Harris, Mekel S.
As a result of advancements in medical expertise and technology, children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer now have opportunities to participate in many typical activities, including school. To some extent, school reintegration reflects positive adjustment to their illness. Nevertheless, children and adolescents with cancer may experience…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia is a nutritional problem worldwide and its prevalence is higher in developing countries when compared to the developed countries. Anaemia, a manifestation of under-nutrition and poor dietary intake of iron is a public health problem, not only among pregnant women, infants and young children, but also among adolescents. Recent studies on the prevalence of anaemia have been conducted on preschool children only, so there is a need for more studies related to anaemia among school children. The present study was done to estimate the prevalence of anaemia among school children aged 10-15 years from Guntur, Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 school children aged 10 to 15 years. Purposive sampling was used to include 250 boys and 250 girls. Haemoglobin estimation was done by cyanmethaemoglobin method. The severity of anaemia was classified on the basis of WHO criteria into Mild, Moderate and Severe. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 21. RESULTS The overall prevalence of anaemia was 27.4% in the present study. A higher prevalence of anaemia was observed among girls (42.4% than boys (12.4%. The prevalence of mild anaemia was 34.4% and 9.6% among girls and boys respectively. CONCLUSION The prevalence of anaemia is high among school going adolescents. Special emphasis should be given on nutritional supplementation with iron and health education for this age group.
Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro
A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…
Harris, Sandra R.
Although fearful avoidance of school is a complex and serious problem among school-age children, there are techniques available to professionals for assisting children to overcome school-related anxiety. It is important for school personnel to identify school-phobic children and to assist in planning the earliest possible intervention. (Author)
Full Text Available Non epileptic seizures were diagnosed in 20 (F:15, M:5 school children and adolescents by a positive provocative test consisting of induction and termination of the attack with suggestions and saline injection and normal ictal EEG. Patients were followed up for a period of two years. The major provocating factors were (a family problems, mainly conflict between the parents in 25%, (b problems in schooling in 20%, (c combination of both in 30%, (d sexual and physical abuse in 10% and (e undetectable in 15%. The frequency of the attacks were > 1/day in 55%, 1 - 6 / week in 25%, 1 - 3 / month in 15% and occasional in 5%. During follow up, 55% were free from attacks, 10% had recurrence occasionally for one year and free from it during the second year, 10% continued to get attacks and 25% were lost to follow up. In those free from attacks, multiple somatic complaints were reported by 30% of patients.
Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara
Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…
Data on metabolic rates (n = 0;81) and clothing insulation (n = 96) of school children and adolescents (A, primary school: age 9-10; B, primary school: age 10-11 year; C, junior vocational (technical) education: age 13-16 (lower level); D, same as C but at advanced level; and E, senior vocational (t
Moy, Foong Ming; Gan, Chong Ying; Zaleha, Mohd Kassim Siti
Lifestyle and disease patterns in Malaysia have changed following rapid economic development. It is important to find out how these changes have affected the nutritional status and health behaviour of the population, especially school children and adolescents. Therefore a survey on school children's and adolescents' health behaviours and perception in Kuala Lumpur was initiated. This paper only reports the observed body mass status of the school children. A total of 3620 school children were selected in this survey using the method of multi-stage sampling. The students were surveyed using pre-tested questionnaires while weight and height were measured by the research team in the field. Using the cut-off of BMI-for-age >or= 95th percentile and Malaysia. The promotion of healthy eating and physical activities is required to address the problems of under- and over-nutrition in order to build up a strong and healthy nation in the future.
Carr, Catherine; Wigram, Tony
This article identifies existing research and clinical activity utilising music therapy with mainstream children, and a potential need for music therapy with this client group. A systematic review was undertaken of music therapy literature relating to work with children in mainstream schools. S...... intervention. The review demonstrates that further research is required if music therapy is to be considered an effective intervention to address the needs of mainstream schoolchildren.......This article identifies existing research and clinical activity utilising music therapy with mainstream children, and a potential need for music therapy with this client group. A systematic review was undertaken of music therapy literature relating to work with children in mainstream schools...... to be addressed by the UK government. However further research, service-planning and reorganisation is required. There is evidence that music therapy is being used with children in mainstream schools both at home and abroad, and both research and clinical reports suggest that music therapy is an effective...
This policy statement focuses on children and adolescents 5 through 18 years of age. Research suggests both benefits and risks of media use for the health of children and teenagers. Benefits include exposure to new ideas and knowledge acquisition, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health-promotion messages and information. Risks include negative health effects on weight and sleep; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. Parents face challenges in monitoring their children's and their own media use and in serving as positive role models. In this new era, evidence regarding healthy media use does not support a one-size-fits-all approach. Parents and pediatricians can work together to develop a Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan) that considers their children's developmental stages to individualize an appropriate balance for media time and consistent rules about media use, to mentor their children, to set boundaries for accessing content and displaying personal information, and to implement open family communication about media.
Diniz, Eva; da Rosa Piccolo, Luciane; de Paula Couto, Maria Clara Pinheiro; Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Helena Koller, Silvia
This study investigated children and adolescents' school performance over time focusing on two variables that may influence it: developmental context and gender. The sample comprised 627 participants (M[subscript age]?=?11.13, SD?=?1.8), 51% of them female, from grade one to eight, living either with family (n?=?474) or in care institutions…
Reddy, Linda A.; Newman, Erik; De Thomas, Courtney Anne; Chun, Victoria
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of school-based prevention and intervention programs for children and adolescents at-risk for and with emotional disturbance. Published outcome studies (k = 29) from December, 1988, to March, 2006, including 1405 children and adolescents were reviewed. Each investigation was coded on several variables…
Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…
Longo, Egmar; Badia, Marta; Orgaz, Begona M.
This study analyzed the patterns and predictors of participation in leisure activities outside of school of Spanish children and adolescents with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Children and adolescents with CP (n = 199; 113 males and 86 females) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mean age was 12.11 years (SD = 3.02; range 8-18 years), and…
Shcherbakova, M Iu; Poriadina, G I; Kovaleva, E A
The article presents the principles of the classes organizations in the school of the rational nutrition for children and adolescents with overweight and obesity, and also for their parents. The school consists of six interactive lessons, which explains the negative consequences of obesity, understand the basic principles of optimal diet. Each class has "minilections", that adapted for both children and parents and accompanied by interactive dialogues, which are attended by all family members of children who are overweight or obese. Presented own observational data for 20 families that attended school. A positive result was achieved in 15 families. The article analyzes the reasons that didn't lead to the expected result in 5 families.
Anderson, Shawanda W.; Moore, Paula A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate if a school-based education and counseling program (Life Skills Training Program) would have an impact on school-aged children/adolescents' views of substance abuse. The study also investigated the degree and direction of change. Participants were 338 elementary or middle-school students in the metro…
... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...
Cain, Neralie; Gradisar, Michael
Electronic media have often been considered to have a negative impact on the sleep of children and adolescents, but there are no comprehensive reviews of research in this area. The present study identified 36 papers that have investigated the relationship between sleep and electronic media in school-aged children and adolescents, including television viewing, use of computers, electronic gaming, and/or the internet, mobile telephones, and music. Many variables have been investigated across these studies, although delayed bedtime and shorter total sleep time have been found to be most consistently related to media use. A model of the mechanisms by which media use may affect sleep is presented and discussed as a vehicle for future research.
Nathalia Costa Gonzaga
Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the nursing interventions related to the competencies of health promotion of overweight children and adolescents in the school context, in light of the Galway Consensus through an integrative review. Articles published between 1988 and June, 2013 were found in the databases CINAHL, SCOPUS, MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane, LILACS and SciELO. A total of 139 publications were obtained from indexed descriptors. Ten articles were selected after reading. The most evident competencies for health promotion were: catalyzing change, needs assessment and impact assessment. The highlights were activities of health education and partnerships with other health professionals and the families of students. It was found that the skills of health promotion developed by nurses can contribute to the adoption of healthy habits by overweight children and adolescents.
Deborah Carvalho Malta
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the victimization and bullying practice in Brazilian school children, according to data from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey and to compare the surveys from 2009 and 2012. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with univariate and multivariate analyzes of the following variables: to have been treated badly by colleagues, to have been bullied and to have bullied other children. The following independent variables were analyzed: age, sex, race/color, type of school, maternal education. Prevalence rates were compared between the editions of 2009 and 2012 of the survey. RESULTS: Of all the adolescents analyzed, 27.5% have not been treated well by peers at school, with greater frequency among boys (OR = 1.50, at the age of 15 years (OR = 1.29 and 16 (OR = 1.41, public school students (OR = 2.08, black (OR = 1.18 and whose mothers had less education; 7.2% reported having been bullied, with a greater chance in younger students (13 years old, male (OR = 1.26, black (OR = 1.15 and indigenous (OR = 1.16 and whose mothers had less education; 20.8% reported to have bullied other children, with a greater chance for older students, at the age of 14 (OR = 1.08 and 15 years (OR = 1.18, male (OR = 1.87, black (OR = 1.14 and yellow (OR = 1.15, children of mothers with higher education, private school students. There was an increase of bullying in the Brazilian capitals, from 5.4 to 6.8%, between 2009 and 2012. DISCUSSION: The occurrence of bullying reveals that the Brazilian school context is also becoming a space of reproduction of violence, in which it is crucial to act intersectorally and to articulate social protection networks, aiming to face this issue.
Full Text Available Daily active journey (AJ to/from school can be an important source of physical activity (PA of children and adolescents, necessary for their overall development and health preservation. Yet, the relation between AJ to/from school and PA of children and adolescents is still not clear. The purpose of this article is to find out whether the AJ to/from school influences the rise of PA. Systematic examination of electronic databases such as MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Springerlink, in May 2012 helped us find relevant articles of which 18 met the criteria for inclusion in our review. Studies include children and adolescents aged 5 to 16 years and quantitatively analyse the relationship between AJ and PA. Fourteen out of eighteen studies report that children and adolescents who practice AJ accumulate more PA compared to those who are driven to/from school. At the same time 8 studies report a positive correlation between AJ to/from school and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA. More longitudinal studies would be necessary to get a deeper insight into the link between AJ and PA. Establishing uniformed criteria for monitoring AJ and PA and monitoring factors that influence the decision for the AJ would contribute to comparability of the results of individual studies and would at the same time make the development of effective intervention programmes for encouraging AJ among children and adolescents possible.
Gray, Peter; Feldman, Jay
At an ungraded, democratically structured school, we documented 196 naturally occurring interaction sequences between adolescents (ages 12-19) and children (ages 4-11) who were at least four years younger than the adolescent. Children and adolescents appeared to be drawn together by common interests and play styles, personal attraction, and…
Schoihorst, P. F.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.; van Engeland, H.
In preterm children (N = 66) without major physical and/or mental handicaps the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and minor neurological dysfunction (MND) was assessed at school age (8-10 years). In adolescence (15-17 years) 43 children were reassessed. The study sample was drawn from a cohort of
Full Text Available Abstract Background School screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is discussed. The aim of the present study was to describe the point prevalence of AIS and to evaluate the effectiveness of school screening in 12-year- old children. Methods Community nurses and physical therapists in the Southern Health region of Norway including about 12000 school children aged 12 years were invited to participate. All participating community nurses and physical therapists fulfilled an educational course to improve their knowledge about AIS and learn the screening procedure including the Adam Forward Bending Test and measurement of gibbus using a scoliometer. Results Sub-regions including 4000 school children participated. The prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis defined as a positive Adam Forward Bending Test, gibbus > 7° and primary major curve on radiographs > 10°, was 0.55%. Five children (0.13% had a major curve > 20°. Bracing was not indicated in any child; all children were post menarche; four had Risser sign of 4, and one with Risser 1 did not have curve progression > 5° at later follow-up. In one of these 5 children however, the major curve progressed to 45° within 7 months after screening and the girl was operated. Conclusion The point prevalence of AIS in 12- year old children is in agreement or slightly lower than previous studies. The screening model employed demonstrates acceptable sensitivity and specificity and low referral rates. Screening at the age of 12 years only was not effective for detecting patients with indication for brace treatment.
R K Anuradha
Full Text Available Background: Overweight and obesity among children and adolescents is a public health concern. Objective: To assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its association with social and environmental determinants among the adolescent school children of Tirupati town of Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Data was collected by interviewer-administered method from school children aged between 12 to 16 years. The sample consisted of 2258 subjects (1097 boys and 1161 girls. Overweight and obesity were defined by body mass index (BMI based on the current method recommended by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention 2000. Data on social and environmental determinants were collected by using a pre-tested and validated questionnaire. Results: In the present sample, 11.2 percent and 4.8 percent of boys and 10.3 percent and 4.8 percent of girls were overweight and obese. The literacy level of parents, family income and child sleep duration significantly associated with overweight. Parental level of education was a risk factor for overweight (Mother: 1.570; 95% CI: 1.048-2.354. Similarly increase in family income (OR = 1.529; 95% CI: 1.089-2.148 and child sleep duration <7 hrs per day (OR = 2.006; 95% CI: 1.194-3.371 raised children′s association in gaining weight. Conclusion: Our study reinforces the burgeoning prevalence of overweight and obesity among the adolescents. Interventional measures taken should consider family, school and physical environment to check the problem of overweight/obesity.
Ravikumar V Baradol; SV Patil; Anand Ranagol
Introduction: Childhood obesity& hypertension are global health problems as they caused increase in morbidity & mortality. Objective: To find out the prevalence of obesity, overweight in school going children and adolescents of north Karnataka. Also to study obesity related morbidities like Prehypertension and Hypertension and associated risk factors for sustained hypertension. Materials and Methods: Total 2800 children in age group from 10-16 years from 3 schools of Urban and rural region of...
Ravikumar V Baradol
Full Text Available Introduction: Childhood obesity& hypertension are global health problems as they caused increase in morbidity & mortality. Objective: To find out the prevalence of obesity, overweight in school going children and adolescents of north Karnataka. Also to study obesity related morbidities like Prehypertension and Hypertension and associated risk factors for sustained hypertension. Materials and Methods: Total 2800 children in age group from 10-16 years from 3 schools of Urban and rural region of Bijapur district were screened. Weight, height, BMI and Blood pressure were recorded. These values were compared with WHO child growth standards. Children then classified as overweight (OW and obesity (OB. Blood pressure values were compared with reference charts given by American heart association guidelinesand grouped as prehypertensive (PHTN and Hypertension (HTN. Results: This study revealed that 3.6% rural school children were overweight (OW in age group of 13 years, 1.4% children were obese (OB in age group of 15 years. In urban school children, 3.3% OB in age group of 12 years and 11.1% OW in age group of 10 years. In Rural school children, prevalence of systolic HTN was 21% in OW children and 25% in OB children. Among urban schoolchildren prevalence of systolic PHTN was 5.1% among OW and in OB group it was 16.6%. Conclusions: This study revealed that prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in overweight and obese compared to children with Normal BMI. Also the prevalence of overweight and obesity is more in urban school children than rural children population. We need further large scale studies to study obesity and associated morbidities like hypertension school children and adolescents.
Lwin, May O; Ho, Shirley S; Younbo, Jung; Leng, Theng Yin; Wardoyo, Reidinar J; Jung, Kim Hyo
Although interventions targeting the health of students in schools are becoming common, few studies have examined how health messages operate at the group level in school environments. This study examines the effects of message-based health interventions (extrinsic vs. intrinsic goal framing) in group environments (exergame competitive vs. exergame noncompetitive) on eliciting attitudes and intentions toward physical activity among children and adolescents. We conducted a 7-week school-based intervention program involving 336 children and 259 adolescents in Singapore in which pre- and post-intervention responses were recorded. Our findings revealed the difference in responses between child and adolescent groups. Children who participated in noncompetitive exergames with extrinsically framed health messages and those who participated in competitive exergames with intrinsically framed health messages demonstrated more favorable attitudes toward physical activity. However, the same effects were absent in our adolescent group. These findings suggest that the integration of exergames into competitive and noncompetitive environments can serve as a gateway to traditional physical activity in schools when strategically combined with intrinsically and extrinsically framed messages. Practical and theoretical implications for schools and health educators are discussed.
Principi, Nicola; Preti, Valentina; Gaspari, Stefania; Colombini, Antonella; Zecca, Marco; Terranova, Leonardo; Cefalo, Maria Giuseppina; Ierardi, Valentina; Pelucchi, Claudio; Esposito, Susanna
Patients with cancer, particularly those with hematologic malignancies, are at an increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and they are included in the list of subjects for whom pneumococcal vaccination is recommended. The main aim of this study was to evaluate Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in school-aged children and adolescents with cancer to determine the potential protective efficacy of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). An oropharyngeal swab was obtained from 277 patients (age range 6-17 years) with cancer during routine clinical visits and analyzed for S. pneumoniae using real-time polymerase chain reaction. S. pneumoniae was identified in 52 patients (18.8%), including 47/235 (20.0%) with hematologic malignancies and 5/42 (11.9%) with solid tumors. Colonization declined significantly with an increase in age (odds ratio [OR] 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.71, and OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.82 in children aged 10-14 and ≥15 years, respectively, as compared to those <10 years). Carriage was more common among patients with leukemia or lymphoma than in children with solid tumors. Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was significantly associated with reduced pneumococcal carriage (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19-0.89). A total of 15/58 (25.9%) and 26/216 (12.0%) children were colonized by PCV13 serotypes among cancer patients previously vaccinated and not vaccinated with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), respectively. In conclusion, this study indicates that children and adolescents with cancer are frequently colonized by S. pneumoniae. Because most of the carried serotypes are included in PCV13, this vaccine is presently the best solution to reduce the risk of IPD in these patients.
... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... side effects. Side effects from sulfasalazine may include headache, sun sensitivity rash, or other signs of sulfa ...
Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla
Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (Ppizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs.
Lu, Weili; Daleiden, Eric; Lu, Shou-En
This study evaluated the relationship between threat perception bias and anxiety among children and adolescents in China. A sample of 1,004 elementary, middle and high school students aged 9 to 19 years listened to stories containing themes of generalized anxiety, social anxiety and separation anxiety in either an ambiguous or non-ambiguous context. The story content included topics such as upset stomach, teacher-student interaction, and parents who are late to return home. Multiple threat perception indices were derived from children's responses. Children's level of anxiety was assessed by means of self-report questionnaires and parental reports. Higher levels of anxiety were related to higher frequencies of threat perception and interpretation, lower thresholds to detect threat and more negative feelings and cognitions. Age and gender were also related to some indices of threat perception bias. Threat perception bias was related to anxious symptomatology in general and was not content specific to particular anxiety disorders. The findings were consistent with studies conducted in Western culture and suggest that cognitive processing theories of childhood anxiety may generalize beyond Western society.
Sheyla R. C. Furtado
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The literature demonstrates that the social participation of children with disabilities is influenced by both their functional skills repertoire and environmental factors. However, it is not yet known whether the effect of functional limitations on social participation is minimized or enhanced by the environmental facilitators and barriers. This study aimed to test this hypothesis.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the moderating effect of environmental factors in the relationship between mobility and school participation of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP.METHOD: Participants were 102 elementary school children and adolescents with CP, aged 6 to 17 years, classified as levels I, II, and III according to the Gross Motor Classification System, along with their parents or caregivers and teachers. School participation and parents' perceptions of barriers were evaluated using the School Function Assessment and the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF, respectively.RESULTS: The regression model failed to reveal a moderating effect of environmental factors in the relationship between mobility and school participation. While mobility was a strong predictor of participation, environmental factors demonstrated a weak predictive effect on the latter. The CHIEF subscale school/work showed the factors which were greatest barrier to children's participation, while the subscale attitude/support had the least impact.CONCLUSION: The absence of moderation on the tested relationship suggests that, when investigated under the negative perspective of environmental barriers, the contextual factors do not modify the relationship between mobility and school participation. Factors specific to the school environment might add to the present study's results regarding the effect of school participation in this population.
Full Text Available Aim: To determine the oral health status of intellectually disabled (ID children and adolescents from state schools, Valdivia, Chile, 2012. Design: Descriptive study. A sample of students from state schools was assessed for caries history (Decayed, Missing, Filled permanent Teeth (DMFT/decayed, extracted, filled temporal teeth (deft, quality of oral hygiene (Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, OHI-S and gingival health (Gingival Index, GI. In addition, questions were asked about dental care habits, degree of ID, presence of systemic disease and medicine use. Results: 195 students with slight to moderate ID and aged from 6 to 21 years were assessed. The average DMFT/deft was 2.19/1.33 for female students and 1.59/1.93 for male students. The OHI-S in 75.9% of participants was moderate, with poorer oral hygiene found in participants with moderate ID. Only 2.6% showed code 0 for GI, reflecting poor oral hygiene. Most participants possessed their own toothbrush (88.2% and could clean their teeth unaided (96.4%.Conclusion: The state of oral health in the assessed population is deficient. The quality of oral hygiene is normal or poor, which leads to poor gingival health.
Martin, Anne; Saunders, David H; Shenkin, Susan D.; Sproule, John
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence is high. Excessive body fat at a young age is likely to persist into adulthood and is associated with physical and psychosocial co-morbidities, as well as lower cognitive, school and later life achievement. Lifestyle changes, including reduced caloric intake, decreased sedentary behaviour and increased physical activity, are recommended for prevention and treatment of child and adolescent obesity. Evidence suggests that lif...
Gambon, D.L.; Brand, H.S.; Boutkabout, C.; Levie, D.; Veerman, E.C.I.
AIM: To determine the frequency of intake and patterns in consumption of potentially erosive beverages in school children in the Netherlands. METHODS: A cross-sectional, single centre study was performed among 502 school children in Rotterdam, in age varying between 12 and 19 years. Data on consumpt
Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford
We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1) causal association not confirmed; 2) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth.
Bakker, Robert J.; van de Putte, Elise M.; Kuis, Wietse; Sinnema, Gerben
OBJECTIVE: To assess children and adolescents with severe fatigue who are referred to pediatricians and to examine whether factors can be identified at their first visit that predict worse outcomes at 1 year. METHODS: Ninety-one patients, aged 8 to 18 years completed questionnaires about sleep, soma
Manley, Ronald S.; Rickson, Heidi; Standeven, Bill
this article provides an overview of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in children and adolescents, including ages of onset, prevalence, and clinical characteristics. Behavior, cognitive, and affective characteristics are outlined. Strategies are provided for teachers and counselors who are concerned about students who have or may have eating…
Karp, Sharon M.; Gesell, Sabina B.
The rise in the rate of obesity in school-aged children, adolescents, and young adults in the last 30 years is a clear healthcare crisis that needs to be addressed. Despite recent national reports in the United States highlighting positive downward trends in the rate of obesity in younger children, we are still faced with approximately 12.7 million children struggling with obesity. Given the immediate and long-term health consequences of obesity, much time and effort has been expended to address this epidemic. Yet, despite these efforts, we still only see limited, short-term success from most interventions. Without changes to how we address childhood obesity, we will continue to see inadequate improvements in the health of our children. Clinicians and researchers need to be lobbying for evidence-based policy changes, such as those identified by systems science, in order to improve the nation’s health. PMID:26161007
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With rapid urbanization accompanied by lifestyle changes, children and adolescents living in metropolitan areas are faced with many time use choices that compete with sleep. This study reports on the sleep hygiene of urban Chinese school students, and investigates the relationship between habitual after-school activities and sleep duration, schedule and quality on a regular school day. METHODS: Cross-sectional, school-based survey of school children (Grades 4-8 living in Shanghai, China, conducted in 2011. Self-reported data were collected on students' sleep duration and timing, sleep quality, habitual after-school activities (i.e. homework, leisure-time physical activity, recreational screen time and school commuting time, and potential correlates. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration of this sample (mean age: 11.5-years; 48.6% girls was 9 hours. Nearly 30% of students reported daytime tiredness. On school nights, girls slept less (p<0.001 and went to bed later (p<0.001, a sex difference that was more pronounced in older students. Age by sex interactions were observed for both sleep duration (p=0.005 and bedtime (p=0.002. Prolonged time spent on homework and mobile phone playing was related to shorter sleep duration and later bedtime. Adjusting for all other factors, with each additional hour of mobile phone playing, the odds of daytime tiredness and having difficulty maintaining sleep increased by 30% and 27% among secondary students, respectively. CONCLUSION: There are sex differences in sleep duration, schedule and quality. Habitual activities had small but significant associations with sleep hygiene outcomes especially among secondary school students. Intervention strategies such as limiting children's use of electronic screen devices after school are implicated.
Full Text Available Abstract Background One out of ten of China's population are migrants, moving from rural to urban areas. Many leave their families behind resulting in millions of school children living in their rural home towns without one or both their parents. Little is known about the health status of these left behind children (LBC. This study compares the health status and health-related behaviours of left behind adolescent school children and their counterparts in a rural area in Southern China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among middle school students in Fuyang Township, Guangdong, China (2007-2008. Information about health behaviours, parental migration and demographic characteristics was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Overweight/obesity and stunting were defined based on measurements of height and weight. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to estimate the differences in health outcomes between LBC and non-LBC. Results 18.1% of the schoolchildren had one or both parents working away from home. Multivariate analysis showed that male LBC were at higher risk of skipping breakfast, higher levels of physical inactivity, internet addiction, having ever smoked tobacco, suicide ideation, and being overweight. LBC girls were more likely to drink excessive amounts of sweetened beverage, to watch more TV, to have ever smoked or currently smoke tobacco, to have ever drunk alcohol and to binge drinking. They were also more likely to be unhappy, to think of planning suicide and consider leaving home. Conclusions Our findings suggest that parental migration is a risk factor for unhealthy behaviours amongst adolescent school children in rural China. Further research is required in addition to the consideration of the implications for policies and programmes to protect LBC.
Garmy, Pernilla; Clausson, Eva K; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents (6-16 years), and relationships between being overweight and sleep, experiencing of fatigue, enjoyment of school, and time spent in watching television and in sitting at the computer. Trained school nurses measured the weight and height of 2891 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16, and distributed a questionnaire to them regarding television and computer habits, sleep, and enjoyment of school. Overweight, obesity included, was present in 16.1% of the study population. Relationships between lifestyle factors and overweight were studied using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Having a bedroom television and spending more than 2 h a day watching television were found to be associated with overweight (OR 1.26 and 1.55 respectively). No association was found between overweight and time spent at the computer, short sleep duration, enjoyment of school, tiredness at school, or difficulties in sleeping and waking up. It is recommended that the school health service discuss with pupils their media habits so as to promote their maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD in children and adolescents is in the range of 6-68% and can be triggered or aggravated by emotional stress. Aim: The study was to investigate the prevalence of TMD in Portuguese children and adolescents and its association with emotional stress. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 3,260 students aged 5-19 years. The questionnaire was used to assess the presence of TMD, and was applied in a single moment. Results: TMD was observed in 821 (25.2% students. The most common symptoms of TMD were: if considered tense or nervous (52%, have headaches (36.8%, and habit of clenching or grinding teeth (27.3%. The girls had a 1.36 higher probability of developing TMD than boys (95% CI: 1.14-1.63; p < 0.001; moreover, students from the older age group had a 2.31 higher probability of developing the disorder (95% CI: 1.85-2.89; p < 0.001. Students who considered themselves tense or nervous presented 8.74 higher probability (95% CI: 7.03-10.86; p < 0.001 of developing TMD. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of TMD in children and adolescents in southern Portugal, and revealed a significant association between this dysfunction and the levels of emotional stress. Female students, older students, and those considered tense or nervous have a higher probability of developing TMD.
Gurzkowska, Beata; Kułaga, Zbigniew; Litwin, Mieczysław; Grajda, Aneta; Świąder, Anna; Kułaga, Katarzyna; Góźdź, Magdalena; Wojtyło, Małgorzata
The aim of the present paper was to examine the associations between anthropometric parameters, overweight, obesity, and socioeconomic status (SES) of children and adolescents in Poland. Data were collected in the “Elaboration of reference blood pressure ranges for children and adolescents in Poland” OLAF-PL0080 (OLAF) study, a nationally representative survey on growth and blood pressure references for children and adolescents aged 7–18 years. Body height, weight, and waist circumference (WC...
Schwarzenberg, T L; Buffone, M R; Scardia, C; Facente, C
Loss, failure and desertion are those words, which better describe the most frequent difficulties incurred by teenagers, and their relation to the school environment, and indicate, as well, the lack of connection between individual aspirations and school achievements obtained. Despite the likelihood of school difficulties throughout the entire educational career, from the kindergarten to the college, we are able to recognize certain specific "disturbances" which come out during the adolescence, basically relating to the school experiences. School failure, school desertion and school abandonment are, in fact, issues mainly discussed in coincidence with the beginning of the adolescent age and the attending of the high school. The aetiopathogenesis of school discomfort is mostly determined by more than only one factor: psychological, physical, cognitive and environmental aspects, all together, contribute in various ways, to the rise and persisting of the above described problems. Suggesting a univocal characterization of the adolescent with school difficulties, is indeed a hard task, since school failure is not an exclusive feature of only one kind of personality or the expression of only one type of conflict. Once identified the individuals more subject to risk, and the warning signs of actual uneasiness, it is important therefore to intervene timely and in different ways in order to avoid the worsening or the excessive extension of the school difficulties and of their frequent and serious consequences on the teenagers' individual and domestic well-being. Such type of prevention definitely belongs to the Adolescent Medicine, and must be developed on different levels, by involving not only the teenagers, but also their families, the school, and the whole social environment in which the teenagers live and with which they interact.
Idowu Odunayo Senbanjo; Kazeem Adeola Oshikoya; Olisamedua Fidelis Njokanma
Background: Upper arm composition is a reflection of body protein and calorie reserves. However, there is a paucity of data on upper arm composition of children from African countries, including Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the composition of upper arm and nutritional status of school children in Abeokuta, Nigeria and to compare with international reference standards. The sensitivity and specifi city of upper arm muscle area by height (UAMAH) as a nutritional assessment tool was also determined. Methods: Five hundred and seventy children aged 5 to 19 years were selected from seven schools using multistage random sampling. Weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and triceps skin fold thickness (TSF) were measured. Body mass index, upper arm muscle area (UAMA), upper arm fat area (UAFA), fat percentage and UAMAH were derived. Results: The TSF, UAFA and fat percentage were significantly higher in females than males at each age group. MUAC and UAMA were significantly higher in female children aged 10-14 years, whereas UAMA was significantly higher in male children aged 15-19 years. UAMA and UAFA of the children were lower than those of Americans but similar to those of Zimbabweans, and higher than those of Indians. The sensitivity and specifi city of UAMAH for detecting wasting were 80.8% and 63.9%, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for stunting were 32.2% and 58.2%, respectively. Conclusions: The school children studied have a combination of poor calorie and protein reserve. UAMAH may be a valuable tool for complete evaluation of the nutritional status of school children.
Punitha, V C; Amudhan, A; Sivaprakasam, P; Rathanaprabu, V
To identify the role of dietary habits (type of diet, skipping meals, snacking in-between meals and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants) in caries occurrence and severity. To explore the correlation between frequency of intake of selected foods and dental caries. A cross-sectional study was carried out on adolescent children (n = 916) of age 13-19, following a two-stage random sampling technique. Data were collected using a pretested questionnaire. Questionnaire included demographic details, dietary habits of children and food frequency table that listed selected food items. The dependent variable-dental caries was measured using the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index. The prevalence of dental caries in this study population was 36.7% (95% confidence interval: 33.58-39.82). The mean DMFT was 1.01 (±1.74). No statistically significant difference found between caries occurrence and type of diet (P = 0.07), skipping meals (P = 0.86), frequency of eating in fast food stalls (0.86) and snacking in between meals (0.08). Mean DMFT values were higher among nonvegetarians and among children who had the habit of snacking in between meals. Frequency of intake of selected food items showed that mean frequency intake of carbonated drinks and confectionery was higher among children who presented with caries when compared to caries-free children (P = 0.000). Significant correlation found between mean DMFT and mean frequency intake of carbonated drinks and confectionery. Odds ratios were calculated for the same for frequency ≥4 times/day for confectionery and ≥4/week for carbonated drinks and results discussed. Frequent intake of carbonated drinks and confectionery is harmful to oral health that eventually reflects on general health. Educating the adolescent children on healthy dietary habits should be put in the forefront.
V C Punitha
Full Text Available To identify the role of dietary habits (type of diet, skipping meals, snacking in-between meals and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants in caries occurrence and severity. To explore the correlation between frequency of intake of selected foods and dental caries. A cross-sectional study was carried out on adolescent children (n = 916 of age 13-19, following a two-stage random sampling technique. Data were collected using a pretested questionnaire. Questionnaire included demographic details, dietary habits of children and food frequency table that listed selected food items. The dependent variable-dental caries was measured using the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT index. The prevalence of dental caries in this study population was 36.7% (95% confidence interval: 33.58-39.82. The mean DMFT was 1.01 (±1.74. No statistically significant difference found between caries occurrence and type of diet (P = 0.07, skipping meals (P = 0.86, frequency of eating in fast food stalls (0.86 and snacking in between meals (0.08. Mean DMFT values were higher among nonvegetarians and among children who had the habit of snacking in between meals. Frequency of intake of selected food items showed that mean frequency intake of carbonated drinks and confectionery was higher among children who presented with caries when compared to caries-free children (P = 0.000. Significant correlation found between mean DMFT and mean frequency intake of carbonated drinks and confectionery. Odds ratios were calculated for the same for frequency ≥4 times/day for confectionery and ≥4/week for carbonated drinks and results discussed. Frequent intake of carbonated drinks and confectionery is harmful to oral health that eventually reflects on general health. Educating the adolescent children on healthy dietary habits should be put in the forefront.
Full Text Available Katharine Donlon Ramsdell,1 Andrew J Smith,1 Aimee K Hildenbrand,2 Meghan L Marsac3 1Department of Psychology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, 2Department of Psychology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, 3University of Pennsylvania and The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Millions of children and adolescents each year are exposed to potentially traumatic events (PTEs, placing them at risk for posttraumatic stress (PTS disorder symptoms. Medical providers play an important role in the identification and treatment of PTS, as they are typically the initial point of contact for families in the wake of a PTE or during a PTE if it is medically related (eg, injury/illness. This paper offers a review of the literature focused on clinical characteristics of PTS, the assessment and diagnosis of PTS, and current effective treatments for PTS in school-age children and adolescents. The clinical presentation of PTS is often complex as symptoms may closely resemble other internalizing and externalizing disorders. A number of screening and evaluation tools are available for medical providers to assist them in the accurate diagnosis of PTS. Treatment options are available for youth at minimal risk of PTS as well as for those with more intensive needs. Additional training regarding trauma-informed medical care may benefit medical providers. By taking a trauma-informed approach, rooted in a solid understanding of the clinical presentation of PTS in children and adolescents, medical providers can ensure PTS does not go undetected, minimize the traumatic aspects of medical care, and better promote health and well-being. Keywords: posttraumatic stress, medical traumatic stress, children, primary care, assessment, treatment
The effect of school violence on mental health was examined among 12,366 Aboriginal children and adolescents, primarily First Nations, Métis, and Inuit residing off reservations in the Canadian provinces and territories. Analyses were based on the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples' Survey, a postcensal national survey of Aboriginal youth aged 6-14 years. More than one-fifth of students in the sample attended schools where violence was perceived as a problem. The occurrence of psychological or nervous disorders was about 50% higher among students exposed to school violence than among other students. School violence was a significant predictor of mental health difficulties, irrespective of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Virtually the entire effect was mediated by interpersonal processes, or negative quality of parent-child and peer relationships, while the effect was not explained by cultural detachment through lack of interactions with Elders and traditional language ability/use. Results underscored school violence as a significant public health concern for Aboriginal elementary and high school students, and the need for evidence-based mental health interventions for at-risk populations.
... Questions and Answers about Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents This publication defines scoliosis and provides information about ... it is diagnosed and treated in children and adolescents. You may be interested in contacting one or ...
Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Bushmiaer, Margo
National surveys that have tracked weight and physical activity in the United States for more than 40 years have shown a continuing increase in the number of overweight children and adolescents. Overweight children and adolescents are showing an increase in diseases related to overweight: Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to World Health Organization estimates, by the year 2020, non-communicable diseases accounts for three quarters of all deaths in the developing world. India is in the midst of rapidly escalating epidemic of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Coronary Heart Disease. Obesity seems to have a central role in this cluster. The key to Obesity prevention is to screen, intervene early, and incorporate physical activity and dietary modifications. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in obese & adolescent school children with reference to BMI and lipid profile, and to compare the Children belonging to High and Low Socioeconomic status. METHODS: An Institution based cross-sectional study conducted in Niloufer Hospital, Hyderabad a tertiary care teaching Hospital for a period of nine months. Affluent and poor socioeconomic status segments of age group of 11-17 years of both genders are taken for the study. 800 children were studied, Inclusion and Exclusion criteria were fallowed, a structured proforma was designed for the study and analysis was done using SPSS windows version 15.0. Mean Values and Standard deviations of the clinical and laboratory data of the children and frequency of cardiovascular risk factors were calculated. RESULTS: out of 800 adolescent School Children studying VI to X Standards of age groups of 11-17 years of both genders, 390 children from HSES were surveyed and 59.74% were males (n=233 and 40.25% were females (n=157 and the prevalence of obesity, Diabetes mellitus, and coronary Heart disease in parents of children of HSES is more in comparison with LSES. Out 65 overweight/obese children evaluated for metabolic Syndrome and presence of cardiovascular risk factors, 25% of them are obese (n=16. 75% of them are overweight (n=49. CONCLUSION: this study showed that clustering of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic Syndrome has its origin in childhood and they are strongly associated with obesity
Briceno, Ana-Carolina Loyola; De Feyter, Jessica J; Winsler, Adam
Although studies show teenage parenting and low socioeconomic status predict poor child academic performance, limited research has examined relations between teen parenting and children's school readiness within low-income Latina mothers. In the context of the Miami School Readiness Project, low-income preschoolers (N = 3,023) attending subsidized child-care programs were assessed on cognitive, language, and fine motor skills, and parents and teachers reported on children's social skills and behavior concerns. Maternal teenage status at time of birth, maternal education, child attachment, child immigrant generational status, language, and other demographic variables were explored, as they uniquely and interactively predicted children's school readiness. Teenage parenting among low-income Latinas in this sample was less frequent (15%) than national estimates and more common among mothers born in the United States. Teen parenting was negatively associated with child cognitive and language competence at age 4, controlling for background variables. Maternal receipt of a high school diploma contributed additively, rather than interactively, to child outcomes. Parent-reported strong child attachment served as a buffer against the negative effects of teen parent status on child outcomes. Implications for intervention are discussed.
... Facts for Families Guide Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents: Different Types No. 86; updated February 2017 Psychotherapy ... Therapy (DBT) can be used to treat older adolescents who have chronic suicidal feelings/thoughts, engage in ...
Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Maes, Lea; Spittaels, Heleen; van Lenthe, Frank J; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
The objective of the present review was to summarise the existing European published and 'grey' literature on the effectiveness of school-based interventions to promote a healthy diet in children (6-12 years old) and adolescents (13-18 years old). Eight electronic databases, websites and contents of key journals were systematically searched, reference lists were screened, and authors and experts in the field were contacted for studies evaluating school-based interventions promoting a healthy diet and aiming at primary prevention of obesity. The studies were included if they were published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2007 and reported effects on dietary behaviour or on anthropometrics. Finally, forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria: twenty-nine in children and thirteen in adolescents. In children, strong evidence of effect was found for multicomponent interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Limited evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour, and for environmental interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Interventions that specifically targeted children from lower socio-economic status groups showed limited evidence of effect on behaviour. In adolescents, moderate evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour and limited evidence of effect for multicomponent programmes on behaviour. In children and adolescents, effects on anthropometrics were often not measured, and therefore evidence was lacking or delivered inconclusive evidence. To conclude, evidence was found for the effectiveness of especially multicomponent interventions promoting a healthy diet in school-aged children in European Union countries on self-reported dietary behaviour. Evidence for effectiveness on anthropometrical obesity-related measures is lacking.
Fernanda Karina dos Santos
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. METHODS: 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls, distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012, were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. RESULTS: Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p2012, and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999<2012. In general, similar patterns were observed when mean values were analyzed by age. A positive trend was observed for overweight and obesity prevalences, whereas a negative trend emerged for wasting, stunting-wasting (in boys, and normal-weight (in girls; no clear trend was evident for stunting. CONCLUSION: Significant positive changes in growth and nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity.
A cohort of ordinary Swedish children were followed up from school entry through childhood and adolescence and checked retrospectively from birth to the age of 6 years regarding psychiatric and physical health and contact with the social welfare authorities. The children were allocated to different risk groups at age 7 on the basis of their psycho-physical development expressed as complex reaction time (CRT). It was previously shown that many of the slow CRT children have problems in psychomotor and language development at school, and that many leave compulsory school with poor achievements in Swedish and gymnastics as continuing signs of their developmental delay. This study shows that slow CRT children have an increased prevalence of child psychiatric problems. At an early age there were symptoms of aggression, hyperactivity and withdrawal in conjunction with developmental delay. During adolescence, depression, maladjustment and psycho-somatic disorders were prominent features, often in association with developmental delay, dyslexia and poor motoric skill. These children could have a disadvantage at school and in society and they felt themselves "handicapped" and were stressed by feelings of limited future possibilities. In adolescence, many of them were in need of help, especially financial aid from the social welfare services. The findings stress that a slow cognitive processing ability seen as a slow CRT must be considered a handicap of importance and a risk-factor in the society of today, with primary or secondary psychic and social manifestations often in a multifactorial setting of biological co-morbidity and family problems. In contrast, an advanced CNS development with a fast CRT may be seen as a protective factor.
Lizana, Pablo A; González, Sofia; Lera, Lydia; Leyton, Bárbara
This study examined the association between body composition, somatotype and socioeconomic status (SES) in Chilean children and adolescents by sex and school level (grade). The cross-sectional study was conducted on 1168 schoolchildren aged 6-18 years (572 males) from Valparaíso, Chile. Body composition, as assessed by percentage body fat (BF%) and somatotype, was evaluated using Ellis equations and the Heath-Carter method, respectively. The socioeconomic status of respondents was assessed using the ESOMAR survey. Obesity was defined as BF% ≥25 for boys and ≥30 for girls; 'high endomorph' somatotype was defined as a somatotype endomorph component (EC) of at least 5.5. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between high adiposity and SES, potential confounding factors and school level. In females, the results indicated that the groups with lower SES had higher EC. At the 1st (youngest) school level (1-4th grades), males exhibited similar trends in their BF% and EC. High adiposity was associated with the female sex (BF%: OR=3.39; 95% CI 2.60, 4.41; high EC: OR=2.31; 95% CI 1.80, 2.98). In addition, low SES increased the risk of high adiposity compared with high SES (BF%: OR=2.25; 95% CI 1.40, 3.61; high EC: OR=2.19; 95% CI 1.37, 3.47). An association was observed between increased adiposity and lower SES, mainly in females, which indicates that females with low SES might be at greater risk of obesity.
Marjan Manouchehri Naeeni
Conclusions: Our results showed that adolescents failed to meet sufficient nutritional requirements, and they had an imbalanced diet, which was considerably low in several essential nutrients and high in some food materials.
McKay, Michael T.; Sumnall, Harry; Goudie, Andrew J.; Field, Matt; Cole, Jon C.
Aim: To investigate whether or not a range of factors were associated with problematic drinking, as assessed using the Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale (AAIS) in a sample of 11-16-year olds in Northern Ireland. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional experimental design. Post-primary schools in the Eastern Health Board Area of Northern…
The percentage of pupils in school feeding in the German Democratic Republic increased in the years from 1965 to 1980 from 26 to about 80. There are given organizational principles, as well as nutritional and financial principles in the school feeding programme in the GDR. On account of own observations there is described the state of school feeding in Leipzig. In this town with about 500000 inhabitants the number of daily produced school lunches is ca 64000 portions. The biggest part of it, ca 47000 portions, is prepared in 7 central kitchens; the rest--ca 17000 portions--is prepared at 40 different kitchens (restaurants, institutional, hotels). There is described the whole organizational--technological system from central potato peeling plants to the school canteens. Three bigger schools (1-12 forms) in Leipzig were visited where the percentage of pupils in milk drinking were: 46,7, 50 and 68,2 and in lunch consumption: 66,3, 84,0 and 85,3.
Breuner, Cora C; Mattson, Gerri
The purpose of this clinical report is to provide pediatricians updated research on evidence-based sexual and reproductive health education conducted since the original clinical report on the subject was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2001. Sexuality education is defined as teaching about human sexuality, including intimate relationships, human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexually transmitted infections, sexual activity, sexual orientation, gender identity, abstinence, contraception, and reproductive rights and responsibilities. Developmentally appropriate and evidence-based education about human sexuality and sexual reproduction over time provided by pediatricians, schools, other professionals, and parents is important to help children and adolescents make informed, positive, and safe choices about healthy relationships, responsible sexual activity, and their reproductive health. Sexuality education has been shown to help to prevent and reduce the risks of adolescent pregnancy, HIV, and sexually transmitted infections for children and adolescents with and without chronic health conditions and disabilities in the United States.
Thimm, Eva; Schmidt, Lisa Elena; Heldt, Katrin; Spiekerkoetter, Ute
Aim of the study was the evaluation of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and the detection of deviant behavior in early-treated children and adolescents with PKU in comparison with healthy peers. Special focus was laid on the impact of compliance with treatment as defined by the national recommendations on HRQoL. Our investigation in 50 children and adolescents and their parents for the first time demonstrates that despite an overall normal HRQoL in our PKU patient collective, parents are concerned about performance in school especially when phenylalanine concentrations in their children are mainly above the therapeutic range. Adherence to target phenylalanine concentrations ameliorated markedly in patients above 10 years in comparison to younger patients due to relaxed treatment recommendations. Interestingly, this alleged improvement in metabolic control has an impact on the parent assessed but not on the patient assessed appraisal of HRQoL. However, a positive correlation between poor metabolic control and conduct problems was identified by patients' self-assessment. In conclusion, lacking adherence to the strict treatment recommendations in infancy results in significant concern about school success and success in life in parents of PKU patients. With relaxation of dietary phenylalanine restriction at 10 years of age, these concerns diminish.
Ross, Victoria; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego
Given the important role teachers play as gatekeepers in school suicide prevention, this study explored teachers' perspectives on what should be done to improve current suicide prevention efforts. The study, in Queensland, Australia, was part of a large-scale survey examining teachers' knowledge, attitudes and experience of suicidality. One hundred and fifteen teachers responded to an online survey question regarding their views on the requirements for school suicide prevention. Qualitative analysis identified five themes from teachers' responses: awareness and stigma reduction, support services for students, education and training, bullying and the role of social media. The results of this study provide some profound insights into teachers' perspectives on suicide and highlight the critical need for improved suicide prevention efforts in schools.
Gray, Peter; Feldman, Jay
Examined age and gender mixing among students, ages 4-19, at an ungraded, self-directed, democratically structured school. Found that age mixing was more frequent for 12- to 15-year-olds than for younger or older students, and that gender mixing was less frequent for 8- to 11-year-olds than for any other age group. (MDM)
Rigby, Ken; Slee, Phillip
Results of self-reports and peer nomination procedures to identify bullies and victims indicated that involvement in bully-victim problems at school, especially for students with relatively little social support, was significantly related to degree of suicidal ideation. (Author/JDM)
Donnan, Barbara M.; Webster, Tracey; Wakefield, Claire E.; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano; Alvaro, Frank; Lavoipierre, Jenny; Marshall, Glenn M.
Many students treated for cancer experience significant challenges in maintaining their education during and beyond cancer treatment. Late effects of cancer treatment combined with prolonged periods of missed schooling can dramatically impact upon a student's physical, cognitive and social development. This study examined the relationship between…
Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Hansen, Ebba Holme
PURPOSE: To examine the association between smoking, drunkenness, and medicine use for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness in a representative sample of 11- to 15-year-old school-aged children. METHODS: Design: Cross-sectional school-based survey. Setting......: A random sample of schools in Denmark in 2002. Participants: All students in the fifth, seventh and ninth grades in these schools, n = 4824. Measurements: Self-reported medicine use for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness within the last month; self-reported experience...
Rosangela B. Macedo
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the degree of disability, anthropometric variables, quality of life (QoL, and school backpack weight in boys and girls aged 11-17 years. The differences in QoL between those who did or did not report low back pain (LBP were also analyzed. METHODS: Eighty-six girls (13.9 ± 1.9 years of age and 63 boys (13.7 ± 1.7 years of age participated. LBP was assessed by questionnaire, and disability using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. QoL was assessed by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL. Multivariate analyses of variance and covariance were used to assess differences between groups. RESULTS: Girls reported higher disability than boys (p = 0.01, and lower QoL in the domains of physical (p < 0.001 and emotional functioning (p < 0.01, psychosocial health (p = 0.02 and physical health summary score (p < 0.001, and on the total PedsQL score (p < 0.01. School backpack weight was similar in both genders (p = 0.61 and in participants with and without LBP (p = 0.15. After adjustments, participants with LBP reported lower physical functioning (p < 0.01, influencing lower physical health summary score (p < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Girls had higher disability and lower QoL than boys in the domains of physical and emotional functioning, psychosocial health, and physical health summary scores, and on the total PedsQL score; however, similar school backpack weight was reported. Participants with LBP revealed lower physical functioning and physical health summary score, yet had similar school backpack weight to those without LBP.
Moore, Leslie C.
Millions of Muslim children around the world participate in Qur'anic schooling. For some, this is their only formal schooling experience; others attend both Qur'anic school and secular school. Qur'anic schooling emphasizes memorization and reproduction (recitation, reading, and transcription) of Qur'anic texts without comprehension of their…
Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Badura, Petr; Kalman, Michal; Hamrik, Zdenek; Pavelka, Jan
This study examines trends in overweight and obesity, physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among Czech adolescents over a recent 12-year study period. Nationally representative samples consisted of 19,940 adolescents (9760 boys and 10,180 girls) aged 10.5-16.5 years from the Czech Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire-based surveys conducted in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, meeting the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (≥60 min per day of MVPA) and excessive ST (>2 h per day) were estimated using logistic regression. Significant increases (p obesity between the years 2002 and 2014 were evident for both adolescent boys (18.3%(2002)-24.8%(2014)) and girls (8.3%(2002)-11.9%(2014)). Compared to 2002, in 2014 significant decreases (p obesity with concomitant decreases in PA provide evidence in support of the current and upcoming efforts of government and commercial organizations in implementing interventions aimed at reducing excessive body weight among Czech adolescents.
Miao, Yu-Liang; Ma, Hua-Song; Guo, Wen-Zhi; Wu, Ji-Gong; Liu, Yan; Shi, Wen-Zhu; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Mi, Wei-Dong; Fang, Wei-Wu
Posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion surgery in school-aged children and adolescents is associated with the potential for massive intraoperative blood loss, which requires significant allogeneic blood transfusion. Until now, the intraoperative use of the cell saver has been extensively adopted; however, its efficacy and cost-effectiveness have not been well established. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of intraoperative cell saver use. This study was a single-center, retrospective study of 247 school-aged and adolescent patients who underwent posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion surgery between August 2007 and June 2013. A cell saver was used intraoperatively in 67 patients and was not used in 180 patients. Matched case-control pairs were selected using a propensity score to balance potential confounders in baseline characteristics. Allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) and plasma transfusions as well as blood transfusion costs were analyzed. The propensity score matching produced 60 matched pairs. Compared to the control group, the cell saver group had significantly fewer intraoperative allogeneic RBC transfusions (P = 0.012). However, when the combined postoperative and total perioperative periods were evaluated for the use of allogeneic RBC transfusion, no significant differences were observed between the two groups (P = 0.813 and P = 0.101, respectively). With regard to the total cost of perioperative transfusion of all blood products (RBC and plasma), costs for the control group were slightly lower than those of the cell saver group, but this variance did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.095). The use of the cell saver in posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion surgery in school-aged children and adolescents was able to decrease the amount of intraoperative allogeneic RBC transfusion but failed to decrease total perioperative allogeneic RBC transfusion. Moreover, the use of the cell saver
Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.
This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…
... for Families Guide Panic Disorder In Children And Adolescents No. 50; Updated July 2013 Panic disorder is a common and treatable disorder. Children and adolescents with panic disorder have unexpected and repeated periods ...
... for Families Guide Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents No. 55; December 2015 There is a great ... the incidence of violent behavior among children and adolescents. This complex and troubling issue needs to be ...
Separation anxiety is the major difficulty (and anticipatory anxiety a secondary difficulty) in treating school phobic children, and must be dealt with in a coordinated effort by school therapists, teachers, and parents. (MB)
Fiorentino, Marion; Landais, Edwige; Bastard, Guillaume; Carriquiry, Alicia; Wieringa, Frank T.; Berger, Jacques
Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children). Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2). Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9). Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3). To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal. PMID:27775598
Rajan, Shahzleen; Wissenberg, Mads; Folke, Fredrik
population. METHODS: All OHCA patients in Denmark, ≤21 years of age, were identified from 2001 to 2010. The population was divided into infants (adolescents/young adults (16-21 years). Multivariate logistic regression......-school children, school children and high school adolescents were 11.5, 3.5, 1.3 and 5.3 per 100,000 inhabitants. Overall bystander CPR rate was 48.8%, and for age groups: 55.4%, 41.2%, 44.9% and 63.0%, respectively. Overall 30-day survival rate was 8.1%, and for age groups: 1.4%, 4.5%, 16.1% and 9...
Steve J. Kamper
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction Musculoskeletal (MSK pain in children and adolescents is responsible for substantial personal impacts and societal costs, but it has not been intensively or systematically researched. This means our understanding of these conditions is limited, and healthcare professionals have little empirical evidence to underpin their clinical practice. In this article we summarise the state of the evidence concerning MSK pain in children and adolescents, and offer suggestions for future research. Results Rates of self-reported MSK pain in adolescents are similar to those in adult populations and they are typically higher in teenage girls than boys. Epidemiological research has identified conditions such as back and neck pain as major causes of disability in adolescents, and in up to a quarter of cases there are impacts on school or physical activities. A range of physical, psychological and social factors have been shown to be associated with MSK pain report, but the strength and direction of these relationships are unclear. There are few validated instruments available to quantify the nature and severity of MSK pain in children, but some show promise. Several national surveys have shown that adolescents with MSK pain commonly seek care and use medications for their condition. Some studies have revealed a link between MSK pain in adolescents and chronic pain in adults. Conclusion Musculoskeletal pain conditions are often recurrent in nature, occurring throughout the life-course. Attempts to understand these conditions at a time close to their initial onset may offer a better chance of developing effective prevention and treatment strategies.
Background: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among young children and adolescents. With high quality health care, most children and adolescents with asthma can live an active and normal life. Yet, many children and adolescents have uncontrolled asthma, with symptoms and exacerbations which may affect their daily life. Adolescence is a sensitive period and asthma may be difficult to treat due to poor adherence to treatment. Little is known about health care professionals’ adhe...
Principi, Nicola; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Cappa, Marco; Maffeis, Claudio; Chiarelli, Franco; Bona, Gianni; Gambino, Monia; Ruggiero, Luca; Patianna, Viviana; Matteoli, Maria Cristina; Marigliano, Marco; Cipriano, Paola; Parlamento, Silvia; Esposito, Susanna
This study evaluated Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) to investigate the theoretical risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in these patients and the potential protective efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). An oropharyngeal swab was obtained from 299 patients aged 6-17 y with DM1 who were enrolled during routine clinical visits. DNA from swabs was analyzed for S. pneumoniae using real-time polymerase chain reaction. S. pneumoniae was identified in the swabs of 148 subjects (49.8%). Colonization was strictly age-related and declined significantly in the group aged ≥15 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.57). Carriage was also significantly influenced by sex (lower in females: OR 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.91), ethnicity (less common among non-Caucasians: OR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.89), parental smoking habit (more frequent among children with at least one smoker between parents: OR 1.76; 95% CI, 0.90-2.07), and the administration of antibiotic therapy in the previous 3 months (less frequent among patients who received antibiotics: OR 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07-0.62). Multivariate analyses of the entire study population showed no association between carriage and PCV7 vaccination status. Serotypes 19F, 9V, and 4 were the most frequently identified serotypes. In conclusion, school-age children and adolescents with DM1 are frequently colonized by S. pneumoniae, and protection against pneumococcal carriage following infant and toddler vaccination was not effective after several years. Together with the need to increase vaccine uptake in all the children aged <2 years, these results suggest that PCV booster doses are needed in DM1 patients to maintain the protection offered by these vaccinations.
Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Lankhorst, Kristel; van der Ende-Kastelijn, Karin; de Groot, Janke; Backx, Frank; Visser-Meily, Anne; Takken, Tim
Background: Children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability have lower fitness levels compared to their non-disabled peers. Low physical fitness is associated with reduced physical activity, increased cardiovascular diseases, and lower levels of both cognitive and psychosocial functioning. Moreover, children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability participate less in both recreational and competitive sports. A variety of intervention studies have s...
Gupta, Rina; Pinzon, Jorge L
Despite the fact that minors in Canada are prohibited from legalized gambling, adolescents commonly engage in both legalized (lottery products, casino, video lottery terminals) and self-organized (cards, sports betting, dice) gambling activities both at home and in school. Lifetime prevalence rates of pathological gambling for adults range from 1% to 2%, and existing data suggest that the prevalence among adolescents may be two to four times higher. Very little is known about risk factors in the development and perpetuation of problematic and pathological gambling. This statement is intended to educate paediatricians, family physicians and other health care providers about the emerging knowledge around gambling in childhood and adolescence and the potential serious consequences of this activity. It also urges federal, provincial and territorial governments to include this specific issue in their agendas and to address the socio-political factors associated with gambling.
Full Text Available Introduction: Comparison of the demographic characteristics of patients provides useful information to their identification. This study aimed to determine the demographic characteristics of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: In this cross-sectional case-control study, 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected from Autism Society Rehabilitation Center in Tabriz, Iran, and 112 normal children and adolescents from the public schools, in 2014. The participants in both groups were matched regarding age and gender. Diagnosis of AD was performed using diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-4th edition (DSM-IV criteria and clinical diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The demographic information of children and adolescents and their parents were collected from the medical records of children and interviews with their mothers. Results: Most of the children with autism had second or higher birth order and had families with more than three members. Mothers of children with autism had significantly lower levels of education and were mostly housewives. Fathers of autistic children mostly had high school diploma and fewer had university education, and most of them were employed. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the AD group and the control group regarding the average height and weight of children and the residence (urban or rural and age of parents at childbirth.Conclusion: The demographic characteristics of the two groups of children and adolescents with AD and normal controls were different from each other regarding family size, birth order, parent occupation, and parent education variables.
O I Krasnoperova
Full Text Available Obesity is a multifactorial disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiological factors contributing to the formation of obesity in children and adolescents. Study included two groups of children. Main group: 101 children with obesity aged 10 to 17 years, body mass index (BMI 31,27±0,51 kg/m 2. Comparison group: of 14 children aged 10 to 17 years, without obesity, BMI 18,54±0,11 kg/m 2. In all children we evaluated perinatal and family history, lifestyle and diet, anthropometric parameters, assessed the progress of sexual development. We found that the manifestation of the disease occurred in the early school years, and in boys significantly earlier than in girls. Mothers of obese children had complications during pregnancy (such as toxaemia, the risk of miscarriage, hypertension, previous medical abortions. The children in the majority of cases were early nursed on milk formula, had violations in feeding regime, and hypokinesia. The disease was shown to run in families.
Masche, J. Gowert
This study examined the impact of parental marriage quality on two aspects of self-esteem in their adolescent children, mediated by parent-adolescent relationship quality. Participating in the study were mothers, fathers, and 16- to 18-year-olds from 54 intact families. The first assessment was completed before the adolescents left middle school,…
Fuchs, M; Meuret, S; Stuhrmann, N C; Schade, G
Hoarseness is the leading symptom of dysphonia among children and adolescents. The incidence is evaluated internationally to be 6-25%. In an overview the hereditary and acquired organic and functional causes including secondary organic lesions of the vocal folds, the pathomechanisms and the symptoms typical for this age group are presented. In clinical routine, symptoms of dysphonia in children and adolescents should be consciously looked for and any long-term hoarseness should be examined by specialized physicians, even in this age group, using methods suitable to the age group and the developmental stage. When the appropriate indications are present all therapeutic options currently available should be taken into consideration. Furthermore, this paper provides information for the parents concerning the imminent phoniatric examination.
Gloff, Nicole E; LeNoue, Sean R; Novins, Douglas K; Myers, Kathleen
Most children and adolescents across the USA fail to receive adequate mental health services, especially in rural or underserved communities. The supply of child and adolescent psychiatrists is insufficient for the number of children in need of services and is not anticipated to grow. This calls for novel approaches to mental health care. Telemental health (TMH) offers one approach to increase access. TMH programmes serving young people are developing rapidly and available studies demonstrate that these services are feasible, acceptable, sustainable and likely as effective as in-person services. TMH services are utilized in clinical settings to provide direct care and consultation to primary care providers (PCPs), as well as in non-traditional settings, such as schools, correctional facilities and the home. Delivery of services to young people through TMH requires several adjustments to practice with adults regarding the model of care, cultural values, participating adults, rapport-building, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Additional infrastructure accommodations at the patient site include space and staffing to conduct developmentally appropriate evaluations and treatment planning with parents, other providers, and community services. For TMH to optimally impact young people's access to mental health care, collaborative models of care are needed to support PCPs as frontline mental health-care providers, thereby effectively expanding the child and adolescent mental health workforce.
Pekdogan, Serpil; Akgül, Esra
The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers' perspectives about children's school readiness. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study as a mixed method research. Data, in the quantitative aspects of the research, were collected through the use of "School Readiness Form" developed by Boz (2004)…
This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…
Pinto, Sônia Lopes; Silva, Rita de Cássia Ribeiro; Priore, Silvia Eloíza; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus
This study aimed to assess pre-hypertension and hypertension-related factors in 1,125 seven- to-14-year-old subjects enrolled in the public school system in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Exposure variables, namely body mass index, waist circumference, gender, age, physical activity, environmental and housing status, family income, diet, schooling, and maternal age were analyzed by polytomous logistic regression, and the outcome variable was categorized as normal, pre-hypertensive, and hypertensive. Prevalence of high blood pressure was 14.1%, including the prevalence of both hypertension (4.8%) and pre-hypertension (9.3%). An association was shown between pre-hypertension and overweight (OR: 3.13; 95%CI: 1.75-5.57). Hypertension was associated with overweight (OR: 3.02; 95%CI: 1.45-6.28), female gender (OR: 2.49; 95%CI: 1.24-4.98), and high-risk eating patterns (OR: 1.93; 95%CI: 1.04-3.56). In short, prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension in children and adolescents was higher among girls and individuals with overweight and inadequate diet.
Camila Garcia de Grandi
Full Text Available Introduction: Psychoactive substance abuse problems in the family have an impact on the development of children and adolescents. This risk conditions can harm mental health and hinder healthy development in psychosocial areas. Objectives: This study investigated the psychosocial profile of children and adolescents assisted in a prevention service center for children of substance abusers in a deprived community located in the outskirts of Sao Paulo. Methods: Exploratory and descriptive study, based on cross-sectional methodology and a convenience sample of 791 children and adolescents assisted at the Intervention and Support Center for Children of Substance Abusers - CUIDA between January 2001 and December 2008. The sample was divided into groups according to discharge status: Active, Therapeutic Discharge (TD, Abandonment, Without Information about the Reason for Leaving and With Information about the Length of Treatment (WIRL, Without Information (WI, and Other Reasons for Leaving (OR. Results: In the Active group, 26% of mothers had completed high-school and 11% belonged to the A/B socioeconomic classes. The TD group showed the highest percentages of wage earning parents (52% living together (64%. In the WIRL group, 17% of the mothers were illiterate or had not completed primary education, and 23% of the fathers were unemployed. In the WI group, 22% lived in houses that had been lent to them. Conclusions: Results indicate the impact of addiction and underprivileged conditions (such as housing status, fathers’ level of education, and socioeconomic status on retention in the service and the importance of health prevention and promotion strategies aimed at this population.
Jensen, Christina Mohr
The most frequent reason for referral to the child and adolescent psychiatric hospitals in Denmark is the suspicion that a child or an adolescent may have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this dissertation was to assess how often ADHD has been diagnosed in Denmark......, to assess the validity of the ADHD diagnoses given to children and adolescents, to describe the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of Danish children and adolescents with ADHD, and to assess their long-term risk for crimes. In the years under investigation, the incidence rates of diagnosed ADHD...... had significantly increased and the majority of ADHD diagnoses given to children and adolescents could be confirmed and were given based on high-quality clinical assessments. Results supported that children and adolescents with ADHD constitute a heterogeneous group that often have comorbid psychiatric...
Hayat Al-Ghutaimel; Hisham Riba; Salem Al-Kahtani; Saad Al-Duhaimi
Background. Since 2000, studies, experiments, and clinical observations revealed high prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents. Therefore, this paper was designed to provide an update for dental practitioners on epidemiology, microbiology, pathology, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of periodontal diseases in children and adolescents. Methods. This paper reviews the current literature concerning periodontal diseases in pediatric dentistry. It includes MEDLINE data...
Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Boles, Shawn; Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Evers, Cody
Background: Studies of body mass index (BMI) change have focused on understanding growth trajectories from childhood to adolescence and adolescence to adulthood, but few have explored BMI trajectories solely in elementary (grades K-5) school children. This report complements these studies by exploring changes in obesity status using analytic…
Williams, Susan G; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Wornell, Cory; Finnegan, Heather
Adolescents transitioning to high school may be at greater risk of depression and suicide if they are victims of bullying behavior. This study explored sex differences in bullying victimization (physical, verbal/social, and cyberbullying) and the impact on depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in ninth-grade students ( N = 233). Females reported significantly more verbal/social and cyberbullying than male students. There were no significant sex differences in physical bullying; male students who reported physical bullying victimization were more likely to experience depressive symptoms. Verbal/social bullying predicted depressive symptoms in males and females. Females who reported being victims of cyberbullying were more likely to report depressive symptoms, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts. Eighteen students reported suicide attempts, and each also experienced verbal/social bullying. School nurses are positioned to reach out to transitioning students, screen for mental health issues, provide a safe place to talk about bullying experiences, and promote positive mental health.
Sinha, Shirshendu; Jhaveri, Ronak; Banga, Alok
Sleep deprivation and sleep disorders are commonly seen in children and adolescents. They are often undiagnosed and undertreated. A balance of circadian rhythm and homeostatic drive determine sleep quality, quantity, and timing, which changes across the developmental years. Environmental and lifestyle factors can affect sleep quality and quantity and lead to sleep deprivation. A comprehensive assessment of sleep disorders includes parental report, children's self-report, and school functioning. Diagnostic tools are used in diagnosing and treating sleep disorders.
Chalcarz, Wojciech; Radzimirska-Graczyk, Monika
The aim of this study was to assess the use of nutritional supplementation during the days of training and the days free of training in children and adolescents who attend sports schools, Questionnaires on the use of nutritional supplementation were filled in by 141 children and adolescents who practice fencing. The factor gender-age had statistically significant impact only on using mineral supplementation by the studied students. Using ergogenic aids as well as using vitamin and mineral supplements or other kind of supplementation was rare in the studied population, but was more frequent during the days of training. Nutritional supplementation was always used by higher percentage of boys than girls.
Groton, Danielle; Teasley, Martell L.; Canfield, James P.
With the needs and challenges of adolescent homelessness on the rise, the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) was crafted as a public policy initiative aimed at facilitating access to schools for this population. While school social workers are the designated personnel for practice with homeless school-aged children, we know little about…
Ruzafa Martínez, María; Ruiz García, María Jesús; Gómez García, Carmen I
The authors explain the second phase in surgery procedure which is known as intra-operative, developing a standardized model of nursing care for children and adolescents during the intra-operative phase. This phase commences in the operating room from the moment the child/adolescent arrives after being brought from a hospital ward and lasts until the child/adolescent is transferred to the recovery room. The authors perform a systematic and holistic evaluation, using the Gordon Functional Health Patterns. The authors select the Nursing Diagnoses of NANDA, the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, which most frequently appear in this intra-operative phase: risk of lesion, risk of infection, risk of hypothermia, and risk of asphyxiation. The authors also mention the potential complications which could appear during an operation according to the age of the child, the type of anesthesia used, the surgical technique used, and the overall health of the patient prior to surgery. Finally, the authors describe the nursing treatments related to the potential complications and the outlined nursing diagnoses.
... I find more information? Share Helping Children and Adolescents Cope with Violence and Disasters: What Parents Can ... moving to a new home or new school, divorce, job change, or financial troubles. Some symptoms may ...
Ruzafa Martínez, María; Ruiz García, María Jesus; Gómez García, Carmen
The authors explain in a standardized model of nursing care for children and adolescents durning pre-operative phase, the first part in the global surgical process. This phase commences at the moment a surgical intervention is deemed necessary and finalizes when the child/adolescent is transported to the operating room. The authors perform a systematic and holistic evaluation, using the Gordon Functional Health Patterns. Special emphasis is given to aspects such as the perception-management health pattern, the nutritional-metabolic pattern, the elimination pattern, the exercise-activity pattern, the dream-rest pattern, the self-perception pattern and the adaptation-stress tolerance pattern. They evaluate the perception and responses children of varying ages provide to being separated from parents. They highlight the cultural factors which must be born in mind in order to achieve an adequate evaluation and individualized care. The authors select the Nursing Diagnoses of NANDA, the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, which most frequently appear in this pre-operative phase: fear/anxiety, risk of aspiration, risk of an alteration in health maintenance, and risk of infection. Finally, the authors describe the nursinginterventions related with these diagnoses.
Wagenaar, Karin; Ceelen, Manon; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Knol, Dirk L; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Huisman, Jaap
The aim of this study was to examine the school functioning of 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF). We compared 233 children born after IVF to 233 matched control children born spontaneously from parents with fertility problems on measures of education level, general cognitive ability, school performance (need for extra help, repeating a grade, special education), and rates of learning and developmental disorders. No differences were found between IVF and control children on these measures of school functioning. More than 60% of adolescents at secondary school attended high academic levels (with access to high school or university). We conclude that children and adolescents born after IVF show good academic achievement and general cognitive ability. They do not experience any more educational limitations than the naturally conceived children and adolescents of the control group. The tendency of reassuring school functioning already found in younger IVF children has been shown to continue at secondary school age.
Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed
The media can be a powerful teacher of children and adolescents and have a profound impact on their health. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem in the United States, but they do contribute to a variety of pediatric and adolescent health problems. Given that children and teens spend >7 hours a day with media, one would think that adult society would recognize its impact on young people's attitudes and behaviors. Too little has been done to protect children and adolescents from harmful media effects and to maximize the powerfully prosocial aspects of modern media.
... Recommendations Screening for Primary Hypertension in Children and Adolescents The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... on Screening for Primary Hypertension in Children and Adolescents . This final recommendation statement applies to children and ...
Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Lankhorst, Kristel; van der Ende-Kastelijn, Karin; de Groot, Janke; Backx, Frank; Visser-Meily, Anne; Takken, Tim
Background: Children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability have lower fitness levels compared to their non-disabled peers. Low physical fitness is associated with reduced physical activity, increased cardiovascular diseases, and lower levels of both cognitive and psychosocial
Iemmi, Valentina; Knapp, Martin; Brown, Freddy Jackson
Decision-makers with limited budgets want to know the economic consequences of their decisions. Is there an economic case for positive behavioural support (PBS)? A small before-after study assessing the impact of PBS on challenging behaviours and positive social and communication skills in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities…
Zwinkels, M.; Verschuren, O.; Lankhorst, K.; Ende-Kastelijn, K. van der; Groot, J. de; Backx, F.; Visser-Meily, A.; Takken, T.
Background: Children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability have lower fitness levels compared to their non-disabled peers. Low physical fitness is associated with reduced physical activity, increased cardiovascular diseases, and lower levels of both cognitive and psychosocial
Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of increased sensitivity to social contexts. To evaluate how social context sensitivity changes over development – and influences reward learning – we investigated how children and adolescents perceive and integrate rewards for oneself and others during a dynamic risky-decision-making task. Children and adolescents (N=75, 8-16 yrs performed the Social Gambling Task (SGT, (Kwak et al., 2014 and completed a set of questionnaires measuring other-regarding behavior. In the SGT, participants choose amongst four card decks that have different payout structures for oneself and for a charity. We examined patterns of choices, overall decision strategies, and how reward outcomes led to trial-by-trial adjustments in behavior, as estimated using a reinforcement-learning model. Performance of children and adolescents was compared to data from a previously collected sample of adults (N=102 performing the identical task. We found that that children/adolescents were not only more sensitive to rewards directed to the charity than self but also showed greater prosocial tendencies on independent measures of other-regarding behavior. Children and adolescents also showed less use of a strategy that prioritizes rewards for self at the expense of rewards for others. These results support the conclusion that, compared to adults, children and adolescents show greater sensitivity to outcomes for others when making decisions and learning about potential rewards.
Ljubica Marjanovič Umek; Urška Fekonja; Katja Bajc
The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence, and parents' education. The sample included 219 children who were 68 to 83 months old and were attending the first year of primary school. Children were differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschool before starting school. Children's intellectual ability was determined using Raven's Coloured Progress...
Geldhof, G. John; Little, Todd D.
Self-regulation represents a core aspect of human functioning that influences positive development across the life span. This chapter focuses on the action-control model, a key facet of self-regulation during childhood and early adolescence. The authors discuss the development of action-control beliefs, paying particular attention to their…
Murphy, Jeremy W.; Foxe, John J.; Molholm, Sophie
The ability to attend to one among multiple sources of information is central to everyday functioning. Just as central is the ability to switch attention among competing inputs as the task at hand changes. Such processes develop surprisingly slowly, such that even into adolescence, we remain slower and more error prone at switching among tasks…
Gonçalves, Maria Antónia; Arezes, Pedro
The characteristics of school furniture are strongly associated with back and neck pain, referred by school-aged children. In Portugal, about 60% of the adolescents involved in a recent study reported having felt back pain at least once in the last three months. The aim of this study was to compare furniture sizes of the 2 types indicated for primary schools, within 9 schools, with the anthropometric characteristics of Portuguese students, in order to ...
Interviews with low-income and high-income adolescents investigated various aspects of schooling. Low-income adolescents described aggressive behaviors, numerous school circumstances that made them angry, and humiliation and ostracism at school. High-income adolescents felt much more successful at school and entitled to disproportionate school…
Kamper, Steve J; Henschke, Nicholas; Hestbaek, Lise;
Introduction Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain in children and adolescents is responsible for substantial personal impacts and societal costs, but it has not been intensively or systematically researched. This means our understanding of these conditions is limited, and healthcare professionals have litt...
Morebodi, Portia Gobona
The study was aimed at investigating the effects of single parenthood on school going adolescents on a group of male and female children schooling in Gaborone District of Botswana. The research questions focused on investigating the effects of. single parenthood on the social interactions of school-going adolescents, effects on their performance in class, the attitude of the community on such adolescents and whether single parenthood affected boys and girls differently. T...
Martinez, Angel; Lasser, Jon
The process of creating child-developed board games in a counseling setting may promote social, emotional, and behavioral development in children. Using this creative approach, counselors can actively work with children to address referred concerns and build skills that may generalize outside of counseling sessions. A description of the method is…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reviews scientific evidence to determine which school-based policies and practices are most likely to improve key health behaviors among young people, including physical activity and healthy eating. In this document, the CDC identifies ten strategies to help schools prevent obesity by promoting…
Loucaides, Constantinos A; Jago, Russell; Theophanous, Maria
More data regarding prevalence and correlates of active travel to school are needed from different parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence and correlates of active travel to school among adolescents in Cyprus. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1966 adolescents attending grade 6, grades 7-9, grades 10-12 and technical/vocational schools in Cyprus. Overall prevalence of active travel to school was 19.4%. Parental perceptions of safe route to school, other children walking to school from the child's neighborhood and school location (urban versus rural) were associated with active travel across different levels of education. Having enough time to walk to school in the moming was the most consistent correlate of active travel. Low prevalence estimates of active traveling to school among adolescents in Cyprus raise the need to promote this source of daily physical activity.
Hoda Zahedi; Mostafa Qorbani; Shirin Hasani Ranjbar; Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh; Gelayol Ardalan; Moloud Payab; Omid Safari; Gita Shafiee; Morteza Mansourian; Ramin Heshmat; Roya Kelishadi
Background: Healthy dietary habits are known as a key factor for improving brain functions and cognitive ability in children and adolescents. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association of healthy food consumption with mental health in Iranian children and adolescents.Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the fourth national school-based surveillance survey entitled CASPIAN-IV study. In this study, 14880 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years were selected by multistage,...
Salma B. Galal
Full Text Available Background: Systemic hypertension is an endemic disease, which causes serious morbidities and mortality in all age groups. Hypertension of adults in Egypt is 26%. It can start in childhood and needs to be assessed in Egyptian children and adolescents.Aim and objectives: This study aims to investigate the prevalence of systemic hypertension in 12-14 year old school children and associated factors. Methods and study design: A cross sectional study was done in some preparatory public and private schools selected from a district of Cairo. The 234 children (167 females, 67males in this study were 12 - 14 year of age. Their weight ranged from 30 – 100 kg Subjects with high blood pressure (BP were identified according to the percentiles of Rosner, et al. Beside characteristics of the sample and blood pressure (BP, associated factors investigated were: - weight and body mass index (BMI, tea / coffee consumption, "added salt before tasting food", sleeping less than 8 hours per day and physical activity. Each student filled out stress and tension level tests. The school health team obtained informed parental consent to include their children in this study. Statistical analysis was done with EPI using chi-square, t-test, odd ratio (OR with 95% confidence limits (Cl and logistic regression with the 5% level for tests. The ethical committee of the faculty approved the study.Results / Finding: The prevalence of systemic hypertension was 10%. Children with high BP (23 were compared to 211 subjects with normotensive BP. High stress and tension score, less sleeping hours / day, adding salt to food and higher BMI were found significantly associated (p<0.05 with high BP. Study limitation: Researchers could assess preparatory schools children. However, primary and secondary school levels are separated in other schools and administrations. We used US standards for hypertension and BMI for children as local standards are not published.Conclusions: One tenth of 12
Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner
From a clinical point of view, the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) among children and adolescents seems to be low. However, many children have dermatitis, most often atopic dermatitis. In selected cases, ACD is suspected, and the child is tested. The question remains, whether...... the prevalence of ACD in children really is low or whether the possibility of ACD is not sufficiently considered. During the last decade, reports have appeared on series of children and adolescents with contact allergy and ACD. Few cases have been reported in infants, but the development of contact allergy...... and ACD increases with age. Most studies include selected groups of children and adolescents with suspected ACD. Few studies have examined unselected populations, and most consider only the prevalence of contact allergy without evaluating the clinical relevance, e.g., the prevalence of ACD. Furthermore...
Currie, Candace; Molcho, Michal; Boyce, William
, it is unclear whether parental SES should be used as a proxy, and if so, which aspect of SES is most relevant. Methodologically, parental SES information is difficult to obtain from adolescents resulting in high levels of missing data. These issues led to the development of a new measure, the Family Affluence......, psychosomatic symptoms, physical activity and aspects of eating habits at both the individual and country level. FAS has recently been adopted, and in some cases adapted, by other research and policy related studies and this work is also reviewed. Finally, ongoing FAS validation work is described together...... with ideas for future development of the measure....
In 1991, the pattern of sugar consumption in samples of 172 12-year-old children and 231 15-19-year-old adolescents was studied. Twenty-four hour dietary records of five consecutive days were obtained from each subject. The frequency of total sugary food and drink episodes for children was 3.16 and 3.71 for adolescents. This was mainly accounted for by the consumption of sugary items at meals for both age groups. Students mostly consumed sweetened drinks at meals, especially at breakfast and ate sugary foods between meal times, particularly between lunch and dinner. Sweetened tea and juice were the most popular drinks and confectionery was the most popular snack food.
Iemmi, Valentina; Knapp, Martin; Brown, Freddy Jackson
Decision-makers with limited budgets want to know the economic consequences of their decisions. Is there an economic case for positive behavioural support (PBS)? A small before–after study assessing the impact of PBS on challenging behaviours and positive social and communication skills in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities and behaviours that challenge was followed by an evaluation of costs. Results were compared with the costs of alternative packages of care currently a...
Gudo, Eduardo Samo; Prista, António; Jani, Ilesh V
Background Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia (APFP) has been reported to be highly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region heavily burdened by malaria, yet, the impact of APFP on the immunological reference values have not yet been established. This study was aimed at i) determine the prevalence of APFP in children and adolescents living in a region highly endemic for malaria in southern Mozambique and its impact on the immuno-hematological indices and ii) determine the factors...
Michael E Bowen
Full Text Available Michael E Bowen1,2, Russell L Rothman2,31Veterans Affairs Quality Scholars Fellowship Program, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Tennessee Valley Geriatric Research Education Clinical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, 3Vanderbilt Eskind Diabetes Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Although once considered a disease of adults, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in youth is increasing at a significant rate. Similar to adults, youth with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk for developing hypertension, lipid abnormalities, renal disease, and other diabetes-related complications. However, children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes also face many unique management challenges that are different from adults with type 2 diabetes or children with type 1 diabetes. To deliver safe, effective, high-quality, cost-effective health care to adolescents with type 2 diabetes, reorganization and redesign of health care systems are needed. Multidisciplinary health care teams, which allow individuals with specialized training to maximally utilize their skills within an organized diabetes treatment team, may increase efficiency and effectiveness and may improve outcomes in children with type 2 diabetes. This review article provides a brief review of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, provides an overview of multidisciplinary health care teams, and discusses the role of multidisciplinary health care management in youth with type 2 diabetes.Keywords: adolescent, type 2 diabetes, multidisciplinary
Faedda, Noemi; Cerutti, Rita; Verdecchia, Paola; Migliorini, Daniele; Arruda, Marco; Guidetti, Vincenzo
Headache is the most frequent neurological symptom and the most prevalent pain in children and adolescents, and constitutes a serious health problem that may lead to impairment in several areas. Psychosocial factors, social environment, life events, school and family stressors are all closely related to headaches. A multidisciplinary strategy is fundamental in addressing headache in children and adolescents. Applying such a strategy can lead to reductions in frequency and severity of the pain, improving significantly the quality of life of these children.It has been demonstrated that behavioral intervention is highly effective, especially in the treatment of paediatric headache, and can enhance or replace pharmacotherapy, with the advantage of eliminating dangerous side effects and or reducing costs. Behavioral interventions appear to maximize long-term therapeutic benefits and improve compliance with pharmacological treatment, which has proven a significant problem with child and adolescent with headache.The goal of this review is to examine the existing literature on behavioral therapies used to treat headache in children and adolescents, and so provide an up-to-date picture of what behavioral therapy is and what its effectiveness is.
Moore, Michael J.; White, Gregory L.; Moore, Donna L.
Background: There is debate about a 10% versus 15% of body weight cutoff point for safe weight of school backpacks. Estimation of the cutoff may be affected by use of survey methods and failure to assess pain experienced while wearing a backpack. Previous research also suggests that younger students and females are more at risk for developing…
Mikkelsen, Peter Riis; Jemec, Gregor B E
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a burdensome disease and has the potential to affect the life course of patients. It is a rare disease in children, and the recorded literature is correspondingly scarce. This article reviews the therapeutic options for HS in children and adolescents, and highlights...
Yule, Amy M; Prince, Jefferson B
Adolescent substance use is a major public health problem that concerns parents, schools, clinicians, and policy makers. The authors review school-based prevention programs, school drug policies, clinical signs and symptoms of substance impairment, recommendations for referral and engaging adolescents who are using substances, and treatment interventions for adolescent substance use disorders.
Pinzon, Jorge L; Jones, Veronnie F
Teen pregnancy and parenting remain an important public health issue in the United States and the world, and many children live with their adolescent parents alone or as part of an extended family. A significant proportion of teen parents reside with their family of origin, significantly affecting the multigenerational family structure. Repeated births to teen parents are also common. This clinical report updates a previous policy statement on care of the adolescent parent and their children and addresses medical and psychosocial risks specific to this population. Challenges unique to teen parents and their children are reviewed, along with suggestions for the pediatrician on models for intervention and care.
Samuels, Joshua; Bell, Cynthia; Samuel, Joyce; Swinford, Rita
Hypertension in children and adolescents is becoming a greater problem in the developed world. Although traditionally thought of as usually secondary to renal, vascular, or endocrine causes, primary hypertension is becoming the most common form seen in childhood. This changing epidemiology is related to the recent obesity epidemic. The evaluation of high blood pressure in children is more involved than in adults and is aimed both at identifying secondary causes and to identify other co-morbidities of cardiovascular risk. Treatment of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is aimed at reducing cardiovascular risk. While there are a growing number of antihypertensive agents with FDA labeling for children, there remain far fewer options than for adults. This paper reviews the epidemiology, definitions, evaluations, and management of elevated blood pressure in children and adolescents.
... Families Guide Substance Abuse Treatment For Children And Adolescents: Questions To Ask No. 41; Reviewed July 2013 Many children and adolescents use alcohol and other drugs. Some develop serious ...
Gerganov, Encho; Varbanova, Silvia; Kyuchukov, Hristo
This paper examines the degree of school adaptation among Roma children who were included in a program for the desegregation of Roma schools in Bulgaria. More specifically, the program requires Roma children to attend mixed classes with Bulgarian students and Roma teacher assistants to work with them. The Bulgarian version of the Questionnaire on…
Lubans, David R
Abstract Background Active travel to school (ATS) has been identified as an important source of physical activity for youth. However, the relationship between ATS and health-related fitness (HRF) among youth remains unclear. Methods A systematic search of seven electronic databases (EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and TRIS on line) was conducted in December 2009 and studies published since 1980 were considered for inclusion. Results Twenty seven articles were identified that explored the relationship between ATS and the following aspects of HRF: weight status\\/body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and flexibility. Forty-eight percent of the studies that examined the relationship between ATS and weight status\\/body composition reported significant associations, this increased to 55% once poor quality studies were removed. Furthermore, the findings from five studies, including one longitudinal study, indicate that ATS is positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in youth. However, the evidence for the relationships between ATS and muscular fitness or flexibility is equivocal and limited by low study numbers. Conclusions There is some evidence to suggest that ATS is associated with a healthier body composition and level of cardiorespiratory fitness among youth. Strategies to increase ATS are warranted and should be included in whole-of-school approaches to the promotion of physical activity.
Canadian data from the 1998 Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children were analyzed to examine the effects of school experiences on personal health (physical health, mental health, self-esteem, helplessness, and body image) and interpersonal relationships (number of close friends and making friends) among adolescents.…
Lawan, U M; Yusuf, Nafisa Wali; Musa, Aisha Bala
This study examined the knowledge and practices of adolescent school girls in Kano, Nigeria around menstruation and menstrual hygiene. Data was collected quantitatively and analyzed using Epi info version 3.2.05. The mean age of the students was 14.4 +/- 1.2 years; majority was in their mid adolescence. The students attained menarche at 12.9 +/- 0.8 years. Majority had fair knowledge of menstruation, although deficient in specific knowledge areas. Most of them used sanitary pads as absorbent during their last menses; changed menstrual dressings about 1-5 times per day; and three-quarter increased the frequency of bathing. Institutionalizing sexuality education in Nigerian schools; developing and disseminating sensitive adolescent reproductive health massages targeted at both parents and their adolescent children; and improving access of the adolescents to youth friendly services are veritable means of meeting the adolescent reproductive health needs in Nigeria.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and the convergent validity of the Children Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI with DSM-IV anxiety disorder symptoms, by comparison with the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED, in a community sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. METHODS: Children and adolescents from five schools were selected from a larger study that aimed to assess different aspects of childhood anxiety disorders. All participants completed the CASI and the SCARED. RESULTS: This study supported the reliability of the CASI total score. Girls reported higher total anxiety sensitivity scores than boys and there were no differences in total anxiety sensitivity scores between children and adolescents. This study showed moderate to high correlations between the CASI scores with SCARED scores, all correlations coefficients being positive and significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate an appropriate reliability and evidence of convergent validity in the CASI in a sample of Brazilian children and adolescents.
Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid
to school performance and subsequent educational achievements. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of health measures on school performance at the end of compulsory school (9 years of school). Methods Information from a birth cohort study of adolescents born in 1989 (n = 3058) living...... years has between 0.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13 to 0.40] and 0.34 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.48) lower grades, adjusted for a range of other factors influencing school performance. Specific symptoms leading to poorer school performance includes frequent headaches, high levels of perceived stress...... and depressive symptoms. If parents report health problems for the participant between ages 7 and 14, grades decrease with 0.89 (95% CI 0.44 to 1.32). Conclusions Frequent headache, perceived stress and depressive symptoms contributes to lower grades at the end of compulsory school, thereby indicating...
Painter, Julia E.; Gargano, Lisa M.; Sales, Jessica M.; Morfaw, Christopher; Jones, LaDawna M.; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Hughes, James M.
School-aged children were a priority group for receipt of the pandemic (2009) H1N1 influenza vaccine. Both parental and adolescent attitudes likely influence vaccination behaviors. Data were collected from surveys distributed to middle- and high-school students and their parents in two counties in rural Georgia. Multivariable logistic regression…
Spijkerboer, A. W.; Utens, E. M. W. J.; Bogers, A. J. J. C.; Verhulst, F. C.; Helbing, W. A.
In this study, long-term intellectual functioning and school-related behavioural outcomes were assessed in a patient sample that underwent invasive treatment for congenital heart disease (ConHD) between 1990 and 1995. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised was used to measure intellectual functioning and the Teacher's Report Form to…
Özge, Aynur; Yalin, Osman Özgür
Chronic migraine is defined as having more than 15 headache days in a month, half of these showing migraine features, for at least 3 months. It is a chronic painful syndrome with aspects such as psychiatric comorbid, decreased quality of life, and environmental and intrinsic psychological factors that make face-to-face treatment difficult. Children and adolescent migraine differ from adults as a result of growing brain and evolving disorder. In this paper, we will emphasize the definition, diagnosis, epidemiology, burden of life, and management of chronic migraine in children and adolescent.
In this paper, I analyze the theorization of adolescent femininity within three popular cultural texts about girls and schooling written by women and published in the United States during the 1990s. The books, referred to as "Ophelia narratives," include Lyn Mikel Brown and Carol Gilligan's (1992) "Meeting at the Crossroads," Mary Pipher's (1994)…
Higgins, Keith B.
This book was written to help schools and educators in their efforts to raise the self-esteem of adolescent students. The first chapter presents the layout of the book. Chapter 2 explains Coopersmith's (1967) model of self-esteem, emphasizing the model's relevance to secondary education. Experiences leading to feelings of significance, competence,…
Reiff, M I
The role of the primary clinician in dealing with school failure can be critical by linking the epidemiological with the clinical and encompassing the pediatric/adolescent life span. It includes components of social and public health advocacy, preventive medicine, evaluation, education, treatment, and referral. The most effective interventions are early and multifaceted. The primary care role includes: community advocacy; counseling about prenatal drug and alcohol abuse; early detection and treatment for attentional disorders, underachievement, and learning disabilities; interviews addressing multiple risk factors, grades, school attitudes, behavior, and friends; anticipatory guidance; education about individual learning style and good "learning hygiene"; early referral and intervention for preadolescent conduct problems and parent-child conflict; early referrals for family distress; and prevention of substance abuse and adolescent pregnancy.
Ljubica Marjanovič Umek
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence, and parents' education. The sample included 219 children who were 68 to 83 months old and were attending the first year of primary school. Children were differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschool before starting school. Children's intellectual ability was determined using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM; Raven, Raven, & Court, 1999, language competence using the Lestvice splošnega govornegarazvoja–LJ (LSGR–LJ, Scales of General Language Development; Marjanovič Umek, Kranjc, Fekonja in Bajc, 2004, and school readiness with the Preizkus pripravljenosti za šolo (PPŠ, Test of School Readiness; Toličič, 1986. The results indicate that children's intellectual ability and language competence have a high predictive value for the school readiness — they explained 51% of the variance in children's scores on the PPŠ. Preschool enrollment has a positive effect on school readiness for children whose parents have a low level of education, but not for those whose parents are highly educated.
Boschloo, Annemarie; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; de Groot, Renate; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle
Breakfast skipping is common in adolescents, but research on the effects of breakfast skipping on school performance is scarce. This current cross-sectional survey study of 605 adolescents aged 11-18 years investigated whether adolescents who habitually skip breakfast have lower end-of-term grades than adolescents who eat breakfast daily.…
E.I. de Bruin; B.J.H. Zijlstra; S.M. Bögels
Factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) were studied in two samples of school children and adolescents (n = 275, 10-12 years and n = 560, 13-16 years) from The Netherlands, using principle factor analy
Sirin, Selcuk R.; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren
This study examined how various components of school engagement contribute to the academic performance of African American adolescents. The sample consisted of 499 African American adolescents in Grades 9 to 11. We investigated how adolescents' gender, grade, cognitive functioning, and parental education affect their school engagement and whether…
Djurhuus, Bjarki; Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe
Cholesteatoma in childhood had no long-term effect on school performance for the majority who completed lower secondary school. Aim To investigate whether individuals operated on for cholesteatoma in childhood have impaired school performance in adolescence. Methods All children born in Denmark...... between 1986-1991 with cholesteatoma surgery performed before the age of 15 years were included (cholestetaoma group). A control group consisting of a 5% random sample of all children born in Denmark during the same period was used for comparison. Final marks (average, mathematics, Danish, and English...
This literature review aimed to give some insight in the benefits of breakfast for children and adolescents, with a focus on overweight, food intake and cognition. In addition, we explored the magnitude of skipping breakfast in the Netherlands and factors associated with this behaviour.
Obesity is one of the main risk factors for developing impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes in the youth. The patients are at high risk for cardiovascular complications. Yet, meeting therapeutical goals is hard to achieve in many children and adolescents.
Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents are defined as the amount of energy needed to balance total energy expenditure (TEE) at a desirable level of physical activity, and to support optimal growth and development consistent with long-term health. The latest FAO/WHO/UNU recommendati...
Wesselhoeft, Rikke; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Heiervang, Einar
Depressive disorders are disabling conditions striking at all ages. In adults, subthreshold depression (SD) is viewed as being on a continuum with major depressive disorder (MDD). Whether this holds for children and adolescents, is still unclear. We performed the first systematic review of SD...
Deslandes, Suely; Mendes, Corina Helena Figueira; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach
The article discusses the development of the Index for Dealing with Family Violence to assess municipal strategies related to this violation of children's and adolescents' rights. Development of the index involved a preliminary analysis of indicators from previous studies and a technical expert group. Four indicators were selected: the existence of a municipal plan for dealing with violence against children and adolescents; the existence of an inter-sector flow for treating and following up on children and adolescents in situations of family violence; number of guardianship councils in relation to the municipality's population; and the existence of standardized instruments in municipal school, social work, and health systems for reporting situations of violence against children and adolescents. The databank from a previous study was used in an exercise to apply the indicator in four Brazilian state capitals. The indicator can serve as a tool for monitoring and mobilizing efforts to implement measures for dealing with family violence.
Anand, Tanu; Ingle, G. K.; Meena, G. S.; Kishore, Jugal; Kumar, Rajesh
Background: Hypertension is fast emerging as a major health problem amongst all school adolescents, particularly in urban areas. Regular screening of the students for this is required for preventing the emergence of complications later in life. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with the objective to determine the prevalence of hypertension amongst urban school adolescents and its correlation with anthropometric measurements. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a school in Central Delhi involving all 315 students of 9th and 11th standard. A preforma was filled by the students and anthropometric measurements along with blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken for each student. Data was analyzed using Epi-info 2005 and SPSS 16.0. Results: Out of the total 315 students, 208 (66%) were boys and 107 (34%) were girls and the mean age was 14.31 ± 0.96 years. Overall prevalence of malnutrition was 24% and boys were found to be more obese as compared to girls. There were 5 students (1.6%) who were found to have systolic hypertension while 17 (5.4%) were found to have diastolic hypertension while 4.1% (n = 13) of the participants were systolic pre-hypertensive and 26% (n = 82) were in stage of diastolic pre-hypertension. Body mass index and gender were found to be independent predictor for systolic hypertension. Conclusions: Prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension was high amongst the school children. BP check-up for children and adolescents is thus recommended to take remedial action on time. PMID:24791194
Nomura, Shuhei; Blangiardo, Marta; Hodgson, Susan
Objective Radiation fears following Japan's 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster affected levels of physical activity in local children. We assessed the postdisaster versus predisaster weight status in school children and evaluated to what extent school restrictions on outdoor activities that were intended to reduce radiation exposure risk affected child weight. Participants We considered children aged 13–15 years from 4 of the 5 secondary schools in Soma City (n=1030, 99.1% of all children in the city), located in 35–50 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant, postdisaster (2012 and 2015) and predisaster (2010). Methods Weight status, in terms of body mass index (BMI), percentage of overweight (POW) and incidence of obesity and underweight (defined as a POW ≥20% and ≤−20%, respectively) were examined and compared predisaster and postdisaster using regression models. We also constructed models to assess the impact of school restrictions on outdoor activity on weight status. Results After adjustment for covariates, a slight decrease in mean BMI and POW was detected in females in 2012 (−0.37, 95% CI −0.68 to −0.06; and −1.97, 95% CI −3.57 to −0.36, respectively). For male children, obesity incidence increased in 2012 (OR for obesity: 1.45, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.08). Compared with predisaster weight status, no significant weight change was identified in 2015 in either males or females. School restrictions on outdoor activities were not significantly associated with weight status. Conclusions 4 years following the disaster, weight status has recovered to the predisaster levels for males and females; however, a slight decrease in weight in females and a slight increase in risk of obesity were observed in males 1 year following the disaster. Our findings could be used to guide actions taken during the early phase of a radiological disaster to manage the postdisaster health risks in adolescent children. PMID:27683520
Masi, G; Brovedani, P; Poli, P
School difficulties and learning disorders in adolescence can become significant risk factors for psychopathology. This study investigates emotional and cognitive patterns in adolescents with school difficulties. Four clinical conditions that can determine adolescence-onset learning disorders are outlined. These are adolescent turmoil, intellectual inhibition, delay in reasoning development, and metacognitive dysfunctioning. Cognitive, emotional and behavioral features of these conditions are discussed in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
Jespersen, Eva; Franz, Claudia; Christensen, Heidi Klakk
are presented: •Physical activity and risk factors for lifestyle diseases in Danish school children •Bone health and physical activity in healthy Danish school children •Impact of increased amount and quality of physical education on physical performance and sports injuries in Danish school children •Impact...... invited to participate, 1220 accepted. Six intervention schools (689 children) and four control schools (531 children). Preliminary analysis shows no differences regarding an¬thropometrics, motor performance and aerobe fitness between intervention and control schools at baseline. Perspectives...
Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf
The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time…
Full Text Available Terrah L Foster,1,2 Cynthia J Bell,1 Carey F McDonald,2 Joy S Harris,3 Mary Jo Gilmer,1,21Vanderbilt University School of Nursing, Nashville, 2Monroe Carell Jr Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, 3Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Pediatric palliative care aims to enhance life and decrease suffering of children and adolescents living with life-threatening conditions and their loved ones. Oncology nurses are instrumental in providing palliative care to pediatric oncology populations. This paper describes pediatric palliative care and provides an overview of literature related to the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual domains of palliative nursing care for children and adolescents with cancer. Nurses can provide optimal palliative care by accounting for children's understanding of death, encouraging early initiation of palliative care services, and improving utilization of pediatric palliative care in cancer settings. Specific roles of registered nurses and advanced practice nurses in pediatric palliative care will be addressed. Recommendations for future research are made to further advance the science of pediatric palliative care and decrease suffering for children and teens with cancer.Keywords: pediatric palliative care, pediatric cancer, oncology, child, suffering
Purper-Ouakil, D; Michel, G; Mouren-Siméoni, M-C
their predictive value for the onset of clinical depressive episodes needs further investigation. Familial and individual vulnerability is likely to heighten the depressogenic impact of life events and psycho-social adversity. Prevention interventions have been developed in the United States for children and adolescents at-risk for depression. In France, clinicians witness growing demands from families with affective illness concerned with risk of parent-child transmission of depressive vulnerability, prevention and early identification of symptoms. To meet this kind of emerging needs and to prevent family dysfunction, a preventive program targets offspring of depressed parents and uses clinician-based family approaches. Family and individual sessions aim a better understanding of illness experience and encourage the parents to identify and foster resilience in their children. Another type of preventive intervention focuses on children and adolescents with subclinical depressive symptoms, eventually associated with behavioral problems ou high level of parental conflict, recruited in school settings. These school-based interventions combine cognitive and social problem-solving techniques. Both familial and school-based preventive interventions have proven applicable and promising in high-risk children and adolescents. Perspectives are more systematic identification of risk groups, including youngsters with past or current non affective symptoms who might benefit from depression prevention, long-term evaluation and cross-cultural applications of prevention programs.
Heyman, Melvin B
The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition presents an updated review of lactose intolerance in infants, children, and adolescents. Differences between primary, secondary, congenital, and developmental lactase deficiency that may result in lactose intolerance are discussed. Children with suspected lactose intolerance can be assessed clinically by dietary lactose elimination or by tests including noninvasive hydrogen breath testing or invasive intestinal biopsy determination of lactase (and other disaccharidase) concentrations. Treatment consists of use of lactase-treated dairy products or oral lactase supplementation, limitation of lactose-containing foods, or dairy elimination. The American Academy of Pediatrics supports use of dairy foods as an important source of calcium for bone mineral health and of other nutrients that facilitate growth in children and adolescents. If dairy products are eliminated, other dietary sources of calcium or calcium supplements need to be provided.
Success at school increases self-esteem. Any difficulty will have consequential effects on the psychological health of the subject. The conditions now prevailing in the educational institutions (mass schooling without any individual orientation before the end of college) oblige the teenager to submit to teaching methods and to the school system. School can reveal the subject's personal problems (anxiety, phobia or depression), but may equally create pathology by not recognising the heterogeneity of individual development and differences in cognitive functioning. In adolescence, the ego is particularly vulnerable. Anything that may induce its instability can create behavioural problems (instability, aggressiveness, inhibition) or problems of thought (anxiety links, difficulties in abstraction). In order to cope with such a haemorrhage of the ego, the adolescent may have recourse to certain behaviours (e.g. use of drugs leading to dependence). So it is important the know well the links between school failure and behavioural problems or drug consumption because, in one way or another, by their sanction or by lack of motivation, these situations will lead very quickly to school disengagement, which in turn leads to the breakdown of the ego.
Radzimirska-Graczyk, Monika; Chalcarz, Wojciech
The aim of this study was to assess habits related to eating meals in children and adolescents who attended sports schools. The days with training and the days free of training were analysed separately. The questionnaires on the number and frequency of eating meals were filled in by 141 children and adolescents who practised fencing and attended sports classes in primary and secondary schools. The influence of gender and age on the number and frequency of eating meals was analysed by means of the SPSS 12.0 PL for Windows computer programme. The studied children's and adolescents' habits related to eating meals were highly unfavourable, especially in females from secondary school, mainly due to a very low percentage of students who ate meals regularly, lunch in particular. Boys ate more meals than girls. Especially disconcerting was a very low number of meals eaten by females from secondary school, which may imply a risk of anorexia. Children and adolescents who attend sports schools should be educated on nutrition and the relation between food habits, nutritional status and achieving success in sport. Females from secondary schools should be informed about the danger of anorexia.
Maxwell, Lorraine E.
Discusses the rise of posture-related discomfort and injury in children using computers in their classrooms and explores the research in the area. Recommends greater effort in encouraging school furniture manufacturers to create ergonomically appropriate computer workstations. Advice on what children can do to lessen musculoskeletal discomfort…
Mostafa A. Abolfotouh
Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the relationship between high blood pressure (HBP and obesity in Egyptian adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 1500 adolescents (11–19 years in Alexandria, Egypt, was conducted. Resting BP was measured and measurements were categorized using the 2004 fourth report on blood pressure screening recommendations. Additional measures included height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences. Obesity was determined based on BMI, waist circumference (WC and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR indicators. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association between BP and obesity. Results. Prevalence rates of prehypertension and hypertension were 5.7% and 4.0%, respectively. Obesity was seen in 34.6%, 16.1%, 4.5%, and 16.7% according to BMI, WHR, WC, and WHtR, respectively. Adjusting for confounders, HBP was significantly associated with overall obesity based on BMI (OR=2.18, 95%, CI=1.38-3.44 and central obesity based on WC (OR=3.14, 95%, CI=1.67-5.94. Conclusion. Both overall obesity and central obesity were significant predictors of HBP in Egyptian adolescents.
Full Text Available Objective: Suicide is a complex phenomenon associated with pyschological, biological and social factors. Suicide has been reported as the second or third most common cause of death in children and adolescents worldwide. Suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents will be discussed in the frame of motivational definition. Method: Published research studies and reviews on children and adolescent suicides have been reviewed. Furthermore, classical papers have been searched to obtain knowledge about suicide behavior. Results: It is reported that firearms have been the most important effect in adolescent suicide. Both fatal and nonfatal suicidal behaviors have been linked consistently to negative parent-child relationships, depression, substance use, overall number of life stressors, gender and impulsive behaviors. Discussion: Future efforts to investigate suicidal behavior should use new research methodologies that may lead to identification of the interactions between environmental factors and constitutional and biological factors that are associated with risk for suicidal behavior. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(2.000: 88-97
Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to investigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphygmomanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was higher in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in females. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold values for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to combine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.
Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima
Exposure to terror seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. School mental health professionals cope simultaneously with the counselling needs of their clients and with their own fears and doubts. This report is based on two studies. The first study was concerned with the perceptions of Israeli adolescents of the place of…
Numerous studies have documented the determinants of sexual behavior among adolescents in less-developed countries, yet relatively little is known about the influence of social contexts such as school and neighborhood. Using two waves of data from a school-based longitudinal survey conducted in Malawi from 2011-13, this study advances our understanding of the relationship between school-level socioeconomic contexts and adolescents' sexual activity. The results from two-level multinomial logistic regression models suggest that high socioeconomic composition of the student body in school decreases the odds of initiation of sexual activity, independent of other important features of schools and individual-level characteristics. This study also finds that the association between school socioeconomic composition and sexual activity is statistically significant among male adolescents but not female adolescents, suggesting that schools' socioeconomic contexts may be more relevant to male adolescents' initiation of sexual activity.
Sizane, Nongazi Florinah; Van Rensburg, Esme
The study investigated the mutual perception of relationships between mothers with day and night shift work and their teenage children. A cross-sectional survey using purposeful sampling was used. Two groups of 35 mothers and their adolescent children completed a Parent-Adolescent Relationship-Questionnaire (Robin, Koepke, Moye & Gerhardstein, 20(19). Data was analysed by means of SAS and SPSS programmes. Findings show that adolescent children of day shift working mothers perceive communicati...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Body Mass Index (BMI in boys and girls is predicted by parental BMI, age and occupation. OBJECTIVE Correlation of BMI among children and adolescents in Banjaluka region (Bosnia and Herzegovina and parental age, BMI, parents’ educational level and occupation, as well as the number of family members were investigated as the possible determinants of overweight and obesity in childhood. METHOD The study included 1204 children and adolescents (578 males, 626 females, 6-17 years old from primary and secondary schools in the Banjaluka region. BMI was calculated from height and weight using the standard formula. Each subject along with his parents answered the questionnaire that contained information about parents’ height and weight, educational level and occupation, as well as the number of family members. RESULTS In all studied children, the prevalence of overweight was 12.2% and of obesity 6.1%. Strong positive correlation was found between parental BMI and age (older than 40 years in males and females (p<0.001, while parental higher BMI and higher educational level had positive correlation only in males (p<0.001. The number of family members showed negative correlation with overweight/obesity only in females. CONCLUSION The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children’s population in the Banjaluka region is 12.2% and 6.1%, respectively. There is a positive correlation of overweight and obesity in children with parental overweight and obesity, as well as older age, and parental higher educational level.
Szombat, M; François, A
The schoolbullying is a neologism which designates " a long-term violence, physical or psychological, perpetrated by one or more attackers (bully) against a victim (bullied) in a relationship of domination "(C. Blaya). This term is primarily used to describe repeated harassment behavior in schools. This phenomenon concerns one child out of seven in schools. Difficult to detect, it can have more or less serious psychological impacts (medium or long-term effects), such as dropout or anxious school refusal, loss of self esteem, major depressive disorder, suicide, eating disorders and leakage to substance abuse or alcohol. Its therapeutic follow-up is multidisciplinary and difficult. The aim of this paper is to draw the attention of health professionals to these new phenomena of violence in order to detect them as early as possible and thus provide optimal care.
Agoston, Anna Monica; Gray, Laura S; Logan, Deirdre E
Children with chronic pain frequently experience impairment in the school setting, but we do not yet understand how unique these struggles are to children with primary pain conditions compared to peers with disease-related pain or those without chronic pain symptoms. The objective of this study is to examine school functioning, defined as school attendance rates, overall quality of life in the school setting, and school nurse visits among adolescents with primary pain conditions, those with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-related pain, and healthy peers. Two hundred and sixty adolescents participated in the study, including 129 with primary pain conditions, 61 with JIA, and 70 healthy comparison adolescents. They completed self- and parent-reported measures of school function. Findings show that as a group, youth with primary pain conditions reported more school absences, lower quality of life in the school setting, and more frequent school nurse visits compared to both adolescents with JIA-related pain and healthy peers. We conclude that compared to those who experience pain specific to a disease process, adolescents with primary pain conditions may face unique challenges in the school setting and may require more support to help them succeed in school in spite of pain.
Riley, Margaret; Bluhm, Brian
High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked by physicians. Normal blood pressure values for children and adolescents are based on age, sex, and height, and are available in standardized tables. Prehypertension is defined as a blood pressure in at least the 90th percentile, but less than the 95th percentile, for age, sex, and height, or a measurement of 120/80 mm Hg or greater. Hypertension is defined as blood pressure in the 95th percentile or greater. A secondary etiology of hypertension is much more likely in children than in adults, with renal parenchymal disease and renovascular disease being the most common. Overweight and obesity are strongly correlated with primary hypertension in children. A history and physical examination are needed for all children with newly diagnosed hypertension to help rule out underlying medical disorders. Children with hypertension should also be screened for other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia, and should be evaluated for target organ damage with a retinal examination and echocardiography. Hypertension in children is treated with lifestyle changes, including weight loss for those who are overweight or obese; a healthy, low-sodium diet; regular physical activity; and avoidance of tobacco and alcohol. Children with symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, target organ damage, diabetes, or persistent hypertension despite nonpharmacologic measures should be treated with antihypertensive medications. Thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers are safe, effective, and well tolerated in children.
Vidya G. S
Full Text Available Adolescence, a vital stage of growth and development, marks the period of transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescents are intensely influenced by their peers and outside world in general. The evidence shows that one in five adolescents experience significant symptoms of emotional distress and nearly one in ten are emotionally impaired. The most common disorders among adolescents include depression, anxiety disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse disorder. Life skills education can be an important vehicle to equip young people to enable productive participation in society. OBJECTIVE To assess the knowledge regarding life skills among adolescents. METHODOLOGY A cross-sectional study was conducted among high school children (adolescents in Mysore city. Information regarding knowledge of life skills among study subjects was collected by administering the questionnaire to all the students studying in 8 th , 9 th and 10 th standard. Data was entered in an excel sheet and analysed using SPSS software 22.0. RESULTS Among 347 subjects included in the study, mean age of the students was 14.5+2.9 years. Life skills score was low (438 among 27.8% of the students. 94% of the students felt that there is need for life skills based education in the schools. CONCLUSION Around 1/5 th of the adolescents having lower life skills knowledge scores imply that there is a need for school based life skills education among adolescents.
Strasburger, Victor C
Obesity has become a worldwide public health problem. Considerable research has shown that the media contribute to the development of child and adolescent obesity, although the exact mechanism remains unclear. Screen time may displace more active pursuits, advertising of junk food and fast food increases children's requests for those particular foods and products, snacking increases while watching TV or movies, and late-night screen time may interfere with getting adequate amounts of sleep, which is a known risk factor for obesity. Sufficient evidence exists to warrant a ban on junk-food or fast-food advertising in children's TV programming. Pediatricians need to ask 2 questions about media use at every well-child or well-adolescent visit: (1) How much screen time is being spent per day? and (2) Is there a TV set or Internet connection in the child's bedroom?
Predictors of parental home and school involvement for high school adolescents were examined within two groups of urban African American parents from various socioeconomic levels. Home involvement was defined as parent-adolescent communication about school and learning, while school involvement was defined in terms of parent attendance and…
Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the reproductive health issues associated with adolescence and their readiness to avail services like Adolescent Friendly Clinic (AFC among rural school going children. Materials and Methods: A quantitative survey was carried out using a self-administered structured questionnaire among 768 (428 boys and 340 girls students from 15 schools by systematic random sampling from schools (3 schools from 5 talukas. Focus group discussions, 5 each with adolescent boys and girls and teachers were held. Results and Discussion: Only 31% of the boys and 33% of the girls mentioned that they had heard about contraception. More than half of the adolescent boys and girls knew correctly about various modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS. A large proportion of boys and girls have mentioned changes in the opposite sex such as increase in height, change in voice, breast development, and growth of facial hair, growth of hair in private parts, onset of menstruation in girls, etc. Nearly 70% of adolescents were ready to use AFC. Teachers perceived that adolescents become curious about the changes taking place in them, but they lack information and opportunities for open-discussions to get answers to their queries related to reproductive health. They are willing to take help from teachers but teachers are not equipped with knowledge nor are they comfortable discussing these issues with their students. Recommendations: Information on the human reproductive system and related issues on reproductive health need special attention. Teachers′ sensitization to "adolescent health care" is required.
Pera, Pilar Isla
DM 1 can occur at any age, but its higher incidence seen in under 15 years of age with greater frequency in age preschool and especially prepuberal. It represents about 10 of the total number of forms of DM and is one of chronic disturbances more frequent in children and adolescents. The destruction of the pancreatic cells involves a total deficit of insulin in these patients by requiring treatment with insulin from the time of diagnosis.
Green, Antoinette; Kabbouche, Marielle; Kacperski, Joanne; Hershey, Andrew; O'Brien, Hope
The diagnosis and management of migraine headaches can be challenging in children and adolescents. The description of migraine in this population may include symptoms that are not typically described in adults. Treatment options for pediatric migraine is increasing, however remain limited. This article will go through the key components to diagnosing migraine in pediatric patients as well as give options for short and long-term management.
Koyuncuoğlu Güngör, Neslihan
Obesity among children, adolescents and adults has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century. The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased remarkably over the past 3 decades. The growing prevalence of childhood obesity has also led to appearance of obesity-related comorbid disease entities at an early age. Childhood obesity can adversely affect nearly every organ system and often causes serious consequences, including hypertension, dyslipidem...
Gissel, S.; Mortensen, Jens Tølbøll; Juul, S.
in North Jutland County, Denmark were evaluated for hearing ability by a review of 1,605 school health records. We found a higher prevalence of impaired hearing ability in children who started school 1987 and 1997 compared to those who started school 1977. Reduced hearing was typically at high frequencies......Since previous studies have shown reduced hearing ability in children and adolescents at school start, this study was undertaken to evaluate the hearing ability in Danish children at the time of start and end of school. Children starting school in 1977, 1987, and 1997 from four minor municipalities....... At the end of school, hearing ability of the year group 1977 was just as poor as for the year group 1987. Whether reduced hearing can influence the learning abilities of these children should be evaluated by further studies including information on the exposure to noise....
Winsper, Catherine; Wolke, Dieter; Bryson, Alex; Thompson, Andrew; Singh, Swaran P.
Background: Recently, school mobility was identified as a risk factor for psychotic symptoms in early adolescence. The extent to which this risk continues into late adolescence and the trajectories via which this risk manifests remain unexplored. Methods: Psychotic symptoms in 4,720 adolescents aged 18 were ascertained by trained psychologists…
Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley
This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…
Fuller, LaShonda B.
Adolescence is a challenging time for many young persons. Navigating the academic, personal/social, and career planning challenges associated with adolescence indeed is challenging even with excellent school, family, and community support. For those adolescents struggling with substance use and abuse, these challenges become even greater. School…
Flory, Kate; Malone, Patrick S; Lamis, Dorian A
Although a large body of research suggests that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for cigarette smoking during adolescence compared with their non-ADHD peers, much less research has examined why. The current study addressed this gap in the literature by examining middle school adjustment, broadly defined, as a possible mediator of the relation between childhood ADHD symptoms and cigarette smoking during middle adolescence (10th grade). Longitudinal data were collected from a community sample of 754 youth using self-report and parent report along with school records, and a novel statistical technique was used in the process of testing for mediation. Consistent with hypotheses, school adjustment was found to mediate the relation between childhood ADHD symptoms and later cigarette smoking, even after controlling for early externalizing problems. Results have implications for etiological theories of adolescent deviant behavior and suggest that successful smoking prevention programs targeting youth with ADHD should include a school adjustment component.
Pizarro, Andreia Nogueira; Schipperijn, Jasper; Andersen, Henriette Bondo
-based and effective interventions. The purpose of this study is to explore the travel to school behavior using an objective methodology. Methods 155 adolescents (mean age 15.9±1.1 years) wore an accelerometer and a GPS for 7 consecutive days. Home and school addresses were geocoded to identify home-school trips....... The web-based tool PALMS was used to combine GPS and accelerometer data, categorize Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) and classify trip mode of home-school trips into: walking, bicycling or vehicle. Results 609 trips were identified as home-school trips. Walking was the most frequent trip mode...... (68.8%) whereas bicycling was less common (14.4%). Median home–school walking trip length was 0.9 km and 96.7% of the trips were under 2.0 km. Near 80% of the total walking trip time(to or from school) was in MVPA and contributed on average with 12(±5.6) min to daily recommendations. Differences were...
Jermolajew, Anna M.; Newhouse, C. Paul
Over the past decade there has been an explosion in the provision of computing facilities in schools for student use. However, there is concern that the development of these facilities has often given little regard to the ergonomics of the design for use by children, particularly adolescents. This paper reports on a study that investigated the…
Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusson, Jon; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.
Background: Collection of valid and reliable surveillance data as a basis for school health promotion and education policy and practice for children and adolescence is of great importance. However, numerous methodological and practical problems arise in the planning and collection of such survey data that need to be resolved in order to ensure the…
Kuchma, V R
The National Strategy defines the main directions and objectives of public policy in the interests of children and the key mechanisms for its implementation. The strategy is based on the universally recognized principles and norms of international law. Implementation of the National Strategy will be realized in the following areas: Family Child Welfare Policy, availability to quality education and training, cultural development, and information security of children, child-friendly health care, and healthy lifestyle; equal opportunities for children in need of special care of the State, the creation of protection and safeguarding the rights and interests of children and child-friendly justice, and children - members of the realization of National Strategy. School health care is intended to be actively involved in two directions: availability to quality education and training, cultural development, and information security of children, health care, child-friendly and healthy lifestyle. The main tasks in the part of hygiene and children's health are: state support for the construction of new preschool educational institutions and the development of all forms of safe preschool education, including non-state sector, providing for every upperclassman safe choice of training profile corresponding to his inclinations and life plans, as well as the functional possibilities and health state; providing quality psychological, correctional and pedagogical aid to children in educational institutions; renewal of forms and methods of control of child neglect, drug addiction, alcoholism, crime, prostitution; the development of effective mechanisms in prevention of deviant behavior in childhood; the creation and implementation of training programs for children and adolescents on rules of safety behavior in the World Wide Web, prevention of Internet addiction; the introduction of the system for monitoring of the educational environment; the creation of portals and sites accumulating
... death among children and teens. THE TOP THREE CAUSES OF DEATH BY AGE GROUP 0 to 1 year: Developmental and genetic conditions that were present at birth Conditions due to premature birth (short gestation) Health problems of the mother ...
Rukundo, Aloysius; Kibanja, Grace; Steffens, Karl
Introduction: Psychoactive substance use among adolescents influences behavioral and cognitive processes and is associated with adolescents' performance in school. We therefore sought to investigate association of PASU with adolescents' school performance. Methods: We employed quantitative methods of data collection and analysis. To test the…
Full Text Available Background: Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. Design: In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different communities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy (e.g. fruits, vegetables, and fish and unhealthy (e.g. sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and crisps food items, questions of meal frequency, and four questions regarding behavioral problems at school. Results: Having breakfast regularly was significantly associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems (OR: 0.29 (0.15 − 0.55, p≤0.001. A high intake of unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened soft drinks (OR: 2.8 (1.06 − 7.42, p=0.03 and sweets (OR: 2.63 (1.39 − 4.98, p=0.003, was significantly associated with increased odds of behavioral problems. At the same time, a high intake of fruits was associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems in Norwegian adolescents (OR: 0.30 (0.10 − 0.87, p=0.03. All ORs are adjusted for sex and BMI. Conclusions: This study shows that having an optimal diet and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents. Hence, it is important to improve the dietary intake and meal pattern of Norwegian adolescents. The cross-sectional design of this study limits any causal interpretations of the results of the study.
Yone Gonçalves de Moura
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated to frequent and heavy drug use among street children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. A sample of 2,807 street children and adolescents from the 27 Brazilian state capital cities was analyzed. A World Health Organization questionnaire for non-students was adapted for use in Brazil. Data analysis was performed using logistic regression and decision tree models. Factors inversely associated with frequent and heavy drug use were: being age nine to 11 years (OR = 0.1; school attendance (OR = 0.3; daily time (one to five hours spent on the streets (OR = 0.3 and 0.4; not sleeping on the streets (OR = 0.4; being on the streets for less than one year (OR = 0.4; maintenance of some family bonds (OR = 0.5; presence on the streets of a family member (OR = 0.6; not suffering domestic violence (OR = 0.6; being female (OR = 0.8. All of these variables were significant at the p < 0.05 level. The findings suggest that being younger, having family bonds and engagement in school are important protective factors that affect drug use among this population and should be considered in the formulation of public policies.
Elgar, Frank J.; Pförtner, Timo Kolja; Moor, Irene; De Clercq, Bart; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Currie, Candace
Background Information about trends in adolescent health inequalities is scarce, especially at an international level. We examined secular trends in socioeconomic inequality in five domains of adolescent health and the association of socioeconomic inequality with national wealth and income inequalit
Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.
Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…
Siyez, Digdem Müge; Bas, Asli Uz
The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge of Turkish high school counsellors and counselling students about adolescence suicide. The sample consisted of 71 school counsellors and 82 third and fourth year psychology counselling students who completed the Adolescent Suicide Behavior Questionnaire. The results showed that although…
This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…
Lucinéia de Pinho; Marise Fagundes Silveira; Ana Cristina de Carvalho Botelho; Antônio Prates Caldeira
OBJECTIVE: to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents attending public municipal schools in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to test the association between these patterns and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status of the adolescents. METHODS: this was an analytical, cross-sectional study with randomized sample of 474 adolescents of both genders, between 11 and 17 years of age, attending municipal public schools in the urban area of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. The parents p...
Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances
The study examined the fears and anxieties of Chinese deaf and hard of hearing children and adolescents, and the ability of parents and teachers to report the presence of these fears and anxieties. Chinese deaf youth are at risk due to a lack of trained teachers, an overemphasis on oral education in schools, negative stereotypes, and parental…
DeVita, Stefanie F.; Vranesich, Patricia A.; Boulton, Matthew L.
Objectives. We examined the effect of Michigan’s new school rules and vaccine coadministration on time to completion of all the school-required vaccine series, the individual adolescent vaccines newly required for sixth grade in 2010, and initiation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series, which was recommended but not required for girls. Methods. Data were derived from the Michigan Care Improvement Registry, a statewide Immunization Information System. We assessed the immunization status of Michigan children enrolled in sixth grade in 2009 or 2010. We used univariable and multivariable Cox regression models to identify significant associations between each factor and school completeness. Results. Enrollment in sixth grade in 2010 and coadministration of adolescent vaccines at the first adolescent visit were significantly associated with completion of the vaccines required for Michigan’s sixth graders. Children enrolled in sixth grade in 2010 had higher coverage with the newly required adolescent vaccines by age 13 years than did sixth graders in 2009, but there was little difference in the rate of HPV vaccine initiation among girls. Conclusions. Education and outreach efforts, particularly regarding the importance and benefits of coadministration of all recommended vaccines in adolescents, should be directed toward health care providers, parents, and adolescents. PMID:24922144
Grivas, Theodoros B; Vasiliadis, Elias S; Koufopoulos, Georgios; Segos, Dimitrios; Triantafyllopoulos, Georgios; Mouzakis, Vasilios
The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting position of 2071 children and adolescents (1099 boys and 972 girls) aged from 5 to 18 years old were studied. The angle of trunk rotation (ATR) was measured, in order to quantify the existing trunk asymmetry. Children and adolescents were divided in two groups according to the severity of trunk asymmetry. In the first group asymmetry was 1 to 6 degrees and in the second group was 7 or more degrees. Radiographic and leg length inequality evaluation were also performed in a number of children. The mean frequency of symmetric (ATR = 0 degrees) boys and girls was 67.06% and 65.01% for the standing screening position and 76.5% and 75.1% for the sitting position, respectively. The mean difference of frequency of asymmetry (ATR > 0 degrees) at standing minus sitting forward bending position for boys and girls was 10.22% and 9.37%, respectively. The mean frequency of asymmetry of 7 or more degrees was 3.23% for boys and 3.92% for girls at the standing forward bending position and 1.62% and 2.21% at the sitting, respectively. Girls are found to express higher frequency of asymmetry than boys. Right trunk asymmetry was more common than left. The sitting position is the preferred screening position for examining the rib or loin hump during school screening as it demonstrates the best correlation with the spinal deformity exposing the real trunk asymmetry.
Full Text Available Abstract The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting position of 2071 children and adolescents (1099 boys and 972 girls aged from 5 to 18 years old were studied. The angle of trunk rotation (ATR was measured, in order to quantify the existing trunk asymmetry. Children and adolescents were divided in two groups according to the severity of trunk asymmetry. In the first group asymmetry was 1 to 6 degrees and in the second group was 7 or more degrees. Radiographic and leg length inequality evaluation were also performed in a number of children. The mean frequency of symmetric (ATR = 0 degrees boys and girls was 67.06% and 65.01% for the standing screening position and 76.5% and 75.1% for the sitting position, respectively. The mean difference of frequency of asymmetry (ATR > 0 degrees at standing minus sitting forward bending position for boys and girls was 10.22% and 9.37%, respectively. The mean frequency of asymmetry of 7 or more degrees was 3.23% for boys and 3.92% for girls at the standing forward bending position and 1.62% and 2.21% at the sitting, respectively. Girls are found to express higher frequency of asymmetry than boys. Right trunk asymmetry was more common than left. The sitting position is the preferred screening position for examining the rib or loin hump during school screening as it demonstrates the best correlation with the spinal deformity exposing the real trunk asymmetry.
Russo, Paolo M; Bruni, Oliviero; Lucidi, Fabio; Ferri, Raffaele; Violani, Cristiano
Sleep habits and circadian preference (morningness/eveningness, M/E) have been extensively analyzed in adolescents and young adults, while few studies were conducted on children and early adolescents. Aim of the present study was to investigate the developmental changes of circadian preference and to analyze its relationship with sleep habits, sleep problems and circadian preference in a large sample by means of a school-based survey. One thousand seventy-three participants (50.8% boys and 49.2% girls; mean age = 10.6; range = 8-14 years), recruited from four schools randomly extracted within the district of Rome, completed a modified version of School Sleep Habits Survey developed by Carskadon et al. The questionnaire included items about sleep habits during schooldays and weekends; a Sleepiness Scale; a Sleep-Wake Problems Behaviour Scale; a Morningness/Eveningness scale. The results show a consistent age-related change in sleep habits, particularly in the weekends. The difference in sleep duration between schooldays and weekends increases linearly with age. No gender difference was observed in morningness/eveningness, while a significant linear increase in evening preference was found with increasing ages. M/E total scores correlated significantly with both self-reported sleep/wake problems and daytime sleepiness indicating a higher prevalence of sleep complaints in evening-type subjects. Overall, the present results support the existence of consistent age-related changes in sleep habits and M/E dimension in the 8- to 14-year age range.
Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of overweight and adiposity among children and adolescents aged three to 17 years is 15%, 6.3% (800,000 of these are obese. Scientific background: Obese children and adolescents have an increased body fat ratio. The reasons for overweight are – among others – sociocultural factors, and a low social status as determined by income and educational level of the parents. The consequences of adiposity during childhood are a higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and increased mortality in adulthood. Possible approaches to primary prevention in children and adolescents are measures taken in schools and kindergarten, as well as education and involvement of parents. Furthermore, preventive measures geared towards changing environmental and living conditions are of particular importance. Research questions: What is the effectiveness and efficiency of different measures and programs (geared towards changing behaviour and environmental and living conditions for primary prevention of adiposity in children and adolescents, with particular consideration of social aspects? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,649 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 31 publications were included in the assessment. Results: The majority of interventions evaluated in primary studies take place in schools. As the measures are mostly multi-disciplinary and the interventions are often not described in detail, no criteria of success for the various interventions can be extrapolated from the reviews assessed. An economic model calculation for Australia, which compares the efficiency of different interventions (although on the basis of low evidence comes to the conclusion that the intervention with the greatest impact on society is the reduction of TV-ads geared towards children for foods and drinks rich in fat and sugar. There is a significant correlation between
Stehbens, James A.
Studies relating to the more popular explanations of enuresis, are discussed and research relating to each is presented. Evidence supporting, or failing to support, treatment methods is also presented. Research possibilities for the school psychologist are suggested. (Author)
Maria D Rekliti
Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome (MS is consisted by a group of interrelated disorders increasing the risk for cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes causing diseases and deaths in modern world.Purpose of the current study is to relate the evaluation of the metabolic syndrome parameters in clinical practice.Data sources and methods: The methodology which was used in this study included Greek and international bibliography review with the help of key-words.Results: Bibliography review showed that the criteria for Metabolic Syndrome are not well-defined and vary according to age, gender and race, while new risk factors are identified every day. Unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity are the basic features of obesity in childhood and adolescence. As a result, the frequency of metabolic disorders constantly increases in overweight or obese children and adolescents and therefore it is necessary for the diagnosis of the syndrome.Conclusions: Metabolic Syndrome management should be based upon an individualized risk assessment and not upon a simple summation and effort in getting treatment separately for each metabolic disorder. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of children and adolescents with multiple risk factors will contribute substantially to prevention by adopting a healthy lifestyle and reducing future syndrome complications.
Full Text Available Fasting during the month of Ramadan, the ninth month of Islamic lunar calendar, is obligatory for all healthy adult and adolescent Muslims from the age of 12 years. Fasting starts from early dawn (Sohur/Sehri till sunset (Iftar. During this period one has to abstain from eating and drinking. Islam has allowed many categories of people to be exempted from fasting, for example, young children, travelers, the sick, the elderly, pregnant, and lactating women. According to expert opinion, patients with type 1 diabetes (type 1 DM who fast during Ramadan are at a very high risk to develop adverse events. However, some experienced physicians are of the opinion that fasting during Ramadan is safe for type 1 DM patients, including adolescents and older children, with good glycemic control who do regular self-monitoring and are under close professional supervision. The strategies to ensure safety of type 1 diabetic adolescents who are planning to fast include the following: Ramadan-focused medical education, pre-Ramadan medical assessment, following a healthy diet and physical activity pattern, modification in insulin regimen, and blood glucose monitoring as advised by the physician.
Kocher, Mininder S; Kim, Young-Jo; Millis, Michael B; Mandiga, Rahul; Siparsky, Patrick; Micheli, Lyle J; Kasser, James R
Hip arthroscopy has become an established procedure for certain indications in adults, but experience in children and adolescents has been more limited. The purpose of this study is to report the early-term results of hip arthroscopy in children and adolescents. A consecutive case series of 54 hip arthroscopies in 42 patients 18 years old and younger over a 3-year period at a tertiary-care children's hospital with a minimum of 1 year of follow-up was reviewed. Patients were assessed with the modified Harris hip score (HHS) before and after surgery. Overall results and results by common diagnoses were analyzed. Indications for surgery included isolated labral tear (n = 30), Perthes disease (n = 8), hip dysplasia with labral tear after prior periacetabular osteotomy (n = 8), inflammatory arthritis (n = 3), spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (n = 2), avascular necrosis (n = 1), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (n = 1), and osteochondral fracture (n = 1). Overall, there was a significant improvement in HHS from 53.1 to 82.9 (P < 0.001), with 83% of patients improved. By diagnosis, significant improvement in HHS was seen for patients with isolated labral tears undergoing labral debridement (before surgery 57.6; after surgery 89.2; P < 0.001), for patients with Perthes disease undergoing chondroplasty and loose body excision (before surgery 49.5; after surgery 80.1; P < 0.001), and for patients with hip dysplasia after prior periacetabular osteotomy undergoing labral debridement (before surgery 51.8; after surgery 79.8; P < 0.001). Complications included transient pudendal nerve palsy (n = 3), instrument breakage (n = 1), and recurrent labral tear (n = 3). Hip arthroscopy in children and adolescents appears to be safe and efficacious for certain indications in the short term.
... important role model in her life. For some children, however, school may cause frustration and stress. Learning disabilities can interfere with the joy of learning. Poor study habits and/or a lack of motivation can create academic difficulties. Sometimes youngsters may have ...
Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim
This study described the aerobic capacity [VO(2peak) (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level
Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim
This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…
Guerra, S.; Teixeira-Pinto, A.; Ribeiro, J. C.
The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relationship between physical activity (PA) and obesity in Portuguese children and adolescents.......The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relationship between physical activity (PA) and obesity in Portuguese children and adolescents....
Masi, Gabriele; Millepiedi, Stefania; Mucci, Maria; Poli, Paola; Bertini, Nicoletta; Milantoni, Luca
Objective: There are insufficient data on generalized anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. Symptoms and comorbidity of generalized anxiety disorder are described as a function of age, gender, and comorbidity in a consecutive series of referred children and adolescents. Method: One hundred fifty-seven outpatients (97 males and 60 females,…
Souza, Fabiano Inácio de; Di Ferreira, Rodrigo Borges; Labres, Daniel; Elias,Rafael; de Sousa, Ana Patrícia Miranda; Pereira,Rafaela Ernesto
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in school children from 10 to 14 years in public schools in Goiânia, GO, Brazil. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 476 students were randomly selected from 5 public schools, from a total of 33,343 students distributed in 162 schools. These subjects received the informed consent prior, which was returned after being signed by parents on physical examination day. We evaluated the symmetry of the shoulders, the scapul...
Levin, Kate; Inchley, Jo; Currie, Dorothy; Currie, Candace
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the health promoting school (HPS) on adolescent well-being. Design/methodology/approach: Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland were analysed using multilevel linear regression analyses for outcome measures: happiness, confidence,…
Mott, J A; Crowe, P A; Richardson, J; Flay, B
This paper looks at the independent contributions of the setting and the intensity of after-school self-care to the cigarette smoking behaviors of 2352 ninth graders. We controlled for a variety of correlates of adolescent cigarette smoking that have not been accounted for in existing research. Results indicated that the intensity of the self-care experience was significantly associated with adolescent smoking behavior irrespective of the typical setting of the adolescents' after-school activities. Our findings also indicated that a nonpermissive parenting style, family rule-setting about cigarettes, and especially, in absentia parental monitoring may reduce the likelihood of cigarette smoking among latchkey and nonlatchkey adolescents alike. However, latchkey youth were not any more sensitive to these aspects of parenting than other adolescents. This is consistent with the notion that targeting these aspects of the home lives of all adolescents has the potential to reduce smoking behaviors among latchkey as well as nonlatchkey children.
Juliane Pagliari Araujo
Full Text Available The study aimed to identify the knowledge of caregivers of children and adolescents about the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and their perceptions regarding changes in daily and family life, after participating in sessions of Tui Na massage. Semistructured interviews in the months from September to November 2013 were held, with nine caregivers of children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD who participated in massage sessions. The data were subjected to content analysis with a qualitative approach. It was identified that some mothers have little knowledge about the disorder of their children. Regarding the participation of children and adolescents, it was related a positive response, an immediate valuable result, with improved communication with family, more tranquility after the massage, restful sleep, improved mood and better performance school. The caregivers of children and adolescents related that their participation in the Tui Na massage sessions was productive, with acceptance by them with positive changes in daily and family life. The study participants pointed that daily difficulties of ADHD approach them to their son, decreasing anxiety and improving the quality life for the whole family. Sharing information between health professionals and family of children and adolescents about ADHD is important to understand the pathology, as well as for monitoring and further treatment.
De Clercq, Bart; Pfoertner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J; Hublet, Anne; Maes, Lea
We sought to determine whether social capital at the individual-, school- and community-level can explain variance in adolescent smoking and accounts for social inequalities in smoking. We collected data as part of the 2005/6 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of high school pupils in Belgium (Flanders). Social capital was assessed by structural and cognitive components of family social capital, a four-factor school social capital scale and a cognitive community social capital scale. We fitted non-hierarchical multilevel models to the data, with 8453 adolescents nested within a cross-classification of 167 schools and 570 communities. Significant variation in adolescent regular smoking was found between schools, but not between communities. Only structural family social capital and cognitive school social capital variables negatively related to regular smoking. No interactions between socio-economic status and social capital variables were found. Our findings suggest that previously observed community-level associations with adolescent smoking may be a consequence of unmeasured confounding. Distinguishing nested contexts of social capital is important because their associations with smoking differ.
SWADESH, EVANGELINA ARANA
SINCE ONLY ONE FOURTH OF THE POPULATION SPOKE SPANISH, THE LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION, EDUCATION BEFORE 1955 WAS ESSENTIALLY PRECLUDED FOR 150,000 MIXTECAN INDIANS LIVING IN SOUTHERN OAXACA, MEXICO. IN 1955, 7 ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS WERE ESTABLISHED BY THE NATIONAL INDIAN INSTITUTE, WITH TEACHERS FROM THE LOCAL POPULATION AND INSTRUCTION IN MIXTECO, THE…
Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W
This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs.
Mosca, Vincent S.
Flexible flatfoot is a normal foot shape that is present in most infants and many adults. The arch elevates spontaneously in most children during the first decade of life. There is no evidence that a longitudinal arch can be created in a child’s foot by any external forces or devices. Flexible flatfoot with a short Achilles tendon, in contrast to simple flexible flatfoot, is known to cause pain and disability in some adolescents and adults. Joint-preserving, deformity-correcting surgery is in...
Elizabeth Nappi Corrêa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To perform a narrative literature review to describe the availability of food retailers (groceries and eateries and their association with obesity in schoolchildren and adolescents. METHODS: The review included studies published from 2003 to 2013 listed in three databases with data on the child's school and/or home surroundings. RESULTS: There was a higher concentration of fast foods near the schools, especially high schools, public schools, or schools located in low-income regions. Moreover, children and adolescents living in areas further from convenience stores had better diets. CONCLUSION: Acknowledging the relationship between built environment and obesity by establishing scientific evidence is necessary for developing specific strategies that help to control the spread of obesity in this age group, aiming to construct healthier spaces.
CHENG-YE JI; WORKING GROUP ON OBESITY IN CHINA (WGOC)
Objective To describe the nationwide prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity, and their group variations and trends over the past 20 years in the Chinese urban population. Methods Data sets of boys and girls at the age of 7-18 years collected from the series of Chinese national surveillance on students' constitution and health (CNSSCH) between 1985 and 2000 were divided into five socioeconomic and demographic groups, while BMI classification reference proposed by Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) was used as screening reference to calculate the prevalence and trends of overweight/obesity in these groups. Results In 2000, the prevalence of obesity and overweight in boys aged 7-18 years was 11.3% and 6.5% in Beijing, 13.2% and 4.9% in Shanghai, 9.9% and 4.5% in coastal big cities, and 5.8% and 2.0% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively, while the prevalence of of obesity and overweight in girls of the same age group was 8.2% and 3.7% in Beijing, 7.3% and 2.6% in Shanghai, 5.9% and 2.8% in coastal big cities, and 4.8% and 1.7% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was low in most of the inland cities at an early stage of epidemic overweight. The epidemic manifested a gradient distribution in groups, which was closely related to socioeconomic status (SES) of the study population. However, a dramatic and steady increasing trend was witnessed among all sex-age subgroups in the five urban groups, and such a trend was stronger in boys than in girls, and much stronger in children than in adolescents. Conclusion Although China is at an early stage of epidemic obesity by and large, the prevalence of obesity in her urban population, particularly in coastal big cities has reached the average level of developed countries. The increasing trend has been rapid since early 1990s, and the increments in obesity and overweight are exceptionally high. The prospect of epidemic obesity in China is in no way optimistic
Essau, Cecilia A.; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia; Munoz, Luna C.
The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) is a 38-item self-report questionnaire which measures symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of SCAS in a large community sample of children and adolescents (N = 1,072), aged 12-17 years, in the…
Reddy, Linda A.; Richardson, Laura
Children and adolescents with emotional disturbance (ED) exhibit chronic and diverse academic, emotional, behavioral, and/or medical difficulties that pose significant challenges for their education and treatment in schools. Historically, children with ED have received fragmented inadequate interventions and services that often yielded unfavorable…
Hulgaard, Ditte Roth; Rask, Charlotte; Risør, Mette Bech
: Preliminary data from interviews conducted prior to family therapy, indicate that illness beliefs and sense of empowerment may be diverging for children and their parents, and are influenced by many factors, such as health professionals, family history, media and personal experiences. Conclusions: Increased......Background: Young patients with Functional Somatic Symptoms (FSS) are common and may present in all clinical settings. Clinical presentation varies from self–limiting to severe and disabling symptoms with impairment in several domains of daily life. Psychological treatment targeting dysfunctional...... illness beliefs and poor sense of empowerment has been shown effective for FSS in adults. In comparison current knowledge about psychological treatment and the significance of illness beliefs and empowerment in children and adolescents with severe FSS is scarce. Aims: To conduct a qualitative study which...
Erol, Ilknur; Saygi, Semra; Alehan, Füsun
Hashimoto's encephalopathy is an underdiagnosed, steroid-responsive, progressive or relapsing encephalopathy associated with high titers of serum antithyroid antibodies. Although Hashimoto's encephalopathy is well documented in adults, it is rarely observed or studied in children and adolescents. We describe the clinical and laboratory findings of four children (aged 9-15 years) with Hashimoto's encephalopathy. The clinical features of two patients at presentation included epileptic seizures and confusion. The other presenting signs included breath-holding spells, behavioral problems, psychosis, and ataxia (one patient each). During their presentation, three patients were euthyroid, and one was hyperthyroid. All patients manifested increased antithyroid antibodies, and all improved with steroid treatment. Hashimoto's encephalopathy is rarely suspected at presentation. Therefore, greater awareness of its signs by clinicians is necessary for proper diagnoses.
Gilton Marques dos Santos; Luciana Rodrigues Silva; Genoile Oliveira Santana
OBJECTIVE: To perform a sistematiy review of the literature about the nutritional impact of inflammatory bowel diseases in children and adolescents.DATA SOURCES: A systematic review was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases, with inclusion of articles in Portuguese and in English with original data, that analyzed nutritional aspects of inflammatory bowel diseases in children and adolescents. The initial search used the terms "inflammatory bowel diseases" and "children" o...
Full Text Available Globally, an estimated 3.4 million children are living with HIV, yet little is known about the effects of HIV and antiretroviral treatment (ART on the developing brain, and the neurodevelopmental and behavioural outcomes of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+ adolescents. We reviewed the literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in PHIV+ children and adolescents, and summarized the current evidence on behaviour, general cognition, specific domains, hearing and language, school performance and physical disabilities due to neurological problems. Evidence suggests that PHIV+ children do not perform as well as controls on general cognitive tests, processing speed and visual–spatial tasks, and are at much higher risk for psychiatric and mental health problems. Children with AIDS-defining diagnoses are particularly at risk for poorer outcomes. A striking finding is the lack of published data specific to the adolescent age group (10–25 years, particularly from resource-constrained countries, which have the highest HIV prevalence. In addition, extreme heterogeneity in terms of timing and source of infection, and antiretroviral experience limits our ability to summarize findings of studies and generalize results to other settings. Due to the complex nature of the developing adolescent brain, environmental influences and variation in access to ART, there is an urgent need for research on the longitudinal trajectory of neurodevelopment among children and adolescents perinatally infected with HIV, especially in high burden resource-constrained settings.
Reid Chassiakos, Yolanda Linda; Radesky, Jenny; Christakis, Dimitri; Moreno, Megan A; Cross, Corinn
Today's children and adolescents are immersed in both traditional and new forms of digital media. Research on traditional media, such as television, has identified health concerns and negative outcomes that correlate with the duration and content of viewing. Over the past decade, the use of digital media, including interactive and social media, has grown, and research evidence suggests that these newer media offer both benefits and risks to the health of children and teenagers. Evidence-based benefits identified from the use of digital and social media include early learning, exposure to new ideas and knowledge, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health promotion messages and information. Risks of such media include negative health effects on sleep, attention, and learning; a higher incidence of obesity and depression; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. This technical report reviews the literature regarding these opportunities and risks, framed around clinical questions, for children from birth to adulthood. To promote health and wellness in children and adolescents, it is important to maintain adequate physical activity, healthy nutrition, good sleep hygiene, and a nurturing social environment. A healthy Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan) that is individualized for a specific child, teenager, or family can identify an appropriate balance between screen time/online time and other activities, set boundaries for accessing content, guide displays of personal information, encourage age-appropriate critical thinking and digital literacy, and support open family communication and implementation of consistent rules about media use.
Matt Lallas; Jay Desai
Background: Wernicke encephalopathy is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) defi ciency. It is generally considered to be a disease of adult alcoholics. However, it is known to occur in the pediatric population and in non-alcoholic conditions. Data sources: We searched PubMed with the key words Wernicke, thiamine, pediatric, children and adolescents and selected publications that were deemed appropriate. Results: The global prevalence rates of hunger, poverty and resultant nutrient deprivation have decreased in the 21st century. However, several scenarios which may predispose to Wernicke encephalopathy may be increasingly prevalent in children and adolescents such as malignancies, intensive care unit stays and surgical procedures for the treatment of obesity. Other predisposing conditions include magnesium defi ciency and defects in the SLC19A3 gene causing thiamine transporter-2 deficiency. The classic triad consists of encephalopathy, oculomotor dysfunction and gait ataxia but is not seen in a majority of patients. Treatment should be instituted immediately when the diagnosis is suspected clinically without waiting for laboratory confi rmation. Common magnetic resonance findings include symmetric T2 hyperintensities in dorsal medial thalamus, mammillary bodies, periaqueductal gray matter, and tectal plate. Conclusions: Wernicke encephalopathy is a medical emergency. Delay in its recognition and treatment may lead to significant morbidity, irreversible neurological damage or even death. This article aims to raise the awareness of this condition among pediatricians.
Scheeren, Anke M; Koot, Hans M; Mundy, Peter C; Mous, Larissa; Begeer, Sander
Previous studies have shown reduced empathic responsiveness to others' emotions in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and an intellectual disability. However, age and intelligence may promote children's empathic responsiveness. Therefore, we examined the empathic responsiveness in normally intelligent school-aged children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ASD (n = 151) and in a typically developing comparison group (n = 50), using structured observations and parent reports. Based on the observations, participants' responses to the emotional displays of an interviewer were surprisingly similar. However, compared with parents from the comparison group, parents of a child with ASD reported significantly fewer empathic responses, particularly when the child received a high score on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Even though parents report a reduced empathic responsiveness in school-aged children and adolescents with ASD, it may be difficult to find these empathic limitations during brief observations in a structured setting.
Schmuck, Richard A.; Schmuck, Patricia A.
A comparison of adolescents views about school, based on data gathered 26 years apart, shows remarkable similarities. Students interviewed in 1963 were from Detroit schools while 1989 interviews were conducted in small-town schools of Texas, Missouri, and Minnesota. viewed poor teachers as lacking respect for students, unwilling to try to…
Bernstein, Gail A.; Layne, Ann E.; Egan, Elizabeth A.; Tennison, Dana M.
Objective: To compare the effectiveness of three school-based interventions for anxious children: group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for children, group CBT for children plus parent training group, and no-treatment control. Method: Students (7-11 years old) in three elementary schools (N = 453) were screened using the Multidimensional…
Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to ascertain nutritional customs of pupils in grade schools.Material and Method: Anonymous questionnaires were done to a sample of 380 children, aged 10 to 14, in 20 fourth-to eight grade classes from 2 schools in Cluj-Napoca: one from down-town, the other one from a poorer neighbourhood.Results: Almost half of students revealed to have an irregular diet. In the last month, some of them did not have enough food or money to buy it (much of them come from the poorer neighbourhood. In this latest school, a triple percent of children have a vegetable diet (no meat, in fact. The obsession to lose weight and the irregular diet has conducted to lose appetite in over 30% of girls. About 60% take vitamins or nutritional supplements. Social status as well as the irregular diet is reflected in general status: over one third feel sad, alone, useless or cry without any reason. Some of the pupils which have problems with daily food supply, think the life is hard and do not worth to live it.Conclusions: There is a wide diversity in nutritional customs of children. Some of them are due to inappropriate nutritional knowledge or a wrong perception of being on fashion as well as to social status. Although the economic conditions are difficult to change, we consider that nutrition education should still be a part of health teaching.
Ndifreke E. Udonwa
Full Text Available Background: Malaria prevention and treatment constitute an unbearable economic burden to most African countries, especially south of the Sahara, where about 500 million cases occur annually. The problem of malaria among adolescents has largely been overshadowed by the huge burden of the disease among young children. Attention to malaria among adolescents has also been diverted by the huge burden of HIV/AIDS among adolescents. Some surveys reveal a lack of knowledge and many misconceptions about the transmission and treatment of malaria, which could adversely affect malaria control measures and antimalarial therapy. Such a knowledge gap could have an adverse effect on school children, who could be used as change agents and as role models for their siblings and peers in the malaria control strategy.Objectives: To determine the malaria prevention practices of school adolescents in the coastal community of Calabar, Nigeria.Method: This was a cross-sectional survey involving secondary schools in southern Calabar. Four hundred adolescents were randomly selected from the 4565 learners in 5 out of 17 secondary schools in southern Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. A self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the respondents.Results: Most respondents (77.5% were aware that the vector transmits the malaria parasite through biting. Fewer respondents would prevent malaria attacks by clearing the vegetation in the peri-domestic environment (13.5%, filling up potholes (16.9%, opening up drainage (11%, using insecticide-treated nets (25.7% or using antimalarial drugs (11.2%. Less than one-tenth (8% would use various other methods such as not accepting unscreened blood, while only 11% obtained the information from their teachers.Conclusion: The study identified knowledge gaps among school children. There is a need to empower teachers with information about the cause of malaria and prevention strategies.
Liebert, R M
The average child born today will, by age 15, have spent more time watching television than going to school. Research has shown that heavy doses of TV violence viewing are associated with the development of aggressive attitudes and behavior. TV viewing also appears to cultivate stereotypic views of gender roles and race. Finally, television commercials often capitalize on children's naivete, and also can foster and reinforce overly materialistic attitudes. All of these adverse effects can be minimized if parents restrict the amount of overall viewing, encourage some programs and discourage others, and talk to children frequently about the meaning of what they see on television.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity not only affects physical growth and health of children but also their intellectual development, school attendance and academic performance. However, most evidences are based on studies in high income countries. Although food insecurity is common in Ethiopia, to what extent it affects school attendance and educational attainment of adolescents is not explored. We hypothesized that food insecure adolescents would be more likely to be absent from school and have lower grades attained after 1 year compared to their food secure peers. Methods We used data from 2009 adolescents in the age group of 13-17 years from two consecutive surveys of a five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. A stratified random sampling was used to select participants. Regression analyses were used to compare school absenteeism and the highest grade attained after 1 year of follow-up in food secure and insecure adolescents. The analysis was adjusted for demographic factors, reported illness and workload. Results Significantly more (33.0% food insecure adolescents were absent from school compared with their food secure peers (17.8%, P Conclusions Adolescent and household food insecurity are positively associated with school absenteeism and a lower educational attainment. Programs aiming to achieve universal access to primary education in food insecure environments should integrate interventions to ensure food security of adolescents.
The present study was aimed to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its associated factors among Bengalee children and adolescents in the Kolkata, India. A total of 1061 Bengalee school children and adolescents (610 boys and 451 girls) participated and were divided into three age groups: Group I = 8-11 years; Group II = 12-15 years and Group III = 16-18 years. Overweight and obesity were defined as: Overweight (between ≥85 th and junk foodstuffs, breakfast skip, extra consumption of salt, and computer hours. Sedentary lifestyles, including increasing fast food preferences may be responsible for increasing occurrence of pediatric and adolescent obesity in this population.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: What role should minors play in making medical decisions? The authors examined children's and adolescents' desire to be involved in serious medical decisions and the emotional consequences associated with them. METHODS: Sixty-three children and 76 adolescents were presented with a cover story about a difficult medical choice. Participants were tested in one of four conditions: (1 own informed choice; (2 informed parents' choice to amputate; (3 informed parents' choice to continue a treatment; and (4 uninformed parents' choice to amputate. In a questionnaire, participants were asked about their choices, preference for autonomy, confidence, and emotional reactions when faced with a difficult hypothetical medical choice. RESULTS: Children and adolescents made different choices and participants, especially adolescents, preferred to make the difficult choice themselves, rather than having a parent make it. Children expressed fewer negative emotions than adolescents. Providing information about the alternatives did not affect participants' responses. CONCLUSIONS: Minors, especially adolescents, want to be responsible for their own medical decisions, even when the choice is a difficult one. For the adolescents, results suggest that the decision to be made, instead of the agent making the decision, is the main element influencing their emotional responses and decision confidence. For children, results suggest that they might be less able than adolescents to project how they would feel. The results, overall, draw attention to the need to further investigate how we can better involve minors in the medical decision-making process.
Boyacioglu, Nur; Kucuk, Leyla
The purpose of this descriptive and correlational study was to determine the extent to which irrational beliefs of students in early adolescents predict test anxiety. The study sample consisted of 557 students recruited from primary schools in Turkey. The Irrational Beliefs Scale for Adolescents (IBS-A) and the Test Anxiety scale were used as…
Kranke, Derrick; Floersch, Jerry
This study investigated adolescents with a mental health diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to…
Atkins, Robert; Sulik, Michael J; Hart, Daniel; Ayres, Cynthia; Read, Nichole
Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to estimate the association of school poverty concentration to the sexual health knowledge of 6,718 adolescents. Controlling for individual socio-economic status, school poverty had modest negative effects on sexual health knowledge. Although not directly associated with sexual health knowledge, after controlling for demographic characteristics, school poverty interactions showed that sexual health knowledge was associated with higher grade point average (GPA) and age. The combination of low GPA and high-levels of school poverty was especially detrimental for students' sexual health knowledge. There are differences in the sexual health knowledge of adolescents attending low poverty and high poverty schools that can be attributed to the school environment.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity in children and adolescents is rapidly reaching epidemic proportions globally as well as in India. It is a well-recognized risk factor for adult obesity, which in turn may be the basis of various chronic diseases. So, by preventing the development of obesity in childhood can reduce the likelihood of obesity in adulthood and its health consequences. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children in Bhopal city. MATERIAL & METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study. STUDY POPULATION: Students studying in IX, X, XI, XII class in government and private schools of Bhopal STUDY PERIOD: July 2012-June 2014 (24 Months SAMPLING PROCEDURE: Multistage simple random sampling method was used to select schools from a list obtained by Ministry of education. Total 38 schools were chosen to fulfill the sample size, in which 120 students from each school were included under study. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION: Data was collected by taking anthropometric measurements like body weight, height, BMI (Body mass index, WC (waist circumference. RESULTS: In present study, 256 (5.6% students were overweight and 46 (1.0% were obese. Total 2505 (55.0% of students have waist circumferences between 70 to 85 cm, whereas only 187(4.0% students have waist circumference more than 85 cm. CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 5.6% and 1.0% respectively among school children. It was more common in girls and among students of private schools.
Full Text Available Research into the psychosocial consequences of war and political violence on children’s and adolescent’s developmental wellbeing has shown a steady increase over the last decades. Numerous studies, from differing cultures in different war zones around the world, have documented the effect on children of exposure to war atrocities. The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH 1992-1995, at the end of 20th century found the citizens of BH and the world mental health professionals and scientists unprepared to deal with the adverse consequences for the entire BH population and especially for its most vulnerable part, children and adolescents, to be able to take adequate measures of sufficient mental health care to prevent devastating consequences of severe multiple traumas. Only a few research studies were done during and after this war in BH, the United States, Sweden, Norway, the UK and Germany focusing on the relationship between war trauma, Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, suicidal thoughts, acculturation, repatriation, poverty, behavioral problems, school adjustment, relational problems of children and their mothers after deployment of war PTSD veterans and war prisoners, and treatment of psychological consequences in examined children and adolescents from BH. The major part of this paper reviewed available literature on Medline that reported national and international studies which investigated the psychological consequences of war on BH children and adolescents and several papers about children and adolescents from Srebrenica, that were not indexed on Medline, but showed very crucial results for the issue described.
Dornbusch, Sanford M.; And Others
Uses a reformation of Baumrind's typology of authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles in the context of adolescent school performance. Authoritarian and permissive parenting were negatively associated with grades; authoritative parenting was positively associated with grades. (PCB)
Melissa Maria Romero Nascimento
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perception of parents or caregivers on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity and possible factors associated with this perception. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 297 caregivers of children and adolescents with normal weight (n = 170 and with overweight/obesity (n = 127, from public and private schools in the study municipality. HRQOL scores obtained through the Child Health Questionnaire - Parent Form 50 (CHQ-PF50 were compared according to the nutritional status and gender of the children/adolescents. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value of studied variables for the variation in HRQOL scores. RESULTS: Parents of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity attributed lower HRQOL scores to their children in the following domains: physical functioning (p < 0.01; d = 0.49, self-esteem (p < 0.01; d = 0.38, parental impact-emotional (p < 0.05; d= 0.29, family cohesion (p < 0.05; d = 0.26, physical summary score (p < 0.05;d = 0.29, and psychosocial summary score (p < 0.05; d = 0.25. In the multiple regression models, the variables with the highest contribution to the variation in HRQOL scores were: in the physical functioning domain, parental impact-time (ß = 0.23; p < 0.05; self-esteem, nutritional status (ß = -0.18;p ≤ 0.01; emotional impact on parents, impact on parents' time (ß = 0.31; p < 0.05; and in family cohesion, global behavior (ß = 0.30;p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: A negative impact on HRQOL of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity was observed in the physical and psychosocial aspects. The nutritional status was the variable with the greatest contribution for the assessment the self-esteem of children and adolescents in this study.
Weed, Keri; Keogh, Deborah; Borkowski, John
The current study examined the stability of resilience in a longitudinal sample of children born to adolescent mothers. Resilience was initially assessed in 106 children at age 5 in terms of intellectual, adaptive behavior, and psychosocial competence. Children's exposure to adversity was based on an index composed of maternal social and…
Hiperlordose lombar em crianças e adolescentes de uma escola privada no Sul do Brasil: ocorrência e fatores associados Lumbar hyperlordosis in children and adolescents at a privative school in southern Brazil: occurrence and associated factors
Adriana Torres de Lemos
Full Text Available A avaliação da postura corporal durante a infância e adolescência permite a detecção de alterações em fases iniciais e a adoção de medidas preventivas. Avaliou-se a ocorrência de hiperlordose lombar e fatores associados em 467 crianças e adolescentes de 10 a 16 anos de idade de uma escola de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A hiperlordose lombar foi definida como aumento da curvatura lombar avaliada por meio de fotografia. Verificou-se 78% de ocorrência da patologia. Os fatores positivamente associados a essa alteração postural foram sexo feminino (RP = 1,08; IC95%: 1,03; 1,13, força/resistência abdominal abaixo do percentil 20 (RP = 1,10; IC95%: 1,05; 1,15 e flexibilidade abaixo do percentil 20 (RP = 1,07; IC95%: 1,01; 1,12. A hiperlordose lombar se associou negativamente à mobilidade lombar (RP = 0,90; IC95%: 0,85; 0,96 e à estatura (RP = 0,995; IC95%: 0,99; 0,999. Estratégias efetivas que melhorem os níveis de aptidão física de escolares são necessárias, tendo em vista que baixos níveis de força e flexibilidade foram associados à hiperlordose lombar.Posture assessment during childhood and adolescence allows early detection of postural disorders and adoption of preventive measures. This study evaluated the occurrence of lumbar hyperlordosis and associated factors in 467 children and adolescents aged 10 to 16 years at a school in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Lumbar hyperlordosis was defined as increased lumbar curvature evaluated by photography. Prevalence of lumbar hyperlordosis was 78%. Factors positively associated with lumbar hyperlordosis were female gender (PR = 1.08; 95%CI: 1.03; 1.13, abdominal strength below the 20th percentile (PR = 1.10; 95%CI: 1.05; 1.15, and flexibility below the 20th percentile (PR = 1.07; 95%CI: 1.01; 1.12. Lumbar hyperlordois was negatively associated with lumbar mobility (PR = 0.90; 95%CI: 0.85; 0.96 and height (PR = 0.995; 95%CI: 0.99; 0.999. Effective
Green, Benjamin P; Turner, Louise; Stevenson, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S
According to national survey data, dairy food consumption has fallen in recent years and declines further with age, especially from childhood to adolescence. Dietary surveys typically rely on retrospective dietary assessment methods and use broad age groupings (4-10 yr; 11-18 yr), making it challenging to differentiate between middle-childhood and adolescence. Consequently, there is a need to assess dairy food consumption during middle-childhood and adolescence using more robust dietary assessment tools. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe and compare patterns of dairy consumption throughout middle-childhood and adolescence. Dairy food consumption was assessed during school term-time over 4 consecutive days, including 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days, in a sample of free-living children (9-11 yr, n=40) and adolescents (15-18 yr, n=35). For children, free-living dairy intake was evaluated through parental-weighed food records, and for adolescents, a combined weighed self-reported food record and 24-h dietary recall technique was utilized. Food records were explored to determine types, amounts, and frequency of dairy food consumption, and were analyzed for differences between middle-childhood and adolescence using a between group 2×2 (age×sex) ANOVA. Descriptive data suggested that milk was the most popular dairy product consumed by both children and adolescents. Statistical analysis revealed a main effect for sex on total milk consumption (mL) and number of daily milk portions consumed. No interaction or main effect was present for any other variable. The present study indicates that independent of age, boys consumed greater amounts of milk compared with girls. Contrary to existing literature, findings suggest no difference in milk-based dairy consumption between middle-childhood and adolescence.
Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; dos Santos, Luana Caroline
This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were evaluated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p children and adolescents.
Ward, Kirsten; Quinn, Helen; Menzies, Robert; McIntyre, Peter
As adolescents have become an increasingly prominent target group for vaccination, school-based vaccination has emerged as an efficient and effective method of delivering nationally recommended vaccines to this often hard to reach group. School-based delivery of vaccines has occurred in Australia for over 80 years and has demonstrated advantages over primary care delivery for this part of the population. In the last decade school-based vaccination programs have become routine practice across all Australian states and territories. Using existing records and the recollection of experts we have compiled a history of school-based vaccination in Australia, primarily focusing on adolescents.
Regular physical activity (PA) is an important component of a healthfully lifestyle in children and adolescents. The main purpose of this dissertation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive PA promotion intervention in elementary school children. Furthermore, the effectiveness of some of the intervention components was evaluated. Sixteen elementary schools participated in the intervention study. They were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 8) and control condition (n = 8...
Beineke, John A.
"Teaching History to Adolescents: A Quest for Relevance" is an exploration of research, ideas, trends, and practices for educators who teach American history to adolescents from the middle grades through high school. Higher education faculty in history and professional education will also find the book germane to their work. Topics within the…
Full Text Available Students emotional health and bullying behavior are receiving greater attention worldwide due to their long-term effects on students' health. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived school climate, peer support, teacher support, school pressure and emotional health and bullying among adolescent school students in Jordan.A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to recruit a sample of 1166 in-school adolescents in Amman between November 2013 and January 2014. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select respondents and Health Behavior in School Aged Children questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using Pearson Correlation to detect relationships among study variables.Significant correlations (P value was ≤.05 were found between school climate including teacher and peer support and emotional health and bullying behavior of school students. School pressure was not correlated significantly with emotional health and bullying.Study findings emphasize the importance of school related factors in influencing students' emotional health and bullying behavior. This indicates that the issue of bullying and emotional health of students in Jordanian schools requires further attention, both for future research and preventive intervention.
Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Van Acker, Frederik; Savelberg, Hans; Kirschner, Paul A.
In this study, associations between objectively measured active commuting to school and cognitive performance and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents were investigated. Active commuting to school was found to be positively associated with executive functioning in adolescent girls.
J. M. Chinawa
Full Text Available Background. Adolescents are prone to various forms of behavioral problems. These behavioral issues in adolescents can have serious consequences for the adolescents. Objectives. The objectives of the study are to determine the causative factors of adolescent problems and specific manifestations. Methods. Behavioral problems were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools in southeast Nigeria from February to April, 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was developed from Health Kids Colorado Questionnaire. Results. A total of 763 subjects completed the questionnaire. Adolescents who reported to have used tobacco 3 to 5 and 6 to 9 times during the last 30 days are just 3.14% and 3.4%, respectively. Nineteen (2.49% adolescents claimed that they have had sex before but not in the last 3 months. Adolescents who attempted suicide are from 15 years and peaked at 18. Eighty-three (11% adolescents who are 15 years old attempted suicide in a year; this peaks at 17 years where 235 (30.8% committed suicide. Majority of adolescents with behavioral disorder are from the upper class family. Conclusion. This study revealed that adolescents exhibit several forms of behavioral problems.
Neff, Kristin D.; Cooper, Carey E.; Woodruff, Althea L.
Two studies examined children's and adolescents' developing perceptions of gender inequality. The first study examined perceptions of inequality among 272 early, middle, and late adolescents, focusing on the spheres of politics, business, and the home. Results indicated an age-related increase in perceptions of male dominance. Men were seen to…
Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N
Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children.
Kriechman, Avron; Salvador, Melina; Adelsheim, Steven
Because the majority of children with mental health needs are most likely to receive treatment in a school setting, there is a long history of linking child and adolescent psychiatrists to schools. Psychiatrists traditionally have been involved in assessing, diagnosing, and treating the severely mentally ill or consulting with school-based providers. With no end in sight to the dearth of child and adolescent psychiatrists, not to mention child and adolescent behavioral health providers in other disciplines, this role has been broadened in recent years by several programs in which the child and adolescent psychiatrist provides flexible, population-based, systemic, and context-specific approaches to working in schools. In this article, the authors first review some of the traditional roles for child and adolescent psychiatrists working in school mental health settings. Then 2 national programs are highlighted, which successfully integrate psychiatrist trainees into comprehensive school mental health programs. The theoretical approach to a specific community-oriented, strengths-based model for school mental health support used in New Mexico by the University of New Mexico (UNM) Psychiatry Department's Center for Rural and Community Behavioral Health school telepsychiatry program, which supports rural and frontier school mental health programs and school-based health centers, is discussed in detail. The UNM model involves a strength-and resiliency-based collaboration between the child and adolescent psychiatrist, students, families, educators, and those who support them. The psychiatrist co-creates a "community of concern" and support for students, including not only customary participants such as parents, educators, and health care providers but also peers, families of choice, lay professionals, community gatekeepers, and others identified by the student as critical to his or her well-being. The advantages for child and adolescent psychiatry trainees being exposed to
Keller, Amélie; Bucher Della Torre, Sophie
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has increased worldwide and has reached alarming proportions. Currently, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the primary source of added sugar in the diet of children and adolescents. Contradictive findings from......-analyses by providing an up-to-date synthesis of recent evidence regarding the association between SSB consumption and weight gain, overweight, and obesity in a population of 6-month-old to 19-year-old children and adolescents. The secondary aim was to assess the quality of included reviews using the Assessment...... concluded that there was a direct association between SSBs and obesity in children and adolescents and four others did not. The quality of the included reviews was low to moderate, and the two reviews with the highest quality scores showed discrepant results. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of reviews concluded...
Makarov, I V
Observation of a group of children and adolescents, aged 8-17 years, with organic psychosis are reviewed. Four main variants, including organic schizoid psychoses; organic affective psychoses; periodic organic psychoses and organic hallucinosis, are described.
Lists Spanish language books for children ranging from wordless picture books to adolescent love stories and translated popular novels. This year's list includes publishers from Latin America, in particular Mexico's Fondo de Cultura Economica. (MMU)
View a fact sheet that has statistics as well as information about types, causes, and treatments of cancers in children and adolescents in the United States. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Sites-Types/childhood
Porrata, Jose Luis; Rosa, Abraham; Mendez, Viviana
Personality questionnaire scores obtained by children and adolescents (n = 28) receiving psychological treatment at a health facility in Humacao, Puerto Rico were examined. The scores were compared with those of regular school children of the same age, of Gurabo, Puerto Rico, who were not in treatment (n = 30). The children in treatment obtained higher scores on Psychoticism, lower scores on Extraversion, and similar scores on Neuroticism and Dissimulation by comparison with regular students.
Mora-de Sambricio, A; Garrido-Stratenwerth, E
Low back pain is a common cause of lost playing time in young athletes, and spondylolysis is its most common identifiable cause. Despite technological advances in radiology, which can lead to an early diagnosis with better prognosis, progression to spondylolisthesis is sometimes asymptomatic and may not be detected until late stages. There are wide variations, suggesting lack of consensus as regards the objective of treatment, which consists of clinical, radiological, biomechanical or functional improvement. There is also a lack of agreement regarding the ideal conservative treatment, surgical indications and need of slip reduction, and most of the established recommendations are not evidence based. We present a review of literature, which summarizes the current knowledge of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in children and adolescents.
This article explores the reported schooling experiences of 28 adolescents attending non-Jewish English secondary schools who self-identified as Jews. Their reported school peer-interactions suggest Jews attending non-Jewish schools may face several challenges from members of non-Jewish peer groups, including anti-Semitism. Their reported…
Kõlves, Kairi; de Leo, Diego
There are notable differences in suicide methods between countries. The aim of this paper is to analyse and describe suicide methods in children and adolescents aged 10-19 years in different countries/territories worldwide. Suicide data by ICD-10 X codes were obtained from the WHO Mortality Database and population data from the World Bank. In total, 101 countries or territories, have data at least for 5 years in 2000-2009. Cluster analysis by suicide methods was performed for countries/territories with at least 10 suicide cases separately by gender (74 for males and 71 for females) in 2000-2009. The most frequent suicide method was hanging, followed by poisoning by pesticides for females and firearms for males. Cluster analyses of similarities in the country/territory level suicide method patterns by gender identified four clusters for both gender. Hanging and poisoning by pesticides defined the clusters of countries/territories by their suicide patterns in youth for both genders. In addition, a mixed method and a jumping from height cluster were identified for females and two mixed method clusters for males. A number of geographical similarities were observed. Overall, the patterns of suicide methods in children and adolescents reflect lethality, availability and acceptability of suicide means similarly to country specific patterns of all ages. Means restriction has very good potential in preventing youth suicides in different countries. It is also crucial to consider cognitive availability influenced by sensationalised media reporting and/or provision of technical details about specific methods.
Artemis Kimon Tsitsika
Full Text Available Bullying is a universal problem which continues to be a serious threat to physical and emotional health of children and adolescents. This article highlights the prevalence, the common characteristics of bullies and victims, as well as the short- and long-term impact of bullying involvement. Key areas highlighted include the efficacy of bullying prevention programs, which can help health care providers to assess and provide interventions to children and adolescents affected by bullying.
Overweight and obesity are pandemic health problems, not just among the adult population, but in children and adolescents as well. This article presents information on the prevalence, causes, prevention, and treatment of overweight and obesity in young people, with particular focus on the medical and psychological complications associated with the diseases. In addition, the challenges of imaging the obese pediatric population are discussed, and public policy changes that could help reverse obesity trends in children and adolescents are introduced.
Chabanova, Elizaveta; Bille, Dorthe S; Thisted, Ebbe
The objective was to investigate T(2) relaxation values and to optimize hepatic fat quantification using proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 3T in overweight and obese children and adolescents.......The objective was to investigate T(2) relaxation values and to optimize hepatic fat quantification using proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 3T in overweight and obese children and adolescents....
Daniela Tavares Gontijo
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the socio-demographic profile and factors related to the institutionalization of children and adolescents received in the District of Uberaba in 2009. Methods: Descriptive, documental, retrospective study, which included all children and adolescents who have been housed, by judicial decision, in the District of Uberaba-MG, Brazil, in 2009. Data collected from the judicial proceedings was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of 169 children and adolescents received in 2009, 82 (51.47% were female. Ages between 4 and 6 (33 - 19.53% and between 13 to 15 (30 - 17.75% were the most prevalent age groups. Among school-age children, only 41(24.26% had education level appropriate to age. In 109 (65.08% of cases, the father figure was not identified as present within the family composition. The main reasons for institutional sheltering were negligence, socio-economic conditions of the family, use of alcohol and drugs by those responsible, abuse, abandonment, physical violence and sexual violence. Conclusions: Data point to the process of social vulnerability experienced by families, which raises the articulation and strengthening of policies and intersectoral actions, with active partipation of the society, seeking the promotion of better living and health conditions for children and adolescents.
Gordon, Michael; Russo, Kate
This pilot study explored the experiences and understanding of clinical psychology practices and services of children and adolescents attending clinical psychology outpatient appointments. Fifteen young participants took part in the study. A content analysis indicated that young children and adolescents have an appropriate understanding of the…
Smith, Carolyn R; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gillespie, Gordon L; Beery, Theresa A; Gates, Donna M
Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future workplace aggression. Semistructured interviews were used to gather participants' proposed responses to a series of hypothetical aggressive incidents in the workplace. Conventional content analysis identified patterns and themes among the participants' responses. Results indicated adolescent employees' proposed responses to workplace aggression are similar to other forms of aggression such as peer-bullying and teen dating violence. Education and training are needed within the school setting to promote appropriate responses to various forms of aggression encountered by adolescents. Implications for school health professionals' involvement in addressing responses to such aggression and further research opportunities are explored.
Parents, relatives, and friends may inflict their passions on children of the same or opposite sex. This is often initiated by sleeping together. Sexual abuse contributes to and causes emotional trauma, although the child's turmoil, confusion, wish for acceptance, and anxiety may be overlooked by the parent and professional. Mutual silence aided by threats adds to the anxiety. Despite the notion that reports of parental sexual exploitation of their children are usually fantasies, there appear to be increasing data that incest and sexual abuse are frequent traumata. At present, there is increased risk of lowering the incest barrier because of increased rates of divorce and step- or surrogate parenthood, since they provide additional potential for being sexually and emotionally traumatized. Sexual abuse seems to be part of a constellation involving neglect and a pathological symbiosis. That sexual abuse is emotionally traumatic is apparent, but it needs emphasizing. Children's defensive reactions may cloud this, and it may be years before such incidents are connected to symptomatic behavior, even when the child is in intensive therapy. In the reported cases, there appears to be a pattern of reactions and defenses related to the traumata that are embedded in imprinting and identification with the aggressor. This leads to sexual abuse being a legacy passed on to the next generation of victims, as the victim becomes the molester through identification. Adolescent self-destructive behavior may stem from guilt about sexually abusing younger children. Therapists may be better able to understand and deal with some of their patients' symptoms if sexual abuse is considered as a possible factor in one or both directions.
Andrew S Day; Oren Ledder; Steven T Leach; Daniel A Lemberg
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis can be grouped as the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).These conditions have become increasingly common in recent years,including in children and young people.Although much is known about aspects of the pathogenesis of these diseases,the precise aetiology is not yet understood,and there remains no cure.Recent data has illustrated the importance of a number of genes-several of these are important in the onset of IBD in early life,including in infancy.Pain,diarrhoea and weight loss are typical symptoms of paediatric Crohn's disease whereas bloody diarrhoea is more typical of colitis in children.However,atypical symptoms may occur in both conditions:these include isolated impairment of linear growth or presentation with extra-intestinal manifestations such as erythèma nodosum.Growth and nutrition are commonly compromised at diagnosis in both Crohn's disease and colitis.Consideration of possible IBD and completion of appropriate investigations are essential to ensure prompt diagnosis,thereby avoiding the consequences of diagnostic delay.Patterns of disease including location and progression of IBD in childhood differ substantially from adultonset disease.Various treatment options are available for children and adolescents with IBD.Exclusive enteral nutrition plays a central role in the induction of remission of active Crohn's disease.Medical and surgical therapies need to considered within the context of a growing and developing child.The overall management of these chronic conditions in children should include multi-disciplinary expertise,with focus upon maintaining control of gut inflammation,optimising nutrition,growth and quality of life,whilst preventing disease or treatment-related complications.
Sørli, Ida Kathrine Birkelund; Torsdatter, Kristine
Aims: The purpose of our study is to systematically review the literature concerning prevalence, risk factors and diagnostics of TMD in children and adolescents in order to find methods for early detection. Through our study we hope to direct dentists to an evidence-based approach concerning children and adolescents by making a screening guideline. Material and methods: Systematic search of the dental literature was performed via Pubmed and using Google search engine. Unsystematic search w...
Damian, Lavinia E.; Stoeber, Joachim; Negru, Oana; Baban, Adriana
Perfectionism has been shown to predict individual differences in achievement goal orientations in university students, but research on perfectionism and goal orientations in school students is still very limited. Investigating 584 adolescent school students in a cross-sectional correlational design, the present study examined how self-oriented…
Some legal cases on the freedom of speech in adolescent public school students are discussed. It is suggested that schools, social scientists and psychologists should build a social consensus on the extent to which the freedom of speech for abusive students can be allowed so as not to affect development of other students.
Castillo, Linda G.; Phoummarath, Marion J.
Asian American adolescents are frequently overlooked as a population in need of counseling interventions. However, cultural issues such as refugee status or the pressure of high academic achievement can influence an Asian American student's mental health. As there is a dearth of school counseling literature written about what school counselors…
Oslash-Verland, Simon; Aaro, Leif Edvard; Lindbak, Rita Lill
Schools are an important arena for smoking prevention. In many countries, smoking rates have been reduced among adolescents, but the use of smokeless tobacco is on the rise in some of these countries. We aimed to study the associations between schools' restrictions on smoking and snus and on the use of these tobacco products among students in…
Adolescence is a notable period during which a considerable share of students tends to engage in problem behavior in school. Students for example skip class, fail to do their best in school, or have serious arguments with their teachers. A student’s decision to engage in such behavior is not usually
Seward, Derek X.; Khan, Shaza
The researchers conducted a grounded theory study to explore the experiences of Muslim American adolescents in high school. Findings indicate that students had to navigate unique challenges because of their religious faith, but those obstacles presented opportunities to confront bias and discrimination. Recommendations for how school counselors…
Full Text Available Obesity, especially upper body fat distribution, has become an increasingly important medical problem in children and adolescents. Outcomes related to childhood obesity include, as in adult population, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, left ventricular hypertrophy, obstructive sleep apnea, orthopedic and socio-psychological problems. Obese children are at approximately 3-fold higher risk for hypertension from non-obese ones. Obesity-hypertension appears to be characterized by a preponderance of isolated systolic hypertension, increased heart rate and blood pressure variability, increased levels of plasma catecholamine and aldosterone, and salt-sensitivity. Lifestyle changes of weight loss, healthier diet and regular physical exercise are effective in obesity-hypertension control, though pharmacological treatment is frequently necessary. Screening for dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance should be performed in paediatric patients with obese hypertension on regular basis, at least once annually or semiannually to discover metabolic syndrome and to prevent its increased cardiovascular risk. Of course, prevention of obesity is the primary goal. .
Garrasi, Alessandra; Corciulo, Nicola; Driul, Daniela; Tanas, Rita; Fiumani, Perla Maria; Di Pietro, Elena; Pesce, Sabino; Crinò, Antonino; Maltoni, Giulio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Sartorio, Alessandro; Deiana, Manuela; Lombardi, Francesca
Objective Being overweight or obese is one of the most common reasons that children and adolescents are teased at school. We carried out a study in order to investigate: i) the relation between weight status and school bullying and ii) the relation between weight status categories and types of victimization and bullying in an outpatient sample of Italian children and adolescents with different degrees of overweight from minimal overweight up to severe obesity. Participants/Methods Nine-hundred-forty-seven outpatient children and adolescents (age range 6.0–14.0 years) were recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the country of Italy. The participants were classified as normal-weight (N = 129), overweight (N = 126), moderately obese (N = 568), and severely obese (N = 124). The nature and extent of verbal, physical and relational bullying and victimization were assessed with an adapted version of the revised Olweus bully-victim questionnaire. Each participant was coded as bully, victim, bully-victim, or not involved. Results Normal-weight and overweight participants were less involved in bullying than obese participants; severely obese males were more involved in the double role of bully and victim. Severely obese children and adolescents suffered not only from verbal victimization but also from physical victimization and exclusion from group activities. Weight status categories were not directly related to bullying behaviour; however severely obese males perpetrated more bullying behaviour compared to severely obese females. Conclusions Obesity and bullying among children and adolescents are of ongoing concern worldwide and may be closely related. Common strategies of intervention are needed to cope with these two social health challenges. PMID:26606393
Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is one of the most common reasons that children and adolescents are teased at school. We carried out a study in order to investigate: i the relation between weight status and school bullying and ii the relation between weight status categories and types of victimization and bullying in an outpatient sample of Italian children and adolescents with different degrees of overweight from minimal overweight up to severe obesity.Nine-hundred-forty-seven outpatient children and adolescents (age range 6.0-14.0 years were recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the country of Italy. The participants were classified as normal-weight (N = 129, overweight (N = 126, moderately obese (N = 568, and severely obese (N = 124. The nature and extent of verbal, physical and relational bullying and victimization were assessed with an adapted version of the revised Olweus bully-victim questionnaire. Each participant was coded as bully, victim, bully-victim, or not involved.Normal-weight and overweight participants were less involved in bullying than obese participants; severely obese males were more involved in the double role of bully and victim. Severely obese children and adolescents suffered not only from verbal victimization but also from physical victimization and exclusion from group activities. Weight status categories were not directly related to bullying behaviour; however severely obese males perpetrated more bullying behaviour compared to severely obese females.Obesity and bullying among children and adolescents are of ongoing concern worldwide and may be closely related. Common strategies of intervention are needed to cope with these two social health challenges.
Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell
Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…
Bornholt, Laurel J; Ajersch, Susan; Fisher, Ian H; Markham, Roslyn H; Ouvrier, Robert A
Cognitive screening tools designed for children can also be used with adolescents. However, early studies suggest that scores can approach a maximum at about age 10 or 11 years. The initial hypothesis was this apparent ''ceiling effect'' is due to limits in the materials, where items can be insufficiently challenging for some adolescents. The alternative hypothesis is that general cognitive screening has a true limit by early adolescence. Participants (N = 85) were 10 to 15-year-old girls and boys, with a database (N = 1249) of 4 to 12-year-old children. The School-Years Screening Test for the Evaluation of Mental Status (SYSTEMS) cognitive screening was extended by more difficult items. Results show that scores increase rapidly for young children and tend toward a maximum in early adolescence. This characteristic asymptotic curve explained a substantial proportion of the variance. We can conclude that, although specific functions continue to develop, there is an upper limit in early adolescence for such general cognitive functioning. The findings support cognitive screening across a broad age range and suggest worthwhile research and clinical applications.
Bezerra, Camilla Pontes; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag
This study describes the school environment and how interpersonal relationships are conducted in view of the needs of visually handicapped adolescents. Data were collected through observations of the physical environment of two schools in Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil, with the support of a checklist, in order to analyze the existence of obstacles. Four visually handicapped adolescents from 14 to 20 years of age were interviewed. Conclusions were that the obstacles that hamper the free locomotion, communication, and physical and social interaction of the blind--or people with other eye disorders--during their activities at school are numerous.
Huizinga, G.A.; Visser, Annemieke; van der Graaf, W.T.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.
Background: This study was designed to investigate: (i) parent-adolescent communication in families of cancer patients; (ii) relationships between parent-adolescent communication and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in adolescent children; and (iii) associations between parents' illness characte
Fatemeh Azizi-Soleiman; Mohammad Esmaeel lMotlagh; Mostafa Qorbani; Ramin Heshmat; Gelayol Ardalan; Morteza Mansourian; Roya Kelishadi
Background: Obesity has a growing global epidemic with several risk factors including lifestyle habits, physical activity, and prolonged screen time. This study aimed to compare the dietary habits and self-reported health behaviors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional nationwide study was conducted in the framework of the fourth survey of a national school-based surveillance program, entitled Childhood and Adole...
Kostyunina, Nadezhda Yu.; Drozdikova-Zaripova, Albina R.
School anxiety is one of the main problems faced by teachers and school counselors. This problem attracts special attention for teachers - practitioners, as it is a clear sign of school maladaptation in children, which adversely affects all spheres of their life: not only the studies but also communication, both inside and outside the school,…
Karlson, Kristian Bernt
This paper examines the role of adaptation in expectation formation processes by analyzing how educational tracking in high schools affects adolescents' educational expectations. I argue that adolescents view track placement as a signal about their academic abilities and respond to it in terms...... of modifying their educational expectations. Applying a difference-in-differences approach to the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988, I find that being placed in an advanced or honors class in high school positively affects adolescents’ expectations, particularly if placement is consistent across...... subjects and if placement contradicts tracking experiences in middle school. My findings support the hypothesis that adolescents adapt their educational expectations to ability signals sent by schools....
Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chronic medical illness is a significant risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders. The aims of the study were: to investigate the level of anxiety in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD and to identify factors associated with the presence of that emotional problem. Methods: CKD children on hemodialysis (HD, n=22, peritoneal dialysis (PD, n=20, and on conservative treatment (CT, n=95 were enrolled in the study. We used State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI for adolescents and STAI-C for children. Socio-demographic and physical factors were assessed. Results: There was a significantly higher level of anxiety-state among HD children (8-12 years compared with other groups of participants of the same age and Polish population norms. The level of anxiety among adolescents (13-18 years, both anxiety-state and anxiety-trait, was significantly higher in the HD group compared with other groups, which did not differ among themselves. In the HD adolescents, there was a correlation between the anxiety-state and the duration of the disease as well as with the number of hospitalizations. PD adolescents in the mainstream education had higher levels of anxiety-state and anxiety-trait compared with home schooled patients. Conclusions: Even though children and adolescents with CKD are at risk of developing a variety of emotional disorders, the level of anxiety among the researched group, with the exception of HD patients, was not significantly different than the level of anxiety among healthy subjects. Adolescents on HD who present a high level of anxiety should undergo long-term psychological treatment.
Fatores associados à dislipidemia em crianças e adolescentes de escolas públicas de Salvador, Bahia Factors associated with dyslipidemia in children and adolescents enrolled in public schools of Salvador, Bahia
Osvaldo Dário de Alcântara Neto
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo aborda os fatores associados a dislipidemia em crianças e adolescentes matriculados na rede pública de ensino da cidade de Salvador, BA. MÉTODOS: Os participantes foram submetidos a avaliação antropométrica, coleta de sangue para dosagem de colesterol e triglicérides. As informações relacionadas a consumo alimentar, atividade física e condições socioeconômicas e de moradia da família foram fornecidas pelos responsáveis. Regressão logistica mutivariada foi utilizada para as avaliações de interesse. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de dislipidemia encontrada no presente estudo foi de 25,5% (IC:95% 22,7; 28,3. Observou-se associação positiva e estatiticamentre significante entre dislipidemia e excesso de peso (0R = 3,40; IC95%: 2,07-5,58, moderado e alto consumo de alimentos de risco (OR = 1,49; IC95%: 1,01-2,19, baixo e moderado consumo de alimentos protetores (OR = 1,54; IC95%: 1,05-2,26 e menor nível de escolaridade materna (OR = 1,72; IC95%: 1,05-2,26. CONCLUSÃO: O excesso de peso, consumo alimentar inadequado e baixa escolaridade materna constituem fatores associados a dislipidemia.OBJECTIVE: We assessed the factors associated with dyslipidemia in children and adolescents enrolled in the public school system of the city of Salvador, Bahia. METHODS: All participants were submitted to anthropometric evaluation and to cholesterol and triglyceride blood tests. Data related to food intake, physical activity and family socioeconomic and housing conditions were obtained from parents or guardians. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 25.5% (IC:95% 22.7; 28.3. We observed a significant positive association between dyslipidemia and the following factors: overweight (OR = 3.40, 95% CI 2.07 to 5.58, moderate and high intake of risk food (OR = 1.49, 95%: 1.01 to 2.19, low and moderate intake of protective foods (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.26 and lower
Carbonated beverages including energy drinks make up an increasing percentage of energy intake amongst adults as well as children and adolescents. Due to high content of di- or monosaccharides and biologically active compounds (mainly caffeine), their regular intake may involve addictions and potential health risks, including diabetes. Although consumption of energy drinks is usually not recommended by the manufacturers to the children under the age of 16, due to its popularity and unrestricted availability on market energy drinks are easily accessible to younger children. Low awareness of the potential health risks involved with such beverages in society together with unrestricted distribution and advertising requires undertaking general information campaign concerning energy drinks. In this paper a critical review has been made to discuss potential somatic and psychological health risks issue. Moreover, conclusions were supported with the results of the survey conducted among college and high-school adolescents.
Moreira, Martha Cristina Nunes; Gomes, Romeu; Calheiros de Sá, Miriam Ribeiro
The scope of this article is to analyze papers published between 2003 and 2011 that focus on discussions regarding chronic conditions or chronic diseases in children and adolescents. It combines a methodological review of the literature and thematic analysis of content in order to identify the elements that characterize chronic diseases in children and adolescents and the specificities generated by these chronic conditions. The review of the literature resulted in a description of the series of articles identified by year of publication, country of origin, type of study, population and the chronic condition addressed. Thematic content analysis generated two core themes: Definition of chronic disease and Ways of handling chronic disease in children and teenagers. The main conclusion reached is that the age transitions when a disease is diagnosed and treated since childhood involve transformations that include changes in health facilities, discharge processes, decision making and networking that include family, hospital, school and institutions that guarantee the child's rights.
Kumar, Pragya; Ranjan, Alok; Singh, Chandra Mani; Pandey, Sanjay; Agarwal, Neeraj
Introduction Hypertension (HT) has its origin in childhood and adolescent period but it goes undetected due to absence of sign and symptoms, unless specifically looked for during this period. It has been seen that one with raised blood pressure level in this period will also have raised Blood Pressure (BP) level in their adulthood and elderly period. Aim The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of HT and its risk factor among apparently healthy school going adolescents of Patna district. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study among 2913 school going adolescents of eighth to 10th standard was conducted from April 2014 to August 2015 by adopting a two stage cluster sampling technique. The questions pertaining to risk behavior in relation to cardiovascular diseases from WHO’s Global School based Student Health Survey were used for this study. Results The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure of study population was 107.4 mm of Hg (95% C.I. 106.93-107.77) and 67.4 mm of Hg (95% C.I. 67.26-67.54), respectively. Prevalence of pre-HT and HT was 10.9% and 4.6% in school going adolescents while prevalence of overweight/obesity was 1.5%. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures had positive and significant correlation with age, height and body mass index. The proportion of children who had ever taken tobacco was 5.3%, cigarette smoking 4.3%, alcohol consumption 2.1%, and excess salt intake 22.3%. Only 49.1% children were doing physical activity at least one hour a day in past seven days for maintenance of good health. Conclusion The present study recommends that regular screening of blood pressure level must be initiated in adolescents so that remedial measure can be initiated as early as possible.
Schwerdtfeger Gallus, Kami L.; Shreffler, Karina M.; Merten, Michael J.; Cox, Ronald B., Jr.
Interpersonal traumas experienced early in life adversely impact psychological well-being in children and adolescents, yet the specific role that social support can have in reducing negative outcomes following trauma exposure is unclear. Using a general population sample of seventh-grade students in an urban public school district in the South…
Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping
There is little information of hepatitis B vaccination coverage for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The present paper aims to examine the completed hepatitis B vaccination coverage rate and its determinants of children and adolescents with ID in Taiwan. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey, with the entire response participants was composed of 495 primary caregivers of children and adolescents with ID (age 3-24 years) who studying in 3 special education schools in Taiwan. The results showed that coverage rate of completed hepatitis B vaccination was 74.34% in children and adolescents with ID. Although hepatitis B vaccination is a universal health policy in Taiwan, the uncompleted coverage rate of our study subjects was 2 times of the Taiwan general population at the same age. In the logistic regression analysis of hepatitis B vaccination coverage, we found that the factors of household income and ID individual's age were variables that can significantly predict they did not accept a completed vaccination. The present study suggests that parents and providers should routinely review immunizations of children and adolescents with ID.
The purpose of the research reported in this article was to advance understanding of the work of school social workers with grieving students. This research was aimed at answering the following question: What are school social workers' experiences working with grieving children? There were two steps in this study. Fifty-nine school social workers…
Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob
While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…
Crespi, Tony D.; Sabatelli, Ronald M.
Links the developmental-familial implications of parental alcoholism with the individuation process. Suggests a developmental agenda for understanding adolescents, summarizes the literature on children of alcoholism, and focuses on elements of individuation which have relevance to children from alcoholic families. Looks at the concepts of physical…
Turley, Matthew R.; Obrzut, John E.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can affect people of all ages but the literature is lacking on children and adolescents who experience PTSD. The consequences of this disorder extend beyond the basic symptoms by which it is defined. Neuroanatomically, the brains of children with PTSD have been found to be abnormally symmetrical in several…
Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.
The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…
Alfano, Candice A.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Turner, Samuel M.
We examined different cognitive phenomena in relation to social phobia among children (aged 7 to 11) and adolescents (aged 12-16) separately. Fifty socially phobic youths were compared to 30 normal control children on measures of social anxiety, social expectation as well as self-and observer-rated performance during two social tasks involving a…
Rojas, Donald C.; Camou, Suzanne L.; Reite, Martin L.; Rogers, Sally J.
Previous research has revealed a lack of planum temporale (PT) asymmetry in adults with autism. This finding is now extended to children and adolescents with the disorder. MRI scans were obtained from 12 children with autism and 12 gender, handedness and age-matched comparison participants. The volume of gray matter in the PT and Heschl's gyrus…
Because children and adolescents are not just miniature adults, it is important to know that children might be vulnerable to injury and may not respond positively to certain types or intensities of training. It is also important to recognize how training can positively affect growth and development, so it can be judiciously applied at critical…
Orbach, Daniel; Mosseri, Veronique; Gallego, Soledad
BACKGROUND: This article reports risk factors and long-term outcome in localized nonparameningeal head and neck rhabdomyosarcomas in children and adolescents from a combined dataset from 3 consecutive international trials. METHODS: Data from 140 children (9.3% of total) prospectively enrolled...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: School and school-related physical activity (PA are important for the total PA of children and youth. The total amount of PA is higher within school days compare to weekends. Children and youth, who use active transportation (to/from the school, confirm the higher PA per week compared to those without active transportation (using car, train, bus. There is a lack of available data in the Czech Republic about active transportation of children and adolescents. AIM: The main aim of the study is the objectification of the school-related transport monitoring of the adolescents. One of the additional outcomes is to enrich this relatively new scientific area in the Czech Republic. METHODS: There was one high school chosen for this project - Gymnázium Nový Jičín. Data were collected by using ActiGraph GT1M, pedometer YAMAX SW-700, NQLS questionnaire and internet system INDARES. RESULTS: By using the newly developer map module "tracker", within the system INDARES, we could compare the participants which active transport (AT was lower than 1000 m, with participants with the AT values higher than 1000 m. We found out significant diﬀerences between school days and weekends in the intensity of 1 to 3 MET. The statistical significance was supported by the coefficient eﬀect size (d = 0.83. The participants recording AT values lower than 1000 m showing significantly higher level of PA in school days then during weekends (p = .003; F = 26.149; ω2 = 0.456. Similar results were found in participants recording AT values higher than 1000 m; the diﬀerences between school days and weekends are highly significant (p = .0004; F = 26.149; ω 2 = 0.456. CONCLUSIONS: We have contributed to the objectification of the school-related transport monitoring of the adolescents by the creation of the map module within the INDARES system. The usage of a triangulation approach (objective methods - subjective methods - system INDARES into the PA monitoring in
Manjeet S Bhatia
Full Text Available Background: Stampede is described as a sudden movement of a mass of people in response to a particular circumstance or stimulus. Human stampedes are quite often reported from crowded places like places of worship, sporting events, political rallies, etc. There are reports of development of posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive and anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents subsequent to both natural and man-made disasters. The present tragedy struck in a Government Secondary School in Delhi on September 9, 2009. The study describes the long-term psychiatric morbidity in children following stampede. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted by the department of psychiatry of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 38 children (all adolescent girls were registered at the casualty of the hospital and 1 absconded, 5 were brought dead. A total of 32 children were included in the study. After first assessment in the casualty, subsequent assessments at 8 weeks and 6 months were done using semi-structured performa, GHQ and Child′s reaction to traumatic event scale (CRTES-Revised. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: The age-group of the children were 12-20 years(mean 14.3, all girls, studying in grades - VII to X Eight weeks follow up GHQ score was high in 27 (87%. On CRTESQ-R scale, 22 children were in high distress group (71%. Twenty-two children had symptoms of PTSD and five were in moderate distress group. Eleven children also had a comorbid diagnosis of depressive disorder, six had phobic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. There were statistically significant differences in mean GHQ scores at baseline and at 6 months follow up. There was also significant decrease in CRTESQ-R scale scores between baseline and 6 months. Conclusion: The children who were victims of stampede warrant the need for long-term intervention.
Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Teichman, Meir
The study examines the issue of ego identity among adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers. Forty-four adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers, age of 15-18, constituted the sample. They were drawn from public alcohol treatment center in Israel. The control group included 60 adolescents none of their parents is known as an alcoholic, sampled from…
Engström, K; Laflamme, L; Diderichsen, F
Hospital Discharge and Causes of Death registers) with documented socioeconomic differences: injuries due to traffic, interpersonal violence, and self-infliction. The Relative Index of Inequality was used to measure the magnitude of relative socioeconomic differences, for each year of observation. Where...... the two older cohorts (10-14 and 15-19, in 1990). In conclusion, this study provides limited evidence of equalisation in injury risks between socioeconomic groups among Swedish adolescents. Equalisation appears to be a gender-specific phenomenon, that is, among girls, and manifests itself around the age...
Steinberg, L; Lamborn, S D; Dornbusch, S M; Darling, N
This article examines the impact of authoritative parenting, parental involvement in schooling, and parental encouragement to succeed on adolescent school achievement in an ethnically and socio-economically heterogeneous sample of approximately 6,400 American 14-18-year-olds. Adolescents reported in 1987 on their parents' general child-rearing practices and on their parents' achievement-specific socialization behaviors. In 1987, and again in 1988, data were collected on several aspects of the adolescents' school performance and school engagement. Authoritative parenting (high acceptance, supervision, and psychological autonomy granting) leads to better adolescent school performance and stronger school engagement. The positive impact of authoritative parenting on adolescent achievement, however, is mediated by the positive effect of authoritativeness on parental involvement in schooling. In addition, nonauthoritativeness attenuates the beneficial impact of parental involvement in schooling on adolescents achievement. Parental involvement is much more likely to promote adolescent school success when it occurs in the context of an authoritative home environment.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the distress associated to psychopathology in children and adolescents. The sample included 330 children aged 8 to 17 years attending outpatient mental health services of the public network in Barcelona(Spain assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. A substantial part of children brought to treatment suffered distress associated to internalizing and externalizing psychological symptoms. Psychological distress was most frequent among girls and among adolescents, and was more frequently reported by children and adolescents than by their parents. It was also a marker of perception of need of psychological help, and it was significantly related to diagnosis, subthreshold conditions and functional impairment. Individual symptoms of depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder and oppositional defiant disorder were most associated with psychological distress. Given the potential importance of subjective distress as well as impairment for the identification and definition of psychopathology and planning of treatment, diagnostic assessment should include questions related to distress.
Jakobsen, Klaus D; Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Bruhn, Christina H
Quetiapine is a low-affinity dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, approved for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents by the Food and Drug Administration, but not by European Medicine Agency. Although knowledge of adverse drug reactions in children and adolesc......Quetiapine is a low-affinity dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, approved for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents by the Food and Drug Administration, but not by European Medicine Agency. Although knowledge of adverse drug reactions in children...... 10–17 years) and six patients were boys. The main reported ADEs were (i) endocrine, for example, hyperprolactinemia and hyperthyroidism, (ii) cardiac, for example, tachycardia and QT prolongation, (iii) neurological, for example, seizures and cerebral hemorrhage, and (iv) psychiatric, for example...
... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Low-fat Milk Consumption Among Children and Adolescents in the United ... Survey How frequently do children and adolescents drink milk? During the preceding 30 days, girls reported daily ...
... Primary Refractory/Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children and Adolescents Primary refractory Hodgkin lymphoma is lymphoma that continues ... treated with an adult treatment regimen . Children and adolescents may have treatment-related side effects that appear ...
... Measures of Muscular Strength in U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2012 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NCHS ... by sex and age group among children and adolescents? There were no significant differences between younger girls ...
Karl Peltzer; Supa Pengpid
The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824) of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene (
Bhatta, Madhav P.; Shakya, Sunita; Jefferis, Eric
Background: This study examined the association of ever being bullied in school with suicide ideation (ever thinking about killing oneself) and ever seriously making a plan to kill oneself (suicide planning) among rural middle school adolescents. Methods: Using the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Middle School Youth Risk Behavior…
Full Text Available Background: Treatments for adolescents affected by long-term loss in low- and middle-income countries are lacking. As school-based interventions are cost-efficient and easy to disseminate, an evaluation of this treatment setting for adolescents is worthwhile. Objective: Examining the effect of a school-based unstructured emotional writing intervention (sensu Pennebaker, group 1 about the loss of a parent to reduce adaptation problems to loss, compared to writing about a hobby (group 2, and non-writing (group 3. Method: We randomly assigned 14–18-year-old Rwandan orphans to one of the three conditions (n=23 per condition. Before and after the intervention, subjects completed the Prolonged Grief Questionnaire for Adolescents and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents, Part A, on depression as self-report measures of long-term effects of early parental loss. Results: Repeated measures analyses of variance showed no differential effect for any of the three conditions but revealed a significant effect of time at posttest regarding grief severity. Reduction of grief symptoms was significantly higher in subjects with elevated grief. Depressive symptoms showed no significant change from pre- to posttest in the emotional writing condition, whereas they significantly decreased in the control condition. Conclusions: Results imply that unstructured, brief emotional writing might not be indicated in adolescents affected by early parental loss who show severe and long-term distress; a more structured approach seems recommendable.
Gjevik, Elen; Eldevik, Sigmund; Fjaeran-Granum, Torill; Sponheim, Eili
Prevalence of current comorbid DSM-IV disorders was assessed in a special school population of children and adolescents with ASD (N = 71, age 6.0-17.9 years), representing all cognitive levels and main ASD subgroups. Symptoms were assessed through parent interview and association to child characteristics was explored. Seventy-two percent was…
Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus J.; Suryani, Luh Ketut; Tiliopoulos, Niko
Childhood and adolescence sexual abuse can have long-lasting and devastating effects on personal and interpersonal growth and development. Sexually abused children tend to exhibit higher rates of poor school performance, aggressive behavior, PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder), or depressive symptomatology, as well as social and relational…
Full Text Available Background: Healthy dietary habits are known as a key factor for improving brain functions and cognitive ability in children and adolescents. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association of healthy food consumption with mental health in Iranian children and adolescents.Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the fourth national school-based surveillance survey entitled CASPIAN-IV study. In this study, 14880 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years were selected by multistage, cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas. The students and their parents completed two sets of questionnaires. The psychiatric distress included depression, worry, insomnia, anxiety, aggression, confusion, and worthless and the violent behaviors comprised of physical fight, victim and bully. The healthy foods included fresh fruits, dried fruits, vegetables and dairy products.Results: The participants include 13,486 students from elementary, intermediate and high school degree. The prevalence of psychiatric distress was significantly higher among high school students, while violent behaviors were more prevalent in the middle school students. According to the multivariate model (model IV, the risk of psychiatric distress was significantly lower in students with daily consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables and milk. In addition, those with daily consumption of vegetables and milk had significantly lower risk for violent behaviors.Conclusion: Consumption of healthy foods may reduce the risk of psychiatric distress and violent behaviors. Therefore, in addition to its benefits, increasing healthy food consumption among children and adolescents can be useful in preventing mental health disorders.
Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Verschuren, Olaf; Gorter, Jan Willem; Lindeman, Eline; Jongmans, Marian; Ketelaar, Marjolijn
The purpose of this study was to examine professionals' perceptions on classifying learning styles in the context of teaching motor activities to children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). The participants were 21 pediatric physical therapists (PPTs) and seven physical educators (PEs) in three schools for special education in The…
Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Khine, Myint Swe; Melkonian, Michael; Welch, Anita G; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed; Rashad, Fatimah F
Drawing on data from the 2012 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and employing multilevel modeling as an analytic strategy, this study examined the relations of adolescent children's perceptions of their parents' attitudes towards mathematics to their own attitudes towards mathematics and mathematics achievement among a sample of 5116 adolescents from 384 schools in the United Arab Emirates. The results of this cross-sectional study revealed that adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children not only to study but also for their career tended to report higher levels of intrinsic and instrumental motivation to learn mathematics, mathematics self-concept and self-efficacy, and mathematics work ethic. Moreover, adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report positive intentions and behaviors toward mathematics. However, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report higher levels of mathematics anxiety. Finally, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children to study performed significantly better on the mathematics assessment than did their peers whose parents disregarded the importance of learning mathematics.
Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to "work around" opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships or work around constraints from other groups' preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school.
王旭梅; 张莹; 何强; 韩继阳; 夏静; 邵云; 王晓雪; 苏荣坤; 马颂
目的 编制一个适合我国儿童青少年拒绝上学原因的问卷,并检验其信度和效度.方法 依据临床访谈以及查阅文献资料编制拒绝上学原因问卷初测版.在门诊进行小样本预测验,经定性分析与项目分析结果形成正式版问卷.采用整群抽样的方法,在沈阳市及其周边农村选取7所学校的在校学生完成拒绝上学原因问卷(School Refusal Reason Inventory,SRRI)、儿童焦虑性情绪障碍筛查表(SCARED)和儿童抑郁量表(CDI).间隔1个月随机选取部分学生进行重测.对所得数据进行描述性统计、探索性因子分析以检验SRRI的信度和效度.结果 项目分析显示所有题项与总分的相关系数均＞0.3,且均达到显著性水平；题项的决断值(CR值)均＞3.探索性因子分析得到教养方式、教师因素、同学关系、分离焦虑、学习态度和学习环境6个因子,因子负荷值为0.372～0.848.各个因子的内部一致性信度分别为0.827,0.831,0.759,0.623,0.821,0.808,重测信度为0.644(P＜0.01),与SCARED的相关系数为0.273～0.434,与CDI的相关系数为0.353～0.497.结论 在我国文化背景下,本研究所编制的拒绝上学原因问卷符合心理测量学的测量指标,具有良好的信度和效度,可以用于了解儿童青少年拒绝上学的原因.%Objective To develop school refusal reason inventory (SRRI)for children and adolescents in China and assess its reliability and validity.Methods The primary SSRI was made based on clinical interviews and literatures.Pretest was carried out in a small sample from a clinic.Then the final SSRI was developed after qualitative analysis and item analysis.SRRI,the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders(SCARED) and Child Depression Inventory(CDI) were administered to school refusers from 7 schools in Shenyang.All the schools were selected from Shenyang City and its countryside by cluster sampling.Some of the students were retested after one month
Full Text Available Background: Cigarettes smoking is a common mode of consuming tobacco in India. This habit usually starts in adolescence and tracks across the life course. Interventions like building decision making skills and resisting negative influences are effective in reducing the initiation and level of tobacco use. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of adolescent current cigarette smoking behavior and to investigate the individual and social factors, which influence them both to and not to smoke. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out among school going adolescents in Shimla town of North India. After obtaining their written informed consent, a questionnaire was administered. Results: The overall prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 11.8%. The binary logistic regression model revealed that parents′ and peers′ smoking behavior influence adolescent smoking behavior. Individual self-harm tendency also significantly predicted cigarette smoking behavior. Parental active participation in keeping a track of their children′s free time activities predicted to protect adolescents from taking this habit. Conclusion: Our research lends support to the need for intervention on restricting adolescents from taking up this habit and becoming another tobacco industries′ addicted customer. Parents who smoke should quit this habit, which will not only restore their own health, but also protect their children. All parents should be counseled to carefully observe their children′s free time activities.
Adelson, Stewart; Bell, Robinette; Graff, Adam; Goldenberg, David; Haase, Elizabeth; Downey, Jennifer I; Friedman, Richard C
Recent psychiatric literature has used the term "hypersexuality" to denote pathologically increased sexual behavior in children and adolescents. Various patterns of increased sexuality have been described in youth, including sexuality that is excessive, developmentally precocious, compulsive, aggressive, or otherwise socially inappropriate. Such "hypersexual" behavior in children and adolescents is associated with a variety of factors. Social factors include sexual abuse, physical abuse, life stress, and impaired family relationships. Psychiatric factors include emotional and behavioral problems in general, posttraumatic stress disorder and dissociative symptoms in particular, and possibly bipolar disorder. Despite the importance of increased sexual behavior in youth as a possible sign of these problems, there is currently no uniform definition in psychiatric literature of the term "hypersexuality" applied to children and adolescents. The usefulness of this term depends upon the degree to which it can be defined, measured, and distinguished from non-pathological juvenile sexual behavior. Research instruments are described that may be useful in measuring levels of sexual behavior in children and adolescents. Elements of a definition of juvenile hypersexuality are proposed based upon current knowledge about children and adolescents' sexuality in both normal development and a variety of conditions in which it is increased. Care is warranted in distinguishing between normal and abnormal sexual behavior in youth because of the variety of factors that can affect its measurement.
Gilton Marques dos Santos
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To perform a sistematiy review of the literature about the nutritional impact of inflammatory bowel diseases in children and adolescents.DATA SOURCES: A systematic review was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases, with inclusion of articles in Portuguese and in English with original data, that analyzed nutritional aspects of inflammatory bowel diseases in children and adolescents. The initial search used the terms "inflammatory bowel diseases" and "children" or "adolescents" and "nutritional evaluation" or "nutrition deficiency". The selection of studies was initially performed by reading the titles and abstracts. Review studies and those withouth data for pediatric patients were excluded. Subsequently, the full reading of the articles considered relevant was performed.RESULTS: 237 studies were identified, and 12 of them were selected according to the inclusion criteria. None of them was performed in South America. During the analysis of the studies, it was observed that nutritional characteristics of patients with inflammatory bowel disease may be altered; the main reports were related to malnutrition, growth stunting, delayed puberty and vitamin D deficiency.CONCLUSION: There are nutritional consequences of inflammatory bowel diseases in children and adolescents, mainly growth stunting, slower pubertal development, underweight and vitamin deficiencies. Nutritional impairments were more significant in patients with Crohn's disease; overweight and obesity were more common in patients with ulcerative rectocolitis. A detailed nutritional assessment should be performed periodically in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease.
Wouwe, J.P. van; Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M. van; Verkerk, P.H.; Dommelen, P. van; Fekkes, M.
Object. To determine the level of mainstream education in a nationwide cohort of adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS), and to find characteristics related to mainstream or special school attendance. Method. Dutch children with DS born in 1992, 1993 or 1994, were assessed when 16–19 years old. Parents
Matos, M G; Gaspar, T; Tomé, G; Paiva, T
This study aims to evaluate the influences of sleep duration and sleep variability (SleepV), upon adolescents' school-related situations. The Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey is based on a self-completed questionnaire. The participants were 3164 pupils (53.7% girls), attending the 8th and 10th grades, 14.9 years old, and were inquired about subjective sleep duration during the week and weekends, SleepV, fatigue, difficulties in sleep initiation, school achievement, feelings towards schools, pressure with school work and skipping classes. Multiple regression models used, as dependent variables: (a) school achievement, (b) disliking school, (c) pressure with school work and (d) skipping classes, using as independent variables, each of the remaining school-related variables, fatigue, total sleep duration and difficulties in sleep initiation. The average sleep duration in the week and during weekdays was lower than recommended for these age groups, and almost half of students had high SleepV between weekdays and weekends. A logistic model revealed that the absence of SleepV was associated with lower perception of school work pressure, less frequent skipping classes, more infrequent fatigue and more infrequent difficulties in sleep initiation. Poor sleep quality, SleepV and insufficient sleep duration affected negatively school-related variables.
Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid
adult educational achievement. Data are taken from a birth cohort study of all adolescents born in 1989 (n=3,058) living in a rural county in Denmark. Information was obtained from questionnaires (sent to the adolescents and their parents) and from different national registers (e.g. hospitalization...
Full Text Available Background: Physical as well as psychological changes during adolescence create a state of physiological stress that must be coped with. This study was undertaken to study the psychosocial aspects of changes associated with adolescence among school going girls. Methods: A predesigned questionnaire was administered to students of class VI to XII prior to a talk on and lsquo;Adolescent health' in two urban schools of Bhopal. The questions were directed at understanding the psychosocial aspects of behavior among the girls during adolescence while they cope with changes of adolescence. Results: A total of 414 schoolgirls from classes VI-XII participated in the study. Their mean age was 14.4years [SD 2.01; Range 10-18 years]. Of them, 277 reported having attained menarche, the mean age at menarche being 12.7 years [SD 1.52]. Almost 63% of girls had knowledge about menstruation before attaining menarche. Majority of them had learned about it from their mother (41%. Nearly one third (30.6% of girls were not comfortable with the bodily changes of adolescence; 41% reported feeling anxious and 26.4% reported suffering from low self-esteem. Excessive irritability was reported by 47% of girls; undue anger by 51.4%, and 34.7% felt uncomfortable interacting with people. One third of girls had frequent arguments with parents. Almost 80% of girls found their parents supportive. Conclusions: A good proportion of adolescent girls appear to be in need for counseling and support for optimally coping with the bodily as well as psychological changes of adolescence. This preliminary study unveils the need for more widespread and regular Adolescent School health programs for increasing awareness and support services. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 409-413
Derya Atalan ERGİN
Full Text Available Objective: Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate psychometric properties of the Children’s Automatic Thoughts Scale to children and adolescents. Method: A total of 534 children and adolescents aged 9-16 participated in the study. They attended elementary schools in Ankara. Of these participants 276 were girls and 258 were boys. The mean age of the group was 12.30 (SD=1.26.They were attending 4th to 8th grade of the elementary schools.Results: Exploratory and Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the four factor model (Schniering and Rapee 2002. The four factor model explained 50% of variance. The first factor was social threat and 31.72% of the total variance. Followed by personal failure, hostility and physical treat factors explaining 8.32%, 5.80% and 5.10 % of the total variance. Social threat was found to be explaining the higher variance in the present study while personal failure was the first factor explaining higher variance in the original study. Test-rest reliabilities with two weeks interval demonstrated that the Children’s Automatic Thoughts Scale is a reliable instrument(r=.90. Cronbach Alpha was found to be and .94. These reliability and validity analyses supported that Children’s Automatic Thoughts Scale could be used with Turkish children. Conclusion: Children’s Automatic Thoughts Scale, evaluates the presence and severity of negative cognition in children and adolescents, could be utilized in research and clinical practice. It could also be used in educational settings where the thought content of children and adolescents are important in areas such as friendship, academic success and bullying
Lucinéia de Pinho
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents attending public municipal schools in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to test the association between these patterns and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status of the adolescents. METHODS: this was an analytical, cross-sectional study with randomized sample of 474 adolescents of both genders, between 11 and 17 years of age, attending municipal public schools in the urban area of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. The parents provided demographic and economic data. The nutritional status (body mass index - BMI of the adolescents was determined at school, and their dietary habits were assessed though the administration of the Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adolescents (FFQA. Based on 26 categories extracted from FFQA, dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis (PCA and associated to anthropometric and socioeconomic factors using multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: the three dietary patterns identified, "junk food," "healthy," and "traditional", explained 23.26%, 6.90%, and 5.24% of data variability, respectively. Adolescents with per capita family income exceeding half a minimum wage were more likely to consume the "junk food" pattern (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.07-2.56, and overweight adolescents had lower chances of eating the "healthy" food pattern (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.35-0.91. CONCLUSIONS: deviations from the "healthy" patterns were not associated to low income, but rather to bad eating habits in the studied population. Overweight adolescents did not adhere to the "healthy" dietary pattern, emphasizing the need for nutritional education among them.
Gabriel Gustavo Bergmann
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the prevalence of physical inactivity and associated factors in adolescents, using a cross-sectional design with a sample of 1,455 adolescents (741 females. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic, perceptual, and behavioral variables. Physical activity was estimated with the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children and Adolescents. Prevalence of physical inactivity was 68% (95%CI: 65.6%-70.4%. The following variables remained associated with physical inactivity in the adjusted analysis (p < 0.05: living in an apartment, female gender, older adolescents, lower self-rated physical activity compared to peers, low perception of maternal physical activity, passive commuting to school, non-participation in physical education at school, non-enjoyment of physical education classes, and limited involvement in other types of physical exercise besides physical education at school. There were a high proportion of inactive adolescents. Strategies to prevent physical inactivity in adolescents should be elaborated with a central role for the school and family.
Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf
The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time reported a significantly lower degree of enjoyment of school. Short sleep was found to be associated with having a bedroom TV, spending more than 2 hr...
Willgerodt, Mayumi A.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.; Ward, Teresa M.; Lentz, Martha J.
Inadequate sleep occurs in 25% of our nation's children; poor sleep is associated with physical, cognitive, and social consequences. Developing good sleep hygiene in middle childhood is important, because habits typically extend to adolescence and adulthood; yet, there has been little research on sleep interventions for school-age children.…
Willgerodt, Mayumi A.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.; Ward, Teresa M.; Lentz, Martha J.
Inadequate sleep occurs in 25% of our nation's children; poor sleep is associated with physical, cognitive, and social consequences. Developing good sleep hygiene in middle childhood is important, because habits typically extend to adolescence and adulthood; yet, there has been little research on sleep interventions for school-age children. The…
Donaghue, K C; Fairchild, J M; Chan, A; Hing, S J; Howard, N J; Silink, M
Results are presented of diabetes complication screening in children and adolescents aged 6-20 years. Their diabetes duration was 0.02-18.4 yr and median HbA1c over the preceding 36 months was 8.4% [IQR 7.8-9.3]. Gradable retinal photographs were obtained in 937: 110 less than 11 years ( or = 20 micrograms/min) was found in 4%. Significant individual risk factors for both complications were higher blood pressure, cholesterol, HbA1c, pubertal staging, older age and longer diabetes duration. Using multiple logistic regression, significant risk factors for retinopathy were longer duration and older age and in addition higher HbA1c. Diabetes complication screening detected early subclinical disease in children and adolescents who may benefit from lowering blood pressure and improving metabolic control. Screening should commence after five years of duration in young children, and after two years of duration in adolescents.
Botero, Javier E; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Duque, Andres; Jaramillo, Adriana; Contreras, Adolfo
Periodontal diseases are a group of infectious diseases that mainly include gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is the most prevalent form of periodontal disease in subjects of all ages, including children and adolescents. Less frequent types of periodontal disease include aggressive periodontitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and various diseases of herpesviral and fungal origin. This review aimed to retrieve relevant information from Latin America on the prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents of the region. Gingivitis was detected in 35% of young Latin American subjects and showed the highest frequencies in Colombia (77%) and Bolivia (73%) and the lowest frequency in Mexico (23%). The frequency of gingivitis in subjects from other Latin American countries was between 31% and 56%. Periodontitis may affect children and adolescents of Latin America may help policy makers and dentists to institute more effective public health measures to prevent and treat the disease at an early age to avoid major damage to the permanent dentition.
Povlsen, Lene; Olsen, Birthe; Ladelund, Steen
AIM: This paper reports an investigation to establish whether metabolic control is different in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities with type 1 diabetes compared with young Danish patients, and to learn about factors affecting their opportunities to achieve good metabolic control....... BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities in Denmark is increasing. Having a different ethnic background has frequently been described as a risk factor for poor metabolic control, but whether the risk is represented by the ethnicity and immigration itself...... or in combination with other factors is unclear. METHODS: The study included data (gender, age, diabetes duration HbA(1c), number of incidents of severe hypoglycaemia and ketoacidosis) from a national register including 919 Danish and 58 children and adolescents from ethnic minorities, questionnaires to all 20...
Halbach, Susan M; Flynn, Joseph
The obesity epidemic has become a common concern among pediatricians, with an estimated 32 % of US children and adolescents classified as overweight and 18 % as obese. Along with the increase in obesity, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that chronic diseases, such as Type 2 diabetes, primary hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, once thought to be confined solely to adulthood, are commonly seen among the obese in childhood. Following a brief summary of the diagnosis and evaluation of hypertension in obese children and adolescents, this review will highlight recent research on the treatment of obesity-related hypertension. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment will be discussed. Additionally, current and emerging therapies for the primary treatment of obesity in children and adolescents, which have been gaining in popularity, will be reviewed.
Quist, Jonas Salling; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Chaput, Jean-Philippe
The evidence for a link between sleep and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents is accumulating; however, the literature has not yet been reviewed. Seventy-five studies investigating associations between sleep variables and measures of abdominal adiposity, glucose homeostasis......, blood lipids, blood pressure (BP), and inflammatory markers were included in the present review. The current evidence indicates that inadequate sleep may play a role in cardiometabolic risk at a later age for children and adolescents. Most compelling is the evidence for an association between inadequate...... weekdays and weekend days, at multiple time points over time. Meanwhile, based on the available evidence, we recommend that children and adolescents get adequate amounts of good sleep in a regular pattern....
Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Champ, Claire L; Dye, Louise
Breakfast is thought to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, breakfast is the most frequently skipped meal, especially among adolescents. The aim of the current article was to systematically review the evidence from intervention studies for the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in children and adolescents. The effects of breakfast were evaluated by cognitive domain and breakfast manipulation. A total of 45 studies reported in 43 articles were included in the review. Most studies considered the acute effect of a single breakfast (n = 34). The acute studies looked at breakfast compared with no breakfast (n = 24) and/or comparisons of breakfast type (n = 15). The effects of chronic school breakfast program interventions were evaluated in 11 studies. The findings suggest that breakfast consumption relative to fasting has a short-term (same morning) positive domain-specific effect on cognition. Tasks requiring attention, executive function, and memory were facilitated more reliably by breakfast consumption relative to fasting, with effects more apparent in undernourished children. Firm conclusions cannot be made about the acute effects of breakfast composition and the effects of chronic breakfast interventions because there are too few studies and these largely report inconsistent findings. This review also highlights methodologic limitations of the existing research. These include a lack of research on adolescents, few naturalistic breakfast manipulations or testing environments, small samples, and insensitive cognitive tests.
Vernberg, Eric M; Hambrick, Erin P; Cho, Bridget; Hendrickson, Michelle L
Positive psychology concepts and principles can be incorporated into preparedness, crisis response, and recovery phases of disaster mental health efforts to address the needs of children, adolescents, and families. This article articulates general developmental considerations for applying positive psychology in disaster mental health contexts and discusses how 5 essential elements of immediate and midterm mass trauma intervention identified by Hobfoll et al. (2007) may be infused in applications of positive psychology for children and adolescents. Specific strategies for working with children, adolescents, and their families in home, community, and school contexts are drawn in part from disaster mental health resources developed jointly by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, including the Psychological First Aid Field Operations Guide (Brymer et al., 2006), the Skills for Psychological Recovery Field Operations Guide (Berkowitz et al., 2010), and the Psychological First Aid for Schools Field Operations Manual (Brymer et al., 2012). Two case examples illustrate the use of positive psychology principles.
Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescent depression is associated with serious consequences. School staff is in a unique position to screen and refer adolescents with depression in a timely manner, and can collaborate with healthcare teams to assist in the proper management of the disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the results of a workshop that aims to improve the knowledge of adolescent depression among school staff.Material and methods: This was a single-arm trial with a pre-post design. Six workshops were conducted in four cities in Chile. Each workshop lasted four hours. Participatory methodology was used. A 26-item knowledge questionnaire about adolescent depression, with the alternatives I agree, I disagree, and I don’t know was administered to the participants, before and after the workshop.Results: A total of 152 people participated in the trial. Of these, 74.3% were female, and 44.7% were school psychologists, 25.0%, teachers, 17.8%, school counselors, and 5.3%, social workers. On average, there were 69.6% (SD 21.3 correct responses on the initial test, and 91.8% (SD 8.0 on the final test. All items had an increase of correct answers and a decrease of don’t know answers. There were notable increases of correct responses on statements dealing with myths: Antidepressants for the treatment of depression in adolescents must be avoided because they produce dependence (59% to 96% and Depression in adolescence is better defined as a weakness of character than as a disease (75% to 95%. School psychologists scored higher than the other participants on the questionnaire both before and after the workshop.Conclusions: The workshop: Adolescent depression: What can schools do? can improve school staff knowledge of this topic, especially aiding to dispel myths regarding the disease and its treatment. This can help bring about timely case detection and improved collaboration with health team for proper handling of adolescent depression.
Tee, Guat Hiong; Kaur, Gurpreet
Cigarette smoking in adolescent is a significant public health problem, leading to the risk of addiction, morbidity, and mortality in the long term. This study determined the prevalence and correlates of current smoking among adolescent school children. A nationwide school-based survey among 25 507 students between Forms 1 to 5 (aged 12-17) was conducted using a 2-stage cluster sampling design. The prevalence of current smoking was 11.5%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that current smoking was significantly associated with males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.87, 4.98), current drinking (aOR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.46, 3.74), drug used (aOR = 2.97; 95% CI = 1.24, 7.11), and being bullied (aOR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.98) at least once in the past 12 months. Smoking is associated with several behaviors that pose risks to adolescents, such as social issues and smoking-related health problems. Thus, early and integrated prevention programs that address multiple risk behaviors simultaneously are required.
Full Text Available Background. Attempted suicides and suicides are becoming pertinent social phenomena in Albania, with increasing trend in the last years, exceeding the road traffic accident numbers. Our objective was to examine suicide attempts trends among Albanian children and adolescents. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of standardized suicide attempts rates in Statistic Department at University Hospital Center “Mother Theresa”; epidemiology data for the period spanning from 2006 to 2012. We analyzed the data by age, sex and by suicide attempts method over time for two age groups: 10–14 year old (children and 15–19 year old (adolescents. Results. We found an average annual increase of the suicide attempts rate for children and adolescents (p<0.001, but stratification by age and sex showed significant variation. By comparing the two age groups it came out that the suicidal phenomena is more present at adolescence age (p<0.001. According to the statistic data and by analyzing the cases on yearly bases it resulted that female gender is more attempt to commit suicide that male gender, with a significant statistical variation of (p<0.001. From the study it was noted that the suicidal attempt methods, in the most of cases, were drug overdose (97.6% and 2.4% hang themselves (suffocation or cut their vein. Conclusions. The increasing cases of suicidal tendency among children and adolescents necessitate further studies to identify the causes and risk factors, and to develop suitable preventive programs .
... gov/news/fullstory_162772.html Disabled Children Face Bullying Throughout School Years More must be done to ... 29, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Dec. 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Bullying is a problem that affects almost all students ...
PAN Shu-ming; Stephen Hargarten; ZHU Shan-kuan
There is no safer way to transport a child than a school bus. Fatal crashes involving occupants are extremely rare events in the US. In recent years, school bus transportation began to develop in China. We want to bring advanced experience on school bus safety in Western countries such as the US to developing countries.Methods: We searched the papers related to school bus safety from Medline, Chinese Scientific Journals Database and the Web of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).Results: There were only 9 papers related to school bus safety, which showed that higher levels of safety standards on school buses, school bus-related transportation and environmental laws and injury prevention were the primary reasons for the desired outcome. Few school bus is related to deaths and injuries in the developed countries.Conclusions: The developing countries should make strict environmental laws and standards on school bus safety to prevent children's injury and death.
Uecker, Jeremy E
I analyze the effects of Catholic schooling, Protestant schooling, and homeschooling on adolescents' religious lives and test three mechanisms through which these schooling strategies might influence religiosity: friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors. Data from Wave 1 of the National Survey of Youth and Religion suggest that Catholic schoolers attend religious services more frequently and value their faith more highly than public schoolers, but attend religious education classes and youth group less often. Protestant schoolers' involvement in their local congregation is similar to public schoolers', but their faith plays a more salient role in their life and they are more active in private religious activities. Homeschoolers do not differ significantly from public schoolers on any outcome considered. Moreover, friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors play a very limited role in mediating the relationships between schooling strategies and adolescent religiosity. Interpretations of these findings are presented and discussed.
Robinson, L E; Webster, E K; Whitt-Glover, M C; Ceaser, T G; Alhassan, S
This review assessed the effectiveness of pre-school- and school-based obesity prevention and/or treatment interventions targeting healthy eating, physical activity or obesity in African American children and adolescents. Systematic searches were conducted for English-printed research articles published between January 1980 and March 2013. Retained articles included experimental studies conducted in the United States that targeted ≥ 80% African American/black children and adolescents and/or studies whose results were stratified by race/ethnicity, and that were conducted in pre-schools/head start or schools (excluding after-school programmes). Of the 12,270 articles identified, 17 met the inclusion criteria (pre-school, n=2; elementary school, n=7; middle and secondary schools, n=8). Thirteen studies found significant improvements in nutrition (pre-school, n=1; elementary, n=7; secondary, n=5) and three found significant improvements in physical activity (pre-school, n=1; elementary, n=2) variables of interest. Two studies (pre-school, n=1; secondary, n=1) reported significant reductions in obesity in African American children. The evidence available suggests school-based interventions are effective in promoting healthy nutrition behaviours in African American children. Conclusions overall and, particularly, about effects on physical activity and obesity are limited due to the small number of studies, differences in assessment approaches and a lack of follow-up assessments.
Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease continue to affect millions of people around the world. Children and adolescents of the developing countries are especially susceptible to this disease. To asses the prevalence of Rheumatic Fever /Rheumatic heart disease in an urban area, we do survey of children aged between 5 to 16 years studying in various government schools in Indore district which were selected randomly. Out of 9879 students enrolled in the study 9526 were examined, the percent...
Hilal Kaya Erdoğan; İlknur Kıvanç Altunay; Serap Turan
Background and Design: Although acne vulgaris is generally regarded as a disease of adolescence period, it can occur in infancy, early childhood and prepubertal period. Acne may emerge as the first sign of pubertal maturation. In our study, we aimed to determine the acne prevalence in primary school children, then, evaluate the pubertal signs in those children; examine the correlation of the presence and severity of acne with pubertal signs, and finally, revise the concept of prepubertal a...
The bachelor thesis deals with buying behaviour of children at secondary school. The aim is to describe their buying behaviour and find out their motivational factors to purchase factors with a focus on advertisement. In the theoretical part is specified buying behaviour and factors influencing consumer. Gen Z and Net generation, in which children at secondary school class, are characterized. It described their buying behaviour and specification that characterize this generation. A part of th...
Feldman, Heidi M; Lee, Eliana S; Yeatman, Jason D; Yeom, Kristen W
Children born preterm are at risk for deficits in language and reading. They are also at risk for injury to the white matter of the brain. The goal of this study was to determine whether performance in language and reading skills would be associated with white matter properties in children born preterm and full-term. Children born before 36 weeks gestation (n=23, mean±SD age 12.5±2.0 years, gestational age 28.7±2.5 weeks, birth weight 1184±431 g) and controls born after 37 weeks gestation (n=19, 13.1±2.1 years, 39.3±1.0 weeks, 3178±413 g) underwent a battery of language and reading tests. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans were processed using tract-based spatial statistics to generate a core white matter skeleton that was anatomically comparable across participants. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was the diffusion property used in analyses. In the full-term group, no regions of the whole FA-skeleton were associated with language and reading. In the preterm group, regions of the FA-skeleton were significantly associated with verbal IQ, linguistic processing speed, syntactic comprehension, and decoding. Combined, the regions formed a composite map of 22 clusters on 15 tracts in both hemispheres and in the ventral and dorsal streams. ROI analyses in the preterm group found that several of these regions also showed positive associations with receptive vocabulary, verbal memory, and reading comprehension. Some of the same regions showed weak negative correlations within the full-term group. Exploratory multiple regression in the preterm group found that specific white matter pathways were related to different aspects of language processing and reading, accounting for 27-44% of the variance. The findings suggest that higher performance in language and reading in a group of preterm but not full-term children is associated with higher fractional anisotropy of a bilateral and distributed white matter network.
YU Yizhen; SHI Junxia; HUANG Yan; WANG Jun
In order to identify family factors obviously relevant to aggression, and offer a theoretical foundation for the prevention of aggression, 4010 students from primary and secondary schools in 5 different areas in Hubei province were surveyed. The Child Behavior Checklist "parents' form"(Chinese version) and the four scales of Family Environment Scale were used. A multiple logistic regression was used to identify risk factors of children's and adolescents' aggressive behavior. The results showed that maternal education, paternal occupation, family type, parental child-rearing attitude and patterns, students' interpersonal relationship were significantly associated with the children's and adolescents' aggression. The risk factors of aggression were parental child-rearing patterns, peer relationship, teacher-student relationship, and family conflicts.
Richman, J M; Rosenfeld, L B; Bowen, G L
Social support, widely studied as a variable that positively affects the adaptation of adolescents, is often less present in the lives of youths at risk of school failure. This study explores the social support of at-risk students, including who provides each of eight types of support, and the effects of particular types of social support on school performance outcomes. Results of analyses of data from students enrolled in Communities in Schools programs, indicate that parents and adult caretakers are major sources of social support for both middle and high school at-risk students. Analyses of school outcomes data indicate that particular types of social support are associated with different desirable school outcomes. The article presents implications for social work practice and the development of intervention strategies to enhance students' school performance and behavior.
Mancini Marcio C
Abstract In recent years, there has been a greater concern about the presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. However, there is no consensus regarding the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. It is evident that each component of the syndrome must be identified as early as possible in order to prevent definitive lesions. The question is how to do this and which cut-offs must be adopted for this diagnosis. For a matter of convenience, the d...
Sasot-Llevadot, Jordi; Ibáñez-Bordas, Rosa M; Soto-López, Antonio; Montañés-Rada, Francisco; Gastaminza-Pérez, Xavier; Alda-Díez, José A; Cantó-Díez, Tomás; Catalá, Miguel A; Ferrin-Erdozáin, Maite; García-Giral, Marta; Graell-Bernal, Montserrat; Granada-Jiménez, Olvido; Herreros-Rodríguez, Óscar; Mardomingo-Sanz, María J; Mojarro-Práxedes, Dolores; Morey-Canyelles, Jaume; Ortiz-Guerra, Juan; Pàmies-Massana, Montserrat; Rey-Sánchez, Francisco; Romera-Torrens, María; Rubio-Morell, Belén; Ruiz-Lázaro, Pedro M; Ruiz-Sanz, Francisco
In this paper, the Special Interest Group on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (GEITDAH, from its name in Spanish) presents a consensus reached by experts from all over Spain on conduct disorders in children and adolescents. Following the initial work by the team at the Pedopsychiatry Unit at the Quiron-Teknon Hospital in Barcelona, agreements have been reached on a number of basic aspects that could be the starting point for future consensuses. A top priority aim of the work was also to update the criteria in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition, for conduct disorders in children and adolescents, together with their comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Castro, Kimberly S.
We examined the relations among children's effortful control, school liking, and academic competence with a sample of 240 7- to 12-year-old children. Parents and children reported on effortful control, and teachers and children assessed school liking. Children, parents, and teachers reported on children's academic competence. Significant positive…
Booth, Margaret Zoller; Sheehan, Heather Chase; Earley, Mark A.
Throughout the world, school grade structures are most variable during the early adolescent years when students can find themselves in a variety of school models. This paper investigates the impact of two popular school models in the United States (middle school and K-8) on the self-esteem and self-concept of early adolescents. Based on mixed…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has caused recurrent epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease among children in Singapore. Between August 2008 and July 2010, we conducted a survey to estimate the seroprevalence of EV71 infection among children and adolescents aged 1-17 years. We compared our EV71 seroepidemiologic findings with a previous study conducted in 1996-1997. Methods The survey involved the prospective collection of 1,200 residual sera from Singapore residents aged 1-17 years in two hospitals. Neutralizing antibodies to EV71 were detected by the microneutralization test. The geometric mean titer (GMT of EV71 antibodies and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated and compared by age groups. Statistical significance was taken as P Results The overall EV71 antibody prevalence was 26.9% (95% CI: 24.5-29.5%. It increased significantly from 14.3% in children aged 1-6 years to 27.8% in those aged 7-12 years, and reached 38.8% in adolescents aged 13-17 years. The seroconversion rate differed by about 12% between the consecutive age groups. The GMT of EV71 antibodies was higher among primary school children aged 7-12 years in our study than that among the 6-12 year age group in the 1996-1997 study. Conclusions Higher antibody titers were observed in children aged 1-6 years than those in the other two age groups, indicating that most of the infections had been acquired during early childhood. EV71 infection is common among children and adolescents in Singapore, with 39% infected by the time they are in secondary school (13-17 years of age.
Cristiane S Paula
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, a minority of disordered children/adolescents receives mental health assistance. In order to improve service access, it is important to investigate factors that influence the process leading to receiving care. Data on frequency and barriers for mental health service use (MHSU among Brazilian children/adolescents are extremely scarce and are needed to guide public policy. OBJECTIVES: To establish the frequency of MHSU among 6-to-16-year-old with psychiatric disorders from four Brazilian regions; and to identify structural/psychosocial/demographic barriers associated with child/adolescent MHSU. METHODS: Multicenter cross-sectional-study involving four towns from four out of five Brazilian regions. In each town, a representative sample of elementary public school students was randomly selected (sample: 1,721. Child/adolescent MHSU was defined as being seen by a psychologist/psychiatrist/neurologist in the previous 12 months. Standardized instruments measured: (1 children/adolescent characteristics [(1.1 Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS-PL-psychiatric disorders; (1.2 Ten Questions Screen-neurodevelopment problems; (1.3 two subtests of WISC-III-estimated IQ; (1.4 Academic Performance Test-school performance], (2 factors related to mothers/main caregivers (Self-Reporting Questionnaire-anxiety/depression, (3 family (Brazilian Research-Companies-Association's Questionnaire-SES. RESULTS: Only 19.8% of children/adolescents with psychiatric disorder have used mental health services in the previous 12 months. Multiple logistic regression modeling identified five factors associated with lower rates of MHSU (female gender, adequate school performance, mother/main caregiver living with a partner, lower SES, residing in deprived Brazilian regions regardless of the presence of any psychiatric disorders/neurodevelopmental problems. CONCLUSIONS: Only a small proportion of children/adolescents
Dr. Charuhas V Akre
Full Text Available Background: Puberty is transformation of the child into an adult. It includes all the events of somatic and mental maturation. Secondary sex characters were also a part of this period. The objective was to assess the pattern of sexual maturation of adolescent school girls in rural India.Methods: This was a community based cross sectional study conducted among school children of Sevanand High school, Mahadula, Nagpur. 322 girls in the age group of 10-18 years were assessed for sexual maturation. The pubertal evaluation was made with reference to Tanner stages and grading was done as per Tanner’s scale. For statistical analysis, median and standard error along with 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated using Epi Info statistical package programme version 6.0 updated 2009. Statistical significance was assessed at a type I error rate of 0.05.Results: We found that pubertal changes appeared earlier in girls. The first to appear was breast development at a median age of 10.40 years. The last to appear was pubic hair development (PH5 at median age 16.87 years, the total time taken for complete sexual maturation being 6.38 years. Median age of menarche was found to be13.18 years.Conclusion: The pattern of sexual maturation in rural adolescent school children revealed that though puberty set in earlier in girls, but took longer time for complete maturation.
Full Text Available FI Buseri1, IJ Siaminabo2, ZA Jeremiah11Hematology and Blood Transfusion Sciences Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, NigeriaBackground: Lack of standard local reference values have been a problem facing hematological practice in Nigeria. Our aim was to establish reference hematological values from infancy to adolescence for future use in Nigeria.Methods: A total of 1,021 apparently healthy Nigerian children aged 0–17 years were recruited for this cross-sectional descriptive study from the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, during preparatory exercises for immunization for Hepatitis B vaccine and from the Rivers State University of Science and Technology Day Care/Nursery, Primary, and International Demonstration Secondary School, Port Harcourt, during their standard medical examination prior to starting school. All hematological parameters were carried out using International Committee on Standardization in Hematology (ICSH approved manual methods.Results: We report a reference range study conducted in Port Harcourt infants (aged 1 day to less than 1 year, children (1 to less than 5 years, 5 to less than 9 years, 9 to 14 years, and adolescents (14 to 17 years old, establishing reference intervals for hematological parameters. Several differences were observed when compared to previously established values from Caucasians, most notably in hemoglobin, packed cell volume, platelets, total white blood cell count, and neutrophil values.Conclusion: The values reported in this study can be used as local reference values for Port Harcourt infants, children, and adolescents.Keywords: reference values, hematologic indices, infants, children, adolescents, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Full Text Available Background: Young adults are at increased risk for suicidal behavior and there is growing concern about racial differences in suicidal ideation, especially in the younger population. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess suicidal ideation in school going tribal and nontribal adolescents and to study its relationships with psychological well-being, depression, and anxiety. Materials and Methods: A total of 259 students of Classes X, XI, and XII of three Schools of Ranchi, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria, were screened for suicidal ideation by Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ and psychological well-being by General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12. The level of anxiety and depression was assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS. Results: Overall 33.2% of the adolescents had suicidal ideation out of which 34.2% were tribal-students and 32.8% nontribal-students with no significant intergroup difference. Psychological discomfort (GHQ-12 Score ≥3 was noticed in 59.1% of adolescents, but no racial difference was found. However, the mean HADS depression score was significantly higher in tribal adolescents, more so in tribal boys than nontribal adolescents or boys, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation of SIQ total score in all the adolescents with GHQ-12 total score, HADS total score, HADS anxiety score, and HADS depression score. Conclusion: There were no racial differences in suicidal ideation and psychological discomfort among tribal and nontribal adolescents. Tribal adolescents, and more specifically tribal boys, had more depression than their nontribal counterparts. Suicidal ideation was positively correlated with psychological discomfort, anxiety, and depression.
Greenberg, Joy Pastan
The U.S. school-age population has been experiencing dramatic demographic changes over the past two decades. Hispanic students constitute the fastest growing student group today, and this growth is expected to continue such that there will be more Hispanic school-aged children than non-Hispanic school-aged children in 2050. Unfortunately, Hispanic…
Watson, Doris L.; Poczwaradowski, Artur; Eisenman, Pat
Describes adolescent girls' responses to an after-school physical activity program, examining how it functioned as a listening tool within a social marketing approach to promoting physical activity. Focus groups and interviews indicated that girls enjoyed and valued the program. Though the program did not increase girls' physical activity levels,…
Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Body mass index (BMI is an inexpensive and easy-to-perform method of screening for weight status, which may have detrimental health consequences. The aim of our study was to assess the pattern of BMI among Nigerian adolescent secondary school girls and determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among them.
Ludden, Alison Bryant
Involvement in civic and community activities is a core part of positive youth development. Adolescents involved in voluntary civic activities have greater academic engagement, enhanced well-being, less involvement in problem behaviors, and they are more likely to value connections to their community than those who are not involved. The current research examined involvement in school and community civic activities as well as religious youth groups among 8th and 9th graders (N = 679, 61.7% female, 85.9% White) from small, rural schools in the Midwest U.S. and linked involvement to religiosity, well-being, problem behavior, academic engagement, and perceptions of parents and peers. Half of the adolescents in the sample reported involvement in civic activities or, more commonly, in religious youth groups. Adolescents who participated in religious youth groups reported more extracurriculars, less problem behavior, higher grades and motivation, and more support from parents and friends than adolescents who did not. The most frequently reported school civic activities were student council and Future Farmers of America, and 4-H was the most popular community civic activity. Those who were involved in school- and community-based civic activities reported more religiosity, academic engagement, and positive perceptions of parents and peers than uninvolved youth. The results support and extend research on rural youth by documenting civic activities across contexts and examining how involvement is associated with positive youth development.
Full Text Available BackgroundAdolescents are highly vulnerable to psychiatric disorders.This study aimed to explore the prevalence and patterns ofbehavioural and emotional problems in adolescents. It wasalso aimed to explore associations between socioenvironmentalstressors and maladaptive outcomes.MethodA school based cross-sectional study was conductedbetween January and July 2008. A stratified randomsampling was done. 1150 adolescents in 12 to 18 year agegroup in grades 7 to 12 in 10 co-educational schools(government run and private were the subjects of thestudy. Behavioural and emotional problems were assessedusing Youth Self-Report (2001 questionnaire. Familystressors were assessed using a pre-tested 23 itemquestionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analysis wereperformed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was alsodone.ResultsPrevalence of behavioural and emotional problems inadolescents was found to be 30%, with girls exceedingboys in all age groups. Internalizing syndrome was themost common (28.6% psychiatric problem. On stepwiseregression analysis, a perceived lack of emotionalproximity to mother had the highest odds (3.489 followedby addiction in father (2.642 and marital discord inparents (1.402. Type of school, type of family,socioeconomic status, relationship with father, mother'semployment and educational status were not found to besignificantly associatedConclusionAn alarming number of our adolescents suffer fromemotional and behavioural problems which have theirroots in the family environment. These data suggesturgency in establishing a school based mental healthservice.
Kennedy, Angie C.
Using a risk and resilience framework, this exploratory study examines the relationships between homelessness, exposure to multiple types of violence, and school participation within a survey sample of poor adolescent mothers living in an urban setting. Participants who were homeless either currently or historically were compared with participants…
Boschloo, Annemarie; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle
Boschloo, A., Ouwehand, C., Dekker, S., Lee, N., De Groot, R., Krabbendam, L., & Jolles, J. (2012). The relation between breakfast skipping and school performance in adolescents. Mind, Brain, and Education, 6(2), 81-88. doi:10.1111/j.1751-228x.2012.01138.x
Full Text Available Background: The primary agricultural product in Egypt is the cotton crop. Children and adolescents work seasonally in the cotton fields applying pesticides.Objectives: To examine the effect of pesticide exposure on clinical and biochemical parameters in children and adolescents applying pesticides.Methods: Male children currently applying pesticides and aged between 9 and 19 years (n = 50 were recruited for this study. They were asked to complete work, health, and exposure questionnaires; examined for any medical and neurological problems with particular attention to sensory and motor functions including cranial nerves, sensory and motor system, and reflexes. From each participant, a blood sample was taken to measure acetylcholinesterase activity, and liver and kidney functions. Children who have never worked in agriculture (n = 50, matched on age, education, and socioeconomic status were also studied and served as controls.Results: More neuromuscular disorders were identified in pesticide applicators than controls. A significant lower level of acetylcholinesterase was found in the applicator group compared to the controls. There was also a significant difference in hematological, renal and hepatic indices in the exposed children compared to the control children. Working more days in the current season and also working more years as a pesticide applicator were both associated with an increase in the prevalence of neuromuscular abnormalities and significant changes in the laboratory tests.Conclusion: Children and adolescent pesticide applicators working in farms of Egypt are at risk of developing serious health problems similar to those of adults.
Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, the food and beverage industry in the US has viewed children and adolescents as a major market force. As a result, children and adolescents are now the target of intense and specialized food marketing and advertising efforts. Food marketers are interested in youth as consumers because of their spending power, their purchasing influence, and as future adult consumers. Multiple techniques and channels are used to reach youth, beginning when they are toddlers, to foster brand-building and influence food product purchase behavior. These food marketing channels include television advertising, in-school marketing, product placements, kids clubs, the Internet, toys and products with brand logos, and youth-targeted promotions, such as cross-selling and tie-ins. Foods marketed to children are predominantly high in sugar and fat, and as such are inconsistent with national dietary recommendations. The purpose of this article is to examine the food advertising and marketing channels used to target children and adolescents in the US, the impact of food advertising on eating behavior, and current regulation and policies.
Story, Mary; French, Simone
In recent years, the food and beverage industry in the US has viewed children and adolescents as a major market force. As a result, children and adolescents are now the target of intense and specialized food marketing and advertising efforts. Food marketers are interested in youth as consumers because of their spending power, their purchasing influence, and as future adult consumers. Multiple techniques and channels are used to reach youth, beginning when they are toddlers, to foster brand-building and influence food product purchase behavior. These food marketing channels include television advertising, in-school marketing, product placements, kids clubs, the Internet, toys and products with brand logos, and youth-targeted promotions, such as cross-selling and tie-ins. Foods marketed to children are predominantly high in sugar and fat, and as such are inconsistent with national dietary recommendations. The purpose of this article is to examine the food advertising and marketing channels used to target children and adolescents in the US, the impact of food advertising on eating behavior, and current regulation and policies.
Egbochuku, E. O.; Aihie, N. O.
The study focused on the influence of peer group counselling and school influence on the self-concept of adolescents' in Nigerian secondary schools. Sixty-eight Senior Secondary School II students from three schools--a boys' school, a girls' school and a co-educational school in Benin City participated in the study. A pre-test, post-test control…
Entwisle, Doris R.; And Others
Findings from the Beginning School Study, conducted in Baltimore (Maryland) are used to show how differences in family circumstances translate into beliefs and activities that help or hinder children's development. The Beginning School Study started in 1982 and has followed 790 randomly selected Baltimore students from first-grade in 1982 through…
Robin, Stanley S.; Bosco, James J.
Research in an urban public school system (Grand Rapids, Michigan) was conducted to determine teachers' view of Ritalin for school children. Three questions were addressed: what contact with and information about Ritalin do teachers have; what attitude do teachers express toward Ritalin; and what professional behaviors do teachers report in regard…
Hunt, Jenny; Wheatley, Malcolm
To date there is limited research examining the use of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) with adolescents in secure care. The aim of this article is to examine the inter-rater reliability, concurrent validity and clinical utility of HoNOSCA in an adolescent secure psychiatric unit. Twenty-four…
Full Text Available Background: With a rising trend of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs in the present world, overweight and obesity has gained importance as it is not only a disease in itself but also risk factor for majority of other NCDs. A dramatic increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescent has raised the concern of various public health physicians especially in developing country like India. Aims & Objective: To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity & its correlates among school going adolescents of Haldwani block. Material & Methods: School based cross sectional study was done among the adolescents of 8th to 12th standard. To calculate the maximum sample size prevalence of obesity was assumed to be 50%, taking absolute error of 5%, design effect of 2 and 10% non-response rate the sample was calculated to be 880, rounded off to 900. Samples were collected from 30 clusters/schools using simple random sampling. Data was collected using a pre-designed, semi-structured and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 13% (CI = 10.8 - 15.2%. Overweight and obesity was found to be significantly associated with urban area, private school, Socio-economic class I, non-vegetarian diet, physical inactivity and playing videogames, working on laptops and computer on univariate analysis. On applying binary logistic regression factors like private schools, socioeconomic class I, non-vegetarian diet and physical inactivity were again found to be significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Prevalence of obesity was found to be more in adolescents having modifiable risk factors.
Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Wan Ismail, Wan Salwina; Tan, Chai Eng; Jaffar, Aida; Sharip, Shalisah; Omar, Khairani
Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric illness commonly diagnosed during the early years of childhood. In many adolescents with undiagnosed ADHD, presentation may not be entirely similar to that in younger children. These adolescents pose significant challenges to parents and teachers coping with their disability. Often adolescents with behavioural problems are brought to medical attention as a last resort. This case describes an adolescent who presented to a primary care clinic with school truancy. He was initially treated for depression with oppositional defiant disorder and sibling rivalry. Only following a careful detailed history and further investigations was the diagnosis of ADHD made. He showed a positive improvement with the use of methylphenidate for his ADHD and escitalopram for his depression. The success of his management was further supported by the use of behavioural therapy and parenting interventions. There is a need to increase public awareness of ADHD, especially among parents and teachers so that early intervention can be instituted in these children.
I. O. Oluwayemi
Full Text Available Background. Over the past two decades there has been an increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in children. Baseline data is needed to assess the impact of changing lifestyles on Ado-Ekiti, a previously semiurban community in Southwest Nigeria. This study was therefore conducted to assess the fasting blood glucose (FBG of adolescents in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional study involving 628 adolescents from three different secondary schools in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. With parental consent, volunteers completed a structured questionnaire, and an overnight FBG was measured. Results. There were 346 males and 282 females (male : female ratio = 1.2 : 1. Their ages ranged from 10 to 19 years (mean age: 14.2±1.7 years. Four hundred and forty-four (70.7% had normal FBG, while 180 (28.7% and 4 (0.6% had FBG in the prediabetic and diabetic range, respectively. Female gender, age group 10–14 years, and family history of obesity were significantly associated with impaired FBG (P value <0.001, <0.001, and 0.045, resp.. Conclusion. Impaired FBG is common among secondary school adolescents and it is more prevalent among younger female adolescents (10–14 years with positive family history of obesity.
@@ During the school years, children's development in cognition enables them to focus their thinking on the facts and relationships less intuitively and more analytically. Growing language abilities complement these cognitive skills. As a result, older children can discuss and explain their world and themselves in ways no presehoolers can. And the ability to plan and follow through on cognitive strategies further distinguishes older children from preschoolers.
Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Verschuren, Olaf; Gorter, Jan Willem; Lindeman, Eline; Jongmans, Marian; Ketelaar, Marjolijn
The purpose of this study was to examine professionals' perceptions on classifying learning styles in the context of teaching motor activities to children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). The participants were 21 pediatric physical therapists (PPTs) and seven physical educators (PEs) in three schools for special education in The Netherlands. All participants were introduced to the key descriptions of two existing learning style instruments (Kolb's Learning Style Inventory and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator), applied them to children and adolescents with CP, and reported their perceptions in written surveys. This study had a mixed-methods design. Quantitative and qualitative data analyses showed that PPTs and PEs are mostly positive about the idea of classifying learning styles in the context of teaching motor activities to children and adolescents with CP, giving three main reasons: individual approach, professional communication, and treatment awareness. Additionally, qualitative data analysis showed that the key descriptions of the two learning style instruments were not feasible as classifications for children and adolescents with CP. It is therefore recommended that other learning style classification instruments should be explored and that possibly a new learning style classification instrument should be developed in the context of teaching motor activities to children and adolescents with CP.
Olívia Maria Costa Grangeiro de Sousa
evasión escolar.The relationship between children and adolescents schooling process and their early work is focused. It analyzes the formation of subjectivity molded by work and schooling. Twenty-one students, aged 10 to 14 years old, males and females, undertaking informal work activities on the street, were investigated. Predominance of male workers in the service sector was reported, coupled to the fact that the needs, personal satisfaction and time employment were the main reasons for their early introduction to labor. Simultaneously working and studying have some psychosocial implications, such as restricted participation in social activities involving studies and leisure; subjective experiences of prematurely borne responsibilities; uncertainty about the future, and, in a special way, damage to the educational process comprising failure, repetition, backwardness and school quitting.
Full Text Available Current treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and other disorders affecting central nervous system functioning leading to disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents seldom include an adjunctive psychosocial intervention. Objective: The purpose of this quality improvement study was to implement Behavioral Parent Training (BPT in an outpatient private practice setting to improve outcomes in home, school, and social settings for children and adolescents. Method: Parent(s/guardian(s of ten (n=10 children ages seven through 12. The study utilized the Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale, Home Situations Questionnaire, and Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale – Parent Form as well as Teacher Rating Scale and School Questionnaires for measurement of behaviours prior to BPT. The standardized ADHD parent and teacher rating scales along with the questionnaires for both were again completed at the conclusion of the BPT sessions for comparison. Results: Findings indicated significant improvements in disruptive behaviour. Conclusion: Psychosocial interventions such as BPT can be a powerful adjunct to pharmacotherapy in ADHD and behavior disorders for this population. Providing such intervention in a routine practice setting offers the potential for improved outcomes in the child/adolescent’s home, school, and social setting.
Spaten, Ole Michael
Interviews and observations from a longitudinal study (from 1998 - 2009) has been analyzed to approach a contextual understanding of children's identity and self-concept development (Spaten 2007). Bronfenbrenner assumed (2005) that scientific limitations in widespread approaches to research...... on childrens's development may be conquered by broader perspectives in theory and, methodology. He proposed a scientific perspective as the ecology of human development and, the Person-Process-Context-Time model (ibid). Our results includes that childrens's and adolescent's active internalization (Valsiner...... & Van der Veer, 1988). amd dialogical, cultural self-autorship are important themes for an understanding of processes of self-concept development among Danish children and adolescents from diverse cultual backgrounds. Limitations for this research as well as further directions for new studies...
Roaten, Gail K.; Roaten, David J.
Brain growth and change is a key factor in adolescent development, influencing cognitions, emotions, and behavior. As technology has improved, so has the research on the adolescent brain. School counselors working with adolescents need to be familiar with recent literature to be more effective in their work with middle and high school students.…
Souza, Edvaldo; Santos, Nicole; Valentini, Sophia; Silva, Gerlane; Falbo, Ana
Perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children are fighting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and becoming adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine long-term outcomes among perinatally HIV-1-infected adolescents. Cross-sectional clinical and laboratory data were collected for 49 perinatally HIV-infected adolescents followed at the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP's) Hospital from 1987 to 2007. The mean age of these adolescents was 12.5 years, the majority were female (73.5%) with a mean follow-up duration of 9.0 years, 71.4% of adolescents had no signs of HIV infection, 81.6% had normal CD4(+) lymphocyte count, and 53.1% had undetectable HIV viral load. HIV disclosure to the adolescent was reported in 31 (63.3%) participants. The majority were in school (89.8%) but failure and drop-out were reported by 51% and 28.6% of the subjects, respectively. All five domains of quality of life (QOL) measured revealed high scores. The majority of long-term adolescent survivors showed HIV-infection control and high scores of QOL, but with problems in schooling functioning that need early detection and intervention.
Bloomfield, Elana R; Shatkin, Jess P
Childhood parasomnias and movement disorders arise from a variety of etiologic factors. For some children, psychopathology plays a causal role in sleep disorders; in other cases, recurrent parasomnia episodes induce psychopathology. Current research reveals complex interconnections between sleep and mental health. As such, it is important that clinicians consider the impact psychiatric disorders have on childhood parasomnias. This article describes common parasomnias and movement disorders in children and adolescents, with emphasis on psychologic and behavioral comorbidities.
Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Haynos, Ann F.; Kotler, Lisa A.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.
The prevalence of pediatric overweight has increased dramatically over the past three decades, likely due to changes in food intake as well as physical activity. Therefore, information examining eating patterns among children and adolescents is needed to illuminate which aspects of eating behavior require modification to prevent and treat pediatric overweight. Because child self-report and parent-report of children's eating habits are often inconsistent and limited by recall and other biases,...
Sirin, Selcuk; Jackson, Lisa R.
This study investigated the impact of behavioral and affective factors on 688 African American high school students' academic performance, examining the relationship between school engagement, educational expectations, self-esteem, and school achievement; noting differences between males and females; and discussing whether behavioral and affective…
Yusoff, Fadhli; Sahril, Norhafizah; Rasidi, Naim M; Zaki, Nor Azian M; Muhamad, Norazlina; Ahmad, NoorAni
Illicit drug use among adolescents has become a public health issue in Malaysia. This study was from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) and aimed to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. A 2-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used and data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 25 507 students participated in the study. The prevalence of adolescents who ever used illicit drugs was 1.7%. Adolescents who ever used illicit drugs were associated with current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.99; 95% CI = 5.19, 9.40), current alcohol use (aOR = 4.63; 95% CI = 3.43, 6.26), ever having sex (aOR = 4.76; 95% CI = 3.54, 6.41), truancy (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.90), lack of peer support (aOR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.07, 2.03), and lack of parental monitoring (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.39). Public health intervention should be addressed to prevent illicit drug used among adolescents.
Morin, Alexandre J S; Maïano, Christophe; Marsh, Herbert W; Nagengast, Benjamin; Janosz, Michel
This study investigates heterogeneity in adolescents' trajectories of global self-esteem (GSE) and the relations between these trajectories and facets of the interpersonal, organizational, and instructional components of students' school life. Methodologically, this study illustrates the use of growth mixture analyses, and how to obtain proper student-level effects when there are multiple schools, but not enough to support multilevel analyses. This study is based on a 4-year, six-measurement-point, follow-up of 1,008 adolescents (M(age) = 12.6 years, SD = 0.6 at Time 1.) The results show four latent classes presenting elevated, moderate, increasing, and low trajectories defined based on GSE levels and fluctuations. The results show that GSE becomes trait-like as it increases and that school life effects, moderated by gender, played an important role in predicting membership in these trajectories.
Describes specific parallels between rational emotive behavior therapy and humanism. Places specific emphasis on the application of these principles with children and adolescents. Concepts are illustrated with case studies and a description of the similarities between rational emotive and humanistic, or affective, education. Highlights emotional…
Demakova, Irina D.; Valeeva, Roza A.; Shipova, Alina V.
The article describes the relevant aspects of the adolescents' cultural practices in children's summer camp, taking into account their specific characteristics. The summer camp is considered as an educational formation and holistic socio-pedagogical body, designed to create conditions for the development of the person. The criteria for inclusion…
Donnelly, Craig L.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Rynn, Moira; Ambrosini, Paul; Landau, Phyllis; Yang, Ruoyong; Wohlberg, Christopher J.
Objective: To explore time to first response and time to first persistent response of sertraline versus placebo and compare these parameters between children (6-11 years old, n = 177) and adolescents (12-17 years old, n = 199) with major depressive disorder. Method: A 10-week placebo-controlled treatment was followed by a 24-week open-label…
Luciana Neder; Daniel A. Rondon; Silvana S. Cury; Clovis A. da Silva
Objective: To evaluate musculoskeletal involvement and autoantibodies in pediatric leprosy patients. Methods: 50 leprosy patients and 47 healthy children and adolescents were assessed according to musculoskeletal manifestations (arthralgia, arthritis, and myalgia), musculoskeletal pain syndromes (juvenile fibromyalgia, benign joint hypermobility syndrome, myofascial syndrome, and tendinitis), and a panel of autoantibodies and cryoglobulins. Health assessment scores and treatment were perfor...
Agarwal, Vivek; Dhanasekaran, Saranya
Children and adolescents spent a considerable portion of their time watching television, movies, playing videogames and on the internet. Media has proved to be a very useful tool in the fields of education, arts, science, sports, and culture. Over the past few decades, there has been a surge in the use of media by the younger generations and…
Hatchett, Gregory T.
In the past decade, there has been a proliferation in the number of children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Except in rare cases, the young people who receive this diagnosis do not meet the strict diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder I or II in the DSM-IV-TR. Many pediatric psychiatrists insist there are important development…
Verduijn, Nina J.C.; Vincken, Manon J.B.; Meesters, Cor M.G.; Engelhard, I.M.
After a traumatic event, many children and adolescents develop post-traumatic stress disorder. Studies in adults suggest that emotional reasoning (i.e., drawing conclusions about situations on the basis of one’s emotional responses) is involved in PTSD development or maintenance. This longitudinal s
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2008
Parameter for the usage of telepsychiatry to provide services to children and adolescents is developed using clinical consensus and existing scientific evidence. Telepsychiatry is the result of applying telemedicine, a mode of health care delivery that uses telecommunications, to psychiatry. The parameter's use for determining best practices in…
Marina Fernandes de Sena; Késsia Suênia F. de Mesquita; Santos,Fernanda Regina R.; Silva, Francisco Wanderley G. P.; Kranya Victoria D. Serrano
OBJECTIVE: To review the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in children and adolescents, verifying the methodological variations. DATA SOURCES: Research conducted in Medline, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO databases, including manuscripts (except reviews and case reports) published from 1990 to 2012. The descriptors were "temporomandibular joint syndrome", "temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome", "temporomandibular joint disorders", "prevalence studies", and "cross-sectional ...
Ulissi, Stephen Mark
Intended for mental health professionals who evaluate hearing impaired children and adolescents, the paper discusses issues of general concern. Areas touched upon include psychological and sociological effects from the hearing impaired subculture, complicating medical and physical disorders, and modification of assessment devices to remove the…
Fazelifarsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C.; Van Der Vorst, Marja M.J.; Knibbe, Catherijne A.J.; De Boer, Anthonius; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.
Background: Limited quantitative data exist on the burden of chronic comorbidities in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Such knowledge is necessary for the development of guidelines and prevention programs. Objectives: To determine the incidence of chronic comorbidities in childre
Kjaersdam Telléus, Gry; Jepsen, Jens Richardt; Bentz, Mette
OBJECTIVE: Few studies of cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been conducted. The aim of this study was to examine the neurocognitive and intelligence profile of this clinical group. METHOD: The study was a matched case-control (N = 188), multi...
Verduyn, Chrissie; Calam, Rachel
Discussion of cognitive behavioral interventions with abused children and adolescents covers use of cognitive therapy with adults, therapeutic processes in cognitive therapy, involvement of parents and carers in cognitive behavioral therapy, and cognitive schema and maltreatment. Application is made to types of abuse (physical, emotional, sexual)…
Lin, Wei Neng; Enright, Robert; Klatt, John
Forgiveness education has demonstrated psychological, social and academic benefits; however, it has not been discussed as a means of promoting character development for children and adolescents. In this paper, we discuss forgiveness as a moral concept and explain how forgiveness can contribute to current discussions of character education. After…
Piacentini, John; Chang, Susanna
Chronic tic disorders, including Tourette's syndrome (TS), affect approximately .5% of children and adolescents. Although strong evidence exists supporting a neurobiological etiology, operant factors may play a role in the maintenance of tic behaviors. Pharmacological approaches remain the most commonly used intervention for chronic tic disorder…
Emmerik, N.M.A. van; Renders, C.M.; Veer, M. van de; Buuren, S. van; Baan-Slootweg, O.H. van der; Kist-van Holthe, J.E.; HiraSing, R.A.
Objective: To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in severely obese children and adolescents. Methods: A nationwide prospective surveillance study was carried out from July 2005 to July 2007 where paediatricians were asked to report all new cases of severe obesity in 2-18-year-old c
In this issue of the Jornal de Pediatria, Silva et al. compared the growth patterns of Brazilian children and adolescents with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) growth charts. The Silva et al. study has significant public health implications...
Mobius sequence is a rare congenital disorder usually defined as a combination of facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction. Some studies suggest that psychosocial and psychiatric problems might be increased among affected persons. So far, there have been no studies on the self-perception of children and adolescents with the sequence.…
Weisgram, Erica S.; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Liben, Lynn S.
Work fulfills personal values, perhaps differently for males and females. Explored here was the role values play in shaping occupational interests. Study 1 examined children's, adolescents', and adults' (N = 313) occupational values (regarding money, power, family, altruism), occupational interests, and perceptions of values afforded by…
Brodersen, Louise Aarup; Nielsen, Pia Rude; Thiesson, Helle Charlotte;
Brodersen LA, Nielsen PR, Thiesson HC, Marckmann P. Vitamin D status in children and adolescents with kidney transplants. Pediatr Transplantation 2011: 15: 384-389. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract: Hypovitaminosis D is highly prevalent in adult kidney-transplanted patients. The knowledge...
van der Linden, Marietta
In this article, the author talks about functional electrical stimulation in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is defined as the electrical stimulation of muscles that have impaired motor control, in order to produce a contraction to obtain functionally useful movement. It was first proposed in…
Anglin, James P.
Many actions of troubled children and adolescents can disguise and conceal their ever-present and deep-seated psycho-emotional pain. Adults living and working with these youth may overlook this pain in a strategy of avoidance. Labelling troubling behavior as "outbursts," "explosions," or "acting out," ignores the…
Li, Dongping; Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui
Background: School factors play important roles in adolescent suicide. However, little is known about how school climate is associated with adolescent suicide. This study examined the relationship between perceived school climate and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and whether these relations were explained by adolescent sleep…
Jansen Pauline W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17% or bully-victims (13%, and less as pure victims (4%. All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: School mental health services are important contact points for children and adolescents with mental disorders, but their ability to provide comprehensive treatment is limited. The main objective was to estimate in mentally disordered adolescents of a nationally representative United States cohort the role of school mental health services as guide to mental health care in different out-of-school service sectors. METHODS: Analyses are based on weighted data (N = 6483 from the United States National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (participants' age: 13-18 years. Lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed using the fully structured WHO CIDI interview, complemented by parent report. Adolescents and parents provided information on mental health service use across multiple sectors, based on the Service Assessment for Children and Adolescents. RESULTS: School mental health service use predicted subsequent out-of-school service utilization for mental disorders i in the medical specialty sector, in adolescents with affective (hazard ratio (HR = 3.01, confidence interval (CI = 1.77-5.12, anxiety (HR = 3.87, CI = 1.97-7.64, behavior (HR = 2.49, CI = 1.62-3.82, substance use (HR = 4.12, CI = 1.87-9.04, and eating (HR = 10.72, CI = 2.31-49.70 disorders, and any mental disorder (HR = 2.97, CI = 1.94-4.54, and ii in other service sectors, in adolescents with anxiety (HR = 3.15, CI = 2.17-4.56, behavior (HR = 1.99, CI = 1.29-3.06, and substance use (HR = 2.48, CI = 1.57-3.94 disorders, and any mental disorder (HR = 2.33, CI = 1.54-3.53, but iii not in the mental health specialty sector. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that in the United States, school mental health services may serve as guide to out-of-school service utilization for mental disorders especially in the medical specialty sector across various mental disorders, thereby
Ruck, Martin D.; Tenenbaum, Harriet R.; Sines, Jennie
The present study examined 60 (30 early-to-middle adolescents and 30 late adolescents) British adolescents' understanding of the rights of asylum-seeker children. Participants completed semi-structured interviews designed to assess judgments and evaluations of hypothetical asylum-seeker children's nurturance and self-determination rights in…
The aim of this study is to analyse and describe how resilient adolescent learners in a township school cope with school violence in order to develop and recommend a model to promote resilience in coping with school violence. As basis for this study violence is described and explained in the theoretical framework of the ecosystemic theory, as well as the social learning and cognitive behavioural theories. Based on these theories violence is discussed as a reaction and as an action that occurs...
Stroet, Kim; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Minnaert, Alexander
For many early adolescent students, motivation for school declines after their transition to secondary education. Increasingly, the decisive importance of teachers in shaping early adolescents' motivation is stressed; thus far, however, both longitudinal and observational studies on this topic have
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified as to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All these categories are grouped together in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, classification under the category of Autism Spectrum Disorders.Behavioral disorders including irritability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and aggression are additional symptoms found in up to 20% of children and adolescents with ASD and require careful evaluation for appropriate treatment. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is defined by impaired attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, whereas ASD is defined by social dysfunction, communicative impairment, and restricted/repetitive behaviors. They should be distinctly evaluated in children and adolescents with ASD and intellectual disability in contrast to individuals without intellectual disability, because significant differences between these conditions exist. Mood disorders are also common in ASD and should be systematically investigated in this population of children and adolescents. Approximately 50% of children and adolescents with ASD receive medication for comorbid behavioral/ADHD and mood symptoms, mostly stimulants, antiepileptics and antipsychotics. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment including medications for ADHD-like symptoms have recently been provided and should be carefully considered. Antiepileptic drugs are commonly used in ASDs with epilepsy, because seizures are associated with ASD in 10% to 30% of young patients, and as mood stabilizers. Lithium is another option for children and adolescents with ASD who present with symptoms of a mood disorder, such as elevated moods/euphoria, mania, and paranoia, whether accompanied or not by irritability. Experimental treatments are under
Full Text Available Background: Is knowledge regarding the consequences of substance use among adolescents enough to prevent them from initiating and continuing its use, is a question that needs to be clarified further? Objective: To assess the knowledge regarding harm of use and to obtain information about attitudes among high school students. Also, to discover the opinion of substance use held by users. Materials and Methods: This was a population based cross-sectional study conducted in two high schools of West Bengal, India, among 416 students, in classes VIII, IX, and X, with no interventions. Primary outcome measurements were substance use: knowledge regarding harm, attitude, and opinion. Following this proportions and the chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 416 students, 52 (12.5% used or abused any one of the substances irrespective of time and frequency in lifetime; 26 (15.1 % were among the urban students and 26 (10.7 % were among their rural counterparts. More than two-thirds (73.07% of the respondents expressed a desire to quit substance use and 57.69% had tried to stop. ′Easy availability′ and ′relief from tension′ were the most frequent reasons for continuation of substance use. Level of knowledge on harmfulness of substance use among students was very high (urban - -84.6% and rural - 61.5% and they stated media as the most frequent source of information. Users were successful in influencing their peers into taking up this habit (urban - 15.4% and rural - 26.9%. Conclusions: Inspite of being aware of the harmful effects of substance use, adolescents take up this habit. This requires comprehensive prevention and control programs in schools and the community, targeted toward adolescents and their parents and other family members. Effective measures are required to encourage shaping the attitude of school children toward self-confidence and adequacy, as also to prevent risk behavior among adolescents.
Grant, Monica J
Despite its relative infrequency, pregnancy is perceived by parents in rural Malawi as a leading cause of school dropout among female students. This paper explores parents' beliefs about adolescent sexual activity and schoolgirl pregnancy and how these perceptions frame parents' aspirations and expectations about girls' schooling. In-depth interviews were collected in rural Malawi from 60 adults aged 25-50 who were the parent of at least one school-aged child. Four themes emerged from the data: how expectations about sexual activity frame parental expectations about schooling duration and dropout, the loss of parental control, the negative influence of classmates and schools as unsafe environments. These concerns frame how parents consider a daughter's schooling prospects and are active even for parents whose daughters are not sexually active or who are not yet old enough to have gone through puberty. Although all parents aspire for their children to attend secondary school, these perceptions of daughters' relative risk weaken parents' motivation to encourage daughters to remain in school.
Whitman, Thomas L.; Borkowski, John G.; Keogh, Deborah A.; Weed, Keri
This monograph details the Notre Dame Parenting Project, a comprehensive longitudinal study of the lives of adolescent mothers and their children from pregnancy through the first 8 years of life, describing how their respective developmental trajectories are interwoven and linked to the social contexts in which they live. A total of 281…
Boyes, Mark E; Bowes, Lucy; Cluver, Lucie D; Ward, Catherine L; Badcock, Nicholas A
Bullying victimisation has been prospectively linked with mental health problems among children and adolescents in longitudinal studies in the developed world. However, research from the developing world, where adolescents face multiple risks to social and emotional development, has been limited by cross-sectional designs. This is the first longitudinal study of the psychological impacts of bullying victimisation in South Africa. The primary aim was to examine prospective relationships between bullying victimisation and internalising and externalising symptoms in South African youth. Secondary aims were to examine gender and age-related differences in experiences of bullying victimisation. Children and adolescents (10-17 years, 57 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up 1 year later (97 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Exposure to multiple experiences of bullying victimisation at baseline predicted internalising symptoms and conduct problems 1 year later. Additionally, baseline mental health scores predicted later bullying victimisation, demonstrating bi-directionality of relationships between bullying victimisation and mental health outcomes in this sample. Expected gender differences in physical, verbal, and relational bullying victimisation were evident and predicted declines in bullying victimisation over time were observed. In the developed world, school-based anti-bullying programmes have been shown to be effective in reducing bullying and victimisation. Anti-bullying programmes should be implemented and rigorously evaluated in South Africa, as this may promote improved mental health among South African children and adolescents.
Khatiwada, Saroj; Gelal, Basanta; Gautam, Sharad; Tamang, Man Kumar; Shakya, Prem Raj; Lamsal, Madhab; Baral, Nirmal
Anemia is one of the most common public health problems in developing countries like Nepal. This study was done to find the prevalence of anemia among the children aged 4-13 years in eastern Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in four districts (Morang, Udayapur, Bhojpur and Ilam) of eastern Nepal to find the prevalence of anemia among the school children of eastern Nepal. Children aged 4-13 years were selected randomly from different schools of above districts and 618 venous blood samples were collected. Hemoglobin level was estimated by using cyanmethemoglobin method. The mean hemoglobin level was 12.2 ± 1.82 gm/dl. About 37.9% (n = 234) children were found anemic. Anemia prevalence was 42.4% (n = 78), 31.6% (n = 60), 45.3% (n = 48) and 34.8% (n = 48) among school children of Morang, Udayapur, Bhojpur and Ilam district, respectively. The study finds anemia as a significant health problem among the school children of eastern Nepal.
Plenty, Stephanie; Östberg, Viveca; Modin, Bitte
This study examined how psychosocial conditions at school are associated with prosocial behaviour, a key indicator of positive mental health. Participants were 3,652 Swedish Grade 9 students from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Structural equation modelling demonstrated that students who experience more manageable school…
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert
This study examined the association between adolescents’ perceptions of their neighborhoods’ safety and multiple elements of their functioning in school with data on 15 year olds from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 924). In general, perceived neighborhood safety was more strongly associated with aspects of schooling that were more psychosocial in nature (e.g., school attachment) than those that were more cognitive (e.g., test scores). Examination of neighborhoo...
Branco, Luciana P; Santis, Tatiana O; Alfaya, Thays A; Godoy, Camila H L; Fragoso, Yara D; Bussadori, Sandra K
The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD) and headache in children and adolescents. A prospective cross-sectional cohort study was carried out involving 93 children and adolescents (6 to 14 years of age) at the outpatient service of a dental school. All participants underwent a clinical examination involving Axis 1 of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, along with a characterization of headache and an anthropometric evaluation. Statistical analysis involved the chi-squared test for quantitative variables and the Student's t-test, ANOVA and Tukey's test for quantitative data. An adjusted logistic regression model was used to determine significant associations among gender, age, TMJD and headache. Mild TMJD was identified in 35.8% of the sample and was not associated the presence of headache. Moderate TMJD was found in 25.8% of patients and severe TMJD was found in 11.8%; both forms of TMJD were associated with headache. A significant correlation was found between the intensity of TMJD and the risk of headache. The present findings demonstrate a positive correlation between TMJD and headache in children and adolescents, independently of gender and age.
Full Text Available Background: Heart disease in infants and children may often lead to rapid decompensation. Therefore, early diagnosis is essential because modern medicine and surgery can cure many heart defects. A cardiac murmur can be the first sign of a serious structural cardiac disease. Abnormal auscultatory findings, usually murmurs, are the most common reason for referral to the pediatric cardiologist. Methods: In a case series study, children and adolescents with heart murmurs, referred to or admitted at Fatemeh Zahra (S Hospital of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, were evaluated between 2001 and 2006. The age range of participants was from birth to 18 years old. Chest x-ray, ECG, and echocardiography were done for them in addition to history taking and physical examination. Results: A total of 715 (56.2% male and 43.8% female children and adolescents were included in our study (33.6% adolescents, 27.4% neonates, 22.7% infants and 16.3% children. A total of 59% of the cases had structural heart defects (organic, 27.3% had functional murmurs, and 13.7 % had acquired diseases. The most prevalent malformations were ventricular septal defects (26.2%, tetrology of Fallot (9.1%, and patent ductus arteriosus (8.7% 23.3% of participants had growth retardation. Conclusion: Heart murmur may be the first sign of an underlying heart disease, and timely referral of children with a murmur for echocardiography is essential for diagnosis.
Paloma Lopes Francisco Parazzi
Full Text Available Introduction. The index of ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 obtained by the progressive exercise test has been considered the gold standard in the prognosis of adults with heart failure, but few studies have evaluated this approach in children. Objective. To verify the scientific evidence about the VE/VCO2 in pediatric and adolescents patients. Methods. A systematic literature review was carried out using the key words VE/VCO2, children, and adolescents using the PEDro and PubMed/MedLine databases. Clinical trials published from 1987 to 2014, including children, adolescents, and young adults up to 25 years, addressing the VE/VCO2 index as a method of evaluation, monitoring, and prognosis were considered. Results. Initially, 95 articles were found; 12 were excluded as the title/abstract did not contain the VE/VCO2 index or because they included patients greater than 25 years of age. From the remaining 83, 58 were repeated between the databases. The final sample consisted of 32 studies including healthy children and children with respiratory and other diseases. Conclusion. There are few studies involving cardiorespiratory assessment by ventilatory efficiency. The studies highlight the fact that high VE/VCO2 values are associated with a worse prognosis of patients due to the relationship with the decrease in pulmonary perfusion and cardiac output.
It has recently become evident that bipolar disorder exists in children and adolescents. The criteria for making the diagnosis of juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD) are in the process of being proposed for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V). In adults, a criterion for bipolar disorder is excessive involvement in pleasurable activities including hypersexuality. Recently, some clinicians and researchers have suggested that hypersexuality be included as a criterion for JBD as well. Although abnormal sexuality has been reported to be present in some youth thought to have JBD, the reason for this association is not yet clear. Hypersexuality may be primary and intrinsic to bipolar disorder in youth, secondary and associated with it as the result of psychosocial influences or psychodynamic factors, or due to general aggression and disruptive behavior. Not only have developmental psychosocial factors that may influence sexuality in children and adolescence not been fully investigated, but psychodynamic influences have been omitted from modern etiological constructs as well. This report discusses the importance of psychosocial and psychodynamic influences on the sexual experience and activity of bipolar children. It is proposed that a developmental, psychodynamically informed model is helpful in understanding sexuality in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. It is also suggested that assessment of psychosocial and psychodynamic influences on the sexuality of bipolar children is necessary in order to adequately assess whether hypersexuality should be a criterion of bipolar disorder in youth.
Kluge, Regine; Kurch, Lars [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Montravers, Francoise [Hospital Tenon, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Mauz-Koerholz, Christine [University Hospital Halle, Department of Paediatrics, Halle (Saale) (Germany)
The aim of this review is to give an overview of FDG PET/CT applications in children and adolescents with lymphoma. Today, FDG PET is used for tailoring treatment intensity in children with Hodgkin lymphoma within the framework of international treatment optimisation protocols. In contrast, the role of this method in children with Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is not well defined. This paper overviews clinical appearance and metabolic behaviour of the most frequent lymphoma subtypes in childhood. The main focus of the review is to summarise knowledge about the role of FDG PET/CT for initial staging and early response assessment. (orig.)
Mancini Marcio C
Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, there has been a greater concern about the presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. However, there is no consensus regarding the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. It is evident that each component of the syndrome must be identified as early as possible in order to prevent definitive lesions. The question is how to do this and which cut-offs must be adopted for this diagnosis. For a matter of convenience, the definition chosen as the most appropriate is the one proposed by the IDF, with cut-offs fixed for pressure, lipids and glycemia, and abdominal circumference points assessed by percentile. Although on the one hand this definition could fail to include some children in the diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome, on the other hand, it would be of easier acceptance as it does not use multiple tables to assess several anthropometric and metabolic criteria.
Full Text Available Empirical and comparative study brings knowledge of the author's own research, whose main objective was to identify, analyse and interpret the problem impact of gender inequalities and stereotypes in the creation and development of violence, particularly against children and adolescents, primarily in the educational environment of the family. Research has attempted to capture the intersection of gender studies and social pedagogy, two sciences, which, although from a different angle, devoted, inter alia, the problem of the origin and acceleration of violence against children and adolescents. Research design was grounded in theory, the research method was the semi-structured interview, conducted with eight respondents, children and young people aged 12 - 23 years. A quantitative methodology was used to strengthen the validity of the process of triangulation; content analysis of text documents (case studies from the archives crisis centre for victims of domestic violence.
Camilla Schmidt Morgen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After the worldwide steep increase in child and adolescent overweight and obesity during the last decades, there is now evidence of a levelling off in the prevalence in many countries in the Western world. AIM: To examine whether there still is a plateau in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Danish children and adolescents, or whether the prevalence is decreasing or rising again. METHODS: THE TRENDS IN THE PREVALENCE RATES WERE BASED ON THREE DATA SETS PROVIDING COMPARABLE REPEATED ESTIMATES: 1 the Danish Health Visitors Child Health Database (DHVCHD with measurements on infant and childhood height and weight from 2002 to 2011 (n up to 39,984, 2 the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC with maternal reports of measured infant and childhood height and weight from 1998 to 2010 (n up to 56,826 and 3 the Danish part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (HBSC with self-reported information on adolescent height and weight from the years 2002 to 2010 (n = 16,557. Overweight and obesity were categorized according to WHO growth standards. Trends were assessed by repeated point estimates and linear regression analyses providing regression coefficients for changes in per cent per year with 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity for infants, children and adolescents showed a mixed pattern of decline, stability and increase (ranging from -1.10 through 0.29 per cent per year with CI's from -3.10 through 2.37. Overall, there were no consistent statistically significant trends upwards or downwards, although some significant downward trends in childhood and adolescence were observed. CONCLUSION: This study, based on data from 1998 through 2011, showed that the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity among Danish infants, children and adolescents were largely still on a plateau with tendencies for a decline among children and adolescents.
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to present epidemiological parameters of caries prevalence in children and adolescents in index age groups on a national and regional level in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH. Materials and methods. The study was conducted during 2004 year for children aged 6 and 12, and during 2007 for adolescents aged 15. An oral health survey was performed on a total number of 1,240 children and adolescents in line with World Health Organization methodology and criteria. Results for caries prevalence and treatment needs were presented and discussed in this paper. Results. Mean dmft (decay, missing, filled teeth for primary dentition for children aged six was 6.7 (SD±3.9 in that the decayed teeth constituted the major part of the index (88.8%, followed by extracted teeth (8.9% and a small percentage of filled teeth (2.3%. In 12-year-olds DMFT (Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth for permanent dentition was 4.2 (SD±2.9, Significant Caries index (SiC was 7.7 (SD±2.9, the decayed teeth constituted the major part of the index (45.4%, followed by 42.1% of FT and 12.5% of extracted teeth. Among 15-year-olds the DMFT was 7.6 (SD±4.1, SiC was 9.2 (SD±1.2, and filled teeth constituted the major part of the index. Conclusion. The present study provides some evidence of relatively high caries prevalence and severity in comparison with Western European countries. It is necessary to devote more attention to the oral health of children and adolescents. Community based oral health promotion, preventive programs and preventive oriented public dental health care services should be made available and accessible to all children in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Di Michele, Rocco; Spiga, Federico
The present study aimed to analyze, in Italian children and adolescents, the beliefs about which foods are fattening, the appreciation of fattening foods, and the perception of some socio-cultural attributes of them. 244 children (F: 125, M: 119, aged 8-11) and 305 adolescents (F: 153; M: 152, aged 11-14) from Bologna, Northern Italy, were asked to indicate five fattening foods. For each of the indicated foods, a yes-no answer was required to the question: "is this food special for you?", and to six questions concerning socio-cultural attributes of the food, which were modelled using a latent variable with two classes named "traditional" and "modern". Pearson's chi square tests revealed, both in boys and girls, significant associations between the age class and the foods indicated as fattening: lean meat, condiments, non-sweet fruit and vegetables were more often indicated as fattening by children than by adolescents. Overall, boys showed higher appreciation and perception of fashionability of fattening foods. Girls appreciated less bread and pasta, and indicated more often than boys these foods as fattening. The different food perception of between age classes and sexes can be respectively explained by a better dietary awareness of adolescents, and by girls worrying about their look more than boys.
Renata D'Agostini Nicolini-Panisson
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate, by a literature review, the Timed "Up & Go" (TUG test use and its main methodological aspects in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCES The searches were performed in the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, SciELO and Cochrane Library, from April to July 2012. Studies published from 1990 to 2012 using the terms in Portuguese and English "Timed "Up & Go", "test", "balance", "child", and "adolescent" were selected. The results were divided into categories: general characteristics of the studies, population, test implementation METHODS, interpretation of results and associations with other measurements. DATA SYNTHESIS 27 studies were analyzed in this review and most of them used the TUG test along with other outcome measures to assess functional mobility or balance. Three studies evaluated the TUG test in significant samples of children and adolescents with typical development, and the most studied specific diagnoses were cerebral palsy and traumatic brain injury. The absence of methodological standardization was noted, but one study proposed adaptations to the pediatric population. In children and adolescents with specific clinical diagnoses, the coefficient of within-session reliability was found to be high in most studies, as well as the intra and inter-examiner reliability, which characterizes the good reproducibility of the test. CONCLUSIONS The TUG test was shown to be a good tool to assess functional mobility in the pediatric population, presenting a good reproducibility and correlation with other assessment tools.
Didem Behice ÖZTOP
Full Text Available Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However,use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effectivemethod for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhoodand adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders ofthe children and adolescents. Moreover, it was suggested that this effectiveness is permanent in some studies. Prioritygoal of CBT is to change inappropriate learning and thinking patterns in the children and adolescents. By “now and here”fashion, it is attempted to reveal the origin of current problems. During the process, the factors are considered, whichcause to maintain the symptoms. It is attempted to decrease signs caused to stress by improving coping skills duringtherapy. To this end, methods including observation, relaxation training, systematic desensitization, social skills training,cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy are applied in sessions by taking child’s problems into consideration. Scalesspecific to anxiety disorders are used in the assessment and follow-up. Age and development level of the child should beparticularly taken into account while using assessment tools and therapeutic modality.
Feurer, D. Paige; Andrews, Jac J. W.
This study examined school-related stress and depression in adolescents with and without learning disabilities. A total of 87 students (38 learning-disabled and 49 nondisabled) from secondary schools in Calgary completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and on school-related stress. Results indicated that the adolescents with LD reported…
Theriot, Matthew T.
Although research has highlighted that dating violence is a serious and pervasive problem in many adolescent relationships, the prevalence and characteristics of such violence at schools is not fully understood. Yet, adolescents spend a great deal of time at school, and schools facilitate their relationships by providing numerous opportunities for…
Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Dye, Louise
Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behavior, cognitive, and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic performance or in-class behavior is available. The literature was searched for articles published between 1950-2013 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE databases, and PsychINFO. Thirty-six articles examining the effects of breakfast on in-class behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents were included. The effects of breakfast in different populations were considered, including undernourished or well-nourished children and adolescents from differing socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. The habitual and acute effects of breakfast and the effects of school breakfast programs (SBPs) were considered. The evidence indicated a mainly positive effect of breakfast on on-task behavior in the classroom. There was suggestive evidence that habitual breakfast (frequency and quality) and SBPs have a positive effect on children's academic performance with clearest effects on mathematic and arithmetic grades in undernourished children. Increased frequency of habitual breakfast was consistently positively associated with academic performance. Some evidence suggested that quality of habitual breakfast, in terms of providing a greater variety of food groups and adequate energy, was positively related to school performance. However, these associations can be attributed, in part, to confounders such as SES and to methodological weaknesses such as the subjective nature of the observations of behavior in class.
Plourde, R G
In April 1988, following preliminary research, Notre Dame Elementary School in Edmunston, N.B. initiated a pilot project entitled Management of Children's Stress. Using a three-dimensional process, parents, teachers and students collaborated to empower all students enrolled at the school to effectively manage their day-to-day stress. To prepare, the children, parents and teachers participated in nine- and 15-hour education sessions, respectively. Various techniques, including deep breathing exercises, stretching, relaxation techniques and listening to music, were considered. Visualization, maximizing the mind's potential to envision relaxing images, became the preferred technique. In addition to complementing other relaxation techniques used by the children, visualization facilitated their learning; developed and improved their concentration, motivation and self-confidence; gave them a positive self-image; and reduced health problems. The project has surpassed all expectations. In March 1993, it became part of a Quality of Life Education Project at the school.
Yinger, Olivia Swedberg; Gooding, Lori
This article summarizes the research on music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents with diagnoses commonly treated by psychiatrists. Music therapy and music medicine are defined, effects of music on the brain are described, and music therapy research in psychiatric treatment is discussed. Music therapy research with specific child/adolescent populations is summarized, including disorders usually diagnosed in childhood, substance abuse, mood/anxiety disorders, and eating disorders. Clinical implications are listed, including suggestions for health care professionals seeking to use music medicine techniques. Strengths and weaknesses of music therapy treatment are discussed, as well as areas for future research.
This paper reports on a study of the prevalence and social correlates of dyssomnias, features associated with obstructive sleep apnoea, and parasomnias in primary school children aged 4-12. Head teachers of schools selected randomly from lists of local primary and special schools were contacted by telephone and asked to distribute a questionnaire package to the parents of all pupils aged 4-12 years. In all, 890 parents of children from mainstream schools and 300 from special schools were approached. The response rates were 64.7% and 60%, respectively. The results showed that significantly higher proportions of children in special schools than in mainstream schools presented four of the five dyssomnias investigated and all of the features associated with obstructive sleep apnoea. In contrast, only two of the seven parasomnias were presented by higher proportions of the children in special schools. Age and gender differences for the two groups of children are presented. Finally, multiple correlations were computed between a range of child, family, and environmental characteristics and the three problems most frequently reported: frequency of settling problems; sleeping in the parents' bed; and night waking. The findings are discussed with reference to other studies of children's sleep problems, and the implications for treatment are considered.
Full Text Available Eiji Kirino1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, 3Juntendo Institute of Mental Health, Shizuoka, Japan Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a pernicious illness. Compared with the later-onset form, early onset bipolar disorder is associated with worse psychosocial outcomes, and is characterized by rapid cycling and increased risks of substance abuse and suicide attempts. Controlling mood episodes and preventing relapse in this group of pediatric patients requires careful treatment. Here, we review the effectiveness of aripiprazole for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, with discussion of this drug's unique pharmacological profile and various clinical study outcomes. Aripiprazole acts as a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, as well as a partial agonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A and dopamine D2 receptors. It can be safely used in children and adolescents, as it is highly tolerated and shows lower rates of the side effects typically observed with other antipsychotic drugs, including sedation, weight gain, hyperprolactinemia, and extrapyramidal syndrome. The presently reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs and non-RCTs generally reported aripiprazole to be effective and well-tolerated in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. However, due to the limited number of RCTs, the present conclusions must be evaluated cautiously. Furthermore, aripiprazole cannot yet be considered a preferred treatment for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, as there is not yet evidence that aripiprazole shows greater efficacy compared to other second-generation antipsychotics. Additional data are needed from future head-to-head comparison studies. Keywords: child, mania, mixed state
Thaliny Batista Sarmento de Oliveira
Full Text Available Children and adolescents are vulnerable to violent situations in their social, family and school environment. The aim of the study was to characterize morbidity due to violence in Brazilian children and adolescents.A cross-sectional study through the analysis of 1,356 corpus delicti medical reports and police reports of children and adolescents aged 0-19 years, victims of interpersonal violence was conducted from January 2008 to December 2011. Sociodemographic variables related to victims, offenders and aggressions were analyzed.There was a prevalence of females over males (56.9% vs. 43.1% with age between 15 and 19 years (64.7%. There was a significant association between variables age of the victim and place of occurrence, sex and type of aggression, sex and number of lesions, presence of fracture, maxillofacial injury, oral cavity lesion and physical violence; physical violence and involvement of face, neck, abdomen and back (P < 0.001. Public streets (56.4% were the main place of occurrence of events, followed by home (33.1%. Family members accounted for 26.48% of aggressions. The face was the most affected body region (43.36%, with 12.61% of records referring to oral cavity lesions.Violence was responsible for a large number of non-fatal injuries to children and adolescents, affecting mainly females aged 15 and 19 years. The occurrence of such events is more frequent on public streets and at home. Most victims had multiple injuries and the face was the most affected body region.
Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo; Estévez Lopez, Estefania; Emler, Nicholas P
This study analyzed the role of different but interrelated variables in the family and school contexts in relation to problems of violent behavior at school during adolescence. Participants were 1,068 students aged 11 to 16 (47% male) drawn from secondary schools in the Valencian Community (Spain). Statistical analyses were carried out using structural equation modeling. The model accounted for 32% of the variance in school violence. Results showed a direct association between quality of communication with father and teacher's expectations of the student with the adolescent's involvement in violent behavior at school. Moreover, findings showed indirect paths by which adolescents' self-concept (family and school domains), acceptance by peers, and attitude toward authority, seemed to be influenced by the quality of interactions with parent and teachers, and also were closely associated with violent behavior at school. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research on adolescent psychosocial adjustment and behavioral problems at school.
Krølner, Rikke; Rasmussen, Mette; Brug, Johannes
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Large proportions of children do not fulfil the World Health Organization recommendation of eating at least 400 grams of fruit and vegetables (FV) per day. To promote an increased FV intake among children it is important to identify factors which influence their consumption...... of concepts (i.e. peer influence, availability in schools) which may refine survey instruments and theoretical frameworks concerning eating behaviours....... Anthropology Plus, Cinahl, CSA illumine, Embase, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Medline, PsycINFO, and Web of Science using combinations of synonyms for FV intake, children/adolescents and qualitative methods as search terms. The literature search was completed by December 1st 2010. Papers...
Bauermeister José J
Full Text Available In this paper we describe the process used to develop treatment manuals for internalizing and externalizing disorders in children and adolescents. These manuals were developed to offer health care providers and others working in child mental health a flexible intervention that could be adapted to different countries and localities based on: 1 the amount of health care and school resources that are available; 2 the nature and severity of the types of problems children have; and 3 the preferences and cultural factors that are important within these communities. We also discuss the experiences and cultural issues faced by sites in Egypt, Lebanon, Israel, and Brazil who volunteered to implement the manualized treatment programs. The feedback received from these sites indicates that the manuals can be implemented to help children with internalizing and externalizing problems.
Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Mantovan, Franco; Pirhofer, Robert; Huber, Markus; Them, Christa
As part of their Master's degree course in Nursing Science at the Private University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology (UMIT), the authors carried out a quantitative (written questionnaire) and qualitative (semi-structured interviews) research on parents in South Tyrol caring for their severely handicapped young and adolescent children. The aim of the study was to assess the extent and cause of burden in care-giving parents. The extent of burden was assessed using the the "FaBel"-questionnaire (Impact on Family Scale). Semi-structured interviews were used to investigate the phenomenon of burden in these parents. By triangulation of current literature with the quantitative and qualitative data, an attempt was made to reveal the complexity of the problem. The present contribution is a report on the results of the qualitative part of the study. As shown by the category system of the investigation, families with severely handicapped children and adolescents are exposed to a variety of burden in social (everyday life and public institutions), physical, psychological (impairment of health) as well as financial and emotional (future perspectives) areas. These parents find relief with their own families (partner and children) and public institutions (school, kindergarten, care facilities). Nursing interventions such as schooling, training and empowerment programmes must be adjusted by professional care givers (family health nurse) to the special needs of the care giving parents. Federal, provincial and social institutions should implement and optimise appropriate support possibilities and offers.
Luiz Sekio Tanaka
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The influence of asthma, its severity levels and onset time on malocclusion occurrence were investigated. METHODS: The sample was composed by 176 children/adolescents, of both genders, aged 3 to 15 years, that were divided in two groups. The asthma group (AG enrolled 88 children/adolescents that were seen at the Breathe Londrina Program. The asthma-free group (AFG enrolled 88 preschool and school children recruited in 2 public schools. Malocclusion diagnosis was made according to WHO criteria (OMS, 1999. RESULTS: A higher prevalence in malocclusions in asthmatic patients in mixed dentition was observed when compared to controls (p0.05 and permanent dentition (p>0.05. A significant association was seen between asthma onset time and marked maxillary overjet (p<0.05, and open bite (p<0.05 in the mixed dentition, being both conditions more common among those that have presented the symptoms of asthma prior to 12 months of age. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that the early manifestation of asthma at first year of life can cause dentofacial changes. Therefore, the prompt diagnostic of the illness, as well as the establishment of a proper therapy could improve the symptoms and chronic complications of asthma and also reduce its impact on craniofacial development.
Klein, Markus; Fröhlich, Michael; Emrich, Eike
The motor performance of children and adolescents has been a subject of controversial discussion. As part of a pilot project, 839 schoolchildren from 14 different schools in Saarland were studied and their height, weight and sport motor performance were measured using the German motor performance test DMT 6-18. The results show a slight increase in the number of overweight children compared to reference samples. However, these discrepancies are minor and cannot be judged to be practically relevant because of the weakness of the effects. The average motor test performances of the Saarland schoolchildren were above the average performance of the reference samples in almost all individual performances. There are also hardly any weaker performances in comparison to older studies. The current results for motor performance of Saarland children and adolescents do not, therefore, give any great reason for concern. Further evaluation steps will be needed to clarify the influences that might be associated with adverse characteristics for motor performance (socio-economic status, living situation, leisure behaviour, school performance, etc.).
Graves, J Kelly; Hodge, Christopher; Jacob, Eufemia
The relationships among depression, anxiety, and quality of life were tested, as were the effects of age, gender, and pain frequency on these variables in children (n = 44) and adolescents (n = 31) with sickle cell disease. Participants completed the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (ROADS) and the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedQL Generic Model). The mean and standard deviation for summary RCADS scores for the majority of participants were below the clinical thresholds of T quality of life scores and symptoms of a) general anxiety (r = -0.51, p quality of life and promote school function in youth with sickle cell disease.
Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca;
This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....
Prevatt, Frances F.; Heffer, Robert W.; Lowe, Patricia A.
Descriptive articles on school reintegration programs for children with cancer are reviewed to synthesize the information of best practices for program development. Suggestions are given for school psychologists working with chronically ill children. (Author/JDM)
Meyers, Kathleen; Griesman, Brenda
The booklet examines issues associated with autism in adolescents and adults. Teenagers with autism exhibit behaviors not unlike their nondisabled peers, and standard definitions of the syndrome may not be relevant at that age. Brief articles explore the range of emotions families may encounter with a young adult or adult who has autism, typical…
Tokumbo, Bamise Cornelius; Oluniyi, Olusile Adeyemi; Adebanke, Kolawole Kikelomo; Ozovehe, Peter Augustine
AIM: The recent increase in consumption of acidic beverages is thought to be the leading cause of dental erosion observed among adolescents. The study assessed the drinking habits of Adolescent Secondary School Students and also evaluated their tooth sensitivity experience. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The survey was conducted among adolescent secondary school students. Purposely, students in boarding hostels were excluded. The sample was selected from twelve public and private secondary schools th...
Full Text Available Adolescence is a developmental period that implies a series of rapid changes that might complicate the role of parents. This study evaluates changes in parental monitoring and the strategies to solve family conflicts reported by parents who participated in the "Living Adolescence in Family" program in local social services and school centers. In addition, the study analyses the moderating role of family and facilitator variables that may affect the final results. The participants were 697 parents attending the social services (438 in the intervention group and 259 in the control group and 1283 parents from school centers (880 in the intervention group and 403 in the control group. The results showed that families from local social services decreased the amount of control and improved monitoring in education and leisure spheres as well as self-disclosure whereas the families coming from school centers improved supervision in leisure and in self-disclosure. In addition, both groups of families improved their strategies for solving family conflicts, increasing the use of integrative strategies and decreasing the use of dominant strategies. There were differences across contexts: the results of the program in the social services context differed according to the participant and professional profiles whereas program results were more homogeneous in the school context. In sum, the program appears to be an efficient work tool, both for the professionals who work with at-risk families with adolescents and for the teachers who make use of the program for families with children at risk of early school dropout.
Full Text Available Abstract Worldwide, public health physical activity guidelines include special emphasis on populations of children (typically 6-11 years and adolescents (typically 12-19 years. Existing guidelines are commonly expressed in terms of frequency, time, and intensity of behaviour. However, the simple step output from both accelerometers and pedometers is gaining increased credibility in research and practice as a reasonable approximation of daily ambulatory physical activity volume. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review existing child and adolescent objectively monitored step-defined physical activity literature to provide researchers, practitioners, and lay people who use accelerometers and pedometers with evidence-based translations of these public health guidelines in terms of steps/day. In terms of normative data (i.e., expected values, the updated international literature indicates that we can expect 1 among children, boys to average 12,000 to 16,000 steps/day and girls to average 10,000 to 13,000 steps/day; and, 2 adolescents to steadily decrease steps/day until approximately 8,000-9,000 steps/day are observed in 18-year olds. Controlled studies of cadence show that continuous MVPA walking produces 3,300-3,500 steps in 30 minutes or 6,600-7,000 steps in 60 minutes in 10-15 year olds. Limited evidence suggests that a total daily physical activity volume of 10,000-14,000 steps/day is associated with 60-100 minutes of MVPA in preschool children (approximately 4-6 years of age. Across studies, 60 minutes of MVPA in primary/elementary school children appears to be achieved, on average, within a total volume of 13,000 to 15,000 steps/day in boys and 11,000 to 12,000 steps/day in girls. For adolescents (both boys and girls, 10,000 to 11,700 may be associated with 60 minutes of MVPA. Translations of time- and intensity-based guidelines may be higher than existing normative data (e.g., in adolescents and therefore will be more difficult to
Abstract Worldwide, public health physical activity guidelines include special emphasis on populations of children (typically 6-11 years) and adolescents (typically 12-19 years). Existing guidelines are commonly expressed in terms of frequency, time, and intensity of behaviour. However, the simple step output from both accelerometers and pedometers is gaining increased credibility in research and practice as a reasonable approximation of daily ambulatory physical activity volume. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review existing child and adolescent objectively monitored step-defined physical activity literature to provide researchers, practitioners, and lay people who use accelerometers and pedometers with evidence-based translations of these public health guidelines in terms of steps\\/day. In terms of normative data (i.e., expected values), the updated international literature indicates that we can expect 1) among children, boys to average 12,000 to 16,000 steps\\/day and girls to average 10,000 to 13,000 steps\\/day; and, 2) adolescents to steadily decrease steps\\/day until approximately 8,000-9,000 steps\\/day are observed in 18-year olds. Controlled studies of cadence show that continuous MVPA walking produces 3,300-3,500 steps in 30 minutes or 6,600-7,000 steps in 60 minutes in 10-15 year olds. Limited evidence suggests that a total daily physical activity volume of 10,000-14,000 steps\\/day is associated with 60-100 minutes of MVPA in preschool children (approximately 4-6 years of age). Across studies, 60 minutes of MVPA in primary\\/elementary school children appears to be achieved, on average, within a total volume of 13,000 to 15,000 steps\\/day in boys and 11,000 to 12,000 steps\\/day in girls. For adolescents (both boys and girls), 10,000 to 11,700 may be associated with 60 minutes of MVPA. Translations of time- and intensity-based guidelines may be higher than existing normative data (e.g., in adolescents) and therefore will be more
Mitsuyoshi; Suzuki; Jin; Kan; Sai; Toshiaki; Shimizu
In this Topic Highlight, the causes, diagnosis, and treat-ment of acute pancreatitis in children are discussed. Acute pancreatitis should be considered during the dif-ferential diagnosis of abdominal pain in children and requires prompt treatment because it may become life-threatening. The etiology, clinical manifestations, and course of acute pancreatitis in children are often differ-ent than in adults. Therefore, the specific features of acute pancreatitis in children must be considered. The etiology of acute pancreatitis in children is often drugs, infections, trauma, or anatomic abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms(such as abdominal pain and vomiting), serum pancreatic enzyme levels, and im-aging studies. Several scoring systems have been pro-posed for the assessment of severity, which is useful for selecting treatments and predicting prognosis. The basic pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis does not greatly dif-fer between adults and children, and the treatments for adults and children are similar. In large part, our under-standing of the pathology, optimal treatment, assess-ment of severity, and outcome of acute pancreatitis in children is taken from the adult literature. However, we often find that the common management of adult pan-creatitis is difficult to apply to children. With advances in diagnostic techniques and treatment methods, severeacute pancreatitis in children is becoming better under-stood and more controllable.
Full Text Available The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, 42.1% of boys and 27.8% of girls. The two major causes of the most serious injury were “fall” (9.9% and motor vehicle accident or being hit by a motor vehicle (5.4%, and the most frequent type of injury sustained was cut, puncture, or stab wound (6.2% and a broken bone or dislocated joint (4.2%. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (being male and low socioeconomic status, substance use (tobacco and cannabis use, frequent soft drink consumption, attending physical education classes three or more times a week, other risky behavior (truancy, ever having had sex, being bullied, psychological distress, and lack of parental or guardian bonding were associated with annual injury prevalence. Several factors were identified, which could be included in injury prevention promotion programs among secondary school children.
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years) that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, 42.1% of boys and 27.8% of girls. The two major causes of the most serious injury were "fall" (9.9%) and motor vehicle accident or being hit by a motor vehicle (5.4%), and the most frequent type of injury sustained was cut, puncture, or stab wound (6.2%) and a broken bone or dislocated joint (4.2%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (being male and low socioeconomic status), substance use (tobacco and cannabis use), frequent soft drink consumption, attending physical education classes three or more times a week, other risky behavior (truancy, ever having had sex, being bullied), psychological distress, and lack of parental or guardian bonding were associated with annual injury prevalence. Several factors were identified, which could be included in injury prevention promotion programs among secondary school children.
Fakunmoju, Sunday B; Bammeke, Funmi O
Despite the exposure of children to physical abuse in more than one setting in many regions of the world, little is known about the associations of physical abuse in different settings (e.g., at home and school) with anxiety disorders and depression among adolescents and youths. Using a convenience sample of 502 adolescents and youths ages 13-23 years from five public and three private senior secondary schools in Nigeria, the study examined associations of gender and physical abuse by parents with anxiety disorders as well as associations of physical abuse by parents and/or teachers with depression in the sample, 39.6% of whom had experienced physical abuse at home and in school. Findings suggest that physical abuse by parents was associated with anxiety disorders and depression than physical abuse by teachers. Being female was equally associated with anxiety disorders. Implications of findings for mental health, practice, research, and theory are discussed.
Patricio David Ramos-Padilla
Full Text Available Introduction: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school students and adolescents of a urban area of the city of Riobamba.Material and Methods: 3680 students between 5 and 19 years, 1581 school students and 2099 adolescents enrolled in 65 units of basic education and high school were studied. The variables studied were: type of educational establishment, sex, age, weight and height. For the diagnosis of nutritional status, the WHO-2007 reference standards of body mass index for were used. School children and adolescents whose standard deviation was found <–2 were considered thin, between –2 and +1 normal weight, >+1 to +2 overweight and >+2 as obesity. Data were analyzed by the computer programs: Anthro Plus v1.0.4 and SPSS v20.Results: Being overweight affects 24.1% of school/adolescents; overweight, 17.8% and 6.3% obese. Excess weight is statistically higher (p<0.0001 in school (27.7% than in adolescents (21.5%. Similarly, excess weight is statistically higher (p<0.0001 in children men (31.0% than in women (24,4% at school age. And it is statistically higher (p<0.0001 in adolescent females (23.3% than in adolescent males (19.8%. Being overweight in school/adolescents affects: private schools (27.7%, treasury missionary establishments (25.3% and fiscal establishments (22.9%. Similarly, excess weight is greater among schoolchildren in private schools (28.1% than in fiscal establishments, 27.7% (non statistically p = 0.9984. And it is statistically greater (p <0.0001 in adolescents of private establishments (27.6% than in fiscal establishments (18.4%.Conclusions: The prevalence of weight excess (overweight / obesity in school students and young urban area of the city of Riobamba is high (24.1%, and is higher in school age (27.7% than in adolescents (21,5%. An intervention is needed to prevent and treat this serious public health trend.
Aim of the work This study aimed to determine the prevalence of juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome (JFMS) among school children in Kalubia. Patients and methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted on school children in Kalubia governorate in January 2012 to determine the prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome among school children. A total of 2000 children attending on the days of our visits were recruited from (a) primary and (b) preparatory schools. JFMS was diagnosed according to ...
Boelsen-Robinson, Tara; Backholer, Kathryn; Peeters, Anna
The emergence of new media-including branded websites, social media and mobile applications-has created additional touch points for unhealthy food and beverage companies to target children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to perform an audit of new media for three top selling food and beverage brands in Australia. The top selling brand in three of the most advertised food and beverage categories was identified. Facebook, websites and mobile phone applications from these three brands were assessed using a combination of descriptive analyses and structured data collection during June and July 2013. Information on target audience, main focus of the activity, marketing strategies employed and connectivity were collected. Promotional activities were assessed against industry self-regulatory codes. McDonald's, Coca-Cola and Cadbury Dairy Milk were audited, with 21 promotional activities identified. These promotional activities appeared to use a number of marketing strategies, with frequent use of indirect product association, engagement techniques and branding. We identified strategic targeting of both children and adolescents. We found that while all promotional activities technically met self-regulatory codes (usually due to media-specific age restrictions) a number appeared to employ unhealthy food or beverage marketing directed to children. Brands are using engaging content via new media aimed at children and adolescents to promote unhealthy food and beverages. Given the limitations of self-regulatory codes in the context of new media, strategies need to be developed to reduce exposure of children and adolescents to marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products via these avenues.
Dias, Teresa Silva; Menezes, Isabel
This article presents a case study on the political thought and citizenship conceptions of children and adolescents. Considering children and adolescents as reflexive citizens and partners in community development processes, it is our purpose to understand the development of political thought, and particularly how children conceive the exercise of…
Hoyland, Alexa; Dye, Louise; Lawton, Clare L
Breakfast is recommended as part of a healthy diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, BMI and lifestyle. Breakfast is also widely promoted to improve cognitive function and academic performance, leading to the provision of breakfast initiatives by public health bodies. Despite this positive and intuitive perception of cognitive benefits, there has been no systematic review of the evidence. Systematic review methodology was employed to evaluate the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in well-nourished children and nutritionally at-risk or stunted children. Acute experimental studies, school feeding programmes and studies of habitual breakfast intake are reviewed. Comparisons of breakfast v. no breakfast and breakfasts differing in energy and macronutrient composition are discussed. Included are forty-five studies described in forty-one papers published between 1950 and 2008. The evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is more beneficial than skipping breakfast, but this effect is more apparent in children whose nutritional status is compromised. There is a lack of research comparing breakfast type, precluding recommendations for the size and composition of an optimal breakfast for children's cognitive function. Few studies examined adolescents. Studies of school breakfast programmes suggest that such interventions can have positive effects on academic performance, but this may be in part explained by the increased school attendance that programmes encourage. The present systematic review considers methodological issues in this field and makes recommendations for future research design and policy priorities.
Belén Martínez Ferrer
Full Text Available The present study has two objectives. The first is to analyze the relationships between community (integration in the community, family (perception of family climate, school (perception of school climate and individual (social reputation and satisfaction with life and school victimization among adolescents, from an ecological perspective. Secondly, this study aims to examine the differences in these relationships between boys and girls. The sample is composed of 1795 adolescents of both sexes (52% boys and 48% girls whose ages range from 11 to 18 years old (M = 14.2, SD = 1.68 and who are all from the Spanish Autonomous Community of Andalucia. A model of structural equations was calculated using the EQS program. The results indicated that school climate and satisfaction with life are positively associated with victimization. In addition, community integration and family climate are related to victimization through life satisfaction. The multigroup analysis by sex indicated that the relationship between school climate and social reputation, as well as between implication in the community and social reputation were only statistically significant in the case of boys. Finally, the results obtained and their potential implications are discussed from an ecological point of view.
Killgore, William D S; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A
The somatic marker hypothesis posits a key role for the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and insula in the ability to utilize emotions to guide decision making and behavior. However, the relationship between activity in these brain regions and emotional intelligence (EQ) during adolescence, a time of particular importance for emotional and social development, has not been studied. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we correlated scores from the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, Youth Version (EQ-i:YV) with brain activity during perception of fearful faces in 16 healthy children and adolescents. Consistent with the neural efficiency hypothesis, higher EQ correlated negatively with activity in the somatic marker circuitry and other paralimbic regions. Positive correlations were observed between EQ and activity in the cerebellum and visual association cortex. The findings suggest that the construct of self-reported EQ in adolescents is inversely related to the efficiency of neural processing within the somatic marker circuitry during emotional provocation.
Thompson, Miles; Gauntlett-Gilbert, Jeremy
Mindfulness interventions within adult populations are becoming increasingly popular. Research suggests that mindfulness can deliver lasting improvements in self-awareness and emotional stability to adults with severe and chronic conditions. As yet, research within child and adolescent populations is in its initial stages, although mindfulness shows great clinical promise for young people. This article aims to provide an overview of mindfulness to professionals who are working in child or adolescent settings. Initially, it will provide the reader with some orientation to and definitions from the field, before summarizing the current evidence for the utility of the approach. The article recommends specific clinical modifications for mindfulness with children and adolescents, as well as reviewing how to monitor and enhance the development of this skill. Finally, it highlights important differences among mindfulness, relaxation and other meditative techniques.
Blüher, S; Till, H; Kiess, W
The management of childhood obesity is a clinical dilemma. Validated and evidence-based intervention programs are still missing for this age group, and pediatricians increasingly see children with morbid obesity and with obesity-related comorbidities. For those extremely obese patients who failed to respond to the classical therapeutic approaches, bariatric surgery is a therapeutic option. Although available data for bariatric surgery in childhood and adolescence is limited to date, significant postoperative reduction in BMI and an evident improvement of preoperatively existing metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities and psychosocial well-being have been reported. The indication for bariatric surgery in adolescents follows strict criteria and should be proposed within an interdisciplinary team in specialized centers, including a clinical ethics committee. This review discusses the present guidelines for bariatric surgery in childhood and adolescence as well as available follow-up data for both adults and pediatric patients.
Full Text Available Murat Yüce,1 Süleyman Salih Zoroglu,2 Mehmet Fatih Ceylan,3 Hasan Kandemir,4 Koray Karabekiroglu5 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey; 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical Faculty of Istanbul, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Dr Sami Ulus Children's Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 4Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey; 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey Objective: We aimed to determine distribution and diversities of psychiatric comorbidities in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in terms of age groups, sex, and ADHD subtype. Materials and methods: The sample included 6–18 year old children and adolescents from Turkey (N=108; 83 boys, 25 girls diagnosed with ADHD. All comorbid diagnoses were determined based on the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version assessment. Results: 96.3% of the cases were found to have at least one psychiatric comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent psychiatric comorbid disorder was oppositional defiant disorder (69.4% followed by anxiety disorders (49% and elimination disorders (27.8%. Disruptive behavior disorders were more common in ADHD-combined type. Depression and anxiety disorders were more common in girls. Separation anxiety disorder and elimination disorder were more common in children, whereas depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and social phobia were more common in the adolescents. Conclusion: According to our results, when a diagnostic tool was used to assess the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD, almost all cases had at least one
Uecker, Jeremy E.
I analyze the effects of Catholic schooling, Protestant schooling, and homeschooling on adolescents’ religious lives and test three mechanisms through which these schooling strategies might influence religiosity: friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors. Data from Wave 1 of the National Survey of Youth and Religion suggest that Catholic schoolers attend religious services more frequently and value their faith more highly than public schoolers, but attend religious education classes and youth group less often. Protestant schoolers’ involvement in their local congregation is similar to public schoolers’, but their faith plays a more salient role in their life and they are more active in private religious activities. Homeschoolers do not differ significantly from public schoolers on any outcome considered. Moreover, friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors play a very limited role in mediating the relationships between schooling strategies and adolescent religiosity. Interpretations of these findings are presented and discussed. PMID:21709822
In my master's thesis, I dealt with the issue of transition of special needs children from kindergarten to school. First, I provided a general description of the term transition, and then I focused more on the period when children first enter school. I described two dominant approaches to transition of children when starting school – school readiness and transition in accordance with the ecological model. I showed why this transition to school may represent an obstacle, what may hinder the pr...
Ortiz-Gil, A.; Collado, M. G.
Artistic activities permeate our culture and our education, mainly because they speak of our most precious and intimate feelings, hopes, fears and sensations. Art constitutes, therefore, a universal language that can communicate and inspire through time and space, addressed to anybody with any kind of background. The power of inspiration of art is a wonderful way to excite children's imagination while communicating astronomical concepts. We present an example of communicating astronomy through different kinds of art pieces to school children. Also, children artworks are very useful to understand many of their conceptions and misconceptions about astronomical concepts.
Li Tang; Masaru Kubota; Ayako Nagai; Kimiyo Mamemoto; Masakuni Tokuda
The prevalence of hyperuricemia in obese children and adolescents and its association with metabolic syndrome are largely unknown. The objective of our study was to characterize hyperuricemia in relation to metabolic syndrome in Japanese children and adolescents with obesity. Between 2005 and 2008, we performed a cross-sectional study of 1,027 obese children and adolescents aged 6-14 years. Based on the reference value of serum uric acid we had established previously, hyperuricemia was define...
Albert Martin Li
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate circulating natriuretic peptides (NP concentration in obese and non-obese children and adolescents with and without OSA, and their levels following OSA treatment.Methods: Subjects with habitual snoring and symptoms suggestive of OSA were recruited. They underwent physical examination and overnight polysomnography (PSG. OSA was diagnosed if obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI ≥1/h. Fasting serum atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP were taken after overnight PSG. The subjects were divided into obese, non-obese, with and without OSA groups for comparisons.Results: 114 children (77 were boys with a median (IQR age of 10.8 (8.3-12.7 years (range: 2.4-11.8 years were recruited. Sixty-eight subjects were found to have OSA. Natriuretic peptide levels did not differ between subjects with and without OSA in both obese and non-obese groups. . Stepwise multiple linear regressions revealed that body mass index (BMI z-score was the only independent factor associated with NP concentrations. Fifteen children with moderate-to-severe OSA (OAHI >5/h underwent treatment and there were no significant changes in both ANP and BNP levels after intervention.Conclusion: BMI rather than OSA was the main determinant of natriuretic peptide levels in school-aged children and adolescents.
Full Text Available Background: Depressive disorders in children and adolescents are chronic and highly morbid. Few studies are carried out on antidepressant drugs for depressed youths, especially specific noradrenergic agents. Reboxetine is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of reboxetine in childhood and adolescent depression. Methods: Twenty patients of both genders, aged 7-17 years old, with major depressive or dysthymic disorders, as classified by the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, participated in an 8-week clinical trial before-after study of reboxetine. Clinical semistructured interviews, based on the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS, were carried out. Reboxtine was initiated at a dose of 1 mg/day and increased up to 6 mg/day. Patients were assessed for changes in: depressive symptoms using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI and global functioning by the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS. Side effect questionnaire was also administered. Results: There was a significant decrease in the ineffectiveness subscale (C factor of CDI (p=0.006. Although the CDI scores decreased by 32.69%, this change was not significant (p=0.39. No significant change in C-GAS (p=0.2 was observed. Adverse effects were relatively mild to moderate and transient. The most common adverse effects were decreased appetite and sedation. Conclusions: Reboxetine is relatively well tolerated and improves feelings of ineffectiveness among depressed children and adolescents; however it does not improve all depressive symptoms. Double-blind, placebo and active comparator controlled studies and larger sample sizes are indicated.
Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, Peter Riis; Nielsen, Claus Malta
The present study investigated the cardiac effects of a 10-week football training intervention for school children aged 9-10 years using comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography as a part of a larger ongoing study. A total of 97 pupils from four school classes were cluster-randomized into a c...... pressure. In conclusion, a short-term, school-based intervention comprising small-sided football sessions resulted in significant structural and functional cardiac adaptations in pre-adolescent children....
Sierra Leone was ravaged by a civil war between 1991 and 2002. Since the end of the war, it has witnessed an unprecedented increase in school enrollments. Although school enrollment has increased, the number of school age children who are out of school remains high. The focus of international agencies is on children of primary school age, yet a…