every suicide attempt and redeemed prescription of SSRIs was analysed by Cox regression. RESULTS: We found a significant overlap between redeeming a prescription on SSRIs and subsequent suicide attempt. The risk for suicide attempt was highest in the first 3 months after redeeming the first...
Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Choi, Hyo Geun
Although an association between energy drinks and suicide has been suggested, few prior studies have considered the role of emotional factors including stress, sleep, and school performance in adolescents. This study aimed to evaluate the association of energy drinks with suicide, independent of possible confounders including stress, sleep, and school performance. In total, 121,106 adolescents with 13-18 years olds from the 2014 and 2015 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were surveyed for age, sex, region of residence, economic level, paternal and maternal education level, sleep time, stress level, school performance, frequency of energy drink intake, and suicide attempts. Subjective stress levels were classified into severe, moderate, mild, a little, and no stress. Sleep time was divided into 6 groups: sleep time, stress level, and school performance with suicide attempts and the frequency of energy drink intake were analyzed using multiple and ordinal logistic regression analysis, respectively, with complex sampling. The relationship between frequency of energy drink intake and suicide attempts was analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. Higher stress levels, lack of sleep, and low school performance were significantly associated with suicide attempts (each P stress level, abnormal sleep time, and low school performance were also proportionally related with higher energy drink intake (P stress, inadequate sleep, and low school performance were related with more energy drink intake and suicide attempts in Korean adolescents. Frequent energy drink intake was positively related with suicide attempts, even after adjusting for stress, sleep time, and school performance.
Chang, Edward C; Wan, Liangqiu; Li, Pengzi; Guo, Yuncheng; He, Jiaying; Gu, Yu; Wang, Yingjie; Li, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Zhan; Sun, Yingrui; Batterbee, Casey N-H; Chang, Olivia D; Lucas, Abigael G; Hirsch, Jameson K
This study examined loneliness and future orientation as predictors of suicidal risk, namely, depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, in a sample of 228 college students (54 males and 174 females). Results of regression analyses indicated that loneliness was a significant predictor of both indices of suicidal risk. The inclusion of future orientation was found to significantly augment the prediction model of both depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, even after accounting for loneliness. Noteworthy, beyond loneliness and future orientation, the Loneliness × Future Orientation interaction term was found to further augment both prediction models of suicidal risk. Consistent with the notion that future orientation is an important buffer of suicidal risk, among lonely students, those with high future orientation, compared to low future orientation, were found to report significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms and suicide ideation. Some implications of the present findings for studying both risk and protective factors associated with suicidal risk in young adults are discussed.
Roush, Jared F; Brown, Sarah L; Jahn, Danielle R; Mitchell, Sean M; Taylor, Nathanael J; Quinnett, Paul; Ries, Richard
Approximately 20% of suicide decedents have had contact with a mental health professional within 1 month prior to their death, and the majority of mental health professionals have treated suicidal individuals. Despite limited evidence-based training, mental health professionals make important clinical decisions related to suicide risk assessment and management. The current study aimed to determine the frequency of suicide risk assessment and management practices and the association between fear of suicide-related outcomes or comfort working with suicidal individuals and adequacy of suicide risk management decisions among mental health professionals. Mental health professionals completed self-report assessments of fear, comfort, and suicide risk assessment and management practices. Approximately one third of mental health professionals did not ask every patient about current or previous suicidal thoughts or behaviors. Further, comfort, but not fear, was positively associated with greater odds of conducting evidence-based suicide risk assessments at first appointments and adequacy of suicide risk management practices with patients reporting suicide ideation and a recent suicide attempt. The study utilized a cross-sectional design and self-report questionnaires. Although the majority of mental health professionals report using evidenced-based practices, there appears to be variability in utilization of evidence-based practices.
Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. Lai; Shek, Daniel T. L.
Based on the responses of 5,557 Chinese secondary students in Hong Kong, the relationships among perceived hopelessness, family functioning, and suicidal ideation were examined. Results showed that suicidal ideation was positively related to hopelessness, but negatively related to parent-adolescent communication. Compared with father-adolescent…
Becker, Stephen P; Withrow, Amanda R; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron M; Fite, Paula J; Greening, Leilani
Although identified as a significant public health concern, few studies have examined correlates of suicide risk in school-aged children. Recent studies show a relation between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms and a range of adverse outcomes linked to suicidal ideation, including depression, emotion dysregulation, lowered self-esteem, and peer problems/social withdrawal, yet no study to date has examined SCT in relation to suicide risk. We tested the hypothesis that SCT would be associated with suicide risk in a sample of 95 psychiatrically hospitalized children (74% male; 62% black) between the ages of 8 and 12 (M = 10.01, SD = 1.50). Parents completed measures of their child's psychiatric symptoms, including SCT and depression, as well as a measure of their own psychopathology. Children completed measures assessing loneliness and depression. Both parents and children completed measures of suicide risk. White children reported greater suicide risk than nonwhite children. After controlling for demographic characteristics, loneliness, parental psychopathology, and correlated psychiatric symptoms, including both parent- and child self-reported depressive symptoms, SCT remained uniquely associated with children's suicide risk. Results were consistent across both parent and child measures of suicide risk. This multi-informant study provides strong preliminary support for an association between SCT symptoms and suicide risk in psychiatrically hospitalized children, above and beyond loneliness, depression, and demographic characteristics. Findings are discussed in the context of the interpersonal theory of suicide. Additional studies are needed to replicate and extend these findings, with a particular need for studies that examine the cognitive processes and daydreaming content of individuals displaying elevated SCT symptomatology. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Full Text Available Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11-25 years expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care.
Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Niedzwiedz, Claire; Platt, Steve
Suicide clusters, although uncommon, cause great concern in the communities in which they occur. We searched the world literature on suicide clusters and describe the risk factors and proposed psychological mechanisms underlying the spatio-temporal clustering of suicides (point clusters). Potential risk factors include male gender, being an…
Shilubane, Hilda N; Ruiter, Robert A C; van den Borne, Bart; Sewpaul, Ronel; James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S
Attempted and completed suicide constitute a major public health problem among young people world-wide, including South Africa (SA). Suicide attempt and completed suicide increase during the adolescent period. One in 5 adolescents considers attempting suicide, but statistics are frequently unreliable. Data for this study were derived from the 2002 and 2008 South African Youth Risk Behaviour Surveys (YRBS). The study population comprised grades 8, 9, 10 and 11 students in governmental schools in the nine provinces of SA (N = 10,699 in 2002 and 10,270 in 2008). Key outcome measures were suicide ideation and suicide attempts. Of the total sample, 18% of the students in 2002 and 19% in 2008 reported to have seriously considered and/or made a plan to commit suicide during the past six months (Suicide ideation), whereas 18.5% of students in 2002 and 21.8% in 2008 reported that they had attempted suicide at least 1 time during the past six months. On both suicide measures girls have higher prevalence scores than boys, and older school learners score higher than younger learners. In addition, 32% of the learners reported feelings of sadness or hopelessness. These feelings contributed significantly to the explanation of suicide ideation and suicide attempt next to being the victim or actor in violent acts and illegal substance use. The prevalence of suicide ideation and suicide attempts among South African adolescents is high and seems to be influenced by a wide spectrum of factors at the demographic, psychological and behavioural level. Hence, more research is needed to determine the behavioural and psychological determinants of suicide among youngsters in order to develop comprehensive intervention strategies for suicide prevention and care.
... Share Which Kids are at Highest Risk for Suicide? Page Content Article Body No child is immune, ... who have lost a friend or relative to suicide. Studies show that a considerable number of youth ...
A comprehensive approach to suicide prevention is needed to effectively address the problem of teen suicide. This article describes three levels of prevention (primary prevention, intervention, and postvention) and provides practical strategies that community, mental, and social health professionals can use within each level to help prevent…
Kim, Bora; Lee, Joongyub; Kim, Eun-Young; Hyun Kim, Se; Ha, Kyooseob; Shin Kim, Young; Leventhal, Bennett L; Min Ahn, Yong
We provide an opportunity for implementing preventive interventions to decrease suicide mortality among prior suicide attempters. We aim to identify sex-specific high risk periods and factors for later suicide death among suicide attempters. 8537 suicide attempters of Korea National Suicide Survey were collected from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011 and data on suicide death was obtained as of December 31, 2012. The risk period and risk factors for later suicide death was computed by Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and by plotting the hazard function using the Epanechnikov Kernal smoothing method and cox proportional hazard regression modeling. The hazard for later suicide death was significant up to 10 months for females and 20 months for males. Age 50-69 years (HR, 3.29; [CI: 1.80-6.02] and not being intoxicated with alcohol (HR, 1.94 [1.27-2.97])) in male attempters were significant risk factors for later suicide death. Risk for later suicide death was significantly increased during the first full year following index attempts for all with an addition 8 months of risk for males, especially those of advanced age who were sober at the time of attempt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Molnar, Beth E.; Nock, Matthew K.
Background: We report the prevalence and associations between traumatic events and suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts among Mexican adolescents. Methods: The data are from a representative multistage probability household survey of 3,005 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years residing in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area that was…
Pan, Lisa A.; Batezati-Alves, Silvia C.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Akkal, Dalila; Hassel, Stefanie; Lakdawala, Sara; Brent, David A.; Phillips, Mary L.
Objectives: Impaired attentional control and behavioral control are implicated in adult suicidal behavior. Little is known about the functional integrity of neural circuitry supporting these processes in suicidal behavior in adolescence. Method: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in 15 adolescent suicide attempters with a history of…
Linden, Stephan; Bussing, Regina; Kubilis, Paul; Gerhard, Tobias; Segal, Richard; Shuster, Jonathan J; Winterstein, Almut G
Antidepressant effects on increased suicidality in children have raised public concern in recent years. Approved in 2002 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment, the selective noradrenalin-reuptake-inhibitor atomoxetine was initially investigated for the treatment of depression. In post-hoc analyses of clinical trial data, atomoxetine has been associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation in children and adolescents. We analyzed whether the observed increased risk of suicidal ideation in clinical trials translates into an increased risk of suicidal events in pediatric patients treated with atomoxetine compared with stimulants in 26 Medicaid programs. Employing a retrospective cohort design, we used propensity score-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the risk of suicide and suicide attempt in pediatric patients initiating treatment with atomoxetine compared with stimulants from 2002 to 2006. The first-line treatment cohort included 279 315 patients. During the first year of follow-up, the adjusted hazard ratio for current atomoxetine use compared with current stimulant use was 0.95 (95% CI 0.47-1.92, P = .88). The second-line treatment cohort included 220 215 patients. During the first year of follow-up, the adjusted hazard ratio for current atomoxetine use compared with current stimulant use was 0.71 (95% CI 0.30-1.67, P = .43). First- and second-line treatment of youths age 5 to 18 with atomoxetine compared with stimulants was not significantly associated with an increased risk of suicidal events. The low incidence of suicide and suicide attempt resulted in wide confidence intervals and did not allow stratified analysis of high-risk groups or assessment of suicidal risk associated with long-term use of atomoxetine. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available Understanding suicidality has proven challenging given the complex aetiology in early childhood. Being able to accurately predict groups at increased risk of developing suicidal thoughts may aid in the development of targeted prevention programs that mitigate increased vulnerability. Further, the predictors of suicidal thoughts may be shared with other outcomes in adolescence. Previous research has linked many factors to suicidality, so the objective of this study was to consider how these factors may act together to increase risk of suicidal thoughts and other non-mental health outcomes.Two longitudinal datasets were used in this analysis: the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY and the Avon Longitudinal Survey of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. A Classification and Regression Tree model comprised of 75 factors describing early childhood was constructed to identify subgroups of adolescents at high risk of suicidal thoughts in the NLSCY and was validated in ALSPAC. These subgroups were investigated to see if they also had elevated rates of antisocial behaviour, substance misuse, poor physical health, poor mental health, risky health behaviours, and/or poor academic performance.The sensitivity was calculated to be 22·7%, specificity was 89·2%, positive predictive value 17·8%, and negative predictive value 91·8% and had similar accuracy in the validation dataset. The models were better at predicting other adverse outcomes compared to suicidal thoughts.There are groups of risk factors present in early life that can predict higher risk of suicidality in adolescence. Notably, these factors were also predictive of a range of adverse outcomes in adolescence.
Full Text Available Although suicide among childhood cancer survivors is rare, there is still a significantly higher risk in this population than in healthy adolescents. A 17-year-old girl cured of Burkitt lymphoma committed suicide after completing her treatment. She had never previously shown signs of psychological suffering and was in good general health. This case made the operators wonder how this tragic possibility might be prevented. It is essential for the ongoing monitoring of the psychological and social suffering of young people during follow-up programs to be assured by a multidisciplinary team involved in the patient′s global care.
Aim of the study: To investigate the possibilities of planning, succession and development of aid for adolescents in Kaunas city who have tried to commit suicide. Objectives: 1. to define the main stages in providing help for adolescents who have tried to commit suicide; 2. to clarify interdepartmental obstacles providing help for adolescents in crisis; 3. to formulate recommendations for the development of aid for adolescents in Kaunas who have tried to commit suicide. Methods: Qualit...
Ewing, E Stephanie Krauthamer; Diamond, Guy; Levy, Suzanne
Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) is a manualized family-based intervention designed for working with depressed adolescents, including those at risk for suicide, and their families. It is an empirically informed and supported treatment. ABFT has its theoretical underpinnings in attachment theory and clinical roots in structural family therapy and emotion focused therapies. ABFT relies on a transactional model that aims to transform the quality of adolescent-parent attachment, as a means of providing the adolescent with a more secure relationship that can support them during challenging times generally, and the crises related to suicidal thinking and behavior, specifically. This article reviews: (1) the theoretical foundations of ABFT (attachment theory, models of emotional development); (2) the ABFT clinical model, including training and supervision factors; and (3) empirical support.
Suicide can be defined as intentional self-inflicted death. 1 It is a serious cause of mortality worldwide. Suicide is considered as a psychiatric emergency and the awareness of the seriousness of suicide in our society should not be overlooked. It is a significant cause of death worldwide.1 It accounts for about 30,000 deaths ...
Full Text Available We propose three current models, formulated over the last decade and not yet published in Russian, focused on teenage suicide: the development model of suicidal behavior in adolescents (J.A. Bridge, T.R. Goldstein, D.A. Brent; interpersonal model of (T.E. Joiner; some recent developments in the cognitive theory (A. Spirito, J.D. Matthews, A. Wenzel, A.T. Beck. Four groups of psychological aid targets for adolescents with suicidal tendencies are revealed: 1 targets of the current emotional state of a teenager (feelings of abandonment, self-perception as a burden to the loved ones, anxiety, hopelessness, heartache; 2 targets affecting personal predispositions (primitive defense mechanisms, impulsivity, aggression; 3 targets associated with cognitive functioning (cognitive rigidity, black-and-white thinking, thinking errors; and 4 targets reflecting a need to work with behavioral manifestations (narrow range of coping strategies used.
Haas, Ann P.; Eliason, Mickey; Mays, Vickie M.; Mathy, Robin M.; Cochran, Susan D.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.; Silverman, Morton M.; Fisher, Prudence W.; Hughes, Tonda; Rosario, Margaret; Russell, Stephen T.; Malley, Effie; Reed, Jerry; Litts, David A.; Haller, Ellen; Sell, Randall L.; Remafedi, Gary; Bradford, Judith; Beautrais, Annette L.; Brown, Gregory K.; Diamond, Gary M.; Friedman, Mark S.; Garofalo, Robert; Turner, Mason S.; Hollibaugh, Amber; Clayton, Paula J.
Despite strong indications of elevated risk of suicidal behavior in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people, limited attention has been given to research, interventions or suicide prevention programs targeting these populations. This article is a culmination of a three-year effort by an expert panel to address the need for better understanding of suicidal behavior and suicide risk in sexual minority populations, and stimulate the development of needed prevention strategies, interventions and policy changes. This article summarizes existing research findings, and makes recommendations for addressing knowledge gaps and applying current knowledge to relevant areas of suicide prevention practice. PMID:21213174
Kposowa, Augustine J
The purpose of the study was to examine the association of suicide rates, firearm ownership, political conservatism, religious integration at the state level, and individual suicide risk. Social structural and social learning and social integration theories were theoretical frameworks employed. It was hypothesized that higher suicide rates, higher state firearm availability, and state conservatism elevate individual suicide risk. Data were pooled from the Multiple Cause of Death Files. Multilevel logistic regression models were fitted to all deaths occurring in 2000 through 2004 by suicide. The state suicide rate significantly elevated individual suicide risk (AOR = 1.042, CI = 1.037, 1.046). Firearm availability at the state level was associated with significantly higher odds of individual suicide (AOR = 1.004, CI = 1.003, 1.006). State political conservatism elevated the odds of individual suicides (AOR = 1.005, CI = 1.003, 1.007), while church membership at the state level reduced individual odds of suicide (AOR = 0.995, CI = 0.993, 0.996). The results held even after controlling for socioeconomic and demographic variables at the individual level. It was concluded that the observed association between individual suicide odds and national suicide rates, and firearm ownership cannot be discounted. Future research ought to focus on integrating individual level data and contextual variables when testing for the impact of firearm ownership. Support was found for social learning and social integration theories.
Pérez-Olmos, Isabel; Cruz, Doris Lorena Téllez; Traslaviña, Ángela Liliana Vélez; Ibáñez-Pinilla, Milcíades
To establish the probability for suicide risk and/or mental disorders, together with related factors among high school students in 3 schools in Bogota. Cross sectional study of 309 adolescents. The average age was 13.83 ± 0.9, female dominance (58.6%) and a 3(rd) socioeconomic stratum (68.3%). The suicidal risk behavioral probability and/or mental symptoms was 47.6%, 26.5% exhibited some suicide manifestations, 14.23% had experienced suicidal ideas in the last 3 months, 3.55% had had suicide attempts at least once in life, and 8.73% had suicidal ideas in the last 3 months with suicide attempts. The risk of suicidal behavior and/or mental disorders was explained jointly by depression (OR=27.9, 95% CI: 3.5-223. 1), low self-esteem (OR=11.8, 95% CI: 2.5-56.5), severe family dysfunction (OR=3.4, 95%CI 1.2-9.7), being female (OR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-3.8) and being 15 or older (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 0.967-3.9). Psychological abuse followed by physical mistreatment was associated with suicidal behavior and /or mental illness while good family relationships were associated to lower probability. Depression, low self-esteem, severe family dysfunction, female gender, older age (≥15) and domestic violence are risk factors associated with suicide and/or mental disorders in adolescents; good family relationships are associated with lower risk. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Familiar, Itziar; Nock, Matthew K.; Wang, Philip S.
Background We report the lifetime and 12-month prevalence and associations of mental health treatment among Mexican adolescents with suicide-related outcomes (SROs; including ideation, plans, gestures and attempts). Methods A representative multistage probability household survey of 3005 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years residing in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area was carried out in 2005. Discrete time survival analyses were used to assess the relationships between SROs and receiving treatment for emotional, alcohol, or drug problems. Results The prevalence of lifetime service use among respondents with SROs was 35% for those with ideation only, 44% for those with ideation and plan, 49% for those with gesture and 50% for those with attempt; the prevalence of 12-month service use was 10%, 24%, 6% and 21%, respectively. Timing between onset of SRO and receiving treatment for emotional, alcohol, or drug problems showed that about 50% of adolescents will have contact with a service provider before developing any SRO. Healthcare professionals were the most likely to be consulted, followed by school-based programs. Limitations This survey was limited to adolescents living in one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world and the analyses used data on retrospectively reported ages of onset that are subject to recall errors. Conclusions Most suicidal adolescents do not receive treatment, and many adolescents develop their suicidality in spite of prior contacts with service providers. Interventions to increase treatment, prevention, and monitoring are sorely needed for this vulnerable population. PMID:19411113
Full Text Available It is known in the literature that the incidence and prevalence of suicide and attempted suicide in psychiatric patients is significantly higher than in the general population. The paper examined risk factors for suicidal behavior in the category of admitted patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of sleep disorders and affective (Unipolar resp. Bipolar depression. Study activated by 80 patients, 40 in both diagnostic groups received treatment at the Special Psychiatric Hospital in Gornja Toponica near Nis. The work methodology used are: psychiatric interview, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, and the C-SSRS (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale- assessment tool that assesses suicidal ideation and behavior. The study results show that there is a relationship between suicidal behavior (suicide attempts and suicidal ideation and the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, positive history of previous suicide attempts, so that these factors are stronger, to the degree of suicidality higher. On this sample, clearly suicidal behavior, with the same purpose, intensity of suicidal thoughts and medical impairment after suicide attempts were significantly more frequent in patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder in the depressive phase of the illness. Patients with a previous suicide attempt, and poor personal and social circumstances had a higher rate of attempted suicide.
The Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by an atypical sociability, alterations in communication, restricted interests and stereotypies, with adding affective and adaptative disabilities. The suicidal behaviors are frequently observed in the adolescents and adults with an ASD without intellectual deficience. However, the clinical research on the topic is limited and the diagnosis not assessed in the emergency units. Among the individual risk factors of the suicidal behavior in ASD patients, mood and anxiety disorders are found as well as a familial affective disorder history. The intimidation and the lack of socio-professional integration were also reported as environnemental risk factors. Laters tudies taking into account the cognitive characteristics would permit to investigate the suicidal phenomenology in ASD patients.
Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yu, Mi; Kim, Kyoung-Eun
The purpose of this study is to test a model linking adolescents' experience of violence and peer support to their happiness and suicidal ideation. The participants were high school students in Seoul, and in Kyungi, and Chungnam Provinces in Korea. The Conflict Tactics Scale, School Violence Scale, Oxford Happiness Inventory, and Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire were administered to just over 1000 adolescents. The model was tested using a path analysis technique within structural equation modeling. The model fit indices suggest that the revised model is a better fit for the data than the original hypothesized model. The experience of violence had a significant negative direct effect and peer support had a significant positive direct effect on their happiness. Happiness had a significant negative effect and the experience of violence had a significant positive effect on suicidal ideation. These findings demonstrate the fundamental importance of reducing exposure of violence to adolescents, and that increasing peer support and their happiness may be the key to adolescent suicidal ideation prevention. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Arslan, Mustafa; Akcan, Ramazan; Hilal, Ahmet; Batuk, Hulya; Cekin, Necmi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the general properties of suicide among children and adolescents in our region, and to evaluate the results in the light of the literature. The autopsy records of the morgue of the Adana branch of the Turkish Forensic Medicine Council were investigated retrospectively. Focus of the study was shaped by…
Perez-Smith, Alina; Spirito, Anthony; Boergers, Julie
Adolescents (N=48) who attempted suicide were administered measures of hopelessness and depression. Those living in neighborhoods with weak social networks reported higher levels of hopelessness, even after controlling for socioeconomic backgrounds and depression. Findings suggest that the environmental context may play a role in the emotional…
Berg, Rachelle; Hendricks, Bret; Bradley, Loretta
Major ethical considerations must be taken into account when providing counseling services to suicidal adolescents and their families. This article explores these ethical issues and the American Counseling Association and International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors ethical codes relevant to these issues. Related liability and…
Biddle, Virginia Sue; Sekula, L. Kathleen; Zoucha, Rick; Puskar, Kathryn R.
Introduction Nurse practitioners have the power to detect suicide risk and prevent suicide, a problem plaguing rural areas of the United States. Suicide risk assessment can be completed using the HEADSS (Home, Education, Activities, Drug use and abuse, Sexual behavior, and Suicidality and depression) interview instrument. The purpose of this study was to determine if HEADSS is appropriate for guiding suicide risk assessment of rural adolescents. Method High school students in Southwestern Pennsylvania completed qualitative questions from the Child Behavior Checklist and Coping Response Inventory as part of the Intervention to Promote Mental Health in Rural Youth. Qualitative content analysis was performed. Results Prominent themes identified by participants included academic performance, relationships, dislikes about school, friends, death, mental health, and the future. Several minor themes concerned safety. Most known risk factors for suicide were concerns of participants. Discussion The expansion of HEADSS to include death and safety should be considered. The modified version—HEADDSSS— can be used to guide suicide risk assessment of youth in rural Pennsylvania, ensuring both thoroughness of assessment and safety. PMID:20417887
Oexle, N; Rüsch, N
Mental illness, previous suicidal behavior and loss of a relative by suicide are strong risk factors for suicidality. Both mental illness and suicide are stigmatized, which is a burden for those affected and potentially contributes to suicidality among stigmatized individuals. Many consequences of stigma, e. g. social isolation, low self-esteem and hopelessness, are well-known predictors of suicidality. Interventions to reduce stigmatization might therefore be an important component of successful suicide prevention. This paper discusses the currently available knowledge regarding this hypothesis. Many studies confirmed the association between the stigmatization of mental illness and suicidality and there is initial evidence for the influence of suicide stigma and suicidality. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of anti-stigma interventions to reduce suicidality and prevent suicide has not yet been tested. Reducing stigma among members of the general population and mental health care professionals as well as programs to support individuals in coping with stigmatization could be important components of successful suicide prevention.
Min, Kyoung-Bok; Park, Shin-Goo; Hwang, Sang Hee; Min, Jin-Young
Although the effect of occupation or employment status on suicide risk is notable, there are few studies on the effect of precarious employment on suicide. We compared suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in precarious workers and their non-precarious counterparts using a representative sample from South Korea. The 2008 Korean Community Health Survey data were used for this study. Information was obtained on 52,161 participants (41,063 employees with non-precarious work and 11,098 employees with precarious work). The outcome of the logistic regression model was the presence of suicidal thoughts and attempts, and the independent variables were the demographics, socioeconomic status, and health status. Employees with precarious work were more likely to exhibit suicidal ideation (OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.28-1.55) and suicide attempts (OR=1.52; 95% CI, 1.02-2.27) than employees with non-precarious work. After controlling for income and education (Model 2) depressive feelings (Model 6), compared with unadjusted model, remained significant but the odds ratio was largely attenuated, indicating a strong association between suicidal risk and socioeconomic and feelings of depression. Precarious workers had a higher risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts than non-precarious workers. Our study suggests that precarious employment is an important risk for suicide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Soo Beom Choi; Wanhyung Lee; Jin-Ha Yoon; Jong-Uk Won; Deok Won Kim
Background Suicide is a serious public health concern worldwide, and the fourth leading cause of death in Korea. Few studies have focused on risk factors for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors and develop prediction models for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in the Korean population. Method This study included 1567 men and 3726 women aged 20?years and older who had suicidal ideation from the...
Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Crowell, Sheila E.; Hsiao, Ray C.
Although the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) has limited use as a marker of depression given inadequate sensitivity and specificity, it marks prospective risk for suicide among adults. However, few studies have examined associations between the DST, suicidal ideation, and self-inflicted injury (SII) among adolescents, even though SII is the single best predictor of eventual suicide. We evaluated the DST as a correlate of suicidal ideation and retrospective reports of self-inflicted injury (SII) among adolescent girls, ages 13–17, with histories of depression (n=28) or depression/self-harm (n=29). Lower post-DST cortisol was associated with suicidal ideation and SII, over-and-above parent-reports and combined parent-/self-reports of internalizing and externalizing behavior. These findings are consistent with recent acquired capacity models of stress-related psychopathology in which hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function is altered through epigenetic/allostatic mechanisms among vulnerable individuals who incur adversity early in life. PMID:25208812
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify associations between suicidal ideation and indicators of psychosocial distress and social-environmental factors in Thai adolescents. Using data from the Thailand Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS 2008, we assessed the prevalence of suicidal ideation and its associated factors among adolescents (N = 2,758. Overall the prevalence of suicidal ideation in the past 12 months was 8.8% (9.9% males and 7.7% females. Variables influenced the suicidal ideation in multivariable analysis were sadness (Odds Ratio = OR: 6.03; 95% Confidence Interval = CI (3.00–12.14, lack of parental attachment (OR = 2.26, CI = 1.09–4.67, current alcohol use (OR = 2.32, 1.21–4.44, and ever having had sexual intercourse (OR = 4.16, CI = 3.40–7.68. Psychosocial, health-risk behaviours and lack of protective factors appear to effect suicidal ideation in this youth population.
Full Text Available Introduction. Suicide has become a serious worldwide epidemic. Early detection of individual suicide risk in population is important for reducing suicide rates. Traditional methods are ineffective in identifying suicide risk in time, suggesting a need for novel techniques. This paper proposes to detect suicide risk on social media using a Chinese suicide dictionary.Methods. To build the Chinese suicide dictionary, eight researchers were recruited to select initial words from 4,653 posts published on Sina Weibo (the largest social media service provider in China and two Chinese sentiment dictionaries (HowNet and NTUSD. Then, another three researchers were recruited to filter out irrelevant words. Finally, remaining words were further expanded using a corpus-based method. After building the Chinese suicide dictionary, we tested its performance in identifying suicide risk on Weibo. First, we made a comparison of the performance in both detecting suicidal expression in Weibo posts and evaluating individual levels of suicide risk between the dictionary-based identifications and the expert ratings. Second, to differentiate between individuals with high and non-high scores on self-rating measure of suicide risk (Suicidal Possibility Scale, SPS, we built Support Vector Machines (SVM models on the Chinese suicide dictionary and the Simplified Chinese Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (SCLIWC program, respectively. After that, we made a comparison of the classification performance between two types of SVM models.Results and Discussion. Dictionary-based identifications were significantly correlated with expert ratings in terms of both detecting suicidal expression (r = 0.507 and evaluating individual suicide risk (r = 0.455. For the differentiation between individuals with high and non-high scores on SPS, the Chinese suicide dictionary (t1: F1 = 0.48; t2: F1 = 0.56 produced a more accurate identification than SCLIWC (t1: F1 = 0.41; t2: F1 = 0.48 on
Lv, Meizhen; Li, Ang; Liu, Tianli; Zhu, Tingshao
Introduction. Suicide has become a serious worldwide epidemic. Early detection of individual suicide risk in population is important for reducing suicide rates. Traditional methods are ineffective in identifying suicide risk in time, suggesting a need for novel techniques. This paper proposes to detect suicide risk on social media using a Chinese suicide dictionary. Methods. To build the Chinese suicide dictionary, eight researchers were recruited to select initial words from 4,653 posts published on Sina Weibo (the largest social media service provider in China) and two Chinese sentiment dictionaries (HowNet and NTUSD). Then, another three researchers were recruited to filter out irrelevant words. Finally, remaining words were further expanded using a corpus-based method. After building the Chinese suicide dictionary, we tested its performance in identifying suicide risk on Weibo. First, we made a comparison of the performance in both detecting suicidal expression in Weibo posts and evaluating individual levels of suicide risk between the dictionary-based identifications and the expert ratings. Second, to differentiate between individuals with high and non-high scores on self-rating measure of suicide risk (Suicidal Possibility Scale, SPS), we built Support Vector Machines (SVM) models on the Chinese suicide dictionary and the Simplified Chinese Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (SCLIWC) program, respectively. After that, we made a comparison of the classification performance between two types of SVM models. Results and Discussion. Dictionary-based identifications were significantly correlated with expert ratings in terms of both detecting suicidal expression (r = 0.507) and evaluating individual suicide risk (r = 0.455). For the differentiation between individuals with high and non-high scores on SPS, the Chinese suicide dictionary (t1: F 1 = 0.48; t2: F 1 = 0.56) produced a more accurate identification than SCLIWC (t1: F 1 = 0.41; t2: F 1 = 0.48) on different
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment of suicidality is of major importance. We aimed to evaluate trained clinicians' ability to assess suicidality against a structured assessment made by trained raters. Method Treating clinicians classified 218 adolescent psychiatric outpatients suffering from a depressive mood disorder into three classes: 1-no suicidal ideation, 2-suicidal ideation, no suicidal acts, 3-suicidal or self-harming acts. This classification was compared with a classification with identical content derived from the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS-PL made by trained raters. The convergence was assessed by kappa- and weighted kappa tests. Results The clinicians' classification to class 1 (no suicidal ideation was 85%, class 2 (suicidal ideation 50%, and class 3 (suicidal acts 10% concurrent with the K-SADS evaluation (γ2 = 37.1, df 4, p = 0.000. Weighted kappa for the agreement of the measures was 0.335 (CI = 0.198–0.471, p Conclusion There was only a modest agreement between the trained clinicians' suicidality evaluation and the K-SADS evaluation, especially concerning suicidal or self-harming acts. We suggest a wider use of structured scales in clinical and research settings to improve reliable detection of adolescents with suicidality.
Biddle, Virginia Sue; Kern, John, III; Brent, David A.; Thurkettle, Mary Ann; Puskar, Kathryn R.; Sekula, L. Kathleen
Pennsylvania's response to adolescent suicide is its Student Assistance Program (SAP). SAP has been funded for 27 years although no statewide outcome studies using case-level data have been conducted. This study used logistic regression to examine drug-/alcohol-related behaviors and suspensions of suicidal students who participated in SAP. Of the…
Kim, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Moo-Sik; Hong, Jee-Young
The suicide rate in Korea is increasing every year, and is the highest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Psychiatric patients in particular have a higher risk of suicide than other patients. This study was performed to evaluate determinants of mental health care utilization among individuals at high risk for suicide. Korea Health Panel data from 2009 to 2011 were used. Subjects were individuals at high risk of suicide who had suicidal ideation, a past history of psychiatric illness, or had utilized outpatient services for a psychiatric disorder associated with suicidal ideation within the past year. The chi-square test and hierarchical logistic regression were used to identify significant determinants of mental health care utilization. The total number of subjects with complete data on the variables in our model was 989. Individuals suffering from three or more chronic diseases used mental health care more frequently. Mental health care utilization was higher in subjects who had middle or high levels of educational attainment, were receiving Medical Aid, or had a large family size. It is important to control risk factors in high-risk groups as part of suicide prevention strategies. The clinical approach, which includes community-based intervention, entails the management of reduction of suicidal risk. Our study identified demographic characteristics that have a significant impact on mental health care utilization and should be considered in the development of suicide prevention strategies. Further studies should examine the effect of mental health care utilization on reducing suicidal ideation.
Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E; Applegate, Brooks; Dahlke, Allison; Overmyer, Meghan; Lahey, Benjamin B
Major depression and dysthymia in adolescence are associated with substantial disability, need for mental health services, and risk for recurrence. Concrete suicidal ideation and attempts during adolescence are particularly associated with significant distress, morbidity, and risk for completed suicide. To test the hypothesis that young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for depression and suicidal ideation and attempts during adolescence and to identify early predictors of which young children with ADHD are at greatest risk. Prospective follow-up study. Chicago, Illinois, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Patients A cohort of 125 children who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD at 4 to 6 years of age and 123 demographically matched comparison children without ADHD were prospectively followed up in 7 structured diagnostic assessments of depression and suicidal behavior in assessment years 6 through 14, spanning 9 through 18 years of age. DSM-IV criteria for depressive disorders and suicidal behavior. Children with ADHD at 4 to 6 years of age were at greatly increased risk for meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression or dysthymia (hazard ratio, 4.32) and for attempting suicide (hazard ratio, 3.60) through the age of 18 years relative to comparison children. There were marked variations in risk for these outcomes among children with ADHD, however. Within the ADHD group, children with each subtype of ADHD were at risk but for different adverse outcomes. Girls were at greater risk for depression and suicide attempts. Maternal depression and concurrent child emotional and behavior problems at 4 to 6 years of age predicted depression and suicidal behavior. All subtypes of ADHD in young children robustly predict adolescent depression and/or suicide attempts 5 to 13 years later. Furthermore, female sex, maternal depression, and concurrent symptoms at 4 to 6 years of age predict which children with ADHD are at greatest risk for
Full Text Available Assesment of sociodemographic and psychiatric characteristics of attempted suicide in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors and sociodemographic, psychiatric characteristics of adolescents and children who attempted suicide. Suicide attempters (range 7-15 years, fifty-eight cases who referred to Karadeniz Technical University, School of Medicine, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry outpatient clinic between January 2003 and January 2005 were analyzed retrospectively, in terms of sex, age, living residence, number of suicide attempts, educational achievement and level, psychiatric examinations, method of suicide, precipitating events, psychiatric evaluations of parents, socioeconomic status in our study. The majority of subjects were girls (89.7%. The commonest age group involved was 15-16 years (46.6%. Girls, aged 15-16 years, from middle-low socioeconomic status with low achievement at school, living in urban area were found to be risky group for suicide attempt. From the view of low tolerance to problems, insufficient coping abilites in youth; acquirement of problem solving capacity and aiding in familiar problems solutions may be efficient in prevention and treatment of suicide. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(6.000: 444-454
Whetstone, Lauren M; Morrissey, Susan L; Cummings, Doyle M
Suicide is one of the most common causes of death among young people. A report from the US Surgeon General called for strategies to prevent suicide, including increasing public awareness of suicide and risks factors, and enhancing research to understand risk and protective factors. Weight perception has been linked to depression and poor self-esteem in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived weight status and suicidal thoughts and actions by gender in middle school youth. All public middle school students in 4 eastern North Carolina counties presented, and with parental permission (n = 5174), completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Middle School Questionnaire. The 3 dependent variables were self-reported thinking, planning, and attempting suicide. Bivariate analyses describe suicidal thoughts and actions; multiple logistic regression models examined the relationship between weight description and suicidal thoughts and actions controlling for age, race, household composition, grades on report cards, and parents' education. Significantly more females than males reported thinking (26% vs 19%), planning (12% vs 9%), and attempting (11% vs 8%) suicide. For females, those who perceived themselves as overweight were significantly more likely to report suicidal thoughts and actions; while for males, perceptions of overweight and underweight were significantly associated with suicidal thoughts and actions. Controlling for personal and family characteristics, perceived weight status was significantly associated with suicidal thoughts and actions in middle school boys and girls.
Kinoshita, Kuni; Kinoshita, Yoshihiro; Shimodera, Shinji; Nishida, Atsushi; Inoue, Ken; Watanabe, Norio; Oshima, Norihito; Akechi, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Inoue, Shimpei; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Okazaki, Yuji
Whether a low body mass index (BMI) is directly associated with a high risk of suicidal ideation or self-harming behavior in adolescents is still inconclusive. This study has, therefore, evaluated the relevance of BMI to suicidal ideation and self-harming behavior after controlling for body weight perception (BWP) and other potential confounding factors. BMI, BWP, suicidal ideation, and self-harming behavior were all assessed using a self-report questionnaire administered to 18,104 Japanese adolescents. Potential confounding factors were also evaluated. The data were then analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Low BMI was associated with suicidal ideation and deliberate self-harm when controlling for sex, age, drug use, emotional distress, and BWP. Low BMI may be an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation and deliberate self-harming behavior in Japanese adolescents.
Full Text Available We examined the factors that affect suicide attempts adolescents multicultural families in South Korea. The participants were 727 adolescents whose mothers and/or fathers were born outside of South Korea (376 males and 351 females. Among them, 41 (weighted prevalence 6.2% had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. Female gender, residence in large cities (compared with in rural areas, living with relatives/alone/with friends/in a dormitory or living in a facility (compared with living with family, high and low socio-economic status (compared with a middle level, high and low academic performance (compared with a middle level, severe perceived stress (compared with non-severe stress, conflicts with a teacher (compared with conflicts with parent, and foreign-father/-parent families (compared with foreign-mother family were associated with increased odds of suicide attempt. The results indicate that greater awareness of the possibility of suicidal behavior is prudent for adolescents in multicultural families with certain risk factors, such as being from a foreign-parents family, living separately from the family, and having conflicts with a teacher.
Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun
We examined the factors that affect suicide attempts adolescents multicultural families in South Korea. The participants were 727 adolescents whose mothers and/or fathers were born outside of South Korea (376 males and 351 females). Among them, 41 (weighted prevalence 6.2%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. Female gender, residence in large cities (compared with in rural areas), living with relatives/alone/with friends/in a dormitory or living in a facility (compared with living with family), high and low socio-economic status (compared with a middle level), high and low academic performance (compared with a middle level), severe perceived stress (compared with non-severe stress), conflicts with a teacher (compared with conflicts with parent), and foreign-father/-parent families (compared with foreign-mother family) were associated with increased odds of suicide attempt. The results indicate that greater awareness of the possibility of suicidal behavior is prudent for adolescents in multicultural families with certain risk factors, such as being from a foreign-parents family, living separately from the family, and having conflicts with a teacher.
Boccio, Dana E.
Suicide remains the third leading cause of death among young people in the United States. Considering that youth who contemplate suicide generally exhibit warning signs before engaging in lethal self-harm, school-based mental health professionals can play a vital role in identifying students who are at risk for suicidal behavior. Nevertheless, the…
Davidson, Collin L.; Wingate, LaRicka R.; Rasmussen, Kathy A.; Slish, Meredith L.
The current study hypothesized that (1) hope would negatively predict burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capability to enact lethal injury; (2) hope would negatively predict suicidal ideation; and (3) the interpersonal suicide risk factors would predict suicidal ideation. Results indicated that hope negatively predicted…
Sheline, Kelly T.; Rosén, Lee A.
We assessed the moderating role of posttraumatic growth on the relationship between traumatic life events and suicidal ideation and behavior, suicide risk, and college adjustment. The sample of 557 college students completed questionnaires measuring their severity and number of traumatic life events, posttraumatic growth, suicidal thoughts,…
Schwartz, Robert C.; Cohen, Benjamin N.
Investigates risk factors for current suicidality in clients diagnosed with schizophrenia (N=223). Results indicate that severity of depressive symptoms most strongly correlated with degree of suicidality. Younger age and recent traumatic stress each significantly predicted suicidality independent of depressive symptoms. Suggests that the…
Miller, Adam Bryant; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Leichtweis, Richard N
The present study examined the relative contributions of perceptions of social support from parents, close friends, and school on current suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA) history in a clinical sample of adolescents. Participants were 143 adolescents (64% female; 81% white; range, 12-18 years; M = 15.38; standard deviation = 1.43) admitted to a partial hospitalization program. Data were collected with well-validated assessments and a structured clinical interview. Main and interactive effects of perceptions of social support on SI were tested with linear regression. Main and interactive effects of social support on the odds of SA were tested with logistic regression. Results from the linear regression analysis revealed that perceptions of lower school support independently predicted greater severity of SI, accounting for parent and close friend support. Further, the relationship between lower perceived school support and SI was the strongest among those who perceived lower versus higher parental support. Results from the logistic regression analysis revealed that perceptions of lower parental support independently predicted SA history, accounting for school and close friend support. Further, those who perceived lower support from school and close friends reported the greatest odds of an SA history. Results address a significant gap in the social support and suicide literature by demonstrating that perceptions of parent and school support are relatively more important than peer support in understanding suicidal thoughts and history of suicidal behavior. Results suggest that improving social support across these domains may be important in suicide prevention efforts. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Gulsen Unlu, Burcu Cakaloz Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey Purpose: Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI in these cases. Patients and methods: Data of 254 sexually abused female adolescents between the ages of 12–18 years were evaluated. The cases were classified into three groups, namely “sexual dating violence”, “incest”, and “other child sexual abuse”, according to the identity of the perpetrator. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features. Results: Major depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, which was present in 44.9% of the cases. Among all victims, 25.6% had attempted suicide, 52.0% had suicidal ideation, and 23.6% had NSSI during the postabuse period. A logistic regression analysis revealed that attempted suicide was predicted by dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.053; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.473, 6.330 and depression (AOR =2.238; 95% CI =1.226, 4.086. Dating violence victimization was also the strongest predictor of subsequent suicidal ideation (AOR =3.500; 95% CI =1.817, 6.741. In addition, revictimization was determined to be an important risk factor for both suicidal ideation (AOR =2.897; 95% CI =1.276, 6.574 and NSSI (AOR =3.847; 95% CI =1.899, 7.794. Conclusion: Perpetrator identity and revictimization are associated with negative mental health outcomes in sexually victimized female adolescents. Increased risk of suicidality and NSSI should be borne in mind while assessing cases with dating
Renaud, Johanne; Berlim, Marcelo T; McGirr, Alexander; Tousignant, Michel; Turecki, Gustavo
The present study was designed to evaluate psychiatric risk factors for child and adolescent suicide, and to determine the association between impulsive-aggressive and other personality traits, and suicide completion in this population. Psychiatric diagnoses, impulsive-aggressive and other personality traits were assessed in 55 child and adolescent suicide victims and 55 community controls using semi-structured proxy-based interviews and questionnaires. The most significant psychiatric risk factors associated with child and adolescent suicide were depressive disorders (OR=48.414, 95% CI 6.247-375.185), substance/alcohol abuse disorder (OR=5.365, 95% CI 1.434-20.076), and disruptive disorders (OR=13.643, 95% CI 2.292-23.16). Additionally, suicide victims showed higher scores on lifetime aggression/impulsivity, and harm avoidance. However, after logistic regression, the only independent significant predictors of suicide in this age group were the presence of depressive disorders (Adjusted OR (AOR)=39.652, 95% CI 4.501-349.345), substance/alcohol abuse disorders (AOR=7.325, 95% CI 1.127-47.62), and disruptive disorders (AOR=6.464, 95% CI 1.422-29.38). Relatively small sample size, and cross-sectional design. Our findings confirm the existence of a particular clinical profile of children and adolescents at high risk for suicide. Additionally, our results reinforce the need for improved understanding of the interrelationships between stressors, depression, substance/alcohol abuse disorders, disruptive disorders and personality traits/dimensions in youth suicidal behavior.
Wilson, Coralie J; Deane, Frank P; Marshall, Kellie L; Dalley, Andrew
Appropriate help-seeking is widely recognized as a protective factor, and vital for early treatment and prevention of mental health problems during adolescence. General medical practitioners (GPs), that is, family doctors, provide a vital role in the identification of adolescents with mental health problems and the provision of treatment as well as access to other specialists in mental health care services. The current study examined the association between suicidal ideation and intentions to seek help from a GP for suicidal thoughts, emotional problems and physical health problems, using a sample of 590 Australian high school students that was 56.7% female and aged 13-18 years (M = 15.56 years, SD = .66 years). Higher levels of suicidal ideation and general psychological distress were related to lower intentions to seek help from a GP for suicidal and physical problems. The results suggest that even at subclinical levels, increases in suicidal ideation or psychological distress may lead to help avoidance. School personnel and other gatekeepers need to be aware of this trend in order to be more assertive in encouraging and supporting appropriate help-seeking for mental health problems. School health promotion programs should consider including information to explicitly address the help-negation process.
Miller, Adam Bryant; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Giletta, Matteo; Hastings, Paul D; Rudolph, Karen D; Nock, Matthew K; Prinstein, Mitchell J
This study tests a novel, within-person model that reexamines depression and stress as risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescent girls with and without sexual/physical abuse histories. This longitudinal study includes data from 220 adolescent girls between 12 and 16 years of age (M = 14.69 years, SD = 1.37; 61% White). At baseline, adolescents reported the presence or absence of prior abuse as part of a clinical interview. At baseline and every 3 months for 18 months, adolescents completed measures of suicidal ideation and behavior, depressive symptoms, and stress. Multilevel models examined within-person mean, deviations from within-person mean, depression, and stress and their interactions with abuse as predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. In addition to within-person mean depression, higher-than-usual depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.99) and higher-than-usual stress (OR = 1.53) predicted greater risk of suicidal ideation at each follow-up assessment. Periods of higher-than-usual stress (1 SD increase) and periods of higher-than-usual depression (1 SD increase) were associated with an 82% and 57% increase in the odds of suicidal behavior, respectively, but only among those with abuse histories. Depression, stress, and abuse are well-known risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior; however, it has been unclear for whom, and when, these factors have their greatest impact. These results show that depression and stress are potent risk factors among those with a history of abuse and that within-person elevations in these risk factors signal increased short-term risk of suicidal ideation and behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Chemtob, Claude M; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Madan, Anita; Pitman, Seth R; Wang, Yanping; Doppelt, Osnat; Burns, Kelly Dugan; Abramovitz, Robert; Brom, Daniel
In this study, we examined the relationships among terrorism exposure, functional impairment, suicidal ideation, and probable partial or full posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from exposure to terrorism in adolescents continuously exposed to this threat in Israel. A convenience sample of 2,094 students, aged 12 to 18, was drawn from 10 Israeli secondary schools. In terms of demographic factors, older age was associated with increased risk for suicidal ideation, OR = 1.33, 95% CI [1.09, 1.62], p terrorism was associated with increased risk for each of the measured outcomes including probable partial or full PTSD, functional impairment, and suicidal ideation. When age, gender, level of exposure to terrorism, probable partial or full PTSD, and functional impairment were examined together, only terrorism exposure and functional impairment were associated with suicidal ideation. This study underscores the importance and feasibility of examining exposure to terrorism and functional impairment as risk factors for suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Wang, Peng-Wei; Yen, Cheng-Fang
Adolescent suicidal behavior may consist of different symptoms, including suicidal ideation, suicidal planning and suicidal attempts. Adolescent substance use behavior may contribute to adolescent suicidal behavior. However, research on the relationships between specific substance use and individual suicidal behavior is insufficient, as adolescents may not use only one substance or develop only one facet of suicidal behavior. Latent variables permit us to describe the relationships between clusters of related behaviors more accurately than studying the relationships between specific behaviors. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore how adolescent substance use behavior contributes to suicidal behavior using latent variables representing adolescent suicidal and substance use behaviors. A total of 13,985 adolescents were recruited using a stratified random sampling strategy. The participants indicated whether they had experienced suicidal ideation, planning and attempts and reported their cigarette, alcohol, ketamine and MDMA use during the past year. Latent analysis was used to examine the relationship between substance use and suicidal behavior. Adolescents who used any one of the above substances exhibited more suicidal behavior. The results of latent variables analysis revealed that adolescent substance use contributed to suicidal behavior and that boys exhibited more severe substance use behavior than girls. However, there was no gender difference in the association between substance use and suicidal behavior. Substance use behavior in adolescents is related to more suicidal behavior. In addition, the contribution of substance use to suicidal behavior does not differ between genders.
Benute, Gláucia Rosana Guerra; Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Jorge, Vanessa Marques Ferreira; Nonnenmacher, Daniele; Fráguas Junior, Renério; Lucia, Mara Cristina Souza de; Zugaib, Marcelo
To identify the risk of suicidal behavior in high-risk pregnant women at a public hospital in São Paulo. We conducted a semi-structured interview with each of the participants (n = 268) through a previously prepared questionnaire. Risk of suicidal behavior was assessed by the Portuguese version of PRIME-MD. The mean age of patients was 29 years (SD = 0.507) and gestation period was 30 weeks (SD = 0.556). Of the total sample, specific risk of suicide was found in 5% (n = 14). Of these, 85% have a stable relationship (married or cohabitating), the pregnancy was planned in 50% of cases, and 71% have no religion or professional activities. The correlation of risk of suicide with data from marital status, planned birth, age, education, professional practice, risk of prematurity, and religion showed that having a religion is statistically significant (p = 0.012). There were no positive associations for any of the other selected variables when compared with the risk of suicide. By correlating the risk of suicide with other characteristic symptoms of major depression, there was statistical significance in the sample with regard to insomnia or hypersomnia (p = 0.003), fatigue or loss of energy (p = 0.001), decreased or increased appetite (p = 0.005), less interest in daily activities (p = 0.000), depressed mood (p = 0.000), feelings of worthlessness or guilt (p = 0.000), decreased concentration (p = 0.002), and agitation or psychomotor retardation (p = 0.002). We found that religion can be a protective factor against suicidal behavior. Besides providing a social support network needed by women during pregnancy, religion supports belief in life after death and in a loving God, giving purpose to life and self esteem and providing models for coping with crises. The results show the importance of prevention and early diagnosis of suicidal behavior, since suicide is an attempt to move from one sphere to another by force, seeking to solve what seems impossible.
West, Bethany A
Full Text Available Purpose: The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts, and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors that are associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. Methods: Data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9-12 were used to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Results: Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys. Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89. Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48, dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60, forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72, and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66, forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60, huffing glue (OR=1.63, hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18, and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in terms of the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide prevention strategies that are directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying in schools has been associated with suicidal ideation but the confounding effect of psychiatric morbidity has not always been taken into account. Our main aim was to test the association between bullying behavior and early stages of suicidal ideation in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is independent of the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold symptoms. Methods 5614 pupils 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened in the first phase and a stratified random sample of 2431 were selected for a detailed interview at the second phase. Psychiatric morbidity and suicidal ideation were assessed with the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. Results Victims of bullying behavior were more likely to express suicidal ideation. This association was particularly strong for those who were bullied on a weekly basis and it was independent of the presence of psychiatric morbidity (Odds Ratio: 7.78; 95% Confidence Interval: 3.05 - 19.90. In contrast, being a perpetrator ("bullying others" was not associated with this type of ideation after adjustment. These findings were similar in both boys and girls, although the population impact of victimization in the prevalence of suicidal ideation was potentially higher for boys. Conclusions The strong cross-sectional association between frequent victimization and suicidal ideation in late adolescence offers an opportunity for identifying pupils in the school setting that are in a higher risk for exhibiting suicidal ideation.
Kim, Jueun; Fan, Bin; Liu, Xinhua; Kerner, Nancy; Wu, Ping
The relationship between ecstasy use and suicidal behavior among adolescents in the United States was examined. Data from the adolescent subsample (ages 12-17, N = 19,301) of the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse were used in the analyses. Information on adolescent substance use, suicidal behaviors, and related sociodemographic, family,…
Ponnet, K.; Vermeiren, R; Jespers, I.; Mussche, B.; Ruchkin, V.; Schwab-Stone, M.; Deboutte, D.
Background: Because equivocal findings exist with regard to the relationship between adolescents' suicidal behaviour and parental marital status, the aim of this study was to investigate this relationship and in particular the effect of the perceived parent-adolescent relationship on this
The suicide rates in Denmark have been declining during the last two decades. The decline was relatively larger among women than among men. All age groups experienced a decline except the very young with stable rates and the very old with increasing rates. The Universal, Selective, Indicated (USI) model recommended by Institute of Medicine was used as a framework for the thesis. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward the entire population; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. At the universal level, a review was carried out to highlight the association between availability of methods for suicide and suicide rate. There were mostly studies of firearms, and the conclusion of the review was that there was clear indication of restricted access to lethal means was associated with decline in suicide with that specific method, and in many cases also with overall suicide mortality. Restricting access is especially important for methods with high case fatality rate. Our own study indicated a beneficial effect on suicide rates of restrictions in access to barbiturates, dextropropoxyphen, domestic gas and car exhaust with high content of carbon monoxide. Although a range of other factors in the society might also be of importance, it was concluded that restrictions in access to dangerous means for suicide were likely to play an important role in reducing suicide rates in Denmark, especially for women. At the selective level, there are several important risk groups such as psychiatric patients, persons with alcohol and drug abuse, persons with newly diagnosed severe physical illness, all who previously attempted suicide, and groups of homeless, institutionalized, prisoners and other socially excluded persons. The thesis focused on homeless persons and psychiatric patients, especially patients
González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Hernández-Díaz, Yazmín; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; León-Garibay, Alejandra Giovanna; Guzmán-Priego, Crystell Guadalupe; López-Narváez, Lilia; Frésan, Ana
In recent years, suicide in children and adolescents has increased considerably, becoming the second cause of death in this age group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify characteristics and factors that could precipitate deaths by suicide in children and adolescents. Using the psychological autopsy method, we studied 28 suicide cases of children and adolescents between 10 and 17 years old. Socio-demographic factors, characteristics of the suicide and family history were documented. The proportion of deaths by suicide was the same in females and males (50% each). Most of the suicides were performed at the child/adolescent's home (78.6%) and no history of previous suicide attempts were registered (85.7%). Also, the majority of suicidal individuals came from a dysfunctional family (60.7%). Our results identified characteristics of children and adolescents that had died by suicide, such as dying at their homes and coming from dysfunctional families. Knowing the characteristics of children and adolescents that had ended their lives by suicide should be considered in future studies to help developing preventive programs and strategies for treating suicidal behaviors in Mexican children and adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is the leading cause of death among Japanese adolescents, and they may commit suicide differently from adults. However, there are few studies in medical-based data concerning adolescent patients seriously attempting suicide. We aimed to explore the characteristics of serious suicide attempts in Japanese adolescents, comparing them with those in adults. Methods We investigated adolescents who seriously attempted suicide and were treated at the Critical Care Medical Center (CCMC of Nippon Medical School Hospital between 2000 and 2010, and we compared them with adult suicide attempters treated during 2009. We retrospectively studied medical records and collected clinical data and socio-demographic factors, including age, sex, psychiatric symptoms or diagnosis, methods of suicide attempt, motives for suicide attempt, previous deliberate self-harm, previous psychiatric history, parent loss experience, and previous psychiatric history in the family. Results Adolescent attempters were 15 males and 44 females, 13 to 18 years old (mean 16.39. Adult attempters were 37 males and 65 females, 19 to 79 years old (mean 39.45. In comparison to adult attempters, adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, had more school problems and parent loss experience, but they had less financial problems. Gender differences between adolescents and adults were examined, and male adolescent attempters were found to be more frequently diagnosed with schizophrenia and had less financial problems than their adult counterparts, while female adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with BPD, had more school problems and parent loss, but they had less previous psychiatric history than their adult counterparts. Conclusions Our findings indicated that adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with BPD and had more school problems and parent loss experience but had less financial
Asarnow, Joan; McArthur, David; Hughes, Jennifer; Barbery, Veronica; Berk, Michele
The Harkavy-Asnis Suicide Scale (HASS), one of the few self-report scales assessing suicidal behavior was evaluated and ideation, was evaluated and predictors of suicide attempts (SAs) were identified with the goal of developing a model that clinicians can use for monitoring SA risk. Participants were 131 pediatric emergency department (ED)…
Flamarique, I; Santosh, P; Zuddas, A; Arango, C; Purper-Ouakil, D; Hoekstra, P J; Coghill, D; Schulze, U; Dittmann, R W; Buitelaar, J K; Lievesley, K; Frongia, R; Llorente, C; Méndez, I; Sala, R; Fiori, F; Castro-Fornieles, J
To create a self-reported, internet-based questionnaire for the assessment of suicide risk in children and adolescents. As part of the EU project 'Suicidality: Treatment Occurring in Paediatrics' (STOP project), we developed web-based Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) for children and adolescents and for proxy reports by parents and clinicians in order to assess suicidality. Based on a literature review, expert panels and focus groups of patients, we developed the items of the STOP Suicidality Assessment Scale (STOP-SAS) in Spanish and English, translated it into four more languages, and optimized it for web-based presentation using the HealthTracker TM platform. Of the total 19 questions developed for the STOP-SAS, four questions that assess low-level suicidality were identified as screening questions (three of them for use with children, and all four for use with adolescents, parents and clinicians). A total of 395 adolescents, 110 children, 637 parents and 716 clinicians completed the questionnaire using the HealthTracker TM , allowing us to evaluate the internal consistency and convergent validity of the STOP-SAS with the clinician-rated Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Validity was also assessed with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area of the STOP-SAS with the C-SSRS. The STOP-SAS comprises 19 items in its adolescent, parent, and clinician versions, and 14 items in its children's version. Good internal consistency was found for adolescents (Cronbach's alpha: 0.965), children (Cronbach's alpha: 0.922), parents (Cronbach's alpha: 0.951) and clinicians (Cronbach's alpha: 0.955) versions. A strong correlation was found between the STOP-SAS and the C-SSRS for adolescents (r:0.670), parents (r:0.548), clinicians (r:0.863) and children (r:0.654). The ROC area was good for clinicians' (0.917), adolescents' (0.834) and parents' (0.756) versions but only fair (0.683) for children's version. The STOP-SAS is a comprehensive, web
Full Text Available Perinatal period may pose a great challenge for the clinical management and treatment of psychiatric disorders in women. In fact, several mental illnesses can arise during pregnancy and/or following childbirth. Suicide and infanticide have been considered relatively rare events during the perinatal period. However, in some mental disorders (i.e. postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, postpartum psychosis, etc. have been reported a higher risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt or suicide. Therefore, a complete screening of mothers’ mental health should also take into account thoughts of suicide and thoughts about harming infants as well. Clinicians should carefully monitor and early identify related clinical manifestations, potential risk factors and alarm symptoms related to suicide. The present paper aims at providing a focused review about epidemiological data, risk and protective factors and an overview about the main clinical correlates associated with the suicidal behaviour during the pregnancy and postpartum period.
Burke, Ainsley K.; Galfalvy, Hanga; Everett, Benjamin; Currier, Dianne; Zelazny, Jamie; Oquendo, Maria A.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Kolko, David; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Birmaher, Boris; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.
Objective: Exposure to suicidal behavior in peers and relatives is thought to increase risk for suicidal behavior in vulnerable individuals, possibly as a result of imitation or modeling. This study examines exposure to suicidal behavior and likelihood of suicide attempt in a high-risk cohort of offspring of a depressed parent. Method: A total of…
Stenbacka, Marlene; Jokinen, Jussi
There is a paucity of studies on the role of early risk factors for the choice of methods for violent suicide attempts. Adolescent risk factors for the choice of violent or non-violent methods for suicide attempts and the risk of subsequent suicide were studied using a longitudinal design. A national Swedish cohort of 48 834 18-20-year-old young men conscripted for military service from 1969 to 1970 was followed through official registers during a 37-year period. Two questionnaires concerning their psychosocial background were answered by each conscript. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to estimate the risk for different methods of attempted suicide and later suicide. A total of 1195 (2.4 %) men had made a suicide attempt and of these, 133 (11.1 %) committed suicide later. The number of suicide victims among the non-attempters was 482 (1 %). Half of the suicides occurred during the same year as the attempt. Suicide victims had earlier onset of suicidal behaviour and had more often used hanging as a method of attempted suicide than those who did not later commit suicide. The early risk factors for both violent and non-violent methods of suicide attempt were quite similar. Violent suicide attempts, especially by hanging, are associated with a clearly elevated suicide risk in men and require special clinical and public health attention. The early risk factors related to the choice of either a violent or a non-violent suicide attempt method are interlinked and circumstantial factors temporally close to the suicide attempt, such as access to a specific method, may partly explain the choice of method.
Christiansen, E; Goldney, R D; Beautrai, A L
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of specific knowledge about the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors for suicide attempts among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors on an offspring's risk for suic......BACKGROUND: There is a lack of specific knowledge about the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors for suicide attempts among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors on an offspring's risk...... for suicide attempt.MethodWe designed a population-based two-generation nested case-control study and used Danish register data. A population of 403 431 individuals born between 1983 and 1989 was sampled. Among these, 3465 (0.8%) were registered as having had a suicide attempt. Twenty controls were matched...... to each case and a link to the offspring's biological parents was established. RESULTS: There was a dose-response relationship between the number of exposures and the risk of suicide attempts, with the increased risk seeming to be a multiplicative effect. Parental suicide, suicide attempt, psychiatric...
Storch, Eric A; Hanks, Camille E; Mink, Jonathan W; McGuire, Joseph F; Adams, Heather R; Augustine, Erika F; Vierhile, Amy; Thatcher, Alyssa; Bitsko, Rebecca; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K
Despite evidence of elevated risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behavior in youth with Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders (CTD), few studies have actually examined that relationship. This study documented the frequency and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in a sample of children and adolescents with CTD (N = 196, range 6-18 years old). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the Centers for Disease Control. Youth and parents completed a battery of measures that assessed co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses, child emotional and behavioral symptoms, and impairment due to tics or co-occurring conditions. A structured diagnostic interview identified that 19 youths with CTD (9.7%) experienced suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors, which was elevated compared to 3 youths (3%) who experienced these thoughts in a community control sample (N = 100, range 6-18 years old, P = .03). For youth with CTD, suicidal thoughts and behaviors were frequently endorsed in the context of anger and frustration. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) anxious/depressed, withdrawn, social problems, thought problems, and aggressive behavior subscales, as well as the total internalizing problems scale, were associated with the presence of suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors. Suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors were significantly associated with tic symptom severity; tic-related impairment; and obsessive-compulsive, depressive, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders' symptom severity. CBCL anxiety/depression scores mediated the relationship between tic severity and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Findings suggest that about 1 in 10 youth with CTD experience suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors, which are associated with a more complex clinical presentation and often occur in the presence of anger and frustration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Ren, Yaxuan; Zhang, Xu; You, Jianing; Jiang, Yongqiang; Lin, Min-Pei; Leung, Freedom
Adolescence is a developmental period associated with a heightened risk for suicidal ideation. During this phase of life, individuals tend to focus on both intrapersonal self and interpersonal relationships. Thus, it is of much significance to understand the roles of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors in the development of suicidal ideation among adolescents. The present study examined the reciprocal associations between identity disturbance, relationship disturbance, and suicidal ideation by using a three-wave cross-lag model in a sample of adolescents. A number of 3,600 Chinese adolescents (56.6% females, mean age = 14.58 years) completed questionnaires assessing the three main study variables as well as depressive symptoms, anxiety, and suicidal attempts three times at 6-month intervals. After controlling for gender, age, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and suicidal attempts, relationship disturbance significantly predicted suicidal ideation over time, and vice versa. Suicidal ideation significantly predicted identity disturbance over time, but not vice versa. We also found the mediating effect of relationship disturbance in the path from identity disturbance to suicidal ideation. The results suggested the important role of previous relationship disturbance in predicting later suicidal ideation. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings were discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nrugham, Latha; Larsson, Bo; Sund, Anne Mari
To examine the influences of familial, peer and individual predictors of suicidal acts in a longitudinal study with a subset of school adolescents reporting high levels of depressive symptoms. A representative sample of Norwegian school students (N=2464, mean age 13.7 years, T1) was reassessed after 1 year (T2) with the same questionnaire. All high scorers of depressive symptoms on the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) at T2 were defined as cases. One control from low or middle scorers, matched for age and gender, was randomly assigned to every two cases. This subset (n=345) was diagnostically assessed by face-to-face K-SADS-PL interviews (mean age=14.9 years). The same subset was reassessed after 5 years (T3) by using the same questionnaire (n=252, mean age=20.0 years) and telephone K-SADS-PL interviews (n=242). The participation rate at T3 was 76.9% (n=265). The questionnaire explored various relationships with family members, peers and individual factors such as lifestyle habits, and physical health. Irrespective of time, history of a suicidal act significantly predicted a later suicidal act. Not living with both biological parents and a diagnosis of any depressive disorder were significant predictors for younger and older adolescents, respectively. In line with the findings of previous clinical studies, our results underline the importance of identifying previous suicidal acts, depressive disorders, broken homes and risk behaviours such as smoking and intoxication in the assessment of suicidal risk across adolescence.
Klinitzke, G; Steinig, J; Blüher, M; Kersting, A; Wagner, B
There is evidence from prospective studies that obesity is positively associated with depression. In contradiction to this, however, a number of studies have revealed that the number of completed suicides decreases with increasing BMI. The objective of this systematic review is to elucidate this ambiguous research field, providing an overview of literature examining the relationship between obesity and risk of suicide in adults (>18 years). Literature searches of the databases PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo, and Web of Sciences were conducted. Fifteen studies concerning completed suicide, suicide attempts and suicidal ideation met the inclusion criteria (seven prospective and eight cross-sectional studies). Eight studies evaluating completed suicide reported an inverse relationship between BMI and suicide, meaning that obese people are less likely to commit suicide than people of low or normal weight, whereas one study showed no association and one showed a positive association. Studies about suicide attempts and ideation, on the other hand, found results that differed depending on gender. While obese woman reported more suicide attempts and suicidal ideation, obese men reported less attempts and thoughts. The role of confounding variables such as age or psychiatric illness on suicide risk are discussed and remaining research questions are outlined, especially regarding the role of different underlying biological pathways and consideration of different classes of obesity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Granö, Niklas; Oksanen, Jorma; Kallionpää, Santeri; Roine, Mikko
Previous studies have shown an association between hopelessness and suicidal behaviour in clinical populations. The aim of the study was to investigate sensitivity, specificity, and predictive validity of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) for suicidal ideation in adolescents who show early risk signs on the psychiatric disorder continuum. Three-hundred and two help-seeking adolescents (mean age = 15.5 years) who were entering an early intervention team at Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland, completed questionnaires of BHS and suicidal ideation, derived from Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Results suggest that a BHS cut-off score ≥8 (sensitivity = 0.70, specificity = 0.76) or cut-off score ≥9 (sensitivity = 0.63, specificity = 0.80) may be useful to detect suicidal ideation with BHS in help-seeking adolescents population. Results remain mainly the same in a separate analysis with adolescents at risk for psychosis. The results support previous cut-off points for BHS in identification of suicidal ideation. The results suggest also that lower cut-off scores may be useful in sense of sensitivity, especially in clinical settings.
Hur, Ji-Won; Kim, Won-Joong; Kim, Yong-Ku
Suicidal probability is an actual tendency including negative self-evaluation, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and hostility. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of psychosocial variances in the suicidal probability of adolescents, especially the role of mediating variance. This study investigated the mediating effects of psychosocial factors such as depression, anxiety, self-esteem, stress, and social support on the suicidal probability among 1,586 adolescents attending middle and high schools in the Kyunggi Province area of South Korea. The relationship between depression and anxiety/suicidal probability was mediated by both social resources and self-esteem. Furthermore, the influence of social resources was mediated by interpersonal and achievement stress as well as self-esteem. This study suggests that suicidal probability in adolescents has various relationships, including mediating relations, with several psychosocial factors. The interventions on suicidal probability in adolescents should focus on social factors as well as clinical symptoms.
Full Text Available Islam prohibits the taking of one's life, because this way you will interfere with the work of G-d (Allah, which is clear from several places in the Quran. Concerning individual suicide or suicide attempts in various Arab countries the literature is sparse and the incidence low. In this paper we present a review of research from Israel showing that suicide epidemiology among the Arab population of children and adolescents display a low incidence, but an increase has been observed over the past decade, but still much lower than the Jewish population. We believe that there is a need for the development of prevention and intervention strategies in order to keep this incidence low.
McCall, W Vaughn; Benca, Ruth M; Rosenquist, Peter B; Riley, Mary Anne; McCloud, Laryssa; Newman, Jill C; Case, Doug; Rumble, Meredith; Krystal, Andrew D
Insomnia is associated with increased risk for suicide. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has mandated that warnings regarding suicide be included in the prescribing information for hypnotic medications. The authors conducted a review of the evidence for and against the claim that hypnotics increase the risk of suicide. This review focused on modern, FDA-approved hypnotics, beginning with the introduction of benzodiazepines, limiting its findings to adults. PubMed and Web of Science were searched, crossing the terms "suicide" and "suicidal" with each of the modern FDA-approved hypnotics. The FDA web site was searched for postmarketing safety reviews, and the FDA was contacted with requests to provide detailed case reports for hypnotic-related suicide deaths reported through its Adverse Event Reporting System. Epidemiological studies show that hypnotics are associated with an increased risk for suicide. However, none of these studies adequately controlled for depression or other psychiatric disorders that may be linked with insomnia. Suicide deaths have been reported from single-agent hypnotic overdoses. A separate concern is that benzodiazepine receptor agonist hypnotics can cause parasomnias, which in rare cases may lead to suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior in persons who were not known to be suicidal. On the other hand, ongoing research is testing whether treatment of insomnia may reduce suicidality in adults with depression. The review findings indicate that hypnotic medications are associated with suicidal ideation. Future studies should be designed to assess whether increases in suicidality result from CNS impairments from a given hypnotic medication or whether such medication decreases suicidality because of improvements in insomnia.
Bryan, Craig J; Cerel, Julie; Bryan, AnnaBelle O
Research suggests that individuals who know someone who died by suicide are at increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and recent suicidal thoughts. Studies have not yet investigated the association of suicide exposure with suicide attempts, however, especially among high-risk subgroups of military personnel such as the National Guard. An anonymous online survey was completed by 971 military personnel assigned to the National Guard in Utah and Idaho. Weighted analyses were conducted to ensure demographic matching to the full population. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to test the association of suicide exposure with psychiatric condition, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts. 65.4% of National Guard personnel reported knowing someone who had died by suicide. On average, participants knew 3.0 (SD=2.0) suicide decedents. Total number of known suicide decedents was associated with significantly increased risk for PTSD (OR=1.18, p=.008), depression (OR=1.19, p=.003), and suicide ideation (OR=2.48, p<.001), but not suicide attempt (OR=1.34, p=.472). Perceived closeness to the suicide decedent was associated with significantly increased risk for PTSD (OR=1.54, p<.001), depression (OR=1.36, p=.031), suicide ideation (OR=1.24, p=.039), and suicide attempt (OR=1.69, p=.026). The majority of participants who experienced suicidal thoughts and attempts after the suicide exposure had a previous history of suicide ideation. Suicide exposure is common among National Guard personnel, and is associated with increased risk for PTSD, depression, and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Risk is highest for those personnel who know multiple suicide decedents and were closer to the suicide decedent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huang, Yu-Hsin; Liu, Hui-Ching; Sun, Fang-Ju; Tsai, Fang-Ju; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Chen, Ting-Chun; Huang, Yo-Ping; Liu, Shen-Ing
Data on the incidence of deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicide attempts (SAs) are lacking in non-Western adolescents, and no studies have investigated differences in incident DSH and SA worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the incidence rates and relationships between predictors in DSH and SA. The Taiwanese Adolescent Self-Harm Project was a longitudinal study of DSH among adolescents. We recruited 5,879 students from 14 senior high schools in northern Taiwan. Online questionnaires on sociodemographic data, suicidality, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, social support, family discord, impulsivity, and alcohol and tobacco use were assessed at baseline (T1) and at 1 year of follow-up (T2). Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the predictors of incident DSH and SA. The mean age was 16.02 years, and 56.73% of the cohort was female. At T1, the lifetime prevalence rates of DSH and SA were 25.04% and 3.50%, respectively. At T2, 4,331 (73.67%) students had completed follow-up assessments. The 1-year incidence rates of DSH and SA were 4.04% and 1.53%, respectively. The predictors of incident DSH included perceived family discord and more depressive symptoms at T1. The predictors of incident SA were lifetime suicide ideation, more depressive symptoms, and tobacco use at T1. The incidence rates of DSH and SA were similar to those reported in Western countries. The predictors of incident DSH and SA were similar but not identical. Our results highlight the risk factors which should be considered in terms of early identification and intervention among adolescents to prevent suicidality. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Olesen, J.B.; Hansen, Peter Riis; Erdal, Jesper
Purpose Patients with epilepsy or psychiatric diseases have increased risk of suicide, but whether the risk is influenced by antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment is unclear. Studies have suggested that AEDs in general increase the risk of suicidal behaviour shortly after initiation. This study inve...
Aiello-Laws, Lisa B
The Joint Commission publishes its annual National Patient Safety Goals to guide accredited organizations in addressing high-risk, low-volume concerns related to patient safety. The 2010 list includes a goal to identify patients at risk for suicide, but do oncology nurses need to be concerned about the risk of suicide in patients with cancer?
Endo, Kaori; Ando, Shuntaro; Shimodera, Shinji; Yamasaki, Syudo; Usami, Satoshi; Okazaki, Yuji; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Richards, Marcus; Hatch, Stephani; Nishida, Atsushi
Social isolation is associated with suicidal ideation (SI) and self-harm (SH) among adolescents. However, the association between preference for solitude (PfS), SI, and SH is unknown. The prevalence of adolescents who have both of PfS and social isolation and the risks for SI and SH among them are also unknown. Information on PfS, social isolation, SI, and SH was collected in a large-scale school-based survey on adolescents, using a self-report questionnaire. Associations between PfS, SI, and SH were examined by logistic regression analysis. The interactions between PfS and social isolation on SI and SH were also investigated. The odds of SI and SH were examined for groups defined by presence of PfS and social isolation. Responses from 17,437 students (89.3% of relevant classes) were available. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and social isolation, PfS was associated with increased odds of SI (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1) and SH (OR = 1.9). There was no interaction between PfS and social isolation on SI and SH. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, the odds for SI (OR = 8.6) and SH (OR = 3.8) were highest among adolescents with both PfS and social isolation (8.4% of all respondents). PfS was associated with increased odds of SI and SH in adolescents. No interaction effect between PfS and social isolation on SI and SH was found, but adolescents with PfS and social isolation had the highest risk for SI and SH. Parents and professionals should pay attention to suicide risk in adolescents with PfS. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stefansson, J; Nordström, P; Runeson, B; Åsberg, M; Jokinen, J
High suicide intent, childhood trauma, and violent behavior are risk factors for suicide in suicide attempters. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the combined assessment of suicide intent and interpersonal violence would provide a better prediction of suicide risk than an assessment of only suicide intent or interpersonal violence. This is a cohort study involving 81 suicide attempters included in the study between 1993 and 1998. Patients were assessed with both the Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) and the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS). Through the unique personal identification number in Sweden, patients were linked to the Cause of Death Register maintained by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Suicides were ascertained from the death certificates. Seven of 14 patients who had died before April 2013 had committed suicide. The positive predictive value for the Suicide Intent Scale alone was 16.7 %, with a specificity of 52 % and an area under the curve of 0.74. A combined assessment with the KIVS gave higher specificity (63 %) and a positive predictive value of 18.8 % with an AUC of 0.83. Combined use of SIS and KIVS expressed interpersonal violence as an adult subscale gave a sensitivity of 83.3 %, a specificity of 80.3 %, and a positive predictive value of 26 % with an AUC of 0.85. The correlation between KIVS and SIS scores was not significant. Using both the the SIS and the KIVS combined may be better for predicting completed suicide than using them separately. The nonsignificant correlation between the scales indicates that they measure different components of suicide risk.
Lee, Taeyeop; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Ahn, Myung Hee; Kim, Juyeon; Kim, Mi Sun; Chung, Sun Ju; Hong, Jin Pyo
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating, neurodegenerative condition frequently complicated by psychiatric symptoms. Patients with PD may be at higher risk for suicide than the general population, but previous estimates are limited and conflicting. The aim of this study is to estimate the suicide rate based on the clinical case registry and to identify risk factors for suicide among patients diagnosed with PD. The target sample consisted of 4362 patients diagnosed with PD who were evaluated at a general hospital in Seoul, South Korea, from 1996 to 2012. The standardized mortality ratio for suicide among PD patients was estimated. In order to identify the clinical correlates of suicide, case-control study was conducted based on retrospective chart review. The 29 suicide cases (age: 62.3 ± 13.7 years; females: 34.5%) were matched with 116 non-suicide controls (age: 63.5 ± 9.2 years; females 56.9%) by the year of initial PD evaluation. The SMR for suicide in PD patients was 1.99 (95% CI 1.33-2.85). Mean duration from time of initial diagnosis to suicide among cases was 6.1 ± 3.5 years. Case-control analysis revealed that male, initial extremity of motor symptom onset, history of depressive disorder, delusion, any psychiatric disorder, and higher L-dopa dosage were significantly associated with suicide among PD patients. Other PD-related variables such as UPDRS motor score were not significantly associated with death by suicide. Suicide risk in PD patients is approximately 2 times higher than that in the general population. Psychiatric disorders, and also L-dopa medication need further attention with respect to suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harris, Keith M; Bettiol, Silvana
Numerous suicide risk factors have been proposed but not adequately validated for epidemiology, treatment and prevention efforts. Exposures to suicidal behaviors (ESB), from family and friend suicide attempts and completions, were tested for validity as a suicidal risk factor and also for measurement and construct adequacy. An anonymous online survey yielded 713 participants (aged 18-71), who reported ESB, completed the Suicidal Affect-Behavior-Cognition Scale (SABCS), and comprised a broad spectrum on those variables. Tests of dimensionality and internal consistency showed the four ESB variables (attempts/completions through family/friends) were independent and did not form a common factor or an identifiable ESB latent trait. ESB variables were, however, associated with demographic and psychiatric histories. A battery of tests revealed no meaningful associations between ESB and total suicidality or suicide risk factors (social support, depression, anxiety, stress, satisfaction with life and emotional stability). In addition, in contrast to previous reports, young adults ( n = 200; aged 18-20) showed no increased suicidality due to ESB. Results showed no validity for ESB as a common risk factor for suicidality or other psychopathology, or as a latent trait. ESB showed evidence as a personal negative life event with individual effects and interpretations.
Aguilar-Velázquez, Daniela Georgina; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; López-Narváez, Maria Lilia; Frésan, Ana; Hernández-Díaz, Yazmin; Guzmán-Priego, Crystell Guadalupe
Suicide is the second cause of death in youth population. The aim of the present study was to analyze demographic characteristics and suicide methods used, as well as to identify gender differences among Mexican children and adolescents (aged 10-17 years) that committed suicide. Between January 2003 and December 2013, 167 suicides of children and adolescents between 10 and 17 years of age were documented by the Secretary of Health of the state of Tabasco, Mexico. All sociodemographic characteristics were compared according to gender. Our sample included 67.7% males and 32.3% females (male to female 2.1:1). The predominant marital status was single (89.6%) and hanging (93.7%) was the principal method of suicide used. Both female and male adolescents were predominantly students (50%); however, female adolescents were more frequently married (17%) and were housewives (26.4%). Our results identified that hanging is the principal suicide method used by children and adolescents in Mexican population; we also detected main gender differences in terms of poisoning/drug toxicity as the method used, occupation and marital status. These results should be taken into consideration when designing suicide prevention programs due to the differences found by gender. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Egeberg, A; Hansen, P. R.; Gislason, G. H.
Background: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease, and inflammation may affect suicidal behaviour. Current data on the incidence and risk of suicidal behaviour in patients with psoriasis are scarce. Objectives: We investigated the association between psoriasis and the risk of self......-harm and suicide attempts and suicides. Methods: All Danish patients aged ≥ 18 years with mild or severe psoriasis (cases) from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2011 were matched on age, sex and calendar time 1 : 5 with healthy controls. The outcome was a diagnosis of self-harm or a nonfatal suicide attempt......, or completed suicide. Incidence rates per 10 000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Poisson regression models. Results: The study cohort comprised 408 663 individuals, including 57 502 and 11 009 patients with mild and severe...
Mars, Becky; Heron, Jon; Crane, Catherine; Hawton, Keith; Kidger, Judi; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Tilling, Kate; Gunnell, David
Background There is a lack of consensus about whether self-harm with suicidal intent differs in aetiology and prognosis from non-suicidal self-harm, and whether they should be considered as different diagnostic categories. Method Participants were 4799 members of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a UK population-based birth cohort who completed a postal questionnaire on self-harm with and without suicidal intent at age 16 years. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine differences in the risk factor profiles of individuals who self-harmed with and without suicidal intent. Results Many risk factors were common to both behaviours, but associations were generally stronger in relation to suicidal self-harm. This was particularly true for mental health problems; compared to those with non-suicidal self-harm, those who had harmed with suicidal intent had an increased risk of depression (OR 3.50[95% CI 1.64, 7.43]) and anxiety disorder (OR 3.50[95% CI 1.72, 7.13]). Higher IQ and maternal education were risk factors for non-suicidal self-harm but not suicidal self-harm. Risk factors that appeared specific to suicidal self-harm included lower IQ and socioeconomic position, physical cruelty to children in the household and parental self-harm. Limitations i) There was some loss to follow-up, ii) difficulty in measuring suicidal intent, iii) we cannot rule out the possibility of reverse causation for some exposure variables, iv) we were unable to identify the subgroup that had only ever harmed with suicidal intent. Conclusion Self-harm with and without suicidal intent are overlapping behaviours but with some distinct characteristics, indicating the importance of fully exploring vulnerability factors, motivations, and intentions in adolescents who self harm. PMID:25108277
Falgares, Giorgio; Marchetti, Daniela; Manna, Giovanna; Musso, Pasquale; Oasi, Osmano; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; De Santis, Sandro; Verrocchio, Maria C
Several studies have demonstrated that child maltreatment (psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, and neglect) may be a significant factor in the development of pathological personality traits that increase the risk for suicidal ideation and behavior from adolescence to adulthood. Currently, the challenge is to understand how different forms of early negative experiences render an individual prone to develop specific personality traits and, in turn, be more vulnerable to suicide risk. To understand the relationship between childhood maltreatment and personality dimensions in suicide risk, our study aims to explore the role of self-criticism and dependency, two different pathological personality traits, as potential mediators of the link between different types of childhood maltreatment and suicide risk in young adults. For this purpose, 306 students from three Italian public universities were recruited. We used the Italian version of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q) to assess experiences of lack of care by parents (i.e., antipathy and neglect) as well as psychological and physical abuse before the age of 17 years. The Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) was used to assess the personality dimensions of self-criticism and dependency, and the Suicide History Self-Rating Screening Scale was administered to assess suicide risk. Results revealed that lack of care and psychological abuse were significantly associated with suicide risk and this association was partially mediated by the maladaptive personality dimension of self-criticism. These findings suggest that the combined effect of specific forms of dysfunctional parental behavior during childhood and the development of rigid and dysfunctional negative personality traits may increase the risk for suicidal ideation and behavior during adulthood.
Michelle Alexandra Gomes Alves
Full Text Available This study sought to verify the records on file and the number of cases of attempted suicide among children and adolescents who were attended by Emergency Care health professionals in the municipality of Matozinhos, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Documentary and descriptive research was conducted, the data for which was collected by means of an investigation of Outpatient Records from 2008 to 2010. Of the 73,000 files evaluated, those dealing with cases of attempted suicide among children and adolescents between the age of 3 and 18 years were selected. It was revealed that the health professionals, particularly physicians and nurses, fail to register the cases appropriately, invalidating information about the problem and potential prevention measures. The conclusion reached was that underreporting and the discrepancy of the diagnoses which were not duly referred to the competent agencies require rethinking and reviewing medical practices, and taking a systematic and careful look to address the individual as a complex whole.
Full Text Available Alcoholism is associated with a high risk for suicidal behavior. Up to 40% of persons with alcoholism attempt suicide at some time and 7% end their lives by committing suicide. Risk factors include being male, older than 50 years of age, living alone, being unemployed, poor social support, interpersonal losses, continued drinking, consumption of a greater amount of alcohol when drinking, a recent alcohol binge, previous alcohol treatment, a family history of alcoholism, a history of comorbid substance abuse (especially cocaine, a major depressive episode, serious medical illness, suicidal communication, and prior suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior is especially frequent in patients with comorbid alcoholism and major depression. However, all patients with alcoholism should be evaluated for suicide risk. Understanding of risk and vulnerability to suicidal behavior in alcoholism still outweighs our knowledge of protective factors and resilience. Knowledge of protective factors for suicide may help to prevent and/or predict suicidal behavior. Protective factors for suicide in alcoholism are quite varied and include an individual's biological and behavioral characteristics, as well as attributes of the environment and culture. Protective factors include effective clinical care for psychiatric (including alcoholism and drug abuse and physical disorders, easy access to a variety of clinical interventions and support for seeking help, restricted access to highly lethal means of suicide, strong connections to family and community support, skills in problem solving and conflict resolution, cultural and religious beliefs that discourage suicide and support self-preservation. Future studies are necessary to determine which interventions may reduce suicidal behavior in alcoholism.
Rostad, Whitney L; Basile, Kathleen C; Clayton, Heather B
With the increasing popularity of mobile Internet devices, the exposure of adolescents to media has significantly increased. There is limited information about associations between the types and frequency of media use and experiences of violence victimization and suicide risk. The current study sought to examine the association of bullying and teen dating violence (TDV) victimization, suicide risk with different types of media use (i.e., television and computer/video game use), and number of total media use hours per school day. Data from the nationally representative 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey ( n = 15,624) were used to examine the association between media use and violence victimization and suicide risk. Logistic regression models generated prevalence ratios adjusted for demographic characteristics and substance use behaviors to identify significant associations between media use and victimization and suicide risk, stratified by gender. Media use was associated with TDV victimization for male students only, while media use was related to experiences of bullying and suicide risk for both male and female students. In addition, limited (2 or fewer hours) and excessive (5 or more hours) media use emerged as significant correlates of suicide risk and bullying victimization, with limited media use associated with decreased risk and excessive media use with increased risk. Comprehensive, cross-cutting efforts to prevent different forms of victimization should take into account media use and its potential association with adolescent victimization and suicide risk. The current study results suggest limiting adolescent media use, as part of comprehensive prevention programming, might relate to reductions in risk for victimization and suicide.
Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol; Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Seung Ju; Chun, Sung-Youn; Park, Sohee
To examine the association between the level of Internet addiction and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in South Korean adolescents, focusing on the roles of family structure and household economic status. Data from 221 265 middle and high school students taken from the 2008-2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were used in this study. To identify factors associated with suicidal ideation/attempts, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. The level of Internet use was measured using the simplified Korean Internet Addiction Self-assessment Tool. Compared with mild users of the Internet, high-risk users and potential-risk users were more likely to report suicidal ideation (nonuser, odds ratio [OR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 1.15; potential risk, OR 1.49, 95% CI: 1.36 to 1.63; high risk OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.10) or attempts (nonuser, OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.42; potential risk, OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38; high risk, OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.71 to 2.14). The nonuser group also had a slightly higher risk of suicidal ideation/attempts compared with mild users. This association appeared to vary by perceived economic status and family structure. Our study suggests that it is important to attend to adolescents who are at high risk for Internet addiction, especially when they do not have parents, have stepparents, or perceive their economic status as either very low or very high. © The Author(s) 2016.
Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N; Stenager, E
made for male and female suicides and for various groups of MS suicides according to disability status. RESULTS: The male suicide patients were characterized by a tendency to commit suicide in the age interval 40-49 years, by the use of a violent suicide method, by previous suicidal behaviour...... counselling and good information on all aspects of the disease, especially in the first stages and at time of progression, could be an instrument of prevention of suicides in MS patients. Furthermore, recognition and treatment of depression and pain is important....
Lawrence, Ryan E; Oquendo, Maria A; Stanley, Barbara
Although religion is reported to be protective against suicide, the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Research is complicated by the fact that there are many dimensions to religion (affiliation, participation, doctrine) and suicide (ideation, attempt, completion). We systematically reviewed the literature on religion and suicide over the last 10 years (89 articles) with a goal of identifying what specific dimensions of religion are associated with specific aspects of suicide. We found that religious affiliation does not necessarily protect against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts. Whether religious affiliation protects against suicide attempts may depend on the culture-specific implications of affiliating with a particular religion, since minority religious groups can feel socially isolated. After adjusting for social support measures, religious service attendance is not especially protective against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts, and possibly protects against suicide. Future qualitative studies might further clarify these associations.
Soylu, Nusret; Taneli, Yeşim; Taneli, Suna
Our study aimed at investigating social, emotional, and cognitive factors playing a role in the development of suicidal ideation in depressed adolescents and its turning into a suicide attempt. Sixty-three adolescents (48 female, 15 male) aged 12 to 18 years were included in the study. In face-to-face interviews, suicide ideation, suicide plans, and previous suicide attempts were evaluated, sociodemographic data were collected. Additionally, the Children's Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-I, II), Beck Hopelessness Scale, Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Strengths and the Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) parent forms were applied. SPSS version 13.0 for Windows was used for statistical analysis. It has been established that in the last six months, 71.4% of cases (n=45) had suicidal ideation and 27% (n=17) attempted suicide. Factors associated with suicidal ideation in depressed adolescents were: high depression and anxiety levels, hopelessness and low self-esteem (psuicide attempts were: separated family background, lower perceived family support and high rates of conduct difficulties (psuicide attempt differed from patients with suicidal ideation but without suicide attempt in lower perceived family support only (psuicidal ideation and its turning into a suicide attempt, will help clinicians in preventing suicide attempts in depressed adolescents.
Lee, Margaret T. Y.; Wong, Betty P.; Chow, Bonnie W.-Y.; McBride-Chang, Catherine
The unique dimensions of perceptions of school and family contributing to depression and suicide ideation in Hong Kong adolescents were examined in two studies. In Study 1, among 327 Hong Kong Chinese female students ages 13-18, 47% reported some suicide ideation. Suicide ideation was significantly associated with depression, test anxiety,…
... than prescribed medicines) can reduce the risk of suicide. In homes with children or teenagers: Keep all prescription medicines high up ... or attempted suicide. Alternative Names Depression - suicide; Bipolar - suicide ... in children Depression among the elderly References American Psychiatric Association. ...
Jo, Sun-Jin; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Myung-Soo; Jeong, Hyunsuk; Lee, Won-Chul
This study investigated the association between in-school students' part-time work and 1-year suicide attempts in Korea. The authors analyzed Korean Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance data (2008), which included 75 238 samples that represent Korean middle and high school students. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between part-time work and suicide attempt during the past 1 year, controlled by sociodemographic, school-related, lifestyle, and psychological factors. Among high school students, there was no association between part-time work and suicide attempts. However, part-time work was associated with suicide attempts significantly among middle school students (odds ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval = 1.37-1.83). Despite the limitation that details of the part-time work were not included in this study, it was found that middle school students' part-time work may increase suicide attempts, and the circumstances of Korean adolescents' employment, especially that of younger adolescents, would need to be reconsidered to prevent their suicide attempts. © 2014 APJPH.
Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Lee, Young Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo
Many studies have investigated risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt; however, most have failed to show differences in risk factors between suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. This study was designed to identify differences in risk factors between suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among HIV-infected adults in Seoul. A face-to-face survey of 457 HIV-infected adults was conducted by the Seoul Metropolitan Government in 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Among 422 participants, 44% had suicidal ideation, and 11% had suicide attempts. The independent risk factors for suicidal ideation were young and middle age, living with someone, history of AIDS-defining opportunistic disease, history of treatment for depression, lower social support, and psychological status. Beneficiaries of National Medical Aid, economic barriers to treatment, history of treatment for depression, and lower psychological status were independently associated with suicide attempts. Patients with HIV in Korea were treated without cost in some centers. Thus, experiencing an economic barrier to treatment might be due in part to ignorance of HIV care policies. Our findings indicate that suicide attempts are associated with socioeconomic factors and information inequality regarding medical care. In conclusion, suicidal ideation closely associated with the psychosocial factors, whereas suicide attempt demonstrates a stronger association with socioeconomic factors. Suicide prevention measures should be implemented to provide information to help HIV-infected patients.
Kim, Changsoo; Jung, Sang Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Moon, Ki Tae; Hur, Nam Wook; Shin, Dong Chun; Suh, Il
The authors assessed the relationship between exposure to ambient particulate matter and suicide in urban settings during a 1-year period. The association between particulate matter and suicide was determined using a time-stratified case-crossover approach in which subjects served as their own controls. All suicide cases (4,341) in 2004 that occurred in seven cities in the Republic of Korea were included. Hourly mean concentrations of particulate matter suicide risk associated with an interquartile range increase in particulate matter was determined by conditional logistic regression analysis after adjusting for national holidays and meteorological factors. Subgroup analysis was performed after stratification by underlying disease (cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and psychiatric illness). The largest associations were a 9.0% increase (95% CI=2.4-16.1) and a 10.1% (95% CI=2.0-19.0) increase in suicide risk related to an interquartile range increase in particulate matter suicide) and particulate matter suicide), respectively. Among individuals with cardiovascular disease, a significant association between particulate matter suicide) and suicide was observed (18.9%; 95% CI=3.2-37.0). Conclusions: A transient increase in particulate matter was associated with increased suicide risk, especially for individuals with preexisting cardiovascular disease.
Liu, Hui-Ching; Liu, Shen-Ing; Tjung, Jin-Jin; Sun, Fang-Ju; Huang, Hui-Chun; Fang, Chun-Kai
Self-harm (SH) is a risk factor for suicide. We aimed to determine whether internet addiction and internet exposure to confided suicidal ideation are associated with SH in adolescents. This study was a cross-sectional survey of students who self-completed a series of online questionnaires including a sociodemographic information questionnaire, questionnaire for suicidality and SH, Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), multi-dimensional support scale (MDSS), Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES), Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C), and questionnaire for substance abuse. A total of 2479 students completed the questionnaires (response rate = 62.1%). They had a mean age of 15.44 years (range 14-19 years; standard deviation 0.61), and were mostly female (n = 1494; 60.3%). The prevalence of SH within the previous year was 10.1% (n = 250). Among the participants, 17.1% had internet addiction (n = 425) and 3.3% had been exposed to suicidal content on the internet (n = 82). In the hierarchical logistic regression analysis, internet addiction and internet exposure to suicidal thoughts were both significantly related to an increased risk of SH, after controlling for gender, family factors, exposure to suicidal thoughts in the real life, depression, alcohol/tobacco use, concurrent suicidality, and perceived social support. However, the association between internet addiction and SH weakened after adjusting for the level of self-esteem, while internet exposure to suicidal thoughts remained significantly related to an increased risk of SH (odds ratio = 1.96; 95% confidence interval: 1.06-3.64). Online experiences are associated with SH in adolescents. Preventive strategies may include education to increase social awareness, to identify the youths most at risk, and to provide prompt help. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Draper, Brian; Peisah, Carmelle; Snowdon, John; Brodaty, Henry
Diagnosis of dementia is occurring earlier, and much research concerns the identification of predementia states and the hunt for biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. Reports of suicidal behavior and requests for euthanasia in persons with dementia may be increasing. We performed a selective literature review of suicide risk in persons with dementia and the ethical issues associated with euthanasia in this population. In the absence of any effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia, there is already evidence that persons with mild cognitive change and early dementia are at risk of suicidal behavior, often in the context of comorbid depression. The ensuing clinical, ethical, and legal dilemmas associated with physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in the context of dementia are a subject of intense debate. By analogy, the preclinical and early diagnoses of Huntington's disease are associated with an increased risk of suicidal behavior. Thus there is the potential for a preclinical and early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (through biomarkers, neuroimaging, and clinical assessment) to result in increased suicide risk and requests for physician-assisted suicide. Although dementia specialists have long recognized the importance of a sensitive approach to conveying bad news to patients and families and the possibility of depressive reactions, suicidal behavior has not been regarded as a likely outcome. Such preconceptions will need to change, and protocols to monitor and manage suicide risk will need to be developed for this population. 2010 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Simon, Robert I.
Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are trained to assess patients by direct observation and examination. Short inpatient length of stay, brief outpatient visits, emergency room evaluations, and other time-limited clinical settings require rapid assessment of suicide risk. Recognition of behavioral suicide risk factors can assist…
Liebling-Boccio, Dana E.; Jennings, Heather R.
Directors and coordinators (n = 75) of graduate programs in school psychology approved by the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) were surveyed regarding their training practices in suicide risk assessment. Respondents viewed the assessment of suicide risk as an important part of graduate instruction, and most believed that…
Leung, Cyrus L K; Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Ling, Chloe C Y
This study tested the model of suicidal ideation, incorporating family and personal factors to predict suicidal ideation with hopelessness as a mediating factor in the Hong Kong sample, to a sample in Shanghai. Using MGSEM, the study aims to investigate the personal correlates and the family correlates of suicidal ideation in Hong Kong and Shanghai adolescents. We integrated the family ecological and diathesis-stress-hopelessness models of suicidal ideation in connecting the correlates. A cross-sectional design was used. The full model achieved metric invariance and partial path-loading invariance. Family functioning and social problem solving negatively predicted hopelessness or suicidal ideation in both the Hong Kong and Shanghai adolescents. The results supported an integrative approach in facilitating parent-adolescent communication and strengthening family functioning, and reducing the use of negative social problem-solving styles in adolescent suicide prevention.
Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy
This article is a case study of a Puerto Rican adolescent with suicidal behavior. The adolescent began a Socio-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Suicidal Behavior (SCBT), an ambulatory treatment, after being hospitalized for a suicide attempt. The SCBT incorporates an ecological and developmental perspective to CBT. She initially presented low self-esteem, and significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. At the end of treatment, the adolescent revealed a significant change in symptoms, and a better use of her coping skills. No suicidal ideation was presented during previous months, neither during follow up. Case analysis allowed treatment protocol modifications, particularly family sessions and communication skills, thus contributing to its further feasibility.
Knafo, Alexandra; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Labelle, Réal; Belloncle, Vincent; Bodeau, Nicolas; Boudailliez, Bernard; de la Rivière, Sébastien Garny; Kharij, Brahim; Mille, Christian; Mirkovic, Bojan; Pripis, Cornelia; Renaud, Johanne; Vervel, Christine; Cohen, David; Gérardin, Priscille
Objectives: To compare the coping strategies of adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) to the coping strategies of adolescents without BPD, and to explore the association of coping with suicidal ideation and attempts among adolescents with BPD. Method: Adolescent inpatients (n = 167) aged 13 to 17 years were admitted after suicide attempts and evaluated within 10 days, using the abbreviated version of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines–Revised, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children–Present and Lifetime Version supported by a team consensus best estimate method for the primary diagnosis, the Adolescent Coping Scale, and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Results: Firstly, compared with adolescents without BPD, adolescents with BPD relied more on nonproductive coping strategies, mostly avoidant strategies, and less on productive coping strategies. Secondly, coping appeared as a factor associated with suicidal ideation in adolescents with BPD. While while controlling for age, sex, and depression, multivariate analyses showed a significant positive association between the coping strategy to focusing on solving the problem and suicidal ideation. Conclusion: The use of avoidant strategies by adolescents with BPD could be viewed as attempts to increase emotional regulation. Problem-solving strategies in the immediate aftermath of a suicide attempt may prevent adolescents with BPD from overcoming a crisis and may increase suicidal ideation. PMID:25886671
Dalen Joakim D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have explored the association between social context and suicidal ideation using multilevel models. This study examines how suicidal ideation in adolescence is related to school class composition. Methods Data were obtained from the Young-HUNT 3 study (2006–2008, a population study of adolescents attending secondary school in the Norwegian county of Nord-Trøndelag. The final sample included 2923 adolescents distributed among 379 school classes in 13 schools. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate the contribution of various factors at the individual and school class levels. Results The results indicate that 5.3 percent of the variation in suicidal ideation can be attributed to differences between school classes. However, a substantial part of this variation can be explained by an unequal distribution of students at risk as a result of individual factors. After controlling for individual-level variables, the results show a higher probability of suicidal ideation in school classes having higher proportions of girls as well as in those following a vocational education programme. Conclusion Targeting classes that either follow a vocational education programme or have a high proportion of girls can be an effective approach to intervention because such classes may include a greater number of students at risk for having suicidal thoughts compared to classes with a high proportion of boys or classes following a general education programme.
Bjerregaard, Peter; Lynge, Inge
The incidence of youth suicides has increased dramatically among the Inuit in Greenland since the modernization started in the 1950s. Suicides currently peak at age 15-24 Men: 400-500, Women: 100-150 per 100,000 person-years. The methods are drastic: shooting or hanging. An early peak was seen...... in the capital, a later peak in the rest of West Greenland, and high and increasing rates in remote East Greenland. Suicidal thoughts occur more often in young people who grew up in homes with a poor emotional environment, alcohol problems and violence. There is a definite correlation with several aspects...... of the modernization process but it is hard to pinpoint causal relationships. It is rather the "modernization package" that should be regarded as risk factors for suicides....
Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Fan, Xinghua; Fang, Xiaoyi
Objective: The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of