Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.
Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)
Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.
Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…
Thurstone, Chris; Lajoie, Travis
Strategies are needed to improve adolescent substance abuse treatment outcomes. For example, during outpatient substance abuse treatment, up to 80% of adolescents continue to use. 1 , 2 Following residential substance abuse treatment, 88% of adolescents relapse within 6 months. 3
Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…
Full Text Available Objective:Substance abuse in adolescents may also be a marker to other harmful life styles. This study aims to find out the prevalence, pattern and sociodemographic risk factors of substance abuse in male adolescents. Methods:This study examined 390 male school children aged 10-19 years in the rural and urban areas of district Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Data was analyzed by SPSS -10. Findings:Substance abuse was prevalent in 13.3% of adolescents of whom 96.1% were using various forms of tobacco and 3.8% were taking alcohol. While there was statistically significant association between the substance abuse and the age group of adolescents and size of their families, variables such as religion, socioeconomic status, place of residence were not associated with substance use. Most of the students reported initiation of substance use at 14 yrs of age due to peer pressure. Conclusion:Peer educators would be a useful strategy for communication with adolescents to counter peer pressure. The prevention and control measures should be started at primary education level.
Full Text Available Objective:Substance abuse in adolescents may also be a marker to other harmful life styles. This study aims to find out the prevalence, pattern and sociodemographic risk factors of substance abuse in male adolescents.Methods:This study examined 390 male school children aged 10-19 years in the rural and urban areas of district Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Data was analyzed by SPSS -10.Findings:Substance abuse was prevalent in 13.3% of adolescents of whom 96.1% were using various forms of tobacco and 3.8% were taking alcohol. While there was statistically significant association between the substance abuse and the age group of adolescents and size of their families, variables such as religion, socioeconomic status, place of residence were not associated with substance use. Most of the students reported initiation of substance use at 14 yrs of age due to peer pressure.Conclusion:Peer educators would be a useful strategy for communication with adolescents to counter peer pressure. The prevention and control measures should be started at primary education level.
H Mahjoob; S. Bashirian; A Farhadinasab; H Allahverdipour
Introduction: Narcotic drug abuse and illicit use of drugs is a major, complicated multifactorial phenomenon affecting most of the societies today. Incidence of drug abuse among adolescents is very high. Adolescents become addicted to substances more quickly than adults. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of drug abuse among male adolescents in Hamadan. Methods: This study was a descriptive study and samples (n=400) were collected on the basis of snowball sampling method. Informa...
Wodarski, John S.; Smyth, Nancy J.
Presents data on the extent, nature, and consequences of adolescent substance abuse. Definition of substance abuse is considered. Discusses primary and secondary prevention programs, including programs targeting high-risk youth, school and peer group, families, and communities. Outlines tertiary prevention efforts and emphasizes the need for…
Bailey, Jennifer A.; McCloskey, Laura Ann
This study examined the link between childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use among girls, and evaluated depressive self-concept and behavioral under-control (BUC) as pathways to substance use for sexually abused girls. Participants (n = 150) were drawn from a longitudinal study of the impact of domestic violence on the lives of women…
Fuller, LaShonda B.
Adolescence is a challenging time for many young persons. Navigating the academic, personal/social, and career planning challenges associated with adolescence indeed is challenging even with excellent school, family, and community support. For those adolescents struggling with substance use and abuse, these challenges become even greater. School…
Anderson, Kristen G.; Frissell, Kevin C.; Brown, Sandra A.
The relationship of diagnosis, developmentally relevant factors (e.g., life stress, peer substance use) and mental health symptoms to contexts of a return to substance use were examined for 103 substance abusing adolescents with Axis I psychopathology (ages 12-17) following inpatient treatment. Proximal psychiatric symptoms and developmentally…
Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Domoff, Sarah E.; Toro, Paul A.
Adolescents who experience homelessness are at higher risk for abusing substances, and for being exposed to substance-using peers. The current study used a longitudinal design to track substance abuse, affiliation with substance-using peers, and episodes of homelessness among a sample of 223 adolescents who were homeless at thebaseline data collection and 148 adolescents who were housed at baseline. Participants were interviewed at six waves over 6.5 years, covering an age rang...
Riggs, Paula D.
Recent research has identified a cluster of standardized approaches that effectively treat adolescents with substance abuse disorders. Many of these approaches share elements that may be adopted to improve outcomes in substance treatment programs. In adolescents, treatment goals should be informed by a comprehensive assessment that includes the adolescent patient’s developmental history and evaluation of psychiatric comorbidity. Treatment for behavioral, psychosocial, and psychiatric problems...
Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian
Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…
L.G. Blore; Schulze, S.; Lessing, A C
The research aimed to investigate the phenomena of adolescent depressive symptomology, substance abuse and the relationship between the two phenomena in a South African context. The influence of moderator variables was also examined. Another objective was to determine risk factors for the before mentioned. This was done by using a questionnaire with a sample of 1298 conveniently selected adolescents in a South African high school. It was determined that adolescents become progressively unhapp...
Full Text Available The research aimed to investigate the phenomena of adolescent depressive symptomology, substance abuse and the relationship between the two phenomena in a South African context. The influence of moderator variables was also examined. Another objective was to determine risk factors for the before mentioned. This was done by using a questionnaire with a sample of 1298 conveniently selected adolescents in a South African high school. It was determined that adolescents become progressively unhappier from 13 to 17 years of age. Girls are more depressed than boys. This research also revealed that adolescent depressive symptomology is significantly and positively correlated with earlier age of onset of substance abuse as well as frequency of usage. There appear to be no gender differences in substance abuse but teenagers from different ethnic and language groups differ in their use of substances. Risk factors for depression and substance abuse included a conflict relationship with parents, the experience of major stressful events, dissatisfaction with school grades and friends’ use of substances.
Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.
Psychoactive drugs are widely available in the United States. Many, such as coffee, cigarettes, and alcohol, are used commonly and acceptably by adults. For children and adolescents sorting through the complex messages about both licit and illicit drugs is difficult. Previous research examined differences between substance users and abusers with…
Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart
Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…
Full Text Available Introduction: Narcotic drug abuse and illicit use of drugs is a major, complicated multifactorial phenomenon affecting most of the societies today. Incidence of drug abuse among adolescents is very high. Adolescents become addicted to substances more quickly than adults. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of drug abuse among male adolescents in Hamadan. Methods: This study was a descriptive study and samples (n=400 were collected on the basis of snowball sampling method. Information was collected individually through completion of a researcher-designed questionnaire including demographic and epidemiological indices, perceived familial support, religiosity, and locus of control. Results: The results showed that smoking (93%, alcohol (92.5%, marijuana (64.3%, and opium (57.8% use were very high, while LSD (4.8% and Cocaine(2.3% use was rare. 77.8 % of adolescents began drug abuse between 12 and 18 years of age. Moreover, sensation seeking (26.5%, individual interest (24.8%, and peer pressure (22%, were the main reasons for drug abuse. Conclusion: As initial smoking, alcohol and marijuana use play an important role in determining the future addiction of adolescents to narcotics, yearly surveillance programs in the country and evaluation of etiological factors of narcotic addiction need to be studied carefully. All of the preventive and school programs designed for the young should take into account environmental, demographic and policy factors in addition to personal factors so that the programs have a maximum effect.
Werner, Mark J.
The high prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse by adolescents poses a significant threat to the wellness of youth. Adolescents appear to use drugs for a variety of reasons. In addition to the multiple etiologic and risk factors present for substance abuse, there are many pathways teenagers may follow on their way to substance abuse. The…
Strasburger, Victor C
The causes of adolescent substance use are multifactorial, but the media can play a key role. Tobacco and alcohol represent the 2 most significant drug threats to adolescents. More than $25 billion per year is spent on advertising for tobacco, alcohol, and prescription drugs, and such advertising has been shown to be effective. Digital media are increasingly being used to advertise drugs. In addition, exposure to PG-13- and R-rated movies at an early age may be a major factor in the onset of adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a ban on all tobacco advertising in all media, limitations on alcohol advertising, avoiding exposure of young children to substance-related (tobacco, alcohol, prescription drugs, illegal drugs) content on television and in PG-13- and R-rated movies, incorporating the topic of advertising and media into all substance abuse-prevention programs, and implementing media education programs in the classroom. PMID:20876181
Park, Sookyung; Kim, Haeryun; Kim, Haesung
This study examined the roles played by parental alcohol abuse and social support, peer substance abuse risk and social support, and substance abuse risk among adolescents in South Korea. Participants were adolescents between the ages of 15 and 22 years (mean, 18), residing in Seoul city and in surrounding Kyung-gi Province. Of 259 participants, 41.3% scored 2 or more on the POSIT scale, which suggested they met the problematic criteria for substance abuse risk. Logistic regression results suggested that the influence of social support on substance abuse risk among adolescents depended on the source of support--parents or peers. These findings need to be considered in the development of intervention programs for adolescents at risk for substance abuse. PMID:19435169
Saldana, Lisa; Smith, Dana K.; Weber, Elisa
Although maternal substance abuse in child welfare populations is a well-documented occurrence, little is known about the onset of these behaviors or the substance abuse histories of these mothers. Descriptive data from a small feasibility trial of mothers referred for substance abuse and child neglect suggest adolescent onset of hard substance use. Age of onset was associated with family history of use. The majority of mothers reported polysubstance abuse starting at an early age and quickly...
Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Khalili, Mina Norozi; Chenarani, Maryam Shakeri; Hamidi, Mahin; Akaberi, Arash; Ardani, Amir Rezaei
Background: Parental substance abuse confronts children with a variety of psychological, social, and behavioral problems. Children of substance abusing parents show higher levels of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression and exert lower levels of communication skills. Weak social skills in this group of adolescents put them at a higher risk for substance abuse. Many studies showed school based interventions such as life skill training can effective on future substance abusing ...
Camila Garcia de Grandi
Full Text Available Introduction: Psychoactive substance abuse problems in the family have an impact on the development of children and adolescents. This risk conditions can harm mental health and hinder healthy development in psychosocial areas. Objectives: This study investigated the psychosocial profile of children and adolescents assisted in a prevention service center for children of substance abusers in a deprived community located in the outskirts of Sao Paulo. Methods: Exploratory and descriptive study, based on cross-sectional methodology and a convenience sample of 791 children and adolescents assisted at the Intervention and Support Center for Children of Substance Abusers - CUIDA between January 2001 and December 2008. The sample was divided into groups according to discharge status: Active, Therapeutic Discharge (TD, Abandonment, Without Information about the Reason for Leaving and With Information about the Length of Treatment (WIRL, Without Information (WI, and Other Reasons for Leaving (OR. Results: In the Active group, 26% of mothers had completed high-school and 11% belonged to the A/B socioeconomic classes. The TD group showed the highest percentages of wage earning parents (52% living together (64%. In the WIRL group, 17% of the mothers were illiterate or had not completed primary education, and 23% of the fathers were unemployed. In the WI group, 22% lived in houses that had been lent to them. Conclusions: Results indicate the impact of addiction and underprivileged conditions (such as housing status, fathers’ level of education, and socioeconomic status on retention in the service and the importance of health prevention and promotion strategies aimed at this population.
Nomimol Lucy Thomas,; Prakash M Naregal,; Vaishali R. Mohite; Sunita H Tata; Rajashri B Karale; S.V. Kakade
Background: Substance abuse and dependency are most common during adolescence. Adolescents are in a transitional phase, confusion can sometimes make them susceptible to taking up unfavourable habits. Attitude shaping by parents and knowledge of harmfulness of substance abuse can indirectly motivate the user to give up the habit. Substance abuse control programmes, focusing on youth, are essential, to reduce the burden of related diseases. Objectives: It was aimed to...
Becker, Sara J.; Curry, John F.
This study explored the interactive effect of substance abuse and depression on social competence among 106 adolescent inpatients (57% female, 86% Caucasian). Substance abuse and depression were conceptualized using dimensional ratings of illness severity based on adolescent interviews, whereas social competence was conceptualized using parent…
Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus infection is mostly spread and occurs more commonly among substance abusing adolescents as compared to the nonsubstance abusing. In this paper, a mathematical model for the spread of HSV-2 within a community with substance abusing adolescents is developed and analysed. The impacts of condom use and educational campaigns are examined. The study suggests that condom use is highly effective among adolescents, when we have more of them quitting than becoming substance abusers. Measures such as educational campaigns can be put in place to try and reduce adolescents from becoming substance abusers. Further, we applied optimal control theory to the proposed model. The controls represent condom use and educational campaigns. The objective is based on maximising the susceptible nonsubstance abusing adolescents, while minimising the susceptible substance abusing adolescents, the infectious nonsubstance abusing adolescents, and the infectious substance abusing adolescents. We used Pontrygin’s maximum principle to characterise the optimal levels of the two controls. The resulting optimality system is solved numerically. Overall, the application of the optimal control theory suggests that more effort should be devoted to condom use as compared to educational campaigns.
Stanger, Catherine; Ryan, Stacy R.; Fu, Hongyun; Landes, Reid D.; Jones, Bryan A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Budney, Alan J.
The purpose of the current study was to identify predictors of delay discounting among adolescents receiving treatment for marijuana abuse or dependence, and to test delay discounting as a predictor of treatment outcome. Participants for this study were 165 adolescents (88% male) between the ages of 12 and 18 (M =15.8; SD = 1.3) who enrolled in a clinical trial comparing three behavioral treatments for adolescent marijuana abuse or dependence. Participants completed a delay discounting task a...
Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; Battjes, Robert J
Although many studies have examined the relationship between early deviant behavior and subsequent life problems among adolescents drawn from the general population, such relationships have not been examined for youth attending substance abuse treatment. Based on in-depth psychosocial assessments conducted with adolescents entering an outpatient substance abuse treatment program (N = 193), the current study examines individual characteristics, life circumstances, and other behavioral and psychological characteristics that are correlated with the age at which these youth initiated substance use and criminal activity. Early onset of substance use was associated with greater levels of family deviance and a variety of problems including school adjustment, drug use, criminal involvement, bullying and cruelty to people and animals, and involvement in risky sexual activities. In contrast, early onset of crime was related only to male gender, early onset of substance use, and cruelty to people. Findings suggest that treatment providers may need to consider the ages at which their adolescent clients initiated substance use given its association with illegal activity, other deviant behavior, and precocious and high-risk sexual behaviors. PMID:15083553
Nomimol Lucy Thomas,
Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse and dependency are most common during adolescence. Adolescents are in a transitional phase, confusion can sometimes make them susceptible to taking up unfavourable habits. Attitude shaping by parents and knowledge of harmfulness of substance abuse can indirectly motivate the user to give up the habit. Substance abuse control programmes, focusing on youth, are essential, to reduce the burden of related diseases. Objectives: It was aimed to assess the level of knowledge of adolescents regarding substance abuse, to find the effectiveness of role play on knowledge regarding substance abuse among adolescents, to find out the association of knowledge scores of adolescents regarding substance abuse with selected socio demographic variables. Material and Methods: A quasi experimental, one group pre-test post-test design with evaluative approach was adopted for this study. The study was conducted at Krishna Charitable Trust’s English Medium School and Junior College, Karad, Maharashtra, India. Simple random sampling with lottery method was used for selecting the 60 subjects from VIIIth, IXth and Xth class. On the 1st day a structured knowledge questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge on substance abuse and role play was conducted followed by post test on the 7thday. Data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: The mean and standard deviation of the knowledge scores of the subjects in pre test was 11.51 + 3.55 which increased in post test after role play to 17.5 + 2.89. The paired ‘t’ test value were 15.363 (p < 0.0001 showing a significant increase in knowledge regarding substance abuse. There was an association between type of family and general information on substance abuse, education of father with commonly abused substances and the total score on substance abuse, education of mother with commonly abused substances and prevention and management of substance abuse and number of
Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Buu, Anne; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.
335 children of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fathers were examined to study the relation between childhood behavior trajectories and adolescent substance abuse. Findings suggested that children with both aggression and inattention/hyperactivity were at an increased risk of substance abuse when compared to children with only inattention/hyperactivity…
Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate
Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…
Patchell, Beverly A.
Native American Indian adolescent substance abuse has been a longstanding health concern. There are few culturally tailored interventions for mild to moderate substance users. The purpose of this study was to measure the response of Native American Indian adolescents from the Plains tribal groups to a school-based culturally tailored substance…
Measelle, Jeffrey R.; Stice, Eric; Hogansen, Jennifer M.
Growth trajectories of co-occurring symptomatology were examined in a community sample of 493 adolescent females who were followed annually from early to late adolescence. On average, depression, eating disorder, and substance abuse symptoms increased over time, whereas antisocial behavior decreased. Increases in each symptom domain were associated with relative increases in all other domains. Initial depressive and antisocial symptoms predicted future increases in the other; substance abuse ...
Henegar, LaTrica Y.
This descriptive qualitative study explored the lived perceptions and views of middle school teachers, school counselors, and Licensed Professional Counselors (LPCs) within central Alabama's middle school system. The problem explored is adolescent substance abuse students whose academic attainment may be affected by their drug abuse.…
Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Stice, Eric; Wade, Emily; Bohon, Cara
The authors examined the reciprocal relations between rumination and symptoms of depression, bulimia, and substance abuse with longitudinal data from 496 female adolescents. Rumination predicted future increases in bulimic and substance abuse symptoms, as well as onset of major depression, binge eating, and substance abuse. Depressive and bulimic, but not substance abuse, symptoms predicted increases in rumination. Rumination did not predict increases in externalizing symptoms, providing evidence for the specificity of effects of rumination, although externalizing symptoms predicted future increases in rumination. Results suggest rumination may contribute to the etiology of depressive, bulimic, and substance abuse pathology and that the former two disturbances may foster increased rumination. Results imply that it might be beneficial for prevention programs to target this cognitive vulnerability. PMID:17324030
Donbaek, Dagmar Feddern; Elklit, Ask; Pedersen, Mads Uffe
. Therefore, we studied this issue in relation to alcohol abuse (AA) and drug abuse (DA) in a probability sample of Danish 15- to 18-year-olds (n=1,988) in the form of an online survey using self-report questionnaires following the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM......The majority of studies exploring the mental health disorders posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorders (substance abuse and dependence) have shown high co-morbidity rates in adolescents, indicating a well-established relationship. However, only a few studies have attempted to...... disorders in adolescents whilst underpinning the importance of acknowledging the specific functional mechanisms underlying the common co-occurrence of PTSD and substance abuse in adolescence....
Igwe Wilson C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Association between psychiatric morbidity and substance abuse among adolescent has been reported. However prevalence and pattern of such dysfunctions are unknown in our environment. Aims To determine the prevalence of psychosocial dysfunction and depressive symptoms among adolescents who abuse substance and also note the influence of socio-demographic factors and type of substance on the pattern of dysfuction. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out among 900 adolescents selected from 29 secondary schools in Enugu metropolis. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select the students. The student drug use questionnaire was used to screen respondents for substance abuse. Those who were abusing substance and matched controls (non substance abusers were assessed for psychiatric symptoms using the 35-item Paediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS. Social classification was done using the parental educational attainment and occupation. Result A total of 290 students were current substance abusers. The substances most commonly abused were alcohol (31.6%, cola nitida (kola nut (20.7% and coffee (15.7%. Using the PSC scale, 70 (24.1% subjects compared to 29 (10.7% of the controls had scores in the morbidity range of ≥ 28 for psychosocial dysfuction. This was statistically significant (χ2 = 17.57 p = 0.001. Fifty-four subjects (18.6% had scores in the morbidity range of ≥ 50 for depressive symptoms using the Zung SDS compared to 21 (7.7% of controls. This was statistically significant (χ2 = 14.43, p = 0.001. Prevalence of dysfunction was not significantly related to age in both subjects and controls (χ2 = 4.62, p = 0.010, χ2 = 4.8, p = 0.10 respectively. Also using both scales, there was no significant relationship between psychosocial dysfunction and gender or social class in both subjects and control. The prevalence of dysfuction using both scales was significantly higher
Büker Halime SC; Demir Esen; Yüncü Zeki; Gülen Figen; Midyat Levent; Tanaç Remziye
Abstract Aim Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Chronic inhalant abuse can damage respiratory, cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. This study aims to determine the physiologic effects of inhaling solvents on the respiratory functions. Methods The general health status of the subjects was assessed by history taking, physical examination and a questionnaire which was designed to show the severity of respiratory symptoms. Spiro...
Sanja Tatalovic Vorkapic
Full Text Available One of the most important factors of successful substance abuse treatment is the early start of the same treatment. Recent selection method for identification of Croatian adolescents in the substance abuse risk that has been using drug tests from urine samples, has been simple and exact on the one hand, but on the other, has been very rare and usually guided by the pressure of parents or the court. Besides, such method presented the source of legal and ethical questions. So, the proposal of application of standardized psychological tests during systematic medical exams of Croatian adolescents at the age range of 15-22 years could help with the early detection of those adolescents who were in the substance abuse risk or already had the developed addiction problem.
Tatalovic Vorkapic, Sanja; Dadic-Hero, Elizabeta; Ruzic, Klementina; Roncevic, Dobrica; Knez, Rajna
One of the most important factors of successful substance abuse treatment is the early start of the same treatment. Recent selection method for identification of Croatian adolescents in the substance abuse risk that has been using drug tests from urine samples, has been simple and exact on the one hand, but on the other, has been very rare and usually guided by the pressure of parents or the court. Besides, such method presented the source of legal and ethical questions. So, the proposal of application of standardized psychological tests during systematic medical exams of Croatian adolescents at the age range of 15-22 years could help with the early detection of those adolescents who were in the substance abuse risk or already had the developed addiction problem. PMID:21952159
Rowe, Cynthia L.
Adolescent substance abuse rarely occurs without other psychiatric and developmental problems, yet it is often treated and researched as if it can be isolated from comorbid conditions. Few comprehensive interventions are available that effectively address the range of co-occurring problems associated with adolescent substance abuse. This article reviews the clinical interventions and research evidence supporting the use of Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) for adolescents with substance ...
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine mediation effect of social skills between impulsivity with substance abuse in adolescents. The research sample consists of 616 students of vulnerable high schools in Ardabil City. Together the data of Impulsivity Scale, Matson social skills scale and substance abuse survey were used [Matson, J. L., Rotatori, A. F., & Helsel, W. J. (1983. Development of a rating scale to measure social skills in children: The Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters (MESSY. Behaviour Research and therapy, 21(4, 335-340.]. The results show that impulsivity indirectly is associated with substance abuse students (P<0.001 through the effect on social skills. The results indicate that high levels of impulsivity and low-level social skills increase substance abuse in students. These results are consistent with other existing results found in the literature.
Hoffmann, John P; Cerbone, Felicia G
A common observation in the research literature is that children of drug-dependent parents are at significantly heightened risk of adolescent drug use, abuse, and dependence. Recent research indicates that several psychological and interpersonal factors may affect the association between parents' psychoactive substance use disorder (PSUD) and drug use risks among adolescents, yet studies have failed to examine explicitly whether these factors moderate the association between PSUD and adolescent substance abuse. This paper explores these potential relationships using longitudinal data from a study that has followed three cohorts of adolescents and their families over a 7-year period. The cohorts are defined by parental diagnoses of PSUD, affective disorders, or no diagnosable disorder. The results indicate that PSUD is positively associated with adolescent drug abuse, yet this association is attenuated by strong family cohesion. Affective disorders among parents are associated with a higher risk of alcohol, but not drug, abuse. The associations are stronger in the presence of lower stress and higher self-esteem. PSUD is also associated more strongly with offspring drug and alcohol abuse when levels of use are lower. Hence, some unobserved mechanism that may involve physiological sensitivities to drugs and alcohol appears to put children of parents with drug problems at particular risk of drug and alcohol abuse. Limitations of the data and analysis are discussed. PMID:12062460
Marti, C. Nathan; Stice, Eric; Springer, David W.
We used data from a school-based study of 496 adolescent girls to identify qualitatively distinct substance use and substance abuse developmental trajectory groups and tested whether the problematic groups differed from the non-problematic groups on baseline and outcome validation variables. Results identified four substance use groups (late users, normative users, late-heavy users, early-heavy users) and four substance abuse groups (nonabusers, moderate escalating abusers, moderate decreasin...
Stice, Eric; Burton, Emily M.; Shaw, Heather
To elucidate the processes that contribute to the comorbidity between bulimic pathology, depression, and substance abuse, the authors tested the temporal relations between these disturbances with prospective data from adolescent girls (N = 496). Multivariate analyses indicated that depressive symptoms predicted onset of bulimic pathology but not…
Henggeler, Scott W.; Chapman, Jason E.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Randall, Jeff; Shackelford, Jennifer; Schoenwald, Sonja K.
Four hundred thirty-two public sector therapists attended a workshop in contingency management (CM) and were interviewed monthly for the following 6 months to assess their adoption and initial implementation of CM to treat substance-abusing adolescent clients. Results showed that 58% (n = 131) of the practitioners with at least one…
In this study, the social network characteristics of 102 urban adolescents in brief substance abuse treatment are described and analyzed longitudinally to examine risk and protective mechanisms. The treatment intervention had one session devoted to social support and networks. Social networks were conceptualized and measured along two dimensions…
Durr, Marlese; Small, La Fleur F; Dunlap, Eloise
Lula Beatty (2003:59) asks, "What makes a black woman, voluntarily take a substance into her body which alters her perceptions and feelings of well-being?" This research examines African American women's substance abuse as a response to stressful life events grounded in adolescence, drawing in part on the cognitive-transactional approach and distal stressor model to discuss the effects of stressors on mental health and substance abusing behavior. Most respondents viewed their adolescent experiences and the associated stress as tribulations or lessons to be lived through, rather than a signal of needed change in their social, cultural, and ecological life circumstances. The effect of exposure to constant stressors early in the life course coupled with proximal stressors often resulted in negative active responses to stress (i.e. substance abuse) and continued stunted emotional growth. Thus, our findings indicate that the experience of African American women as adolescents contributes to understanding substance abuse amongst this population. These findings further help develop the cognitive-transactional model, while adding to the distal stressors and life process model as a way of considering gender, race, and structural forces. PMID:23843768
The research on substance (alcohol, tobacco and drug) abuse and on self-perception was done by comparing a test group of physically disabled adolescents and a test group of non-disabled adolescents. The respondents of the experimental group were students of the only special high school for physically handicapped persons in Croatia, Zagreb. The respondents of the control group were the students of two regular high schools in the capital of Croatia. The instrument used in this re...
Substance use and abuse begin during adolescence. Male and female adolescent humans initiate use at comparable rates, but males increase use faster. In adulthood, more men than women use and abuse addictive drugs. However, some women progress more rapidly from initiation of use to entry into treatment. In animal models, adolescent males and females consume addictive drugs similarly. However, reproductively mature females acquire self-administration faster, and in some models, escalate use more. Sex/gender differences exist in neurobiologic factors mediating both reinforcement (dopamine, opioids) and aversiveness (CRF, dynorphin), as well as intrinsic factors (personality, psychiatric co-morbidities) and extrinsic factors (history of abuse, environment especially peers and family) which influence the progression from initial use to abuse. Many of these important differences emerge during adolescence, and are moderated by sexual differentiation of the brain. Estradiol effects which enhance both dopaminergic and CRF-mediated processes contribute to the female vulnerability to substance use and abuse. Testosterone enhances impulsivity and sensation seeking in both males and females. Several protective factors in females also influence initiation and progression of substance use including hormonal changes of pregnancy as well as greater capacity for self-regulation and lower peak levels of impulsivity/sensation seeking. Same sex peers represent a risk factor more for males than females during adolescence, while romantic partners increase risk for women during this developmental epoch. In summary, biologic factors, psychiatric co-morbidities as well as personality and environment present sex/gender-specific risks as adolescents begin to initiate substance use. PMID:26049025
Sanja Tatalovic Vorkapic; Elizabeta Dadic-Hero; Klementina Ruzic; Dobrica Roncevic; Rajna Knez
One of the most important factors of successful substance abuse treatment is the early start of the same treatment. Recent selection method for identification of Croatian adolescents in the substance abuse risk that has been using drug tests from urine samples, has been simple and exact on the one hand, but on the other, has been very rare and usually guided by the pressure of parents or the court. Besides, such method presented the source of legal and ethical questions. So, the proposal of a...
Büker Halime SC
Full Text Available Abstract Aim Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Chronic inhalant abuse can damage respiratory, cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. This study aims to determine the physiologic effects of inhaling solvents on the respiratory functions. Methods The general health status of the subjects was assessed by history taking, physical examination and a questionnaire which was designed to show the severity of respiratory symptoms. Spirometry, ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT were performed to assess pulmonary functions and anatomy. Results Thirty-one male volatile substance abusers and 19 control subjects were included in the study. The mean age of onset of inhalant use was 14.6 ± 2.2 (9-18 years and duration of drug use was 3.7 ± 1.7 years. The most common respiratory symptoms in volatile substance abusers were nasal congestion (45.2%, sputum (38.7%, exercise intolerance (32.3% and cough (22.6%. Results of spirometric studies showed 12 (41.4% subjects with low FVC values Conclusion This study has shown a positive correlation between volatile substance abuse and the development of restrictive ventilatory pattern, but more comprehensive studies are needed for more precise conclusions.
Full Text Available Background: Inhalant use, an important, yet-under recognized form of substance abuse has been reported commonly among adolescents in India but the true extent of the problem is not known due to paucity of data. Aims: To assess the prevalence and determinants of inhalant substance used amongst the adolescents in Manipur. Settings and Design: This cross sectional study was conducted among 1671 adolescent studying in Eighth to Twelfth standard in schools of Imphal-East District Manipur, India during March to June 2013. Materials and Methods: Schools were selected by simple random method and a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire adapted from the 'UNDCP/WHO Global initiative on Primary Prevention of substance abuse' was used for data collection. Univariate and Multiple logistic regression analysis were performed for association between ever users and selected variables. Results: Mean (SD age of the students was 14.5(1.32 years, with males constituting 923(55.2%. Prevalence of ever users was186 (11.1% and glue/dendrite was the commonest substance abused 98(52.7%. Being male, belonging to joint family and increase in age were found to have significant higher risk of being a user, whereas higher level of parental education shows a protective effect. Conclusion: An increased effort for prevention, treatment along with sensitization of parents and teachers is a distinct challenge for policy makers.
Botvin, G J
The initiation of substance use typically begins during adolescence and appears to be the result of the complex interplay of social, personality, cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and developmental factors. Traditional smoking, alcohol, and drug education programs have attempted to increase students' knowledge of the risks associated with using these substances in the hope that this would deter use. Other programs have attempted to enrich the personal and social development of students through what has been referred to as "affective" education. Unfortunately, the inescapable conclusion to be drawn from the substance abuse prevention literature is that few of these programs have demonstrated any degree of success in terms of the actual prevention of substance use/abuse. Traditional educational approaches to substance abuse prevention appear to be inadequate because they are based on faulty assumptions and are too narrow in their focus. The "affective" education approaches, on the other hand, appear to have placed too little emphasis on the acquisition of the kind of skills that are likely to increase general personal competence and enable students to cope with the various interpersonal and intrapersonal pressures to begin using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. From the perspective of social learning theory (Bandura 1977) and problem behavior theory (Jessor and Jessor 1977), substance use is conceptualized as a socially learned, purposive, and functional behavior which is the result of the interplay of social (environmental) and personal factors. One potentially effective approach to substance abuse prevention might involve enhancing general personal competence and teaching adolescents the kind of problem-specific skills and knowledge which will increase their ability to resist the various forms of pro-substance-use social pressure. Brief reviews of the social skills training literature and the literature related to techniques for coping with anxiety not only provide
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Monti, Peter M., Ed.; Colby, Suzanne M., Ed.; O'Leary, Tracy A., Ed.
This publication reviews a variety of empirically supported approaches to dealing with alcohol and drug problems in adolescents. Its focus is to provide motivationally based brief interventions that can be delivered in a variety of contexts address key developmental considerations and draw on the latest knowledge about the processes of addictive…
Ikechukwu Uba; Siti Nor Yaacob; Mansor Abu Talib; Sakineh Mofrad; Rohani Abdullah
The present study assessed the mediating effect of self-esteem in the relationship between stress and substance abuse among adolescents. The participants of the study were 352 adolescents, 54.5% males and 45.5% females aged 13 to18 years, from selected secondary schools in Somolu, Lagos, Nigeria. Substance abuse was measured with the Drug Abuse Screening Test, while Stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Scale, and Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale. The stud...
The problem of middle adolescent substance use and abuse among high school age males was examined. Financial and socio-emotional costs and rates of incidence for substance use and abuse among high school males are addressed followed by a discussion of social, environmental, and intra-psychic factors, which influence substance use and abuse. To…
Akanbi, Muritala Ishola; Augustina, Godwin; Theophilus, Anyio Bahago; Muritala, Muhammad; Ajiboye, Ajiboye Stephen
The study investigated the impact of substance abuse on adolescent on academic performance in colleges of education in Kwara State. The design used for the study was the survey. A sample of 150 adolescent students was randomly selected form selected departments in three colleges of education in the State. A validated instrument, Drug Habit…
Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent
The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent…
Hicks, Brian M.; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C. Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96% European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample—socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)—and the environmenta...
Full Text Available Hasan Kandemir,1 Ömer Aydemir,2 Suat Ekinci,3 Salih Selek,4 Sultan B Kandemir,5 Hüseyin Bayazit61Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, 3Balikli Rum Hospital, Istanbul, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA; 5Department of Psychiatry, Balikligol State Hospital, Sanliurfa, 6Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, TurkeyAim: This study aimed to validate the CRAFFT diagnostic test, against the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition, Axis 1-based diagnostic inventory in a Turkish population of adolescents.Method: The 124 adolescents who were 15–18 years old were enrolled to this study. CRAFFT was self-administered. Interviews took approximately 30 minutes, including the DSM-IV diagnostic interview for alcohol/drug dependence.Results: The mean age of subjects was 16.653 years (minimum: 15 years, maximum: 18 years. A score of 2 or higher in part B was found to be optimal for detecting youths with substance dependence problems (sensitivity: 0.82; specificity: 0.88 and it was sufficiently discriminative.Conclusion: The CRAFFT is a valid and reliable instrument for identifying Turkish-speaking youths at risk for substance use disorders.Keywords: CRAFFT, substance abuse, validity, Turkish, adolescent
Hollis C. Karoly
Full Text Available Numerous questions surround the nature of reward processing in the developing adolescent brain, particularly in regard to polysubstance use. We therefore sought to examine incentive-elicited brain activation in the context of three common substances of abuse (cannabis, tobacco, and alcohol. Due to the role of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc in incentive processing, we compared activation in this region during anticipation of reward and loss using a monetary incentive delay (MID task. Adolescents (ages 14–18; 66% male were matched on age, gender, and frequency of use of any common substances within six distinct groups: cannabis-only (n = 14, tobacco-only (n = 34, alcohol-only (n = 12, cannabis + tobacco (n = 17, cannabis + tobacco + alcohol (n = 17, and non-using controls (n = 38. All groups showed comparable behavioral performance on the MID task. The tobacco-only group showed decreased bilateral nucleus accumbens (NAcc activation during reward anticipation as compared to the alcohol-only group, the control group, and both polysubstance groups. Interestingly, no differences emerged between the cannabis-only group and any of the other groups. Results from this study suggest that youth who tend toward single-substance tobacco use may possess behavioral and/or neurobiological characteristics that differentiate them from both their substance-using and non-substance-using peers.
... are common in later life. The Most Common Types of Drug and Substance Abuse Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications Abuse Among ... older population than in younger people. But, other types of substance abuse, such as inappropriate use of prescription and over- ...
Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; BATES, JOHN E.
Prospective longitudinal data from 535 families were used to examine parents’ reports of child physical abuse in the first five years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first five years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls’ substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substance us...
Anderson, Shawanda W.; Moore, Paula A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate if a school-based education and counseling program (Life Skills Training Program) would have an impact on school-aged children/adolescents' views of substance abuse. The study also investigated the degree and direction of change. Participants were 338 elementary or middle-school students in the metro…
Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent
The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substanceabusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent psychopathology and family functioning problems by parent gender. Participants included 242 parents in treatment for substance abuse and/or dependence an...
Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.
Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…
Marlowe, Stephanie L.
The present study investigated within a substance abuse treatment center the influence of family therapy on flexibility and cohesion among family members. Past studies have suggested adolescents who abuse substances exist in families who have a lack of balance of flexibility and cohesion. Unfortunately, few studies have examined the influence of…
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Adolescence is the most critical period of life as regards commencing drug abuse. The social cost and damage caused by drug abuse in adolescence are enormous, necessitating interventional programs to prevent this behavior. The theory of planned behavior (TPB is perhaps the most influential theory for the prediction of social and health behaviors such as drug abuse.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, samples were collected from male students in four high schools in different regions of Hamedan. The survey was carried out via random cluster sampling of 650 students. Data were collected using the standard self-report questionnaires and were analyzed using SPSS16, chi-squared test, correlation coefficient, and logistic regression analysis.Results: Among the adolescents participating in this study, 11.1% had the experience of cigarette smoking, 3.4% had the experience of drug abuse, and 12% had the experience of intention to abuse drugs. There was a significant relationship between drug abuse and the following variables: smoking experience (p value =0.001, OR=27.238; having drug user parents (p value =0.001, OR=8.630; having friends who had experienced drug abuse (p value =0.001, OR=11.060; having best friends who had experienced drug abuse (p value = 0.001, OR=11.931; family with drug abuse (p value = 0.001, OR=4.311; and having a sibling who abused drugs (p value=0.001, OR=15.815. According to the logistic regression analysis, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control were the most influential predictors of intention to abuse drugs.Conclusion: The use of TPB is beneficial in the predicting and planning for high-risk behaviors. TPB can be used for planning and implementing drug abuse prevention programs in adolescents.
Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Wilson, Sandra Jo; Lipsey, Mark W.
Meta-analysis was used to synthesize research on the effects of outpatient treatment on substance use outcomes for adolescents with substance use disorders. An extensive literature search located 45 eligible experimental or quasi-experimental studies reporting 73 treatment-comparison group pairs, with many of the comparison groups also receiving some treatment. The first analysis examined 250 effect sizes for the substance use outcomes of adolescents receiving different types of treatment rel...
Allahverdipour, Hamid; Bazargan, Mohsen; Farhadinasab, Abdollah; Hidarnia, Alireza; Bashirian, Saeed
The prevalence of substance abuse among adolescents from low- and middle-income countries is increasing drastically and requires immediate intervention. The objective of this longitudinal quasi-experimental panel study was to design and implement a skill-based intervention to prevent and reduce substance use among urban adolescents who attended 2…
Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.
Gangi, Jennifer; Darling, Carol A.
Despite the heterogeneity of posttreatment outcomes, the likelihood of relapse is often dependent on several factors, including participation in continuing care services such as self-help groups. However, few studies have examined the use of self-help groups among adolescent outpatients. Therefore, in this study, investigators examined self-help…
Peiper, Nicholas C; Ridenour, Ty A; Hochwalt, Bridget; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera
Substance use and consequent disorders have burdened US health care, criminal justice, and society at large for centuries. Pathological substance use almost invariably begins before 25 years of age, demonstrating how critical adolescence is within the etiology, prevention, and treatment of substance use disorder. This article provides a high-level overview of the prevalence of substance use disorders to provide a context within which the remaining issue provides in-depth descriptions of the evidence on specific topics. Described herein are trends in substance use, substance use disorder, and demographic comparisons. PMID:27338960
... DrugFacts » Substance Abuse in the Military DrugFacts: Substance Abuse in the Military Email Facebook Twitter Revised March ... alcohol and tobacco use, and especially prescription drug abuse, are much more prevalent and are on the ...
Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues The Role of Culture in Elder ... factor in all types of elder abuse, including physical mistreatment, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, and neglect. It is also a ...
Kirillova, Galina P.; Vanyukov, Michael M.; Gavaler, Judith S.; Pajer, Kathleen; Dunn, Marija; Tarter, Ralph E.
Tests a theory positing a role of sexual maturation and behavioral self-regulation in the development of early onset substance use disorders. The rate of maturation in adolescent males across three timepoints was found to be associated with parental substance use disorder (SUD). Parental, especially maternal, SUD was related to the sons' SUD.…
Parker, Jennifer S.; Benson, Mark J.
The present study examined parental support and monitoring as they relate to adolescent outcomes. It was hypothesized that support and monitoring would be associated with higher self-esteem and less risky behavior during adolescence. The diverse sample included 16,749 adolescents assessed as part of the National Educational Longitudinal Study.…
Shek, Daniel T L
On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children. PMID:15515041
The middle school years should be identified as the first period at risk concerning the use of these drugs. Prevention programs should begin in early adolescence, focusing on delaying the use or abuse of any of the “gateway drugs.”
Contends that adolescent and elderly populations both exhibit attitudes, behavior, feelings, and reasons for alcohol and drug abuse that appear to be similar. Suggests that study of pediatrics can play role in development of geriatric movement by sharing common issues of both groups. Applies Erikson's stages of development to illustrate similarity…
Arias, Janelle E.; Josephine M. Hawke; Arias, Albert J.; Yifrah Kaminer
Objective: To examine the relationship of eating disorder (ED) symptoms with the severity of alcohol use among adolescents in treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders (AOSUDs). Method: A sample consisted of 177 adolescents who participated in outpatient AOSUD treatment programs in Connecticut. Chi square tests, one-way ANOVAs and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to describe the prevalence and correlates of any eating disorders, and the related symptoms. Multivariate...
Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Bhana, Arvin; Lombard, Carl
Associations among six different domains of self-esteem (peers, school, family, sports/athletics, body image, and global self-worth) and risk behaviors related to substance use and suicidality were investigated in a sample of South African adolescents. Students enrolled in Grades 8 and 11 at independent secondary schools in Cape Town (N = 116)…
Pela, Ona A.
Used unobtrusive methods to collect data on substance use from 320 Nigerian partygoers aged 14 through 25. Found that adolescents tended to use following drugs in decreasing order of frequency: alcohol, cigarettes. stimulants, cannabis, and sedative-hypnotics. Polydrug use, especially of alcohol, stimulants, and cigarettes, was common. (Author/NB)
Ringwalt, Chris; Shamblen, Steven
Bullying is endemic in the nation's schools and takes a substantial toll on its victims' physical and social-emotional well-being. We assessed the association between specific reasons for which adolescents believe that they are targeted for bullying and their rates of various types of substance use by analyzing the association between…
Substance abuse affects an appreciable portion of the elderly population. Elderly people have characteristics that could hinder identification, diagnosis, intervention, and treatment of substance abuse. If physicians use strategies specific to the elderly, management is often successful.
Stephen M. Auerbach
Full Text Available This descriptive study explored the relationship between client and counselor perceptions of the working alliance and the interpersonal relationship dimensions of affiliation and control, and evaluated the relationship of perceptions of the alliance and of client and counselor interpersonal reactions to each other to client outcome after 3-6 months of treatment for substance abuse. Clients were 39 adolescents. Client and counselor ratings of the working alliance (using the Working Alliance Inventory-WAI and interpersonal appraisals of each other (using the Impact Message Inventory Circumplex-IMI-C were obtained during the second week of treatment. Outcome data using the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN and the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS were obtained during the second week of treatment and again after three months and six months of treatment. Interpersonally the predominant impact clients and counselors had on each other was friendliness. For both clients and counselors feelings of affiliation with their counterpart was the relationship dimension most strongly associated with the perception of a working alliance. These findings, and significant associations obtained between WAI and IMI measures and outcome measures, have implications for future research on the role of alliance and interpersonal variables in substance abuse clients¿ response to treatment.
Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F.
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential ris...
Thepthien, B; Altaf, L; Chuchareon, P; Srivanichakron, S
This study is first of its kind in Bangkok, and is a five-year (2009-2013) cross-sectional web-based survey to examine HIV preventive behaviors related to substance abuse among adolescents (N = 16,913). The questionnaire was self-administered. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The relationship between different types of substance abuse with risky and preventive behaviors was assessed. Male participants reported more substance abuse as compared to females. The risk behaviors observed among the substance abusers include increased sexual experience, multiple sex partners, no use of condoms, and injection drug use. The preventive behaviors include having a high self-risk assessment, going for HIV testing (highest in methamphetamine users), and screening for sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression suggests that risky behaviors (e.g., sexual experience, injection drug use) are more common in substance abusers. Adolescents are clearly at a high risk. Behavioral preventive measures are needed to reduce or delay premature substance exposure to prevent a wide range of health problems and risks such as HIV and AIDS, injection drug use and unprotected sex. PMID:27120264
Janelle E. Arias
Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationship of eating disorder (ED symptoms with the severity of alcohol use among adolescents in treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders (AOSUDs. Method: A sample consisted of 177 adolescents who participated in outpatient AOSUD treatment programs in Connecticut. Chi square tests, one-way ANOVAs and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to describe the prevalence and correlates of any eating disorders, and the related symptoms. Multivariate regression was used to test the associations between ED symptoms and alcohol consumption. Results: 26.4% of the participants had at least one ED symptom, with the highest number of symptoms occurring in females. The number of ED symptoms was associated with increases in the number of times that they became intoxicated in the year before entering treatment, the number of alcohol-related social problems, and the number of alcohol-related physical symptoms after taking into consideration the effects of age and gender. Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms of EDs is high in adolescents with AOSUDs, with the number of ED symptoms correlating with increased alcohol consumption. Further studies on the course and treatment of adolescents with AOSUDs and symptoms of EDs are warranted.
... More Drugs and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Abuse and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you ... related topics from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Free Resources for parents and ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides on-line resource for locating drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs. The...
Full Text Available "nBackground: In the current study, pattern of substance abuse among adolescence and early adulthood that have experienced one or more substances was assessed, and also parental support, religiosity, and locus of control were measured."nMethods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Hamadan City, Iran in 2006. All subjects were selected from Hamadan City (urban area, Iran based on snowball sampling method. Participants were males who used alcohol and illicit drugs in their life (n=398, completed a self-administered questionnaire."nResults: Approximately half of the participants were used to smoke, drink, take marijuana and/or use opium regularly, and one in ten had taken ecstasy or heroine in the last weeks. Tobacco and alcohols were most common substance as a gateway and consequently marijuana and opium were the next substances. Initiation age result for using substance was ages 13 to 18 years. More than 90% classified as group who suffering familial support, 60.8% as low level of religiosity, and 51.5% of participants was external locus of control."nConclusion: Our findings were similar to western countries pattern except that for opium. The high rate substances use by adolescents and changes in pattern of use suggests that all drug use need to be taken into account when addressing adolescents' substance use. Moreover, research is needed to identify possible mechanisms underlying the association between binge drug uses in the vulnerable groups.
Gil, Andres G.; Vega, William A.; Turner, R. Jay
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relationship between risk factors experienced during adolescence by African Americans and European Americans and DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse or dependence in early adulthood. METHODS: The authors followed a cohort of adolescents from 1990-91 (grades 6 and 7) to 1998-2000 (ages 19-21), evaluating risk factors during early adolescence as predictors of DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse and dependence. RESULTS: African Americans had...
Smith, Jackie M; Estefan, Andrew
Alcohol and substance dependency are complex, problematic phenomena, which are growing worldwide. In particular, drug use and abuse among young people is a significant concern. Although addiction presents as a problem of dependent individuals, families are also profoundly affected by the family member's addiction. In this narrative literature review, we review published research from 1937 to 2014 to capture a narrative and historical perspective of addiction and family. We condense and analyze the experiences of parents with alcohol- and drug-dependent children, to emphasize the need for a more specific, in-depth exploration of mothers' experiences. Such exploration may advance nurses' understandings of individual, familial, and social complexities of parenting an addicted child. PMID:25342471
Bassett, Shayna S; Stein, L A R; Rossi, Joseph S; Martin, Rosemarie A
The evaluation of treatment fidelity has become increasingly important as the demand for evidence-based practice grows. The purpose of the present study is to describe the psychometric properties of two measures of treatment fidelity that can be used by therapists and supervisors - one for group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and one for combined Substance Education and Twelve-Step Introduction (SET) for adolescent substance use. At the end of group sessions (CBT n=307; SET n=279), therapists and supervisors completed an evaluation measure assessing adherence to certain core components of the intervention. The supervisor version of the fidelity measure also included items for rating the level of competency the therapist demonstrated when providing each component of the intervention. Results from split-half cross-validation analyses provide strong support for an 11-item, three-factor CBT fidelity measure. Somewhat less consistent but adequate support for a nine-item, two-factor SET fidelity measure was found. Internal consistencies ranged from acceptable to good for both the CBT and SET adherence scales and from acceptable to good for the CBT and SET competency scales, with the exception of the CBT practices competency scale. Preliminary validation of the measures suggests that both measures have adequate to strong factor structure, reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity. The results of this study have implications for research and clinical settings, including the supervision process. PMID:27211991
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance abuse among adolescents is a major public health and social problem. However, studies rarely investigate the relationships between substance abuse, educational achievement and sport factors. Substance abuse is an even more significant problem in societies that have experienced trauma, such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, which have had recent wars. The aims of this study were to investigate substance abuse among adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to study the potential gender-specific relationships between a sport factors (physical activity/exercise/athletic participation and substance abuse and b scholastic achievement and substance abuse. Methods Our sample consisted of 1,032 adolescents who were 17 to 18 years old (435 boys and 597 girls and who were in the final grade of high school. These subjects were randomly selected from the territory of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrospective testing was performed using an extensive self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions involving topics such as sociodemographic variables, scholastic variables, sport factors, and substance abuse data (smoking habits, drugs consumption and alcohol consumption using the AUDIT questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, frequencies, analyses of the differences and correlational analyses were performed. Results Our results found that greater than one-third of the boys and one-fourth of the girls were daily smokers, and almost half of the boys and one-fifth of the girls practiced harmful drinking; other drugs (i.e. heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, etc. were rarely consumed. Boys dominated in sport factors, whereas girls were more successful in scholastic achievement. Approximately 23% of the boys and 6% of the girls reported that they practiced harmful drinking and smoked simultaneously. Educational failure, which was defined as having one or more negative grades at the end of the last two
Erna Björnsdóttir 1985
Abstract Childhood sexual abuse is a very serious but fairly common offense. It is defined as touching and/or non-touching activity, performed by adult or older child. Research has found that childhood sexual abuse can affect adolescent’s substance use. Also has been found that sexual abuse is associated with lower body image. The main purpose of the current study was to investigate the associations between childhood sexual abuse, body image and substance use among adolescents. The possible m...
de Pourtalès, Marie-Atéa; Hazen, Constance; Cottencin, Olivier; Consoli, Silla M
Suicide represents, in France, the second cause of death in youth aged 15 to 24. Sixteen per cent of juvenile mortality is attributable to suicide. The annual incidence of suicide attempts in this age group is estimated at about 40 000 cases. Jumping from high represents 6% of deaths from suicide: girls resort to this method twice as often as boys. The severity of somatic consequences and the frequency of sequels following a jumping from a window can hold center stage for a long time, at the risk of trivializing the psychopathology underlying such a violent acting-out. These clinical situations particularly involve a multidisciplinary follow up including an early and active participation of psychiatric consultation-liaison teams. Jumping from a window can occur even apart from established mental disorders, such as psychotic or mood disorders. Our four case-reports draw attention to risk factors represented by: substance abuse (alcohol, cannabis, but also cocaine, ecstasy...), the notion of previous suicide attempts and various drive disorders having a self-harm value or displaying an underlying impulsiveness (eating disorders, scarifications, shoplifting, running away...), the precipitating role of a recent loss of a parent or an important removal from family environment, the potential influence, especially in this age group, of spectacular cases of suicide amplified by the Medias ("Werther effect"). Paradoxically, to belong to a well-off milieu can also contribute to the risk of such acting-out, when parents replace affection and availability by an easy access to various consumer goods and a permissive education, thus opening the way to the encounter with different substances. PMID:19944561
Background: Misuse of substances is a major contributor to disability and mortality worldwide. The use of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs in adolescence and young adulthood are well-known risk factors for subsequent substance-related harms. A better understanding of adolescent and young adult substance use behaviors and their correlates might help develop new prevention programs. This thesis aims to explore patterns of use and important risk factors for substance use among Swedish adol...
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship of cognitive emotion regulation, self-efficacy, impulsiveness, and social skills with substance abuse among students. Method: This study was a correlational one falling into the category of descriptive designs. A total of 400 senior high school students of Shiraz (first and second grades in the academic year 2011-12 were selected by cluster sampling method as the participants of the study. These participants responded to the scales pertaining to cognitive-emotion regulation, self-efficacy, impulsiveness, social skills, and substance abuse list (researcher made. Results: The results showed that impulsiveness and low levels social skills play a significant role in predicting substance abuse. Conclusion: The results indicated that behavioral impulsiveness, low levels of self-efficacy, lack of cognitive emotion regulation, absence of thinking and planning in responsibilities, and low levels of social skills are effective in leading students to substance abuse.
... triggers for drug use (e.g., peer pressure, boredom). Teens whose parents attended a session in the ... can influence relationships, neurological development, educational attainment, and interpersonal functioning. Typically, adolescents who abuse substances but do ...
Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Thornton, Tiffany; Tonmyr, Lil
Substance abuse is an important health issue facing children involved with child welfare, but little is known about the associated factors. The purpose of this study was to build on findings from the "Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2003" and use a national sample of 10-15 year old children to examine the factors…
Riggs, Paula; Levin, Frances; Green, Alan I; Vocci, Frank
Psychiatric comorbidity is defined as the co-occurrence of a psychiatric disorder in a patient with a substance use disorder. Psychiatric disorders in substance abuse patients can antedate the substance use disorder or be a consequence of the substance abuse. There is emerging evidence that drug use in adolescence may alter the onset of certain psychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals. Patients with concurrent comorbid disorders present special challenges for the substance abuse treatment system in terms of diagnosis and management because each disorder has the capability of exacerbating the other. This manuscript is a summary of an ISAM symposium that featured three speakers who discussed the following topics: 1. Etiology and treatment of comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders in adolescents; 2. Treatment of ADHD and substance use disorders in adults; 3. Effects of substance abuse on the onset, severity, and treatment of schizophrenia. Recommendations for further research will be presented. PMID:19042206
Rienzi, Beth M.; And Others
To investigate gender differences in acceptance of substance abuse behavior among adolescents, 968 students were administered a questionnaire to assess their perceptions. Results show that both genders felt that boys would be more approving of teenage substance abuse. Most students were disapproving of a teenager driving after drinking. Other…
Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, psubstance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. PMID:23384457
Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu*Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA *Li-Tzy Wu is the Editor-in-Chief of Substance Abuse and RehabilitationAbstract: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use are pervasive throughout the world. Substance use problems are among the major contributors to the global disease burden, which includes disability and mortality. The benefits of treatment far outweigh the economic costs. Despite the availability of treatment services, however, the vast majority of people with substance use disorders do not seek or use treatment. Barriers to and unmet need for evidence-based treatment are widespread even in the United States. Women, adolescents, and young adults are especially vulnerable to adverse effects from substance abuse, but they face additional barriers to getting evidence-based treatment or other social/medical services. Substance use behaviors and the diseases attributable to substance use problems are preventable and modifiable. Yet the ever-changing patterns of substance use and associated problems require combined research and policy-making efforts from all parts of the world to establish a viable knowledge base to inform for prevention, risk-reduction intervention, effective use of evidence-based treatment, and rehabilitation for long-term recovery. The new international, open-access, peer-reviewed Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation (SAR journal strives to provide an effective platform for sharing ideas for solutions and disseminating research findings globally. Substance use behaviors and problems have no boundaries. The journal welcomes papers from all regions of the world that address any aspect of substance use, abuse/dependence, intervention, treatment, and policy. The “open-access” journal makes cutting edge knowledge freely available to practitioners and researchers worldwide, and this is particularly important for addressing
Garner, Bryan R.; Passetti, Lora L.; Orndoff, Matt G.; Godley, Susan H.
Maintaining study cohorts over time is crucial to the success of treatment outcome research studies. This paper examines reasons why adolescents with substance use problems continued to participate in follow-up interviews. The sample consisted of 145 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18, who completed an outcome study following out-patient…
Liddle, Howard A.; Rowe, Cynthia L.; Dakof, Gayle A.; Henderson, Craig E.; Greenbaum, Paul E.
Research has established the dangers of early onset substance use for young adolescents and its links to a host of developmental problems. Because critical developmental detours can begin or be exacerbated during early adolescence, specialized interventions that target known risk and protective factors in this period are needed. This controlled…
Effinger, Jenell M.; Stewart, David G.
Although both depression and substance use have been found to contribute to suicide attempts, the synergistic impact of these disorders has not been fully explored. Additionally, the impact of subthreshold presentations of these disorders has not been researched. We utilized the Quadrant Model of Classification (a matrix of severity of two…
Wagner, Eric F.; Shaw, Daniel S.
This study examined psychosocial correlates of substance abuse during late adolescence. Older adolescents' (N=276) aged 17-22, self-reported use of marijuana, cocaine, and other illicit drugs was examined in relation to several psychosocial variables, including sensation seeking, aggression, self-esteem, depression, and perceived peer prevalence…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011
This report uses data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) for 2008 to provide information on the characteristics of youths aged 12 to 14 admitted to substance abuse treatment. In 2008, approximately 23,770 substance abuse treatment admissions were adolescents aged 12 to 14. The two most frequently reported primary substances of abuse among…
Substance abuse is a complicated disorder and has far reaching consequences. The victims of substance abuse extend beyond the unfortunate ones suffering from this disorder and often include family and friends. Treatment options for substance abuse are many; however, positive outcomes are not always guaranteed. Many factors play into the potential for successful treatment. Some of these include the adherence and motivation of the substance abusing patients as well as patients' surrounding envi...
iran jalali; Hassan Ahadi
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship of cognitive emotion regulation, self-efficacy, impulsiveness, and social skills with substance abuse among students. Method: This study was a correlational one falling into the category of descriptive designs. A total of 400 senior high school students of Shiraz (first and second grades) in the academic year 2011-12 were selected by cluster sampling method as the participants of the study. These participants responded to the sc...
Individuals in Western societies commonly begin to experiment with alcohol and/or cannabis during their adolescent years. Many experience negative consequences from the use of these substances and a minority develop pathological problems such as abuse and dependence. Previous research has identified myriad individual and environmental variables that precede and predict problematic substance use. Two such risk factors are the personality trait impulsivity and the influence of substance-using p...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit provides information and strategies on how to: incorporate abuse prevention into programming; conduct staff...
Marsch, Lisa A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Badger, Gary J.
This manuscript reports on the development and evaluation of a computer-based substance abuse prevention program for middle school-aged adolescents, called "HeadOn: Substance Abuse Prevention for Grades 6-8TM". This self-guided program was designed to deliver effective drug abuse prevention science to youth via computer-based educational…
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention,......
... disorder becoming more severe when that person abuses heroin during periods of mania. Either substance abuse or mental illness can develop first. A person experiencing a mental health condition may turn to drugs and alcohol as ...
The clinical characteristics of adolescents reporting methamphetamine as their primary drug of choice: an examination of youth admitted to inpatient substance-abuse treatment in northern British Columbia, Canada, 2001-2005.
Callaghan, Russell C; Brands, Bruna; Taylor, Lawren; Lentz, Tim
We conducted a 5-year medical-chart review of all admissions to an inpatient adolescent substance-abuse program. Youth indicating methamphetamine as their primary drug of choice did not have worse dropout rates or a more severe baseline profile on 4 Addiction Severity Index subscales (Family/Social Conflict, Legal, Psychological, and Medical), compared to adolescents reporting another drug of choice. PMID:17321434
Omiya, Souichiro; Kobori, Osamu; Tomoto, Aika; Igarashi, Yoshito; Iyo, Masaomi
The prevention and treatment of substance use for youth are important issues in Japan. Substance use have significant risks of adverse psychological, social and physical health consequences. Personality factors in order to understand individual differences for substance use and misuse particularly were the much promise, and several personality factors have been demonstrated to be associated with risk for substance use. Conrod and Woicik (2002) developed Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) that measures four substance use risk personalities: anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, sensation-seeking, impulsivity being closely relevant to substance use/misuse and abuse. There are only a few studies focusing the relationship between personality factors and substance use among Japanese adolescents. Thus, this paper aimed to review the previous studies on these issues, and introduce studies regarding SURPS including our studies. PMID:23461217
Luciani, A; Todini, L; Majorana, M; Orso, L
Drug abuse in adolescence is a main public health concern. About 60% of people who abuse substances is younger than 18 years old. Early addiction increases other drug abuse and it is associated to greater risk in the development of Substance Use Disorders and psychiatric disorders. In the management of adolescent addiction, the awareness of recent researches on alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and methamphetamine abuse, can represent a fundamental tool in terms of prevention, early detection and treatment for clinicians, researches and parents. PMID:23007831
Gustavo Manoel Schier Dória; Sérgio Antonio Antoniuk; Francisco Baptista Assumpção Junior; Daniele Nascimento Fajardo; Maurício Nasser Ehlke
Objective: to determine the incidence and associations of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and substance abuse disorder (SAD) in adolescents in conflict with the law in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: the Brazilian version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL) was administered to 69 adolescent boys who were incarcerated for 45 days in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: mean age was 15.5 years (ran...
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... Abuse and Mental Health Services, Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...
Baillif-Couniou, Valérie; Kintz, Pascal; Sastre, Caroline; Pok, Phak-Rop Pos; Chèze, Marjorie; Pépin, Gilbert; Leonetti, Georges; Pelissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure
Morphine sulfate misuse is essentially observed among regular heroin injectors. To our knowledge, primary addiction to morphine sulfate is exceptional, especially among young adolescents. A 13-year-old girl, with no history of addiction, was found dead with three empty blisters of Skenan(®) LP 30 mg at her side. Opiates were detected in biological fluids and hair by chromatographic methods. Blood analyses confirmed morphine overdose (free morphine: 428 ng/mL; total morphine: 584 ng/mL) and segmental hair analysis confirmed regular exposure over several months (maximum morphine concentration 250 pg/mg). Suspecting the victim's mother of recreational use of Skenan(®), the magistrate ordered analysis of her hair, with negative results. From an epidemiological viewpoint, this case of oral morphine sulfate abuse in an adolescent with no previous history suggests the emergence of a new trend of morphine sulfate consumption. From a toxicological viewpoint, it demonstrates the value of hair testing, which documented the victim's regular exposure and made an important contribution to the police investigation. PMID:26492165
Johnson, Elaine M.; Belfer, Myron L.
Describes two ways in which substance abuse is related to violence: trade in drugs and being under the influence of drugs. The paper argues that reducing the demand for drugs by eliminating the market for them will bring about a reciprocal reduction in substance abuse-related violence. (GR)
Eversman, Michael H.
Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…
Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.
Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…
Discusses the teacher's role as an advocate for a child's educational needs when parents are involved in substance abuse treatment. Discusses substance abuse treatment issues, including addiction, the treatment process, and agencies involved with the family, and provides a list of recommendations for educators and administrators to assist…
Evansm, Allison Schettini; Spirito, Anthony; Celio, Mark; Dyl, Jennifer; Hunt, Jeffrey
Substance abuse is one of the most problematic health risk behaviors among adolescents. Given that research consistently finds increased levels of substance use among adolescents with conduct problems as well as trauma-related symptoms, it is important that substance abuse be examined to better understand its role in Conduct Disorder (CD) and…
Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle
Despite the well-established finding that American Indian adolescents are at a greater risk of illicit substance use and abuse than the general population, few generalist explanations of deviance have been extended to American Indian substance use. Using a popular generalist explanation of deviance, General Strain Theory, we explore the predictive utility of this model with a subsample of American Indian adolescents from waves one and two of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Healt...
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT.... Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's CSAT National Advisory...
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT.... Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's CSAT National Advisory...
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... within three weeks after the meeting. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health...
Saylors, Karen; Daliparthy, Nalini
Many mental health problems among substance abusing populations are directly linked to high rates of abuse and trauma. There is increasing evidence of associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse to adult substance use and HIV-risk behavior. The relationship of abuse, mental health problems, substance abuse, and high-risk sexual…
Tenenbein, M; Casiro, O. G.; Seshia, M. M.; Debooy, V. D.
AIM: To determine whether neonates born to mothers who are volatile substance abusers are at risk for an abstinence syndrome. METHODS: A consecutive sample of infants born to volatile substance abusing mothers was studied over four years, in a university affiliated medical centre with a variable mix of primary, secondary, and tertiary care patients. Infants were clinically scored with the Finnegan Neonatal Abstinence Scoring System. Those who fulfilled a priori scoring criteria were treated w...
Bell, Frances Lynn
Emotional Cutoff in Women who Abuse Substances Frances L. Bell ABSTRACT This exploratory study was based upon Bowen Family Systems theory and investigated emotional cutoff in women (n = 168) who entered a substance abuse treatment program. Three questions were explored: First, the degree of emotional cutoff in this sample was compared to a non-clinical sample of women. Secondly, the relationship was explored between the variable of emotional cutoff and the following variables: su...
Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Johnson, E. Diane
The purpose of this qualitative systematic review was to explicate attributes of optimal therapeutic strategies for treating incarcerated women who have a history of substance abuse. An expansive search of electronic databases for qualitative research reports relating to substance abuse treatment for incarcerated women was conducted. Nine qualitative research reports comprised the sample for this review. Findings from these reports were extracted, placed into a data analysis matrix, coded, an...
Commons, M; McGuire, T G; Riordan, M.H.
OBJECTIVE: To describe an innovation in performance contracting for substance abuse services in the State of Maine and examine data on measured performance by providers before and after the innovation. DATA SOURCES AND COLLECTION: From the Maine Addiction Treatment System (MATS), an admission and discharge data set collected by the Maine Office of Substance Abuse (OSA). The MATS data for this study include information on clients of programs receiving public funding from October 1, 1989 throug...
Hops, Hyman; Ozechowski, Timothy J.; Waldron, Holly B.; Davis, Betsy; Turner, Charles W.; Brody, Janet L.; Barrera, Manuel
Adolescents who abuse substances are more likely to engage in health-risking sexual behavior (HRSB) and are at particularly high risk for HIV/AIDS. Thus, substance abuse treatment presents a prime opportunity to target HIV-risk behaviors. The present study evaluated a one-session HIV-risk intervention embedded in a controlled clinical trial for drug-abusing adolescents. The trial was conducted in New Mexico and Oregon with Hispanic and Anglo adolescents. Youths were randomly assigned to indiv...
Join Together, Boston, MA.
There are many issues concerning women of all ages and substance abuse. Women who abuse alcohol or other drugs are particularly at risk for sexual assault; unprotected sex; unwanted pregnancies; and sexually transmitted diseases. Females between the ages of 12 and 17 surpass males in their use of cigarettes; cocaine; crack; inhalants; and…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
This report on drug abuse in schools is based on 6 years of analysis, focus groups, and field investigations. Prior research has determined that if young people do not engage in smoking or substance abuse by age 21, their chances of engaging later are next to nothing. It has also been determined that next to parents, schools have the greatest…
Soumya Kambali; Amudha, D.; Nirjhar Bhowmik; Chaitali Agrawal; Jaya Agnihotri; Prasad, M. G. S.; Sanjay Kaul; Shantipriya Reddy
Background. In India there have been limited number of studies on periodontal status among drug addicts, and thus this study aims to assess the Oral hygiene and periodontal status in substance abusers and compare it with non-substance abusers. Methods. A comparative study was conducted to assess the periodontal status in substance abusers. Non-substance abusers were procured from the general population of Bangalore. From the control group 250 non-substance abusers were age and sex matched wit...
Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris
To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain young…
Martin, Laurie; Milot, Alyssa
This brief discusses the signs and symptoms of alcohol and drug use and provides recommendations to assess substance use among youth in your program. It is not uncommon for adolescents to experiment with different substances such as alcohol or cigarettes, but this can lead to heavy and continued use, which is dangerous and may put their health at…
Durell, J.; Bukoski, W
While drug abuse among adolescents and young adults has begun to decline from the epidemic levels of the late 1970s, it remains a serious national health problem. Much information from research suggests that young people at the junior and senior high school levels are the most vulnerable to the social pressures that lead to experimental and then regular use of psychoactive substances. Well-designed prevention programs for youngsters in these age groups have the potential to prevent the onset ...
Bina, Rena; Yum, Joohee; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Sowbel, Lynda; Mollette, Angela; Jani, Jayshree; Smith-Osborne, Alexa
As frontline mental health care providers, social workers need to be prepared to confront and properly manage substance abuse issues in practice. This study examined predictors of recent master of social work (MSW) graduates' perceptions of preparedness to practice in the area of substance abuse. A cross-sectional design was used, and 232 recent…
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance... below). Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for...
Santor, Darcy A.; Messervey, Deanna; Kusumakar, Vivek
Developed and validated short measures of peer pressure, peer conformity, and popularity with 148 adolescent Canadian boys and girls in grades 11 to 13. Results show all constructed measures to be internally consistent. Peer pressure and peer conformity were stronger predictors of risk behavior than measures assessing popularity, general…
Poole Nancy; Dell, Colleen Anne; Cormier Renée A
Abstract Health Issues Differences exist in the prevalence and physical health impacts of problem substance use among men and women. These differences are also found in the mental health and trauma events related to substance use, barriers to treatment and harm-reduction services and the impact of substance use on pregnancy and parenting. Data from the 2000–2001 Canadian Community Health Survey and Canada's Alcohol and Other Drugs Survey (1994) were used to explore this issue further. Key Fin...
Amodia, Diana S; Cano, Carol; Eliason, Michele J
There is a pressing need in the substance abuse field for more comprehensive models of etiology and treatment that address the complex issues of addiction, including the biological, social, cultural, spiritual and developmental needs of individuals and groups. This article presents a theoretical framework for an integral approach to substance abuse that expands on the existing biopsychosocial model. One contribution of the model is an integrated approach to spirituality from a cross-cultural perspective. This integral approach examines substance abuse etiology and treatment from a four-quadrant perspective adapted from the work of Ken Wilber, and incorporates concepts from integrative medicine and transpersonal psychology/psychiatry. Implications of the model are explored. PMID:16480163
Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.
This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.
Addington, J.; Addington, D
Individuals with schizophrenia have an increased vulnerability to abuse drugs or alcohol. This vulnerability can interfere with the course and treatment of the disorder and may also have a detrimental effect on already compromised cognitive functioning. This study has a matched, cross-sectional design and compares the social and cognitive functioning and the symptoms of 33 schizophrenia subjects who abuse substances with 33 nonabusing schizophrenia subjects. Subjects were matched on sex, age,...
... nbspMilitary insurance (e.g., TRICARE)   IHS/Tribal/Urban (ITU) funds   Access to recovery (ATR) voucher & ... abuse   Persons who have experienced intimate partner violence, domestic violence   Children with serious emotional disturbance ( ...
This paper presents a theory and model for treating adolescent victims of physical and sexual abuse and neglect. The theory examines issues related to abuse or neglect and the effect that an abusive history has on adolescent development. Specific issues noted are depression, anger, low self-esteem, self-shame, lack of trust, a sense of…
Gustavo Manoel Schier Dória
Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence and associations of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, conduct disorder (CD, and substance abuse disorder (SAD in adolescents in conflict with the law in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: the Brazilian version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL was administered to 69 adolescent boys who were incarcerated for 45 days in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: mean age was 15.5 years (range, 12-16.9 years and most adolescents originated from disadvantaged social classes (87%. They resided in neighborhoods on the outskirts of the city or towns in the greater metropolitan area. Truancy and low educational achievement were common, with 73.9% not currently attending school and 43.4% not having finished the 5th grade. The great majority lived in single-parent families and many had relatives who themselves had problems with the law. Psychiatric disorders were apparent in 81.1% of the subjects, with the most common disorders being CD (59.4%, SAD (53.6%, and ADHD (43.5%. Both ADHD (p <0.001 and CD (p <0.01 had significant associations with substance abuse. Conclusion: in male adolescents in conflict with the law, ADHD, CD, and SAD were all found to be associated with delinquency.
Phillips, Lindsay A.
This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.
Durfee, Michael; Tilton-Durfee, Deanne
The lack of agreement on the nature and extent of the problem of prenatal exposure to substances is discussed. Comprehensive coordination of services is called for. The 14 programs in the Los Angeles County Interagency Council on Child Abuse and Neglect (ICAN) are discussed. (GH)
Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.
The influence of intimate partners in the recovery of substance abuse has been increasingly recognized in the professional literature. Couples-based substance abuse treatment has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing substance abuse and increasing healthy couple functioning. Recently, research has begun to investigate enduring cognitive beliefs that may impact substance abusers and their intimate partners, which could advance our understanding of factors that may impact cou...
Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (N = 281). More than 60% of the sample reported a…
... may be helpful during recovery (this may include B-complex, zinc, and vitamins A and C) A person with substance use is more likely to relapse when they have poor eating habits. This is why regular meals are important. Drug and alcohol addiction causes a person to forget what it ...
Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David
Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…
... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By... substance abuse are profound. Yet, we also know that they are preventable. This month, we pay tribute to all those working to prevent substance abuse in our communities, and we rededicate ourselves to building...
... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Cheri Swensson; Certification of Substance Abuse Experts AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... one of the organizations authorized to certify a substance abuse expert. DATES: Submit comments by..., ``Substance abuse expert,'' by including the Academy at Section 26.187(b)(5). The petitioner is the...
... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8728 of October 3, 2011 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 By... increase their chances of living long, healthy, and productive lives. During National Substance Abuse... diagnosable substance abuse or dependence problems--countless families and communities also live with the...
Santisteban, Daniel A.; Mena, Maite P.; Muir, Joan; McCabe, Brian E.; Abalo, Clara; Cummings, Amanda M.
Objective The purpose of this randomized trial was to investigate the efficacy of two behavioral treatments focusing on different change mechanisms in ameliorating a borderline personality disorder constellation of behaviors and substance use in adolescents referred by juvenile diversion programs. Methods Forty adolescents 14 to 17 years of age and meeting DSM IV criteria for borderline personality disorder and substance use disorders were randomized to Integrative Borderline Personality Disorder-Oriented Adolescent Family Therapy (I-BAFT) or Individual Drug Counseling (IDC). This design allowed a comparison of two manualized interventions, one family-based and one individually-oriented. Profiles of clinical change were used to detect impact and to estimate treatment effect sizes. Results Primary analyses showed that both interventions had a clinically significant impact on borderline personality disorder behaviors 12 months after baseline but with no differential treatment effects. The impact on substance use was more complex. Subgroup analyses revealed that adolescents with depression had significantly more severe profiles of borderline personality disorder and substance use. These youth were the only group to show reductions in substance use, but only if they received the I-BAFT intervention. Study data also documented the high dosage of intensive residential treatment needed by this population. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Results highlight the intensive treatment needs of juvenile justice involved youth with co-occurring substance use and borderline personality disorder including depression, the hybrid outpatient and residential treatment often required by this population, and the promise of a family oriented approach particularly for youth with severe symptoms and co-occurring depression. PMID:25799306
Flaherty, Christopher W.; Sutphen, Richard D.; Ely, Gretchen E.
Truancy is associated with an array of negative social consequences, including poor school performance, delinquency, and dropout. Numerous individual, family, school, and community risk factors associated with truancy are also associated with adolescent substance abuse. However, little is known about substance use patterns among court-adjudicated…
Rowland, Melisa D.; Chapman, Jason E.; Henggeler, Scott W.
This study examined the substance use and delinquency outcomes for the nearest age siblings of substance abusing and delinquent adolescents that participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of integrating evidence-based practices into juvenile drug court. The sample of 70 siblings averaged 14.4 years of age, 50% were…
Babaei Heydarabadi, Akbar; Ramezankhani, Ali; Barekati, Hasan; Vejdani, Marjan; Shariatinejad, Keyvan; Panahi, Rahman; Kashfi, Seyed Hanan; Imanzad, Masoumeh
Background: Adolescence is a risky period with high tendency towards drug abuse. Addressing the problem of drug abuse among students is essential. Objectives: This study was carried out in 2013 with the purpose of investigating the prevalence of substance abuse among dormitory students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, which was carried out in 2013, a total of 604 students living at dormitories of Shahid Beheshti Uni...
Patients who abuse alcohol, crack, heroin or prescription drugs, are likely to interact with the dental professional. The dentist should therefore be able to identify problems of abuse and provide informed care and referral. Substance abuse should be a consideration in all patients who present with dental trauma and those who present with frequent vague complaints, multiple pain medication allergies, and regimens with multiple narcotic medications. Polydrug use, either prescription or illicit, is also a possibility, and effective treatment requires prompt recognition. Dentists should be alert to drug-seeking behavior within the context of pain management, and because pain severity is an objective experience, each patient must be treated carefully and sensitively. Unrelieved or unremitting pain can be a relapse trigger and therefore adequate pain control is a necessity in the recovering chemically dependent patient. New modalities, such as coanalgesia with low-dose ketamine in the opioid addicted have been shown to work effectively. In the post-dental surgical patient with chemical dependency, agents with less psychoactive activity than their drugs of abuse, such as extended-release morphine (MS Contin) have been tried with variable success. An informed treatment plan includes recognition of substance abuse, appropriate intervention, and referral. This plan may include universal screening, followed by brief interventional therapy for positive patients and in some cases, pharmacological pain control. On discharge from the office, instructions concerning referral to a substance abuse program or, in the case of the patient who may require more immediate treatment, to the emergency department are important. PMID:10516924
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M.
This longitudinal study followed 200 adolescents into early adulthood to explore the potential mediating roles that hostility, sadness, conduct problems, and risk taking play in the relationship between paternal alcoholism and substance abuse. Results indicated that paternal alcoholism predicted hostility; in turn, hostility predicted risk taking, which predicted substance abuse.
Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.
Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…
Uys, Joachim D; Mulholland, Patrick J; Townsend, Danyelle M
Throughout the last couple decades, the cause and consequences of substance abuse has expanded to identify the underlying neurobiological signaling mechanisms associated with addictive behavior. Chronic use of drugs, such as cocaine, methamphetamine and alcohol leads to the formation of oxidative or nitrosative stress (ROS/RNS) and changes in glutathione and redox homeostasis. Of importance, redox-sensitive post-translational modifications on cysteine residues, such as S-glutathionylation and S-nitrosylation could impact on the structure and function of addiction related signaling proteins. In this commentary, we evaluate the role of glutathione and redox signaling in cocaine-, methamphetamine- and alcohol addiction and conclude by discussing the possibility of targeting redox pathways for the therapeutic intervention of these substance abuse disorders. PMID:25027386
Compton, Peggy; Athanasos, Peter
Health care professionals face numerous challenges in assessing and treating chronic pain patients with a substance abuse history. Societal perspectives on morality and criminality, imprecise addiction terminology, litigation fears, and genuine concern for a patient's relapse into or escalation of substance abuse result in unrelieved and under-relieved pain in precisely the population that--as increasing evidence indicates--is generally intolerant of pain. Before adequate pain relief can occur in chronic pain patients with current or past substance abuse issues, it is imperative that the clinician recognize addiction as a disease with known symptoms and treatments. Further, the clinician must realize the difference between true addiction and similar conditions, so the patient's condition can be monitored and regulated properly. Although clinicians are often reluctant to medicate with opioids, it is always best to err on the side of adequate pain relief. Withholding opioids from chronic pain patients in order to avoid the onset or relapse of addiction is contrary to the growing body of evidence and results only in unnecessary pain for the patient. Chronic pain in patients with a history of addictive disease can be treated successfully with opiate analgesia; it just requires caution and careful monitoring of medication use. If addiction is treated as a known risk when providing opioid analgesia to a recovering addict, its development can be minimized while pain relief is provided. PMID:14567207
Chang, Z.(Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA); Lichtenstein, P.; Halldner, L; D'Onofrio, B; Serlachius, E.; Fazel, S.; Långström, N.; Larsson, H
Background: There are persistent concerns of long-term effects of stimulant ADHD medication on the development of substance abuse. Methods: Using Swedish national registers, we studied all individuals born between 1960 and 1998 and diagnosed with ADHD (26,249 men and 12,504 women). We investigated the association between stimulant ADHD medication in 2006 and substance abuse during 2009. Substance abuse was indexed by substance-related death, crime, or hospital visits. Results: ADHD medication...
Mackenzie Whitesell; Annette Bachand; Jennifer Peel; Mark Brown
Data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reveal high numbers of adolescent substance use in the United States. Substance use among adolescents can lead to increased risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections, vehicular fatalities, juvenile delinquency, and other problems associated with physical and mental health. Adolescents are particularly susceptible to involvement in substance use due to the underdeveloped...
Full Text Available Data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC reveal high numbers of adolescent substance use in the United States. Substance use among adolescents can lead to increased risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections, vehicular fatalities, juvenile delinquency, and other problems associated with physical and mental health. Adolescents are particularly susceptible to involvement in substance use due to the underdeveloped state of the adolescent brain, which can lead to reduced decision-making ability and increased long-term effects of drugs and alcohol. Understanding the causes of adolescent substance use is vital for successful prevention and intervention programs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS were compared for medical (authorized marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect
Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Hjern, Anders; Grann, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul
Context Persons with schizophrenia are thought to be at increased risk of committing violent crime 4 to 6 times the level of general population individuals without this disorder. However, risk estimates vary substantially across studies, and considerable uncertainty exists as to what mediates this elevated risk. Despite this uncertainty, current guidelines recommend that violence risk assessment should be conducted for all patients with schizophrenia. Objective To determine the risk of violent crime among patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia and the role of substance abuse in mediating this risk. Design, Setting, and Participants Longitudinal designs were used to link data from nationwide Swedish registers of hospital admissions and criminal convictions in 1973-2006. Risk of violent crime in patients after diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 8003) was compared with that among general population controls (n = 80 025). Potential confounders (age, sex, income, and marital and immigrant status) and mediators (substance abuse comorbidity) were measured at baseline. To study familial confounding, we also investigated risk of violence among unaffected siblings (n = 8123) of patients with schizophrenia. Information on treatment was not available. Main Outcome Measure Violent crime (any criminal conviction for homicide, assault, robbery, arson, any sexual offense, illegal threats, or intimidation). Results In patients with schizophrenia, 1054 (13.2%) had at least 1 violent offense compared with 4276 (5.3%) of general population controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.2). The risk was mostly confined to patients with substance abuse comorbidity (of whom 27.6% committed an offense), yielding an increased risk of violent crime among such patients (adjusted OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 3.9-5.0), whereas the risk increase was small in schizophrenia patients without substance abuse comorbidity (8.5% of whom had at least 1 violent offense; adjusted OR, 1
Mohammadpoorasl, A; S Nedjat; A Fakhari; K Yazdani; A Rahimi Foroushani; Fotouhi, A
Background: Substance abuse in adolescents and its often tragic consequences, including addiction, is one of the preventable major public health problems. The aims of this paper were to estimate the prevalence of substance abuse and to evaluate its some associated factors in adolescents of Tabriz City (northwest of Iran). Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was completed in 4903 randomly selected students with mean age of 15.7 years old. The aim of the questionnaire was obtaining infor...
Apantaku-Olajide, Tunde; James, Philip D.; Smyth, Bobby P.
This study explores substance use, psychosocial problems, and the relationships to educational status in 193 adolescents (school dropouts, 63; alternative education, 46; mainstream students, 84) who attended a substance abuse treatment facility in Dublin, Ireland, within a 42-month period. For each adolescent, data on demographics, family…
Churchwell, John C.; Carey, Paul D.; Ferrett, Helen L.; Stein, Dan J; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A
It has been hypothesized that changes in striatal-mediated dopamine modulation during adolescence may increase risk for initiating substance abuse as a result of its fundamental role in arbitrating reward sensitivity and motivation during learning and decision making. However, substance abuse during adolescence may also significantly modify striatal structure and function and concomitantly alter reward sensitivity and action control while this brain region is undergoing remodeling. In the pre...
Small, Eusebius; Kohl, Patricia L
Despite the strong correlation between caregiver substance abuse and child maltreatment, little information exists to understand the typology of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems in the child welfare system. Research shows African American caregivers contend with multiple problems stemming from substance abuse. Unfortunately, we do not yet know how to best tailor resources to be responsive to varying groups of African American caregivers. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), this investigation tested for distinct multivariate profiles among a subset of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems (n=258). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify caregivers, and five classes were identified among this high risk sample - each with distinct risk profiles. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for tailored practices to enhance the safety and stability of children involved with child welfare. PMID:22962521
Woolson Robert F
Full Text Available Abstract Background A well designed randomized clinical trial rates as the highest level of evidence for a particular intervention's efficacy. Randomization, a fundamental feature of clinical trials design, is a process invoking the use of probability to assign treatment interventions to patients. In general, randomization techniques pursue the goal of providing objectivity to the assignment of treatments, while at the same time balancing for treatment assignment totals and covariate distributions. Numerous randomization techniques, each with varying properties of randomness and balance, are suggested in the statistical literature. This paper reviews common randomization techniques often used in substance abuse research and an application from a National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA-funded clinical trial in substance abuse is used to illustrate several choices an investigator faces when designing a clinical trial. Results Comparisons and contrasts of randomization schemes are provided with respect to deterministic and balancing properties. Specifically, Monte Carlo simulation is used to explore the balancing nature of randomization techniques for moderately sized clinical trials. Results demonstrate large treatment imbalance for complete randomization with less imbalance for the urn or adaptive scheme. The urn and adaptive randomization methods display smaller treatment imbalance as demonstrated by the low variability of treatment allocation imbalance. For all randomization schemes, covariate imbalance between treatment arms was small with little variation between adaptive schemes, stratified schemes and unstratified schemes given that sample sizes were moderate to large. Conclusion We develop this paper with the goal of reminding substance abuse researchers of the broad array of randomization options available for clinical trial designs. There may be too quick a tendency for substance abuse researchers to implement the fashionable urn
Smith, Dana K.; Saldana, Lisa
Girls in the juvenile justice system are known to have high rates of co-occurring childhood abuse, trauma, and substance abuse. Girls with this constellation of problems are at high risk for serious adverse outcomes, including problems with drug dependence and abuse. The relationship between childhood sexual abuse, childhood physical abuse, other types of childhood trauma, and rates of substance use during adolescence were examined for girls in the juvenile justice system. As expected, childh...
Anne Chandrika Ismail; Rohini De Alwis Seneviratne; Newcombe, Peter A; Shamil Wanigaratne
This study translated and validated the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) among 13 to 18 year old Sri Lankan adolescents attending school. A standard systematic translation procedure was followed to translate the original SURPS into Sinhala language. A Delphi process was conducted to determine judgmental validity of Sinhala SURPS. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test the translated version against the original theoretical model of the SURPS. Test-retest and internal consi...
Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Jenson, William R.; Clark, Elaine
Experimentation with substances is typical for many young people, but unfortunately some will go on to develop substance abuse problems that substantially affect their lives. Successfully intervening with students who use or abuse substances is a challenge for school mental health professionals across the nation. There is a need for evidence-based…
Li-Tzy Wu*Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA *Li-Tzy Wu is the Editor-in-Chief of Substance Abuse and RehabilitationAbstract: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use are pervasive throughout the world. Substance use problems are among the major contributors to the global disease burden, which includes disability and mortality. The benefits of treatment far outweigh the economic costs. Despite the...
Hochhauser, Mark; And Others
Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…
Liu, Honghu; Longshore, Doug; Williams, John K.; Rivkin, Inna; Loeb, Tamra; Warda, Umme S.; Carmona, Jennifer; Wyatt, Gail
Substance abuse increases the risks for infections and impairs medication adherence among HIV/AIDS patients. However, little is known about the characteristics of substance abuse and its impact on medication adherence among HIV-positive women with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). In the present study, 148 HIV-positive women with a history of CSA completed a structured interview assessing CSA severity, psychological status, substance abuse, medication adherence, and sexual decision-makin...
Kobra Gaseminegad; Bita Kamranfar; Parviz Nemazi; Faride Ahrari; Jaber Musavi; Kamran As'adi; Seyed Hamid Salehi; Somaie Faramarzi; Saeed Shoar
There has been an increase in the frequency of substance abuse among hospitalized burn injury patients. However, few studies have investigated substance abuse among burn patients. This study was aimed to identify the incidence of substance abuse in burn injury patients using the "Drug Abuse Screening Test" (DAST-20). We determined the validity of DAST-20 in spring 2010. Subsequently, this descriptive study was performed on 203 burn injury patients who fit the study's inclusion criteria. We ch...
Farber, Edward D.; Joseph, Jack A.
The study explored family characteristics and behavioral-emotional reactions of 77 physically maltreated adolescents. Six different patterns of adolescent reaction to abuse were identified: acting-out, depression, generalized anxiety, extreme adolescent adjustment, emotional-thought disturbance, and helplessness-dependency. (Author/CL)
Thomas, Becky L.
This study explored the use of rituals in substance abuse counseling. Data were obtained from a total of 25 mental health workers in the substance abuse field from the northern region of Utah. Four research questions were asked about rituals and their use in substance abuse counseling: (I) Are addictions therapists using rituals? (2) How did therapists determine when to use rituals? (3) What types of rituals do they use? and (4) How do therapists assess ritual effectiveness? Results indicated...
Virtala, Maria; Suikkanen, Aino-Kaisa
The purpose of this final project was to describe the harmful effects of parental substance abuse from child perspective as having to grow up in a substance abusing family is considered as child maltreatment. In addition, the trends in parental substance abuse and the children's visibility in the treatment cycle were stressed as the data was gathered from Järvenpää Addiction Hospital's children's treatment documents. This study is of qualitative nature including 80 treatment documents fro...
Full Text Available Inhalant abuse has been commonly reported especially in the young during the last decades globally. The reason for the relative paucity of literature from India may be attributed to a lack of knowledge about this growing problem among health professionals. A series of five cases of inhalant abuse is described in order to understand this growing public health concern. Most of the cases started inhalant abuse during adolescence. All patients except one abused typewriter erasing fluid and thinner which contains toluene. All the patients reported using inhalants as addictive substance because of their easy accessibility, cheap price, their faster onset of action and the regular ′high′ that it provided. Whereas several features of inhalant dependence were fulfilled, no physical withdrawal signs were observed. The diagnosis of inhalant abuse can be difficult and relies almost entirely on clinical judgment. Treatment is generally supportive.
Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle
Despite the well-established finding that American Indian adolescents are at a greater risk of illicit substance use and abuse than the general population, few generalist explanations of deviance have been extended to American Indian substance use. Using a popular generalist explanation of deviance, General Strain Theory, we explore the predictive utility of this model with a subsample of American Indian adolescents from waves one and two of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add-Health). Overall, we find mixed support for the utility of General Strain Theory to account for American Indian adolescent substance use. While exposure to recent life events, a common measure of stress exposure, was found to be a robust indicator of substance use, we found mixed support for the thesis that negative affect plays a key role in mediating the link between strain and substance use. However, we did find evidence that personal and social resources serve to condition the link between stress exposure and substance use, with parental control, self-restraint, religiosity, and exposure to substance using peers each serving to moderate the association between strain and substance use, albeit in more complex ways than expected. PMID:23826511
Striley, Catherine W.; Nattala, Prasanthi; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Dennis, Michael L.; Cottler, Linda B.
This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of enhanced case management for substance abusers with comorbid major depression, which was an integrated approach to care. One hundred and 20 participants admitted to drug treatment who also met Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule criteria for major depression at baseline were randomized to…
Swogger, Marc T.; CONNER, KENNETH R.; Walsh, Zach; Maisto, Stephen A.
Childhood abuse is a serious problem that has been linked to harmful alcohol and drug use in non-offender samples. In a sample of 219 criminal offenders, we examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and three indices of harmful substance use. Results indicate that physical abuse was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorder and sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of drug use disorder among offenders. Both forms of childhood abuse were associated with s...
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., http://nac.samhsa.gov/ , or by contacting Matthew J. Aumen. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and...
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., http://nac.samhsa.gov/ , or by contacting Matthew J. Aumen. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and...
Ball, Samuel A.; And Others
Assessed sensation seeking, substance abuse severity, and psychiatric disorders in clinical and community sample of 335 cocaine abusers. In contrast to low-sensation-seeking subjects, high-sensation seekers exhibited more severe symptoms of substance abuse, exhibited more severe psychosocial impairment, were more likely to be polysubstance…
Waldron, Holly Barrett; Kern-Jones, Sheryl; Turner, Charles W.; Peterson, Thomas R.; Ozechowski, Timothy J.
In the first phase of a two-part treatment development study, families with a treatment-resistant, drug-abusing adolescent (n=42) were offered 12 sessions of Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT). This parent-focused intervention was designed to help parents facilitate their adolescents' entry in treatment and support adolescents' subsequent behavior change and to improve parent and family functioning. In the second phase, successfully engaged adolescents (n=30) were offered 12 ...
South Africa is faced with a high rate of substance use and sexual abuse among both sexes of adolescents from a wide range of social backgrounds. So many cases have been reported in the Department of Social Development and Special Programmes in Port St Johns. This article shows that the patterns of alcohol use among South African adolescents is cause for concern. The use of substance by adolescents is associated with a range of negative consequences, including the risk of be...
Friedman, Alfred S.; Terras, Arlene; Glassman, Kimberly
Study looked at sample of African-American adolescent males to determine the degree to which family structure (e.g., single parent vs. two-parent families) vs. the nature of the family relationships predict sons' involvement in substance use/abuse and illegal behavior. Of 33 relationships measures analyzed, 3 predicted the degree of recent…
Candler, Ann C.; And Others
Substance abuse is pervasive in both rural and urban settings. Previous attempts to educate America's youth as to its dangers have not reduced the numbers of adolescents involved in the drug culture. The assertiveness-based "Just Say No" campaign attempts to counter peer pressure to use drugs, but is hampered by our society's encouragement of…
Lo, Celia C.; Cheng, Tyrone C.
Using data from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, this study examines whether several social exclusion and psychological factors affect adolescents' receipt of substance abuse treatment. Multinomial logistic regression techniques were used to analyze data. The study asked how the specified factors provide pathways to receipt of…
Sinal, S H
Increasingly, clinicians are being asked to help determine whether a child or adolescent has been a victim of sexual abuse. Since the late 1970s numerous articles about sexual abuse have appeared in the literature. This review article will acquaint the clinician with the definition and incidence of sexual abuse and the characteristics of the abused and the abuser. Practical guidelines are included for interviewing the victim, performing the physical examination, appropriate laboratory testing, treatment, reporting to appropriate authorities, and court testimony. PMID:7973924
Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra
Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…
Stolberg, Victor B.
The purpose of this article is to discuss how images and historical reviews of substance use and abuse from different time periods can be used to provide a better understanding of the historical background of the discipline. Historical reviews of various substances, as well as approaches to addressing substance abuse at different time periods, and…
... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP must perform the functions in 49 CFR Part 40....
... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Certification of Substance Abuse Experts AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... substance abuse expert. The NRC determined that the issues raised in the PRM are appropriate for....Sloan@nrc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 5, 2011 (76 FR 61625), the NRC published a...
Crozier, Mary K.
In the field of rehabilitation services, substance abuse counseling requires unique skills. Post-baccalaureate academic certificate programs offer professionals an opportunity to retool or expand their skills and meet licensure needs in this evolving field. East Carolina University's online Substance Abuse Counseling Certificate Program was…
Smock, Sara A.; Trepper, Terry S.; Wetchler, Joseph L.; McCollum, Eric E.; Ray, Rose; Pierce, Kent
The present study compared solution-focused group therapy (SFGT) with a traditional problem-focused treatment for level 1 substance abusers. Outcome research on the effectiveness of solution-focused group therapy is minimal, especially in treating substance abusers. In the present study, clients were measured before and after treatment to…
Salm, Twyla; Sevigny, Phil; Mulholland, Val; Greenberg, Hirsch
This case study examines not only the prevalence of substance abuse in one rural, Canadian high school, but also how teachers understand teaching and learning in relation to substance abuse. Over one third of students reported that they had used marijuana (37%) and alcohol (38%) in the last seven days, a rate considerably higher than typical…
Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Holleran Steiker, Lori K.
Nearly 10% of Latino youth who are twelve and older are in need of substance abuse treatment for alcohol or illicit drug use. Ethnic differences exist with regard to susceptibility to drug use, attitudes regarding drugs, and drug resistance strategies. The failure of some substance abuse prevention programs can be traced in part to their lack of…
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Data Archive (SAMHDA) is an initiative of the Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The goal of the archive is to provide re...
Wade, Jay C.
Examines factors--such as unemployment, economic deprivation, racism, issues pertaining to gender roles--and their contribution to substance abuse in African American men. Specifically reviews the use of alcohol, opiates, crack, and cocaine. Argues that a biopsychosocial model offers the best framework in conceptualizing substance abuse and…
Gabany, Steve G.; Plummer, Portia
Studied 617 high school and college students prior to and after substance abuse instruction to determine relationship between perceptions and demographic characteristics, and to learn whether substance abuse instruction was related to changes in student's perception of relationships. Findings from Marihuana Perception Inventory showed five factors…
Kazakov, L.; Kolesov, D.
Reports that a questionnaire of students and parents indicates most parents and teachers lack knowledge about drug use and abuse among Russian school students. Maintains that students in families with a history of alcoholism and substance abuse are at high risk of becoming drug abusers. Presents a series of classroom activities to help students…
Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn;
patients abusing both drugs and alcohol had poor premorbid academic functioning from early childhood. Overall, drug and alcohol abuse are highly prevalent in contemporary first-episode psychosis samples. In our study, substance abuse comorbidity did not generate differences on diagnosis, duration of...
This study was conducted to examine the list of identifying factors and predictors of childhood physical abuse, extrafamilial sexual abuse, and incest among male and female adolescents in the general population. In 1989, a survey was administered to 6,224 9th and 12th grade students in public schools in Minnesota. The findings revealed that more…
Rees, G; Stein, M.
Very little has been written specifically on this topic in the UK. However, an international search identified a significant body of literature, especially from the US. The report begins by discussing the possible reasons for the neglect of adolescent abuse in UK writing on child abuse and child protection.
Subramanian E; Subhagya B; Muthu M; Sivakumar N
Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child′s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.
Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child′s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.
Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L
The influence of intimate partners in the recovery of substance abuse has been increasingly recognized in the professional literature. Couples-based substance abuse treatment has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing substance abuse and increasing healthy couple functioning. Recently, research has begun to investigate enduring cognitive beliefs that may impact substance abusers and their intimate partners, which could advance our understanding of factors that may impact couple's functioning. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas and substance use of a sample of adult substance abusers who have sought residential substance abuse treatment and their intimate partners (N = 102). Results demonstrated that the early maladaptive schemas of patients and their intimate partners may be interrelated and that patients scored significantly higher than their partners on 13 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Substance use was only associated with a few early maladaptive schemas. These findings highlight the potential importance of assessing early maladaptive schemas in couples where one partner has a substance abuse problem. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed. PMID:24175492
Mehrazmay, Alireza; Karambakhsh, Alireza; Salesi, Mahmood; Heydari, Mostafa; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh
Background: Military service is a stressful task that influences the life style of army personnel. Several factors can make soldiers less capable of coping with stressful events; so they may try to start drug abuse or increase in the amount or diversity of substance abuse. Understanding factors responsible for this misbehavior among soldiers is crucial for their commanders to modify these factors. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the predictors of change in substance abuse status in ...
Phillips, Susan D.; Gleeson, James P.; Waites-Garrett, Melissa
The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last several decades helped to focus attention on children of incarcerated parents, many of whom have parents with substance abuse problems. Since the 1990's, a national grassroots campaign has been underway to make substance abuse treatment an alternative to incarceration for parents who…
Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Tindall, Michele Staton; Garrity, Thomas F.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M.
The purpose of this study is to use a modified version of Andersen’s (1968, 1995) Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to identify the correlates of the number of substance abuse treatment episodes received by rural drug users. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews with 711 drug users in rural areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. Descriptive analyses examine rural drug users’ substance use histories and retrospective substance abuse treatment service utilization patterns. A negative binomial regression model indicated that selected predisposing, historical health, and enabling factors were significantly associated with the utilization of substance abuse treatment among rural drug users. Despite high levels of recent and lifetime self-reported substance use among these rural drug users, treatment services were underutilized. Future studies are needed to examine the impact of the health care system and characteristics of the external environment associated with rural substance abuse treatment in order to increase utilization among drug users. PMID:20463206
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The prevalence of substance abuse among college students is increasing drastically and requires immediate skill-based substance abuse intervention such as assertive skills. The purpose of this study was to develope the healthy behavior to change the subjective norms of students in order to decrease their tendency towards substance abuse. Materials & Methods: A pre and post nonequivalent control group design study carried out on college students. A total number of 140 students were selected through randomized cluster sampling and randomly assigned to the intervention (n=70 and the control (n=70 groups. The data-gathering tool consisted of a self-report questionnaire assessing the variables of moral , descriptive , and injunctive norms. After the diagnostic evaluation, assertive skills promoting program was applied to persuade the participants against substances abuse. Respondents in the control and experimental groups completed questionnaires at baseline and 2 months after the intervention. Results: The result showed that educational manipulation had significant effect on intervention group’s average response for moral norms (t= -3.36, P<0.001, descriptive norms (t= -3.07, P<0.003, and injunctive norms for persuading substance abuse (t=-3.79, P<0.000.Conclusion: These findings suggest that assertive skills training would be an efficient tool in drug abuse prevention programs among adolescents that should also be included in the comprehensive school health programs. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;18(3:40-49
Flentje, A; Heck, NC; Sorensen, JL
Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13,440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007 to 2009 using logistic and linear...
Flentje, Annesa; Heck, Nicholas C.; Sorensen, James L.
Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007–2009 using logistic and linear reg...
Flentje, A; Heck, NC; Sorensen, JL
Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13,440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007 to 2009 using logistic and linear...
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... meeting will also be available on the SAMHSA Web site after the meeting. Committee Name: Substance...
Durand, Simone C; Fogger, Susanne A; McGuinness, Teena M
With alarming frequency, an individual's first substance use occurs in childhood or adolescence. However, the use of many types of substances among individuals younger than 18 has been gradually declining over the past 6 years, and our understanding of risk factors for youth substance use has improved. Risk factors identified as possibly contributing to a young individual's first encounter with cigarettes or alcohol include parents' own substance use or mental health problems. Mental disorders of children have been implicated in substance use as well. Screening and interventions are available to reduce the frequency and intensity of adolescent substance use and are suggested in the current article. Nurses are in a position to identify adolescents who are at risk for substance use disorders and link the family system to effective intervention. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(8), 24-27.]. PMID:27479476
Blechman, E A
Conventional social-science wisdom about the family background of substance abusers breaks down into three hypotheses. The broken home causes substance abuse; overprotective mothers with or without neglectful fathers cause substance abuse; substance abuse is reinforced by the changes it brings about in family interaction. The broke-home hypothesis attributes substance abuse to sheer absence of a parent, usually the father. The overprotective-mother hypothesis emphasizes the effect of indulgent, dominant mother behavior sometimes combined with ineffectual father behavior. The increased-control hypothesis emphasizes the effects of substance abuser, parents, and siblings on one another. Because investigations of these hypotheses are necessarily correlational, existing research on the family backgrounds of substance abusers suffers from methodological flaws characteristic of weak correlational designs. These hypotheses are logical extensions of Freudian theory, early social-learning theory, and revised social-learning theory respectively. Assumptions that pertinent aspects of the more general theories have been upheld by empirical investigation are not justified. PMID:7171072
Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William
The focus of this study was whether couples-based treatment for substance abuse had comparable secondary benefits on the internalizing and externalizing behaviors of adolescent versus child siblings living in their homes. Couples took part in a couples-based treatment for substance abuse that combines Behavioral Couples Therapy and individual counseling (i.e., Learning Sobriety Together). During a 17-month assessment period, the relationship between parents’ functioning (i.e., fathers’ drug u...
The prevalence of substance abuse in the nurse population is believed to parallel that in the general population (i.e. approximately 10%). Nurses with substance abuse problems need help. They are in danger of harming patients, the facility's reputation, the nursing profession, and themselves. The consequences of not reporting concerns can be far worse than those of reporting the issue. Part one of this two-part series discusses how society views addiction and the nursing profession, signs and symptoms of substance abuse, reasons nurses should report an impaired colleague, the code of silence that exists among nurses, and board of nursing jurisdiction. PMID:16370231
Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel
The aim of this study was to identify two sub-populations of sex offenders based on the age of the victims and on the age difference between the abuser and the victim (child sexual abusers vs. peer sexual abusers), and to compare the personality characteristics of these two subgroups with those of juvenile non-sex offenders. The group was composed of 67 adolescent offenders aged 13-18 years who were adjudicated for sexual offenses or non-sexual offenses: 20 non-sex offenders (JNSOs), 26 child sexual abusers (CAs), and 21 peer sexual abusers (PAs). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) was administered to all participants. The mean scores and clinical cutoffs on the MACI scales were compared across the three samples. Compared with PAs, CAs were more submissive and conforming, and they experienced more anxious feelings. Peer sexual abusers scored higher on the unruly and forceful personality scales, on social insensitivity, and on delinquent predisposition. Peer sexual abusers also reported higher scores on substance-abuse proneness, impulsive propensities, and antisocial functioning than CAs, but their scores were similar to those of JNSOs. Our results show clear similarities between PAs and JNSOs in terms of personality and clinical characteristics, especially with regard to antisocial personality traits. Child sexual abusers did not display the personality characteristics typical of PAs and JNSOs which predisposed them to delinquent activities. These results raise questions as to whether juvenile sex offenders should be treated within the same institutions as non-sex offenders and whether the same treatment programs should be implemented for all types of juvenile sex offenders. PMID:23064997
The present study aims to make a comparison between young men who are substance-abusers and non-abusers in terms of how they set their life goals and attribute meanings to life. In line with this purpose, this study was conducted through quantitative and qualitative method. In the quantitative analysis, the study group consists of 108 participants between 20 and 24 years old, 56 of whom are substance abusers and 52 of whom are non-substance abusers. In the qualitative analysis, the study grou...
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Ruddy, Kyrianna; Kramer, John
Most research uses a family systems level approach to examine the long range impact of parental substance abuse on the family. In this article, a micro-level approach is used to examine the immediate impact of parental substance use on adolescent adjustment. (Contains 1 figure.)
Sharma, Aditi; Morrow, Jonathan D
There are many facets of the neurobiology of substance use that are distinct in adolescence as compared with adulthood. The adolescent brain is subject to intense subcortical reward processes, but is left with an immature prefrontal control system that is often unable to resist the pull of potentially exciting activities like substance use, even when fully aware of the dangers involved. Peer influences serve only to magnify these effects and foster more sensation-seeking, risky behavior. The unique aspects of neurobiology should be taken into consideration when designing prevention programs and clinical interventions for adolescent substance use disorders. PMID:27338961
Background Substance abuse is a social, and health problem in Middle Eastern countries such as Iran. One of its most devastating effects is domestic violence against children. This study examined the association between the history of parental substance abuse, and rate of child abuse in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods This was a case-control study. The study population included all parents with high school children in Ahwaz within the academic year 2012-2013. The sample size was 384 people in two groups...
Guo, Xiamei; Slesnick, Natasha
This study examined the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescents' problem behaviors, moderated by adolescent gender, as well as the association between maternal depressive symptoms and the family environment characteristics above and beyond child variables. Data were collected from 137 mothers of runaway adolescents with…
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Fals-Stewart, William; O’Farrell, Timothy J.; Birchler, Gary R.
Behavioral couples therapy (BCT), a treatment approach for married or cohabiting drug abusers and their partners, attempts to reduce substance abuse directly and through restructuring the dysfunctional couple interactions that frequently help sustain it. In multiple studies with diverse populations, patients who engage in BCT have consistently reported greater reductions in substance use than have patients who receive only individual counseling. Couples receiving BCT also have reported higher...
Shamsalinia, Abbas; Norouzi, Kiyan; Khoshknab, Masoud Fallahi; Farhoudian, Ali
Background and Purpose: Spirituality is an important factor influencing the decrease of substance abuse severity and maintenance of the recovery phase. This research, investigates the effect of spiritual experiences in the recovery of substance abusers. Material and Methods: Qualitative data was collected from 16 men and 6 women, selected through purposeful sampling to ensure an equilibrated gender representation and data from different recovery periods. Data were collected via semi-structure...
Solis, Jessica M.; Shadur, Julia M.; Burns, Alison R.; Hussong, Andrea M.
In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug...
DERAKHSHANFAR, Hojjat; Kalantari Meibodi, Mohamad; Kariman, Hamid; Arhamidolatabadi, Ali; Safari, Saeed
Background: Motor vehicle collisions (MVC) comprise a majority cause of referral to the emergency department (ED). A large proportion of MVC appear to be preventable, if more effective measures against driving after substance abuse can be implemented. Objective: This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of substance abuse among drivers of MVC, following road traffic accidents (RTA). Materials and Methods: This case-control research was conducted from July to October 2007. One hundred...
Alessi, Sheila M.; Petry, Nancy M.; Urso, Julie
Rates and consequences of cigarette smoking are more severe in substance abusers. In this 12-week pilot study, residential substance abuse treatment patients received standard care for smoking cessation (n = 12) or prize contingency management (n = 12) for expired carbon monoxide (CO) tests ≤ 8 ppm and salivary cotinine < 10 ng/ml, which are indicative of smoking abstinence. Percentage of negative CO tests and the highest number of consecutive negative CO tests were greater in contingency...
Mohamadreza Najarzadegan; S. Abbas Tavalaee; Gholamreza Karami
Background: Drug abuse was existed in militaries all of the time and according to many researches it has very negatinve effect military readiness and their epic activity. So in many military systems ordained some protocols to prevent and treatment Drug abuse and addiction in soldiers.Materials and Method: In this original article we surveyed all literatures about substance abuse and addiction in militaries, inside & outside data banks and military psychology’s title books for prevention and c...
US Department of Health and Human Services, 2004
Males are more likely to use, abuse, and be dependent on alcohol or illicit drugs than females. The 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asked questions of persons aged 12 or older to assess their use of alcohol and illicit drugs, as well as their symptoms of substance dependence or abuse during the past year. NSDUH defines "any…
Lisa R. Norman
Full Text Available In the last decade, it has become increasingly apparent that neuropsychological deficits and impairments are associated with HIV infection. Given that antiretroviral therapies have extended the life expectancy of HIV-infected persons, it becomes critical to focus on the physical and mental health of these patients. Understanding the neuropsychology of HIV disease can provide insight into improving mental health, functional capacity and overall quality of life for persons living with HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, clinicians may be better able to assist patients to manage their symptoms, thereby increasing the number of patients who are able to successfully maintain difficult treatment schedules. In addition, it is equally important to understand the potentially exacerbating effects of various factors. One such factor is substance abuse, which has been associated with various neuropsychological impairments, irrespective of the substance of abuse. Therefore, a more complete understanding of the effects of substance abuse on the progression of impaired cognitive processes and functioning can allow for an enhanced evaluation and management of those patients who live with HIV disease and who suffer from substance abuse disorders. As such, the present paper provides an overview of the neuropsychology of HIV and substance abuse, as well as of the available research that has examined the potential interaction effects between HIV disease and substance abuse. The implications of the findings as well as directions for future research are discussed.
Anderson, H R; Macnair, R S; Ramsey, J D
A survey of the United Kingdom detected 282 deaths from abuse of volatile substances during 1971-83. Deaths appeared to have increased in the most recent years, reaching 80 in 1983. Age at death ranged from 11 to 76 years but most deaths (72%) occurred under 20 years. Ninety five per cent of the subjects were male, and in 1983 deaths from volatile substance abuse accounted for 2% of all deaths in males aged 10-19. All areas of the United Kingdom were affected, the rates being highest in Scotland and urban areas. All social classes were affected, though rates were highest in social class V and the armed forces. The volatile substances abused were gas fuels (24%), mainly butane; aerosol sprays (17%); solvents in glues (27%); and other volatile substances, such as cleaning agents (31%). In 51% of cases death was attributed to the direct toxic effects of the substance abused, in 21% to plastic bag asphyxia, in 18% to inhalation of stomach contents, and in 11% to trauma. Deaths associated with the abuse of glues were more likely to be traumatic, but all substances appeared capable of killing directly by their toxic effects, probably by a cardiac mechanism. Only a small proportion of deaths (6%) were due to the abuse of glues among children under 16; hence current attempts to limit access of children to glues will probably have little impact on overall mortality. PMID:3917795
Meyers, Kathleen; Kaynak, Övgü; Clements, Irene; Bresani, Elena; White, Tammy
Adolescents involved with foster care are five times more likely to receive a drug dependence diagnosis when compared to adolescents in the general population. Prior research has shown that substance use is often hidden from providers, negating any chance for treatment and almost guaranteeing poor post-foster care outcomes. There are virtually no studies that examine the willingness (and its determinants) to foster youth with substance abuse problems. The current study conducted a nationally-...
Juliana Hilario Maranhão; Alessandra Silva Xavier
This article came from the monographic study “Resilience and Sexual Violence: a study of adolescents victimized by sexual abuse assistance” (MARANHÃO, 2008), in which was investigated the building resilience in victimized adolescents. Resilience is characterized as overcoming adversity, setting up as something procedural, promoted by the interaction of personal and collective protection, in particular context of risk or social vulnerability. We made the trimming about the meanings and feeling...
Full Text Available There has been an increase in the frequency of substance abuse among hospitalized burn injury patients. However, few studies have investigated substance abuse among burn patients. This study was aimed to identify the incidence of substance abuse in burn injury patients using the "Drug Abuse Screening Test" (DAST-20. We determined the validity of DAST-20 in spring 2010. Subsequently, this descriptive study was performed on 203 burn injury patients who fit the study's inclusion criteria. We chose a score of 6 as the cutoff and thus achieved a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 85% for the DAST-20. During the study, we gathered demographic data, burn features and DAST-20 results for all patients. Patients with scores of 6 or more were considered to be substances abusers. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS v16 software. According to the DAST-20 results, 33% of the patients were in the user group. The mean score of DAST-20 was significantly higher among users than it was among nonusers (P<0.05. The level of substance abuse was severe in 77% of users. No significant differences were found among the substances, with the exception of alcohol. Substance abuse is an important risk factor for burn patients. In addition, this study showed that DAST-20 is a valid screening measure for studies on burn patients.
Glenn, Margaret K.; Moore, Lucas C.
This study explored the perceived external and internal issues that may have an effect on collaborative ventures designed to provide vocational rehabilitation services to persons with substance use disorders. Participants in the study were professionals from substance abuse (SA) treatment and vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies in 1 state…
Resnick, Heidi S.; Walsh, Kate; Schumacher, Julie A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Acierno, Ron
To inform intervention approaches, the current study examined prevalence and comorbidity of recent use and history of abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs as well as history of substance treatment among a sample of female victims of sexual assault seeking post-assault medical care. Demographic variables and prior history of assault were also examined to further identify factors relevant to treatment or prevention approaches. Participants were 255 women and adolescent girls see...
Berger, Lawrence M.; Slack, Kristen S.; Waldfogel, Jane; Bruch, Sarah K.
We used data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to examine associations of child protective services (CPS) caseworkers’ perceptions of caregiver substance abuse with their perceptions of the severity of risk and harm a child experienced as a result of alleged maltreatment, as well as with whether a family experienced a range of CPS outcomes. The outcomes included whether the family received services from CPS, was substantiated for maltreatment, experienced child remov...
Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…
Yan SUN; Shiqiu MENG; Jiali LI; Jie SHI; Lin LU
Summary:The importance of genetic factors in substance addiction has long been established. The rationale for this work is that understanding of the function of addiction genes and delineation of the key molecular pathways of these genes would enhance the development of novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers that could be used in the prevention and management of substance abuse. Over the past few years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of genetic studies conducted on addiction in China;these studies have primarily focused on heroin, alcohol, and nicotine dependence. Most studies of candidate genes have concentrated on the dopamine, opioid, and serotonin systems. A number of genes associated with substance abuse in Caucasians are also risk factors in Chinese, but several novel genes and genetic risk factors associated with substance abuse in Chinese subjects have also been identified. This paper reviews the genetic studies of substance abuse performed by Chinese researchers. Genotypes and alleles related to addictive behavior in Chinese individuals are discussed and the contributions of Chinese researchers to the international corpus of knowledge about the genetic understanding of substance abuse are described.
Perera-Diltz, Dilani M.; Perry, Justin C.
In this study (N = 137), although 70.8% of participants reported no current substance use and 42.3% reported never using, the Adolescent Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI-A2; Miller & Lazowski, 2001) screened 39.41% of the participants for a high level of probability of having a substance-related disorder. SASSI-A2 classified more…
Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard
Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…
Anderson, David S.
Across the nation and for a very long time, campuses and students have been plagued by drug and alcohol abuse. And it seems that many of our efforts to address that abuse, while necessary, have been woefully insufficient to the task. This article describes the nature and significance of the problem, examines current strategies for addressing it,…
Schiff, Miriam; Fang, Lin
This paper reviews the impact of exposure to man-made or natural disasters on adolescent substance use. It covers empirical studies published from 2005 to 2015 concerning (a) the scope of the problem, (b) vulnerable groups and risk and protective factors, and (c) evidence-based interventions. The review suggests a strong link between adolescent substance use and exposure to either man-made or natural disaster. Vulnerable groups include adolescents with previous exposure to traumatic events, living in areas that are continually exposed to disasters, and ethnic minorities. Risk and protective factors at the individual, familial, community, and societal levels are described based on the bioecological model of mass trauma. Given that mass trauma is unfortunately a global problem, it is important to establish international interdisciplinary working teams to set gold standards for comparative studies on the etiology for adolescent substance use in the context of disasters. PMID:27087347
Sepideh Makarem; Zahra Zanjani
Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between individual and family religiosity with substance abuse. In other side because of the importance of prevention and the role of people beliefs about the causes of substance use/ non-use in this area, the relationship between (university) students’ beliefs about drug and their consequences with amount of the substance use was explored. Method: Study sample included 270 students (128 females and 142 males) from t...
Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.
Fortuna, Jeffrey L.
Primary symptoms of cocaine use and behavioral characteristics of chronic users are pointed out. Ways that school health services can help identify and assist students who abuse the substance are suggested. Approaches such as peer identification, self-diagnosis, and use of a school ombudsman are discussed. (PP)
Full Text Available Background: The etiological factors and interrelations of juvenile delinquents, with psychiatricmorbidity and substance abuse have been continuously debated.Cloninger’s Tridimensional Theory of Temperament has been reported topredict patterns of substance abuse and comorbidity. In the current study, weaimed to examine the usability of the theory in predicting juvenile delinquencyand substance abuse.Methods: Sixty consecutive and newly incarcerated male delinquents with history ofsubstance abuse were recruited from a juvenile correctional facility in northwesternTaiwan from January 2002 through December 2003. All subjectswere assessed of their temperament, behavioral problems, and psychiatricdisorders on an individual base.Results: The juvenile delinquent subjects with childhood history of attention deficitand hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were significantly younger, consumedless betel nuts, and had more siblings with history of drug abuse.Conclusion: Consistent with the results of Cloninger’s studies, novelty seeking positivelycorrelated to the amount of substance abuse, while harm avoidance inverselycorrelated in juvenile delinquents. Endemic trend of choice of substanceabuse needs to be taken into consideration in future research projects.
McGillicuddy, Neil B.; Rychtarik, Robert G.; Papandonatos, George D.
Distressed parents (N = 85) with a substance-abusing adolescent not receiving treatment were randomized to 12 weeks of coping skill training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment control (DTC). At the end of treatment/delay, CST showed greater coping skillfulness than TSF, and both CST and TSF were more skillful than DTC. The percentage of parent problem days (PPD)—days when the adolescent’s substance use caused a problem—also was reduced in CST and TSF, relative to DTC. Bot...
Seay, Kristen D.; Kohl, Patricia
Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (NSCAW II), this article examines the impact of caregiver substance abuse on children’s exposure to violence in the home in a nationally representative sample of families involved with child protective services (CPS). Logistic regression analyses indicate an increased risk of witnessing mild and severe violence in the home for children whose primary caregiver was abusing alcohol or drugs. However, analyses did not find ...
Flentje, Annesa; Heck, Nicholas C; Sorensen, James L
Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13,440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007 to 2009 using logistic and linear regression analyses (run separately by identified gender). Transgender men (assigned birth sex of female) differed from cisgender men across many psychosocial factors, including having more recent employment, less legal system involvement, greater incidence of living with a substance abuser, and greater family conflict, while transgender women (assigned birth sex of male) were less likely to have minor children than cisgender women. Transgender women reported greater needle use, and HIV testing rates were greater among transgender women. Transgender men and women reported higher rates of physical health problems, mental health diagnoses, and psychiatric medications, but there were no differences in service utilization. There were no differences in substance use behaviors except that transgender women were more likely to endorse primary methamphetamine use. Transgender individuals evidence unique strengths and challenges that could inform targeted services in substance abuse treatment. PMID:24561017
Juliana Hilario Maranhão
Full Text Available This article came from the monographic study “Resilience and Sexual Violence: a study of adolescents victimized by sexual abuse assistance” (MARANHÃO, 2008, in which was investigated the building resilience in victimized adolescents. Resilience is characterized as overcoming adversity, setting up as something procedural, promoted by the interaction of personal and collective protection, in particular context of risk or social vulnerability. We made the trimming about the meanings and feelings of sexual victimization within the family from the perception of adolescents between 12 and 16 years of age that received care in a Specialized Reference Social Assistance in 2010. The research is qualitative, having as theoretical-methodological referential the Historic-Cultural Theory. Data collection was used by semi-structured interview. We realize that the profile of the victims are set up by females, the beginning of sexual abuse occurred between childhood and preadolescence. The profile of perpetrators are men, adults, acting the role of the stepfather, father and uncle. Despite an abject sense, adolescents could not break the cycle of violence. Friends, extended family, and the work of professionals emerged as support for the redefinition of the abusive relationships.
Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey
There has been relatively little research on the degree to which measures of lifetime history of substance abuse add to the prediction of risk based on actuarial measures alone among sexual offenders. This issue is of relevance in that a history of substance abuse is related to relapse to substance using behavior. Furthermore, substance use has…
José A. Carmona; Moisés Espínola; Adolfo J. Cangas; Luis Iribarne
The current research deals with the preparation and application of an assessment tool aimed at the early detection of drug use, bullying and mental disorders in Secondary Education students in school, family and spare time context. The assessment program we have designed uses 3D virtual environments to realistically recreate, in the style of current videogames, the contexts of drug abuse, bullying and fam ily problems which usually occur during the...
Lapham, S C; Chang, I; Gregory, C
The Workplace Managed Care Cooperative Agreement project targets 3,300 health care professionals in hospital, specialty clinic, and primary care settings located in metropolitan New Mexico communities. This project will evaluate whether enhancements to existing substance abuse prevention/early intervention programs can prevent the onset of risky drinking, reduce prevalence of risky drinking, better identify employees who abuse alcohol and drugs, and improve employee wellness. This article describes one such enhancement (Project WISE [Workplace Initiative in Substance Education]), implemented at Lovelace Health Systems. Project WISE includes relatively low-cost elements such as substance abuse awareness training, information on how to reduce drinking, and brief motivational counseling. Evaluation will consist of baseline comparisons of the intervention and comparison sites, a process evaluation, a qualitative analysis using focus groups, and an outcome evaluation using health and work records. Methodological challenges, solutions, and implications for researchers undertaking similar projects are presented. PMID:10795124
Fleming, Charles B.; Brewer, Devon D.; Gainey, Randy R.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.
Using longitudinal analysis, examines the interactive relationship among parent drug use, bonding to parents, and child substance use in families (N=150) headed by substance abusers. Results indicate that substance use prevention in children of substance abusers should focus both on reducing parent drug use and on promoting bonding to abstinent…
Full Text Available Objectives: This paper describes the components of the Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems (CARIAD, a long-standing substance abuse training programme. It seeks to explain how certain strategies and pedagogic techniques may be contributing to its success. Methods: Authors deconstruct the core elements of CARIAD to demonstrate how the programme effectively meets the characteristics of a community of practice. The processes used to develop the learning community and the specific pedagogic strategies and techniques that foster collaborative knowledge construction and sharing are described. Results: Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems brings together a multi-disciplinary, multi-national group of individuals with interest in substance abuse. The programme provides a range of formal and informal learning activities which focus on sharing best practices and creating new sociocultural relevant knowledge to advance the domain of professional practice in substance abuse. The components of CARIAD promote interactivity, rapid bonding and a sense of identity. Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems provides a unique platform for cultural sharing that gives participants an opportunity to reveal insights into local and regional expressions of substance abuse challenges. Participants, however, recognize the absence of structured continuity and the diminution of what could be accomplished by graduates over time. Conclusion: The success of CARIAD as a regional learning platform may be related to its success as a Caribbean community of practice for substance abuse. Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and Other Drug Problems would do well to sustain the community of practice, generating and maintaining ongoing participation and collaboration among graduates. This can potentially serve to create new strategies for advancing the region in the area of substance abuse.
Rausgaard, Nete L K; Ibsen, Inge O; Jørgensen, Jan S;
had a positive urine sample confirmed by repeated analysis. The age distribution in women with positive samples did not differ from the entire cohort. Our findings indicate a larger prevalence than anticipated, and that a substantial number of pregnant women with substance abuse are not appropriately......There are few recent data on the prevalence of substance abuse among Danish pregnant women. During 2013, in the Region of Southern Denmark, a cross-sectional, anonymous, screening-based study was conducted among pregnant women attending for routine ultrasound scan at 12 weeks gestation. The women...
Anderson, H R; Macnair, R S; Ramsey, J. D.
A survey of the United Kingdom detected 282 deaths from abuse of volatile substances during 1971-83. Deaths appeared to have increased in the most recent years, reaching 80 in 1983. Age at death ranged from 11 to 76 years but most deaths (72%) occurred under 20 years. Ninety five per cent of the subjects were male, and in 1983 deaths from volatile substance abuse accounted for 2% of all deaths in males aged 10-19. All areas of the United Kingdom were affected, the rates being highest in Scotl...
McCrady, B S; Bux, D A
Alcohol and drug abusers present issues that complicate the informed consent process. The present study examined the practices of federally funded clinical investigators in obtaining informed consent from alcohol and drug abusers. Ninety-one (51%) researchers completed a 27-item survey on informed consent issues. The majority of investigators (57%) recruited participants susceptible to coercion; most used procedures to minimize coercion. Two thirds of researchers used objective means to determine competence to give consent and comprehension of consent forms. Virtually all investigators had policies to deal with suicidality, homicidality, or reports of child abuse; less than 1/2 informed participants of these limits to confidentiality. Almost 50% of investigators had dealt with intoxicated or suicidal participants; 12% had encountered homicidal participants; and 23% had encountered child abuse or neglect. Half of the sample used collateral data sources; about 1/2 of these obtained written informed consent from collaterals. Guidelines for informed consent with substance abusers are suggested. PMID:10224728
Bjarnadottir, Gudrun D.; Haraldsson, Haraldur M.; Rafnar, Bjarni O.; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Steingrimsson, Steinn; Johannsson, Magnus; Bragadottir, Helena; Magnusson, Andres
Objectives: Prescription rates of methylphenidate (MPH) are sharply rising in most Western countries. Although it has been reported that MPH has abuse potential, little is known about the prevalence of intravenous (IV) abuse of MPH. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of IV MPH abuse among treatment-seeking IV substance abusers in Iceland. Methods: This is a descriptive population-based study using a semistructured interview assessing sociodemographics, substance abuse hist...
Johnson, J L; Leff, M
A relationship between parental substance abuse and subsequent alcohol problems in their children has been documented extensively. Children of alcoholics (COAs) are considered to be at high risk because there is a greater likelihood that they will develop alcoholism compared with a randomly selected child from the same community. COAs and children of other drug-abusing parents are especially vulnerable to the risk for maladaptive behavior because they have combinations of many risk factors present in their lives. The single most potent risk factor is their parent's substance-abusing behavior. This single risk factor can place children of substance abusers at biologic, psychologic, and environmental risk. Since the turn of the century, many reports have described the deleterious influence of parental alcoholism on their children. A series of studies measured mortality, physiology, and general health in the offspring of alcoholic parents and concluded that when mothers stopped drinking during gestation, their children were healthier. Today, research on COAs can be classified into studies of fetal alcohol syndrome, the transmission of alcoholism, psychobiologic markers of vulnerability, and psychosocial characteristics. Each of these studies hypothesizes that differences between COAs and children of nonalcoholics influence maladaptive behaviors later in life, such as academic failure or alcoholism. This research supports the belief that COAs are at risk for a variety of problems that may include behavioral, psychologic, cognitive, or neuropsychologic deficits. The vast literature on COAs far outweighs the literature on children of other drug abusers. Relatively little is known about children of heroin addicts, cocaine abusers, or polydrug abusers. Nonetheless, many researchers suggest that the children of addicted parents are at greater risk for later dysfunctional behaviors and that they, too, deserve significant attention to prevent intergenerational transmission of
Rosen, Daniel; Engel, Rafael J.; Hunsaker, Amanda E.; Engel, Yael; Detlefsen, Ellen Gay; REYNOLDS, CHARLES F.
This article examines the extent to which studies of alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and prescription drug abuse among older adults appear in the leading gerontological and substance abuse journals. The authors reviewed articles published in the 10 social science gerontological journals and the 10 social science substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact factors in PubMed from 2000 to 2010. Articles were selected that presented original research on alcohol, substance, or prescri...
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
This report takes a comprehensive look at the connections between alcohol, drug use, and sex. Two national data sets on more than 34,000 teenagers and two sets on arrested and incarcerated sex offenders were analyzed. A review of the literature, interviews with experts, and an examination of programs aimed at prevention of abuse were included in…
Raimondo Maria Pavarin; Dario Consonni
1300 students (54.3% girls) 13–16 years old were interviewed in the urban area of Bologna during 2010. Random effect multiple logistic regression models were used. Results show a reciprocal relationship between alcohol use, tobacco, and cannabis. Most users were offered cannabis, began using at 14 years of age, and do not believe using is very dangerous. They live with only one parent, have more than 50 euros of spending money per month, and abuse alcohol, abuse that increases relative to...
Kamon, Jody; Budney, Alan; Stanger, Catherine
Objective: To describe an innovative treatment for adolescent marijuana abuse and provide initial information about its feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy. Method: Provided an intervention composed of (1) a clinic-administered, abstinence-based incentive program; (2) parent-directed contingency management targeting substance use…
Abrantes, Ana M.; Battle, Cynthia L.; Strong, David R.; Ing, Eileen; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan; Brown, Richard A.
While emerging studies have demonstrated the benefit of exercise in early recovery from substance use disorders, recruitment and adherence to exercise interventions have been challenging. Tailoring interventions based on patient exercise preferences may address these concerns. Ninety-seven (N=97; age=41.6 years; 44% female) patients were recruited from an intensive substance abuse outpatient program and filled out questionnaires about their exercise preferences. Most (71%) patients were not c...
ELWYN, LAURA; Smith, Carolyn
Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between pros...
... Response, and Recovery Health Care and Health Systems Integration Health Disparities Health Financing Health Information Technology HIV, AIDS, and Viral Hepatitis Homelessness and Housing Laws, Regulations, and Guidelines Mental and Substance Use Disorders Prescription Drug Misuse and ...
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze substance abuse and health self-perception in children and adolescents from the province of Cádiz (Spain. Methodology: Participants were 738 students, 50.9 boys and 49.1% girls, from elementary school to high school (1st to 12th grade, mean age 12.2. years, who responded a Spanish adaptation of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children Inventory. Results: No difference was observed in percentage of boys and girls reporting to smoke or drink alcohol. Smoking and drinking habits increased with age, being higher in 11th and 12th grade students. Significant differences were observed among the percentage of smokers and non smokers recognizing to have parents, older brothers or friends who smoke. Rates of drug abuse were generally low, being cannabis the most frequently consumed illicit drug. Most respondents had a perception of excellent or good health, with no significant gender differences. About half of subjects considered that health exclusively depends on self behavior, but an important percentage also gave a relevant role to luck. Stomach-ache was the most frequent physical complaint, followed by headache. Psychological complaints mainly corresponded to nervousness and bad temper. Only a small percentage of subjects declared the use of medicines or tablets without prescription. No significant difference in the percentage of respondent who perceived an excellent or good health was observed among substance users and non users. Conclusions: Substance abuse and health self-perception in children and adolescents are the result of the interaction of a complex series of individual and social factors. Activities aimed to improve health focusing on partial aspects of adolescents' lifestyle most probably will have limited results, and global programs are required.Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio ha sido analizar el uso de sustancias tóxicas y la autopercepción del estado de salud en niños y
O’Toole, Thomas P.; Conde-Martel, Alicia; Gibbon, Jeanette L; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Freyder, Paul J.; Fine, Michael J.
Much of our understanding of substance abuse and homelessness comes from data from the 1980s and may not necessarily reflect issues or trends prevalent during the 1990s. We report data from a two-city, community-based, populations-proportionate sample of 531 randomly selected homeless adults; the study was conducted in 1997 and compared substance-abusing to non-substance-abusing respondents. Most (78.3%) met criteria for substance abuse/dependence and were abusing either cocaine or alcohol an...
Su, Jinni; Supple, Andrew J
Parental and peer influences on adolescent substance use have been well demonstrated. However, limited research has examined how parental and peer influences vary across school contexts. This study used a multilevel approach to examine the effects of school substance use norms and school racial composition in predicting adolescent substance use (a composite measure of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use) and in moderating parental and peer influences on adolescent substance use. A total of 14,346 adolescents from 34 schools in a mid-western county completed surveys electronically at school. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that school-level disapproval against substance use and percentage of minority students at school were negatively associated with adolescent substance use. School-level disapproval moderated the association between peer substance use and adolescent substance use, with the association being stronger when school-level disapproval was lower. School racial composition moderated the influence of parental disapproval and peer substance use on adolescent substance use. Specifically, both the association between parental disapproval and adolescent substance use and the association between peer substance use and adolescent substance use were weaker for adolescents who attended schools with higher percentages of minority students. Findings highlighted the importance of considering the role of school contexts, in conjunction with parental and peer influences, in understanding adolescent substance use. PMID:27215854
Timko Christine; Valenstein Helen; Lin Patricia Y; Moos Rudolf H; Stuart Gregory L; Cronkite Ruth C
Abstract Background Substance use disorders and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) are interrelated, major public health problems. Methods We surveyed directors of a sample of substance use disorder treatment programs (SUDPs; N=241) and batterer intervention programs (BIPs; N=235) in California (70% response rate) to examine the extent to which SUDPs address IPV, and BIPs address substance abuse. Results Generally, SUDPs were not addressing co-occurring IPV perpetration in a form...
Rojas, Julio I.; Hallford, Gene; Brand, Michael W.; Tivis, Laura J.
This study describes a sample of Latino/as in substance abuse treatment. We were interested in substance use patterns, gender differences, family history of addiction and depression. Questionnaires completed by Latino/as (N = 209) were identified from 12,000 sets completed by participants in treatment from 1993-2003. Significant gender differences emerged with Latinas reporting higher rates of stimulant use and depression. A family history of substance use disorders in primary and/or secondar...
Dévieux, Jessy; Malow, Robert; Stein, Judith A.; Jennings, Terri E; Lucenko, Barbara A.; Averhart, Cara; Kalichman, Seth
Although impulsivity is likely to be related to HIV risk—particularly in incarcerated substance-abusing youth—this area of research has been understudied. To investigate the relationship between impulsivity and various HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and attitudes, a sample of court-referred and incarcerated culturally diverse inner-city adolescents (males: N = 266; females: N = 111) were divided into high and low impulsive groups based on the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory Impulsivity Scale. F...
Hemby, Scott Edwards; Tannu, Nilesh
The ability to model aspects of human addictive behaviors in laboratory animals provides an important avenue for gaining insight into the biochemical alterations associated with drug intake and the identification of targets for medication development to treat addictive disorders. The intravenous self-administration procedure provides the means to model the reinforcing effects of abused drugs and to correlate biochemical alterations with drug reinforcement. In this chapter, we provide a detail...
Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Burnette, Mandi; Cicchetti, Dante
Child maltreatment is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and substance abuse and dependence (Clark, Thatcher, & Martin, 2010; Ellis & Wolfe, 2009). However, developmental processes unfolding from childhood into adolescence that delineate this trajectory are not well understood. The current study uses path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to examine multiple mediator models, including ego control, ego resiliency, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms...
Koehn, Corinne; Cutcliffe, John R.
This study used a grounded theory method to explore how counselors inspire hope in clients struggling with substance abuse. Findings from 10 participants revealed that hope inspiration occurred in 3 phases and consisted of several categories of hope-inspiring processes. Implications for counseling practice, counselor education, and research are…
Sodano, Ruthlyn; Watson, Donnie W.; Rataemane, Solomon; Rataemane, Lusanda; Ntlhe, Nomvuyo; Rawson, Richard
The purpose of this paper is to describe characteristics of substance abuse treatment counselors in the Republic of South Africa, including demographics, education, training, and job duties. Counselors recruited from 24 treatment centers completed a survey after signing informed consent. Counselors were primarily female (75%), racially diverse…
Sias, Shari M.
This exploratory study examined the assumption that the level of moral reasoning (Defining Issues Test; J. R. Rest, 1986) used in solving hypothetical and authentic dilemmas is similar for substance abuse counselors (N = 188). The statistical analyses used were paired-sample t tests, Pearson product-moment correlation, and simultaneous multiple…
Agrawal, Shantanu; Everett, Worth W.; Sharma, Sonali
Purpose: This study examined the impact of medical education on students' views of substance abuse treatment, public policy options and training. Method: A longitudinal survey was conducted on a single-class cohort of 101 students in a major American, urban medical school. The survey was administered in the Spring semesters of the first to third…
Koehn, Corinne; O'Neill, Linda; Sherry, John
Hope is a vital component of psychological healing and plays a critical role in counselling. With despair so prominent for individuals with serious substance abuse problems, the question arises as to how to foster hope in such clients. There are recent suggestions in the general counselling literature that some of the work in counselling involve…
Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.
Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…
The author proposes a model for lessons on substance abuse that gives children alternative ways to satisfy the natural desire for altered states of consciousness. The model incorporates stages of progressive relaxation, visualization/guided fantasy, sensory experiences, information, and experimentation. (CL)
Stohr, Mary K.; Hemmens, Craig; Kjaer, Kristin; Gornik, Mark; Dayley, Jed; Noon, Cindy; Baune, Diane
Presents findings from a questionnaire in which inmates were queried regarding their perceptions of a residential substance abuse treatment program. Findings reveal that inmates enrolled in the first and/or third phase of the treatment tended to be more positive in their perception of program content, therapeutic atmosphere, and quality of…
Full Text Available Objective: National secondary school-based drug surveys facilitate the identification and understanding of patterns of substance use among adolescents, associated risk and protective factors which exist and inform prevention and treatment interventions and policies which are appropriate for resource constrained settings. This paper analyses current trends as well as reviews trends from the last National School Survey conducted by the National Council on Drug Abuse in 2006. Method: The study utilized a survey design that included a representative sample of secondary school students. Data were collected from 3365 students from 38 schools across the island. The study made specific reference to the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco cigarette, marijuana and inhalant use among secondary school students. Results: The most widely used substances among the sample were alcohol, tobacco cigarettes, marijuana and solvents/inhalants. A large number of students (64% reported a lifetime prevalence of alcohol use. Alcohol use was also the highest for one-year (44% and one-month (33.6% use. While lifetime use of tobacco cigarette was higher than marijuana, one-year and one-month use of marijuana was higher than that of tobacco cigarette. There has been a slight increase in the age of initiation for alcohol, tobacco cigarette and marijuana use. There has also been a significant decrease (approximately 50% in lifetime, past year and past month prevalence of inhalant use since the 2006 secondary school survey. Conclusions: Alcohol continues to be the substance most widely used by Jamaican adolescents, followed by tobacco, marijuana and inhalants. Though the average age of first use has slightly increased for all substances, prevalence remains a concern. As such, innovative school-based interventions are required to assist in reducing substance use among Jamaican adolescents.
Kritz, Steven; Brown, Lawrence S.; Goldsmith, R. Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J.; Robinson, Jim; Alderson, Donald; Novo, Patricia; Rotrosen, John
Community-based substance abuse treatment programs provide HIV, hepatitis C virus, and sexually transmitted infection services. To explore how state funding and guidelines affect practice, we surveyed state agency administrators and substance abuse treatment program administrators and clinicians regarding 8 infection-related services. Although state funding for infection-related services is widely available, substance abuse treatment programs do not always access it. Substance abuse treatment...
Maureen Tedesco; William Q. Hua; Lohnberg, Jessica A.; Nina Bellatorre; Dan Eisenberg
Background. The rates of obesity and substance abuse are high among US veterans. Objective. To examine weight loss and substance abuse rates following bariatric surgery in veterans with a history of substance abuse (SA). Methods. A prospective database of consecutive bariatric operations was reviewed. Data for SA patients were compared to patients without a substance abuse history (NA). Behavioral medicine staff followed patients throughout the pre- and postoperative courses. Results. Of 205 ...
Lucas, Gregory M.
Substance abuse and addiction are highly prevalent in HIV-infected individuals. Substance abuse is an important comorbidity that affects the delivery and outcomes of HIV medical management. In this paper I will review data examining the associations between substance abuse and HIV treatment and potential strategies to improve outcomes in this population that warrant further investigation. Current - but not past - substance abuse adversely affects engagement in care, acceptance of antiretrovir...
Hoeck, Sarah; van Hal, Guido
Background Substance abuse puts a burden on the physical and mental health and well-being of individuals and their families, particularly parents. Parents of substance-abusing young people are in need of professional or informal support and information. Potential and easy accessible sources are support groups. We explored the experiences of parents of substance-abusing young people attending support groups regarding several topics related to the substance-abuse of their son or daughter, the i...
Hudson, Clifton R.; Kirby, Kimberly C.; Clements, Nicolle T.; Benishek, Lois A.; Nick, Claire E.
Little normative information is available about the psychosocial functioning of women who have a substance abusing intimate partner. This study examined whether the social adjustment of women who indicate that they have a substance abusing partner (n=69) is compromised relative to that of women who indicate that their partner does not abuse substances (n=68). Women with a substance abusing partner reported compromised social adjustment relative to a comparison sample both overall and in five ...
Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne;
To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years.......To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years....
Raimondo Maria Pavarin
Full Text Available 1300 students (54.3% girls 13–16 years old were interviewed in the urban area of Bologna during 2010. Random effect multiple logistic regression models were used. Results show a reciprocal relationship between alcohol use, tobacco, and cannabis. Most users were offered cannabis, began using at 14 years of age, and do not believe using is very dangerous. They live with only one parent, have more than 50 euros of spending money per month, and abuse alcohol, abuse that increases relative to the intensity of cigarette smoking. Legal/illegal dichotomy seems to overturn, where alcohol becomes a “drug” and the use of tobacco, similar to other drugs, is motivated as a solution to reduce anxiety, combat boredom, relax, and to ease loneliness.
José A. Carmona
Full Text Available The current research deals with the preparation and application of an assessment tool aimed at the early detection of drug use, bullying and mental disorders in Secondary Education students in school, family and spare time context. The assessment program we have designed uses 3D virtual environments to realistically recreate, in the style of current videogames, the contexts of drug abuse, bullying and fam ily problems which usually occur during the teenage years. The Mii-School program consist of 17 stages of detailed three-dimensional simulation in which various avatars interact, causing problematic situations in which the participant must choose how he would behave, given the different response choices offered. The program then includes the different response styles of the participant in the situations presented. This would be very relevant from a preventive and therapeutic point of view, as it provides the possibility of knowing what persons would be in a risk situation and their responses in the above mentioned contexts.
...) Regulations concerning DOE's contractor workplace substance abuse programs are promulgated at 10 CFR part 707... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workplace substance abuse... Workplace 923.570 Workplace substance abuse programs at DOE sites. (a) The Department of Energy (DOE),...
Osborne, Cynthia; Berger, Lawrence M.
Parental substance abuse is associated with adverse health and developmental outcomes for children. Existing research, however, has not fully explored the relative magnitude of the associations between maternal, paternal, and both parents' substance abuse and child outcomes, nor has it examined these associations in regard to substance abuse among…
Chandler, Nichelle; Balkin, Richard S.; Perepiczka, Michelle
This nationwide, quantitative study documented licensed counselors' perceived self-efficacy of adequately providing substance abuse services. Despite their lack of substance abuse training, counselors were highly confident in their ability to provide quality substance abuse services. Counselor training implications are discussed. (Contains 3…
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...
Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Lopez, Adriana L.; Slagle, Clark P.
Background: Student substance abuse is a serious concern for middle school personnel. School counselors are most likely to deliver mental health services, including substance abuse, in school settings. However, limited research is available on the perceived competence of middle school counselors for addressing student substance abuse concerns. The…
... and comments on issues related to workplace substance abuse programs for its contractor employees... Part 707 RIN 1992-AA41 Request for Information Regarding Workplace Substance Abuse Programs for... current substance abuse program for its contractor and subcontractor employees. DATES: All comments...
Goodrum, Sarah; Staton, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl; Webster, J. Matthew; Purvis, Richard T.
Almost 90% of all State and Federal prisons in the U.S. offer some form of substance abuse counseling, and one in eight prisoners have participated in a substance abuse treatment program while incarcerated. Evidence indicates that these programs can be successful in stopping prisoners' substance abuse. While some data are available about the…
Haynes, L. F.; Korte, J. E.; Holmes, B. E.; Gooden, L.; Matheson, T.; Feaster, D. J.; Leff, J. A.; Wilson, L.; Metsch, L. R.; Schackman, B. R.
The Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration has promoted HIV testing and counseling as an evidence-based practice. Nevertheless, adoption of HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs has been slow. This article describes the experience of a substance abuse treatment agency where, following participation in a clinical trial,…
Huebner, David M.; Thoma, Brian C.; Torsten B Neilands
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, relative to their heterosexual counterparts. Although previous research has demonstrated that experiences of anti-LGBT harassment, discrimination, and victimization may explain some of this disparity, little is known about the mechanisms whereby such mistreatment leads to substance abuse. This study aimed to examine whether mechanisms suggested by the Social Development Model might explain the ...
This descriptive study explored whether women in substance abuse treatment who report a history of sexual and/or physical abuse have different drug use profiles than women who do not report such abuse. The data originated from a NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse) study designed to evaluate the effects of different treatment modalities in inpatient substance abuse treatment for women. The study compared the drug profiles of women in four areas: drug of choice, frequency of use, problem ...
Modestin, Jiri; Wuermle, Othmar
Violent and criminal behavior in the mentally ill remains an issue of major importance and in this context the role of comorbid substance abuse must be addressed. Data on criminal behavior in 282 men with schizophrenia and 261 men with affective disorder were studied. Samples of patients with and without additional substance abuse were compared. Also, non-abusing patients from both diagnostic groups were compared with matched controls from the general population. Substance abuse was found in half of all men in both groups of major mental disorders, and substance abusers had twice as high a probability of having a criminal record. However, compared with the matched sample from the general population, violent criminality was increased in schizophrenic patients without comorbid substance abuse, and patients with affective disorders without substance abuse had a higher probability of committing crimes against property. Men with major mental disorder have an increased probability of becoming criminal even when there is no comorbid substance abuse. PMID:15679536
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use disorders and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV are interrelated, major public health problems. Methods We surveyed directors of a sample of substance use disorder treatment programs (SUDPs; N=241 and batterer intervention programs (BIPs; N=235 in California (70% response rate to examine the extent to which SUDPs address IPV, and BIPs address substance abuse. Results Generally, SUDPs were not addressing co-occurring IPV perpetration in a formal and comprehensive way. Few had a policy requiring assessment of potential clients, or monitoring of admitted clients, for violence perpetration; almost one-quarter did not admit potential clients who had perpetrated IPV, and only 20% had a component or track to address violence. About one-third suspended or terminated clients engaging in violence. The most common barriers to SUDPs providing IPV services were that violence prevention was not part of the program’s mission, staff lacked training in violence, and the lack of reimbursement mechanisms for such services. In contrast, BIPs tended to address substance abuse in a more formal and comprehensive way; e.g., one-half had a policy requiring potential clients to be assessed, two-thirds required monitoring of substance abuse among admitted clients, and almost one-half had a component or track to address substance abuse. SUDPs had clients with fewer resources (marriage, employment, income, housing, and more severe problems (both alcohol and drug use disorders, dual substance use and other mental health disorders, HIV + status. We found little evidence that services are centralized for individuals with both substance abuse and violence problems, even though most SUDP and BIP directors agreed that help for both problems should be obtained simultaneously in separate programs. Conclusions SUDPs may have difficulty addressing violence because they have a clientele with relatively few resources and more complex
Ramo, Danielle Elizabeth
Most models of addiction treatment outcome and relapse have been formulated on adult populations, with only modest consideration of developmental factors which are salient issues for substance use disordered (SUD) youth. The dominant cognitive behavioral model of addiction relapse (Marlatt & Gordon, 1985) has been compelling in its description of how situational context (e.g., high risk situations) interacts with cognitive factors (e.g., self-efficacy, coping resources) to elevate risk for re...
Tashkin, D P
After tobacco, marijuana is the most widely smoked substance in our society. Studies conducted within the past 15 years in animals, isolated tissues, and humans indicate that marijuana smoke can injure the lungs. Habitual smoking of marijuana has been shown to be associated with chronic respiratory tract symptoms, an increased frequency of acute bronchitic episodes, extensive tracheobronchial epithelial disease, and abnormalities in the structure and function of alveolar macrophages, key cell...
Korthuis, Philip Todd; Josephs, Joshua S.; FLEISHMAN, John A.; HELLINGER, James; Himelhoch, Seth; Chander, Geetanjali; Morse, Elizabeth B.; GEBO, Kelly A.
Substance abuse treatment is associated with decreases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behavior and can improve HIV outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with substance abuse treatment utilization, including patient–provider discussions of substance use issues. We surveyed 951 HIV-infected adults receiving care at 14 HIV Research Network primary care sites regarding drug and alcohol use, substance abuse treatment, and provider discussions of substanc...
Safa, Mitra; Boroujerdi, Fatemeh Ghassem; Talischi, Firouzeh; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza
Background Treatment of patients with chronic conditions requiring hospitalization requires patient acceptance and cooperation and adoption of coping strategies. Inappropriate coping strategies such as substance abuse are concerning in the course of treatment. This study sought to explore the association of coping strategies with suicidal behavior in substance abusers and non substance abuser patients with chronic pulmonary diseases namely asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COP...
Full Text Available Background: Drug abuse was existed in militaries all of the time and according to many researches it has very negatinve effect military readiness and their epic activity. So in many military systems ordained some protocols to prevent and treatment Drug abuse and addiction in soldiers.Materials and Method: In this original article we surveyed all literatures about substance abuse and addiction in militaries, inside & outside data banks and military psychology’s title books for prevention and control and treatment of addiction and substance abuse in militaries around the world.Results: results show some ingredients such drug traffic interdiction, hard disciplinary for addiction, periodic urinary analysis, communion of family and friends for prevention and treatment of addiction, disciplinary proportionate to previous act and duty of persons, special attention to personal and social problems, cooperation between military hospitals and rehabilitation centers, using the commanders, idolize the superior personnels; all of them were the common things in these protocols. Conclusion: Purposed, with survey and using existing protocols; ordinated the special protocol for prevention and treatment of drug abuse in militaries in Islamic Republics of IRAN
Liebschutz, Jane; Savetsky, Jacqueline B.; Saitz, Richard; Horton, Nicholas J; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Samet, Jeffrey H.
This study examines the relationship between a history of physical and sexual abuse (PhySexAbuse) and drug and alcohol related consequences. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 359 male and 111 female subjects recruited from an inpatient detoxification unit. The Inventory of Drug Use Consequences (InDUC), measured negative life consequences of substance use. Eighty-one percent of women and 69% of men report past PhySexAbuse, starting at a median age of 13 and 11, respectively...
Seng, Magnus J.
Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…
Full Text Available Substance use disorder is the second most common psychiatric disorders and is far more prevalent among young adults (ages;18-34y/0. Because of its importance and main effect in society, this study performed for evaluation of association fourteen childhood and adoleseence pathologic factors with substance use disorder among a group of abuser (20-30/0that referred to five addiction center in Tehran . The sample consist 100 patient: including 50 case and 50 control who were selected by DSM- IV based semi-structured diagnostic interviews for decrease memory biases in this retrospective cohart study. The patient’s parents also evaluated by DSM- IV based Semi-structured diagnostic interviews. The analysis showed significant relation between: parents control on the siblings, addiction in relatives of pt (except parents, addicted peers and friends, to be affected with the peers and friends and substance use disorder at the ages (20-30y/o. There wasn’t any association between: Disruptive childhood behaviors (under 11y/o, diagnosed medical illness (under 11y/o diagnosed Psychiatric illness (under 6 mo , family size, socio economic state and substance use disorder at the age(20-30y/0 . Finally some childhood and adolescence pathologic factors has association with Substance use disorder at the ages ( 20-30y/5 that these can be used for education all planning , prevention , design high risk group and remedical plans.
Chang, Sulie L
The "Potential Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Substance Abuse Related Disorders" session was chaired by Dr. Sulie Chang, director of NeuroImmune Phamacology at Seton University. The four presenters (and their topics) were: Dr. Wen-zhe Ho (Miniway to stop HIV/HCV), Dr. Ru-Band Lu (Low dose of memantine in the treatment of opioid dependence in human), Dr. Ping Zhang (Treatment of alcohol-related disorders-Learning from stem/progenitor cell), and Chia-Hsiang Chen (Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: an antibody-based immunotherapy approach). PMID:25267886
Evaluating a selective prevention program for substance use and comorbid behavioral problems in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial
Background Substance use and abuse is a growing problem among adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (ID). Substance use patterns in general population are similar to patterns among non-disabled peers, but substance use has more negative consequences for adolescents with mild to borderline ID, and they are at an increased risk for developing a substance use disorder. Nevertheless, effective and evidence based prevention programs for this groups are lacking. The study de...
Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida
Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…
McLean, Carmen P.; Morris, Sarah Herrick; Conklin, Phoebe; Jayawickreme, Nuwan; Foa, Edna B.
This study examined the relationship between the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the severity of consequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicidal ideation, and substance use in a sample of 83 female adolescents aged 13-18 years seeking treatment for PTSD. Nearly two-thirds of the sample (60.7%, n = 51) reported the perpetrator of the CSA was a relative. A large portion (40.5%, n = 34) of the sample reported being victimized once, while almost a quarter of the sample reported chronic victimization (23.8%, n = 20). PTSD and depression scores were in the clinical range, whereas reported levels of suicidal ideation and substance use were low. The frequency of victimizations was associated with suicidal ideation. Contrary to expectation, CSA characteristics including trauma type, perpetrator relationship, and duration of abuse were unrelated to PTSD severity, depressive symptoms, or substance abuse. PMID:25089075
Sunday, Sunday; Labruna, Victor; Kaplan, Sandra; Pelcovitz, David; Newman, Jennifer; Salzinger, Suzanne
Objective: To examine the relationship between physical abuse of adolescents and parenting by mothers and fathers and whether the association differs by gender. Methods: Subjects were adolescents, 51 girls and 45 boys, documented by Child Protective Services (CPS) as physically abused during adolescence. Comparison subjects were non-abused…
Brown, Lawrence S.; Kritz, Steven; Goldsmith, R. Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J.; Robinson, Jim; Alderson, Donald; Rotrosen, John
The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network conducted this study to determine the availability of and factors associated with infection-related health services in substance abuse treatment settings. In a cross--sectional descriptive design, state policies, reimbursement for providers, state level of priority, and treatment program characteristics were studied via written surveys of administrators of substance abuse treatment programs and of state health and substance abuse depar...
Yamada, Samantha; Pepler, Debra; Jiang, Depeng; Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Craig, Wendy; Connolly, Jennifer
Longitudinal data from 746 adolescents in Toronto, Canada (54% females), was gathered in eight waves over seven years (1995 through 2001), beginning when the youths were 10 to 12 years old (mean age = 11.8, SD = 1.2 years). Five trajectories of substance use were identified: chronic-high, childhood onset-rapid high, childhood onset-moderate,…
Huebner, David M; Thoma, Brian C; Neilands, Torsten B
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, relative to their heterosexual counterparts. Although previous research has demonstrated that experiences of anti-LGBT harassment, discrimination, and victimization may explain some of this disparity, little is known about the mechanisms whereby such mistreatment leads to substance abuse. This study aimed to examine whether mechanisms suggested by the Social Development Model might explain the links between school-based victimization and substance use in this population. Five hundred and four ethnically diverse LGBT adolescents ages 14-19 reported their experiences with school victimization, substance abuse, school bonding, and deviant peer group affiliation. Anti-LGBT victimization in school was associated with substance abuse, and although causality cannot be established, structural equation modeling confirmed that the data are consistent with a theoretical model in which this association was mediated by increased affiliation with deviant peers. Preventive interventions for LGBT adolescents must not only attempt to make schools safer for these youth, but also help keep them engaged in healthy peer groups when they are confronted with mistreatment in school. PMID:25529390
Tazanu Fossung, Joakem; Cudjoe, Kwame
The purpose of this review was to describe contemporary screening methodologies and processes for determining the substance abuse status of perinatal women using recent literary works. It also outlines potential innovations to improve the screening process and subsequent treatment of the aforementioned. The study was undertaken as part of the Kuitinmäki project in Laurea University of Applied Sciences. This study sought to answer the research question; What is entailed in the screening of sub...
Hesse Morten; Thylstrup Birgitte
Abstract Background Previous research has indicated that aggressive behaviour and DSM-IV cluster B personality disorders (PD) may be associated with professionals' emotional reactions to clients, and that cluster C PD may be associated with positive emotional reactions. Methods Staff members recruited from workshops completed a self-report inventory of emotional reactions to patients, the Feeling Word Checklist-58, and substance abusers completed a self-report of DSM-IV personality disorder, ...
Godbole, A; Temkin, T; Cradock, C
The authors originally circulated the concepts in this proposal during May 1995. The purpose was to support an open, public dialogue regarding the restructuring of the mental health and substance abuse services in Illinois in anticipation of Medicaid funding changes. Restructuring mental health and substance abuse service systems should follow certain key principles. These principles are applicable to other states, particularly those large in territory and population. The authors propose the temporary use of multiple managed care companies serving as administrative services only (ASO) organizations, each of whom would have responsibility for a given geographic portion of a state. The role of the ASOs would be to organize providers into networks on a regional basis and transfer managed care expertise in financing and clinical management to the relevant state departments and provider groups. Changes in the service delivery system would be phased in over time with reorganization of key components of the system during each phase. Where the provision of mental health, substance abuse, and social services is split among multiple state agencies, these agencies would be merged to achieve unified funding and administrative efficiency. Patients and advocacy organizations would play a key role in overseeing and shaping system restructuring at all levels, including a governmental board reporting to the governor, overseeing ASO organizations' operations and assuring quality and access at the provider level. The authors propose funding of public behavioral health services through use of a tiered, integrated funding model. PMID:9502053
Smith, Tracy W.; Lambie, Glenn W.
As institutions collectively serving young adolescents of every race, creed, ethnic, and socioeconomic group, middle level schools provide an ideal environment for combating adolescent abuse and neglect. Additionally, because of their frequent, recurring, and long-term contact with the young adolescents they teach, middle level teachers are in an…
Knuuttila, Vesa; Kuusisto, Katja; Saarnio, Pekka; Nummi, Tapio
Background: The study examined the effect of the early working alliance on outcome in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Methods: A total of 327 clients and 33 therapists participated in the study. Data were collected in southern and western Finland in outpatient treatment units (N = 7). The dependent variables were percentage of days abstinent…
Brook, D W; Brook, J S; Rubenstone, E; Zhang, C; Castro, F G; Tiburcio, N
In contrast to previous research on parental drug abuse, the present study examined comorbid drug addiction and HIV infection in the father as related to his adolescent child's psychological distress. Individual structured interviews were administered to 505 HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug-abusing fathers and one of their children, aged 12-20. Structural equation modelling tested an hypothesized model linking paternal latent variables, ecological factors and adolescent substance use to adolescent distress. Results demonstrated a direct pathway between paternal distress and adolescent distress, as well as an indirect pathway; namely, paternal distress was linked with impaired paternal teaching of coping skills to the child, which in turn was related to adolescent substance use and, ultimately, to the adolescent's distress. There was also an association between paternal drug addiction/HIV and adolescent distress, which was mediated by both ecological factors and adolescent substance use. Findings suggest an increased risk of distress in the adolescent children of fathers with comorbid drug addiction and HIV/AIDS, which may be further complicated by paternal distress. Results suggest several opportunities for prevention and treatment programmes for the children of drug-abusing fathers. PMID:18278619
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between individual and family religiosity with substance abuse. In other side because of the importance of prevention and the role of people beliefs about the causes of substance use/ non-use in this area, the relationship between (university students’ beliefs about drug and their consequences with amount of the substance use was explored. Method: Study sample included 270 students (128 females and 142 males from the University of Shiraz that were selected by multistage cluster sampling. They completed religious orientation questionnaire, family religiosity questionnaire and drug questionnaire. Findings: Results indicated significant negative relationship between individual religiosity in general and amount of substance use .however, the relationship between drug use and family religiosity was not found. Also, there was significant negative correlation between believing the consequences (mostly physical and mental and rate of substance use. Results: According to this results, religious beliefs and considering the consequences of substance use play important role in reducing substance use.
Basu, Debasish; Mattoo, Surendra K.
Substance abuse is an important medico-social problem. Comprehensive management of substance use disorders is of necessity linked to the study of epidemiology. In India we have a reasonable epidemiological data on substance abuse. However, this data base suffers from a number of methodological lacunae. The present paper discusses these lacunae and makes appropriate recommendations for future generation of epidemiological data on substance abuse in India.
Selseng, Lillian Bruland
BACKGROUND & AIMS – Previous research has shown that age categories play a vital part in the decision-making processes of counsellors in substance abuse services, yet very little is known about how the meanings of “age” and “substance abuse” are constructed and intertwined. This article aims to provide insights into the dynamic relationship between discourses on age and substance abuse. It explores the narratives of a group of counsellors on age and substance abuse, and looks a...
Flentje, A; Livingston, NA; Roley, J; Sorensen, JL
© 2015. Objective: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) orientation predicts greater substance use, treatment utilization, and poorer mental and physical health, but health needs of LGB individuals in substance abuse treatment remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in mental and physical health needs of LGB individuals in substance abuse treatment. Methods: Substance abuse treatment admissions data from the County of San Francisco were used in this investiga...
Flentje, A; Livingston, NA; Roley, J; Sorensen, JL
© 2015 Elsevier Inc. Objective: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) orientation predicts greater substance use, treatment utilization, and poorer mental and physical health, but health needs of LGB individuals in substance abuse treatment remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in mental and physical health needs of LGB individuals in substance abuse treatment. Methods: Substance abuse treatment admissions data from the County of San Francisco were used in t...
Myers, B.; C.D.H. Parry; Plüddemann, A.
Few studies have investigated the demand for substance abuse treatment in South Africa. This article uses data collected from specialist substance abuse treatment centres to describe substance abuse treatment demand and patterns of service utilisation in Cape Town for the period January 1997 to December 2001. Findings suggest that although treatment demand for alcohol-related problems remains high, treatment demand for substances other than alcohol has increased over time. Patterns of treatme...
Rezaei, Sajjad; Taramian, Sonbol; Kafie, Seyed Mousa
Background Inattention to symptoms of mental disorders and substance abuse in patients with HIV/AIDS and other at-risk groups, may lead to irreversible damages. The purpose of this study was to compare the psychopathological dimensions in substance abusers with and without HIV/AIDS and healthy matched groups. Methods In a cross-sectional and analytical study, selected samples (by available, consecutive, and objective methods) were 43 HIV-positive substance abusers, 49 HIV negative substance a...
Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.
The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…
Whitney, Stephen D.; Kelly, John F.; Myers, Mark G.; Brown, Sandra A.
Examines family variables that may influence adolescent substance use during the 6 months following inpatient treatment: parental substance use, family aftercare attendance, and adolescent ratings of family helpfulness. Results revealed no relationship between either parental substance use and family aftercare attendance or reports of family…
Mesic, Salih; Ramadani, Sokolj; Zunic, Lejla; Skopljak, Amira; Pasagic, Almir; Masic, Izet
Introduction: Drug addiction is one of the most prominent problems in many countries in transition, including Bosnia and Herzegovina. Age limit of drug addiction is shifted to the younger age groups, especially is troubling the increase in number of injection drug users. Our study was aimed to investigate the habits, attitudes and practices related to drug use among young people from the area of Sarajevo city. We can still feel the effects of the war, among which are the most important life w...
Full Text Available Background Substance dependency is one of the biggest problems and worries of the world. It stunts the growth of society and causes various problems such as reduction in public health, increase in mortality, rise in social and domestic traumas, loss of educational and occupational opportunities, involvement with the judicial system, and development of the substance-abuse cycle. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the role of metacognition and body image in predicting alexithymia in substance abusers. Patients and Methods The research sample included addicts (males and females aged 10 to 70 years who referred to the addiction treatment and counseling centers of three Iranian cities of Zahedan, Sari, and Neyriz. Participants were selected by random sampling. The metacognitive strategy questionnaire (MCQ-30, physical self-description questionnaire (PSDQ, and Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS-20 were used for data collection. The hypotheses were tested using the Pearson’s correlation method and regression analysis. Results According to the results of the current study, the highest correlation was between alexithymia and the cognitive awareness subscale (r = 0.305; P < 0.01.There was no significant correlation between alexithymia and body image. Based on the multiple regression analysis, the three predictors explained 11% of the variance (R2 = 0. 11, F = 3.981; P < 0.01. Cognitive awareness significantly predicted 9% of the variance (β = 0.305; P < 0.01, and the other subscales predicted about 2%. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that metacognition had an important role in predicting alexithymia in the substance abusers, which underscores the necessity of precautionary measures.
Kang, Sung-Yeon; Magura, Stephen; Laudet, Alexandre; Whitney, Shirley
Study examined adverse effects of childhood sexual/physical abuse among substance-abusing women with children. Several significant differences between abused and nonabused women were found in service outcomes. Abused women had more problems relating to drug use and psychiatric/psychological adjustment at follow-up. Findings support a need for…
Full Text Available Introduction: An effective preventive health education program on drug abuse can be delivered by applying behavior change theories in a complementary fashion. Methods: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating self-control into Extended Parallel Process Model in drug substance abuse behaviors. A sample of 189 governmental high school students participated in this survey. Information was collected individually by completing researcher designed questionnaire and a urinary rapid immuno-chromatography test for opium and marijuana. Results: The results of the study show that 6.9% of students used drugs (especially opium and marijuana and also peer pressure was determinant factor for using drugs. Moreover the EPPM theoretical variables of perceived severity and perceived self-efficacy with self-control are predictive factors to behavior intention against substance abuse. In this manner, self-control had a significant effect on protective motivation and perceived efficacy. Low self- control was a predictive factor of drug abuse and low self-control students had drug abuse experience. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that an integration of self-control into EPPM can be effective in expressing and designing primary preventive programs against drug abuse, and assessing abused behavior and deviance behaviors among adolescent population, especially risk seekers
Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene
The objective of this study was to describe the predictors of substance use relapse of American Indian (AI) women up to one year following substance abuse treatment. Relapse is defined as any use of alcohol or drugs in the past 30 days at the follow-up points. Data were collected from AI women in a 45-day residential substance abuse treatment…
Grella, Christine E.; Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang; Yu-Chuang
Problem: Greater awareness of the role of parental substance abuse in child maltreatment makes it imperative that the substance abuse treatment and child welfare systems coordinate services for these parents. Yet little is known about the characteristics of child-welfare involved parents (primarily mothers) who enter into substance abuse…
Kaminski, Ruth A; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Good, Roland H; Goodman, Matthew Reader
The effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention with preschool children aimed at reducing the risk of later substance abuse was examined. The intervention targeted risk factors during the preschool years linked to later substance use in adolescence and adulthood. Head Start classrooms were randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. A classroom-based curriculum was delivered by Head Start teachers who received a number of training workshops and continued consultation. Parent training and home visits were also provided to intervention families. Positive parenting as well as parent-school involvement increased over the 1st year of intervention. Intervention families maintained the positive effects on parenting into the kindergarten year over a matched control group; however, effects on school bonding were not maintained. Improvements in social competence, reported by teachers and parents, were found at the end of kindergarten. No changes were found for self-regulation. PMID:12502274
... percent) . 2 However, there were shifts in the types of substances reported by these treatment admissions. The percentage of pregnant admissions reporting alcohol abuse (with or without drug abuse) decreased from 46. ...
Girish H Banwari
Full Text Available Traditionally, sexual abuse is under-reported and under-recognized when the victims are boys. A study carried out by the Government of India in 2007 suggests that every second child/adolescent in the country faces some form of sexual abuse and it is nearly equally prevalent in both sexes. The significance of the problem is undermined all the more when the abuse is perpetrated by a peer. Sexual activity between children and adolescents that occurs without consent or as a result of coercion is tantamount to abuse. A majority of the victims do not disclose the occurrence to anyone. This often neglected issue of adolescent male peer sexual abuse in a sexually conservative country like India is highlighted and discussed through this case, which came to light only after the victim developed a venereal disease.
Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this research was the study of the role of identity formation styles on substance abuse behavior of referred people to addiction withdrawal and DIC centers of Tehran city and its comparison with non addicted people. Method: The research design was causal effect research method, which 100 substance abusers compared with 100 non substance abusers. The sampling method was cluster random sampling and both groups were matched in consideration of age. Bersinesky’s identity making questionnaire administered in two samples. Results: The results showed that substance abusers were scored higher on normative and confused/avoidant identity formation also the non substance abusers were scored higher on information identity formation style. Conclusion: With different kind of intervention-training trials the parents and people who are effective on children’s identity formation can be mobilized, in order to prevention of identity formation styles which can planning teenagers’ substance abusing.
Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Phillips, James C
Media effects research provides evidence for a link between adolescent exposure to media portrayals of substance use and usage. Exposure to media content that glamorizes and normalizes substance use carries potential public health risks. Though substance use has been examined in other media, such as film, television, and magazines, no research to date examines usage portrayals in adolescent novels. Given that adolescents do read, and given the potential impact of content on adolescent attitudes and behavior, this study provides a detailed analysis of the frequency and nature of substance use in the understudied area of novels. Substance use was examined in 40 best-selling adolescent novels on the New York Times Best Sellers list (time span June-July 2008). Substance use varied widely. Of the various types of substances, alcohol portrayals were most common. Almost all substance use was portrayed as having no consequences. Alcohol use was portrayed in similar frequencies in books aimed at younger, middle, and older adolescents, though illegal drug use was more likely to be found in books aimed at older ages. Our results suggest that the manner in which substance use is generally portrayed may encourage use among adolescents. Researchers, parents, and adolescents are encouraged to examine books as one potentially overlooked area of influence. PMID:21469003
Lynch, Wendy J.; Nicholson, Katherine L.; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L.
Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial...
OBJECTIVE: This article presents an overview of child abuse among culturally diverse populations in Hawaii, substance use among culturally diverse students in Hawaii, and culturally based interventions for preventing child abuse and substance abuse in Native Hawaiian families. OBSERVATIONS: Native Hawaiians accounted for the largest number of cases of child abuse and neglect in Hawaii between 1996 and 1998. Alcohol and other drugs have increasingly been linked with child maltreatment. Native ...
Milligan Karen; Niccols Alison; Sword Wendy; Thabane Lehana; Henderson Joanna; Smith Ainsley; Liu Jennifer
Abstract Background The rate of women with substance abuse issues is increasing. Women present with a unique constellation of risk factors and presenting needs, which may include specific needs in their role as mothers. Numerous integrated programs (those with substance use treatment and pregnancy, parenting, or child services) have been developed to specifically meet the needs of pregnant and parenting women with substance abuse issues. This synthesis and meta-analysis reviews research in th...
A.ARORA; S Kannan; S.Gowri; Choudhary, S; S Sudarasanan; P P Khosla
Background & objectives: Substance abuse is found worldwide including among students. We carried out this study to estimate the prevalence of substance abuse among medical student studying in a medical college in north India. Methods: Using a validated questionnaire a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 230 undergraduate and postgraduate medical students in a private medical college. Results: The prevalence of substance abuse was 20.43 per cent (47/230) among medical students....
Chernoff Miriam; Liebschutz Jane M; Lincoln Alisa K; Nguyen Dana; Amaro Hortensia
Abstract Background Despite the importance of identifying co-occurring psychiatric disorders in substance abuse treatment programs, there are few appropriate and validated instruments available to substance abuse treatment staff to conduct brief screen for these conditions. This paper describes the development, implementation and validation of a brief screening instrument for mental health diagnoses and trauma among a diverse sample of Black, Hispanic and White women in substance abuse treatm...
M Barati; H. Allahverdipour; B. Moeini; A. Farhadi Nasab; H. Mahjub; F. Jalilian
Introduction & Objective: The prevalence of substance abuse among college students is increasing drastically and requires immediate skill-based substance abuse intervention such as assertive skills. The purpose of this study was to develope the healthy behavior to change the subjective norms of students in order to decrease their tendency towards substance abuse. Materials & Methods: A pre and post nonequivalent control group design study carried out on college students. A total number of 140...
Curtis, Sara L.; Eby, Lillian T.
The complex makeup of the substance abuse treatment workforce poses unique challenges to the field. One interesting dynamic is the high rate of counselors who are personally recovering from addictions. Based on social identity theory, it was expected that counselors working in the field of substance abuse treatment who are in recovery themselves will identify more with their profession and report higher professional and organizational commitment. Data from a study of substance abuse counselor...
Aich, Tapas K.; Sinha, Vinod K.; Khess, Christoday R.J.; Singh, Shailja
Background: Differences in opinion exist among researchers in relation to the course and outcome of substance abuse co-morbidity in schizophrenia. Aim: To compare the pattern of remission of symptoms in positive and negative schizophrenics with and without a history of substance abuse. Methods: Seventy schizophrenics were divided into two groups based on the history of presence or absence of substance abuse/dependence. Thirty-eight patients (54.3%) were diagnosed as having co-morbid alcohol/s...
Mehdi Moshki; Mohammad Ali Aslinejad
Background & Objective: Nowaday, substance abuse is one of the bitterest social damages. In the recent years, substance abuse has increased among students of schools and universities, therefore special attention it requires. This study aimed to study the effect of life skills training on the promotion of the preventive behaviors of Gonabad University medical school students’ abuse of substances. Materials & Methods: During the experimental research and field trail, 60 students were Selected t...
SEYBOLD, DARA; Calhoun,Byron; BURGESS, DENISE; LEWIS, TAMMI; GILBERT, KELLY; CASTO, ANGIE
The objective of this article is not to present a scientific or systematic study, but to provide an initial framework for designing a training workshop to enhance health practitioners’ (nurses, social workers, physicians, etc.) knowledge regarding substance abuse treatment and to decrease their bias toward substance-abusing women, particularly pregnant women in rural communities. We incorporated the 4 Transdisciplinary Foundations from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administra...
Cameron Amura; Craft Howard L; Dacons-Brock Karen; Livingston Jonathan N; Stephens-Hernandez Aileen B; Franklin Steven O; Howlett Allyn C
Abstract Background The substance abuse prevention goal of the theatre production "TUNNELS" was to provide community education on substance abuse to an audience in Durham, NC and surrounding communities. The education effort intended to increase awareness and understanding of the risk and protective factors associated with alcohol and other drug use, and to promote pro-active behaviors in substance abuse prevention within the adult community. It was hypothesized that community-based education...
Frarid Ahmadi; Ebrahim Taghipoor; Anahita Khodabakhshi, K
Aims: The aim of this research was the study of the role of identity formation styles on substance abuse behavior of referred people to addiction withdrawal and DIC centers of Tehran city and its comparison with non addicted people. Method: The research design was causal effect research method, which 100 substance abusers compared with 100 non substance abusers. The sampling method was cluster random sampling and both groups were matched in consideration of age. Bersinesky’s identity making q...
Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa
With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…
Wu, Li-Tzy; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Schlenger, William E.
Objective: To examine the patterns of inhalant use and correlates of the progression from inhalant use to abuse and dependence among adolescents aged 12 to 17. Method: Study data were drawn from the 2000 and 2001 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. Multinominal logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with…
Bonvanie, Irma J.; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A. M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.
The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. I
Chang, Sulie L.
The “Potential Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Substance Abuse Related Disorders” session was chaired by Dr. Sulie Chang, director of NeuroImmune Phamacology at Seton University. The four presenters (and their topics) were: Dr. Wen-zhe Ho (Miniway to stop HIV/HCV), Dr. Ru-Band Lu (Low dose of memantine in the treatment of opioid dependence in human), Dr. Ping Zhang (Treatment of alcohol-related disorders-Learning from stem/progenitor cell), and Chia-Hsiang Chen (Treatment of methamphetamine abu...
Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.
Presented are 18 papers on predicting adolescent drug abuse. The papers have the following titles: "Current Issues in the Epidemiology of Drug Abuse as Related to Psychosocial Studies of Adolescent Drug Use"; "The Quest for Interpersonal Predictors of Marihuana Abuse in Adolescents"; "Assessing the Interpersonal Determinants of Adolescent Drug…
Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Vitiello, Benedetto; Ryan, Neal; Birmaher, Boris; Mayes, Taryn; Onorato, Matthew; Zelazny, Jamie; Brent, David A.
Objective: Despite the known association between substance use disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD) among adolescents, little is known regarding substance use among adolescents with MDD. Method: Youths with MDD who had not improved after an adequate selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor trial (N = 334) were enrolled in the Treatment of…
ABSTRACT The purpose of this thesis was to investigate aspects of self-reported sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence in a population-based study of Swedish high school students. The aim of this thesis was first to investigate the lifetime prevalence of sexual abuse of varying severity and characteristics as well as the associations between sexual abuse, gender, socio-demographic characteristics and consensual sexual experiences. The next aim was to investigate disclosure rates and...
Banwari, Girish H.
Traditionally, sexual abuse is under-reported and under-recognized when the victims are boys. A study carried out by the Government of India in 2007 suggests that every second child/adolescent in the country faces some form of sexual abuse and it is nearly equally prevalent in both sexes. The significance of the problem is undermined all the more when the abuse is perpetrated by a peer. Sexual activity between children and adolescents that occurs without consent or as a result of coercion is ...
Beary, John F.; And Others
Describes drug abuse in the military. Survey data of military personnel (N=15,268) revealed that single, enlisted males under age 25 were the population most at risk. Alcohol and cannabis were the most common substances of abuse. Some work impairment and dependence were reported but were not typical. (Author/JAC)
From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…
Gallardo, Miguel E; Curry, Shannon J
In 2001, there were 35 million Latinos living in the United States. It is estimated that by 2050 Latinos will comprise 97 million people in the United States, or one-fourth of the U.S. population, establishing this ethnic group as the fastest growing and soon to be largest in the country (U.S. Census Bureau, 2001 ). These numbers highlight the need for a multicultural paradigm shift, or the inclusion of culture-specific skills and culturally responsive interventions in psychological practice. Latinos face challenges as a racial/ethnic group that the traditional Euro-American model of treatment neither addresses nor validates. Unfortunately, substance abuse serves a purposeful function for many Latinos as a means of escape from the problems related to the social, environmental, and political structures. The current article adapts the model set forth by Parham ( 2002 ) as a strength-based therapeutic framework for intervention. The following stages are outlined to serve as the basis for most therapeutic encounters with clients from all racial and ethnic groups presenting with substance abuse problems: therapeutic alliance building, culturally appropriate assessment, sociopolitical awareness and liberation, creating collaborative change, and addressing sustainability of change. PMID:25985072
Full Text Available Background: Manganese toxicity may lead to a levodopa-resistant akinetic-rigid syndrome. Pathological changes occur mostly in the pallidium and stratium. Materials and Methods: We report seven patients with a new form of chronic manganese toxicity due to long-term intravenous use of a solution consisting of ephedrine, acetylsalicylic acid and potassium permanganate as a psycho-stimulant, popularly known as "Russian Cocktail". Results: The age of the patients ranged between 19 and 31 years, and the duration of substance abuse was between nine and 106 months. The onset of symptoms from first use ranged seven to 35 months. The initial symptom was impaired speech followed by gait disturbance and bradykinesia. In addition to these symptoms, choreic movements, ataxia presenting as backward falls and dystonia were also seen. Serum and urine samples revealed high levels of manganese. Hyperintense lesions on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were seen in bilateral basal ganglia and brainstem, dentate nuclei, features consistent with manganese intoxication. Conclusion: Manganese toxicity, which may cause a distinctive irreversible neurodegenerative disorder, can be seen frequently with "Russian Cocktail" abuse, a substance which can be accessed very easily and at a low cost.
Ram, Anita; Chisolm, Margaret S
This commentary highlights the growing demand for substance abuse prevention and treatment, summarizes the literature regarding the current insufficiencies in substance abuse training in medical schools, and suggests strategies to address this gap in physician education. The authors describe how the combination of mandated coverage for substance abuse services and expanding treatment needs means that more physicians, regardless of their patient populations, will be faced with addressing the problem of substance use. The authors review the literature on substance abuse training in medical schools, which indicates insufficient exposure to this topic. The authors describe how current substance abuse training at medical schools is focused on transmitting scientific knowledge with relatively little education or training in attitudes and skills central to effective prevention and treatment. Given the gap between clinical need and physician education, the authors suggest several strategies for medical schools to increase training in substance abuse knowledge, attitudes, and skills, which will enhance the practice of evidence-based care. The authors posit that medical curricular reform, combined with initiatives to change clinical culture around substance abuse, will translate into improved rates of screening, shorter overall length of treatment, effective referrals for continued treatment, and increased access to care for individuals who use substances and so reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with substance use. PMID:25749922
Haegerich, Tamara M.; Tolan, Patrick H.
Adolescence is a developmental period during which youth are at increased risk for using substances. An empirical focus on core competencies illustrates that youth are less likely to use substances when they have a positive future orientation, a belief in the ability to resist substances, emotional and behavioral control, sound decision-making…
Copur, Mazlum; Turkcan, Ahmet; Erdogmus, Meral
The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of substance abuse in the juvenile detention house and to determine the relationship between crime and substance abuse and conduct disorder. Two hundred and thirty cases in the biggest juvenile detention house in Istanbul, Turkey were assessed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn; DSM-IV) criteria. Law files and data of crime were examined. A total of 80 out of 230 juvenile detainees (34.8%) were found to have substance abuse excluding nicotine and alcohol. The substances abused in preferential order were cannabis (72.5%), volatile substances (21.3% bally and 3.7% thinner; 25%) and sedative hypnotic drugs and biperidents (2.5%). The rate of conduct disorder was 46.3% in substance abusers and 25.3% in the others (odds ratio: 2.536). The rate of substance abuse was 48.5% in the juveniles who had committed multiple crimes and 14.1% in the others (odds ratio: 5.735). The study shows that conduct disorder was very high in juvenile detainees. Conduct disorder was higher in substance-abusing than in non-abusing juvenile detainees. Substance-abusing juvenile detainees were found to have a higher detention rate than non-abusing juvenile detainees. There was a close relation between conduct disorder and substance abuse and multiple crimes. In the light of these results, diagnosis and treatment for conduct disorder in juvenile detainees are of great importance. PMID:15823160
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workplace substance abuse programs-management and operating contracts. 970.2305 Section 970.2305 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Work Place 970.2305 Workplace substance abuse programs—management and operating contracts....
Myers, Bronwyn; Burnhams, Nadine Harker; Fakier, Nuraan
Although outcomes monitoring and the collection of other performance data holds benefits for service managers and policy makers, the extent to which these data are collected by South African substance abuse service providers is unknown. To describe (i) the extent to which substance abuse service providers in South Africa monitor and evaluate their…
... ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.126 Capacity of treatment... programs that receive funding under the grant and that treat individuals for intravenous substance abuse to... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of treatment for intravenous...
Glassmire, David M.; Welsh, Robert K.; Clevenger, Jeanne K.
The Substance Abuse and Mental Illness (SAMI) program combines cognitive rehabilitation and dual-diagnosis substance abuse treatment within a stages of change context. This article describes the development, implementation, and preliminary outcome analysis of the SAMI program in a forensic hospital.
Ong, Lee Za; Lee, Dal-Yob; Cha, Grace; Arokiasamy, Charles
One hundred rehabilitation counselors in California reported that about 90% of consumers with whom they worked with had substance abuse and cooccurring issues, yet about half rated their graduate training in substance abuse treatment and assessment as poor and their practices as marginally proficient. The correlation analysis revealed that…
Burrow-Sanchez, Jason; Call, Megan E.; Adolphson, S. Lillian; Hawken, Leanne S.
Background: School psychologists are some of the most likely personnel to deliver mental health services, including substance abuse, in school settings, but there is limited research on the perceived competence of school psychologists to address student substance abuse concerns. The 3 aims of this study were to determine how school psychologists…
Bial, Martha C.; Gutheil, Irene A.; Hanson, Meredith; White-Ryan, Linda
This article reports on a project to sensitize graduate social work students taking courses in substance abuse to the needs of older adults. Graduate social work students at a major urban school of social work in the Northeast were recruited and trained to interview older adults with a history of substance abuse problems regarding their life…
Corrigan, Matthew J.; Bill, M. Louise; Slater, Judith R.
Substance abuse has been identified as a significant social problem. Social work is uniquely positioned to affect this problem. Kennesaw State University has established a substance abuse concentration as part of its master's of social work program. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of this curriculum. The curriculum is…
... Collection: Title: Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse. Type of Information Collection Request: New. Need and Use of Information Collection: This research will evaluate the effectiveness of the... Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 3506(c)(2)A of the...
... research will evaluate the effectiveness of the Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse, via the... Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the... currently valid OMB control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Online Skills Training for PCPs on...
Goodman, Deborah, Ed.
"SAMHSA News" is the national newsletter of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Published six times a year (bimonthly) by SAMHSA's Office of Communications, SAMHSA News contains information about the latest substance abuse and mental health treatment and prevention practices, recent statistics on mental health and…
West, Paul L.; Hamm, Terri
Data from 57 clinical supervisors in licensed substance abuse treatment programs indicate that 28% had completed formal graduate course work in clinical supervision and 33% were professionally licensed or certified. Findings raise concerns about the scope and quality of clinical supervision available to substance abuse counselors. (Contains 3…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuses surveys have consistently found that the family is fundamental to keeping children away from tobacco, alcohol and illegal drugs. This 2002 survey keeps the focus on family and seeks to assess the impact of siblings on the likelihood of teen substance abuse. This year 1,000 teens ages 12 to 17…
Fussell, Holly E.; Lewy, Colleen S.; McFarland, Bentson H.
Clinician training and supervision are needed to transfer evidence-based practices to community-based treatment organizations. Standardized patients (SPs) are used for clinician training and evaluating. However, to be effective for substance abuse counselors, SPs must realistically portray substance abuse treatment clients. The current study…
Gray, Norma; Nye, Patricia S.
The devastating impact of substance abuse on American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) is reviewed with an emphasis on psychological and physical effects. Co-morbidity of substance abuse, trans-generational trauma, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and depression among AI/ANs is also discussed since each condition may cause, impact, and/or…
Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Wilson, Stephan M.
A path model was utilized to determine the relationship of demographic, family system, adolescent perceptions of parental behavior, and youth characteristics to adolescent substance abuse. Self-report questionnaire data were collected from 214 high school students at two high schools in a southwestern state. Results showed direct positive…
Leclerc, Benoit; Felson, Marcus
Adolescent abuse of younger children has long been recognized, but empirical research on the circumstances of this phenomenon is rare. This article examines how adolescent offenders find and gain access to victims, work out time alone with them, and set up or exploit settings for sexual contact. Prior researchers learned that adult sex offenders use certain routine activities to perform these tasks. The current research inquires whether adolescent offenders are similar. We administered Kaufman's Modus Operandi Questionnaire to a sample of 116 Canadian adolescent males undergoing treatment for a sexual offense against a child. Adolescent offenders follow routines similar to adults but are better able to use games and activities as a prelude to sexual abuse. We discuss how routine legal activities set the stage for activities and should be considered when devising situational prevention strategies. PMID:25060598
Hamid Tavakoli Ghouchani; Shamsodin Niknami; Farkhondeh Aminshokravi; Seyed Kaveh Hojat
Background and Objectives: The world population has reached over seven billion people. Of these, 230 million individuals abuse substances. Therefore, substance abuse prevention and treatment programs have received increasing attention during the past two decades. Understanding people’s motivations for quitting drug abuse is essential to the success of treatment. This study hence sought to identify major motivations for quitting and to compare them with the constructs of health education model...
Service providers and researchers note that youth with substance abuse problems are difficult to engage in treatment and, when engaged, often drop out early. Estimates of the alcohol and drug abuse rate of runaway youth range from 70% to 95%. This study evaluated predictors of therapy attendance in a sample of substance abusing youth recruited through two southwestern runaway shelters. Runaway youth and their families (N = 36) were engaged into a 15-session ecologically-based family therapy (...
Orr, Donald P.; Downes, Maureen C.
To assess the self-concept and psychological profile associated with sexual abuse, 20 young female victims evaluated in a sexual abuse clinic completed the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. (Author/LMO)
Selseng Lillian Bruland
BACKGROUND & AIMS – Previous research has shown that age categories play a vital part in the decision-making processes of counsellors in substance abuse services, yet very little is known about how the meanings of “age” and “substance abuse” are constructed and intertwined. This article aims to provide insights into the dynamic relationship between discourses on age and substance abuse. It explores the narratives of a group of counsellors on age and substance abuse, and looks at the subject p...
Selseng Lillian Bruland
Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS – Previous research has shown that age categories play a vital part in the decision-making processes of counsellors in substance abuse services, yet very little is known about how the meanings of “age” and “substance abuse” are constructed and intertwined. This article aims to provide insights into the dynamic relationship between discourses on age and substance abuse. It explores the narratives of a group of counsellors on age and substance abuse, and looks at the subject positions this intersection produces.
Full Text Available Betty Tai1, Li-Tzy Wu2, H Westley Clark31Center for Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 3Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, MD, USAAbstract: While substance use problems are considered to be common in medical settings, they are not systematically assessed and diagnosed for treatment management. Research data suggest that the majority of individuals with a substance use disorder either do not use treatment or delay treatment-seeking for over a decade. The separation of substance abuse services from mainstream medical care and a lack of preventive services for substance abuse in primary care can contribute to under-detection of substance use problems. When fully enacted in 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 2010 will address these barriers by supporting preventive services for substance abuse (screening, counseling and integration of substance abuse care with primary care. One key factor that can help to achieve this goal is to incorporate the standardized screeners or common data elements for substance use and related disorders into the electronic health records (EHR system in the health care setting. Incentives for care providers to adopt an EHR system for meaningful use are part of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act 2009. This commentary focuses on recent evidence about routine screening and intervention for alcohol/drug use and related disorders in primary care. Federal efforts in developing common data elements for use as screeners for substance use and related disorders are described. A pressing need for empirical data on screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT for drug-related disorders to inform SBIRT and related EHR efforts is highlighted
Full Text Available The emergence of risky behavior is characteristic in adolescence. Of all forms of risky behavior in adolescence, the use of psychoactive substances - cigarettes, alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances particularly stand out, because of the frequency and degree of prevalence of use, and because of the impact that they have on youth development in this sensitive stage of growing up. Unfortunately, today we are witnessing the fact that such behavior in adolescents has gained an increasingly epidemic character mainly due to the characteristics of the social context in which young people are growing up. The main objective of this research, conducted in the framework of the doctoral dissertation of the author, was determining relations between relevant sociodemographic factors: gender, age, school success, financial status and place of residence of respondents, with the appearance and intensity of use of three types of psychoactive substances - cigarettes, alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances among the general population of adolescents. The sample represents non-clinical young population, and it consists of 529 adolescents, students of the 2nd and 4th class of secondary school (17 and 18 years old. The data was collected by using Scale use of PAS (psychoactive substances in adolescents, which was designed for the purpose of this research, as well as using a set of questions intended for the registration of socio-demographic variables. Respondents filled in questionnaires in groups, during the school lessons. The data show a relationship between the three studied socio-demographic variables with the occurrence and degree of use of psychoactive substances in the adolescence period, such as gender, age and school success of the respondents. As regards gender of respondents associated with the occurrence and degree of alcohol and illegal substance use in adolescents, male adolescents more likely use alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances
Santos Paulo Roberto
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several aspects linked to social are involved in the onset of depressive feelings. We aimed to find out if social adaptability and substance abuse predict depression among end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD. Methods We included 145 ESRD patients undergoing HD. Social adaptability was estimated by the Social Adaptability Index (SAI. Substance abuse was defined according to SAI. We screened for depression by applying the 20-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. A score ≥ 24 classified the patients as depressed. Comparisons between depressed and non-depressed patients were carried out and logistic regression was performed to test gender, age, total SAI, SAI without the substance abuse item, only the substance abuse score and substance abuse as a categorical variable (yes/no as predictors of depression. Results There were 36 (24.8% depressed patients. There were no differences regarding demographic and laboratory data between the depressed and non-depressed patients. Mean SAI among depressed and non-depressed patients was, respectively, 6.1 ± 1.6 vs. 6.2 ± 1.9 (p=0.901. The percentage of patients with or without substance abuse among depressed patients was, respectively, 13.8% vs. 13.9% (p=1.000. Gender, age, total SAI, SAI without the substance abuse item, only the substance abuse score and substance abuse as a categorical variable did not predict depression. Conclusions Social adaptability and substance abuse did not predict depression in HD patients. We propose that aspects related to socioeconomic status not comprised in SAI items should be ruled out as predictors of depression.
Simkin, Deborah R
It is imperative to know what risk factors are more likely to appear during specific developmental stages so that identification and interventions can be used to decrease the risk for future SUD. Continued surveying of risk factors that can occur at any stage in childhood are important to ensure that other risk factors are anticipated and intervened upon as well. Multiple risk factors increase the magnitude of the risk for SUD, and therefore all risk factors should be detected to convert these to protective factors. Screening instruments that can assess risk factors found to increase the risk for substance abuse can be found in examples, such as the Drug Usage Screening Instrument  and the Problem-Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers. The detection of risk factors by primary care providers is becoming increasingly important. However, other professionals are beginning to recognize that early recognition and treatment can enable a youth to go on to a productive life in other arenas as well. Drug courts and diversion programs are beginning to treat first-time offenders and their families rather than taking the punitive approach. These have proven to be very successful. Primary care physicians also should become familiar with motivational enhancement therapy when confronting a youth with a suspected substance abuse problem . This method has proven to be more effective in getting youth into treatment than the direct, confrontational style, which often puts the youth in a defensive mode. Motivational enhancement therapy includes interventions that are delivered in a neutral and empathetic way. The six components of motivational enhancement therapy (also called FRAMES) include: Feedback on personal impairment Emphasis on personal responsibility Clear advice to change Menu of alternative options Empathy as a counseling style Self-efficacy In this way, a clinician can elicit pros and cons, give advice, provide choices, practice empathy, clarify goals, and
Saywitz, Karen J.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Berliner, Lucy; Cohen, Judith A.
Reviews research demonstrating the variable effects of childhood sexual abuse, need for intervention, and effectiveness of available treatment. Proposes extending and modifying treatment from mainstream clinical child psychology to sexually abused children. Interventions range from psychoeducation and screening, to short-term, abuse-focused…
Sitnick, Stephanie; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke
This study examined developmentally-salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting, maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using str...
Donald M. Dougherty
Full Text Available Adolescent suicidal behaviors and substance use are disturbingly common. Research suggests overlap of some of the etiological mechanisms for both adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use, yet clear understanding of the complex relations between these behaviors and their causal underpinnings is lacking. A growing body of evidence and a diathesis model (Mann et al. 1999; Mann, 2003 highlight the importance of impulse control as a proximal risk factor for adolescent suicidal and substance use behaviors. This literature review extends current theory on the relationships between adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use by: (1 examining how, when, and to what extent adolescent development is affected by poor impulse control, stressful life events, substance use behavior, and biological factors; (2 presenting proposed causal mechanisms by which these risk factors interact to increase risk for suicidal behaviors and substance use; and (3 proposing specific new hypotheses to extend the diathesis model to adolescents at risk for suicide and substance use. More specifically, new hypotheses are presented that predict bidirectional relationships between stressful life events and genetic markers of 5-HT dysregulation; substance use behavior and impulsivity; and substance use behavior and suicide attempts. The importance of distinguishing between different developmental trajectories of suicidal and substance use behaviors, and the effects of specific risk and protective mechanisms are discussed. Use of new statistical approaches that provide for the comparison of latent growth curves and latent class models is recommended to identify differences in developmental trajectories of suicidal behavior and substance use. Knowledge gained from these prospective longitudinal methods should lead to greater understanding on the timing, duration, and extent to which specific risk and protective factors influence the outcomes of suicidal behavior and substance
Goodman, Allen C.; Hankin, Janet R.; Kalist, David E.; Peng, Yingwei; Spurr, Stephen J.
BACKGROUND: Health services researchers have increasingly used hazard functions to examine illness or treatment episode lengths and related treatment utilization and treatment costs. There has been little systematic hazard analysis, however, of mental health/substance abuse (MH/SA) treatment episodes. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This article uses proportional hazard functions to characterize multiple treatment episodes for a sample of insured clients with at least one alcohol or drug treatment diagnosis over a three-year period. It addresses the lengths and timing of treatment episodes, and the relationships of episode lengths to the types and locations of earlier episodes. It also identifies a problem that occurs when a portion of the sample observations is ǣpossibly censored. Failure to account for sample censoring will generate biased hazard function estimates, but treating all potentially censored observations as censored will overcompensate for the censoring bias. METHODS: Using insurance claims data, the analysis defines health care treatment episodes as all events that follow the initial event irrespective of diagnosis, so long as the events are not separated by more than 30 days. The distribution of observations ranges from 1 day to 3 years, and individuals have up to 10 episodes. Due to the data collection process, observations may be right censored if the episode is either ongoing at the time that data collection starts, or when the data collection effort ends. The Andersen-Gill (AG) and Wei-Lin-Weissfeld (WLW) estimation methods are used to address relationships among individuals multiple episodes. These methods are then augmented by a probit censoring model that estimates censoring probability and adjusts estimated behavioral coefficients and related treatment utilization and treatment costs. There has been little systematic hazard analysis, however, of mental health/substance abuse (MH/SA) treatment episodes. RESULTS: Five sets of variables explain episode
Both employers and out-patient treatment centres are key role players in addressing workplace related substance abuse. On the one hand, employers are directly and indirectly affected by the huge problem of substance abuse. On the other hand, out-patient treatment centres provide, as their core goal, for the treatment of substance abuse and dependency. Due to the extent of the problem of substance abuse, collaborative intervention measures between employers and out-patient treatment centres ar...
Morad Rasouli-Azad; Bahram A. Ghanbari-Hashemabadi; Samad Shirinzadeh-Dastgiri; Marjan Alamikhah; Omid Saed; Toktam Kazemini
Background: Studies of the prevalence of substance abuse in rural and urban population in different countries revealed variable results regarding to the study method, study population, age group and measuring tools. The purpose of this research is to compare the patterns of substance abuse disorders in urban and rural population in Mashhad.Materials and Method: Two groups consecutively admitted patients who referred to substance treatment clinics of Mashhad, were selected (110 urban and 100 r...
Rosvold Elin; Lindbæk Morten; Hjerkinn Bjørg
Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the...
Lemak Christy; Wells Rebecca; D'Aunno Thomas A
Abstract Background Previous studies have found that even limited prevention-related interventions can affect health behaviors such as substance use and risky sex. Substance abuse treatment providers are ideal candidates to provide these services, but typically have little or no financial incentive to do so. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore why some substance abuse treatment units have added new prevention and outreach services. Based on an ecological framework of organizati...
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the personality characteristics and criminal behavior in the substance abusers. The role of various sociodemographic variables in substance abusers, which affected their criminal behavior was also studied. Moreover, in the present study, the personality profile of substance users and nonusers was compared using psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism (PEN inventory. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 consecutive subjects diagnosed as per International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria for substance abuse, fulfilling the inclusive and exclusive criteria were taken. A well-matched control was also assessed to compare the studied subject using a well-designed semi-structured proforma and PEN inventory. Results: Most of the substance abusers were Hindus, married, belonged to 21-30 age group and urban domicile, and were presently unemployed, educated up to middle class, and belonged to lower socioeconomic status. Family history of substance use was significant in the subjects, and the chief substance of use was opioids. Scores for psychoticism and neuroticism, as well as the criminal behavior was significantly higher in studied subjects. Conclusion: Thus, conclusions drawn were that personality characteristics of the substance abusers differed significantly from the control group and second, the number of variables including occupational status, socioeconomic status, family history of substance use, and type of substance of abuse significantly correlated with the criminal behavior in the substance abusers. Identifying these variables can be the first step in the intervention in substance abusers in order to reduce their future criminal behavior.
Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Petry, Nancy M.; Carroll, Kathleen M.
Complex patterns of multiple substance use pose clinical and methodological challenges for substance abuse clinical trials research. To increase measurement precision and internal validity, the modal approach has been to target both treatment interventions and outcome assessment to a single class of abused substance. This strategy warrants reconsideration because it entails limitations in recruitment feasibility and generalization of study findings. This report reviews pros and cons of single...
Full Text Available Background: Is knowledge regarding the consequences of substance use among adolescents enough to prevent them from initiating and continuing its use, is a question that needs to be clarified further? Objective: To assess the knowledge regarding harm of use and to obtain information about attitudes among high school students. Also, to discover the opinion of substance use held by users. Materials and Methods: This was a population based cross-sectional study conducted in two high schools of West Bengal, India, among 416 students, in classes VIII, IX, and X, with no interventions. Primary outcome measurements were substance use: knowledge regarding harm, attitude, and opinion. Following this proportions and the chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 416 students, 52 (12.5% used or abused any one of the substances irrespective of time and frequency in lifetime; 26 (15.1 % were among the urban students and 26 (10.7 % were among their rural counterparts. More than two-thirds (73.07% of the respondents expressed a desire to quit substance use and 57.69% had tried to stop. ′Easy availability′ and ′relief from tension′ were the most frequent reasons for continuation of substance use. Level of knowledge on harmfulness of substance use among students was very high (urban - -84.6% and rural - 61.5% and they stated media as the most frequent source of information. Users were successful in influencing their peers into taking up this habit (urban - 15.4% and rural - 26.9%. Conclusions: Inspite of being aware of the harmful effects of substance use, adolescents take up this habit. This requires comprehensive prevention and control programs in schools and the community, targeted toward adolescents and their parents and other family members. Effective measures are required to encourage shaping the attitude of school children toward self-confidence and adequacy, as also to prevent risk behavior among adolescents.
Stefansson, Ragnar; Hesse, Morten
A large body of literature has shown a high prevalence of personality disorders in substance abusers. We compared a sample of substance abusers treated in a prison setting with substance abusers treated in a non-prison inpatient setting rated with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. Base-rate scores indicated a prevalence of 95% of…
Estroff, T W; Schwartz, R H; Hoffmann, N G
Four hundred seventy-nine drug abusing adolescent patients enrolled in seven Straight, Inc. Adolescent Drug-Abuse Treatment Programs in five geographic regions across the United States were studied to determine the severity and patterns of cocaine abuse. Of these, 341 admitted to cocaine use and became part of this survey. Cocaine use was categorized as heavy, intermediate, or light. Areas examined were the addictive spectrum, psychosocial dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. Intermediate and heavy users of cocaine abused significantly less marijuana and inhalants than light cocaine abusers. Heavy and intermediate users were more likely to use cocaine intravenously and to use crack. They developed tachyphylaxis more frequently, progressed to weekly use in less than 3 months more frequently, and became preoccupied with obtaining and using cocaine significantly more frequently. They used more sedative hypnotics to calm themselves and engaged in more criminal behavior, such as stealing from parents and stores and passing bad checks. They had more arrests for possession of drugs, stole more cars, sold more drugs, and were more likely to trade sexual favors to obtain the drug. Heavy and intermediate users were significantly more psychiatrically disturbed than light users, becoming more suspicious, nervous, aggressive, and demonstrating increased symptoms of fatigue, sleeplessness, decreased appetite, and increasing cocaine dysphoria. All of these symptoms could be mistaken for psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that cocaine is as addictive in adolescents as in adults; possibly more so. It also causes psychosocial dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms. Further research into cocaine addiction among adolescents is indicated. PMID:2582695
Buser, Melanie C; Scinicariello, Franco
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of organic compounds that are persistent in the environment due to their stable carbon-fluorine backbone, which is not susceptible to degradation. Research suggests these chemicals may exert an immunotoxic effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between four PFASs - perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) - with food sensitization and food allergies in adolescent participants (ages 12-19years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 and 2007-2010, respectively. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association between individual PFASs with food sensitization (defined as having at least 1 food-specific IgE level≥0.35kU/L) in NHANES 2005-2006 and food allergies (self-reported) in NHANES 2007-2010. Serum PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS were statistically significantly associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies in NHANES 2007-2010. When using IgE levels as a marker of food sensitization, we found that serum PFNA was inversely associated with food sensitization (NHANES 2005-2006). In conclusion, we found that serum levels of PFASs were associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies. Conversely, adolescents with higher serum PFNA were less likely to be sensitized to food allergens. These results, along with previous studies, warrant further investigation, such as well-designed longitudinal studies. PMID:26722671
Full Text Available Abstract Several studies suggest a high comorbidity of substance abuse and schizophrenia, associated with higher frequency of relapse, more positive symptoms and depression, cognitive impairment, poorer outcome and treatment response. A high incidence of substance abuse is also observed in first-episode patients. Among patients with substance abuse, the onset precedes the onset of psychosis of several years in most cases. All the patients with a first episode of schizophrenia, at first admission to the Psychiatric Service of Diagnosis and Treatment of Ospedale Maggiore of Milan during the years 1990 to 2004, have been included in our study. The clinical evaluation has been obtained considering the following items of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS: conceptual disorganization, depressed mood, hostility, hallucinations, unusual content of thought. The results showed that 34.7% of first-episode schizophrenic patients had a lifetime history of substance abuse. The age of onset of schizophrenia is significantly lower for drug abusers than for patients without any type of abuse and for alcohol abusers (p Our findings seem to indicate that substance abuse in the early course of illness determines an earlier onset of schizophrenia and increases severity of some psychotic symptoms like "hallucination" and "unusual content of thought". Therefore persons incurring a risk of schizophrenia may be warned of the possible relation between substances and psychosis and have to be counselled against the use of them.
Liebschutz, Jane; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Heymann, Orlaith D.; Lange, Allison V.; Frank, Deborah A.
Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure (IUSE) in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (age 12.4–15.9) at-risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or l...
Nomura, Yoko; Hurd, Yasmin L; Pilowsky, Daniel J
The current study examined the cumulative risk, age of initiation, and functional impairments among adults with substance use problems (N = 1748) by child abuse status. Child abuse was associated with earlier initiation of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin use, and had greater risks for all the drugs studied (hazard ratios, 1.7-3.2). Furthermore, child abuse was associated with increased medical and functional impairments, including ER visits, health problems, drug dealing, drug dependence, and drug cravings. Provision of social services and parenting education during the perinatal period may prevent the long-term impact of child abuse on substance use and related impairments. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:22780838
Objective: To examine whether the level of parental monitoring is associated with substance use among Swiss adolescents, and to assess whether this effect remains when these adolescents have consuming peers. Methods: Nationally representative sample from the Swiss participation in the 2007 European School Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) survey, which included 7611 adolescents issued from public schools (8th-10th grades). Four levels of parental control were created and four substan...
Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely avai...
Curtis, Sara L; Eby, Lillian T
The complex makeup of the substance abuse treatment workforce poses unique challenges to the field. One interesting dynamic is the high rate of counselors who are personally recovering from addictions. Based on social identity theory, it was expected that counselors working in the field of substance abuse treatment who are in recovery themselves will identify more with their profession and report higher professional and organizational commitment. Data from a study of substance abuse counselors from across the United States support the proposed relationship between personal recovery status and professional commitment but not organizational commitment. PMID:20674241
Veldwijk Jorien; Proper Karin I; Hoeven-Mulder Henriëtte B; Bemelmans Wanda JE
Abstract Background Studies among adults show an association between abuse and Body Mass Index (BMI) status. When an aberrant BMI status as a consequence of abuse is already prevalent in adolescence, early detection and treatment of abuse might prevent these adolescents from developing serious weight problems and other long-term social, emotional and physical problems in adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and exa...
Dorard, Géraldine; Berthoz, Sylvie; Phan, Olivier; Corcos, Maurice; Bungener, Catherine
Psychiatric comorbidity and impaired emotional functioning have been previously reported in adult substance abusers but have been less well documented in adolescents. Thus, we investigated mental health problems and emotion regulation abilities in adolescents and young adults with cannabis dependence. Moreover, we explored the relationships between consumption modalities and affective style. Therefore, 32 cannabis abusers (CA) and 30 healthy controls completed a battery of self-reports measuring depression (BDI-13), anxiety (STAI-Y), alexithymia (TAS20; BVAQ-B), anhedonia (PAS; SAS), and sensation seeking (SSS). The MINI was administered to evaluate cannabis dependence and axis I DSM-IV comorbid diagnoses. A semi-structured clinical interview was given to determine psychoactive substance use. Statistical analyses revealed that more than half of the CA reported at least one other non-drug or alcohol comorbid diagnosis. The most common were mood and anxiety disorders. CA subjects scored significantly higher on all affective dimensions except alexithymia total scores; however, they had greater scores for the two subscales measuring the difficulties in identifying feelings. Logistic regressions demonstrated that CA subjects were more likely to experience high levels of trait anxiety, physical anhedonia and sensation seeking than the controls. Various correlations were observed between the affective scores and the substance considered. The amount of substance use and, particularly, the prevalence of polydrug use we observed are alarming. This study demonstrates that cannabis dependence in adolescents and young adults is related to a great psychological distress and specific emotional dimensions and puts emphasis on the importance of substance use prevention as early as middle school. PMID:18301941
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Beyer, Carla D; Barnhill, Renee C
Drug abuse with illicit drugs and licit drugs has been increasing steadily over the past decade. A recent National Household Survey on Drug Abuse found statistically significant increases between 2000 and 2001 in the use of multiple drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, and non-medical use of pain relievers and tranquilizers. Prescription controlled substance abuse is a major issue in chronic pain management. Various means suggested to avoid or monitor abuse in patients in treatment include urine/serum drug screening whenever requested, along with other precautions including one prescribing physician and one designated pharmacy, etc. Based on the present evidence, physicians assume that patients adhering to controlled substance agreements and without obvious dependency behavior do not abuse either illicit or licit drugs. Thus, it is accepted that there is no necessity to perform routine urine/drug testing in this specific group of the patient population. One hundred patients undergoing interventional pain management and receiving controlled substances were randomly selected for evaluation of illicit drug abuse by urine drug testing. They were selected from a total of 250 patients who were identified as non-abusers of prescription drugs. Results showed that illicit drug abuse in patients without history of controlled substance abuse was seen in 16 patients. Thirteen of the 16 patients tested positive for marijuana and 3 patients tested positive for cocaine. Only one patient tested positive for a combined use of both marijuana and cocaine. This study showed that, in an interventional pain management setting, there is significant use of illicit drugs (16%) with 13% use of marijuana and 3% use of cocaine in patients who are considered as non-abusers of prescription controlled substances and those who are adherent to controlled substance agreements. However, if cocaine is considered as a hardcore drug in contrast to marijuana, abuse of hardcore illicit drugs is only 3
Kumpfer, K L
Children of substance-abusing parents, including children of alcoholics (COAs), are one of the highest risk groups of youth for substance-abuse problems. For both genetic and family environmental reasons, COAs and children of drug abusers are very vulnerable to becoming alcohol or other drug abusers.1,2 With drug use rates increasing in the past 7 years,3 prevention practitioners must work harder to identify and evaluate effective ways to prevent future substance abuse in these at-risk children. Most prevention programs designed specifically for COAs or children of drug abusers have struggled with identifying, attracting, maintaining, and measuring outcomes. This article focuses on general and unique measurement methods and instrument problems in prevention interventions for children of substance-abusing parents. Part I covers the need for improved measurement in research and practice with children of substance-abusing parents and recommended measures for different hypothesized outcome variables. Part II covers considerations in selecting measures, and Part III covers how to select measures. This article concludes with recommendations to improve measurement in research and practice. PMID:10224200
Cinnamon Bidwell, L; Knopik, Valerie S.; Janet Audrain-McGovern; Glynn, Tiffany R; Spillane, Nichea S.; Ray, Lara A.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Guillot, Casey R.; Pang, Raina D.; Leventhal, Adam M.
© the authors, publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Limited. Trait novelty seeking has been consistently implicated in substance use, yet the origins and mechanisms of novelty seeking in substance use proneness are unclear. We aimed to characterize novelty seeking as a phenotypic marker of substance use proneness in adolescence, a critical period for drug use experimentation. To this end, we parsed novelty seeking’s two constituent subdimensions – exploratory excitability (drive for nove...
Johnson, Rebecca J.; Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Glisky, Elizabeth; McCloskey, Laura A.
This study examined the relations among early and recent experiences with abuse, depression, and adolescents' autobiographical memory in a longitudinal study of family violence. Participants' (N = 134) exposure to violence was documented when they were 6 to 12 years old and again when they were 12 to 18 years old. The second assessment included…
Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala
This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…
Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others
A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, and…
... and Quality, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs), 2002 to 2011 (revised March 2012). 3 THE NSDUH REPORT: Trends in Adolescent Substance Use and Perception of Risk from Substance Use January 3, 2013 Changes in Cocaine, LSD, and Heroin Use and Risk Perception With roughly 78 percent ...
Magid, Viktoriya; Moreland, Angela D.
A systematic review was conducted on the role of substance use initiation in subsequent use and substance-related problems among adolescents. Specifically, we examine previous studies to identify whether age of onset predicts subsequent levels of misuse; we also posit reasons for this association that have been suggested within the literature. In…
Cooper, M L; Peirce, R S; Huselid, R F
Analyses of data from a random sample of 1,259 sexually active adolescents revealed that substance use was associated with increased sexual risk taking on 2 occasions of intercourse (1st intercourse ever and 1st intercourse with most recent partner), even after controlling for demographic experiential, and dispositional confounders. Within-persons analyses yielded similar results, indicating that adolescents who used substances, on 1 of the 2 occasions, reported higher levels of risk taking on the occasion when substances were used than on the no-substance use occasion. However, substance use was both more common and more strongly linked to risk taking among White than Black adolescents, suggesting that White adolescents are a greater risk of negative consequences related to substance use proximal to intercourse. PMID:8055860
Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Robison, Emily; Leonard A. Jason
Research suggests that many women experience some form of sexual assault in their lifetime and that women who engage in substance abuse often have a higher incidence of past sexual assault than women in the general population. Given the documented rates of sexual assault among women in recovery from substance use, it is important to explore community interventions that promote positive recovery from substance use and sexual assault. One model that promotes successful substance use recovery is...
Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew
This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized...
Provides information to help program administrators and staff understand substance abuse problems, identify welfare recipients with these problems, understand the treatment system, and integrate treatment into a work-focused welfare program.
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Substance Abuse dataset as of Not Provided. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM coordinate system; in a Transverse Mercator projection; The extent...
... CONTROL POLICY Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference & Related Health Information Technology (HIT) Meeting AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. ACTION... (SAMHSA) in partnership with the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology,...
Chartas, Nicole D.; Culbreth, John R.
This study explored the philosophical issues hindering the linkage of substance abuse and domestic violence treatment. Results suggest that counselors tend to use treatment models that could not concurrently assign responsibility and address either present or past victimization. (Author)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) (formerly titled Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS)) is designed to collect information from all...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The substance abuse prevention goal of the theatre production "TUNNELS" was to provide community education on substance abuse to an audience in Durham, NC and surrounding communities. The education effort intended to increase awareness and understanding of the risk and protective factors associated with alcohol and other drug use, and to promote pro-active behaviors in substance abuse prevention within the adult community. It was hypothesized that community-based education via drama would change attitudes toward alcohol and substance abuse, and increase participation in family and community activities aimed at substance abuse prevention. Methods A focus group comprised of educators, substance abuse researchers and local substance abuse counselors developed "life stories" of users of alcohol and other drugs and a local playwright incorporated these and other experiences into a series of six vignettes. The production was publicized throughout the Durham area, and 700 adults attending the play signed a consent form and completed the pre-play survey. The participant pool was restricted to those adults who completed both the time-1 and time-2 surveys and resided within Durham and surrounding communities. Paired comparisons of mean responses were analyzed using a paired sample two-tailed t-test. A telephone survey three months after the play assessed attitudes toward substance abuse as a disease, and whether the respondents had increased their participation in prevention activities including discussions of the play with others. Results Viewing the play increased the knowledge base of participants regarding substance abuse as a disease, even though the audience demonstrated an appreciation of risk and protective factors prior to attending the performance. In the pre-play survey, participants indicated a strong opinion that parental involvement in teen life was important, and therefore this was not increased as a result of viewing
Moiduddin, Emily; Massey, Douglas S.
In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse). We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birt...
Kriegbaum, Margit; Hendriksen, C.; Vass, Mikkel;
) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: When covariates were entered one at a time, the changes in HR estimates showed that psychiatric disease, socioeconomic position and substance abuse reduced the excess risk by 17-36% in the low user group and by 45-52% in the high user group. Somatic disease...... this study point at psychiatric disease, substance abuse and socioeconomic position as potential confounding factors partly explaining the association between use of hypnotics and all-cause mortality....
McCarty Dennis; Saedi Goal; Fuller Bret E; Rieckmann Traci
Abstract Background The gap between research and practice limits utilization of relevant, progressive and empirically validated strategies in substance abuse treatment. Methods Participants included substance abuse treatment programs from the Northeastern United States. Structural equation models were constructed with agency level data to explore two outcome variables: adoption of practice guidelines and assessment tools at two points in time; models also included organizational, staffing and...
Rahimian Boogar, Isaac; Tabatabaee, Sayed Mosa; Tosi, Jalileh
Background: Substance abuse is a serious global problem that is affected by multiple psychosocial and socio-demographic factors. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the leading factors in positive attitude and tendency toward substance abuse in terms of personality, socio-economic, and socio-demographic factors. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 200 college students (105 females and 95 males) residing in Damghan University dormitory in northeast of Iran were recruited ...
Pasche Sonja; Myers Bronwyn J; Adam Mohamed
Abstract Background Completion of substance abuse treatment is a proximal indicator of positive treatment outcomes. To design interventions to improve outcomes, it is therefore important to unpack the factors contributing to treatment completion. To date, substance abuse research has not examined the factors associated with treatment completion among poor, disadvantaged communities in developing countries. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring client-level factors associated with ...
Santos Paulo Roberto; Arcanjo Francisco Plácido Nogueira
Abstract Background Several aspects linked to social are involved in the onset of depressive feelings. We aimed to find out if social adaptability and substance abuse predict depression among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Methods We included 145 ESRD patients undergoing HD. Social adaptability was estimated by the Social Adaptability Index (SAI). Substance abuse was defined according to SAI. We screened for depression by applying the 20-item version of ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug dependent women through their pregnancy without any replacements. The object of this paper is to describe concurrent health and social problems, as well as the predictors for stopping drug abuse, in the clinic's user group. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Data was gathered from the medical records of all 102 women seen in the clinic in the period between 1992 and 2002. The study includes 59 out of 60 women that were followed until their children were two years old or placed in alternative care, and a comparison group of twice the size. Both groups were presented with a questionnaire concerning both the pregnancy and health and socio-economic issues. Results Four (4.5 percent of the women that completed their pregnancies did not manage to reduce their substance abuse. All the others reduced their substance abuse considerably. The odds ratio for stopping substance abuse within the first trimester was significantly associated with stopping smoking (O.R. 9.7 or being victims of rape (O.R. 5.3. Conclusion A low cost and low threshold initiative organised as a child welfare clinic may support women with substance abuse problems in their efforts to stop or reduce their substance abuse during pregnancy.
Meshram, Indrapal I; Stephen Gade; PothuRaju Battina
Introduction: Street children are the most neglected and vulnerable population group in most of the urban cities in India, and are at risk of undernutrition, and substance abuse. Aims & Objectives: To assess the nutritional status, prevalence of anemia, risk behavior and substance abuse among street children. Material & Methods: It was a street based cross-sectional study carried out on the streets of Hyderabad. Data on age, schooling, family history, reasons for street life, number ...
& Jacqueline K. Mitchelson; Marcus W. Dickson; Cynthia L. Arfken; Agius, Elizabeth
The current study applies the growing literature in the organizational sciences regarding levels of analysis issues to the analysis of substance abuse treatment beliefs. Research on clinicians' beliefs in substance abuse treatment is often based on the assumption that the beliefs are sufficiently shared by clinicians within a clinic and sufficiently vary across clinics that they can be treated as a group-level phenomenon. Further, efforts to introduce new innovations are often focused at the ...
Lee A James
Abstract This short report investigates scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs. In Massachusetts, the family substance abuse treatment programs were much more costly than other adult residential treatment models. State officials were concerned that the "scale" or size of these programs (averaging just eight families) was too small to be economical. Although the sample size (just nine programs) was too small to permit reliable inference, the data clearly signalled the impor...
Sferra, Susan Pinto
This study examines how substance-abusing women and their partners perceive their relationship and how these perceptions are related to women's treatment completion. The participant pool came from a larger study comparing the effects of adding couples therapy to traditional substance abuse treatment. All couples were in a committed relationship of at least six months duration. The sample was 166 mostly white and lower income women and their partners. The primary drugs of choice were opiat...
Andersen, Susan L.; Teicher, Martin H.
ANDERSEN, S.L. and TEICHER, M.H. Desperately driven and no brakes: Developmental stress exposure and subsequent risk for substance abuse. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(X) XXX-XXX, 2008. Adverse life events are associated with a wide range of psychopathology, including an increased risk for substance abuse. In this review, we focus on the inter-relationship between exposure to adversity and brain development, and relate this to enhanced windows of vulnerability. This review encompasses clinical and...
Evans, William Nelson
Licensed substance abuse programs in the Commonwealth of Virginia are reporting turnover rates for counselors of up to 60%. Studies have indicated that low job satisfaction can be a cause for turnover in the human services professions. The entire population of substance abuse counselors certified by the Commonwealth of Virginia was surveyed by mail, using a Modified Minnesota satisfaction Questionnaire and an Individual Information Form. Of the 496 possible responses, ...
Minna Laitila; Merja Nikkonen; Anna-Maija Pietilä
Service user involvement (SUI) is a principal and a guideline in social and health care and also in mental health and substance abuse work. In practice, however, there are indicators of SUI remaining rhetoric rather than reality. The purpose of this study was to analyse and describe service users' conceptions of SUI in mental health and substance abuse work. The following study question was addressed: what are service users' conceptions of service user involvement in mental health and substan...
Marsh, Jeanne C.; Cao, Dingcai; Guerrero, Erick; Shin, Hee-Choon
This study examines the impact of ancillary health and social services matched to client needs in substance abuse treatment for African Americans, Latinos and Whites. The study uses data collected from 1992 to 1997 for the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study, a prospective cohort study of substance abuse treatment programs and their clients. The analytic sample consists of 3142 clients (1812 African Americans, 486 Latinos, 844 Whites) from 59 treatment facilities. Results show tha...