Harris, Mekel S.
As a result of advancements in medical expertise and technology, children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer now have opportunities to participate in many typical activities, including school. To some extent, school reintegration reflects positive adjustment to their illness. Nevertheless, children and adolescents with cancer may experience…
Forrest, Christopher B; Bevans, Katherine B; Riley, Anne W; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A
Normative biopsychosocial stressors that occur during entry into adolescence can affect school performance.As a set of resources for adapting to life's challenges, good health may buffer a child from these potentially harmful stressors. This study examined the associations between health (measured as well-being, functioning, symptoms, and chronic conditions) and school outcomes among children aged 9-13 years in 4th-8th grades. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1,479 children from 34 schools followed from 2006 to 2008. Survey data were obtained from children and their parents, and school records were abstracted. Measures of child self-reported health were dichotomized to indicate presence of a health asset. Outcomes included attendance, grade point average, state achievement test scores, and child-reported school engagement and teacher connectedness. Both the transition into middle school and puberty had independent negative influences on school outcomes. Chronic health conditions that affected children's functional status were associated with poorer academic achievement. The number of health assets that a child possessed was positively associated with school outcomes. Low levels of negative stress experiences and high physical comfort had positive effects on teacher connectedness, school engagement, and academic achievement, whereas bullying and bully victimization negatively affected these outcomes. Children with high life satisfaction were more connected with teachers, more engaged in schoolwork, and earned higher grades than those who were less satisfied. As children enter adolescence, good health may buffer them from the potentially negative effects of school and pubertal transitions on academic success. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sheftall, Arielle H; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Campo, John V; Bridge, Jeffrey A
Suicide in elementary school-aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5-11 years and 12-14 years) were conducted by using the χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school-aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Maynard, Brandy R.; Heyne, David; Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Bulanda, Jeffery J.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Pigott, Terri D.
Objective: School refusal is a psychosocial problem associated with adverse short- and long-term consequences for children and adolescents. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effects of psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with school refusal. Method: A comprehensive search process was used…
Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro
A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…
Gilbert, Jo-Anne; Miller, Doris; Olson, Shannon; St-Pierre, Sylvie
The article describes the after-school (AS) snacking pattern of young Canadians and its relationship with the amount of energy consumed daily and at dinner. We analyzed cross-sectional dietary data, measured by 24h recall, from 9,131 children and adolescents aged 4 to 18 years from the Canadian Community Health Survey, cycle 2.2 (2004). We evaluated AS snack intake; i.e., foods consumed Monday to Friday between 3:00 and 6:00 pm, excluding lunch and dinner. We also assessed the consumption frequency of AS snack items, the energy provided by AS snacks and total daily energy intake (TDEI) by age group and sex. Approximately 63% of respondents consumed AS snacks. AS snacks provided on average 1212[95%CI,1157-1268] kJ (290[95%CI,276-303] kcal), representing 13[95%CI,12-13]% of TDEI. Youth who consumed AS snacks contributing 1-418 kJ (1-99 kcal) reported lower TDEI than those who consumed no snack. Among AS snack consumers, TDEI was higher in groups consuming the highest amount of energy from AS snacks. Fruits were among the most frequently consumed food categories. However, the largest energy contributors were mostly foods that may be energy-dense and nutrient-poor, such as cookies, sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets. Considering that the majority of children and adolescents consumed AS snacks, that these snacks provided about 13% of their TDEI, and that the majority of the most frequently consumed snacks were generally energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods, the AS time period presents an opportunity to promote healthy eating in order to improve diet quality and potentially influence TDEI among Canadian children and adolescents.
Santos, Marconi de Jesus; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Rodrigues, Malvina Thaís Pacheco; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida
to describe the reports of sexual violence against children and adolescents at school, in Brazil, from 2010 to 2014. a descriptive study on the characteristics of the victims, the event, the aggressor and the attendance among the records of compulsory notification of sexual violence against children (0-9 years) and adolescents (10-19 years) at school; we used data from the Notification of Injury Information System (Sinan). 2,226 reports of sexual violence occurred at school, of which 1,546 (69.5%) were children and 680 (30.5%) were adolescents; the average age of the victims was 7.4 years and the median age was 6 years; prevalence of female victims (63.8%) and, most of the time, the aggressor was male (88.9%). children and adolescents are exposed to sexual violence at school, a place that supposedly should guarantee protection, healthy development and safety for schoolchildren.
Mazzone, Luigi; Ducci, Francesca; Scoto, Maria Cristina; Passaniti, Eleonora; D'Arrigo, Valentina Genitori; Vitiello, Benedetto
Abstract Background Anxiety symptoms are relatively common among children and adolescents and can interfere with functioning. The prevalence of anxiety and the relationship between anxiety and school performance were examined among elementary, middle, and high school students. Methods Samples of elementary (N = 131, age 8–10 years), middle (N = 267, age 11–13 years), and high school (N = 80, age 14–16 years) children were recruited from four public schools in a predominantly middle-class comm...
Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara
Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…
Data on metabolic rates (n = 0;81) and clothing insulation (n = 96) of school children and adolescents (A, primary school: age 9-10; B, primary school: age 10-11 year; C, junior vocational (technical) education: age 13-16 (lower level); D, same as C but at advanced level; and E, senior vocational
Jagadesan, Sonya; Harish, Ranjani; Miranda, Priya; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan
To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Chennai, India, using national and international age- and sex- specific body mass index (BMI) cut-off points. The Obesity Reduction and Awareness and Screening of Non communicable diseases through Group Education in Children and Adolescents (ORANGE) project is a cross-sectional study carried out on 18,955 children (age 6-11 years) and adolescents (age 12-17 years) across 51 schools (31 private and 20 government) of Chennai. Overweight and obesity was classified by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF 2000) and Khadilkars criteria (2012), and Hypertension by the IDF criteria (in children ≥10 years and adolescents). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was significantly higher in private compared to government schools both by the IOTF criteria [private schools: 21.4%, government schools: 3.6%, (OR: 7.4, 95% CI:6.3-8.6; POverweight/obesity was higher among girls (IOTF: 18%, Khadilkar: 21.3%) compared to boys (IOTF: 16.2%, Khadilkar: 20.7%) and higher among adolescents (IOTF: 18.1%, Khadilkar: 21.2%) compared to children (IOTF: 15.5%, Khadilkar: 20.7%). Prevalence of hypertension was 20.4% among obese/overweight and 5.2% among non-obese (OR 4.7, 95%CI: 4.2-5.3, Poverweight and obesity is high among private schools in Chennai, and hypertension is also common.
Ostergaard, Lars; Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein
To investigate the associations between body composition, cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in relation to travel mode to school in children and adolescents.......To investigate the associations between body composition, cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in relation to travel mode to school in children and adolescents....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety symptoms are relatively common among children and adolescents and can interfere with functioning. The prevalence of anxiety and the relationship between anxiety and school performance were examined among elementary, middle, and high school students. Methods Samples of elementary (N = 131, age 8–10 years, middle (N = 267, age 11–13 years, and high school (N = 80, age 14–16 years children were recruited from four public schools in a predominantly middle-class community in Catania, Italy. Children completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC. T-scores were computed for the MASC total scores, and considered to be in the anxious range if 65 or above. Current academic grades were obtained from school records. Results Of the 478 children, 35 (7.3% had a MASC T-score in the anxious range. The rate of children in the anxious range was 2.3% in elementary, 7.9% in middle, and 15.9% in high school (χ2 = 7.8, df = 2, p 2 = 11.68, df = 2, p Conclusion In this community sample of children and adolescents attending elementary through high school, the prevalence of abnormally high self-reported levels of anxiety increased in frequency with age and was negatively associated with school performance.
Mazzone, Luigi; Ducci, Francesca; Scoto, Maria Cristina; Passaniti, Eleonora; D'Arrigo, Valentina Genitori; Vitiello, Benedetto
Anxiety symptoms are relatively common among children and adolescents and can interfere with functioning. The prevalence of anxiety and the relationship between anxiety and school performance were examined among elementary, middle, and high school students. Samples of elementary (N = 131, age 8-10 years), middle (N = 267, age 11-13 years), and high school (N = 80, age 14-16 years) children were recruited from four public schools in a predominantly middle-class community in Catania, Italy. Children completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). T-scores were computed for the MASC total scores, and considered to be in the anxious range if 65 or above. Current academic grades were obtained from school records. Of the 478 children, 35 (7.3%) had a MASC T-score in the anxious range. The rate of children in the anxious range was 2.3% in elementary, 7.9% in middle, and 15.9% in high school (chi2 = 7.8, df = 2, p children and adolescents attending elementary through high school, the prevalence of abnormally high self-reported levels of anxiety increased in frequency with age and was negatively associated with school performance.
CONCLUSIONS Urban Children and Adolescents. Increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity and measures of regional (central) adiposity. High prevalence of markers of dysmetabolic state in urban adolescents. ~10% prevalence of dysglycemia in overweight / obese school children.
Carr, Catherine; Wigram, Tony
This article identifies existing research and clinical activity utilising music therapy with mainstream children, and a potential need for music therapy with this client group. A systematic review was undertaken of music therapy literature relating to work with children in mainstream schools...... to be addressed by the UK government. However further research, service-planning and reorganisation is required. There is evidence that music therapy is being used with children in mainstream schools both at home and abroad, and both research and clinical reports suggest that music therapy is an effective...... intervention. The review demonstrates that further research is required if music therapy is to be considered an effective intervention to address the needs of mainstream schoolchildren....
This policy statement focuses on children and adolescents 5 through 18 years of age. Research suggests both benefits and risks of media use for the health of children and teenagers. Benefits include exposure to new ideas and knowledge acquisition, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health-promotion messages and information. Risks include negative health effects on weight and sleep; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. Parents face challenges in monitoring their children's and their own media use and in serving as positive role models. In this new era, evidence regarding healthy media use does not support a one-size-fits-all approach. Parents and pediatricians can work together to develop a Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan) that considers their children's developmental stages to individualize an appropriate balance for media time and consistent rules about media use, to mentor their children, to set boundaries for accessing content and displaying personal information, and to implement open family communication about media. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
10-20% of children and adolescents have a mental health problem of some type. Manifestations such as attention deficits, cognitive disturbances, lack of motivation, and negative mood all adversely affect scholastic development. It is often unclear what factors associated with school affect children's mental development and what preventive measures and interventions at school might be effective. This review is based on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized and non-randomized controlled trials that were retrieved by a selective search in the PubMed, PsycInfo, and Google Scholar databases. The prevalence of hyperkinetic disorder is 1-6%. Its main manifestations are motor hyperactivity, an attention deficit, and impulsive behavior. Learning disorders such as dyscalculia and dyslexia affect 4-6% of children each, while 4-5% of children and adolescents suffer from depression, which is twice as prevalent in girls as in boys. Mental health problems increase the risk of repeating a grade, truancy, and dropping out of school. The risk of developing an internalizing or externalizing mental health problem can be lessened by changes in the school environment and by the implementation of evidencebased school programs. Physicians, in collaboration with school social workers and psychologists, should help teachers recognize and contend with mental health problems among the children and adolescents whom they teach, to enable the timely detection of stress factors at school and the initiation of the necessary measures and aids. In particular, the school-entrance examination and screening for risk factors at school can make a positive contribution. Evidence-based preventive programs should be implemented in schools, and beneficial changes of the school environment should be a further goal.
Stobbelaar, D.J.; Casimir, G.J.; Borghuis, J.; Marks, I.; Meijer, L.; Zebeda, S.
Adolescents are the consumers of tomorrow; therefore policies aimed at increasing organic food consumption should address the needs of this group. To discover their attitudes towards organic food and their knowledge of the subject, a survey among almost 700 school children aged 15-16¿years was
Diniz, Eva; da Rosa Piccolo, Luciane; de Paula Couto, Maria Clara Pinheiro; Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Helena Koller, Silvia
This study investigated children and adolescents' school performance over time focusing on two variables that may influence it: developmental context and gender. The sample comprised 627 participants (M[subscript age]?=?11.13, SD?=?1.8), 51% of them female, from grade one to eight, living either with family (n?=?474) or in care institutions…
Lu, Weili; Daleiden, Eric; Lu, Shou-En
This study evaluated the relationship between threat perception bias and anxiety among children and adolescents in China. A sample of 1,004 elementary, middle and high school students aged 9 to 19 years listened to stories containing themes of generalized anxiety, social anxiety and separation anxiety in either an ambiguous or non-ambiguous…
Bahali, K; Tahiroglu, A Y; Avci, A; Seydaoglu, G
To assess the levels of psychological symptoms in the parents of children with school refusal and determine the familial risk factors in its development. This study was performed on 55 pairs of parents who had children exhibiting school refusal and were compared with a control group. A socio-demographic data form, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Symptom Checklist-90 revised were applied to these parents. Parents of the school refusal group had higher anxiety and depression scores than the controls. Among the risk factors for school refusal, physical punishment by the parents, a history of organic disease in the parents or children, and a history of psychiatric disorders in the parents or other relatives were found to be significant. Depending on genetic and environmental factors, parents with psychiatric disorders appeared to be associated with development of psychiatric disorders in their children. Moreover, psychiatric disorders in parents negatively affected the treatment of their children and adolescents who exhibited school refusal. It is therefore vital to treat psychiatric disorders of parents with the children having psychiatric disorders, and thus increase parent participation in their children's therapeutic process.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rumination syndrome (RS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGD increasingly recognized in children and adolescents. The epidemiology of this condition in school aged children is poorly understood. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of rumination and other related associations in a cohort of Sri Lankan children. Methods Children aged 10-16 years were randomly selected from 8 schools in 4 provinces in Sri Lanka. RS was diagnosed using Rome III criteria. Data was collected using a self administered questionnaire distributed in an examination setting. It was translated into Sinhala, the native language and pretested before distribution. Results A total of 2163 children were included in the study (55% boys, mean age 13.4 years, SD 1.8 years. Prevalence of RS was 5.1% (n = 110; boys 5.1% and girls 5.0%. When symptoms were analyzed, 73.6% reported re-swallowing of regurgitated food, while the rest spat it out. In 94.5% regurgitation occurred during the first hour after the meal. Only 8.2% had daily symptoms while 62.7% had symptoms weekly. Abdominal pain, bloating and weight loss were the commonest symptoms associated with RS (19.1%, 17.3% and 11.8% respectively. No significant association was observed between exposure to stressful events and rumination (p > 0.05. Twenty (18.2% with RS fulfilled Rome III criteria for at least one other FGD. School absenteeism was seen in 11.8% of affected children. Conclusion RS was reasonably common in this cohort of school-aged children and adolescents in Sri Lanka. However, symptoms were severe enough to affect schooling only in 12% of affected children. Around one fifth with RS had at least one other overlapping FGD.
Martin, Anne; Saunders, David H; Shenkin, Susan D; Sproule, John
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence is high. Excessive body fat at a young age is likely to persist into adulthood and is associated with physical and psychosocial co-morbidities, as well as lower cognitive, school and later life achievement. Lifestyle changes, including reduced caloric intake, decreased sedentary behaviour and increased physical activity, are recommended for prevention and treatment of child and adolescent obesity. Evidence suggests that lifestyle interventions can benefit cognitive function and school achievement in children of normal weight. Similar beneficial effects may be seen in overweight or obese children and adolescents. To assess whether lifestyle interventions (in the areas of diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and behavioural therapy) improve school achievement, cognitive function and future success in overweight or obese children and adolescents compared with standard care, waiting list control, no treatment or attention control. We searched the following databases in May 2013: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, ERIC, IBSS, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, ISI Conference Proceedings Citation Index, SPORTDiscus, Database on Obesity and Sedentary Behaviour Studies, Database of Promoting Health Effectiveness Reviews (DoPHER) and Database of Health Promotion Research. In addition, we searched the Network Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD), three trials registries and reference lists. We also contacted researchers in the field. We included (cluster) randomised and controlled clinical trials of lifestyle interventions for weight management in overweight or obese children three to 18 years of age. Studies in children with medical conditions known to affect weight status, school achievement and cognitive function were excluded. Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data, assessed quality and risk of bias and cross-checked extracts
João R. Daniel
Full Text Available There has been a rapid growth of studies focused on selection and socialization processes of peer groups, mostly due to the development of stochastic actor-based models to analyze longitudinal social network data. One of the core assumptions of these models is that individuals have an accurate knowledge of the dyadic relationships within their network (i.e., who is and is not connected to whom. Recent cross-sectional findings suggest that elementary school children are very inaccurate in perceiving their classmates’ dyadic relationships. These findings question the validity of stochastic actor-based models to study the developmental dynamics of children and carry implications for future research as well as for the interpretation of past findings. The goal of the present study was thus to further explore the adequacy of the accuracy assumption, analysing data from three longitudinal samples of different age groups (elementary school children and adolescents. Our results support the validity of stochastic actor-based models to study the network of adolescents and suggest that the violation of the accuracy assumption for elementary school children is not as severe as previously thought.
Booth, Michael; Okely, Anthony
Paediatric overweight and obesity is recognised as one of Australia's most significant health problems and effective approaches to increasing physical activity and reducing energy consumption are being sought urgently. Every potential approach and setting should be subjected to critical review in an attempt to maximise the impact of policy and program initiatives. This paper identifies the strengths and limitations of schools as a setting for promoting physical activity. The strengths are: most children and adolescents attend school; most young people are likely to see teachers as credible sources of information; schools provide access to the facilities, infrastructure and support required for physical activity; and schools are the workplace of skilled educators. Potential limitations are: those students who like school the least are the most likely to engage in health-compromising behaviours and the least likely to be influenced by school-based programs; there are about 20 more hours per week available for physical activity outside schools hours than during school hours; enormous demands are already being made on schools; many primary school teachers have low levels of perceived competence in teaching physical education and fundamental movement skills; and opportunities for being active at school may not be consistent with how and when students prefer to be active.
Nathalia Costa Gonzaga
Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the nursing interventions related to the competencies of health promotion of overweight children and adolescents in the school context, in light of the Galway Consensus through an integrative review. Articles published between 1988 and June, 2013 were found in the databases CINAHL, SCOPUS, MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane, LILACS and SciELO. A total of 139 publications were obtained from indexed descriptors. Ten articles were selected after reading. The most evident competencies for health promotion were: catalyzing change, needs assessment and impact assessment. The highlights were activities of health education and partnerships with other health professionals and the families of students. It was found that the skills of health promotion developed by nurses can contribute to the adoption of healthy habits by overweight children and adolescents.
Li, Wei; Hussein Musa, Taha; Gao, Rong; Li, Xiao Shan; Wang, Wei Xiang; Hong, Lei; Wei, Ping Min
Obesity and dental caries are increasing epidemics, especially among children and adolescents. This epidemiological observational cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the possible association between body mass index (BMI) and dental caries among 111,792 school children and adolescents in Jiangsu Province. We found that 13.14% participants of the study sample were overweight, and 7.37% were obese. The prevalence of dental caries was 12.95% in overweight and 7.89% in obese students. There were significant differences in caries prevalence by sex, region, age group, and BMI. Overweight and obesity statuses were associated with dental caries among the study population. BMI and dental caries present a continuous health problem. Thus, we recommend that oral health promotion be used for caries prevention and control. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.
Jesić, Maja D; Milenković, Tatjana; Mitrović, Katarina; Todorović, Sladjana; Zdravković, Vera; Jesić, Milos M; Bosnjović-Tucaković, Tatjana; Marković, Slavica; Vorguin, Ivana; Stanković, Sandra; Sajić, Silvija
The obtained results show that not all children test blood glucose levels at school (50% of children in the 6-10-year-old age group and 67.3% in the age group over 11 years) and that not all children receive insulin at school (81.1% vs. 18.9%, and 57.7% vs. 42.3%, respectively). The frequency of severe hypoglycemia was 2.7% in children and 3.3% in adolescents. A high proportion of teachers did not have diabetes training. This brief report about problems in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes at school in Serbia indicates what happens in the school setting and suggests how to improve control of this disease and facilitate the complete integration of children with diabetes at school. Children with type 1 diabetes typically spend one-third of the day in school and they should achieve the same level of diabetes management there as they do outside the school environment. The aim of this study was to identify problems in diabetes management in children with type 1 diabetes at school according to the perceptions reported by children and parents. This cross-sectional survey was carried out at nine public hospitals in Serbia with a cohort of 6-18-year old children/adolescents. The parents were personally informed about the objectives of the survey and the necessity to involve their children. The self-reporting questionnaire included demographic information as well as some questions that helped to evaluate the general situation of children with type 1 diabetes at school.
Moy, Foong Ming; Gan, Chong Ying; Zaleha, Mohd Kassim Siti
Lifestyle and disease patterns in Malaysia have changed following rapid economic development. It is important to find out how these changes have affected the nutritional status and health behaviour of the population, especially school children and adolescents. Therefore a survey on school children's and adolescents' health behaviours and perception in Kuala Lumpur was initiated. This paper only reports the observed body mass status of the school children. A total of 3620 school children were selected in this survey using the method of multi-stage sampling. The students were surveyed using pre-tested questionnaires while weight and height were measured by the research team in the field. Using the cut-off of BMI-for-age >or= 95th percentile and students and 14.8% of underweight students. When analysed by gender; 7.5% of boys and 7.1% girls were overweight, while 16.2% of the boys and 13.3% of the girls were underweight. The youngest age group (11 years old) had the highest prevalence of underweight as well as overweight. With increasing age, the prevalence of underweight and overweight decreased and more children were in the normal weight range. The overall prevalence of overweight among the three ethnic groups was similar. However the prevalence of underweight was highest among the Indian students (24.9%), followed by Malays (18.9%) and Chinese (9.5%) (P Malaysia. The promotion of healthy eating and physical activities is required to address the problems of under- and over-nutrition in order to build up a strong and healthy nation in the future.
Vervoort, Tine; Logan, Deirdre E; Goubert, Liesbet; De Clercq, Bart; Hublet, Anne
The current cross-sectional study examined child and adolescent pain severity in relation to various domains of school functioning and, in line with self-determination theory, the potentially protective role of perceived teacher support of child/adolescent autonomy and competence. Data from a large representative sample of Flemish school children and adolescents (N=10650; 50.8% boys; age range 10-21years; mean age=14.33) was collected as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey. Child/adolescent pain severity was graded based on a pediatric pain classification system adapted from that of Von Korff et al. The current study thus provided insight regarding the prevalence of pain among Flemish children/adolescents and, extending the limitations of existing literature, examined the specific role of pain severity across various domains of school functioning. Findings indicated that a sizeable proportion of children reported moderate to severe pain problems (ie, about 14% of children and adolescents were classified in the highest pain grades: ie, grade III or IV). Furthermore, higher pain grades were associated with poorer outcomes across all indices of school functioning (ie, school absenteeism, school-related pressure and satisfaction, and bullying experiences), with the exception of academic performance. However, the association between pain grade and school absenteeism was less pronounced when children perceived their teachers to be highly supportive of competence and autonomy. Furthermore, teacher support of competence appeared to buffer against the harmful effects of severe pain upon instances of bullying experiences at school. Future research directions and implications for school-based interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
San Mauro, Ismael; Megias, Ana; García de Angulo, Belén; Bodega, Patricia; Rodríguez, Paula; Grande, Graciela; Micó, Víctor; Romero, Elena; García, Nuria; Fajardo, Diana; Garicano, Elena
Overweight and obesity has high prevalence in children and adolescents in Spain. To determine the degree of influence of four modifiable factors (dietary habits, physical activity, sedentary and sleep) jointly on the weight status of a group of school children and adolescents in Madrid. 189 schoolchildren aged 6 to 16 years, who underwent an anthropometric study. To exercise the IPAQ questionnaire was used, establishing a minimum of one hour of exercise a day, as a recommendation, and two hours per day in case of sedentary, which took into account the hours of computer, consoles and TV. Sleep quality was assessed by collecting sleeping hours weekdays and weekend nap. Stating that school children should sleep 10 hours a day. The KIDMED Index was used for the diet quality, the score can be accessed from 0-12 and classified into 3 categories, it was regrouped for statistical measure. The first two results (0-7) as "Bad adherence" and ≥ 8 value as "Good adherence". 27.6% of students had excess weight. No significant differences were reported analyzing the four factors studied versus weight status among those who keep recommendations and excess weight, either individually or multifactor analysis was observed. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Rukuni, Ruramayi; McHugh, Grace; Majonga, Edith; Kranzer, Katharina; Mujuru, Hilda; Munyati, Shungu; Nathoo, Kusum; Gregson, Celia L; Kuper, Hannah; Ferrand, Rashida A
Increasing numbers of children with HIV are surviving to adolescence and encountering multiple clinical and social consequences of long-standing HIV infection. We aimed to investigate the association between HIV and disability, social functioning and school inclusion among 6- to 16-year-olds in Zimbabwe. HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy from a public-sector HIV clinic and HIV-uninfected children attending primary care clinics in the same catchment area were recruited. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic, social functioning and disability data. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between HIV status and disability and functioning. We recruited 202 HIV-infected and 285 HIV-uninfected children. There was no difference in age and gender between the two groups, but a higher proportion of HIV-infected children were orphaned. The prevalence of any disability was higher in HIV-infected than uninfected children (37.6% vs. 18.5%, P disability to those with HIV but no disabilities. Children with HIV commonly experience disabilities, and this is associated with social and educational exclusion. Rehabilitation and support services are needed to facilitate educational attainment and social participation in this group. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Marczyńska, Paulina; Kowalkowska, Katarzyna; Kuczyńska, Renata; Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczysława; Krogulska, Aneta
Psychosocial conditions may have influence on the occurrence of functional abdominal pain. Anxiety, school-related difficulties and suppression of emotions negatively impact on the psychosocial condition of a child and could impede its treatment. The analysis of the psychosocial determinants of functioning of children and adolescents with functional abdominal pain. Meterial and methods: The study group comprised 58 patients (12 boys and 46 girls) from 9 to 17 years of age (av. 13.34±2.14 years) with functional abdominal pain, diagnosed according to the III Roman Criteria, and the control group of 58 healthy children in adequate age, of Bydgoszcz primary and secondary schools. The test method utilised The Anger Regulation and Expression Scale (SEG), The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) and Me and My School Questionnaire. Analysing the results of scale SEG between the group of children with functional abdominal pain and healthy children, significant differences were observed in the scale of external anger (p=0.045). There were no differences between the group of children with functional abdominal pain and the comparative one in terms of Me and My School Inventory scale (p> 0.05). In the group of healthy adolescents, the average of motivation differed significantly from the result of the adolescents with functional abdominal pain (p=0.031). There were no differences between the group of children and adolescents with abdominal pain and the healthy ones in terms of the performance in STAIC scales (p>0.05). 1. Healthy children compared to children with functional abdominal pain more openly express negative emotions, such as anger and irritation, which can cause reduced tendency to the somatization of symptoms. 2. Symptoms of young people with functional abdominal pain intensify reluctance to fulfill school duties and heighten fear of school, depending on the speed of activation of the autonomic nervous system.
Igor J. Esaulenko; Tatiana L. Nastausheva; Olga A. Zhdanova; Olga V. Minakova; Iya I. Logvinova; Ludmila I. Ippolitova
Background: In Russian schools, children are provided with meals, and certain categories of students get free meals. However, not all school students eat regularly.Objective: Our aim was to study the role of school meals in physical development of children and adolescents.Methods: The survey of schoolchildren aged 8–18 years (Voronezh) revealed two groups of students who eat at school regularly (Group 1) and on occasions (Group 2). We calculated Z scores of body length and body mass index (BM...
Dubuisson, C; Lioret, S; Dufour, A; Volatier, J L; Lafay, L; Turck, D
Our objective was to investigate whether school lunch attendance was associated with overall eating habits and sedentary behaviour in a French sample of children and adolescents. Data for the study were taken from the second French cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2-2006-07). In total, 1413 school children aged 3-17 years old were classified according to their school type and their usual school lunch attendance. Eating habits included meal regularity, dietary diversity, purchase in vending machine, snacking habits and frequency of eating in fast-foods. Two composite indices of eating habits were derived from multiple correspondence analyses. Sedentary behaviour was assessed by the average daily screen times for TV and computer. The association between school lunch attendance and each variable was tested. Multivariate association between school lunch attendance and the composite indices of eating habits and sedentary behaviours was studied. In all, 69.0% (CI(95%): 64.2-73.9) of secondary school children and 63.0% (CI(95%): 58.5-67.5) of pre- and elementary school children usually attended school lunch at least once a week. Pre- and elementary school children attending school lunches showed a higher dietary diversity score (P=0.02) and ate morning snacks more frequently (P=0.02). In secondary school children, attending school canteen was related to a lower rate of skipping breakfast (P=0.04) and main meals (P=0.01). In all school children, school lunch attendance was simultaneously associated with healthier overall eating habits and less sedentary behaviour. In France, children attending school canteens seem to have healthier eating habits and display less sedentary behaviour, independently of their socio-economic and demographic background.
Naeeni, Marjan Manouchehri; Jafari, Sakineh; Fouladgar, Maryam; Heidari, Kamal; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Fakhri, Maryam; Karami, Parvaneh; Omidi, Razieh
Although nutritional status of children and adolescents is of great concern various interventions and modifications aiming at promotion of healthy eating behaviors have limited impact due to insufficient understanding of dietary habits between different age groups and genders. The aim of this study in not only evaluation of nutritional knowledge, practice, and dietary habits of primary school and junior high school students in Isfahan province, but also this research explore crucial differences regarding gender and living area of the above-mentioned population in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4700 primary school and junior high school pupils in Isfahan province. Data were collected through standard 24-h recall food frequency questionnaire and researcher-designed questionnaire. Independent t-test was applied for comparison of mean values of total units of consumed food materials. Qualitative variables were compared by using the Chi-square test. Data were analyzed by ACCESS 2010 and SPSS 18 software. Nutritional knowledge of female pupils and junior high school students was higher than their male and elementary school students respectively; still, theses superiorities did not lead to higher practice score. Bread and cereals group received daily intakes in accordance with food and drug administration (FDA) recommendations. Indeed, vegetables, milk, and dairy products, as well as meat daily intakes, were lower than the FDA recommendation, whereas fats, oils, and sugars intakes were higher. In comparison to females, male participants had significantly lower consumption of vegetables and fruits whilst they had a higher intake of carbohydrates, fats, and meats. Our results showed that adolescents failed to meet sufficient nutritional requirements, and they had an imbalanced diet, which was considerably low in several essential nutrients and high in some food materials.
Nair, Sandhya; Ganjiwale, Jaishree; Kharod, Nikhil; Varma, Jagdish; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar Marutirao
Mental health problems in adolescents are inadequately researched in low-resource settings. We aimed in this study to assess the prevalence of mental health problems and correlates in school children aged 13-17 years and compare differences between urban and rural schools in Anand District, Gujarat. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five Gujarati medium higher secondary schools in Anand, Gujarat. Six hundred and ninety-three students with equal distribution of boys and girls belonging to 9th to 12th grades were included in the study. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess the mental health status of the students, and total difficulties scoring was used to categorise participants into normal (0-15) and high (borderline (16-19) and abnormal (20-40)). Socio-demographic data and Teenage Screening Questionnaire-Trivandrum (TSQ) were used to assess associated medical and psychosocial factors. Clearance was obtained from the institutional ethics committee before conducting the study. 15% participants had a high SDQ score. Girls had more emotional problems, while the rest of the mental health problems were more prevalent in boys. Rural children were found to have more mental health issues. Having an eye problem, scoring parents increased odds of high SDQ score, while having friends and after-school entertainment like watching movies decreased odds of high SDQ score. At least one in eight adolescents in this study was at risk of mental health problems. SDQ self-report questionnaire and TSQ survey may be used as a screening modality to identify at-risk students.
Lwin, May O; Ho, Shirley S; Younbo, Jung; Leng, Theng Yin; Wardoyo, Reidinar J; Jung, Kim Hyo
Although interventions targeting the health of students in schools are becoming common, few studies have examined how health messages operate at the group level in school environments. This study examines the effects of message-based health interventions (extrinsic vs. intrinsic goal framing) in group environments (exergame competitive vs. exergame noncompetitive) on eliciting attitudes and intentions toward physical activity among children and adolescents. We conducted a 7-week school-based intervention program involving 336 children and 259 adolescents in Singapore in which pre- and post-intervention responses were recorded. Our findings revealed the difference in responses between child and adolescent groups. Children who participated in noncompetitive exergames with extrinsically framed health messages and those who participated in competitive exergames with intrinsically framed health messages demonstrated more favorable attitudes toward physical activity. However, the same effects were absent in our adolescent group. These findings suggest that the integration of exergames into competitive and noncompetitive environments can serve as a gateway to traditional physical activity in schools when strategically combined with intrinsically and extrinsically framed messages. Practical and theoretical implications for schools and health educators are discussed.
Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla
Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (Ppizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sun Mi Shin
Full Text Available Background : This study aimed to investigate the association of overweight and obesity with red and white meat intake among children and adolescents using secondary survey data (n=16,261 from in-school Student Health Examination conducted in 2006 and 2007. Methods : Descriptive statistics was conducted to investigate the frequency of meat intake per week. The body mass index (BMI grades for obesity in boys and girls were classified using the standards from the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. The association of meat intake with overweight and obesity was analyzed using Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Results : The proportion of subjects with no intake/week vs. daily meat intake/week was 5.9% and 5.5%, respectively. No intake of meat was more frequent in those who were female and in middle school, whereas daily meat intake was more frequent in those who were male and in high school. The proportions of overweight and obesity in the no meat intake/week group and daily meat intake/week group were 12.3% and 11.1% vs. 8.1% and 9.9%, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables, including age; consumption of instant noodles, soft drinks and fast foods, dairy products, and fruits and vegetables; and skipping breakfast, the odds ratios of overweight and obesity in the no meat intake/week group were 1.41 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.85 than those in the daily meat intake/week group. Conclusion : It is important to consider correcting the perception about meat intake and obesity and avoid restricting meat intake to prevent overweight and obesity among children and adolescents.
Chen, Gang; Ratcliffe, Julie; Olds, Tim; Magarey, Anthea; Jones, Michelle; Leslie, Eva
To explore the relationship between weight status (BMI) and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents through application of the Child Health Utility 9D, a new generic preference-based instrument. Data were collected from primary and high school students in rural and metropolitan regions of South Australia. Consenting participants (2588 in grades 4-6 and 765 in grades 9-10) were weighed and measured and categorized as underweight, healthy weight, overweight, or obese according to International Obesity Taskforce BMI cutoff points (primary outcome). Participants also completed a questionnaire including the Child Health Utility 9D and standardized measures of physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep patterns, and eating behavior (secondary outcomes). Descriptive and multivariate linear regression analyses were undertaken to calculate mean utility differences. In comparison with healthy-weight primary school students, adjusted mean utilities were lower for overweight (-0.016, P = .02) or obese (-0.039, P = .001) students. For high school students, the adjusted mean utilities were also lower for overweight and obese students but were nonsignificant (-0.018, P > .10). Physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep patterns, and eating behavior were all found to be significantly associated with utilities. Irrespective of BMI, young people engaging in more physical activities or less sedentary behavior, and having healthier sleep patterns or eating behavior exhibited higher utilities. Associations between utilities and sleep patterns or eating behavior were stronger than the associations with BMI. Future economic evaluations for obesity interventions should more formally investigate the relationship between changes over time in weight status and health-related quality of life for children and adolescents.
Carissimi, Alicia; Dresch, Fabiane; Martins, Alessandra Castro; Levandovski, Rosa Maria; Adan, Ana; Natale, Vincenzo; Martoni, Monica; Hidalgo, Maria Paz
This epidemiological study evaluated the impact of school time on sleep parameters of children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study involved 639 elementary and high school students (mean age 13.03 years, range 8-18, 58.5% female) from the south of Brazil. Participants answered the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), and were asked about their sleeping habits on weekdays and weekends. Sleep deficit was defined as the difference between sleep duration on weekdays and weekends. The morning-school-time students presented significantly higher age, bedtime and wake up differences, sleep deficits, and social jetlag. The sleep deficit presented by girls was greater than that observed in boys of the same age. The difference between weekday and weekend waking times was also significantly greater in girls than in boys aged 13-18 years. Sleep deficit was significantly positively correlated with age and differences in wake up times, and significantly negatively correlated with MEQ scores, social jetlag, difference between weekday and weekend bedtimes, midpoint of sleep on weekends, and midpoint of sleep on weekends corrected for sleep deficit. A step-by-step multivariate logistic regression identified social jetlag, the difference between waking times on weekdays and weekends, and the midpoint of sleep on weekends as significant predictors of sleep deficit (Adjusted R(2) = 0.95; F = 1606.87; p school time influences the sleep parameters. The association of school schedules and physiological factors influence the sleep/wake cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aim: To determine the oral health status of intellectually disabled (ID children and adolescents from state schools, Valdivia, Chile, 2012. Design: Descriptive study. A sample of students from state schools was assessed for caries history (Decayed, Missing, Filled permanent Teeth (DMFT/decayed, extracted, filled temporal teeth (deft, quality of oral hygiene (Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, OHI-S and gingival health (Gingival Index, GI. In addition, questions were asked about dental care habits, degree of ID, presence of systemic disease and medicine use. Results: 195 students with slight to moderate ID and aged from 6 to 21 years were assessed. The average DMFT/deft was 2.19/1.33 for female students and 1.59/1.93 for male students. The OHI-S in 75.9% of participants was moderate, with poorer oral hygiene found in participants with moderate ID. Only 2.6% showed code 0 for GI, reflecting poor oral hygiene. Most participants possessed their own toothbrush (88.2% and could clean their teeth unaided (96.4%.Conclusion: The state of oral health in the assessed population is deficient. The quality of oral hygiene is normal or poor, which leads to poor gingival health.
Sheyla R. C. Furtado
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The literature demonstrates that the social participation of children with disabilities is influenced by both their functional skills repertoire and environmental factors. However, it is not yet known whether the effect of functional limitations on social participation is minimized or enhanced by the environmental facilitators and barriers. This study aimed to test this hypothesis.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the moderating effect of environmental factors in the relationship between mobility and school participation of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP.METHOD: Participants were 102 elementary school children and adolescents with CP, aged 6 to 17 years, classified as levels I, II, and III according to the Gross Motor Classification System, along with their parents or caregivers and teachers. School participation and parents' perceptions of barriers were evaluated using the School Function Assessment and the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF, respectively.RESULTS: The regression model failed to reveal a moderating effect of environmental factors in the relationship between mobility and school participation. While mobility was a strong predictor of participation, environmental factors demonstrated a weak predictive effect on the latter. The CHIEF subscale school/work showed the factors which were greatest barrier to children's participation, while the subscale attitude/support had the least impact.CONCLUSION: The absence of moderation on the tested relationship suggests that, when investigated under the negative perspective of environmental barriers, the contextual factors do not modify the relationship between mobility and school participation. Factors specific to the school environment might add to the present study's results regarding the effect of school participation in this population.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have proposed that having parents out of work may influence adolescent illness behaviour and school attendance. However, prior research investigating this question has been limited by retrospective reporting and case control studies. In a large epidemiological study we investigated whether parental work absence was associated with symptom complaints and increased school absenteeism in adolescents. Methods We analysed data from a large epidemiological study of 10,243 Norwegian adolescents aged 16–19. Participants completed survey at school, which included demographic data, parental work absence and current health complaints. An official registry provided school attendance data. Results Parental work absence was significantly related to the number of adolescent symptom complaints as well as school absenteeism. Having a father out of work was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile of symptom reporting by an odds-ratio of 2.2 and mother by 1.6 (compared to the lowest quartile. Similarly, parental work absenteeism was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile for school absence by an odds-ratio of 1.9 for a father being out of work and 1.5 for a mother out of work. We found that the number of adolescent symptom complaints mediated the relationship between parental work absenteeism and school absenteeism. Conclusion We found that parental work absence was significantly associated with the number of adolescent symptom complaints and school absenteeism. The results suggest that parents may play a critical modelling role in the intergenerational transmission of illness and disability behaviour.
Hysing, Mari; Petrie, Keith J; Bøe, Tormod; Sivertsen, Børge
Previous studies have proposed that having parents out of work may influence adolescent illness behaviour and school attendance. However, prior research investigating this question has been limited by retrospective reporting and case control studies. In a large epidemiological study we investigated whether parental work absence was associated with symptom complaints and increased school absenteeism in adolescents. We analysed data from a large epidemiological study of 10,243 Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19. Participants completed survey at school, which included demographic data, parental work absence and current health complaints. An official registry provided school attendance data. Parental work absence was significantly related to the number of adolescent symptom complaints as well as school absenteeism. Having a father out of work was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile of symptom reporting by an odds-ratio of 2.2 and mother by 1.6 (compared to the lowest quartile). Similarly, parental work absenteeism was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile for school absence by an odds-ratio of 1.9 for a father being out of work and 1.5 for a mother out of work. We found that the number of adolescent symptom complaints mediated the relationship between parental work absenteeism and school absenteeism. We found that parental work absence was significantly associated with the number of adolescent symptom complaints and school absenteeism. The results suggest that parents may play a critical modelling role in the intergenerational transmission of illness and disability behaviour.
Gambon, D.L.; Brand, H.S.; Boutkabout, C.; Levie, D.; Veerman, E.C.I.
AIM: To determine the frequency of intake and patterns in consumption of potentially erosive beverages in school children in the Netherlands. METHODS: A cross-sectional, single centre study was performed among 502 school children in Rotterdam, in age varying between 12 and 19 years. Data on
Crawford, Devan M.; Cheadle, Jacob E.; Whitbeck, Les B.
The purpose of this study is to assess the differential effects of perceived discrimination by type of school on positive school adjustment among Indigenous children during late elementary and early middle school years. The analysis utilizes a sample of 654 Indigenous children from four reservations in the Northern Midwest and four Canadian First Nation reserves. Multiple group linear growth modeling within a structural equation framework is employed to investigate the moderating effects of s...
Crawford, Devan M; Cheadle, Jacob E; Whitbeck, Les B
The purpose of this study is to assess the differential effects of perceived discrimination by type of school on positive school adjustment among Indigenous children during late elementary and early middle school years. The analysis utilizes a sample of 654 Indigenous children from four reservations in the Northern Midwest and four Canadian First Nation reserves. Multiple group linear growth modeling within a structural equation framework is employed to investigate the moderating effects of school type on the relationship between discrimination and positive school adjustment. Results show that students in all school types score relatively high on positive school adjustment at time one (ages 10-12). However, in contrast to students in tribal schools for whom positive school adjustment remains stable, those attending public schools and those moving between school types show a decline in school adjustment over time. Furthermore, the negative effects of discrimination on positive school adjustment are greater for those attending public schools and those moving between schools. Possible reasons for this finding and potential explanations for why tribal schools may provide protection from the negative effects of discrimination are discussed.
Satyajit Bagudai; Pranati Nanda; Satyanath Reddy Kodidala
Background: In the prevailing era of adult hypertension, limited data are available regarding the profile of childhood obesity & hypertension from India. We examined & studied the prevalence of childhood obesity & hypertension in a representative sample of school children from Berhampur, Odisha & tried to find out if any relationship is there or not between obesity & hypertension in those study population. Methods: In a cross sectional study we select the children from different schools o...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With rapid urbanization accompanied by lifestyle changes, children and adolescents living in metropolitan areas are faced with many time use choices that compete with sleep. This study reports on the sleep hygiene of urban Chinese school students, and investigates the relationship between habitual after-school activities and sleep duration, schedule and quality on a regular school day. METHODS: Cross-sectional, school-based survey of school children (Grades 4-8 living in Shanghai, China, conducted in 2011. Self-reported data were collected on students' sleep duration and timing, sleep quality, habitual after-school activities (i.e. homework, leisure-time physical activity, recreational screen time and school commuting time, and potential correlates. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration of this sample (mean age: 11.5-years; 48.6% girls was 9 hours. Nearly 30% of students reported daytime tiredness. On school nights, girls slept less (p<0.001 and went to bed later (p<0.001, a sex difference that was more pronounced in older students. Age by sex interactions were observed for both sleep duration (p=0.005 and bedtime (p=0.002. Prolonged time spent on homework and mobile phone playing was related to shorter sleep duration and later bedtime. Adjusting for all other factors, with each additional hour of mobile phone playing, the odds of daytime tiredness and having difficulty maintaining sleep increased by 30% and 27% among secondary students, respectively. CONCLUSION: There are sex differences in sleep duration, schedule and quality. Habitual activities had small but significant associations with sleep hygiene outcomes especially among secondary school students. Intervention strategies such as limiting children's use of electronic screen devices after school are implicated.
Carissimi, Alicia; Martins, Alessandra Castro; Dresch, Fabiane; da Silva, Lilian Corrêa; Zeni, Cristian Patrick; Hidalgo, Maria Paz
School start time influences sleep parameters. Differences between circadian sleep parameters on weekends and weekdays have been associated with obesity, sleep, and psychiatric disorders. Moreover, circadian rhythm dysregulation affects the secretion of some hormones, such as melatonin and cortisol. In the current study, we investigate the effect of school start time on cortisol and melatonin levels in a community sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study of 454 students (mean age, 12.81 ± 2.56 years; 58.6% female). From this sample, 80 participants were randomly selected for saliva collection to measure melatonin and cortisol levels. Circadian sleep parameters were assessed by self-reported sleep and wake up schedules and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. The outcomes, salivary melatonin and cortisol levels, were measured in morning, afternoon and night saliva samples, and behavior problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The main results revealed that morning school start time decreased the secretion of melatonin. Morning melatonin levels were significantly positively correlated with the sleep midpoint on weekdays and on weekends. Afternoon melatonin levels were positively correlated with the sleep midpoint on weekends in the morning school students. Conversely, in the afternoon school students, night melatonin levels were negatively correlated with the sleep midpoint on weekdays. Cortisol secretion did not correlate with circadian sleep parameters in any of the school time groups. In conclusion, school start time influences melatonin secretion, which correlated with circadian sleep parameters. This correlation depends on the presence of psychiatric symptoms. Our findings emphasize the importance of drawing attention to the influence of school start time on the circadian rhythm of children and adolescents.
Kraag, G.C; Zeegers, M.P.; Kok, G.J.; Hosman, C.M.H.; Huijer Abu-Saad, H.
Introduction This meta-analysis evaluates the effect of school programs targeting stress management or coping skills in school children. Methods Articles were selected through a systematic literature search. Only randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental studies were included. The
Reissner, Volker; Jost, Diana; Krahn, Ulrike; Knollmann, Martin; Weschenfelder, Ann-Kathrin; Neumann, Anja; Wasem, Jürgen; Hebebrand, Johannes
5-10% of schoolchildren in Germany are absent from school without an excuse more than five times per year. We investigate the effectiveness of manual-based, multimodal cognitive behavioral therapy focusing on school-avoidant behavior and on the underlying mental disorders. 112 school avoiders were recruited from an outpatient child and adolescent psychiatric clinic and adaptively randomized into two treatment groups. The first group received manual-based multimodal treatment (MT), the second group treatment as usual (TAU) in the child and adolescent mental health care system. The primary outcome of the study was the percentage of classes attended in the five days prior to first measurement (before the intervention), as well as 6 and 12 months afterward. In each of these periods, school attendance was characterized as regular, partial, or none. Secondary outcomes were the severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and quality of family life. In both treatment arms, the percentage of regular school attenders rose to about 60% in 6 months, regardless of the intervention (MT 60.6%, TAU 58.3%; odds ratio [OR] for changes over baseline 6.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.98-12.12, preintegration in school and on the differential indicators for outpatient versus inpatient treatment.
Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Chueca-Guindulain, María Jesús; Berrade-Zubiri, Sara; Moreno-Gónzalez, Paula; Malumbres-Chacón, María
To analyse the prevalence of hypovitaminosisD and associated factors in school children and adolescents living in a region of northern Spain. Cross-sectional study (convenience sampling). Primary Health Care. A total of 602 Caucasian individuals (aged 3.1 to 15.4years) were included in the study. Prevalence of hypovitaminosisD were calculated (dependent variable). HypovitaminosisD is defined according to the US Endocrine Society criteria: deficiency (calcidiol <20ng/mL), insufficiency (calcidiol: 20-29ng/mL), and sufficiency (calcidiol ≥30ng/mL). Gender, age, body mass index, residence, and season of the year were recorded (independent variables), and their association with hypovitaminosisD was analysed by multiple regression. The prevalence of hypovitaminosisD was 60.4% (insufficiency: 44.6%; deficiency: 15.8%). Multivariate analysis showed that factors associated to hypovitaminosisD were being female (OR: 1.6; 95%CI: 1.1-2.3), pubertal age (OR: 1.8; 95%CI: 1.2-2.6), autumn (OR: 9.5; 95%CI: 4.8-18.7), winter (OR: 8.8; 95%CI: 4.5-17.5) and spring time (OR: 13.2; 95%CI: 6.4-27.5), living in urban areas (OR:1.6; CI95%: 1.1-2.2), and severe obesity (OR: 4.4; 95%CI: 1.9-10.3). There is a high prevalence of hypovitaminosisD in juvenile populations. being female, pubertal age, autumn, winter and spring seasons, severe obesity, and living in urban areas are factors associated to hypovitaminosisD. Consideration should be given to the administration of vitamin supplements and/or the increase in the ingestion of natural vitaminD dietary sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Garmy, Pernilla; Clausson, Eva K; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents (6-16 years), and relationships between being overweight and sleep, experiencing of fatigue, enjoyment of school, and time spent in watching television and in sitting at the computer. Trained school nurses measured the weight and height of 2891 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16, and distributed a questionnaire to them regarding television and computer habits, sleep, and enjoyment of school. Overweight, obesity included, was present in 16.1% of the study population. Relationships between lifestyle factors and overweight were studied using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Having a bedroom television and spending more than 2 h a day watching television were found to be associated with overweight (OR 1.26 and 1.55 respectively). No association was found between overweight and time spent at the computer, short sleep duration, enjoyment of school, tiredness at school, or difficulties in sleeping and waking up. It is recommended that the school health service discuss with pupils their media habits so as to promote their maintaining a healthy lifestyle. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background One out of ten of China's population are migrants, moving from rural to urban areas. Many leave their families behind resulting in millions of school children living in their rural home towns without one or both their parents. Little is known about the health status of these left behind children (LBC. This study compares the health status and health-related behaviours of left behind adolescent school children and their counterparts in a rural area in Southern China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among middle school students in Fuyang Township, Guangdong, China (2007-2008. Information about health behaviours, parental migration and demographic characteristics was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Overweight/obesity and stunting were defined based on measurements of height and weight. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to estimate the differences in health outcomes between LBC and non-LBC. Results 18.1% of the schoolchildren had one or both parents working away from home. Multivariate analysis showed that male LBC were at higher risk of skipping breakfast, higher levels of physical inactivity, internet addiction, having ever smoked tobacco, suicide ideation, and being overweight. LBC girls were more likely to drink excessive amounts of sweetened beverage, to watch more TV, to have ever smoked or currently smoke tobacco, to have ever drunk alcohol and to binge drinking. They were also more likely to be unhappy, to think of planning suicide and consider leaving home. Conclusions Our findings suggest that parental migration is a risk factor for unhealthy behaviours amongst adolescent school children in rural China. Further research is required in addition to the consideration of the implications for policies and programmes to protect LBC.
Minghelli, Beatriz; Cardoso, Iara; Porfírio, Melani; Gonçalves, Roberta; Cascalheiro, Sabina; Barreto, Vera; Soeiro, Andreia; Almeida, Leandro
Background: The prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in children and adolescents is in the range of 6-68% and can be triggered or aggravated by emotional stress. Aim: The study was to investigate the prevalence of TMD in Portuguese children and adolescents and its association with emotional stress. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 3,260 students aged 5-19 years. The questionnaire was used to assess the presence of TMD, and was applied in a single moment. Results: TMD was observed in 821 (25.2%) students. The most common symptoms of TMD were: if considered tense or nervous (52%), have headaches (36.8%), and habit of clenching or grinding teeth (27.3%). The girls had a 1.36 higher probability of developing TMD than boys (95% CI: 1.14-1.63; p < 0.001); moreover, students from the older age group had a 2.31 higher probability of developing the disorder (95% CI: 1.85-2.89; p < 0.001). Students who considered themselves tense or nervous presented 8.74 higher probability (95% CI: 7.03-10.86; p < 0.001) of developing TMD. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of TMD in children and adolescents in southern Portugal, and revealed a significant association between this dysfunction and the levels of emotional stress. Female students, older students, and those considered tense or nervous have a higher probability of developing TMD. PMID:24741551
Sato, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Nobue; Sasaki, Nozomu
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of bodyweight on health-related quality of life (QOL) in children. A questionnaire to assess health-related QOL was developed and completed by 242 primary school children and 180 junior high school students in Morioka, Japan. Subjects were classified by obesity index into three groups as follows: underweight, /=+20% (n = 55). The overall QOL score and the score of each domain were compared among the three groups and in each gender. Overall QOL scores did not differ significantly among the three groups. The scores for the domain of 'strength, diligence and self-esteem' in the underweight and overweight groups were significantly lower than those for the normal-weight group overall and for girls (P < 0.01). Scores for the 'school' domain in the underweight group were significantly lower than those for the overweight group overall and for boys (P < 0.05). Children, except those of normal bodyweight, have low scores in some domains of health-related QOL, suggesting the importance of considering the effects of bodyweight on QOL in programs aimed at further understanding under- or overweight children and adolescents.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Adolescence is a period when individuals become independent from their parents. The period of adolescence itself is recognized as a period of ‘stress and storm’. Stressful life events of both major and minor magnitude in the lives of adolescents are significantly related to their emotional behavioural problems. Studies on prevalence and pattern of stressors in adolescents using semi structured interview techniques and sound methodology is limited in developing countries. Knowing the magnitude of problem will help us in policy making. MATERIALS AND METHODS Adolescents from 8th, 9th and 10th standards of four schools in two districts of Kerala were selected by random sampling method. Students with Children Behaviour Questionnaire score CBQ more than 9 and their parents were analysed for the level of stress using Checklist of stressful life events CLSLE and were compared with that of control group. RESULTS Out of 720 subjects screened 120 16.6% were found to be disturbed based on CBQ scores. CBQ score was significantly higher in disturbed group compared to undisturbed group. CLSLE scores shows disturbed group had higher stressors in “general”, “school or academic” and “self” areas compared to control group. Stressors that are commonly reported by both the groups are decline in academic performance, breaking up with close friend, argument between father and mother and punishment by parents. CONCLUSION School going adolescents are exposed to stress. The academic pressure is one of the major precursors for the stress. Introduction of stress management techniques in school curriculum can be helpful. This study emphasis that stressed feelings among adolescents should not be neglected, but has to be properly intervened, so as to avoid a larger destruction.
The effect of school violence on mental health was examined among 12,366 Aboriginal children and adolescents, primarily First Nations, Métis, and Inuit residing off reservations in the Canadian provinces and territories. Analyses were based on the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples' Survey, a postcensal national survey of Aboriginal youth aged 6-14 years. More than one-fifth of students in the sample attended schools where violence was perceived as a problem. The occurrence of psychological or nervous disorders was about 50% higher among students exposed to school violence than among other students. School violence was a significant predictor of mental health difficulties, irrespective of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Virtually the entire effect was mediated by interpersonal processes, or negative quality of parent-child and peer relationships, while the effect was not explained by cultural detachment through lack of interactions with Elders and traditional language ability/use. Results underscored school violence as a significant public health concern for Aboriginal elementary and high school students, and the need for evidence-based mental health interventions for at-risk populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Loprinzi, Paul D; Frith, Emily
To examine the association between objectively measured moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total physical activity with school absenteeism due to illness or injury among children and adolescents. Cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006. A total of 1249 children (aged 6-11 years) and 1747 adolescents (aged 12-17 years). School absenteeism was categorized as no/minimal school absenteeism (0-8 missed school days in the past 12 months), moderate absenteeism (9-17 missed days), or severe absenteeism (18+ missed days). Physical activity was objectively measured via accelerometry. Multinomial logistic regression. Children in the most active quartile had 89% reduced odds of severe absenteeism relative to the least active quartile (odds ratio [OR]: 0.11; 0.95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02-0.48); results were similar for MVPA. For adolescents, those in the most active quartile for MVPA had a 41% reduced odds of having moderate (vs no/minimal) absenteeism (OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.35-0.99). For children, a multiplicative interaction effect of MVPA and poverty level on severe absenteeism was observed (OR = 0.98, P = .02). Higher levels of physical activity were associated with lower odds of severe school absenteeism. Such an observation is important, as school absenteeism strongly contributes to academic performance. Particular attention for promoting physical activity and closely monitoring school absenteeism among youth below the poverty level may be warranted.
Igor J. Esaulenko
Full Text Available Background: In Russian schools, children are provided with meals, and certain categories of students get free meals. However, not all school students eat regularly.Objective: Our aim was to study the role of school meals in physical development of children and adolescents.Methods: The survey of schoolchildren aged 8–18 years (Voronezh revealed two groups of students who eat at school regularly (Group 1 and on occasions (Group 2. We calculated Z scores of body length and body mass index (BMI using ANTHROPlus software. Nutritional status was determined based on the values of standard BMI deviations ( +2, +2 to +1, -1 to -2, -2. Health groups were formed according to the Children Health Comprehensive Assessment Instruction.Results: 484 schoolchildren (students of grades 3–11 were examined. 251 (52% school students had regular meals at school. Regular meal frequency decreased from 69% in the group of 8–10 year old students to 30% in the group of 15–18-year-olds. Z scores of body length in students of Groups 1 and 2 did not differ (0.44 ± 1.00 and 0.30 ± 1.00, respectively; p = 0.124. At the same time, children in Group 1 had higher Z scores of BMI (0.44 ± 1.30 and 0.12 ± 1.30, respectively; p = 0.007. In Group 1, the incidence of overweight and obesity decreased from 40% in group of 8–10 year old students to 15% in 15–18-year-olds, in Group 2 — from 35 to 18%, respectively; incidence of malnutrition increased from 9 to 24% in Group 1 and from 11 to 15% in Group 2. In Group 1, the number of students with health group III or IV was smaller (30% compared to 42% in the control group; p = 0.005.Conclusion: Regular meals at school are an important, but not critical factor in the physical development of children. The absence of regular meals at school may be a risk factor for chronic diseases in schoolchildren.
Sensor, M. Carol
This handbook was designed to provide a basic introduction to and understanding of stress and its impact upon children. Several coping techniques for children are presented along with the methods with which to teach them. These techniques are intended to provide a resource for school psychologists working with children and adolescents who are…
Mehl, Ann J; Nelson, Nicolas G; McKenzie, Lara B
Running for exercise is a popular way to motivate children to be physically active. Running-related injuries are well studied in adults but little information exists for children and adolescents. Through use of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database, cases of running-related injuries were selected by using activity codes for exercise (which included running and jogging). Sample weights were used to calculate national estimates. An estimated 225 344 children and adolescents 6 to 18 years old were treated in US emergency departments for running-related injuries. The annual number of cases increased by 34.0% over the study period. One third of the injuries involved a running-related fall and more than one half of the injuries occurred at school. The majority of injuries occurred to the lower extremities and resulted in a sprain or strain. These findings emphasize the need for scientific evidence-based guidelines for pediatric running. The high proportion of running-related falls warrants further research.
Linda Teresa Orcasita Pineda
Full Text Available The study aimed to explore the dialog and knowledge of sexuality expressed by fathers or mothers of adolescents. A qualitative methodology with narrative design was used, with focus groups used for data collection. The results de-monstrate that the parents or mothers learn about sexuality from their own experiences, so this aspect is present in communication with their children. The most discussed topic was pregnancy, excluding sexually transmitted infections (STI, pornography and sexual diversity. The study concludes that dialogs with these participants about sexuality contain multiples discourses; intervention strategies oriented to promoting training spaces and communication skills regarding sexuality are required.
Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Bushmiaer, Margo
National surveys that have tracked weight and physical activity in the United States for more than 40 years have shown a continuing increase in the number of overweight children and adolescents. Overweight children and adolescents are showing an increase in diseases related to overweight: Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and…
Rosangela B. Macedo
por um questionário e a incapacidade pelo Questionário Roland-Morris. A QV foi avaliada pelo Questionário Pediátrico sobre Qualidade de Vida (PedsQL. As análises de variância e de covariância multivariadas foram usadas para avaliar as diferenças entre os grupos. Resultados: As meninas relataram maior incapacidade que os meninos (p = 0,01 e menor QV nos domínios de funcionamento físico (p < 0,001 e emocional (p < 0,01, no escore sumário de saúde psicossocial (p = 0,02 e saúde física (p < 0,001 e no escore total no PedsQL (p < 0,01. O peso das mochilas escolares era semelhante para ambos os sexos (p = 0,61 e para os participantes com e sem LBP (p = 0,15. Após ajustes, os participantes com LBP relataram menor funcionamento físico (p < 0,01, influenciando um menor escore sumário de saúde física (p < 0,01. Conclusões: As meninas tiveram maior incapacidade e menor QV que os meninos nos domínios de funcionamento físico e emocional, nos escores sumários de saúde psicossocial e física e no escore total no PedsQL; contudo, foi relatado um peso semelhante das mochilas escolares. Os participantes com LBP revelaram menor funcionamento físico e escore sumário de saúde física, mesmo carregando mochilas escolares de mesmo peso que aqueles sem LBP. Keywords: Quality of life, Nonspecific low back pain, Children and adolescents, School backpack, Palavras-Chave: Qualidade de vida, Lombalgia não específica, Crianças e adolescentes, Mochila escolar
Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Lankhorst, Kristel; van der Ende-Kastelijn, Karin; de Groot, Janke; Backx, Frank; Visser-Meily, Anne; Takken, Tim
Children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability have lower fitness levels compared to their non-disabled peers. Low physical fitness is associated with reduced physical activity, increased cardiovascular diseases, and lower levels of both cognitive and psychosocial functioning. Moreover, children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability participate less in both recreational and competitive sports. A variety of intervention studies have shown positive, but only temporary, effects of training programs. Next to issues related to the chronic condition itself, various personal and environmental factors play a key role in determining the extent to which they participate in sports or physical activities. Due to these barriers, sport participation in the immediate after-school hours seems to be a feasible solution to get these children and adolescents physical active structurally. To investigate if an after school sport program can sustain the positive effects of an intervention, a standardized interval training will be given to improve physical fitness levels. High-intensity Interval Training (HIT) is superior to moderate-intensity continuous training in improving physical fitness in patients with chronic diseases. Therefore, the Sport-2-Stay-Fit study will investigate whether after school sport participation can increase the sustainability of a HIT program in children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability. The Sport-2-Stay-Fit study is a clinical controlled trial. A total of 74 children and adolescents in the age of 6-19 years with a chronic disease or physical disability will be included. This could be either a cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disorder. Both children and adolescents who are ambulatory or propelling a manual wheelchair will be included. All participants will follow a HIT program of eight weeks to improve their physical fitness level. Thereafter, the
González Rosendo, Guillermina; Villanueva Sánchez, Javier; Alcantar Rodríguez, Victor Eduardo; Quintero Gutiérrez, Adrián Guillermo
in Mexico, although there are low intakes of some nutrients; there are higher total energy, fat and sodium and common inadequate physical activity in schools, which originates the presence of overweight and obesity. Objetive: the aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children full- time state of Morelos (Mexico). a cross sectional study in 30 966 students 3-15 years attending 186 schools. The nutritional status was obtained through the Body Mass Index, considering the age and sex; weight was measured with SECA 813 scales and height with stadiometer SECA 213; international benchmarks were used. 36 482 boys and girls censused, it's measured at 30 966 (84.9%) attended the day of visit. The overall prevalence of underweight was close to 8%, and the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity exceeded 25%. Were higher prevalences of underweight and obesity in men. one in 12 children are underweight; one in four, overweight and one in nine obese. The male population is more vulnerable to suffer consequences for nutritional deficiencies and excesses. Specific studies are needed to differentiate and address obesity primary type and associated risks to define future actions. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Díaz, Alejandro; Calandra, Luciana
Over the past years, hypertension has been recognized as an important health problem in the pediatric population. A systematic review of observational studies published between 1988 and 2014 was conducted to estimate the prevalence of high blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents in Argentina. A bibliographic search was done in MEDLINE, SciELO, and LILACS to look for studies on high blood pressure prevalence in school children and adolescents in Argentina. Studies and surveys that had included the measurement of blood pressure in children and adolescents (aged 5-20 years) according to the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents by the American Academy of Pediatrics were included in this study. Fourteen publications were identified. The pooled prevalence in 11 706 subjects (random effects model) was 6.61% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.30-9.37). The crude prevalence was 7.35% (95% CI: 6.88-7.83). High blood pressure was more prevalent among adolescents than children ≤ 10 years old (7.4% versus 4.3%, P = 0.001), and among boys than girls (11.2% versus 6.8%, P = 0.001). The most common risk factors included a sedentary lifestyle (50%), overweight (15.4%), abdominal obesity (13.7%), obesity (11.5%), and smoking (6.5%). Our data show that the prevalence of high blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors in school children and adolescents is high, and this accounts for a very important public health problem in Argentina. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría
Martin, Anne; Booth, Josephine N; Laird, Yvonne; Sproule, John; Reilly, John J; Saunders, David H
Background The global prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity is high. Lifestyle changes towards a healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced sedentary activities are recommended to prevent and treat obesity. Evidence suggests that changing these health behaviours can benefit cognitive function and school achievement in children and adolescents in general. There are various theoretical mechanisms that suggest that children and adolescents with excessive body fat may benefit particularly from these interventions. Objectives To assess whether lifestyle interventions (in the areas of diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and behavioural therapy) improve school achievement, cognitive function (e.g. executive functions) and/or future success in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight, compared with standard care, waiting-list control, no treatment, or an attention placebo control group. Search methods In February 2017, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and 15 other databases. We also searched two trials registries, reference lists, and handsearched one journal from inception. We also contacted researchers in the field to obtain unpublished data. Selection criteria We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural interventions for weight management in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight. We excluded studies in children and adolescents with medical conditions known to affect weight status, school achievement and cognitive function. We also excluded self- and parent-reported outcomes. Data collection and analysis Four review authors independently selected studies for inclusion. Two review authors extracted data, assessed quality and risks of bias, and evaluated the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We contacted study authors to obtain additional information. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Where the same outcome was assessed across different
Diffey, B.L.; Gibson, C.J.
The weekday and weekend outdoor ultraviolet exposure of young people from primary and secondary schools in three geographically distinct regions of England was determined over a 3-month period in summer. Ultraviolet exposure was measured using personal film badges worn by each young person and time spent outdoors, in hourly intervals, assessed using exposure records. In each area a class of 9-10 year-old children from a primary school and a class of 14-15-year-old adolescents from a secondary school took part, giving a total of 180 subjects. We found that primary school children received higher outdoor ultraviolet exposure than young people in secondary schools, and geographical differences in exposure could not be accounted for solely by differences in ambient ultraviolet. There was little difference between the exposure of males and females. Children and adolescents did not behave as homogeneous groups with regard to exposure. (Author)
dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Maia, José A R; Gomes, Thayse Natacha Q F; Daca, Timóteo; Madeira, Aspacia; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Prista, António
The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls), distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012), were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p2012), and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999growth and nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity.
Fernanda Karina dos Santos
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. METHODS: 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls, distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012, were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. RESULTS: Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p2012, and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999<2012. In general, similar patterns were observed when mean values were analyzed by age. A positive trend was observed for overweight and obesity prevalences, whereas a negative trend emerged for wasting, stunting-wasting (in boys, and normal-weight (in girls; no clear trend was evident for stunting. CONCLUSION: Significant positive changes in growth and nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity.
Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Maes, Lea; Spittaels, Heleen; van Lenthe, Frank J; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
The objective of the present review was to summarise the existing European published and 'grey' literature on the effectiveness of school-based interventions to promote a healthy diet in children (6-12 years old) and adolescents (13-18 years old). Eight electronic databases, websites and contents of key journals were systematically searched, reference lists were screened, and authors and experts in the field were contacted for studies evaluating school-based interventions promoting a healthy diet and aiming at primary prevention of obesity. The studies were included if they were published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2007 and reported effects on dietary behaviour or on anthropometrics. Finally, forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria: twenty-nine in children and thirteen in adolescents. In children, strong evidence of effect was found for multicomponent interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Limited evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour, and for environmental interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Interventions that specifically targeted children from lower socio-economic status groups showed limited evidence of effect on behaviour. In adolescents, moderate evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour and limited evidence of effect for multicomponent programmes on behaviour. In children and adolescents, effects on anthropometrics were often not measured, and therefore evidence was lacking or delivered inconclusive evidence. To conclude, evidence was found for the effectiveness of especially multicomponent interventions promoting a healthy diet in school-aged children in European Union countries on self-reported dietary behaviour. Evidence for effectiveness on anthropometrical obesity-related measures is lacking.
Limperg, P F; Joosten, M M H; Fijnvandraat, K; Peters, M; Grootenhuis, M A; Haverman, L
This study assesses health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and variables associated with HRQOL, in children and adolescents with haemophilia and congenital bleeding disorders (CBD) in the Netherlands. Patients Differences and effect sizes in HRQOL compared to healthy peers, and between hemophilia severity groups, were tested using Mann Whitney U-tests. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess variables associated with HRQOL. Data of 145 patients (81%) were analyzed (N = 32 with severe haemophilia). Children (0-12 years) show no significant impairments in HRQOL compared to healthy peers. Adolescent boys (13-18 years) with CBD report a slightly higher HRQOL on the total and emotional functioning scales than healthy peers (small-moderate effect sizes). In contrast, adolescent girls experience lower HRQOL on total, social functioning and psychosocial health scales compared to healthy peers (moderate effect sizes). No differences between severity groups were found in HRQOL, but more problem behaviour was found in young boys (0-5 years) with severe haemophilia. Male gender, participation in sports and school attendance are positively associated with HRQOL. Parental country of birth, type of treatment and number of bleeds are not associated with HRQOL. Continuing monitoring HRQOL in daily clinical practice for children with CBD is important, since possible influencing psychosocial factors can change over time, with special focus on adolescent girls, sports participation and school absence. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Media, from television to the "new media" (including cell phones, iPads, and social media), are a dominant force in children's lives. Although television is still the predominant medium for children and adolescents, new technologies are increasingly popular. The American Academy of Pediatrics continues to be concerned by evidence about the potential harmful effects of media messages and images; however, important positive and prosocial effects of media use should also be recognized. Pediatricians are encouraged to take a media history and ask 2 media questions at every well-child visit: How much recreational screen time does your child or teenager consume daily? Is there a television set or Internet-connected device in the child's bedroom? Parents are encouraged to establish a family home use plan for all media. Media influences on children and teenagers should be recognized by schools, policymakers, product advertisers, and entertainment producers. Copyright © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Li, Y; Raychowdhury, S; Tedders, S H; Lyn, R; Lòpez-De Fede, A; Zhang, J
School absenteeism may be an underlying cause of poor school performance among overweight and obese children. We examined the associations between school absenteeism and body mass index (BMI) in a nationally representative sample. We analyzed the data of 1387 children (6-11 years) and 2185 adolescents (12-18 years), who completed an interview and anthropometric measurement as a part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008. The CDC 2000 growth chart was used to categorize BMI status, and the number of school days missed during the past 12 months was assessed by asking the proxies or interviewees. The prevalence of obesity and overweight were 18.96±1.44% (s.e.) and 16.41±0.78%, respectively, among study populations. The means of school days missed in the last 12 months were not statistically different between the normal-weight, overweight and obese groups, 3.79±0.56, 3.86±0.38 and 4.31±0.01 days, respectively. However, when >2 days missed per school month was defined as severe absence, the prevalence of severe absence were 1.57%, 2.99% and 4.94% respectively, among 6-11-year-old children with normal, overweight and obese. The adjusted odds of severe school absence were 2.27 (95% confidence interval=0.64-8.03) and 3.93 (1.55-9.95), respectively, among overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers (P for trend test absenteeism in children but not adolescents. Future research is needed to determine the nature, and academic and social significance of this association.
Martin, Anne; Booth, Josephine N; Laird, Yvonne; Sproule, John; Reilly, John J; Saunders, David H
The global prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity is high. Lifestyle changes towards a healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced sedentary activities are recommended to prevent and treat obesity. Evidence suggests that changing these health behaviours can benefit cognitive function and school achievement in children and adolescents in general. There are various theoretical mechanisms that suggest that children and adolescents with excessive body fat may benefit particularly from these interventions. To assess whether lifestyle interventions (in the areas of diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and behavioural therapy) improve school achievement, cognitive function (e.g. executive functions) and/or future success in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight, compared with standard care, waiting-list control, no treatment, or an attention placebo control group. In February 2017, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and 15 other databases. We also searched two trials registries, reference lists, and handsearched one journal from inception. We also contacted researchers in the field to obtain unpublished data. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural interventions for weight management in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight. We excluded studies in children and adolescents with medical conditions known to affect weight status, school achievement and cognitive function. We also excluded self- and parent-reported outcomes. Four review authors independently selected studies for inclusion. Two review authors extracted data, assessed quality and risks of bias, and evaluated the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We contacted study authors to obtain additional information. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Where the same outcome was assessed across different intervention types, we reported standardised effect sizes for findings from single
Joo, Soonnam; Ju, Seyoung; Chang, Hyeja
This study investigated the distribution density of fast food outlets around schools, and the relationship between dietary health of children and adolescents and the density of fast food outlets in Korea. A distribution map of fast food outlets was drawn by collecting information on 401 locations of 16 brands within a 15-minute walk (800 meter) of 342 elementary and secondary schools in Suwon, Hwaseong and Osan. A questionnaire was used to gather data on the dietary life of 243 sixth and eighth grade students at eight schools. Schools in the upper 20% and lower 20% of the fast food outlet distribution were classified as high-density and low-density groups, respectively. The practice rate of dietary guidelines published by the Health and Welfare Ministry and the fast food consumption pattern of children and adolescents from low and high density groups were determined. The number of schools with a fast food outlet within 200 meters or in the Green Food Zone around its location was 48 of 189 (25.4%) in Suwon and 14 of 153 (9.2%) in Hwaseong and Osan. Students in the low-density group visited fast food outlets less often than those in the high-density group (pfast food outlets within 200 meters of schools was useful for identifying the effectiveness of the Green Food Zone Act and nutrition education programs.
Marjan Manouchehri Naeeni
Conclusions: Our results showed that adolescents failed to meet sufficient nutritional requirements, and they had an imbalanced diet, which was considerably low in several essential nutrients and high in some food materials.
DeSocio, Janiece; Hootman, Janis
An integrative review of literature was undertaken to examine the impact of children's mental health on their school success. The literature confirmed a confluence of problems associated with school performance and child and adolescent mental health. Poor academic functioning and inconsistent school attendance were identified as early signs of…
Piazza, S; Gulino, A; Pulvirenti, S; Vercelli, F; Carrer, P
The management of indoor air quality in schools needs special attention because it has a strong impact on respiratory health of children with effects also on performance and social development. In Italy a prevention program for indoor environments is provided in the "Guidelines for the prevention of indoor risk factors for allergies and asthma in the school", developed by the Ministry of Health (G.U n. 9 del 13.01.11). In this context, the Ministry of Health has promoted the "Indoor school" project (CCM2010). The main objective of the project is the implementation of these guidelines. In this paper we report the results of the first phase of the project which assessed the knowledge of school principals on issues related to IAQ and building characteristics of the school.
Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; de Arruda, Miguel; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Gómez-Campos, Rossana
Identify changes in physical growth and abdominal adiposity at an interval of 14 years in children and adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. The data comes from two cross-sectional studies carried out in the city of Arequipa, Peru, located at a moderate altitude of 2,320 meters. In 2001, 473 males and 482 females were assessed, and in 2015, 432 males and 403 females between 6.0 and 12.9 years old were evaluated. Data were collected in public state schools and measured using the anthropometric variables for weight, height, and waist circumference. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated according to age and sex. Positive trends for weight were identified for both males and females at all ages (p .05) occurred in height for females between the ages of 6 and 8 years. However, commencing at age 9 until 12 years, females showed positive and significant increases (p Peru. These changes may be associated with the rapid economic development in the country. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.
It is now recognized that there is a very high prevalence of psychological disorders among children and adolescents and relatively few receive psychological treatment. In the current article, we present the argument that levels of distress and dysfunction among young people are substantially underestimated and the prevalence of psychological…
Pizarro, Andreia Nogueira; Schipperijn, Jasper; Andersen, Henriette Bondo
Abstract The declining levels of physical activity (PA) have led to active commuting to school (ACS) being seen as a key strategy to increase PA levels in school-aged children. In Portugal, no data exists on the patterns of this behavior, an essential step for developing evidence......-based and effective interventions. The purpose of this study is to explore the travel to school behavior using an objective methodology. Methods 155 adolescents (mean age 15.9±1.1 years) wore an accelerometer and a GPS for 7 consecutive days. Home and school addresses were geocoded to identify home-school trips....... The web-based tool PALMS was used to combine GPS and accelerometer data, categorize Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) and classify trip mode of home-school trips into: walking, bicycling or vehicle. Results 609 trips were identified as home-school trips. Walking was the most frequent trip mode...
Foxe, John J.; Molholm, Sophie; Del Bene, Victor A.; Frey, Hans-Peter; Russo, Natalie N.; Blanco, Daniella; Saint-Amour, Dave; Ross, Lars A.
Under noisy listening conditions, visualizing a speaker's articulations substantially improves speech intelligibility. This multisensory speech integration ability is crucial to effective communication, and the appropriate development of this capacity greatly impacts a child's ability to successfully navigate educational and social settings. Research shows that multisensory integration abilities continue developing late into childhood. The primary aim here was to track the development of these abilities in children with autism, since multisensory deficits are increasingly recognized as a component of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype. The abilities of high-functioning ASD children (n = 84) to integrate seen and heard speech were assessed cross-sectionally, while environmental noise levels were systematically manipulated, comparing them with age-matched neurotypical children (n = 142). Severe integration deficits were uncovered in ASD, which were increasingly pronounced as background noise increased. These deficits were evident in school-aged ASD children (5–12 year olds), but were fully ameliorated in ASD children entering adolescence (13–15 year olds). The severity of multisensory deficits uncovered has important implications for educators and clinicians working in ASD. We consider the observation that the multisensory speech system recovers substantially in adolescence as an indication that it is likely amenable to intervention during earlier childhood, with potentially profound implications for the development of social communication abilities in ASD children. PMID:23985136
Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Srichan, Weerachat; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Khouw, Ilse Tan; Deurenberg, Pual
Explore the association between physically active behavior and obesity in 7- to 12-years-old Thai children. As part of SEANUTS Thailand, information on anthropometry, physical activity, and sociodemographic variables were collected in 7- to 12-years-old urban and rural Thai children. Multi-stage sampling technique was used and 1,345 children (32% urban, and 50.3% boys) participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, and BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZ) using World Health Organization Growth Reference. Obesity was defined as BAZ > 2SD. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity questionnaire (PAQ). The PAQ provided an activity score, activity time in school, sleeping hours, and TV watching time as categorical variable, low, moderate, and high. Chi-square by likelihood ratio test and logistic regression were used to compare obese and non-obese groups. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10.2 and 10.8% respectively, whereas 8.2% was classified as thin. Maternal education and religion did not differ between obese and non-obese children. However, obese children's family income was higher. After controlling for family income, maternal education, and religion, obese children were significantly less active during break times in school, slept less, and watched more TV than non-obese. However, there was no difference in the activity score of obese and non-obese children. The study showed that physical activity during break time in school, sleep duration, and hours of TV viewing were associated with obesity in pre-adolescent Thai children. It is important to note that activity score was not associated with obesity. One of the most important benefits to be physically active in childhood is the potential to maintain this behavior into adulthood. Therefore, programs that encourage healthy behaviors and address these modifiable risk factors should be incorporated in the school curriculum.
Strijbosch, E.L.L.; Huijs, J.A.M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Wissink, I.B.; van der Helm, G.H.P.; de Swart, J.J.W.; van der Veen, Z.
Objective: The outcome of institutional youth care for children is heavily debated. This multilevel meta-analysis aims to address the outcome of institutional youth care compared to non-institutional youth care for children of primary school age and early adolescence in economically developed
Ross, Victoria; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego
Given the important role teachers play as gatekeepers in school suicide prevention, this study explored teachers' perspectives on what should be done to improve current suicide prevention efforts. The study, in Queensland, Australia, was part of a large-scale survey examining teachers' knowledge, attitudes and experience of suicidality. One hundred and fifteen teachers responded to an online survey question regarding their views on the requirements for school suicide prevention. Qualitative analysis identified five themes from teachers' responses: awareness and stigma reduction, support services for students, education and training, bullying and the role of social media. The results of this study provide some profound insights into teachers' perspectives on suicide and highlight the critical need for improved suicide prevention efforts in schools.
Zhang, Jing-Jing; Li, Ning-Xiu; Liu, Chao-Jie
Due to urbanization in China, the numbers of migrant children and adolescents in urban environments have increased. Previous studies have indicated that children and adolescents are more likely to suffer from health problems and poor school achievement. The present study identified associations between poor health and school-related behavior problems (ie, learning attitudes and learning disabilities [LL], antisocial behavior and risk behavior [AR], and social adaptation and role function [SR]) at the child and family levels. A cross-sectional design was used. Seven hundred and eighty-one participants were recruited in inclusive settings. Correlational analysis was conducted to assess the associations between demographic variables and the primary study variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine which study factors were the strongest predictors of general health problems. School-aged migrants who had poorer health tended to be more likely to suffer from school-related behavior problems. Poor health was also found to hinder scholastic achievement in migrant children and adolescents through a higher prevalence of school-related behavior problems, including negative learning attitudes and learning disabilities, antisocial behavior and risk behavior, and social maladjustment. Health risk factors included inappropriate parental education methods, fewer classmates, and less social support. Health and individual risk factors should be explored further to determine their causal role in migrant children and adolescents with school-related behavior problems. These results have implications for future school health education for these students.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have established that most regular adult smokers become addicted in their adolescent years. We investigated the incidence of and risk factors associated with initial experimental smoking among a group of school children who were followed for 8 years. Methods We used cohort data collected as part of the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-term Evolution (CABLE study, which selected nine elementary schools each from an urban area (Taipei City and a rural area (Hsingchu county in northern Taiwan. From 2002 to 2008, children were asked annually whether they had smoked in the previous year. An accelerated lifetime model with Weibull distribution was used to examine the factors associated with experimental smoking. Results In 2001, 2686 4th-graders participated in the study. For each year from 2002 to 2008, their incidences of trial smoking were 3.1%, 4.0%, 2.8%, 6.0%, 5.3%, 5.0% and 6.0%, respectively. There was an increase from 7th to 8th grade (6.0%. Children who were males, lived in rural areas, came from single-parent families, had parents who smoked, and had peers who smoked were more likely to try smoking earlier. The influence of parents and peers on experimental smoking demonstrated gradient effects. Conclusions This study used a cohort to examine incidence and multiple influences, including individual factors, familial factors, and community factors, on experimental smoking in adolescents. The findings fit the social ecological model, highlighting the influences of family and friends. School and community attachment were associated with experimental smoking in teenagers.
Explores the role that schools can play in providing direction, guidance, and support to children and adolescents in the face of growing violence in society and in schools. Discusses the development and implementation of preventive measures such as additions to the curriculum, mentoring programs, child abuse and neglect programs, parent education,…
Rosangela B. Macedo
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the degree of disability, anthropometric variables, quality of life (QoL, and school backpack weight in boys and girls aged 11-17 years. The differences in QoL between those who did or did not report low back pain (LBP were also analyzed. METHODS: Eighty-six girls (13.9 ± 1.9 years of age and 63 boys (13.7 ± 1.7 years of age participated. LBP was assessed by questionnaire, and disability using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. QoL was assessed by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL. Multivariate analyses of variance and covariance were used to assess differences between groups. RESULTS: Girls reported higher disability than boys (p = 0.01, and lower QoL in the domains of physical (p < 0.001 and emotional functioning (p < 0.01, psychosocial health (p = 0.02 and physical health summary score (p < 0.001, and on the total PedsQL score (p < 0.01. School backpack weight was similar in both genders (p = 0.61 and in participants with and without LBP (p = 0.15. After adjustments, participants with LBP reported lower physical functioning (p < 0.01, influencing lower physical health summary score (p < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Girls had higher disability and lower QoL than boys in the domains of physical and emotional functioning, psychosocial health, and physical health summary scores, and on the total PedsQL score; however, similar school backpack weight was reported. Participants with LBP revealed lower physical functioning and physical health summary score, yet had similar school backpack weight to those without LBP.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate physical fitness of rural children and adolescents on the example of pupils of the School Complex in Ołdaki, Poland. Material and method: The study covered 79 pupils of grades IV–VI of the primary school and I–III of the lower secondary school of the School Complex in Ołdaki. The study used K. Zuchora’s Index of Physical Fitness and a diagnostic survey method based on the author-prepared questionnaire. Results: The study conducted among pupils of the School Complex in Ołdaki showed that physical fitness of children and adolescents from the countryside was at a relatively good level. Of the components of the Index of Physical Fitness, the worst results were obtained for abdominal muscle strength. However, the subjects showed very good flexibility, endurance and speed. Girls and boys obtained similar test results. Striking is the fact that the oldest subjects, i.e. pupils in grade III of the lower secondary school, obtained the worst results both in the entire test and in individual exercises. Conclusions: The pupils knew how to take care of their health; they were able to indicate the benefits of being physically active, were eager to take part in physical education classes and actively spent their free time. They mostly believed that they could eat healthy. Only a small percentage of pupils admitted to have had contact with stimulants and fast-foods, which was a confirmation of the fact that they were taking good care of their health. Fitness tests proved that the pupils’ fitness was at a satisfactory level. There was no noticeable difference in the results obtained by girls and boys, which indicated similar performance in all pupils. The evaluation of the pupils’ activity in their free time proved that they were more willing to spend it actively, most often playing football and cycling 2–3 times a week.
Erfahrung und Wissen: Deutungsmuster und Wissensformen von Diplompadagogen und Sozialpadagogen in der ausserschulischen Kinder- und Jugendarbeit (Experience and Knowledge: Interpretative Patterns and Forms of Knowledge among Professional Pedagogues and Social Workers in Out-of-School Work with Children and Adolescents).
Thole, Werner; Kuster-Schapfl, Ernst-Uwe
Examines the job-oriented interpretative patterns, plans of action, and professional knowledge of sociopedagogical actors working with children and adolescents out of school. Concludes that actors working with children and adolescents out of school usually rely more on their own biographical resources than on academic or professional knowledge.…
Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita
The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001915.htm Death among children and adolescents To use the sharing features on this page, ... persons of trust is very important for preventing teen suicide. HOMICIDE Homicide is a complex issue that does ...
Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Badura, Petr; Kalman, Michal; Hamrik, Zdenek; Pavelka, Jan
This study examines trends in overweight and obesity, physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among Czech adolescents over a recent 12-year study period. Nationally representative samples consisted of 19,940 adolescents (9760 boys and 10,180 girls) aged 10.5–16.5 years from the Czech Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire-based surveys conducted in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, meeting the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (≥60 min per day of MVPA) and excessive ST (>2 h per day) were estimated using logistic regression. Significant increases (p overweight/obesity between the years 2002 and 2014 were evident for both adolescent boys (18.3%2002–24.8%2014) and girls (8.3%2002–11.9%2014). Compared to 2002, in 2014 significant decreases (p overweight/obesity with concomitant decreases in PA provide evidence in support of the current and upcoming efforts of government and commercial organizations in implementing interventions aimed at reducing excessive body weight among Czech adolescents. PMID:26393638
Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Badura, Petr; Kalman, Michal; Hamrik, Zdenek; Pavelka, Jan
This study examines trends in overweight and obesity, physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among Czech adolescents over a recent 12-year study period. Nationally representative samples consisted of 19,940 adolescents (9760 boys and 10,180 girls) aged 10.5-16.5 years from the Czech Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire-based surveys conducted in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, meeting the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (≥60 min per day of MVPA) and excessive ST (>2 h per day) were estimated using logistic regression. Significant increases (p overweight/obesity between the years 2002 and 2014 were evident for both adolescent boys (18.3%(2002)-24.8%(2014)) and girls (8.3%(2002)-11.9%(2014)). Compared to 2002, in 2014 significant decreases (p overweight/obesity with concomitant decreases in PA provide evidence in support of the current and upcoming efforts of government and commercial organizations in implementing interventions aimed at reducing excessive body weight among Czech adolescents.
Full Text Available Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal. The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children. Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2. Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9. Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3. To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal.
Fiorentino, Marion; Landais, Edwige; Bastard, Guillaume; Carriquiry, Alicia; Wieringa, Frank T.; Berger, Jacques
Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children). Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls) and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2). Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9). Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3). To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal. PMID:27775598
Charchuk, Rhianna; Houston, Stan; Hawkes, Michael T
Emerging as a sovereign state from decades of civil war, the Republic of South Sudan now faces poverty, a lack of health care infrastructure, a high burden of infectious diseases and a widespread food insecurity. School-aged children and youth, in particular, represent a high-risk demographic for malnutrition and infectious diseases. We screened 109 school-aged children and youth for nutritional status and malaria antigenaemia in Akuak Rak, South Sudan, and found a large proportion of underweight (77/109 = 73%) and prevalent malaria (44/109 = 40%). There was no significant association between malnutrition and malaria. This study represents one of the few published reports on child and youth nutritional status and malaria prevalence in South Sudan since its independence. The implementation of nutrition and malaria screening combined with evidence-based interventions in schools could help target this high burden vulnerable group.
Villagrán-García, Edna F; Hurtado-López, Erika F; Vasquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio; Aguirre-Salas, Liuba M; Larrosa-Haro, Alfredo; León-Robles, Ruth V
to demonstrate that type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in school children and adolescents is associated with the early introduction of pasteurized/raw cow's milk in the second semester of life. this non-probabilistic study included 150 subjects (75 patients and 75 controls), divided according to sex and age (range, 6 to 16 years). T1DM was considered to be a dependent variable, and pasteurized/ raw cow's milk (P/RCM) was considered to be an independent variable in the study. The statistical analyses included chi-squared test, odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. the subjects were 51% male, age 11 ± 3.2 years, and 80% were breastfed, 18% were exclusively breastfed, and 13% received pasteurized/raw cow's milk. The children receiving P/RCM had a higher risk of T1DM [OR, 3.9 (1.2-12.8)]. The presence of T1DM was three times higher in those consuming P/RCM vs. those receiving follow-up formula [RM, 3.2 (1.03-10.07)]. introducing pasteurized/raw cow's milk in the second semester of life increased by four times the likelihood of developing T1DM in children and adolescents. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Yañez, Aina; Leiva, Alfonso; Gorreto, Lucia; Estela, Andreu; Tejera, Elena; Torrent, Maties
The socio-cultural environment is an important factor involved with the onset of smoking during adolescence. Initiation of cigarette smoking occurs almost exclusively during this stage. In this context we aimed to analyze the association of school and family factors with adolescent smoking by a cross-sectional study of 16 secondary schools randomly selected from the Balearic Islands involved 3673 students and 530 teachers. The prevalence of regular smoking (at least one cigarette per week) was 4.8% among first year students, 11.6% among second year students, 14.1% among third year students, 20.9% among fourth year students and 22% among teachers. Among first and second year students, there were independent associations between regular smoking and adolescents' perception of being allowed to smoke at home, belonging to a single parent family, poor relationship with parents, poor academic performance, lack of interest in studies and teachers' perception of smoking in the presence of pupils. Among third and fourth year students, there were independent associations between regular smoking and poor relationship with parents, adolescents' perception of being allowed to smoke at home, poor academic performance, lack of control over student misbehavior and the school attended. The school policies and practices affect student related health behavior regarding smoking, independent of individual and family factors.
... for Families - Vietnamese Panic Disorder In Children And Adolescents No. 50; Updated July 2013 Panic disorder is a common and treatable disorder. Children and adolescents with panic disorder have unexpected and repeated periods ...
Patnaik, Lipilekha; Pattanaik, Sumitra; Sahu, Trilochan; Rao, E Venkata
To compare prevalence of overweight/obesity among adolescent school children of government and private schools. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 1800 children aged 10-16 years. Body mass index (BMI), Waist circumference (WC), Hip circumference (HC), and Neck circumference (NC) were measured using standard guidelines. The prevalence of overweight obesity was 27.8% (private schools 45.2%, government schools 10.5%). BMI, WC, NC, and Waist-hip ratio were significantly higher among private school students. A differential strategic plan may be needed to prevent and control obesity among adolescent school children.
Buckhalt, Joseph A.; Wolfson, Amy R.; El-Sheikh, Mona
Much contemporary research has demonstrated the multiple ways that sleep is important for child and adolescent development. This article reviews that research with an emphasis on how sleep parameters are related to school adjustment and achievement. Five areas of sleep research are reviewed to discern implications for practice with children using…
Elgar, Frank J; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Moor, Irene; De Clercq, Bart; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Currie, Candace
Information about trends in adolescent health inequalities is scarce, especially at an international level. We examined secular trends in socioeconomic inequality in five domains of adolescent health and the association of socioeconomic inequality with national wealth and income inequality. We undertook a time-series analysis of data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study, in which cross-sectional surveys were done in 34 North American and European countries in 2002, 2006, and 2010 (pooled n 492,788). We used individual data for socioeconomic status (Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Family Affluence Scale) and health (days of physical activity per week, body-mass index Z score [zBMI], frequency of psychological and physical symptoms on 0-5 scale, and life satisfaction scored 0-10 on the Cantril ladder) to examine trends in health and socioeconomic inequalities in health. We also investigated whether international differences in health and health inequalities were associated with per person income and income inequality. From 2002 to 2010, average levels of physical activity (3·90 to 4·08 days per week; pInequalities between socioeconomic groups increased in physical activity (-0·79 to -0·83 days per week difference between most and least affluent groups; p=0·0008), zBMI (0·15 to 0·18; pinequality fall during this period (-0·98 to -0·95; p=0·0198). Internationally, the higher the per person income, the better and more equal health was in terms of physical activity (0·06 days per SD increase in income; pincome inequality uniquely related to fewer days of physical activity (-0·05 days; p=0·0295), higher zBMI (0·06; pinequalities between socioeconomic groups in psychological (0·13; p=0·0080) and physical (0·07; p=0·0022) symptoms, and life satisfaction (-0·10; p=0·0092). Socioeconomic inequality has increased in many domains of adolescent health. These trends coincide with unequal distribution of income between rich and poor
McCauley, James B; Zajic, Matthew C; Oswald, Tasha M; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey E; McIntyre, Nancy C; Harris, Michelle A; Trzesniewski, Kali; Mundy, Peter C; Solomon, Marjorie
A typically developing student's perceptions of his or her own capabilities (academic self-concept), is predictive of later academic achievement. However, little is known about academic self-concept in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To understand whether students math self-concept and reading self-concept predicted their performance, 44 school-aged children and adolescents with ASD and 36 age-matched individuals with typical development (TYP) rated their perceived math and reading abilities and were administered standardized achievement measures. Results showed self-concept was predictive of performance in math and reading in the TYP group. For youth with ASD, there was agreement between self-concept and performance only in math. These findings suggest that educators should be cautious when interpreting the self-assessments of reading ability in students with ASD.
Jan 4, 2010 ... b Research Fellow, CSL, Vaal University of Technology, South Africa ... Keywords: primary school children; nutrition knowledge; nutritional status. Nutrition ... research on basic nutrition education focusing on adolescents has.
Full Text Available Active commuting could contribute to increasing physical activity. The objective of this study was to characterise patterns of active commuting to and from schools in children and adolescents in Chile. A total of 453 Chilean children and adolescents aged between 10 and 18 years were included in this study. Data regarding modes of commuting and commuting distance was collected using a validated questionnaire. Commuting mode was classified as active commuting (walking and/or cycling or non-active commuting (car, motorcycle and/or bus. Commuting distance expressed in kilometres was categorised into six subgroups (0 to 0.5, 0.6 to 1, 1.1 to 2, 2.1 to 3, 3.1 to 5 and >5 km. Car commuting was the main mode for children (to school 64.9%; from school 51.2% and adolescents (to school 50.2%; from school 24.7%. Whereas public bus commuting was the main transport used by adolescents to return from school. Only 11.0% and 24.8% of children and adolescents, respectively, walk to school. The proportion of children and adolescents who engage in active commuting was lower in those covering longer distances compared to a short distance. Adolescents walked to and from school more frequently than children. These findings show that non-active commuting was the most common mode of transport and that journey distances may influence commuting modes in children and adolescents.
Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.
The 11 articles in this publication discuss many topics regarding literature for children and adolescents, including the following: the major problems facing teachers and writers alike as they strive to communicate with the young; E.B. White's "Charlotte's Web"; two views of the American Revolution found in "Johnny Tremain" and "My Brother Sam Is…
Barbosa, Nicolas; Sanchez, Carlos E; Patino, Efrain; Lozano, Benigno; Thalabard, Jean C; LE Bozec, Serge; Rieu, Michel
Quantification of physical activity as energy expenditure is important since youth for the prevention of chronic non communicable diseases in adulthood. It is necessary to quantify physical activity expressed in daily energy expenditure (DEE) in school children and adolescents between 8-16 years, by age, gender and socioeconomic level (SEL) in Bogotá. This is a Two Stage Cluster Survey Sample. From a universe of 4700 schools and 760000 students from three existing socioeconomic levels in Bogotá (low, medium and high). The random sample was 20 schools and 1840 students (904 boys and 936 girls). Foreshadowing desertion of participants and inconsistency in the questionnaire responses, the sample size was increased. Thus, 6 individuals of each gender for each of the nine age groups were selected, resulting in a total sample of 2160 individuals. Selected students filled the QAPACE questionnaire under supervision. The data was analyzed comparing means with multivariate general linear model. Fixed factors used were: gender (boys and girls), age (8 to 16 years old) and tri-strata SEL (low, medium and high); as independent variables were assessed: height, weight, leisure time, expressed in hours/day and dependent variable: daily energy expenditure DEE (kJ.kg-1.day-1): during leisure time (DEE-LT), during school time (DEE-ST), during vacation time (DEE-VT), and total mean DEE per year (DEEm-TY) RESULTS: Differences in DEE by gender, in boys, LT and all DEE, with the SEL all variables were significant; but age-SEL was only significant in DEE-VT. In girls, with the SEL all variables were significant. The post hoc multiple comparisons tests were significant with age using Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) test in all variables. For both genders and for all SELs the values in girls had the higher value except SEL high (5-6) The boys have higher values in DEE-LT, DEE-ST, DEE-VT; except in DEEm-TY in SEL (5-6) In SEL (5-6) all DEEs for both genders are highest. For SEL
Full Text Available Several studies have been investigating the relationship between families and school. Those studies, especially in the field of Sociology of education seek to describe and analyse family-school relationships to contribute to the improvement of knowledge about the schooling process of children, adolescents and young people. However, survey results about the schooling process and the relationship between family and school, published in books by academics or scientific journals in the fields of education, sociology, anthropology and psychology, show that studies considering the father figure tend to be scarce. This article focuses on the construction of fatherhood, in an attempt to discuss its representations, seeking to contribute and clarify the reasons for the relative scarcity of analyses about the father's role in studies about the family and the children's schooling process.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes insufficient sleep in adolescents as an important public health issue that significantly affects the health and safety, as well as the academic success, of our nation's middle and high school students. Although a number of factors, including biological changes in sleep associated with puberty, lifestyle choices, and academic demands, negatively affect middle and high school students' ability to obtain sufficient sleep, the evidence strongly implicates earlier school start times (ie, before 8:30 am) as a key modifiable contributor to insufficient sleep, as well as circadian rhythm disruption, in this population. Furthermore, a substantial body of research has now demonstrated that delaying school start times is an effective countermeasure to chronic sleep loss and has a wide range of potential benefits to students with regard to physical and mental health, safety, and academic achievement. The American Academy of Pediatrics strongly supports the efforts of school districts to optimize sleep in students and urges high schools and middle schools to aim for start times that allow students the opportunity to achieve optimal levels of sleep (8.5-9.5 hours) and to improve physical (eg, reduced obesity risk) and mental (eg, lower rates of depression) health, safety (eg, drowsy driving crashes), academic performance, and quality of life. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Demo, Mary Penasack
Reviews 10 items from the ERIC collection covering various aspects of adolescence: the impact of pop music, attitudes about drinking, television viewing, the effect of the new morality, the adolescent learning process, popular books, attitudes toward school, and others. (JMF)
Humphries, Melissa; Muller, Chandra; Schiller, Kathryn S.
Objectives This study aims to evaluate the adolescent political socialization processes that predict political participation in young adulthood, and whether these processes are different for children of immigrants compared to white 3rd-plus generation adolescents. We focus on socialization agents based in the family, community and school. Methods We use a nationally representative longitudinal survey of adolescents to evaluate the predictors of three measures of political participation: Voter registration, voting, and political party identification, and whether the process leading to political participation varies by immigrant status and race/ethnic group. Results We find that the parental education level of adolescents is not as predictive for many minority children of immigrants compared to white children of native-born parents for registration. Additionally, the academic rigor of the courses taken in high school has a greater positive estimated effect on the likelihood of registration and party identification for Latino children of immigrants compared to white 3rd-plus generation young adults. Conclusions The process of general integration into U.S. society for adolescent children of immigrants may lead to differing pathways to political participation in young adulthood, with certain aspects of their schooling experience having particular importance in developing political participation behaviors. PMID:24489413
Humphries, Melissa; Muller, Chandra; Schiller, Kathryn S
This study aims to evaluate the adolescent political socialization processes that predict political participation in young adulthood, and whether these processes are different for children of immigrants compared to white 3 rd -plus generation adolescents. We focus on socialization agents based in the family, community and school. We use a nationally representative longitudinal survey of adolescents to evaluate the predictors of three measures of political participation: Voter registration, voting, and political party identification, and whether the process leading to political participation varies by immigrant status and race/ethnic group. We find that the parental education level of adolescents is not as predictive for many minority children of immigrants compared to white children of native-born parents for registration. Additionally, the academic rigor of the courses taken in high school has a greater positive estimated effect on the likelihood of registration and party identification for Latino children of immigrants compared to white 3 rd -plus generation young adults. The process of general integration into U.S. society for adolescent children of immigrants may lead to differing pathways to political participation in young adulthood, with certain aspects of their schooling experience having particular importance in developing political participation behaviors.
Kise, Saori S.; Hopkins, Amanda; Burke, Sandra
Background: Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) is one of the most common metabolic diseases in children worldwide and the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is growing. T1D is complicated to manage and adolescents with diabetes face unique, age-specific challenges. The purpose of this article is to discuss ways in which schools can create a positive…
Background: School bullying and aggression among children and adolescents have been a source of concern for many researchers globally in the past few decades. Limited research exists regarding relational aggression, largely because research has focused historically on direct verbal and physical aggression, which is ...
Full Text Available Obesity is a multifactorial disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiological factors contributing to the formation of obesity in children and adolescents. Study included two groups of children. Main group: 101 children with obesity aged 10 to 17 years, body mass index (BMI 31,27±0,51 kg/m 2. Comparison group: of 14 children aged 10 to 17 years, without obesity, BMI 18,54±0,11 kg/m 2. In all children we evaluated perinatal and family history, lifestyle and diet, anthropometric parameters, assessed the progress of sexual development. We found that the manifestation of the disease occurred in the early school years, and in boys significantly earlier than in girls. Mothers of obese children had complications during pregnancy (such as toxaemia, the risk of miscarriage, hypertension, previous medical abortions. The children in the majority of cases were early nursed on milk formula, had violations in feeding regime, and hypokinesia. The disease was shown to run in families.
Kinard, Krista; Miller, Neil R; Digre, Kathleen B; Katz, Bradley J; Crum, Alison V; Warner, Judith E A
Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) generally is considered a disorder of adults; however, it rarely can present in childhood or adolescence. The main purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of BEB in children and adolescents. Our research question was whether blepharospasm is seen in children or adolescents as well as in the adult population. We conducted a retrospective chart review at the University of Utah and Johns Hopkins University. We reviewed our databases for diagnoses of blepharospasm and tic disorder over the past 10 years in patients of all ages. Charts then were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis, and a questionnaire was sent to subjects whose blepharospasm had apparently begun before age 20 years. We identified 26 patients diagnosed with eyelid spasms that had begun while under the age of 20. We confirmed BEB in four of these cases. Of these individuals, all had developed symptoms in adolescence or before and all were still symptomatic but had noted improvement in the severity and frequency of their symptoms. Although rare, BEB can develop in the first decade of life, producing symptoms and signs that are similar to adults, with persistence into adulthood.
This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…
Full Text Available Introduction: Comparison of the demographic characteristics of patients provides useful information to their identification. This study aimed to determine the demographic characteristics of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: In this cross-sectional case-control study, 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected from Autism Society Rehabilitation Center in Tabriz, Iran, and 112 normal children and adolescents from the public schools, in 2014. The participants in both groups were matched regarding age and gender. Diagnosis of AD was performed using diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-4th edition (DSM-IV criteria and clinical diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The demographic information of children and adolescents and their parents were collected from the medical records of children and interviews with their mothers. Results: Most of the children with autism had second or higher birth order and had families with more than three members. Mothers of children with autism had significantly lower levels of education and were mostly housewives. Fathers of autistic children mostly had high school diploma and fewer had university education, and most of them were employed. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the AD group and the control group regarding the average height and weight of children and the residence (urban or rural and age of parents at childbirth.Conclusion: The demographic characteristics of the two groups of children and adolescents with AD and normal controls were different from each other regarding family size, birth order, parent occupation, and parent education variables.
Full Text Available Every year, almost one million people commit suicide worldwide which is approximately 1.5% of all deaths. Thus suicide is 10th leading cause of death globally and the third leading cause of death among children and adolescents ages 10 to 24 years. Little is known about the characteristics of successive attempts among individuals who survive the first suicide attempt. It is very important to identify risk factors that can be predictive of future suicide attempts. Subjects with one suicide attempt had an increased risk for a future attempt. Most children and adolescents with suicidal behavior have at least one psychiatric disorder with mood disorders being the most common. A thorough examination of risk factors, the impact of suicidal behavior on patients and on their families and communities, and recommended directions for future research are main focus of this review.
Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Boles, Shawn; Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Evers, Cody
Background: Studies of body mass index (BMI) change have focused on understanding growth trajectories from childhood to adolescence and adolescence to adulthood, but few have explored BMI trajectories solely in elementary (grades K-5) school children. This report complements these studies by exploring changes in obesity status using analytic…
Goyal, Ramesh K; Shah, Vitthaldas N; Saboo, Banshi D; Phatak, Sanjiv R; Shah, Navneet N; Gohel, Mukesh C; Raval, Prashad B; Patel, Snehal S
Obesity and overweight have become a worldwide epidemic, and there is an urgent need to examine childhood obesity and overweight across countries using a standardized international standard. In the present study we have investigated the prevalence of obesity and overweight and their association with socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk factors like diet, physical activity like exercise, sports, sleeping habit in afternoon, eating habits like junk food, chocolate, eating outside at weekend, family history of diabetes and obesity. The study was carried out in 5664 school children of 12-18 years of age and having different SES. The obesity and overweight were considered using an updated body mass index reference. SES and life style factors were determined using pre-tested questionnaire. Age-adjusted prevalence of overweight was found to be 14.3% among boys and 9.2% among girls where as the prevalence of obesity was 2.9% in boys and 1.5% in girls. The prevalence of overweight among children was higher in middle SES as compared to high SES group in both boys and girls whereas the prevalence of obesity was higher in high SES group as compared to middle SES group. The prevalence of obesity as well as overweight in low SES group was the lowest as compared to other group. Eating habit like junk food, chocolate, eating outside at weekend and physical activity like exercise, sports, sleeping habit in afternoon having remarkable effect on prevalence on overweight and obesity among middle to high SES group. Family history of diabetes and obesity were also found to be positively associated. Our data suggest that the prevalence of overweight and obesity varies remarkably with different socioeconomic development levels.
Full Text Available Background The increasing prevalence of primary hypertension has motivated researchers to identify influencing factors, one of which is noise. There have been few studies on a relationships between noise exposure and blood pressure in children, and none have dealt exclusively with adolescents. Objective To assess for an association between noise exposure at school and blood pressure in adolescents. Methods To identify noisy and quiet schools, the mean noise levels of 192 senior high schools in Medan were measured using sound level meters. One noisy school and one quiet school were randomly selected for inclusion (mean noise levels of 68.2 and 53.8 dB, respectively. Students from both schools underwent blood pressure measurements by mercury sphygmomanometer. Their Body weights and heights were obtained for body mass index calculations. Subjects filled questionnaires and their parents were interviewed regarding history of illnesses. Results Of the 271 adolescents recruited, 136 (50.2% were from the noisy school. Adolescents from the noisy school had higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures [121.6 (SD 13.87 mmHg and 71.1 (SD 8.15 mmHg, respectively], than those from the quiet school [111.8 (SD 12.61 mmHg and 63.8 (SD 8.05 mmHg, respectively]. After adjusting for other factors, noise had a significant, moderate, positive association with systolic and diastolic blood pressures [β = 0.452; B = 6.21 (95% CI 3.86-8.55 mmHg; and β = 0.473; B = 4.18 (95% CI 2.41 to 5.94 mmHg, respectively]. Conclusion Adolescents from a noisy school have a greater risk of higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures than those from a quiet school.
... intravenously (through a vein), steroids are effective for short-term control of flare-ups but are not recommended to maintain remission in children due to undesirable long-term side effects, including stunted growth. For that reason, corticosteroids are ...
Study objective: This study explored mothers' perceptions of the social and emotional needs of their adolescent ... International (AHDI). Participants were ... due to mobility problems. ... supported the child socially, and in so doing met his .... Regulation and Adjustment . ... students attending schools for children and.
Mack, Kenneth J; Gladstein, Jack
Chronic daily headache (CDH) occurs in 1-2% of children and adolescents. It can evolve from either episodic tension-type headache or episodic migraine, or can appear with no previous headache history. As with other primary headache disorders, treatment is based on the level of disability. There are children and adolescents who cope well, but there are others who are markedly disabled by their chronic headaches. As in adults, children and adolescents with CDH are at risk for medication overuse. CDH is a diagnosis of exclusion, based on a thorough history, normal physical examination, and negative neuroimaging findings. Along with the chronic headaches, children with this condition may have co-morbid sleep problems, autonomic dysfunction, anxiety, and/or depression. Principles of treatment include identifying migrainous components, stopping medication overuse, stressing normalcy, using rational pharmacotherapy, and addressing co-morbid conditions. Successful outcomes often involve identifying an appropriate headache preventative, reintegration into school, and family participation in resetting realistic expectations.
Okely, Anthony D.; Booth, Michael L.; Chey, Tien
The purpose of this study was to examine associations of fundamental movement skills (FMS) with measures of body composition. among children and adolescents. Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data collected from 4,363 children and adolescents in Grades 4, 6, 8, and 10 as part of the 1997 New South Wales Schools Fitness and Physical Activity…
Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid
adult educational achievement. Data are taken from a birth cohort study of all adolescents born in 1989 (n=3,058) living in a rural county in Denmark. Information was obtained from questionnaires (sent to the adolescents and their parents) and from different national registers (e.g. hospitalization......This study examines the impact of a wide range of health measures on school performance at the end of compulsory school (9 years of school). The key questions raised are whether different health problems lowers school performance contributing to a health selection process that could lead to lower...... health and school performance....
Jensen, Christina Mohr
The most frequent reason for referral to the child and adolescent psychiatric hospitals in Denmark is the suspicion that a child or an adolescent may have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this dissertation was to assess how often ADHD has been diagnosed in Denmark......, to assess the validity of the ADHD diagnoses given to children and adolescents, to describe the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of Danish children and adolescents with ADHD, and to assess their long-term risk for crimes. In the years under investigation, the incidence rates of diagnosed ADHD...... had significantly increased and the majority of ADHD diagnoses given to children and adolescents could be confirmed and were given based on high-quality clinical assessments. Results supported that children and adolescents with ADHD constitute a heterogeneous group that often have comorbid psychiatric...
Dalene, Knut Eirik; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Andersen, Lars Bo; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Ekelund, Ulf; Hansen, Bjørge H; Kolle, Elin
The aim of this study was to investigate how sleep, screen time, active school travel and sport and/or exercise participation associates with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in nationally representative samples of Norwegian 9- and 15-y-olds, and whether these four behaviors at age nine predict change in MVPA from age nine to 15 years. We pooled cross-sectional accelerometer and questionnaire data from 9- (n = 2366) and 15-y-olds (n = 1554) that participated in the first (2005/06) and second (2011/12) wave of the Physical Activity among Norwegian Children Study to investigate cross-sectional associations. To investigate prospective associations, we used data from a sub-sample that participated in both waves (at age nine and 15 years, n = 517). Cross-sectional analyses indicated a modest, inverse association between screen time and MVPA among 9- (- 2.2 min/d (95% CI: -3.1, - 1.3)) and 15-y-olds (- 1.7 min/d (95% CI: -2.7, - 0.8)). Compared to their peers with 0-5 min/d of active travel to school, 9- and 15-y-olds with ≥16 min/d accumulated 7.2 (95% CI: 4.0, 10.4) and 9.0 (95% CI: 3.8, 14.1) more min/d of MVPA, respectively. Nine-y-old boys and 15-y-olds reporting ≥8 h/week of sports and/or exercise participation accumulated 14.7 (95% CI: 8.2, 21.3) and 17.9 (95% CI: 14.0, 21.8) more min/d of MVPA, respectively, than those reporting ≤2 h/week. We found no cross-sectional association between sleep duration and MVPA in either age group. None of the four behaviors predicted change in MVPA from age nine to 15 years (p ≥ 0.102). Active travel to school and sport/exercise participation may be important targets for future interventions aimed at increasing MVPA in children and adolescents. However, future studies are needed to determine causality.
Hayat Al-Ghutaimel; Hisham Riba; Salem Al-Kahtani; Saad Al-Duhaimi
Background. Since 2000, studies, experiments, and clinical observations revealed high prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents. Therefore, this paper was designed to provide an update for dental practitioners on epidemiology, microbiology, pathology, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of periodontal diseases in children and adolescents. Methods. This paper reviews the current literature concerning periodontal diseases in pediatric dentistry. It includes MEDLINE data...
Regina Lai-Tong Lee
Full Text Available There is a scarcity of resources and studies that utilize targeted weight management interventions to engage parents via mHealth tools targeting obese children and adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities (MIDs extended from school to a home setting. To test the feasibility and acceptability of a school-based weight program (SBWMP involving parents via mHealth tools designed to reduce weight, enhance knowledge and adopt healthy lifestyles, and thereby achieve better psychosocial well-being among children and adolescents with MIDs. Four special schools were randomly assigned as intervention or control schools. Students from the intervention group (n = 63 were compared to those in the control group (n = 52, which comprised those with usual school planned activities and no parental involvement. Demographics were considered as covariates in a general linear model, an ordinal regression model and a binary logistic regression model analyzing the relationships between the SBWMP and the outcome variables at baseline (T0 and six months later (T1. Body weight, body mass index, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were lower in the intervention group compared to the control group, although the differences were not statistically significant. There was a positive and direct impact of the SBWMP on students’ health knowledge and psychological impacts in the intervention group. The SBWMP extended to the home involving parents via mHealth tools is a feasible and acceptable program for this group with MIDs and their parents.
Hansstein, Francesca Valeria; Hong, Yu; Di, Chen
In recent decades, China has experienced an exponential growth in the number of internet users, especially among the youngest population, as well as a rapid proliferation of Western-type fast food restaurants. The health consequences of internet availability and fast food consumption among youth have been largely studied in Western countries, but few studies have focused on China. This paper has two goals. The first is to evaluate the differences in new media exposure and preferences for fast foods between rural and urban areas. The second goal is to test the association between new media exposure and fast food consumption. The targets of this analysis are Chinese children and adolescents aged 6-18 attending school at the time of the interview. Research hypotheses were tested using mean-groups comparisons for differences between rural urban sub-samples, and logistic regressions with odds ratios to estimate the relationship between media exposure and preferences towards fast foods. Cross-sectional data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey were employed. Watching online videos and playing computer games are behaviors associated with higher probabilities of eating at fast food restaurants in both rural and urban young residents, with higher odds in rural areas. Surfing the internet is associated with higher odds of being overweight in both rural and urban settings. Results also show that children living in rural areas spend significantly more time playing computer games, watching TV and videotapes, but less time doing homework than their urban peers. This paper suggests that monitoring the nutritional effects of new media exposure in China is of key importance in order to develop adequate health promotion policies, in both rural and urban areas.
Buman, Matthew P.; Woods, Elizabeth R.; Famakinwa, Olatokunbo; Harris, Sion Kim
Objectives. This study described a medical home model for adolescent mothers and their children, and their 1- and 2-year preventive care, repeat pregnancy, and psychosocial outcomes. Methods. In this prospective, single cohort demonstration project, adolescent mothers (14–18 years old) and their children received care in a medical home. Demographic, medical and social processes, and outcomes data were collected at enrollment through 24 months. Change over time and predictors of repeat pregnancy were analyzed. Results. A total of 181 adolescents enrolled, with 79.6% participating for 2 years. At 2 years, 90.2% of children were completely immunized. Children and adolescent mothers met standards for health care visits, and adolescent condom use improved. Rates of cumulative repeat pregnancy were 14.7% and 24.6%, school attendance 77.6% and 68.7%, and employment 21.2% and 32.3% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Conclusions. A medical home model with comprehensive and integrated medical care and social services can effectively address the complex needs of adolescent parents and their children. PMID:22897537
Rau, Thea; Ohlert, Jeannine; Fegert, Jörg M; Andresen, Sabine; Pohling, Andrea; Allroggen, Marc
Childhood Experiences of Adolescents in Boarding Schools. A Comparison with Adolescents in Residential Care and with the General Population Various studies indicate that students in boarding schools experience a lot of violence during their accommodation. However, it is not proved whether adolescents in boarding schools are also a burdensome group regarding early childhood experiences such as neglect and abuse. The aim of the study was to find out more about the experiences of adolescents in boarding schools and to determine whether there are differences between adolescents in residential care and between the general population. Furthermore, it should be examined whether boys and girls differ in their experiences. In the study, adolescents of boarding schools and of residential care all over Germany, starting at the age of 15 (n = 322), were asked regarding physical and emotional neglect/abuse, light/severe parent violence, negative/positive educational behavior of the parents. The results show that students in boarding schools were less likely to be affected by childhood maltreatment and more likely to have experienced positive parental behavior compared to children in residential care. Compared to the general population, students in boarding schools were more often and more severely affected by parental violence. Moreover, girls had experienced parental violence more often than boys. The results indicate that in boarding schools there is a need for support offers for adolescents with a history of violent experiences and that the risk group should be identified directly at the admission to the school.
Bohn, V; Richter, M
Social capital is increasingly acknowledged as a central determinant of health. While several studies among adults have shown the importance of social capital for the explanation of social inequalities in health, few comparable studies exist which focus on adolescents. The study examines the role of social capital in different social contexts for the explanation of health inequalities in adolescence. Data were obtained from the 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)' study in North Rhine-Westphalia from 2006. The sample includes data of 4323 11-15-year-old students. To analyse the role of social capital in the contexts family, school, friends and neighbourhood for inequalities in self-rated health and psychosomatic complaints, logistic regression models were calculated. The socioeconomic position of the adolescents was measured by type of school. Adolescents from general schools reported higher prevalences of fair/poor self-rated health and repeated psychosomatic complaints than pupils from grammar schools. Social capital in all 4 contexts (family, school, friends, and neighbourhood) was associated with both health indicators, independent of gender. In the separate analysis the variables for social capital showed a comparable explanatory contribution and reduced the odds ratios of self-rated health by 6-9%. The contribution for psychosomatic complaints was slightly higher with 10-15%. The only exception was social capital among friends which showed no effect for both health indicators. In the joint analysis the variables for social capital explained about 15% to 30% of health inequalities by school type. The results show that, already in adolescence, inequalities in subjective health can be partly explained through socioeconomic differences in the availability of social capital. The settings family, neighbourhood and school provide ideal contexts for preventive actions and give the opportunity to directly address the high-risk group of students from
Murphy, Jeremy W.; Foxe, John J.; Molholm, Sophie
The ability to attend to one among multiple sources of information is central to everyday functioning. Just as central is the ability to switch attention among competing inputs as the task at hand changes. Such processes develop surprisingly slowly, such that even into adolescence, we remain slower and more error prone at switching among tasks…
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is increasing worldwide with significant health and social consequences. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the current nutritional status and its changes between 1983 and 2006 among school children and adolescents in a South ...
Iemmi, Valentina; Knapp, Martin; Brown, Freddy Jackson
Decision-makers with limited budgets want to know the economic consequences of their decisions. Is there an economic case for positive behavioural support (PBS)? A small before-after study assessing the impact of PBS on challenging behaviours and positive social and communication skills in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities…
Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Lankhorst, Kristel; van der Ende-Kastelijn, Karin; de Groot, Janke; Backx, Frank; Visser-Meily, Anne; Takken, Tim
Background: Children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability have lower fitness levels compared to their non-disabled peers. Low physical fitness is associated with reduced physical activity, increased cardiovascular diseases, and lower levels of both cognitive and psychosocial
Zwinkels, M.; Verschuren, O.; Lankhorst, K.; Ende-Kastelijn, K. van der; Groot, J. de; Backx, F.; Visser-Meily, A.; Takken, T.
Background: Children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability have lower fitness levels compared to their non-disabled peers. Low physical fitness is associated with reduced physical activity, increased cardiovascular diseases, and lower levels of both cognitive and psychosocial
Resnick, Michael D.; And Others
An expanded role, greater participation, visibility, and publicity would help to obviate the adverse stereotypes of the school nurse and would provide a foundation to address tasks and issues that adolescents and educators find pressing. (CJ)
Waite, Polly; Creswell, Cathy
Reports of the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders are typically based on community populations or from clinical samples with exclusion criterion applied. Little is known about the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents routinely referred for treatment for anxiety disorders. Furthermore, children and adolescents are typically treated as one homogeneous group although they may differ in ways that are clinically meaningful. A consecutive series of children (n=100, aged 6-12 years) and adolescents (n=100, aged 13-18 years), referred to a routine clinical service, were assessed for anxiety and comorbid disorders, school refusal and parental symptoms of psychopathology. Children with a primary anxiety disorder were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with separation anxiety disorder than adolescents. Adolescents with a primary anxiety disorder had significantly higher self and clinician rated anxiety symptoms and had more frequent primary diagnoses of social anxiety disorder, diagnoses and symptoms of mood disorders, and irregular school attendance. Childhood and adolescence were considered categorically as distinct, developmental periods; in reality changes would be unlikely to occur in such a discrete manner. The finding that children and adolescents with anxiety disorders have distinct clinical characteristics has clear implications for treatment. Simply adapting treatments designed for children to make the materials more 'adolescent-friendly' is unlikely to sufficiently meet the needs of adolescents. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract In Japan there are a number of children and adolescents with emotion-related disorders including psychosomatic diseases (orthostatic dysregulation, anorexia nervosa, recurrent pains, behavior problems and school absenteeism. According to our previous report, the Japanese children had significantly higher score of physical symptoms and psychiatric complaints than did the Swedish children, and these were more strongly influenced by school-related stress than by home-related stress. To enforce countermeasures for psychosomatic problems in children, the Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics (established in 1982 have started several new projects including multi-center psychosomatic researches and society-based activities. In this article, we present an outline of our study on mental health in Japanese children in comparison with Swedish children. Countermeasures including clinical guidelines for child psychosomatic diseases are reviewed and discussed.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reviews scientific evidence to determine which school-based policies and practices are most likely to improve key health behaviors among young people, including physical activity and healthy eating. In this document, the CDC identifies ten strategies to help schools prevent obesity by promoting…
Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has been reported to be from 7.1% to 23.3% and in adolescents from 0 to 80%. In Slovenia, the study on prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has not been performed yet.Methods. The voice samples of 100 4th-graders and 102 8thgraders of elementary school were recorded. A lay judge and a professional assessed independently degree of hoarseness in the voice samples. One to three months after the recording, the dysphonic children were invited to an otorhinolaryngologic examination in order to find out the cause of dysphonia. All children and their parents answered the questionnaires on illnesses and vocal habits that might cause hoarseness. The prevalence of these unfavourable factors was compared between the group of children with long lasting hoarseness and the children without it.Results. At voice samples’ recording there were 34.2% dysphonic children. One to three months later, there were still 14.9% children with hoarse voice. The most frequent causes for acute dysphonia were acute respiratory infection and exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. The most frequent causes for persistent dysphonia were allergic catarrhal laryngitis, muscle tension dysphonia with or without vocal nodules and mutational voice disorder. The fast speaking rate appeared to be characteristic for children with long lasting dysphonia.Conclusions. Dysphonia in school-age children is the result of diseases of upper respiratory tract and/or functional voice disorders. Both causes of dysphonia could be successfully treated if they are detected early and the children are advised to see an otorhinolaryngologist. Adolescence is an ideal period for treatment of functional voice disorders. It is also the period when the children must decide for their future profession.
Martinez, Angel; Lasser, Jon
The process of creating child-developed board games in a counseling setting may promote social, emotional, and behavioral development in children. Using this creative approach, counselors can actively work with children to address referred concerns and build skills that may generalize outside of counseling sessions. A description of the method is…
Rajan, Shahzleen; Wissenberg, Mads; Folke, Fredrik
BACKGROUND: There is insufficient knowledge of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the very young. OBJECTIVES: This nationwide study sought to examine age-stratified OHCA characteristics and the role of parental socioeconomic differences and its contribution to mortality in the young...... population. METHODS: All OHCA patients in Denmark, ≤21 years of age, were identified from 2001 to 2010. The population was divided into infants (adolescents/young adults (16-21 years). Multivariate logistic regression......-school children, school children and high school adolescents were 11.5, 3.5, 1.3 and 5.3 per 100,000 inhabitants. Overall bystander CPR rate was 48.8%, and for age groups: 55.4%, 41.2%, 44.9% and 63.0%, respectively. Overall 30-day survival rate was 8.1%, and for age groups: 1.4%, 4.5%, 16.1% and 9...
It’s a fact that suicide is one of the top three causes of death among 15-to-24 years old around the world. Due to this, and in spite of the inherent difficulties in this type of studies, many researches have been put into place, with the primary intention of identifying its etiopathogenesis, in order to establish suicide prevention strategies and provide effective mental health care. To date, the main risk factors, among others, known to be associated with suicidal behavior in this age group are depression, hopelessness, dysfunctional families, substance abuse, school failure and harassment. This review highlights the fact that the sociological characteristics of postmodernity are influencing the phenomenology of the suicidal behavior among children and adolescents today.
Lau, Claudia; Wong, Mitchell; Dudovitz, Rebecca
Parenting style is strongly associated with adolescent health. However, little is known about how school disciplinary style relates to health. We categorized adolescents' perceptions of their schools as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or neglectful, and test whether perceived school disciplinary style is associated with health. We analyze data from the RISE Up study (Reducing Health Inequities Through Social and Educational Change Follow-up), comprised of baseline (eighth grade) and 2-year follow-up surveys (10th grade) from 1,159 low-income minority adolescents in Los Angeles attending 157 schools. At 10th grade, students' ratings of school support and structure were used to categorize perceived school disciplinary style as authoritative (highest tertile for support and structure), authoritarian (low support, high structure), permissive (high support, low structure), neglectful (low on both dimensions), and average (middle tertile on either dimension). Mixed effects logistic regressions controlling for sociodemographic factors, parenting style, grades, and baseline health tested whether school disciplinary style was associated with substance use, violence, bullying, and depression symptoms. Risky behaviors varied by school disciplinary style. After adjusting for covariates, compared with an average school disciplinary style, a neglectful school was associated with higher odds of substance use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.3, p authoritative school was associated with lower odds of substance use (AOR .6, p = .049), violence (AOR .6, p = .03), and bullying (AOR .5, p = .001). Structured and supportive school environments may impact the health of vulnerable adolescents. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Currie, Candace; Molcho, Michal; Boyce, William
, it is unclear whether parental SES should be used as a proxy, and if so, which aspect of SES is most relevant. Methodologically, parental SES information is difficult to obtain from adolescents resulting in high levels of missing data. These issues led to the development of a new measure, the Family Affluence......, psychosomatic symptoms, physical activity and aspects of eating habits at both the individual and country level. FAS has recently been adopted, and in some cases adapted, by other research and policy related studies and this work is also reviewed. Finally, ongoing FAS validation work is described together...... with ideas for future development of the measure....
Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of increased sensitivity to social contexts. To evaluate how social context sensitivity changes over development – and influences reward learning – we investigated how children and adolescents perceive and integrate rewards for oneself and others during a dynamic risky-decision-making task. Children and adolescents (N=75, 8-16 yrs performed the Social Gambling Task (SGT, (Kwak et al., 2014 and completed a set of questionnaires measuring other-regarding behavior. In the SGT, participants choose amongst four card decks that have different payout structures for oneself and for a charity. We examined patterns of choices, overall decision strategies, and how reward outcomes led to trial-by-trial adjustments in behavior, as estimated using a reinforcement-learning model. Performance of children and adolescents was compared to data from a previously collected sample of adults (N=102 performing the identical task. We found that that children/adolescents were not only more sensitive to rewards directed to the charity than self but also showed greater prosocial tendencies on independent measures of other-regarding behavior. Children and adolescents also showed less use of a strategy that prioritizes rewards for self at the expense of rewards for others. These results support the conclusion that, compared to adults, children and adolescents show greater sensitivity to outcomes for others when making decisions and learning about potential rewards.
... low menarche age was comparable with reports from developed countries. Inactive adolescents were more likely to see menarche earlier than average age. Healthy eating habits, regular exercise and nutrition education need to be promoted among school children. Keywords: adolescent, cross sectional, menarche age, ...
Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M.
Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the…
Kouotou, Emmanuel Armand; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Kouawa, Michèle K; Zoung-Kanyi Bissek, Anne-Cécile
The dire lack of information concerning the epidemiology of human scabies in Cameroon, especially in school milieus brought us to undertake the present study which aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of scabies in Cameroonian boarding schools. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2015 in four boarding schools in Yaoundé and Buea (Cameroon). Participants were students currently residing in one of the study sites, volunteering to participate in the study and whose parents or guardians had given their consent in this respect. The diagnosis was based on clinical assessment independently performed by two dermatologists. A total of 1,902 students were recruited (50.5 % boys), with a mean age of 14.3 ± 2.5 years. Overall, 338 participants (17.8 %) were diagnosed with scabies. Age ≤ 15 years, male sex, number of students in the school > 500, no access to the school infirmary, sleeping with others, sharing beddings, clothes or toilet stuffs, pruritus in the close entourage and complaining of pruritus were significantly associated with the presence of mites in univariable logistic regression analyses. On the other hand, at least two baths per day, usage of soap for baths and finger nails always cut short appeared as protective factors. After multivariable analysis, male sex (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.06, 95 % CI: 1.40-3.01, P < 0.0001), first cycle level of education (aOR 1.67, 95 % CI: 1.02-2.71, P = 0.040), number of students per dormitory ≤ 10 (aOR 6.99, 95 % CI: 3.34-14.71, P < 0.0001), no access to the school infirmary (aOR 1.62, 95 % CI: 1.12-2.32, P = 0.009) and complaining of pruritus (aOR 93.37, 95 % CI: 60.04-145.19, P < 0.0001) were the independent factors associated with scabies. The prevalence of scabies was 17.8 %. The male sex, first cycle level of education, a number of students per dormitory ≤ 10, no access to the school infirmary and complaining of pruritus were
Reganick, Karol A.
Notes that children and adolescents appear to suffer the most detrimental effects of homelessness. Discusses the problems faced by homeless youth and the educational systems that must respond to them, including causes and demographics of homelessness, detrimental effects of shelters, the victimization of homeless adolescents, and educational and…
Improvement in nutrition-related knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian school children: findings from the 'Medical education for children/Adolescents for Realistic prevention of obesity and diabetes and for healthy aGeing' ( MARG) intervention study.
Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop; Gupta, Nidhi; Hazra, Daya Kishore; Gupta, Rajeev; Seth, Payal; Agarwal, Anand; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Jain, Arvind; Kulshreshta, Atul; Hazra, Nandita; Khanna, Padmamalika; Gangwar, Prasann Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Tallikoti, Pooja; Mohan, Indu; Bhargava, Rooma; Sharma, Rekha; Gulati, Seema; Bharadwaj, Swati; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Goel, Kashish
Increasing prevalence of childhood obesity calls for comprehensive and cost-effective educative measures in developing countries such as India. School-based educative programmes greatly influence children's behaviour towards healthy living. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a school-based health and nutritional education programme on knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian school children. Benchmark assessment of parents and teachers was also done. We educated 40 196 children (aged 8-18 years), 25 000 parents and 1500 teachers about health, nutrition, physical activity, non-communicable diseases and healthy cooking practices in three cities of North India. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess randomly selected 3128 children, 2241 parents and 841 teachers before intervention and 2329 children after intervention. Low baseline knowledge and behaviour scores were reported in 75-94 % government and 48-78 % private school children, across all age groups. A small proportion of government school children gave correct answers about protein (14-17 %), carbohydrates (25-27 %) and saturated fats (18-32 %). Private school children, parents and teachers performed significantly better than government school subjects (P nutrition-related knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian children, parents and teachers. This successful and comprehensive educative intervention could be incorporated in future school-based health and nutritional education programmes.
The purpose of this review was to identify current terms and definitions used to identify and describe children and adolescents who require technology. A total of 400 articles published from January 2000 through May 2012 were reviewed; 26 articles met the inclusion criteria. The review included only primary research studies that focused on a child and adolescent sample (birth to 18 years old) who required technology. Current terms and definitions used to describe children and adolescents who require technology include technology and complex care. Technology is a constant in both terminology and definitions, and it differentiates this population from the general population of children with chronic illness and special health care needs. This review highlights the need for better, more detailed descriptions of the population of children and adolescents who require technology in their daily lives. © The Author(s) 2014.
Monica Cristina dos Santos Romualdo
Conclusion: The results confirmed that insulin resistance is present in many obese children and adolescents, and that this condition is associated with alterations that represent an increased risk for developing metabolic disorders in adulthood.
RESULTS. Children I adolescents ..... Nigerian national census results which showed that .... typical of underdevelopment and reflect farm implements .... outcome of teenage pregnancies is related to .... unexpected natural death in childhood.
Ljubica Marjanovič Umek
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence, and parents' education. The sample included 219 children who were 68 to 83 months old and were attending the first year of primary school. Children were differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschool before starting school. Children's intellectual ability was determined using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM; Raven, Raven, & Court, 1999, language competence using the Lestvice splošnega govornegarazvoja–LJ (LSGR–LJ, Scales of General Language Development; Marjanovič Umek, Kranjc, Fekonja in Bajc, 2004, and school readiness with the Preizkus pripravljenosti za šolo (PPŠ, Test of School Readiness; Toličič, 1986. The results indicate that children's intellectual ability and language competence have a high predictive value for the school readiness — they explained 51% of the variance in children's scores on the PPŠ. Preschool enrollment has a positive effect on school readiness for children whose parents have a low level of education, but not for those whose parents are highly educated.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Active travel to school (ATS has been identified as an important source of physical activity for youth. However, the relationship between ATS and health-related fitness (HRF among youth remains unclear. Methods A systematic search of seven electronic databases (EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and TRIS on line was conducted in December 2009 and studies published since 1980 were considered for inclusion. Results Twenty seven articles were identified that explored the relationship between ATS and the following aspects of HRF: weight status/body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and flexibility. Forty-eight percent of the studies that examined the relationship between ATS and weight status/body composition reported significant associations, this increased to 55% once poor quality studies were removed. Furthermore, the findings from five studies, including one longitudinal study, indicate that ATS is positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in youth. However, the evidence for the relationships between ATS and muscular fitness or flexibility is equivocal and limited by low study numbers. Conclusions There is some evidence to suggest that ATS is associated with a healthier body composition and level of cardiorespiratory fitness among youth. Strategies to increase ATS are warranted and should be included in whole-of-school approaches to the promotion of physical activity.
Lubans, David R
Abstract Background Active travel to school (ATS) has been identified as an important source of physical activity for youth. However, the relationship between ATS and health-related fitness (HRF) among youth remains unclear. Methods A systematic search of seven electronic databases (EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and TRIS on line) was conducted in December 2009 and studies published since 1980 were considered for inclusion. Results Twenty seven articles were identified that explored the relationship between ATS and the following aspects of HRF: weight status\\/body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and flexibility. Forty-eight percent of the studies that examined the relationship between ATS and weight status\\/body composition reported significant associations, this increased to 55% once poor quality studies were removed. Furthermore, the findings from five studies, including one longitudinal study, indicate that ATS is positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in youth. However, the evidence for the relationships between ATS and muscular fitness or flexibility is equivocal and limited by low study numbers. Conclusions There is some evidence to suggest that ATS is associated with a healthier body composition and level of cardiorespiratory fitness among youth. Strategies to increase ATS are warranted and should be included in whole-of-school approaches to the promotion of physical activity.
Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner
From a clinical point of view, the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) among children and adolescents seems to be low. However, many children have dermatitis, most often atopic dermatitis. In selected cases, ACD is suspected, and the child is tested. The question remains, whether...... the prevalence of ACD in children really is low or whether the possibility of ACD is not sufficiently considered. During the last decade, reports have appeared on series of children and adolescents with contact allergy and ACD. Few cases have been reported in infants, but the development of contact allergy...... and ACD increases with age. Most studies include selected groups of children and adolescents with suspected ACD. Few studies have examined unselected populations, and most consider only the prevalence of contact allergy without evaluating the clinical relevance, e.g., the prevalence of ACD. Furthermore...
McBride-Chang, C; Chang, L
This 4-phase study of Hong Kong Chinese adolescent-parent relationships (906 adolescents and 1,091 parents) revealed the following: (a) Adolescents and their parents differ in their perceptions of parenting style. (b) Autonomy is negatively associated with parents' perceived authoritative parenting style and school achievement. (c) Neither parenting style nor measures of parents' beliefs in training their children (R. Chao, 1994) are associated with self-reports of school achievement. However, (d) parents of students from the highest (Band 1) academically oriented schools in Hong Kong rated themselves as higher in authoritativeness and lower in authoritarianism than parents of adolescents from the lowest academically oriented (Band 5) schools. Findings are discussed in relation to posited differences in adolescent-parent relationships in Western and Chinese cultures.
Kamper, Steve J; Henschke, Nicholas; Hestbaek, Lise
Introduction Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain in children and adolescents is responsible for substantial personal impacts and societal costs, but it has not been intensively or systematically researched. This means our understanding of these conditions is limited, and healthcare professionals have litt...... to understand these conditions at a time close to their initial onset may offer a better chance of developing effective prevention and treatment strategies.......Introduction Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain in children and adolescents is responsible for substantial personal impacts and societal costs, but it has not been intensively or systematically researched. This means our understanding of these conditions is limited, and healthcare professionals have little...... empirical evidence to underpin their clinical practice. In this article we summarise the state of the evidence concerning MSK pain in children and adolescents, and offer suggestions for future research. Results Rates of self-reported MSK pain in adolescents are similar to those in adult populations...
Zetaruk, M N; Violan, M A; Zurakowski, D; Micheli, L J
To identify risk factors for injury and to establish safety guidelines for children in Uechi-Ryu karate. A 1-year retrospective survey of injuries. A private karate school (Uechi-Ryu style) in Plymouth, MA. A total of 68 athletes (age 6-16 years; mean age 10 years) who participated in karate during the 1995-1996 season. None. The presence or absence of injury, with grading of injuries as major, moderate or minor. The types of injuries and body region involved were also analyzed. Twenty eight percent of athletes sustained at least one injury. All injuries were minor, with no time off from training required. The injuries consisted primarily of bruises (11 of 19). Other injuries included mild sprains or strains (5 of 19) and having their 'wind knocked out' (3 of 19). Most injuries were localized to the extremities. Logistic regression analysis identified risk factors for injury. Risk of injury increased with number of years of training (odds ratio 2.95; 95% confidence interval 1.81-4.82; PKarate is a relatively safe sport for children and adolescents when properly taught. Risk of injury increases with experience; therefore, greater supervision is required of higher ranks. Injury increases with weekly training; however, 3 h a week or less appears to be associated with a low risk of significant injury in this age group.
Michael E Bowen
Full Text Available Michael E Bowen1,2, Russell L Rothman2,31Veterans Affairs Quality Scholars Fellowship Program, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Tennessee Valley Geriatric Research Education Clinical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, 3Vanderbilt Eskind Diabetes Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Although once considered a disease of adults, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in youth is increasing at a significant rate. Similar to adults, youth with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk for developing hypertension, lipid abnormalities, renal disease, and other diabetes-related complications. However, children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes also face many unique management challenges that are different from adults with type 2 diabetes or children with type 1 diabetes. To deliver safe, effective, high-quality, cost-effective health care to adolescents with type 2 diabetes, reorganization and redesign of health care systems are needed. Multidisciplinary health care teams, which allow individuals with specialized training to maximally utilize their skills within an organized diabetes treatment team, may increase efficiency and effectiveness and may improve outcomes in children with type 2 diabetes. This review article provides a brief review of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, provides an overview of multidisciplinary health care teams, and discusses the role of multidisciplinary health care management in youth with type 2 diabetes.Keywords: adolescent, type 2 diabetes, multidisciplinary
Mikkelsen, Peter Riis; Jemec, Gregor B E
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a burdensome disease and has the potential to affect the life course of patients. It is a rare disease in children, and the recorded literature is correspondingly scarce. This article reviews the therapeutic options for HS in children and adolescents, and highlights...
Canadian data from the 1998 Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children were analyzed to examine the effects of school experiences on personal health (physical health, mental health, self-esteem, helplessness, and body image) and interpersonal relationships (number of close friends and making friends) among adolescents.…
Full Text Available Background Dysmenorrhea is a common gynecological symptom reported in adolescent girls. Prevalence of the condition has been reported to be 45 - 75%. Absenteeism from work and school as a result of dysmenorrhea is common (13 - 51% of women have been absent at least once, and 5 - 14% are often absent due to the severity of symptoms. Objective To compare school performance in pubertal adolescent girls with and without dysmenorrhea. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2010 in adolescent females aged 12 - 18 years from the Musthafawiyah School, Mandailing Natal district, North Sumatera. Adolescent females with and without dysmenorrhea were recruited for this study. All participants completed questionnaires including age of menarche, length of menstrual cycle, length of bleeding, number of sanitary napkins used daily and school absences. School reports from two consecutive semesters in one year were used to evaluate subjects’ academic performance. An academic score of higher than 7.5 was considered good performance while scores of less than 7.5 were considered poor. We used the chi-square test to analyze differences in school performance between girls with and without dysmenorrhea. Results One hundred and sixteen participants were divided into 2 groups, those with and without dysmenorrhea, of 58 subjects each. We found no significant difference in school performance between the two groups, P=0.176 (95% CI -0.009 to -0.048 and P=0.08 (95%CI -0.052 to 0.024. Conclusion There was no significant difference in school performance of girls with and without dysmenorrhea.
Gadow, Kenneth D; Nolan, Edith E; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schwartz, Joseph
This study examined comorbid psychiatric symptoms in a large, community-based sample of children and adolescents. The study sample comprised a total of 3006 school children: 413 preschool (3 to 5 years; 237 males, 176 females; mean age 4 years 2 months, SD 8 months), 1520 elementary school (5 to 12 years; 787 males, 733 females; mean age 8 years 2 months, SD 1 year 11 months), and 1073 secondary school children (12 to 18 years; 573 males, 500 females; mean age 14 years 4 months, SD 1 year 10 months), all of whom were attending regular education programs. Children were evaluated with a teacher-completed DSM-IV-referenced rating scale. The sample was divided into four groups: attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder with tics (ADHD+tics), ADHD without tics (ADHD), tics without ADHD (T), and a comparison group i.e. neither ADHD nor tics (Non). The percentage of children with tic behaviors varied with age: preschool children (22.3%), elementary school children (7.8%), and adolescents (3.4%). Tic behaviors were more common in males than females, regardless of comorbid ADHD symptoms. For many psychiatric symptoms, screening prevalence rates were highest for the ADHD groups (ADHD+tics>ADHD>T>Non). However, obsessive-compulsive and simple and social phobia symptoms were more common in the groups with tic behavior. Findings for a community-based sample show many similarities with studies of clinically referred samples suggesting that teacher-completed ratings of DSM-IV symptoms may be a useful methodology for investigating the phenomenology of tic disorders.
... Families - Vietnamese Substance Abuse Treatment For Children And Adolescents: Questions To Ask No. 41; Reviewed July 2013 Many children and adolescents use alcohol and other drugs. Some develop serious ...
Liu, Junsheng; Chen, Xinyin; Zhou, Ying; Li, Dan; Fu, Rui; Coplan, Robert J.
This study examined how shyness-sensitivity and unsociability were associated with social, school, and psychological adjustment in Chinese children and adolescents. Participants included 564 children (272 boys, M[subscript age] = 9 years) and 462 adolescents (246 boys, M[subscript age] = 13 years) in a suburban region in China. Data were obtained…
Djurhuus, Bjarki; Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe
Cholesteatoma in childhood had no long-term effect on school performance for the majority who completed lower secondary school. Aim To investigate whether individuals operated on for cholesteatoma in childhood have impaired school performance in adolescence. Methods All children born in Denmark...... between 1986-1991 with cholesteatoma surgery performed before the age of 15 years were included (cholestetaoma group). A control group consisting of a 5% random sample of all children born in Denmark during the same period was used for comparison. Final marks (average, mathematics, Danish, and English...
Poehler, A; Riedesser, P; Jobke, A; Wannenmacher, M
The increasing importance of radiotherapy in tumors of childhood demands the investigation and consideration of the psychological aspects of this afflicting therapy. In this paper the results obtained by questioning and observing 28 childeren of different ages, their parents, attendants and employees of several radiological departments are discussed. As the children's fantasies and the resulting anxieties and reactions are depending on the respective intellectual and emotional developmental stage detailed proposals concerning the preparation and performance of radiation in toddlers, school children and adolescents are presented.
Poehler, A.; Riedesser, P.; Jobke, A.; Wannenmacher, M.; Freiburg Univ.
The increasing importance of radiotherapy in tumors of childhood demands the investigation and consideration of the psychological aspects of this afflicting therapy. In this paper the results obtained by questioning and observing 28 childeren of different ages, their parents, attendants and employees of several radiological departments are discussed. As the children's fantasies and the resulting anxieties and reactions are depending on the respective intellectual and emotional developmental stage detailed proposals concerning the preparation and performance of radiation in toddlers, school children and adolescents are presented. (orig.) [de
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert
This study examined the association between adolescents' perceptions of their neighborhoods' safety and multiple elements of their functioning in school with data on 15 year olds from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 924). In general, perceived neighborhood safety was more strongly associated with aspects of schooling…
Higgins, Keith B.
This book was written to help schools and educators in their efforts to raise the self-esteem of adolescent students. The first chapter presents the layout of the book. Chapter 2 explains Coopersmith's (1967) model of self-esteem, emphasizing the model's relevance to secondary education. Experiences leading to feelings of significance, competence,…
Rasmussen, Mette; Krølner, Rikke; Klepp, Knut-Inge
In order to more effectively promote fruit and vegetable intake among children and adolescents, insight into determinants of intake is necessary. We conducted a review of the literature for potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in children and adolescents.......In order to more effectively promote fruit and vegetable intake among children and adolescents, insight into determinants of intake is necessary. We conducted a review of the literature for potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in children and adolescents....
Natvig, G K; Albrektsen, G; Anderssen, N; Qvarnstrøm, U
Associations between psychosomatic symptoms and school-induced stress, and personal and social resources were analyzed among 862 Norwegian adolescents ages 13-15 years participating in the WHO project, "Health Promoting Schools." Stress-related factors were represented by the average of scores of 3-12 items. Both in combined and separate analyses of each psychosomatic symptom, increasing school distress, the most direct measure of stress experience, was associated with increased risk. A similar relationship was found with school alienation, though not significant for all symptoms. Social support from the teacher decreased the risk among girls, whereas social support from other pupils reduced the risk among both genders, but in particular among boys. No consistent associations were seen between psychosomatic complaints and general or school-related self-efficacy or decision control. In some analyses, however, these factors seemed to modify the association with school distress or school alienation.
Effectiveness of a 16-month multi-component and environmental school-based intervention for recovery of poor income overweight/obese children and adolescents: study protocol of the health multipliers program
Pollyanna Fernandes Patriota
Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess of weight is a serious public health concern in almost all countries, afflicting people of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Studies have indicated the need for developing treatment strategies that intervene directly in the obesogenic environment. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-component and environmental school-based intervention, lasting 16 months, on the recovery of the nutritional status of low-income children and adolescents with overweight/ obesity. Methods/study design The study was conducted by the Center for Recovery and Nutritional Education (CREN in São Paulo, Brazil. Two schools located in poor neighborhoods were selected for the intervention, between March 2016 and June 2017. The participants were all students aged 8 to 12 years from the two participating schools. At the beginning of the intervention, anthropometric measurements were carried out to assess the nutritional status of the students. For convenience, students from one of the schools were considered as the control group, while those from the other school formed the experimental group. The intervention in the experimental group (n = 438 consists of the following weekly activities at school: psychological counseling in groups, theoretical/practical nutrition workshops, and supervised physical education classes. In addition, theoretical and practical educational activities are held regularly for parents, teachers, and cooks. Students with excess of weight (≥1 body mass index [BMI] –for-age Z score, n = 138 received clinical and nutritional care periodically at the outpatient care at CREN. Students enrolled in the control group (n = 353 participated in psychological counseling groups and theoretical/practical nutrition workshops for 6 months held in the school environment to provide motivation to entire classrooms. In the following 10 months, students with excess of weight from the control group (n
Effectiveness of a 16-month multi-component and environmental school-based intervention for recovery of poor income overweight/obese children and adolescents: study protocol of the health multipliers program.
Patriota, Pollyanna Fernandes; Filgueiras, Andrea Rocha; de Almeida, Viviane Belucci Pires; Alexmovitz, Guilherme Aparecido Costa; da Silva, Carlos Eduardo; de Carvalho, Vivian Fortuna Feres; Carvalho, Natália; de Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Domene, Semiramis Martins Alvares; do Prado, Wagner Luiz; Torres, Gustavo Enrique Salazar; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Reis; Sesso, Ricardo; Sawaya, Ana Lydia
Excess of weight is a serious public health concern in almost all countries, afflicting people of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Studies have indicated the need for developing treatment strategies that intervene directly in the obesogenic environment. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-component and environmental school-based intervention, lasting 16 months, on the recovery of the nutritional status of low-income children and adolescents with overweight/ obesity. The study was conducted by the Center for Recovery and Nutritional Education (CREN) in São Paulo, Brazil. Two schools located in poor neighborhoods were selected for the intervention, between March 2016 and June 2017. The participants were all students aged 8 to 12 years from the two participating schools. At the beginning of the intervention, anthropometric measurements were carried out to assess the nutritional status of the students. For convenience, students from one of the schools were considered as the control group, while those from the other school formed the experimental group. The intervention in the experimental group (n = 438) consists of the following weekly activities at school: psychological counseling in groups, theoretical/practical nutrition workshops, and supervised physical education classes. In addition, theoretical and practical educational activities are held regularly for parents, teachers, and cooks. Students with excess of weight (≥1 body mass index [BMI] -for-age Z score, n = 138) received clinical and nutritional care periodically at the outpatient care at CREN. Students enrolled in the control group (n = 353) participated in psychological counseling groups and theoretical/practical nutrition workshops for 6 months held in the school environment to provide motivation to entire classrooms. In the following 10 months, students with excess of weight from the control group (n = 125) were invited to attend the routine outpatient
Viggiano, Alessandro; Viggiano, Emanuela; Di Costanzo, Anna; Viggiano, Andrea; Andreozzi, Eleonora; Romano, Vincenzo; Rianna, Ines; Vicidomini, Claudia; Gargano, Giuliana; Incarnato, Lucia; Fevola, Celeste; Volta, Pietro; Tolomeo, Caterina; Scianni, Giuseppina; Santangelo, Caterina; Battista, Roberta; Monda, Marcellino; Viggiano, Adela; De Luca, Bruno; Amaro, Salvatore
During childhood and adolescence, a game could be an effective educational tool to learn healthy eating habits. We developed Kaledo, a new board game, to promote nutrition education and to improve dietary behavior. A two-group design with one pre-treatment assessment and two post-treatment assessments was employed. A total of 3,110 subjects (9-19 years old) from 20 schools in Campania, Italy, were included in the trial. In the treated group, the game was introduced each week over 20 consecutive weeks. Control group did not receive any intervention. The primary outcomes were (i) score on the "Adolescent Food Habits Checklist" (AFHC), (ii) scores on a dietary questionnaire, and (iii) BMI z-score. At the first post-assessment (6 months), the treated group obtained significantly higher scores than the control group on the AFHC (14.4 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 14.0 to 14.8) vs 10.9 (95 % CI 10.6 to -11.2); F(1,20) = 72.677; p childhood and adolescence obesity prevention programs.
Beeres-Scheenstra, Renske; Ohnsorg, Claudia; Candreia, Claudia; Heinzmann, Sybille; Castellanos, Susana; De Min, Nicola; Linder, Thomas E
To evaluate foreign language acquisition at school in cochlear implant patients. Cohort study. CI center. Forty three cochlear implants (CI) patients (10-18 yr) were evaluated. CI nonusers and patients with CI-explantation, incomplete datasets, mental retardation, or concomitant medical disorders were excluded. Additional data (type of schooling, foreign language learning, and bilingualism) were obtained with questionnaires. German-speaking children with foreign tuition language (English and/or French) at school were enrolled for further testing. General patient data, auditory data, and foreign language data from both questionnaires and tests were collected and analyzed. Thirty seven out of 43 questionnaires (86%) were completed. Sixteen (43%) were in mainstream education. Twenty-seven CI users (73%) have foreign language learning at school. Fifteen of these were in mainstream education (55%), others in special schooling. From 10 CI users without foreign language learning, one CI user was in mainstream education (10%) and nine patients (90%) were in special schooling. Eleven German-speaking CI users were further tested in English and six additionally in French. For reading skills, the school objectives for English were reached in 7 of 11 pupils (64%) and for French in 3 of 6 pupils (50%). For listening skills, 3 of 11 pupils (27%) reached the school norm in English and none in French. Almost 75% of our CI users learn foreign language(s) at school. A small majority of the tested CI users reached the current school norm for in English and French in reading skills, whereas for hearing skills most of them were not able to reach the norm.
Lawan, U M; Yusuf, Nafisa Wali; Musa, Aisha Bala
This study examined the knowledge and practices of adolescent school girls in Kano, Nigeria around menstruation and menstrual hygiene. Data was collected quantitatively and analyzed using Epi info version 3.2.05. The mean age of the students was 14.4 +/- 1.2 years; majority was in their mid adolescence. The students attained menarche at 12.9 +/- 0.8 years. Majority had fair knowledge of menstruation, although deficient in specific knowledge areas. Most of them used sanitary pads as absorbent during their last menses; changed menstrual dressings about 1-5 times per day; and three-quarter increased the frequency of bathing. Institutionalizing sexuality education in Nigerian schools; developing and disseminating sensitive adolescent reproductive health massages targeted at both parents and their adolescent children; and improving access of the adolescents to youth friendly services are veritable means of meeting the adolescent reproductive health needs in Nigeria.
Sabit Abazinab Ababulgu
Full Text Available Tobacco use is responsible for 6 million deaths globally per year, of which 600,000 deaths are due to secondhand smoke (SHS mainly among women and children. This study aims to determine the prevalence of SHS exposure among school-going adolescents and highlights the essential determinants in developing successful strategies to prevent adverse health effects in Ethiopia. The analysis is based on a school based cross sectional study where 1673 students with 98.2% of response rate from grade 9-12, aged 13-19 were included. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire that is adapted from the global youth tobacco survey questionnaire. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were obtained as estimates of prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were made using logistic regression on SPSS version 20.0 software in order to predict factors associated with SHS exposure. About 17% of adolescents were exposed to tobacco smoke in their home, whereas more than half (60.8% of adolescents were exposed to tobacco smoke in public places. In multivariate analysis, sex, parent smoking, peer smoking, and absence of discussion in the classroom about dangers of smoking were seen significantly associated with SHS exposure. The prevalence of SHS exposure among adolescents in Ethiopia is highest. Moreover, exposure to SHS in public places is much higher than at home.
Sitholey, Prabhat; Agarwal, Vivek; Vrat, Satya
Ancient Indian mental concepts of children and adolescents are very similar to the contemporary modern concepts. The ancient concepts were based on a very positive regard for the children's development, education and future independence, adult role and contribution to society. Children were wanted and considered precious. The children were categorized in to 4 different varnas based on their intelligence, abilities, merit and aptitude and educated accordingly, away from their home, at Gurukuls. They had universal right to education. Girls received attention equal to boys. The boys were expected to earn their livelihood, while the girls were expected to be homemakers. Graduation of the young person at the end of education and return to home marked the emancipation from adolescence. Children's physical and mental health and its disorders were given due attention. Aetiology and treatment of physical and mental disorders was in accordance with the overall scientific development of those times.
Al-Ghutaimel, Hayat; Riba, Hisham; Al-Kahtani, Salem; Al-Duhaimi, Saad
Background. Since 2000, studies, experiments, and clinical observations revealed high prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents. Therefore, this paper was designed to provide an update for dental practitioners on epidemiology, microbiology, pathology, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of periodontal diseases in children and adolescents. Methods. This paper reviews the current literature concerning periodontal diseases in pediatric dentistry. It includes MEDLINE database search using key terms: "periodontal diseases in children," "Periodontal diseasesin adolescents," "periodontal diseases risk factors," "microbiology of periodontal diseases," "classification of periodontal diseases," "epidemiology of periodontal diseases," and "treatment of periodontal diseases." Articles were evaluated by title and/or abstract and relevance to pediatric dentistry. Sixty-five citations were selected by this method and by the references within the chosen articles. A review of the comprehensive textbooks on pediatric dentistry and periodontology was done. Some recommendations were based on the opinions of experienced researchers and clinicians, when data were inconclusive.
Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to investigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphygmomanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was higher in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in females. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold values for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to combine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.
Benner, Aprile D.; Crosnoe, Robert; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
Adolescents’ perceptions of the prejudice in their social environments can factor into their developmental outcomes. The degree to which others in the environment perceive such prejudice—regardless of adolescents’ own perceptions—also matters by shedding light on the contextual climate in which adolescents spend their daily lives. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study revealed that schoolwide perceptions of peer prejudice, which tap into the interpersonal climate of schools, appeared to be particularly risky for adolescents’ academic achievement. In contrast, adolescents’ own perceptions of peer prejudice at schools were associated with their feelings of alienation in school. Importantly, these patterns did not vary substantially by several markers of vulnerability to social stigmatization. PMID:25750496
Boschloo, Annemarie; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; de Groot, Renate; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle
Breakfast skipping is common in adolescents, but research on the effects of breakfast skipping on school performance is scarce. This current cross-sectional survey study of 605 adolescents aged 11-18 years investigated whether adolescents who habitually skip breakfast have lower end-of-term grades than adolescents who eat breakfast daily.…
Gissel, S.; Mortensen, Jens Tølbøll; Juul, S.
Since previous studies have shown reduced hearing ability in children and adolescents at school start, this study was undertaken to evaluate the hearing ability in Danish children at the time of start and end of school. Children starting school in 1977, 1987, and 1997 from four minor municipalities....... At the end of school, hearing ability of the year group 1977 was just as poor as for the year group 1987. Whether reduced hearing can influence the learning abilities of these children should be evaluated by further studies including information on the exposure to noise....
Povlsen, Lene; Olsen, Birthe; Ladelund, Steen
AIM: This paper reports an investigation to establish whether metabolic control is different in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities with type 1 diabetes compared with young Danish patients, and to learn about factors affecting their opportunities to achieve good metabolic control....... BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities in Denmark is increasing. Having a different ethnic background has frequently been described as a risk factor for poor metabolic control, but whether the risk is represented by the ethnicity and immigration itself...... the centres provided limited specialized knowledge and support. The questionnaires completed by the parents revealed limited schooling, lack of professional education and a major need for interpreters; these characteristics were especially prevalent among the mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Young patients from ethnic...
Gupta, Neeru; Mathur, A K; Singh, M P; Saxena, N C
In 1996, India included Adolescent Health in Reproductive and Child Heatlh Programme. This Task-Force Study was planned to test the awareness level of adolescents regarding various reproductive health issues and to identify lacunae in knowledge, particularly in legal minimum age of marriage, number of children, male preference, contraceptive practices, about STIs /AIDS etc. It was a multicentre study, done in rural co-education/higher secondary schools of 22 districts located in 14 states through Human Reproductive Research Centre (HRRC's) of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). A sample of 8453 school going adolescents (aged 10-19 years) was surveyed by means of open ended, self-administered questionnaires maintaining confidentiality. Mean age of adolescents was 14.3 +/- 3.4 years. Awareness of legal minimum age of marriage was present in more than half of adolescents. Attitude towards marriage beyond 21 years in boys and 18 years in girls was favorable. Mean number of children desired was 2.2 +/- 1.4. However, number of children desired by boys (2.2+/-1.6) was significantly more (p< 0.000) than those desired by girls (2.0+/-1.1). More boys (23.7%) than girls (9.4%) wanted three or more children with male preference. Only 19.8% of adolescents were aware of at least one method of contraception. Only two-fifth (39.5%) were aware of AIDS and less than one-fifth (18%) were aware of STDs and most of them thought it is same as AIDS. Awareness of at least one method of immunization was present in three-fifth (60.1%) of students. It was least for DPT (13.5%) and most (55%) were aware of polio only. Awareness of all Reproductive Health matters was more in boys than girls and more in late teens (15-19) than earlier teens (10-14). The study showed tremendous lacunae in awareness of all Reproductive Health (RH) matters. There is a need for evolving information, education, and communication strategies to focus on raising awareness on RH and gender related issues. A
Franciele M. Vanderlei
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The participation of children and adolescents in sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of sports injuries. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the sports injuries and verify the associated factors with injuries in children and adolescents. METHOD: Retrospective, epidemiological study. One thousand three hundred and eleven children and adolescents up to 18 years of age enrolled in a sports initiation school in the city of Presidente Prudente, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A reported condition inquiry in interview form was used to obtain personal data and information on training and sports injuries in the last 12 months. Injury was considered any physical complaint resulting from training and/or competition that limited the participation of the individual for at least one day, regardless of the need for medical care. RESULTS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was 1.20 among the children and 1.30 among the adolescents. Age, anthropometric data, and training characteristics only differed with regard to the presence or absence of injuries among the adolescents. The most commonly reported characteristics involving injuries in both the children and adolescents were the lower limbs, training, non-contact mechanism, mild injury, asymptomatic return to activities, and absence of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was similar among children and adolescents. Nevertheless, some peculiarities among adolescents were observed with greater values for weight, height, duration of training, and weekly hours of practice.
involvement in the family structure and schooling of adolescents in Ile-Ife ... Results: More than half of adolescents lived with biological parents at the time of survey ... 3Department of Community Health, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching ...
PROF. BARTH EKWEME
Method: A cross sectional descriptive survey design was used. ... a taboo between parents and children. The adolescents learned through the mass media and peers unguided. ... adolescents, males reported more permissive attitudes towards ...
This literature review aimed to give some insight in the benefits of breakfast for children and adolescents, with a focus on overweight, food intake and cognition. In addition, we explored the magnitude of skipping breakfast in the Netherlands and factors associated with this behaviour.
Full Text Available The emergence in DSM-5 of gambling addiction as the first official behavioural addiction has opened a new chapter in the thinking about and research into behavioural pathology. We are becoming increasingly aware of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of addictive behaviour, but the majority of the work is conducted mainly on adult populations. Although the use of the term “behavioural addiction” in children and adolescents is controversial due to the dynamic nature of their development processes, there is no doubt that more and more young people are involved in addictive behaviours that negatively affect their lives. The currently still few studies are throwing new light on the early symptoms of behavioural addictions observed in increasingly younger children. This article is a review of current knowledge about potential behavioural addictions in the first two decades of life viewed from the perspective of developmental psychopathology. While there is significantly less research into addictive behaviours in childhood and adolescence than in later decades, empirical evidence has clearly shown that early symptoms of behavioural addiction pose a significant threat to the mental health of children and adolescents, both now and in the future. The article discusses the definition of behavioural addiction in the DSM-5 context, the controversy surrounding the diagnosis of these disorders in young people, the behavioural addictions in children and adolescents, and the identified risk factors for early-onset behavioural addictions.
Prinstein, Mitchell J., Ed.; Dodge, Kenneth A., Ed.
Scientists, educators, and parents of teens have long recognized the potency of peer influences on children and youth, but until recently, questions of how and why adolescents emulate their peers were largely overlooked. This book presents a framework for understanding the processes by which peers shape each other's attitudes and behavior, and…
Holst, Johanne Marie; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsebet; Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck
OBJECTIVE: Cushing's syndrome (CS) affects all age groups, but epidemiologic data in young patients are very limited. We therefore examined the incidence, prevalence and hospital morbidity of CS in children and adolescents. DESIGN: In a nationwide cohort study, we included all Danish citizens aged...
Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents are defined as the amount of energy needed to balance total energy expenditure (TEE) at a desirable level of physical activity, and to support optimal growth and development consistent with long-term health. The latest FAO/WHO/UNU recommendati...
Nygaard, Ulrikka; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Steensen, Morten
Meningococcal disease is a rapidly progressing infection, which continues to cause deaths among children and adolescents. In this review, clinical signs and initial treatment of acute childhood meningococcal disease is described. Operational flow charts have been developed for assessment of non...
Wesselhoeft, Rikke; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Heiervang, Einar
Depressive disorders are disabling conditions striking at all ages. In adults, subthreshold depression (SD) is viewed as being on a continuum with major depressive disorder (MDD). Whether this holds for children and adolescents, is still unclear. We performed the first systematic review of SD...
Nygaard, Ulrikka; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Steensen, Morten
Meningococcal disease is a rapidly progressing infection, which continues to cause deaths among children and adolescents. In this review, clinical signs and initial treatment of acute childhood meningococcal disease is described. Operational flow charts have been developed for assessment of non......-blanching rash and initial treatment of meningococcal disease....
Soft tissue sarcomas are rare tumors, they may occur at any age. It is heterogenous group of different histology types, different biology and different clinical behavior. Different treatment strategy is used for children and adults. Adolescents with sarcomas could be managed by both pediatric and medical oncologists. Decision regarding location of treatment should be based on the best patient interest. (author)
Castillo-Durán, Carlos; Sepúlveda A, Cecilia; Espinoza G, Aníbal; Rebollo G, María Jesús; Le Roy O, Catalina
Hyperuricaemia has been suggested as an additional metabolic factor in adult obese patients, but it has not been sufficiently studied in paediatric. To assess the relationship between serum uric acid levels (SUAL) with the level of general and visceral obesity, and other biochemical parameters in children and adolescents of Santiago, Chile. A cross sectional study was conducted on 770 children and adolescents (ages: 6-15 y.) from a public school in Santiago, Chile, of whom 227 (29%) were obese (BMI>2 SD, WHO growth standards). Ninety subjects were randomly selected and 77 with no other chronic disease (41 males) accepted to participate. Data was collected on weight, stature, abdominal circumference (AC), visceral adiposity using ultrasound, and other biochemical measurements including fasting glucose, insulin, serum lipids, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and SUAL. The mean SUAL was 0.200±0.065 mmol/L, and was increased in children with hyperinsulinism (adjusted by age: 0.221±0.075 vs. 0.183±0.054 mmol/L; Por<26 U/mL: 0.238±0.070 vs. 0.178±0.054 mmol/L, P<.001. The logistic regression showed the increased SUAL was only associated with increased ALT. No significant differences were found in general or visceral adiposity measurements or fatty liver. Children and adolescents from Santiago, Chile have higher uric acid serum uric acid levels as well as an association with increased ALT and insulin. It is demonstrated in this study that uric acid should be measured in obese children and adolescents, and in their follow up. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
This digest examines the role of school psychologists in improving educational opportunities for children and adolescents. A variety of issues that affect children and their ability to learn are discussed: widening social class differences and increases in the number of children living in poverty; changing value systems; family disintegration;…
Gissel, S.; Mortensen, Jens Tølbøll; Juul, S.
Since previous studies have shown reduced hearing ability in children and adolescents at school start, this study was undertaken to evaluate the hearing ability in Danish children at the time of start and end of school. Children starting school in 1977, 1987, and 1997 from four minor municipalities...... in North Jutland County, Denmark were evaluated for hearing ability by a review of 1,605 school health records. We found a higher prevalence of impaired hearing ability in children who started school 1987 and 1997 compared to those who started school 1977. Reduced hearing was typically at high frequencies....... At the end of school, hearing ability of the year group 1977 was just as poor as for the year group 1987. Whether reduced hearing can influence the learning abilities of these children should be evaluated by further studies including information on the exposure to noise....
Erkan, Mustafa; Gencoglan, Salih; Akguc, Leyla; Ozatalay, Esin; Fettahoglu, Emine Cigil
The aim of this study was to compare attachment styles and psychopathology in adolescent children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) with a healthy control group. We studied 25 adolescents who had at least 1 parent with BD (BD group) and 28 adolescents who had no parents with BD (control group). The adolescent participants were between the ages of 12 and 17 years. We used the Adolescent Relationship Scales Questionnaire (A-RSQ) for the adolescents in the BD vs. control groups, and we used the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children - present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Clinician Version for each parent of adolescents in the BD and control groups to rule out psychopathologies. Attachment styles of participants were assessed according to A-RSQ, dismissing attachment style scores of adolescents in BD group were found significantly higher compared to the healthy control group (padolescents (48%) out of 25 in the BD group and 5 adolescents (18%) out of 28 in the control group were given DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis, which is a statistically significant result (padolescent children of parents with BD have increased risk of developing mental illnesses, and that these adolescents adopt dismissing attachment styles.
Edwards, Oliver W.
Increasing numbers of children raised by grandparents are students in schools. Their substitute family structure and precursors to the emergence of this family structure have implications for the children's school performance. Research suggests teachers view these children as at risk for difficult school functioning. The aforementioned judgment is…
[Differences in subjective health, mental health, and health behavior among 11- to 17-year-olds at secondary schools in Germany : Results of the German health interview and examination survey for children and adolescents: first follow-up (KiGGS Wave 1)].
Waldhauer, Julia; Kuntz, Benjamin; Lampert, Thomas
Social inequalities in health can already be found among children and adolescents to the disadvantage of socially deprived population groups. This paper aims to detect, whether differences in subjective health, mental health and health behavior among young people are due to the secondary school type attended and whether these associations exist independently of the family's socioeconomic position (SEP). The data basis was the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 1, 2009-2012). Data of 11- to 17-year-old girls and boys (n = 4665) who attend different types of secondary schools in Germany were analyzed. The dependent variables were self-rated health, findings of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the detection of psychological abnormalities, as well as self-reported information regarding leisure sport, tobacco, and alcohol consumption. Prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) based on logistic regressions are shown. For the majority of the examined indicators, it can be shown that adolescents in lower secondary schools are more likely to report worse self-rated health and mental problems and engage in unhealthy behavior than peers in grammar schools ("Gymnasium"). The differences decrease after controlling for family's SEP but mostly remain statistically significant. Adolescents who don't attend grammar schools are most strongly disadvantaged in terms of inattention/hyperactivity for both gender (OR: 2.29 [1.70-3.08]), smoking among girls (2.91 [1.85-4.57]) and physical inactivity (no leisure sport) among boys (OR: 2.71 [1.85-3.95]). Unequal health opportunities should be viewed in relation to people's living conditions. For adolescents, school constitutes an important setting for learning, experience, and health. The results indicate divergent needs of school-based health promotion and prevention regarding differences among gender and type of school.
... such a reading disability Stressors, such as bullying Mental health issues, such as anxiety or depression If you suspect any of these in your child, talk to your child's teacher or health care provider. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Early school-age children should be able to use simple, ...
Do school-based interventions focusing on physical activity, fitness, or fundamental movement skill competency produce a sustained impact in these outcomes in children and adolescents? A systematic review of follow-up studies.
Lai, Samuel K; Costigan, Sarah A; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R; Stodden, David F; Salmon, Jo; Barnett, Lisa M
The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether typically developing children and adolescents (aged 3-18 years) who have participated in school-based interventions have sustained outcomes in PA, fitness, and/or FMS. A systematic search of six electronic databases (CINAHL® Plus with Full Text, Ovid MEDLINE®, SPORTDiscus™, Scopus, PsycINFO® and ERIC) was conducted from 1995 to 26 July 2012. Included studies were school-based studies (including randomized controlled trials, longitudinal cohort, quasi-experimental, and experimental) that had a positive effect at post intervention in at least one variable and had a follow-up PA, fitness, or FMS assessment at least 6 months after the post-intervention assessment. Risk of bias assessment was guided by the "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" statement. The search identified 14 articles, and some studies addressed multiple outcomes: 13 articles assessed PA; three assessed fitness; and two assessed FMS. No study in this review met four key methodological criteria that have been shown to influence results, i.e., clarity on the randomization process, assessor blinding, analyzing participants in their original groups, and retaining sufficient participants through the entire study. Three-quarters (ten of 13) of the studies addressing PA, reported PA behavior change maintenance. The length of follow-up ranged from 6 months to 20 years, and the degree of PA difference reported was between 3 and 14 min per day. Only one of the three studies assessing fitness reported a sustained impact, whilst both studies that assessed FMS reported maintenance of effects. It is likely that PA is a sustainable outcome from interventions in children and adolescents, and there is reasonable evidence that interventions of longer than 1 year and interventions that utilize a theoretical model or framework are effective in producing this sustained impact. It would seem probable that FMS are a sustainable
Full Text Available Terrah L Foster,1,2 Cynthia J Bell,1 Carey F McDonald,2 Joy S Harris,3 Mary Jo Gilmer,1,21Vanderbilt University School of Nursing, Nashville, 2Monroe Carell Jr Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, 3Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Pediatric palliative care aims to enhance life and decrease suffering of children and adolescents living with life-threatening conditions and their loved ones. Oncology nurses are instrumental in providing palliative care to pediatric oncology populations. This paper describes pediatric palliative care and provides an overview of literature related to the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual domains of palliative nursing care for children and adolescents with cancer. Nurses can provide optimal palliative care by accounting for children's understanding of death, encouraging early initiation of palliative care services, and improving utilization of pediatric palliative care in cancer settings. Specific roles of registered nurses and advanced practice nurses in pediatric palliative care will be addressed. Recommendations for future research are made to further advance the science of pediatric palliative care and decrease suffering for children and teens with cancer.Keywords: pediatric palliative care, pediatric cancer, oncology, child, suffering
Daniels, S R
The increasing prevalence and severity of obesity in children and adolescents has provided greater emphasis on the wide variety of comorbid conditions and complications that can be experienced as a consequence of obesity. These complications can occur both in the short term and in the long term. Some complications, earlier thought to be long-term issues, which would only occur in adulthood, have now been shown to occur in children and adolescents. These findings have raised concerns about the overall health experience of those who develop obesity early in life and have even raised questions about whether the obesity epidemic might shorten the life span of the current generation of children. In this paper, I will examine current knowledge regarding the different organ systems that may be impacted by childhood obesity.
Purper-Ouakil, D; Michel, G; Mouren-Siméoni, M-C
their predictive value for the onset of clinical depressive episodes needs further investigation. Familial and individual vulnerability is likely to heighten the depressogenic impact of life events and psycho-social adversity. Prevention interventions have been developed in the United States for children and adolescents at-risk for depression. In France, clinicians witness growing demands from families with affective illness concerned with risk of parent-child transmission of depressive vulnerability, prevention and early identification of symptoms. To meet this kind of emerging needs and to prevent family dysfunction, a preventive program targets offspring of depressed parents and uses clinician-based family approaches. Family and individual sessions aim a better understanding of illness experience and encourage the parents to identify and foster resilience in their children. Another type of preventive intervention focuses on children and adolescents with subclinical depressive symptoms, eventually associated with behavioral problems ou high level of parental conflict, recruited in school settings. These school-based interventions combine cognitive and social problem-solving techniques. Both familial and school-based preventive interventions have proven applicable and promising in high-risk children and adolescents. Perspectives are more systematic identification of risk groups, including youngsters with past or current non affective symptoms who might benefit from depression prevention, long-term evaluation and cross-cultural applications of prevention programs.
Radzimirska-Graczyk, Monika; Chalcarz, Wojciech
The aim of this study was to assess habits related to eating meals in children and adolescents who attended sports schools. The days with training and the days free of training were analysed separately. The questionnaires on the number and frequency of eating meals were filled in by 141 children and adolescents who practised fencing and attended sports classes in primary and secondary schools. The influence of gender and age on the number and frequency of eating meals was analysed by means of the SPSS 12.0 PL for Windows computer programme. The studied children's and adolescents' habits related to eating meals were highly unfavourable, especially in females from secondary school, mainly due to a very low percentage of students who ate meals regularly, lunch in particular. Boys ate more meals than girls. Especially disconcerting was a very low number of meals eaten by females from secondary school, which may imply a risk of anorexia. Children and adolescents who attend sports schools should be educated on nutrition and the relation between food habits, nutritional status and achieving success in sport. Females from secondary schools should be informed about the danger of anorexia.
Predictors of parental home and school involvement for high school adolescents were examined within two groups of urban African American parents from various socioeconomic levels. Home involvement was defined as parent-adolescent communication about school and learning, while school involvement was defined in terms of parent attendance and…
Full Text Available Objective: Suicide is a complex phenomenon associated with pyschological, biological and social factors. Suicide has been reported as the second or third most common cause of death in children and adolescents worldwide. Suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents will be discussed in the frame of motivational definition. Method: Published research studies and reviews on children and adolescent suicides have been reviewed. Furthermore, classical papers have been searched to obtain knowledge about suicide behavior. Results: It is reported that firearms have been the most important effect in adolescent suicide. Both fatal and nonfatal suicidal behaviors have been linked consistently to negative parent-child relationships, depression, substance use, overall number of life stressors, gender and impulsive behaviors. Discussion: Future efforts to investigate suicidal behavior should use new research methodologies that may lead to identification of the interactions between environmental factors and constitutional and biological factors that are associated with risk for suicidal behavior. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(2.000: 88-97
Poutiainen, Hannele; Levälahti, Esko; Hakulinen-Viitanen, Tuovi; Laatikainen, Tiina
Family socio-economic factors and parents' health behaviours have been shown to have an impact on the health and well-being of children and adolescents. Family characteristics have also been associated with school nurses' concerns, which arose during health examinations, about children's and adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development. Parental smoking has also been associated with smoking in adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent school nurses' concerns about adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development related to family characteristics are mediated through parents' and adolescents' own health behaviours (smoking). A path model approach using cross-sectional data was used. In 2008-2009, information about health and well-being of adolescents was gathered at health examinations of the Children's Health Monitoring Study. Altogether 1006 eighth and ninth grade pupils in Finland participated in the study. The associations between family characteristics, smoking among parents and adolescents and school nurses' concerns about adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development were examined using a structural equation model. Paternal education had a direct, and, through fathers' and boys' smoking, an indirect association with school nurses' concerns about the physical health of boys. Paternal labour market status and family income were only indirectly associated with concerns about the physical health of boys by having an effect on boys' smoking through paternal smoking, and a further indirect effect on concerns about boys' health. In girls, only having a single mother was strongly associated with school nurses' concerns about psychosocial development through maternal and adolescent girl smoking. Socio-economic family characteristics and parental smoking influence adolescent smoking and are associated with school nurses' concerns about adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development. The findings
Barraclough, Camille; Machek, Greg
The authors examined the role of school psychologists in working with children with chronic illnesses in the schools. A total of 300 practicing school psychologists in public schools, drawn from the National Association of School Psychologists membership directory, completed a standard mail survey. The survey solicited information on (a) graduate…
View a fact sheet that has statistics as well as information about types, causes, and treatments of cancers in children and adolescents in the United States. https://www.cancer.gov/types/childhood-cancers/child-adolescent-cancers-fact-sheet
Honkanen, Meri; Meri, Honkanen; Hurtig, Tuula; Tuula, Hurtig; Taanila, Anja; Anja, Taanila; Moilanen, Irma; Irma, Moilanen; Koponen, Hannu; Hannu, Koponen; Mäki, Pirjo; Pirjo, Mäki; Veijola, Juha; Juha, Veijola; Puustjärvi, Anita; Anita, Puustjärvi; Ebeling, Hanna; Hanna, Ebeling; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Heli, Koivumaa-Honkanen
The objective was to investigate how teachers' assessments of children predict life satisfaction in adolescence. This is a prospective cohort study on the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 8,959). Information was gathered from parents, teachers and adolescents using questionnaires at the age of 7, 8 and 15. Response rates were 80-90%. Emotional and behavioural problems were assessed with Rutter Children's Behavioural Questionnaires for teachers (RB2) and parents (RA2) during the first grade at age 8. At adolescence, self-reported life satisfaction was measured with a question including five response alternatives. According to teachers' assessments, 13.9% of the children had high emotional or behavioural problems (RB2 ≥9). These assessments predicted life dissatisfaction in adolescence (OR(crude) = 1.77; 95% CI 1.43-2.20) in several models including also health behaviour and use of psychotropic medicine. However, introducing all the significant variables in the same model, RB2 lost its significance (OR = 1.28; 0.96-1.70), but good school achievement assessed by teachers was still a significant predictor. Life satisfaction in adolescence was associated with a variety of favourable concurrent factors. In conclusion teachers' assessments of children during the first school year predicted life satisfaction in adolescence. In mental health promotion, teachers' early assessments should be utilized for the benefit of children.
ary school students in Ibadan, Nigeria and the prevalence's association with some socio-demographic variables. Methods: Participants were adolescent students from 15 secondary schools in Ibadan. Data was ..... Applied Ergonomics 1987;.
Knowledge, attitude and practices of adolescent secondary school students in Uvwie ... METHOD: A cross sectional study was carried out on 358 senior secondary ... secondary school students in Uvwie have a fairly good knowledge of AIDS, ...
Walton, Daniel K; Fields, Henry W; Johnston, William M; Rosenstiel, Stephen F; Firestone, Allen R; Christensen, James C
Although attractiveness and acceptability of orthodontic appliances have been rated by adults for themselves and for adolescents, children and adolescents have not provided any substantial data. The objective of this study was to evaluate preferences and acceptability of orthodontic appliances in children and adolescents. Images of orthodontic appliances previously captured and standardized were selected and incorporated into a computer-based survey. Additional images of shaped brackets and colored elastomeric ties, as well as discolored clear elastomeric ties, were captured and incorporated onto existing survey images with Photoshop (Adobe, San Jose, Calif). The survey displayed 12 orthodontic appliance variations to 139 children in 3 age groups: 9 to 11 years (n = 45), 12 to 14 years (n = 49), and 15 to 17 years (n = 45). The subjects rated each image for attractiveness and acceptability. All images were displayed and rated twice to assess rater reliability. Overall reliability ratings were r = 0.74 for attractiveness and k = 0.66 for acceptability. There were significant differences in bracket attractiveness and acceptability in each age group. The highest-rated appliances were clear aligners, twin brackets with colored ties, and shaped brackets with and without colored ties. Colored elastomeric ties improved attractiveness significantly over brackets without colored ties for children in the 12-to-14 year group. There was a tendency for older subjects to rate clear orthodontic appliances higher than did younger subjects. Ceramic brackets with discolored ties tended to be rated lower than ceramic brackets with new ties and scored lowest in acceptability and attractiveness in all age groups. Girls rated shaped brackets significantly higher than did boys. Children's preferences for orthodontic appliances differ by age and sex. Child and adolescent preferences differ from adult preferences. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby
Elgar, Frank J.; Pförtner, Timo Kolja; Moor, Irene; De Clercq, Bart; Stevens, Gonneke W J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269103775; Currie, Candace
Background Information about trends in adolescent health inequalities is scarce, especially at an international level. We examined secular trends in socioeconomic inequality in five domains of adolescent health and the association of socioeconomic inequality with national wealth and income
Boschloo, A.M.; Ouwehand, C.; Dekker, S.J.; Lee, N.C.; de Groot, R.H.M.; Krabbendam, A.C.; Jolles, J.
Breakfast skipping is common in adolescents, but research on the effects of breakfast skipping on school performance is scarce. This current cross-sectional survey study of 605 adolescents aged 11-18 years investigated whether adolescents who habitually skip breakfast have lower end-of-term grades
Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley
This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…
Adults may facilitate or obstruct healthy sexual behaviours by adolescents; hence information on their attitude towards adolescent sexual behaviour, including contraceptive use is important. The attitude of teachers to school-based adolescent reproductive health services was assessed among two hundred and twenty three ...
Rukundo, Aloysius; Kibanja, Grace; Steffens, Karl
Introduction: Psychoactive substance use among adolescents influences behavioral and cognitive processes and is associated with adolescents' performance in school. We therefore sought to investigate association of PASU with adolescents' school performance. Methods: We employed quantitative methods of data collection and analysis. To test the…
Jermolajew, Anna M.; Newhouse, C. Paul
Over the past decade there has been an explosion in the provision of computing facilities in schools for student use. However, there is concern that the development of these facilities has often given little regard to the ergonomics of the design for use by children, particularly adolescents. This paper reports on a study that investigated the…
Beran, Tanya N.; Lupart, Judy
The relationship between school achievement and peer harassment was examined using individual and peer characteristics as mediating factors. The sample consisted of adolescents age 12-15 years (n = 4,111) drawn from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, which is a stratified random sample of 22,831 households in Canada.…
Full Text Available Background: Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. Design: In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different communities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy (e.g. fruits, vegetables, and fish and unhealthy (e.g. sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and crisps food items, questions of meal frequency, and four questions regarding behavioral problems at school. Results: Having breakfast regularly was significantly associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems (OR: 0.29 (0.15 − 0.55, p≤0.001. A high intake of unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened soft drinks (OR: 2.8 (1.06 − 7.42, p=0.03 and sweets (OR: 2.63 (1.39 − 4.98, p=0.003, was significantly associated with increased odds of behavioral problems. At the same time, a high intake of fruits was associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems in Norwegian adolescents (OR: 0.30 (0.10 − 0.87, p=0.03. All ORs are adjusted for sex and BMI. Conclusions: This study shows that having an optimal diet and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents. Hence, it is important to improve the dietary intake and meal pattern of Norwegian adolescents. The cross-sectional design of this study limits any causal interpretations of the results of the study.
Hulgaard, Ditte Roth; Rask, Charlotte; Risør, Mette Bech
aims to examine how specific illness beliefs and a sense of empowerment evolve and change during specialized family-based treatment delivered in a child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) setting. Further, how these affect symptom experiences and coping strategies. Methods: Data collection...... illness beliefs and poor sense of empowerment has been shown effective for FSS in adults. In comparison current knowledge about psychological treatment and the significance of illness beliefs and empowerment in children and adolescents with severe FSS is scarce. Aims: To conduct a qualitative study which......: Preliminary data from interviews conducted prior to family therapy, indicate that illness beliefs and sense of empowerment may be diverging for children and their parents, and are influenced by many factors, such as health professionals, family history, media and personal experiences. Conclusions: Increased...
Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy
Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…
This study investigated the influence of peer group on the study habit of secondary school adolescents. A sample of two hundred and ninety two (292) students was randomly selected from nine schools in two Local Government Areas of Ogun State. Two instruments were used to collect data. They are: Adolescents' Peer ...
Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.
Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…
This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…
Yost, Deborah S.; Liang, Ling L.; Vogel, Robert
How might middle school teachers and schools more appropriately engage early adolescent students in the writing process so that they are motivated and engaged to "want" to write and write well? This article introduces "Writers Matter," an approach designed to engage and motivate young adolescents in the writing process,…
Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Line
Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter? Authors Meilstrup C, Ersbøll AK, Nielsen L, Due P, Holstein BE Background A large minority of children and adolescents suffer from mental distress and it is important to identify contributing factors......% across schools. Individual level variables such as low socio-economic position and family composition explained much of the variation across schools. Still, class level variables also contributed to this variation. In classes where many students reported that the class-mates doesn´t like being together...... (compositional effects), this study suggest that contextual factors are important to take into account in the research on psychological complaints among children and adolescents. This analytical model presents a way for future studies about contextual influences on psychological complaints....
Koyuncuo?lu G?ng?r, Neslihan
Obesity among children, adolescents and adults has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century. The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased remarkably over the past 3 decades. The growing prevalence of childhood obesity has also led to appearance of obesity-related comorbid disease entities at an early age. Childhood obesity can adversely affect nearly every organ system and often causes serious consequences, including hypertension, dyslipidem...
Pao, Maryland; Bosk, Abigail
Anxiety disorders are thought to be one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses in children/adolescents. Chronic medical illness is a significant risk factor for the development of an anxiety disorder and the prevalence rate of anxiety disorders among youths with chronic medical illnesses is higher compared to their healthy counterparts. Anxiety disorders may develop secondary to predisposing biological mechanisms related to a child’s specific medical illness, as a response to being ill or i...
Le Heuzey, M-F
There has been an explosion of public interest and concern about children and adolescents who show an interest in changing their gender. And it is an emerging problem for pediatricians, which brings many inquiries about what to do? Both the diagnosis and treatment of gender identity disorder are controversial. But there are a new early treatment using puberty blocking hormones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Unlike in adults, currently there are no nationally agreed guidelines for the assessment of periodontal diseases in children and adolescents. This paper considers the range of periodontal diseases that can affect youngsters and documents a simple periodontal screening system for the younger age groups. It includes principles of periodontal diagnosis and management for the practitioner to apply to the young patient and considers when to treat in practice and when to refer to a specialist.
Azad, Kiswhar; Mohsin, Fauzia; Zargar, Abdul Hamid; Zabeen, Bedowra; Ahmad, Jamal; Raza, Syed Abbas; Tayyeb, Samin; Bajaj, Sarita; Ishtiaq, Osama; Kalra, Sanjay
Fasting during the month of Ramadan, the ninth month of Islamic lunar calendar, is obligatory for all healthy adult and adolescent Muslims from the age of 12 years. Fasting starts from early dawn (Sohur/Sehri) till sunset (Iftar). During this period one has to abstain from eating and drinking. Islam has allowed many categories of people to be exempted from fasting, for example, young children, travelers, the sick, the elderly, pregnant, and lactating women. According to expert opinion, patien...
Möller, Birgit; Georg, Romer
Despite rising demand for treatment, far too few specialist services for gender dysphoric children and adolescents exist. Due to complex issues related to indication of physical treatment with lifelong consequences a thorough interdisciplinary treatment service with development-related evaluation is necessary. The aim of this paper is to outline the professional and social tension, in which the practitioner works, as well as to provide insight into the diversity of developmental trajectories and difficult decisions or dilemmas.
Kuchma, V R
The National Strategy defines the main directions and objectives of public policy in the interests of children and the key mechanisms for its implementation. The strategy is based on the universally recognized principles and norms of international law. Implementation of the National Strategy will be realized in the following areas: Family Child Welfare Policy, availability to quality education and training, cultural development, and information security of children, child-friendly health care, and healthy lifestyle; equal opportunities for children in need of special care of the State, the creation of protection and safeguarding the rights and interests of children and child-friendly justice, and children - members of the realization of National Strategy. School health care is intended to be actively involved in two directions: availability to quality education and training, cultural development, and information security of children, health care, child-friendly and healthy lifestyle. The main tasks in the part of hygiene and children's health are: state support for the construction of new preschool educational institutions and the development of all forms of safe preschool education, including non-state sector, providing for every upperclassman safe choice of training profile corresponding to his inclinations and life plans, as well as the functional possibilities and health state; providing quality psychological, correctional and pedagogical aid to children in educational institutions; renewal of forms and methods of control of child neglect, drug addiction, alcoholism, crime, prostitution; the development of effective mechanisms in prevention of deviant behavior in childhood; the creation and implementation of training programs for children and adolescents on rules of safety behavior in the World Wide Web, prevention of Internet addiction; the introduction of the system for monitoring of the educational environment; the creation of portals and sites accumulating
Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to ascertain nutritional customs of pupils in grade schools.Material and Method: Anonymous questionnaires were done to a sample of 380 children, aged 10 to 14, in 20 fourth-to eight grade classes from 2 schools in Cluj-Napoca: one from down-town, the other one from a poorer neighbourhood.Results: Almost half of students revealed to have an irregular diet. In the last month, some of them did not have enough food or money to buy it (much of them come from the poorer neighbourhood. In this latest school, a triple percent of children have a vegetable diet (no meat, in fact. The obsession to lose weight and the irregular diet has conducted to lose appetite in over 30% of girls. About 60% take vitamins or nutritional supplements. Social status as well as the irregular diet is reflected in general status: over one third feel sad, alone, useless or cry without any reason. Some of the pupils which have problems with daily food supply, think the life is hard and do not worth to live it.Conclusions: There is a wide diversity in nutritional customs of children. Some of them are due to inappropriate nutritional knowledge or a wrong perception of being on fashion as well as to social status. Although the economic conditions are difficult to change, we consider that nutrition education should still be a part of health teaching.
Nascimento, Melissa Maria Romero; Melo, Tatiana Rocha; Pinto, Rogério Melo Costa; Morales, Nívea Macedo Oliveira; Mendonça, Tânia Maria Silva; Paro, Helena Borges Martins da Silva; Silva, Carlos Henrique Martins
To evaluate the perception of parents or caregivers on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity and possible factors associated with this perception. This was a cross-sectional study involving 297 caregivers of children and adolescents with normal weight (n=170) and with overweight/obesity (n=127), from public and private schools in the study municipality. HRQOL scores obtained through the Child Health Questionnaire - Parent Form 50 (CHQ-PF50) were compared according to the nutritional status and gender of the children/adolescents. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value of studied variables for the variation in HRQOL scores. Parents of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity attributed lower HRQOL scores to their children in the following domains: physical functioning (pnutritional status (β=-0.18; p≤0.01); emotional impact on parents, impact on parents' time (β=0.31; pchildren/adolescents with overweight/obesity was observed in the physical and psychosocial aspects. The nutritional status was the variable with the greatest contribution for the assessment the self-esteem of children and adolescents in this study. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
... DM and in one subject with sickle cell anemia. Conclusion: The prevalence of microalbuminuria in Nigerian adolescents is high. We recommend routine screening for microalbuminuria in adolescents for early detection and prevention of renal damage. Key words: microalbuminuria, obesity, hypertension, children, Nigeria ...
Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Nansel, Tonja R.
Purpose Four forms of school bullying behaviors among US adolescents and their association with socio-demographic characteristics, parental support and friends were examined. Methods Data were obtained from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 2005 Survey, a nationally-representative sample of grades 6 to 10 (N = 7182). The Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used to measure physical, verbal and relational forms of bullying. Two items were added using the same format to measure cyber bullying. For each form, four categories were created: bully, victim, bully-victim, and not involved. Multinomial logistic regressions were applied, with socio-demographic variables, parental support and number of friends as predictors. Results Prevalence rates of having bullied others or having been bullied at school for at least once in the last 2 months were 20.8% physically, 53.6% verbally, 51.4% socially or 13.6% electronically. Boys were more involved in physical or verbal bullying, while girls were more involved in relational bullying. Boys were more likely to be cyber bullies, while girls were more likely to be cyber victims. African-American adolescents were involved in more bullying (physical, verbal or cyber) but less victimization (verbal or relational). Higher parental support was associated with less involvement across all forms and classifications of bullying. Having more friends was associated with more bullying and less victimization for physical, verbal and relational forms, but was not associated with cyber bullying. Conclusions Parental support may protect adolescents from all four forms of bullying. Friends associate differentially with traditional and cyber bullying. Results indicate that cyber bullying has a distinct nature from traditional bullying. PMID:19766941
Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; McNeil, Justin K.
Evaluations of a children's rights education initiative in schools in Hampshire, England--consistent with previous research findings--demonstrate the effectiveness of a framework of rights for school policy, practice, and teaching, for promoting rights-respecting attitudes and behaviors among children, and for improving the school ethos. The value…
DeVita, Stefanie F.; Vranesich, Patricia A.; Boulton, Matthew L.
Objectives. We examined the effect of Michigan’s new school rules and vaccine coadministration on time to completion of all the school-required vaccine series, the individual adolescent vaccines newly required for sixth grade in 2010, and initiation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series, which was recommended but not required for girls. Methods. Data were derived from the Michigan Care Improvement Registry, a statewide Immunization Information System. We assessed the immunization status of Michigan children enrolled in sixth grade in 2009 or 2010. We used univariable and multivariable Cox regression models to identify significant associations between each factor and school completeness. Results. Enrollment in sixth grade in 2010 and coadministration of adolescent vaccines at the first adolescent visit were significantly associated with completion of the vaccines required for Michigan’s sixth graders. Children enrolled in sixth grade in 2010 had higher coverage with the newly required adolescent vaccines by age 13 years than did sixth graders in 2009, but there was little difference in the rate of HPV vaccine initiation among girls. Conclusions. Education and outreach efforts, particularly regarding the importance and benefits of coadministration of all recommended vaccines in adolescents, should be directed toward health care providers, parents, and adolescents. PMID:24922144
Background: Existing school health programmes in Uganda target children above five years for de-worming, oral hygiene and frequent vaccination of girls of reproductive age. Objective:To assess primary school children\\'s perspectives on common diseases they experience and medicines used in order to suggest reforms ...
Yone Gonçalves de Moura
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated to frequent and heavy drug use among street children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. A sample of 2,807 street children and adolescents from the 27 Brazilian state capital cities was analyzed. A World Health Organization questionnaire for non-students was adapted for use in Brazil. Data analysis was performed using logistic regression and decision tree models. Factors inversely associated with frequent and heavy drug use were: being age nine to 11 years (OR = 0.1; school attendance (OR = 0.3; daily time (one to five hours spent on the streets (OR = 0.3 and 0.4; not sleeping on the streets (OR = 0.4; being on the streets for less than one year (OR = 0.4; maintenance of some family bonds (OR = 0.5; presence on the streets of a family member (OR = 0.6; not suffering domestic violence (OR = 0.6; being female (OR = 0.8. All of these variables were significant at the p < 0.05 level. The findings suggest that being younger, having family bonds and engagement in school are important protective factors that affect drug use among this population and should be considered in the formulation of public policies.
Elkins, Rebecca L.; King, Keith; Nabors, Laura; Vidourek, Rebecca
School violence, school violent victimization, and suicidal ideation among adolescents are serious public health concerns. This pilot study investigated the influence of steroid use on problem behaviors. Secondary data analyses of the 2014 PRIDE Questionnaire were performed based on information collected from 38,414 high school adolescents.…
Logan, Deirdre E; Gray, Laura S; Iversen, Christina N; Kim, Susan
This study investigated school self-efficacy and sense of school membership (collectively "school self-concept") as potential influences on impaired school function among adolescents with chronic pain, including comparison of adolescents with primary pain to those with disease-based pain and pain-free peers. In all, 264 adolescents (12-17 years old) with primary pain conditions, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, or no pain completed measures of functional disability, school functioning, pain characteristics, and school self-concept, the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for School Situations (SEQ-SS), and Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM). Both the SEQ-SS and PSSM demonstrated reliability and some validity, with the SEQ-SS more strongly supported. As a group, adolescents with primary pain conditions reported poorer school self-concept. School self-efficacy, but not school belongingness, predicted school functioning later in the school year. School self-concept, especially as assessed with the SEQ-SS, is relevant and important to assess when addressing school functioning in youth with chronic pain. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Schreuders, Michael; Nuyts, Paulien A. W.; van den Putte, Bas; Kunst, Anton E.
Background: Secondary schools increasingly implement school tobacco policies (STPs) to decrease adolescents' smoking. Recent studies suggested that STPs' impact depends on their implementation. We examined adolescents' cognitive and behavioural responses to STPs that impact adolescents' smoking and
Schreuders, M.; Nuyts, P.A.W.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A.E.
Background Secondary schools increasingly implement school tobacco policies (STPs) to decrease adolescents' smoking. Recent studies suggested that STPs' impact depends on their implementation. We examined adolescents' cognitive and behavioural responses to STPs that impact adolescents' smoking and
Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances
The study examined the fears and anxieties of Chinese deaf and hard of hearing children and adolescents, and the ability of parents and teachers to report the presence of these fears and anxieties. Chinese deaf youth are at risk due to a lack of trained teachers, an overemphasis on oral education in schools, negative stereotypes, and parental…
Amagir, Aisa; Groot, Wim; Maassen van den Brink, Henriëtte; Wilschut, Arie
In this systematic literature review, we evaluate the effectiveness of financial-literacy education programs and interventions for children and adolescents. Furthermore, the key characteristics of the design of a successful financial-education curriculum are described. The evidence shows that school-based financial-education programs can improve…
Nippold, Marilyn A.; Duthie, Jill K.; Larsen, Jennifer
Purpose: Literacy plays an important role in the development of language in school-age children and adolescents. For example, by reading a variety of books, magazines, and newspapers, students gain exposure to complex vocabulary, and reading becomes a prime opportunity for learning new words. Despite the importance of reading for lexical …
Bulliyy, Gandham; Mallick, Gitanjali; Sethy, Girija Sankar; Kar, Santanu Kumar
Anemia is a major public health problem in young children and pregnant women in SouthEast Asia, but a paucity of data on anemia in adolescent girls in India. Studies are lacking on the entire non-school going adolescent population. To determine the prevalence of anemia in non-school going adolescent girls and the association between hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and socioeconomic and nutritional factors. A cross-sectional community study conducted on a sample of 1937 healthy adolescent girls aged 11-19 years from three districts of Orissa, India. Sample size was determined using a probability proportionate to size cluster sampling. The adolescent girls were interviewed and anthropometric measurements were collected. The Hb estimation was carried out in capillary blood samples using the cyanmethemoglobin method. Anemia and nutritional status were evaluated according to standard procedures. The mean Hb concentration was 9.7 +/- 1.4 g/dL (range, 4.5-13.4 g/dL). Of the total adolescent girls, 1869 (96.5%) were anemic (Hb education levels of girls and their parents' family income, body mass index, and mid-upper arm circumference. This study revealed that prevalence of anemia was extremely high in non-school going adolescent girls (most were moderately anemic) and stressed the need for more research and public health interventions.
This study explores the extent to which a high school's organizational contexts and individual students' characteristics are related to adolescents' school bond in multiracial schools. It first examines how the racial heterogeneity of a school is associated with the levels of students' school bond, and then explores the roles school climate plays…
, the Act's statutory requirements relating to the informed consent to participation in clinical research by mentally ill children and adolescents in South Africa are examined. The necessity of doing clinical research in mentally ill children and ...
Byun, Yoon-Hwan; Ha, Mina; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Burm, Eunae; Choi, Yeyong; Lim, Myung-Ho; Yoo, Seung-Jin; Paik, Ki-Chung; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Nam
As public concern on possible harmful effects of mobile phone in children has been raised, information of epidemiological characteristics of mobile phone use in children and adolescents will be essential for public health policy. Using three databases (n=21,693) collected from 2008 to 2011, we examined characteristics of mobile phone ownership and use, and socioeconomic positions (SEP) in Korean children and adolescents. The ownership rate and the amount of mobile phone use were higher in females than males, in higher school grades than lower grades, and at 2011 than 2008. The average age of first mobile phone ownership was shown to decrease from 12.5 years in currently high school students to 8.4 years in currently elementary school students at 2011. More than 90% of children in the 5th grade owned a mobile phone. More children owned a mobile phone in lower SEP communities than in higher SEP. Children with parents educated less than those with parents educated more were more likely to own and use mobile phone. Considering the epidemiological characteristics of mobile phone use, precautionary measures to prevent unnecessary exposure to mobile phones are needed in children and adolescents.
Alexandra G. Makalatia
Full Text Available The paper describes research on the role and place of computer games in the lives of children and adolescents, and also perceiving how young gamers estimate the impact of various aspects of computer games and experience games in general on themselves. The study involved gamers between the age of 11 and 19 years. The study is conducted using surveys and interviews. The issues are related to those aspects of games that are perceived as most important, attractive, and cause the greatest emotional response, and also determine the selection of games; how users appreciate game characters including users’ attitudes to the games and the place of the computer game in their lives. The study revealed that children and adolescents generally have a positive attitude towards computer games and find them a useful and enjoyable part of life, they do not feel shame and remorse for wasting time playing computer games, and are going to continue to play on into adulthood. Playing computer games they learn to communicate and make decisions. The most important aspect of evaluating game characters is their visual representation The character appearance in the game is one of the main factors of their attractiveness. Adolescents do not appreciate only important aesthetic component of the visual images, but also their meaning: reflection of personality or actions of characters in visual images. Preferences in selecting games are largely determined by the player actions in the game rather than the game plot. For adolescents computer game is an opportunity to try themselves in different situations and get the experience of interacting with other people, who may get inaccessible in real life. A computer game for children is a model of a successful living, so it can be used as a means of personal self-development. Computer games make a full-fledged sphere of life in adolescents through which they gradually realize the importance of school and studies, sports, and hobbies
Steensma, T.D.; Zucker, K.J.; Kreukels, B.P.C.; VanderLaan, D.P.; Wood, H.; Fuentes, A.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.
For gender dysphoric children and adolescents, the school environment may be challenging due to peer social ostracism and rejection. To date, information on the psychological functioning and the quality of peer relations in gender dysphoric children and adolescents has been studied via parental
CHENG-YE JI; WORKING GROUP ON OBESITY IN CHINA (WGOC)
Objective To describe the nationwide prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity, and their group variations and trends over the past 20 years in the Chinese urban population. Methods Data sets of boys and girls at the age of 7-18 years collected from the series of Chinese national surveillance on students' constitution and health (CNSSCH) between 1985 and 2000 were divided into five socioeconomic and demographic groups, while BMI classification reference proposed by Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) was used as screening reference to calculate the prevalence and trends of overweight/obesity in these groups. Results In 2000, the prevalence of obesity and overweight in boys aged 7-18 years was 11.3% and 6.5% in Beijing, 13.2% and 4.9% in Shanghai, 9.9% and 4.5% in coastal big cities, and 5.8% and 2.0% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively, while the prevalence of of obesity and overweight in girls of the same age group was 8.2% and 3.7% in Beijing, 7.3% and 2.6% in Shanghai, 5.9% and 2.8% in coastal big cities, and 4.8% and 1.7% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was low in most of the inland cities at an early stage of epidemic overweight. The epidemic manifested a gradient distribution in groups, which was closely related to socioeconomic status (SES) of the study population. However, a dramatic and steady increasing trend was witnessed among all sex-age subgroups in the five urban groups, and such a trend was stronger in boys than in girls, and much stronger in children than in adolescents. Conclusion Although China is at an early stage of epidemic obesity by and large, the prevalence of obesity in her urban population, particularly in coastal big cities has reached the average level of developed countries. The increasing trend has been rapid since early 1990s, and the increments in obesity and overweight are exceptionally high. The prospect of epidemic obesity in China is in no way optimistic
Mundy, Peter; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey; McIntyre, Nancy; Zajic, Matt; Oswald, Tasha
The validity of joint attention assessment in school-aged children with ASD is unclear (Lord, Jones, "Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry" 53(5):490-509, 2012). This study examined the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of joint attention related behaviors in verbal children and adolescents with ASD. Fifty-two…
Nepal, a developing country of the south-asian region has bigger problem of children not completing the full cycle of basic education. In other words, large number of children dropout of schools, especially in the primary and secondary level of schooling. Especially, the situation is worse for those of the backward and socially disadvantaged populations and of the rural and the remote areas. Being in this frame, this study focused on the reasons of dropout of children from schools and the pos...
Full Text Available Background. Classical antipsychotics – neuroleptics are one of the most frequently prescribed psychotropic drugs in child psychiatry. Atypical antipsychotics are used for the same indications – psychotic (schizophrenia as well as unpsychotic disorders (pervasive developmental disorders, mood disorders, conduct disorders and tics disorders. It is surprising that the studies on their use with regard to this age group are rather rare. They are carried out on a small number of samples and only exceptionally double blind. This article summarizes published clinical experience with atypical antipsychotics in children and adolescents. A short overview of pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and side effects is given. Schizophrenia and pervasive developmental disorders are major indications for use of atypical antipsychotics in children and adolescents, but they have also been successfully used for other disorders such as aggressive behaviour, tics and anorexia nervosa.Conclusions. With better side-effect profile, some of the atypical antipsychotics are expected to be doctrinally recognised as the first-line treatment for childhood schizophrenia and pervasive developmental disorders. However, more long-term studies carried out on a larger sample are needed. Atypical antipsychotics are already used in everyday practice as first-line treatment of childhood and adolescents schizophrenia.
Castilla-Peón, María Fernanda
Transgender or gender nonconforming (GN) persons identify themselves with a gender which is different from that correspondent to their birth sex. The demand for health services by families with transgender children or adolescents tends to increase. The prevalence of GN in children is unknown; however, it has been estimated to be > 1% in adolescents. Transgender persons are at increased risk of depression, suicide, illicit drug abuse, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and non-accidental injury. The most accepted model for the care of transgender persons assumes that these adverse outcomes are the consequence of social margination rather than the GI condition itself. Social and physical gender transition seem to be effective in increasing the well-being of people with GI and reducing associated health risks. Mental health professionals can support the child in the process of social transition. The pediatric endocrinologist may offer puberty blockade and cross-sex induction of puberty. Surgical sex reassignment interventions are reserved for adults. Gender identity, gender expression and sexual orientation are three relatively independent categories that can take any value, which is not necessarily binary (male/female) or fixed. Health professionals should be familiar with these concepts in order to offer the best resources available to optimize the well-being of each transgender child or adolescent with an individualized approach. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.
Azad, Kiswhar; Mohsin, Fauzia; Zargar, Abdul Hamid; Zabeen, Bedowra; Ahmad, Jamal; Raza, Syed Abbas; Tayyeb, Samin; Bajaj, Sarita; Ishtiaq, Osama; Kalra, Sanjay
Fasting during the month of Ramadan, the ninth month of Islamic lunar calendar, is obligatory for all healthy adult and adolescent Muslims from the age of 12 years. Fasting starts from early dawn (Sohur/Sehri) till sunset (Iftar). During this period one has to abstain from eating and drinking. Islam has allowed many categories of people to be exempted from fasting, for example, young children, travelers, the sick, the elderly, pregnant, and lactating women. According to expert opinion, patients with type 1 diabetes (type 1 DM) who fast during Ramadan are at a very high risk to develop adverse events. However, some experienced physicians are of the opinion that fasting during Ramadan is safe for type 1 DM patients, including adolescents and older children, with good glycemic control who do regular self-monitoring and are under close professional supervision. The strategies to ensure safety of type 1 diabetic adolescents who are planning to fast include the following: Ramadan-focused medical education, pre-Ramadan medical assessment, following a healthy diet and physical activity pattern, modification in insulin regimen, and blood glucose monitoring as advised by the physician. PMID:22837907
Full Text Available Fasting during the month of Ramadan, the ninth month of Islamic lunar calendar, is obligatory for all healthy adult and adolescent Muslims from the age of 12 years. Fasting starts from early dawn (Sohur/Sehri till sunset (Iftar. During this period one has to abstain from eating and drinking. Islam has allowed many categories of people to be exempted from fasting, for example, young children, travelers, the sick, the elderly, pregnant, and lactating women. According to expert opinion, patients with type 1 diabetes (type 1 DM who fast during Ramadan are at a very high risk to develop adverse events. However, some experienced physicians are of the opinion that fasting during Ramadan is safe for type 1 DM patients, including adolescents and older children, with good glycemic control who do regular self-monitoring and are under close professional supervision. The strategies to ensure safety of type 1 diabetic adolescents who are planning to fast include the following: Ramadan-focused medical education, pre-Ramadan medical assessment, following a healthy diet and physical activity pattern, modification in insulin regimen, and blood glucose monitoring as advised by the physician.
Bogart, Laura M; Babey, Susan H; Patel, Anisha I; Wang, Pan; Schuster, Mark A
To examine the potential impact of California SB 1413, which required school districts to provide free, fresh drinking water during mealtimes in food service areas by July 1, 2011, on greater water consumption among California adolescents. Data were drawn from the 2012 and 2013 state-representative California Health Interview Survey. A total of 2,665 adolescents aged 12-17 years were interviewed regarding their water consumption and availability of free water during lunchtime at their school. Three-fourths reported that their school provided free water at lunchtime, mainly via fountains. In a multivariate model that controlled for age, gender, income, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and school type, adolescents in schools that provided free water consumed significantly more water than adolescents who reported that water was not available, bivariate (standard error) = .67 (.28), p = .02. School water access did not significantly vary across the 2 years. Lunchtime school water availability was related to water consumption, but a quarter of adolescents reported that their school did not provide free water at lunch. Future research should explore what supports and inducements might facilitate provision of drinking water during school mealtimes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
to reduced mental and physical development of children, hence delayed ... of health and neurocognitive performance of school-age children . ..... Patrick H and TA Nicklas A review of family and social determinants of ... Physiology and.
Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou; Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M
School attendance can impact academic performance. Childhood obesity-related physical and psychosocial consequences are potentially associated with school absenteeism. Thus, we examined the association between school absenteeism attributed to illness or injury and obesity among adolescents aged 12-17 years. We used a weighted sample of 3,470 U.S. adolescents from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey. School absenteeism was measured from the parent-reported number of sick days taken in the preceding 12 months. Body mass index was calculated from parent-reported weight and height. Weight status was classified based on the sex-specific body mass index-for-age percentile defined by the CDC growth charts. Poisson regression was conducted to examine the association between school absenteeism and weight status, controlling for selected sociodemographic characteristics and disease status. The mean number of annual sick days was 3.9 days overall; 3.4 days among normal-weight, 4.4 days among overweight, and 4.5 days among obese adolescents. Obese adolescents had a higher proportion of missing ≥4 days of school per year than adolescents of normal weight. Our multivariate analyses found that compared with adolescents of normal weight, overweight and obese adolescents had greater than one-third more sick days annually (rate ratio = 1.36 for overweight and 1.37 for obese adolescents). Overweight and obese adolescents had 36% and 37% more sick days, respectively, than adolescents of normal weight. The results suggest another potential aspect of obesity prevention and reduction efforts among children and families is to improve children's school attendance. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Abedian, Kobra; Shahhosseini, Zohreh
Although adolescence is marked by profound and dynamic changes, it is virtually neglected by health care providers, by society, and even by most parents, teachers, and health professionals. The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to health education in adolescents from health care providers' views compared to teens. The study population consisted of 72 health care providers and 402 high school female students in Northern Iran in 2012. They completed a self-administered questionnaire about their views on barriers to adolescents' health education. It is revealed that the major barrier to adolescents' health education from a health care providers' perspective is "Lack of private room for adolescents' health education", while "Lack of adolescents' interest to content of educational programs" is a significantly greater barrier to health education among adolescents. The results suggest that for adolescent health education, specific strategies should be used in adolescent health promotion programs.
Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Champ, Claire L; Dye, Louise
Breakfast is thought to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, breakfast is the most frequently skipped meal, especially among adolescents. The aim of the current article was to systematically review the evidence from intervention studies for the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in children and adolescents. The effects of breakfast were evaluated by cognitive domain and breakfast manipulation. A total of 45 studies reported in 43 article...
Malcić, I; Zavrsnik, J; Kancler, K; Kokol, P
The authors studied the prevalence of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) in the group of 656 children and adolescents (329 males and 327 females), who were a representative sample (obtained with the Monte Carlo method of statistical trials) of all newborns in the city of Maribor, Republic of Slovenia, in the period of 18 years (1976-1992). The results were considered positive in children and adolescents who in addition to possible history (chest pain, palpitations, dizziness, loss of consciousness, headaches, perspiration), probable auscultatory finding (mezzosystolic click and late systolic murmur), and suspected phonocardiographic and ECG findings, also had a positive M-mode echocardiographic finding. The criteria for MVP on M-mode echocardiography were taken from the literature: descending of mitral cusp, either anterior or posterior, of at least 3 mm below the line connecting points C and D. Children and adolescents were divided into six age groups (infants, toddlers, preschool children, early school age, children in puberty, adolescents). Assuming MVP as a cause of cardiac arrhythmias, beside standard ECG we also performed holter ECG monitoring in 61 children and adolescents (29 with MVP, 32 without MVP). The results were tested with standard statistical tools (chi 2-test, Student t-test, 2 x 2 Fisher chi 2-test). MVP was found in 71 patients (10.8%, 32 males and 39 females). As regards age and sex we found lower prevalence of MVP in male children (9.7%) compared to female children (11.9%). The highest prevalence was found in early school age, more so in females (14.2 vs 13.7). The differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In both sexes most frequent was endosystolic prolapse (males 59.3%, females 51.3%). Most commonly both cusps are involved in the prolapse (males 78.1%, females 66.7%). Most frequently measured descending of the cusps was 3-4.5 mm (males 56.2%, females 48.7%). Negative auscultatory finding (silent MVP) was detected in 47.8% of the
Keller, Amélie; Bucher Della Torre, Sophie
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has increased worldwide and has reached alarming proportions. Currently, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the primary source of added sugar in the diet of children and adolescents. Contradictive findings from...
Mazurek, Micah O.; Kanne, Stephen M.; Wodka, Ericka L.
Aggression is a clinically significant problem for many children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, there have been few large-scale studies addressing this issue. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of physical aggression in a sample of 1584 children and adolescents with ASD enrolled in the Autism…
Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim
This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…
Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim
This study described the aerobic capacity [VO(2peak) (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level
Guerra, S.; Teixeira-Pinto, A.; Ribeiro, J. C.
The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relationship between physical activity (PA) and obesity in Portuguese children and adolescents.......The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relationship between physical activity (PA) and obesity in Portuguese children and adolescents....
Childhood and adolescent obesity has been increasing in most middle- and high-income countries, and, as with adult obesity, this has been driven by increasingly obesogenic environments, especially the food environment. This constitutes a "market failure," signaling the need for government interventions with policies, programs, and social marketing. Population prevention strategies are critical, and children and adolescents should be the priority populations. Food marketing to children is a central policy issue for governments to address, and comprehensive regulations are needed to provide substantive protection for children. Community-based intervention programs show some real promise in reducing childhood obesity, but the 2 big challenges ahead are to ensure that there is substantial ongoing funding so that the community capacity to promote healthy weights can be scaled up to a national level and to ensure that policies are in place to support these efforts. The social and cultural shifts that support healthy eating and physical activity occur differentially, and special efforts are needed to reduce the socioeconomic gradients associated with childhood obesity. A positive public health approach encompassing environmental, regulatory, sociocultural, and educational strategies offer the best chance of reducing obesity without increasing disordered eating patterns.
Vannatta, K; Getzoff, E A; Gilman, D K; Noll, R B; Gerhardt, C A; Powers, S W; Hershey, A D
We set out to evaluate the friendships and social behaviour of school-aged children with migraine. Concern exists regarding the impact of paediatric migraine on daily activities and quality of life. We hypothesized that children with migraine would have fewer friends and be identified as more socially sensitive and isolated than comparison peers. Sixty-nine children with migraine participated in a school-based study of social functioning. A comparison sample without migraine included classmates matched for gender, race and age. Children with migraine had fewer friends at school; however, this effect was limited to those in elementary school. Behavioural difficulties were not found. Middle-school students with migraine were identified by peers as displaying higher levels of leadership and popularity than comparison peers. Concern may be warranted about the social functioning of pre-adolescent children with migraine; however, older children with migraine may function as well as or better than their peers.
Juliane Pagliari Araujo
Full Text Available The study aimed to identify the knowledge of caregivers of children and adolescents about the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and their perceptions regarding changes in daily and family life, after participating in sessions of Tui Na massage. Semistructured interviews in the months from September to November 2013 were held, with nine caregivers of children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD who participated in massage sessions. The data were subjected to content analysis with a qualitative approach. It was identified that some mothers have little knowledge about the disorder of their children. Regarding the participation of children and adolescents, it was related a positive response, an immediate valuable result, with improved communication with family, more tranquility after the massage, restful sleep, improved mood and better performance school. The caregivers of children and adolescents related that their participation in the Tui Na massage sessions was productive, with acceptance by them with positive changes in daily and family life. The study participants pointed that daily difficulties of ADHD approach them to their son, decreasing anxiety and improving the quality life for the whole family. Sharing information between health professionals and family of children and adolescents about ADHD is important to understand the pathology, as well as for monitoring and further treatment.
Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W
This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT is a common cause of goitre and hypothyroidism in children and adolescents. Spontaneous remission may occur in up to 50% patients, but the development of hypothyroidism is possible. OBJECTIVE We investigated the clinical manifestations, course and long-term outcome of HT. METHOD We reviewed charts of 43 children (36 females with HT, mean age at presentation 12.3 years, and mean follow-up duration 4.6 years. RESULTS HT is five times more common in females. The common complaints leading to referral were goitre in 19 children (44.3%, diffuse in 17 children (89.5%. As to the prevalence of goitre, it accounted for significantly more referrals in females (14 girls, and 5 boys; 73.7% vs 26.3%, t-test; p<0.005. Goitre was either isolated in 15 (34.4% or associated with other complaints in 4 children: anemia in 7 (16.2%, fatigue in 5 (11.8%, increased appetite in 4 (9.7%, weight gain in 3 (7.0%, growth retardation in 2 children (4.7%, at irregular menses in 3 pubertal girls. Hypothyroidism was present in 18 patients (41.1%, 7 (38.8% on initial admission, and 11 (61.8% had the mean follow-up duration of 4.6 years. There were 25 euthyroid HT patients (59.9%. The family history of the thyroid disease was positive in 16 children (37.1% and 12 of them (71.4% had hypothyroidism. There were 6 patients (13.9% in whom the disease was associated with some other autoimmune disease. CONCLUSION HT is five times more common in females. The usual complaints leading to referral were diffuse goitre, which accounted for significantly more referrals in females. A positive family history of autoimmune thyroid disease is associated with a higher risk of hypothyroidism in children with HT. Hypothyroid patients may appear in higher percentage of children and adolescents than previously reported.
Hepp, Urs; Stulz, Niklaus; Unger-Köppel, Jürg; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta
Although relatively rare, suicide is a leading cause of death in children and adolescents in the Western world. This study examined whether children and adolescents are drawn to other methods of suicide than adults. Swiss suicides from 1998 to 2007 were examined. The main methods of suicide were analysed with respect to age and gender. Of the 12,226 suicides which took place in this 10-year period, 333 were committed by children and adolescents (226 males, 107 females). The most prevalent methods of suicide in children and adolescents 0-19 years were hanging, jumping from heights and railway-suicides (both genders), intoxication (females) and firearms (males). Compared to adults, railway-suicides were over-represented in young males and females (both P suicide chosen by children and adolescents. Restricting access to most favoured methods of suicide might be an important strategy in suicide prevention.
Romualdo, Monica Cristina dos Santos; Nóbrega, Fernando José de; Escrivão, Maria Arlete Meil Schimith
To evaluate the presence of insulin resistance and its association with other metabolic abnormalities in obese children and adolescents. Retrospective study of 220 children and adolescents aged 5-14 years. Anthropometric measurements were performed (weight, height, and waist circumference) and clinical (gender, age, pubertal stage, and degree of obesity) and biochemical (glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, and fractions, triglycerides) data were analyzed. Insulin resistance was identified by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. The analysis of the differences between the variables of interest and the HOMA-IR quartiles was performed by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests. Insulin resistance was diagnosed in 33.20% of the sample. It was associated with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; p=0.044), waist circumference measurement (p=0.030), and the set of clinical and metabolic (p=0.000) alterations. Insulin-resistant individuals had higher mean age (p=0.000), body mass index (BMI; p=0.000), abdominal circumference (p=0.000), median triglycerides (p=0.001), total cholesterol (p≤0.042), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; p≤0.027); and lower HDL-C levels (p=0.005). There was an increase in mean BMI (p=0.000), abdominal circumference (p=0.000), and median triglycerides (p=0.002) as the values of HOMA -IR increased, with the exception of HDL-C, which decreased (p=0.001). Those with the highest number of simultaneous alterations were between the second and third quartiles of the HOMA-IR index (p=0.000). The results confirmed that insulin resistance is present in many obese children and adolescents, and that this condition is associated with alterations that represent an increased risk for developing metabolic disorders in adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Shu Ling Gao; Ko Ling Chan
This study examined the relations among future orientation, school bonding, and school bullying perpetration behaviors. Data were collected from 677 seventh- to ninth-grade adolescents in an area in Southwest China. Specifically, students completed the Future-Orientation Questionnaire, the Psychological Sense of School Membership scale, and the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire to assess their future orientatio...
de Groot, Renate; van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul
Background: Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore, we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents and explored whether…
Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Leis, Rosaura; Martínez, Ana; Malvar, Alberto; Hervada, Xurxo; Suanzes, Jorge
The excess of weight, mainly obesity, during childhood and adolescence increases morbimortality risk in adulthood. The aim of this article is to estimate both the overall prevalence, as well as according to age and gender, of underweight, overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity among schoolchildren aged between 6-15-years-old in the school year 2013-2014. Data were taken from a cross-sectional community-based study carried out on a representative sample, by gender and age, of the Galician population aged between 6 and 15 years-old. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obese children (Cole's cut-off criteria) and abdominal obesity (Taylor's cut-off criteria) were estimated after performing objective measurements of height, weight and waist circumference at school. A total of 7,438 students were weighed and measured in 137 schools. The prevalence of overweight and obese individuals was 24.9% and 8.2%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 25.8%, with 4% of children with normal weight having abdominal obesity. These data highlight the need to promote primary prevention measures at early ages in order to decrease the occurrence of the premature onset of disease in the future. The prevalence of excess weight is underestimated if abdominal obesity is not taken into consideration. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Smith, Angie J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) resulting from parental incarceration upon children and adolescents in an African-American community. Methodology: Much of the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder focuses on children and adolescents that have been exposed to a one-time event (e.g. school…
Ranjan, Rajeev; Mehta, Manju; Sagar, Rajesh; Sarkar, Siddharth
Although it has been suggested that children and adolescents with dissociative disorder have some cognitive deficits, the association of these cognitive impairments with adjustment difficulties has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between cognitive functioning and adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents with dissociative disorder. This cross-sectional, descriptive assessment was carried out in the outpatient setting of child and adolescent psychiatric service in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty newly diagnosed children and adolescents with dissociative disorder were included. The cognitive functions were assessed by varied neuropsychological tests, and Bell's adjustment inventory was used for assessing various domains of adjustment. The mean age of the sample which comprised 40% males was 13.0 (±2.4) years. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ) of the sample was 90.6. Impairment in cognitive test was maximum for verbal working memory followed by sustained attention, visual learning and memory, and verbal retention and recall. Adjustment difficulties were greatest in the domains of self, followed by domains of health, school, and family. Significant association was found between the IQ and adjustment in school; visual learning and memory and adjustments in school and overall adjustment; and sustained attention and adjustment of health. Dissociative children have poor cognitive ability which may be related to poor adjustment scores.
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Although it has been suggested that children and adolescents with dissociative disorder have some cognitive deficits, the association of these cognitive impairments with adjustment difficulties has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between cognitive functioning and adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents with dissociative disorder. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive assessment was carried out in the outpatient setting of child and adolescent psychiatric service in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty newly diagnosed children and adolescents with dissociative disorder were included. The cognitive functions were assessed by varied neuropsychological tests, and Bell's adjustment inventory was used for assessing various domains of adjustment. Results: The mean age of the sample which comprised 40% males was 13.0 (±2.4 years. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ of the sample was 90.6. Impairment in cognitive test was maximum for verbal working memory followed by sustained attention, visual learning and memory, and verbal retention and recall. Adjustment difficulties were greatest in the domains of self, followed by domains of health, school, and family. Significant association was found between the IQ and adjustment in school; visual learning and memory and adjustments in school and overall adjustment; and sustained attention and adjustment of health. Conclusions: Dissociative children have poor cognitive ability which may be related to poor adjustment scores.
Calderón, José M; Robles, Rafaela R; Reyes, Juan C; Matos, Tomás D; Negrón, Juan L; Cruz, Miguel A
This research aims to understand the circumstances associated with school dropout in a cohort of Puerto Rican adolescents. The study collected data from adolescents and their parents. Information related to school dropout among adolescents was obtained from the second year follow-up data from the longitudinal study funded by NIDA "Risky Families Embedded in Risky Environments" (Grant No. R01 DA 15301). Data was collected employing a self-administered and a face-to-face interview protocol. Prediction of school dropout was assessed throughout adolescent characteristics, family background, school experiences and behaviors. During the second follow-up, two years after the baseline assessment, approximately 6.2% of the adolescents reported dropping out from school. Logistic regression analysis indicates that older adolescents (OR = 6.6, 1.37-31.67), whose mother used drugs during pregnancy (OR = 4.9, 1.31-17.91), who reported high rates of absenteeism (OR = 4.8, 1.63-14.13), high school grade retention (OR = 3.7, 1.14-12.05), and attended school where teachers were attacked or wounded by students (O R =7.0, 1.44-34.17) were more likely to dropout of school. : These findings emphasize the need to further understand the effects of different elements of adolescents' environment such as family and school. It has been posited that dropping out of school is a process whose characteristics can be detected long before it occurs. The fact that students who dropout are more likely to report skip classes and grade retention can be relevant elements in prevention and early intervention for teachers and other school personnel.
Hae Sang Lee
Full Text Available Graves' disease (GD accounts for 10%-15% of thyroid disorders in children and adolescents. The use of antithyroid drugs as the initial treatment option in GD is well accepted. An average two years remission is achieved in about 30% of children treated with antithyroid drugs. However, the optimal treatment duration and the predictive marker of remission after antithyroid drug therapy are still controversial. Additionally, 131I therapy and surgery are considered the option for treatment in children and adolescents with GD. We review the treatment options for pediatric GD and the possible determinants of remission and relapse on antithyroid drug treatment in children and adolescents.
Veiga Simão, A M; Ferreira, P Costa; Freire, I; Caetano, A P; Martins, M J; Vieira, C
The purpose of this study was to understand how adolescent cybervictims perceive their school climate and whether telling school community members, such as teachers, play a significant role in these perceptions. Another objective was to understand whether age and gender played a significant role in the relation between whom cybervictims told and their perceived school climate. The Cybervictims Scale for Adolescents and Children and the Perceived School Climate Scale were applied to 3525 Portuguese students of whom 218 were cybervictims attending 6th, 8th , and 11th grades. Results showed that even though adolescent cybervictims reported cybervictimization more to friends and parents, those who told teachers about their experience, tended to report more positive perceptions of their school climate. Gender and age did not play a significant role in the relationship between cybervictimization and perceived school climate. Implications of the findings are discussed with regards to the role of teachers and in-service training in preventing cyberbullying. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elizabeth Nappi Corrêa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To perform a narrative literature review to describe the availability of food retailers (groceries and eateries and their association with obesity in schoolchildren and adolescents. METHODS: The review included studies published from 2003 to 2013 listed in three databases with data on the child's school and/or home surroundings. RESULTS: There was a higher concentration of fast foods near the schools, especially high schools, public schools, or schools located in low-income regions. Moreover, children and adolescents living in areas further from convenience stores had better diets. CONCLUSION: Acknowledging the relationship between built environment and obesity by establishing scientific evidence is necessary for developing specific strategies that help to control the spread of obesity in this age group, aiming to construct healthier spaces.
Full Text Available In the pediatric age group, most cases of syncope represent benign, neutrally-mediated alterations in vasomotor tone. Due to the global cerebral hypoperfusion, syncope is defined as a transient loss of consciousness followed by spontaneous recovery and/or a state of presyncope, including dizziness, lightheadedness, pallor, diaphoresis and palpitations which may precede the loss of consciousness. These symptoms could be a sign of a life-threatening event in a small subset of patients, even though most causes of syncope in childhood are benign, and life-threatening causes of syncope generally have cardiac etiology. In all these cases, routine evaluation includes history, physical examination and a 12-lead standard electrocardiogram which should be performed. Further investigation is indicated by worrying features which include syncope that occurs without warning, syncope during exercise, history of familial sudden death, and abnormalities on clinical exam or electrocardiography. The fact is that syncope generates great fear of injury or sudden death among parents and doctors, and the main aim of the present paper is to help the physician involved in the care of children to differentiate the life-threatening causes of syncope from the common, more benign neutrally-mediated syncope.
Gharib, Nadia M; Rasheed, Parveen
This study was conducted because of the lack of a comprehensive nationwide assessment of data on the anthropometric status and related health problems in Bahraini school children aged 6 to 18 years. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on the anthropometric status of school children enrolled in the primary, intermediate and secondary government schools in all populated regions of Bahrain. The sample size included 2594 students (1326 girls and 1268 boys) representing 2.5% of the total student population. For sample selection, a multi-stage sampling design was chosen that combined multi-cluster and simple random sampling methods. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness at two sites (triceps and subscapular). Anthropometric indices derived were body mass index (BMI) and arm muscle area. The WHO reference standards (2007) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2 data were used for comparison. Compared to WHO reference standards, the median height of Bahraini children and adolescents in the age range of 6 to 18 years was close to the 25th percentile or lower, while the median BMI during adolescent years was comparable in boys, but higher than WHO standards in girls, reaching the 75th percentile. The cutoff values of BMI for overweight/obesity status (85th and 95th percentile) were higher by 3-6 kg/m2 compared to WHO standards. While skin fold thicknesses were also higher in Bahraini adolescents compared to their American counterparts (NHANES 2), arm muscularity was substantially lower. Current study findings for BMI as well as skin fold thicknesses suggest an increased trend toward adiposity among Bahraini adolescents, especially in girls, which puts this age group at a high risk of adult obesity and its consequences. A need for urgent intervention program is emphasized. (author)
Hansson, Annika; Clausson, Eva; Janlov, Ann-Christin
Rapid globalization and the integration of national economies have contributed to the sharp rise in enrollment in international schools. How does this global nomadism affect international school children and their individual health needs? This study attempts to find an answer by interviewing 10 school nurses, with varying degrees of experience in…
Shoshani, Anat; Nakash, Ora; Zubida, Hani; Harper, Robin A
This study aimed to explore the role of school engagement and the mediation effect of acculturation in predicting 1.5 and second-generation migrant adolescents' mental health and risk behaviors. Participants included 448 seventh to tenth grade Israeli students (mean age 14.50, 53% boys): 128 non-Jewish 1.5 generation migrant adolescents (children of migrants living in Israel), 118 second-generation migrants (children of migrants born and living in Israel), and an age-matched sample of 202 native-born Jewish adolescents. All participants completed a battery of questionnaires assessing mental health symptoms, engagement in risk behaviors, social adjustment, and school engagement. Both migrant adolescent groups also completed an acculturation questionnaire. Differences between groups in school engagement, mental health symptoms, and risk behavior were examined, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate the hypothesized mediating effect of acculturation. Findings revealed substantially higher levels of mental health symptoms (p mental health symptoms and risk behaviors-older participants engaged in more risk behaviors (p = .02), and females had elevated mental health symptoms (p = .007). Identification with the host country mediated the relationships between school engagement and mental health symptoms (ps .006 and .008) and risk behaviors (ps .001 and .004) in 1.5 generation and second-generation migrants, respectively. The results are discussed in reference to current theories and research, as well as practical implications for prevention and intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Introduction: Behavioural disorders can have a negative influence on the academic performance of school children. There are no similiar published is no known studies in Nigeria. Objective: To compare the academic performance of primary school children with behavioural disorders with that of their controls. Methods: A ...
This podcast features Christine Thompson, Community Programs Manager at the Nevada Cancer Coalition, and author of a recent study detailing a school-based program to help Nevada school children establish healthy sun safety habits and decrease UV exposure. Christine answers questions about her research and what impact her what impact the program had on children's skin health.
Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell
Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…
Fernald, L; Ani, C C; Grantham-mcgregor, S
This article reviews several research studies on the impact of the lack of breakfast among students. Recent data reveal that about 20% of Nigerian children were wasted or had weight-for-height measurements under the 5th percentile of the US National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) standard. In Ghana, 41% of children were underweight or had a weight-for-age under -2 standard deviations of the NCHS standards. In Tanzania, about 34% of children were underweight. Many more students in Africa are attending school, but many are leaving primary school early or failing secondary school examinations. It is argued that poor nutritional status affects children's ability to learn. Research reveals several hypotheses about how breakfast affects children's cognition, behavior, and school performance. Children may not attend school at all due to the inability to purchase food to eat at school, or insufficient food resources at home to provide sufficient energy to walk long distances to school. In four studies, two in the USA and the others in Peru and Jamaica, findings reveal that when undernourished children missed breakfast, they performed worse in tests of cognition. Adequately nourished children's performance was unaffected by missing breakfast. A study in four Jamaican schools found that children had more creative ideas when they received a breakfast for 2 weeks than when they did not receive breakfast. Two Swedish studies found that children with a high-calorie breakfast improved in cognition compared to those receiving a low-calorie breakfast. One study found that children in well-equipped classrooms paid more attention in class after having breakfast. Children in overcrowded classes and poorly equipped schools were less likely to pay attention after breakfast. Long-term effects are less well studied, but findings clearly support the benefits of breakfast.
Refakis, Christian A; Turner, Christian D; Cahill, Patrick J
Concussions are becoming increasingly important to manage properly as sports participation continues to rise. Repeated injuries occurring before the brain has had a chance to recover from an initial insult are particularly dangerous and must be prevented. Although much national media attention has been devoted to concussions in professional sports, it is important to appreciate that athletes in any age group, children and adolescents in particular, are at risk of sports-related concussion. It is crucial to remove an athlete from play any time concussion is suspected. Once removed from play, recovery then begins with a period of cognitive and physical rest, followed by a gradual return to cognitive and athletic activities as symptoms resolve. Children and adolescents pose a unique challenge to the clinician managing their recovery, as the physical and cognitive rest periods required often involve time away from school and sports, which can be academically detrimental and socially isolating. Recently developed sideline assessment tools have greatly aided the urgent sideline assessment of an athlete suspected of having a concussion. In this article, a brief review of current guidelines is presented in tandem with the authors' preferred treatment of concussion.
Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza; Banura, Cecily; Mugooda, Herbert; Kwesiga, Doris; Bastien, Sheri; Klepp, Knut-Inge
Evidence suggests that in spite of some adolescents being sexually active, many parents do not discuss sex-related issues with them due to lack of age-appropriate respectful vocabulary and skills. The likelihood of parent-adolescent communication improving sexual and reproductive health outcomes appears plausible. The desire to understand parent-adolescent communication and how to improve it for promotion of healthy sexual behaviours inspired this research. The paper is meant to describe perceptions of adolescents, parents and school administrators about parent-adolescent communication on sexual issues; describe the content of such communication and identify factors that influence this communication. The study was done among two urban and two rural secondary school students in their second year of education. Data were collected from 11 focus group discussions and 10 key Informants Interviews. Data management, analysis and interpretation followed thematic analysis principles. Illuminating verbatim quotations are used to illustrate findings. Parental warmth and acceptability of children was perceived by parents to be foundational for a healthy adolescent- parent communication. Perceptions of adolescents tended to point to more open and frequent communication with mothers than fathers and to cordial relationships with mothers. Fathers were perceived by adolescents to be strict, intimidating, unapproachable and unavailable. While adolescents tended to generally discuss sexual issues with mothers, male adolescents communicated less with anyone on sex, relationships and condoms. Much of the parent-adolescent communication was perceived to focus on sexually transmitted infections and body changes. Discussions of sex and dating with adolescents were perceived to be rare. Common triggers of sexuality discussions with female adolescents were; onset of menstruation and perceived abortion in the neighbourhood. Discussion with male adolescents, if it occurred was perceived to
Gyuse, Abraham N.; Etokidem, Aniekan J.
ABSTRACT Background Malaria prevention and treatment constitute an unbearable economic burden to most African countries, especially south of the Sahara, where about 500 million cases occur annually. The problem of malaria among adolescents has largely been overshadowed by the huge burden of the disease among young children. Attention to malaria among adolescents has also been diverted by the huge burden of HIV/AIDS among adolescents. Some surveys reveal a lack of knowledge and many misconceptions about the transmission and treatment of malaria, which could adversely affect malaria control measures and antimalarial therapy. Such a knowledge gap could have an adverse effect on school children, who could be used as change agents and as role models for their siblings and peers in the malaria control strategy. Objectives To determine the malaria prevention practices of school adolescents in the coastal community of Calabar, Nigeria. Method This was a cross-sectional survey involving secondary schools in southern Calabar. Four hundred adolescents were randomly selected from the 4565 learners in 5 out of 17 secondary schools in southern Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. A self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the respondents. Results Most respondents (77.5%) were aware that the vector transmits the malaria parasite through biting. Fewer respondents would prevent malaria attacks by clearing the vegetation in the peri-domestic environment (13.5%), filling up potholes (16.9%), opening up drainage (11%), using insecticide-treated nets (25.7%) or using antimalarial drugs (11.2%). Less than one-tenth (8%) would use various other methods such as not accepting unscreened blood, while only 11% obtained the information from their teachers. Conclusion The study identified knowledge gaps among school children. There is a need to empower teachers with information about the cause of malaria and prevention strategies.
Reid Chassiakos, Yolanda Linda; Radesky, Jenny; Christakis, Dimitri; Moreno, Megan A; Cross, Corinn
Today's children and adolescents are immersed in both traditional and new forms of digital media. Research on traditional media, such as television, has identified health concerns and negative outcomes that correlate with the duration and content of viewing. Over the past decade, the use of digital media, including interactive and social media, has grown, and research evidence suggests that these newer media offer both benefits and risks to the health of children and teenagers. Evidence-based benefits identified from the use of digital and social media include early learning, exposure to new ideas and knowledge, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health promotion messages and information. Risks of such media include negative health effects on sleep, attention, and learning; a higher incidence of obesity and depression; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. This technical report reviews the literature regarding these opportunities and risks, framed around clinical questions, for children from birth to adulthood. To promote health and wellness in children and adolescents, it is important to maintain adequate physical activity, healthy nutrition, good sleep hygiene, and a nurturing social environment. A healthy Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan) that is individualized for a specific child, teenager, or family can identify an appropriate balance between screen time/online time and other activities, set boundaries for accessing content, guide displays of personal information, encourage age-appropriate critical thinking and digital literacy, and support open family communication and implementation of consistent rules about media use. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Cartwright, J Daniel
Children and adolescents with chronic diseases and disabling conditions often need educationally related services. As medical home providers, physicians and other health care professionals can assist children, adolescents, and their families with the complex federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and systems associated with these services. Expanded roles for physicians and other health care professionals in individualized family service plan, individualized education plan, and Section 504 plan development and implementation are recommended. Recent updates to the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act will also affect these services. Funding for these services by private and nonprivate sources also continue to affect the availability of these educationally related services. The complex range of federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and systems for special education and related services for children and adolescents in public schools is beyond the scope of this statement. Readers are referred to the American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement "The Pediatrician's Role in Development and Implementation of an Individual Education Plan (IEP) and/or an Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP)" for additional background materials. The focus of this statement is the role that health care professionals have in determining and managing educationally related services in the school setting. This policy statement is a revision of a previous statement, "Provision of Educationally Related Services for Children and Adolescents With Chronic Diseases and Disabling Conditions," published in February 2000 by the Committee on Children With Disabilities (http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;105/2/448).
Adolescent low back pain among secondary school students in Ibadan, Nigeria. BOA Adegoke, AC Odole, AA Adeyinka. Abstract. Background: Adolescent low back pain (ALBP) can be considered a signal or precursor of a serious organic disease or telltale sign of future incidence of low back pain in adulthood. Published ...
Cho, Rosa M.
This study empirically tested 3 mechanisms commonly suggested to disadvantage youths whose mothers are incarcerated in prison. An event history analysis of school dropout was conducted on a sample of 6,008 adolescents in a large city created by merging several Illinois state administrative data. Findings revealed that adolescents are indeed at…
Kranke, Derrick; Floersch, Jerry
This study investigated adolescents with a mental health diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to…
Adolescent alienation is a symptom of problems in relations among the individual, school, community, and family. Based on a research conducted with a sample of 897 Tibetan adolescent students in Grades 7 to 12, this study reveals that over one third of subjects experience high levels of alienation. Questionnaire data and field work show possible…
Dornbusch, Sanford M.; And Others
Uses a reformation of Baumrind's typology of authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles in the context of adolescent school performance. Authoritarian and permissive parenting were negatively associated with grades; authoritative parenting was positively associated with grades. (PCB)
... low-cost interventions are effective to change norms and advance early adolescents' ... The project will also facilitate the broader uptake of approaches by schools, ... the Government of Canada's new Feminist International Assistance Policy, ...
Nov 11, 2003 ... Department of Community Health and Primary Health Care ... percent approved of teaching sex education to adolescents in schools, 55.6% approved of contraceptive use by the ..... own biases in the light of scientific facts.
... of very young adolescents in schools and sexual and reproductive health ... It will generate information on what evidence-based and low-cost interventions are effective ... foster positive gender norms, and facilitate the exercise of SRH rights.
Simm, Rebecca; Roen, Katrina; Daiches, Anna
There is evidence suggesting that self harm among young people is beginning earlier, in childhood and adolescent years. This paper reports on a qualitative study of primary school staff responses to self harm among children. Some studies with adolescents show self harm presents challenges to education professionals who may lack training or…
Klemera, Ellen; Brooks, Fiona M; Chester, Kayleigh L; Magnusson, Josefine; Spencer, Neil
The aim of this paper was to examine if the multiple environments of the adolescent including family, peers, school and neighbourhood might function as protective health assets against self-harming behaviour during adolescence. The present study utilised data collected from 1608 respondents aged 15 years as part of the England WHO Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study. Multilevel modelling was undertaken using the package MLwiN (version 2.33) to investigate the potential domains and dimensions of family life, school culture and environment, and neighbourhood factors that may operate as protective health assets. The results indicated that while peer support did not appear to operate as a protective health asset in the context of self-harm, key dimensions of adolescent/parent interaction and adolescent experience of the school culture and their neighbourhood were associated with reduced likelihood of self-harming behaviours during adolescence. The Findings highlight the significance of belonging and connectedness as important constituent elements of protective health assets for young people. Interventions that address the multiple environments of the young person, may offer an effective means to reduce the levels of self-harm.
Feldman, Heidi M.; Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Yeom, Kristen W.
Children born preterm are at risk for deficits in language and reading. They are also at risk for injury to the white matter of the brain. The goal of this study was to determine whether performance in language and reading skills would be associated with white matter properties in children born preterm and full-term. Children born before 36 weeks…
Lallas, Matt; Desai, Jay
Wernicke encephalopathy is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. It is generally considered to be a disease of adult alcoholics. However, it is known to occur in the pediatric population and in non-alcoholic conditions. We searched PubMed with the key words Wernicke, thiamine, pediatric, children and adolescents and selected publications that were deemed appropriate. The global prevalence rates of hunger, poverty and resultant nutrient deprivation have decreased in the 21st century. However, several scenarios which may predispose to Wernicke encephalopathy may be increasingly prevalent in children and adolescents such as malignancies, intensive care unit stays and surgical procedures for the treatment of obesity. Other predisposing conditions include magnesium deficiency and defects in the SLC19A3 gene causing thiamine transporter-2 deficiency. The classic triad consists of encephalopathy, oculomotor dysfunction and gait ataxia but is not seen in a majority of patients. Treatment should be instituted immediately when the diagnosis is suspected clinically without waiting for laboratory confirmation. Common magnetic resonance findings include symmetric T2 hyperintensities in dorsal medial thalamus, mammillary bodies, periaqueductal gray matter, and tectal plate. Wernicke encephalopathy is a medical emergency. Delay in its recognition and treatment may lead to significant morbidity, irreversible neurological damage or even death. This article aims to raise the awareness of this condition among pediatricians.
Faigenbaum, A D
The potential benefits of youth strength training extend beyond an increase in muscular strength and may include favorable changes in selected health- and fitness-related measures. If appropriate training guidelines are followed, regular participation in a youth strength-training program has the potential to increase bone mineral density, improve motor performance skills, enhance sports performance, and better prepare our young athletes for the demands of practice and competition. Despite earlier concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of youth strength training, current public health objectives now aim to increase the number of boys and girls age 6 and older who regularly participate in physical activities that enhance and maintain muscular fitness. Parents, teachers, coaches, and healthcare providers should realize that youth strength training is a specialized method of conditioning that can offer enormous benefit but at the same time can result in serious injury if established guidelines are not followed. With qualified instruction, competent supervision, and an appropriate progression of the volume and intensity of training, children and adolescents cannot only learn advanced strength training exercises but can feel good about their performances, and have fun. Additional clinical trails involving children and adolescents are needed to further explore the acute and chronic effects of strength training on a variety of anatomical, physiological, and psychological parameters.
Roizen, Jeffrey; Levine, Michael A.
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disorder in adults in whom the typical presentation is incidentally discovered as asymptomatic hypercalcemia. PHPT is much less common in children and adolescents, but has greater morbidity in this age group, as most young patients with PHPT will have symptomatic hypercalcemia or complications such as kidney stones, abdominal pain, and skeletal fragility. An important feature of PHPT in younger patients is the relatively high prevalence of germline inactivating mutations of the CASR gene, which encodes the calcium-sensing receptor. Biallelic CASR mutations cause neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism, a life-threatening condition that presents within days of life with marked hypercalcemia, respiratory distress, failure to thrive, and skeletal demineralization. By contrast, more common heterozygous CASR mutations are generally associated with a benign variant of PHPT termed familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. Appropriate management of PHPT in children and adolescents requires distinction between familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, which generally requires no specific treatment, and other forms of PHPT that are best treated by parathyroidectomy. PMID:22989537
Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity not only affects physical growth and health of children but also their intellectual development, school attendance and academic performance. However, most evidences are based on studies in high income countries. Although food insecurity is common in Ethiopia, to what extent it affects school attendance and educational attainment of adolescents is not explored. We hypothesized that food insecure adolescents would be more likely to be absent from school and have lower grades attained after 1 year compared to their food secure peers. Methods We used data from 2009 adolescents in the age group of 13-17 years from two consecutive surveys of a five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. A stratified random sampling was used to select participants. Regression analyses were used to compare school absenteeism and the highest grade attained after 1 year of follow-up in food secure and insecure adolescents. The analysis was adjusted for demographic factors, reported illness and workload. Results Significantly more (33.0% food insecure adolescents were absent from school compared with their food secure peers (17.8%, P Conclusions Adolescent and household food insecurity are positively associated with school absenteeism and a lower educational attainment. Programs aiming to achieve universal access to primary education in food insecure environments should integrate interventions to ensure food security of adolescents.
Caskey, Rachel N; Macario, Everly; Johnson, Daniel C; Hamlish, Tamara; Alexander, Kenneth A
Many adolescents underutilize preventive services and are underimmunized. To promote medical homes and increase immunization rates, we conceptualized and implemented a 3-year, 8-school pilot school-located vaccination collaborative program. We sought community, parent, and school nurse input the year prior to implementation. We selected schools with predominantly Medicaid-enrolled or Medicaid-eligible students to receive Vaccines For Children stock vaccines. Nurses employed by a mass immunizer delivered these vaccines at participating schools 3 times a year. Over 3 years, we delivered approximately 1800 vaccines at schools. School administrators, health centers, and neighboring private physicians generally welcomed the program. Parents did not express overt concerns about school-located vaccination. School nurses were not able to participate because of multiple school assignments. Obtaining parental consent via backpack mail was an inefficient process, and classroom incentives did not increase consent form return rate. The influenza vaccine had the most prolific uptake. The optimal time for administering vaccines was during regular school hours. Although school-located vaccination for adolescents is feasible, this is a paradigm shift for community members and thus accompanies challenges in implementation. High principal or school personnel turnover led to a consequent lack of institutional memory. It was difficult to communicate directly with parents. Because we were uncertain about the proportion of parents who received consent forms, we are exploring Internet-based and back-to-school registration options for making the consent form distribution and return process more rigorous. Securing an immunization champion at each school helped the immunization processes. Identifying a financially sustainable school-located vaccination model is critical for national expansion of school-located vaccination. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of
AJ, Milam; CDM, Furr-Holden; PJ, Leaf
Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population of 3rd-5th grade students in an urban public school system. Community and school safety were assessed using the School Climate Survey, an annual city-wide assessment of student’s perception of school and community safety. Community violence was measured using the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology, an objective observational assessment of neighborhood characteristics. Academic achievement was measured using the Maryland State Assessment (MSA), a standardized exam given to all Maryland 3rd-8th graders. School Climate Data and MSA data were aggregated by school and grade. Objective assessments of neighborhood environment and students’ self-reported school and neighborhood safety were both strongly associated with academic performance. Increasing neighborhood violence was associated with statistically significant decreases from 4.2%-8.7% in math and reading achievement; increasing perceived safety was associated with significant increases in achievement from 16%-22%. These preliminary findings highlight the adverse impact of perceived safety and community violence exposure on primary school children’s academic performance. PMID:21197388
Scheeren, Anke M; Koot, Hans M; Mundy, Peter C; Mous, Larissa; Begeer, Sander
Previous studies have shown reduced empathic responsiveness to others' emotions in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and an intellectual disability. However, age and intelligence may promote children's empathic responsiveness. Therefore, we examined the empathic responsiveness in normally intelligent school-aged children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ASD (n = 151) and in a typically developing comparison group (n = 50), using structured observations and parent reports. Based on the observations, participants' responses to the emotional displays of an interviewer were surprisingly similar. However, compared with parents from the comparison group, parents of a child with ASD reported significantly fewer empathic responses, particularly when the child received a high score on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Even though parents report a reduced empathic responsiveness in school-aged children and adolescents with ASD, it may be difficult to find these empathic limitations during brief observations in a structured setting. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lu, Ting; Li, Ling; Niu, Li; Jin, Shenghua; French, Doran C.
The concurrent and longitudinal associations between popularity, likeability, and prosocial behavior were evaluated in this three-year study of middle school and high school Chinese adolescents. The initial sample included 766 middle school (mean age = 13.3 years) and 668 high school participants (mean age = 16.6 years); there were 880 (399 girls)…
Washington, Ahmad Rashad
This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of five (5) middle school African American adolescent men from two different schools in the same school district to explore their perceptions of and experiences with their professional school counselors. Phenomenological qualitative methodology was used to complete this study. To gather research…
Tan, Ling; Xia, Tiansheng; Reece, Christy
The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of suicide ideation among primary, middle and high school students. We used multilevel modelling to investigate suicide ideation among 12,733 Chinese children and adolescents aged 9-18 years from wide range of areas across China. Approximately, 32.09% of children and adolescents reported suicide ideation, with females were more likely to report suicide ideation than males (38.09% vs. 29.95%). Our results showed that the risk factors in primary school students were different from middle and high school student groups, whereas significant risk factors for middle and high school students were similar. The city's standard of living as indicated by the Engel coefficient and the city's divorce rate were positively associated with the prevalence of suicide ideation; in contrast, the school's pupil-to-teacher ratio was negatively correlated with elevated suicide ideation. Significant risk factors for suicide ideation included study anxiety, self-accusation tendency, impulsive tendency, terror tendency and physical symptoms. These results have important implications for the prevention of suicide, suggesting that both contextual (city-level) and compositional (individual-level) factors could be important targets for prevention and intervention for children and adolescents at risk of suicide ideation. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Levine, Jack M.
Guidelines for including ventilator-dependent children in school are offered, based on experience with six such students at a New York State school. Guidelines stress adherence to the medical management plan, the school-family partnership, roles of the social worker and psychologist, orientation, transportation, classroom issues, and steps toward…
Dalton, Madeline A; Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Gibson, Lucinda; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Swain, Karin; Xie, Haiyi; Owens, Peter M
Most studies of active travel to school (ATS) have been conducted in urban or suburban areas and focused on young children. Little is known about ATS among rural adolescents. To describe adolescent ATS in two predominantly rural states and determine if school neighborhood built environment characteristics (BECs) predict ATS after adjusting for school and individual characteristics. Sixteen BECs were assessed through census data and onsite observations of 45 school neighborhoods in 2007. ATS and individual characteristics were assessed through telephone surveys with 1552 adolescents and their parents between 2007 and 2008. Active travelers were defined as those who walked/cycled to/from school ≥1 day/week. Hierarchic linear modeling was used for analysis, conducted in 2009. Slightly less than half (n=735) of the sample lived within 3 miles of school, of whom 388 (52.8%) were active travelers. ATS frequency varied by season, ranging from a mean of 1.7 (SD=2.0) days/week in the winter to 3.7 (SD=1.6) in the spring. Adolescents who attended schools in highly dense residential neighborhoods with sidewalks were most likely to be active travelers. ATS frequency was greater in school neighborhoods with high residential and intersection densities, on-street parking, food outlets, and taller and continuous buildings with small setbacks. The BECs that support safe travel may be necessary to allow for ATS, whereas ATS frequency among adolescents may be influenced by a wider variety of design characteristics. Additional strategies to promote ATS and physical activity are needed in rural areas because of long commuting distances for many students. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suman Bodat, Mrunalini M Ghate, Jyoti R Majumdar
Background: Menstrual related problems and inadequate school sanitation facilities have an adverse effect on adolescent girl?s academic performance and school attendance especially in rural setting. The following study was undertaken to determine school absenteeism during menstruation period. Objective: To assess the impact of menstruation on school attendance and factors affecting menstruation management. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in rural field practice area o...
School rules are usually associated with classroom management and school discipline. However, rules also define ways of thinking about oneself and the world. Rules are guidelines for actions and for the evaluation of actions in terms of good and bad, or right and wrong, and therefore a part of moral or values education in school. This study is a part of a larger ethnographic study on values education in the everyday life of school. Here the focus is on school rules and students' reasoning abo...
Chronic daily headache (CDH) affects 2 to 4% of adolescent females and 0,8 to 2% of adolescent males. CDH is diagnosed when headaches occur more than 4 hours a day, for greater than or equal to 15 headache days per month, over a period of 3 consecutive months, without an underlying pathology. It is manifested by severe intermittent headaches, that are migraine-like, as well as a chronic baseline headache. Silberstein and Lipton divided patients into four diagnostic categories: transformed migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily-persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. The second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders did not comprise any CDH category as such, but provided criteria for all four types of CDH: chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily-persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. Evaluation of CDH needs to include a complete history and physical examination to identify any possibility of the headache representing secondary headaches. Children and adolescents with CDH frequently have sleep disturbance, pain at other sites, dizziness, medication-overuse headache and a psychiatric comorbidity (anxiety and mood disorders). CDH frequently results in school absence. CDH management plan is dictated by CDH subtype, the presence or absence of medication overuse, functional disability and presence of attacks of full-migraine superimposed. Reassuring, explaining, and educating the patient and family, starting prophylactic therapy and limiting aborting medications are the mainstay of treatment. It includes pharmacologic (acute and prophylactic therapy) and nonpharmacologic measures (biobehavioral management, biofeedback-assisted relaxation therapy, and psychologic or psychiatric intervention). Part of the teaching process must incorporate life-style changes, such as regulation of sleep and eating habits, regular exercise, avoidance of identified triggering factors and stress management. Emphasis must be
Salcedo Aguilar, F; Rodríguez Almonacid, F M; Monterde Aznar, M L; García Jiménez, M A; Redondo Martínez, P; Marcos Navarro, A I
To determine the prevalence of sleep disorders in adolescence. To describe sleeping habits of adolescents in relation to sleep disorders and associated factors. To determine the relation between sleep disorders/inappropiate sleeping habits and school performance. Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Secondary school of Cuenca (city in Spain). 1293 school children of first and fourth curses of secondary education. Structured questionnaire with opened and closed questions on sleeping habits during weekdays and at weekends and sleep disorders to be answered by the adolescents anonymously and on their own. Student's school performance with relation with to sleeping habits and sleep disorders were determined. 1155 students out of 1293 (response rate 89.33%) answered the questionnaire, 537 (45.9%) boys and 618 (54.1%) girls, 14 years old on average (between 11-18 years). On weekdays students went to bed at 23.17 h and got up at 7.46 h (average sleeping time =8 hours and 18 minutes). At weekends they went to bed at 1.02 h and got up at 10.42 h (average sleeping time =9 hours and 40 minutes). 45.4% of students said to sleep badly on Sunday night's. On average the number of subjects failed in class is higher with adolescents who complain about sleep (2.28 vs 1.91; P=.04), who are tired at waking up time (2.17 vs 1.97; P=.048) and who have morning sleepiness (2.17 vs 1.75; P=.004). Schools hours cause deficit sleeping time during weekdays which is partly made up for at weekend. At weekends there is an interruption of the adolescent's sleeping habits. School performance of adolescents with sleep disorders is lower.
Tatiana Rebouças Moreira
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the knowledge on diabetes in children and adolescents and the difficulties regarding the disease. Methods: a quantitative study with 40 patients from 6 to 17 years older who were subjected on a questionnaire based on self-care behaviors proposed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators. Results: the average age was 11.6 years with predominance of the female gender (57.5%, most attending grade school (80.0%, naming the parents as primary caregivers (72.5%. Regarding the knowledge about the disease, the item with the highest percentage of errors was about the pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus type 1. On the difficulties related to the treatment, food control and application of insulin had higher frequency. Conclusion:the study revealed a high percentage of correct answers among the participants, suggesting knowledge about the disease. Nevertheless, they reported food control and insulin therapy as the main difficulties related to treatment.
Khundadze, M; Geladze, N; Mkheidze, R; Khachapuridze, N; Bakhtadze, S
The aim of our study was to find the reason of various forms of somatoform disorders (phobias, behavioral disorders, insomnia, tics, stuttering, enuresis, encopresis) in children and adolescents of various social status for diagnosis and treatment. We have examined 202 patients who referred to our clinic from 2012-2016. The age range was 2-18 years. After examination we have concluded the following recommendations: - to implement neuropsychological rehabilitation in order to stimulate mental development; - to work with speech therapist to improvement the speech; - to work individually with psychotherapist to improve the behavior; - to train the parent to manage the behavior at home; - to give the personal card containing information about exercises, games and puzzles to stimulate the development and in some cases to give individual educational program; - to give separate information to parents and in some cases to teachers of kindergartens and schools.
Saulue, Paul; Carra, Maria-Clotilde; Laluque, Jean-François; d'Incau, Emmanuel
Screening for the various forms of bruxism in children and adolescents requires a sound knowledge of the physiopathology of this parafunction in addition to the etiologic and associated factors and comorbidities. The international literature contains various suggestions for suitable treatment. The optimal therapeutic approach often involves multidisciplinary management of these young patients. Sleep bruxism (SB) is a common sleep disorder which can cause serious problems to the stomatognathic system such as damaged teeth, headaches, muscle pain and TMD. Dental professionals are responsible for the detection and prevention of these harmful impacts on the patient's oral health. However, SB is much more than a question of worn teeth. Patients with SB consult for other medical comorbidities such as nighttime breathing problems, insomnia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, moodiness and gastroesophogeal reflux before any course of treatment is initiated. If a comorbidity is diagnosed, the treatment approach will be aimed in the first instance at the medical disorder, while concurrently managing the repercussions of SB. On the other hand, in as far as the majority of young bruxers cease to grind their teeth before adolescence or adulthood, it is feasible to adopt wait-and-see and non-interventionist strategies for young children. However, it is preferable to have a better understanding of SB, notably on account of its potential association with psychological disorders during childhood. Daytime bruxism is characterized by teeth clenching (TC). First-line treatment involves encouraging patients to monitor their harmful parafunctional behavior and, consequently, change and cease it. This protocol is not always easy to apply, particularly in younger children. In such cases, cognitive-behavioral treatments and biofeedback techniques can also be used in daytime bruxism.
Improvement of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in School-Aged Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With Autism via a Digital Smartglasses-Based Socioemotional Coaching Aid: Short-Term, Uncontrolled Pilot Study.
Vahabzadeh, Arshya; Keshav, Neha U; Salisbury, Joseph P; Sahin, Ned T
after the session, ABC-H scores compared with baseline decreased by 56.4% in the high ADHD symptom group and by 66.3% in the low ADHD symptom group. This study provides initial evidence for the possible potential of the Empowered Brain system to reduce ADHD-related symptoms, such as hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity, in school-aged children, adolescents, and young adults with ASD. This digital smartglasses intervention can potentially be targeted at a broader array of mental health conditions that exhibit transdiagnostic attentional and social communication deficits, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Further research is required to understand the clinical importance of these observed changes and to conduct longitudinal studies on this intervention with control groups and larger sample sizes. ©Arshya Vahabzadeh, Neha U Keshav, Joseph P Salisbury, Ned T Sahin. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 24.03.2018.
Salameh, Pascale; Barbour, Bernadette; Issa, Carine; Rachidi, Samar
Since adolescence obesity is becoming an international concern, our objective was to evaluate obesity-related behavior in Lebanese adolescents. We performed a cross-sectional study in 19 Lebanese private schools, using a random multistage cluster sampling process. Dietary and physical activity behaviors were assessed in 1933 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years, stressing on differences between boys and girls and obesity categories. We found that boys were more obese than girls (72% versus 3.7% ; p changes in adolescents' behavior, stressing on physical activity for girls and healthier eating for boys.
Maciałczyk-Paprocka, Katarzyna; Stawińska-Witoszyńska, Barbara; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Sowińska, Anna; Krzyżaniak, Alicja; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Krzywińska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata
The ever increasing epidemics of overweight and obesity in school children may be one of the reasons of the growing numbers of children with incorrect body posture. The purpose of the study was the assessment of the prevalence of incorrect body posture in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity in Poznań, Poland. The population subject to study consisted of 2732 boys and girls aged 3-18 with obesity, overweight, and standard body mass. The assessment of body mass was performed based on BMI, adopting Cole's cutoff values. The evaluation of body posture was performed according to the postural error chart based on criteria complied by professor Dega. The prevalence rates of postural errors were significantly higher among children and adolescents with overweight and obesity than among the group with standard body mass. In the overweight group, it amounted to 69.2% and in the obese group to 78.6%. The most common postural deviations in obese children and adolescents were valgus knees and flat feet. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, predisposing to higher incidence of some types of postural errors, call for prevention programs addressing both health problems. What is Known: • The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has drawn attention to additional health complications which may occur in this population such as occurrence of incorrect body posture. What is New: • The modified chart of postural errors proved to be an effective tool in the assessment of incorrect body posture. • This chart may be used in the assessment of posture during screening tests and prevention actions at school.
Chen, Chun-An; Wang, Jou-Kou; Lue, Hung-Chi; Hua, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Mei-Hwei; Wu, Mei-Hwan
In Western countries, obesity is a common problem in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). However, this problem may have racial difference, and little is known about the shift of this trend as patients grow up. The present study sought to investigate the prevalence and trends of being underweight, overweight and obesity in an Asian CHD cohort using a 5-year citywide school survey database. Patient group consisted of 705 first grade elementary school students (children) and 219 first grade senior high school students (adolescents), while 18753 healthy children and 15014 healthy adolescents served as controls. Body mass index (BMI) percentile was calculated to define underweight (BMI obesity (BMI ≥ 95(th) percentile). In CHD children, the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity was 21.0% (control 16%, P obese than children with non-cyanotic CHD. The prevalence of underweight (23.3%) and overweight/obesity (26.5%) in CHD adolescents became close to that in controls. From childhood to adolescence, different shifts in BMI distribution were noted; controls became more underweight and overweight/obese for males and more underweight and less overweight/obese for females, while CHD patients became more overweight/obese for both genders, including cyanotic CHD. In this Asian CHD cohort, we demonstrates a shift of BMI distribution from more underweight and less overweight/obese compared with healthy children, to a pattern similar to that in healthy adolescents. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Johnson, Melissa H; George, Preethy; Armstrong, Mary I; Lyman, D Russell; Dougherty, Richard H; Daniels, Allen S; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E
Behavioral management services for children and adolescents are important components of the mental health service system. Behavioral management is a direct service designed to help develop or maintain prosocial behaviors in the home, school, or community. This review examined evidence for the effectiveness of family-centered, school-based, and integrated interventions. Literature reviews and individual studies published from 1995 through 2012 were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress, the Educational Resources Information Center, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Authors chose from three levels of evidence (high, moderate, and low) based on benchmarks for the number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of service effectiveness. The level of evidence for behavioral management was rated as high because of the number of well-designed randomized controlled trials across settings, particularly for family-centered and integrated family- and school-based interventions. Results for the effectiveness of behavioral management interventions were strong, depending on the type of intervention and mode of implementation. Evidence for school-based interventions as an isolated service was mixed, partly because complexities of evaluating group interventions in schools resulted in somewhat less rigor. Behavioral management services should be considered for inclusion in covered plans. Further research addressing the mechanisms of effect and specific populations, particularly at the school level, will assist in bolstering the evidence base for this important category of clinical intervention.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: What role should minors play in making medical decisions? The authors examined children's and adolescents' desire to be involved in serious medical decisions and the emotional consequences associated with them. METHODS: Sixty-three children and 76 adolescents were presented with a cover story about a difficult medical choice. Participants were tested in one of four conditions: (1 own informed choice; (2 informed parents' choice to amputate; (3 informed parents' choice to continue a treatment; and (4 uninformed parents' choice to amputate. In a questionnaire, participants were asked about their choices, preference for autonomy, confidence, and emotional reactions when faced with a difficult hypothetical medical choice. RESULTS: Children and adolescents made different choices and participants, especially adolescents, preferred to make the difficult choice themselves, rather than having a parent make it. Children expressed fewer negative emotions than adolescents. Providing information about the alternatives did not affect participants' responses. CONCLUSIONS: Minors, especially adolescents, want to be responsible for their own medical decisions, even when the choice is a difficult one. For the adolescents, results suggest that the decision to be made, instead of the agent making the decision, is the main element influencing their emotional responses and decision confidence. For children, results suggest that they might be less able than adolescents to project how they would feel. The results, overall, draw attention to the need to further investigate how we can better involve minors in the medical decision-making process.
Ruggeri, Azzurra; Gummerum, Michaela; Hanoch, Yaniv
What role should minors play in making medical decisions? The authors examined children's and adolescents' desire to be involved in serious medical decisions and the emotional consequences associated with them. Sixty-three children and 76 adolescents were presented with a cover story about a difficult medical choice. Participants were tested in one of four conditions: (1) own informed choice; (2) informed parents' choice to amputate; (3) informed parents' choice to continue a treatment; and (4) uninformed parents' choice to amputate. In a questionnaire, participants were asked about their choices, preference for autonomy, confidence, and emotional reactions when faced with a difficult hypothetical medical choice. Children and adolescents made different choices and participants, especially adolescents, preferred to make the difficult choice themselves, rather than having a parent make it. Children expressed fewer negative emotions than adolescents. Providing information about the alternatives did not affect participants' responses. Minors, especially adolescents, want to be responsible for their own medical decisions, even when the choice is a difficult one. For the adolescents, results suggest that the decision to be made, instead of the agent making the decision, is the main element influencing their emotional responses and decision confidence. For children, results suggest that they might be less able than adolescents to project how they would feel. The results, overall, draw attention to the need to further investigate how we can better involve minors in the medical decision-making process.
Ruggeri, Azzurra; Gummerum, Michaela; Hanoch, Yaniv
Objective What role should minors play in making medical decisions? The authors examined children's and adolescents' desire to be involved in serious medical decisions and the emotional consequences associated with them. Methods Sixty-three children and 76 adolescents were presented with a cover story about a difficult medical choice. Participants were tested in one of four conditions: (1) own informed choice; (2) informed parents' choice to amputate; (3) informed parents' choice to continue a treatment; and (4) uninformed parents' choice to amputate. In a questionnaire, participants were asked about their choices, preference for autonomy, confidence, and emotional reactions when faced with a difficult hypothetical medical choice. Results Children and adolescents made different choices and participants, especially adolescents, preferred to make the difficult choice themselves, rather than having a parent make it. Children expressed fewer negative emotions than adolescents. Providing information about the alternatives did not affect participants' responses. Conclusions Minors, especially adolescents, want to be responsible for their own medical decisions, even when the choice is a difficult one. For the adolescents, results suggest that the decision to be made, instead of the agent making the decision, is the main element influencing their emotional responses and decision confidence. For children, results suggest that they might be less able than adolescents to project how they would feel. The results, overall, draw attention to the need to further investigate how we can better involve minors in the medical decision-making process. PMID:25084274
Beineke, John A.
"Teaching History to Adolescents: A Quest for Relevance" is an exploration of research, ideas, trends, and practices for educators who teach American history to adolescents from the middle grades through high school. Higher education faculty in history and professional education will also find the book germane to their work. Topics within the…
Öztop, Didem Behice; Taşdelen, Bedia İnce; PoyrazoğLu, Hatıce Gamze; Ozsoy, Saliha; Yilmaz, Rabia; Şahın, Nilfer; Per, Hüseyin; Bozkurt, Selma
The aims of this study were to investigate comorbid psychiatric disorders and to identify anxiety and depression levels and quality of life in children and adolescents with migraine; and to assess their relationship with migraine. 35 patients aged 9-16 years were followed in our neurology clinic and their parents were included into the study. 35 age- and sex-matched patients were employed as the control group. In the subjects included, psychiatric disorders were assessed by using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version. All children and adolescents were assessed by using the Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. In addition, the Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment Tool and visual analog scale were used to identify the degree of disability and pain severity in patients with migraine. In the psychiatric assessment of children and adolescents with migraine, it was found that a psychiatric diagnosis was made in 40% of patients; and depression scale scores were significantly higher than those of controls. Quality of life was found to be poorer in patients with migraine compared to controls. It was found that quality of life was negatively correlated with pain severity and degree of disability; while it was positively correlated with depression scores. In children and adolescents with migraine, treatment of psychiatric disorders in addition to migraine therapy can facilitate migraine management and may decrease the need for prophylactic therapy. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Research into the psychosocial consequences of war and political violence on children’s and adolescent’s developmental wellbeing has shown a steady increase over the last decades. Numerous studies, from differing cultures in different war zones around the world, have documented the effect on children of exposure to war atrocities. The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH 1992-1995, at the end of 20th century found the citizens of BH and the world mental health professionals and scientists unprepared to deal with the adverse consequences for the entire BH population and especially for its most vulnerable part, children and adolescents, to be able to take adequate measures of sufficient mental health care to prevent devastating consequences of severe multiple traumas. Only a few research studies were done during and after this war in BH, the United States, Sweden, Norway, the UK and Germany focusing on the relationship between war trauma, Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, suicidal thoughts, acculturation, repatriation, poverty, behavioral problems, school adjustment, relational problems of children and their mothers after deployment of war PTSD veterans and war prisoners, and treatment of psychological consequences in examined children and adolescents from BH. The major part of this paper reviewed available literature on Medline that reported national and international studies which investigated the psychological consequences of war on BH children and adolescents and several papers about children and adolescents from Srebrenica, that were not indexed on Medline, but showed very crucial results for the issue described.
Padilla-Moledo, C; Castro-Piñero, J; Ortega, F B; Pulido-Martos, M; Sjöström, M; Ruiz, J R
The aim of this study was to study the correlation of television viewing with positive and negative health in youth. The present cross-sectional study comprised a total of 680 children and adolescents aged 6-17.9 (46% girls) representative of the province of Cádiz (south Spain). We used the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire to assess television viewing, positive and negative health. It was found that correlations between television viewing >2 hours and several outcomes were inconsistent. No effects were found for quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in children, or with perceived excellent health status, excellent life satisfaction, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in adolescents. However viewing >2 hours of television was correlated with lower quality family relations in adolescents, and lower perceived excellent health status, lower life satisfaction and higher health complaints index in children. Correction for multiple comparisons would render all television relationships as non-significant. Our results suggest that negative television influences on children and adolescents are minimal. However excessive television viewing may be symptomatic of other underlying mental health problems for some children.
Meyers, Michael C; Laurent, C Matthew; Higgins, Robert W; Skelly, William A
Downhill skiing is considered to be an enjoyable activity for children and adolescents, but it is not without its risks and injuries. Injury rates now range between 3.9 and 9.1 injuries per 1000 skier days, and there has been a well documented increase in the number of trauma cases and fatalities associated with this sport. Head and neck injuries are considered the primary cause of fatal injuries and constitute 11-20% of total injuries among children and adolescents. Cranial trauma is responsible for up to 54% of total hospital injuries and 67% of all fatalities, whereas thoracoabdominal and spine injuries comprise 4-10% of fatalities. Furthermore, there has been an increase in the proportion of upper extremity trauma with acromioclavicular dislocations, and clavicle and humeral fractures accounting for the majority (22-79%) of the injuries. However, the most common and potentially serious injuries in children and adolescents are those to the lower extremity, with knee sprains and anterior cruciate ligament tears accounting for up to 47.7% of total injuries. Knee sprains and grade III ligament trauma associated with lower leg fractures account for 39-77% of ski injuries in this young population. Approximately 15% of downhill skiing injuries among children and adolescents are caused by musculoskeletal immaturity. Other factors include excessive fatigue, age, level of experience, and inappropriate or improperly adjusted equipment. Collisions and falls constitute a significant portion (up to 76%) of trauma, and are commonly associated with excessive speed, adverse slope conditions, overconfidence leading to carelessness, and behavioural patterns within and among gender. The type and severity of injuries are typically functions of biomechanical efficiency, skiing velocity or slope conditions; however, a multiplicative array of intrinsic and extrinsic factors may simultaneously be involved. Despite extensive efforts to provide a comprehensive picture of the aetiology of
Baharudin, Azli; Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Cheong, Siew Man; Ying, Chan Ying; Saad, Hazizi Abu; Ahmad, Noor Ani
The importance of physical activity to health is well recognized. Good health habits should begin from a young age. This article aims to explore physical activity among Malaysian school adolescents and factors associated with it. Data from the Malaysian School-Based Nutrition Survey (MSNS), comprising a nationally representative sample of school-going children aged 10 to 17 years, were used. The overall prevalence of physically inactive adolescents was 57.3%. Age in years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.16-1.23), gender - females (adjusted odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 2.66-3.10), afternoon school session, breakfast consumption (no breakfast and irregular breakfast), body mass index status (obese and underweight), and body weight perception (underweight perceivers) were significant factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adolescents. Thus, there is evidence that programs to promote physical activity in this group should consider the combination of the aforementioned factors at the household, school, and community levels. © 2014 APJPH.
The result showed that the majority of the male adolescent students (53.6 %) age lies in the age ... of adolescents behavioral, social and physical health problems should be given high priority ..... in which depression and anxiety can occur.
Lewis, Jane; Noden, Philip; Sarre, Sophie
As dual-earner families have become the norm, the different kinds of "time" children spend with parents has become an important issue. We use the 2000 Time Use Survey to identify adolescent children spending time alone at home, and interviews with 50 children aged 14 and 15 to explore young people's experiences. We investigate their views on their…
Komolova, Masha; Pasupathi, Monisha; Wainryb, Cecilia; Lucas, Sarah
Children's and adolescents' narratives of interpersonal experiences can inform our understanding of developmental shifts in the use of personhood concepts. We present results from two studies ("n"s = 90, 112) with children aged five to 16 years. In the first study, children were asked to describe one positive and another negative…
Background: Literature on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in children is lacking. Occasional case report has been mentioned. Aims and objective of our study are to evaluate the clinical presentation and outcome in children with RCC. Patients and Methods: Records of 11 children and adolescence, from January 2007 to June ...
Background: Thyroid disorders constitute a large proportion of endocrine diseases in children and adolescents. Diseases of the thyroid have profound effect on metabolism, cognition, growth and development in children. The pattern of thyroid disorders in children in our region is still under reported. Objectives: To describe ...
Majnemer, Annette; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Schmitz, Norbert; Shevell, Michael; Lach, Lucy
With increasing age, youth with disabilities are at risk for decreased participation in leisure activities, a key component for physical and mental health. This prospective study describes changes in leisure participation and leisure preferences from school-age to adolescence in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants were recruited at school-age (6-12 years) for a study on participation and reassessed for a second study on adolescents (12-19 years) if >12 years. Thirty-eight children (24 males) with CP who could actively participate in the completion of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) and the Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC) comprised the sample. Average time between assessments was 5.0 ± 1.3 years. Most children were ambulatory (32/38 Gross Motor Function Classification System I-II). In addition to the CAPE and PAC, children were evaluated using the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 and parents completed a socio-demographic questionnaire. Paired t-tests revealed a significant decline in leisure participation diversity and intensity (CAPE) for recreation (p.05). Diversity of active-physical activities increased modestly (p=.06) although intensity of participation in this activity domain decreased (p=.003). There was also a decline in enjoyment of leisure activities. Preferences for these leisure activities remained unchanged between school-age and adolescence, except for recreational activities. Gender, maternal education, family income and gross motor ability were not related to differences in CAPE/PAC scores with increasing age. Findings suggest that over time, children with CP's participation in leisure activities diminishes, which is of concern to their functioning and well-being. Parents may be more involved in early childhood in facilitating participation whereas in adolescence, youth may be faced with more environmental barriers and a greater awareness of challenges to participation. Adolescents
Background Food insecurity not only affects physical growth and health of children but also their intellectual development, school attendance and academic performance. However, most evidences are based on studies in high income countries. Although food insecurity is common in Ethiopia, to what extent it affects school attendance and educational attainment of adolescents is not explored. We hypothesized that food insecure adolescents would be more likely to be absent from school and have lower grades attained after 1 year compared to their food secure peers. Methods We used data from 2009 adolescents in the age group of 13-17 years from two consecutive surveys of a five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. A stratified random sampling was used to select participants. Regression analyses were used to compare school absenteeism and the highest grade attained after 1 year of follow-up in food secure and insecure adolescents. The analysis was adjusted for demographic factors, reported illness and workload. Results Significantly more (33.0%) food insecure adolescents were absent from school compared with their food secure peers (17.8%, P absenteeism. Similarly after controlling for household income and gender of the household head, adolescent food insecurity(P absenteeism and a lower educational attainment. Programs aiming to achieve universal access to primary education in food insecure environments should integrate interventions to ensure food security of adolescents. PMID:21477343
Belachew, Tefera; Hadley, Craig; Lindstrom, David; Gebremariam, Abebe; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick
Food insecurity not only affects physical growth and health of children but also their intellectual development, school attendance and academic performance. However, most evidences are based on studies in high income countries. Although food insecurity is common in Ethiopia, to what extent it affects school attendance and educational attainment of adolescents is not explored. We hypothesized that food insecure adolescents would be more likely to be absent from school and have lower grades attained after 1 year compared to their food secure peers. We used data from 2009 adolescents in the age group of 13-17 years from two consecutive surveys of a five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. A stratified random sampling was used to select participants. Regression analyses were used to compare school absenteeism and the highest grade attained after 1 year of follow-up in food secure and insecure adolescents. The analysis was adjusted for demographic factors, reported illness and workload. Significantly more (33.0%) food insecure adolescents were absent from school compared with their food secure peers (17.8%, P absenteeism. Similarly after controlling for household income and gender of the household head, adolescent food insecurity(P absenteeism and a lower educational attainment. Programs aiming to achieve universal access to primary education in food insecure environments should integrate interventions to ensure food security of adolescents.
Wang, Cixin; Do, Kieu Anh; Bao, Leiping; Xia, Yan R; Wu, Chaorong
School adjustment and achievement are important indicators of adolescents' well-being; however, few studies have examined the risk and protective factors predicting students' school adjustment and achievement at the individual, familial, and cultural level. The present study examined the influences of individual and familial factors and cultural values on Chinese adolescents' school functioning (e.g., school adjustment and grades). It also tested whether cultural values moderated the relationship between parenting and adolescents' school functioning. Self-report data were collected from a stratified random sample of 2,864 adolescents (51.5% female, mean age = 15.52 years, grade 6th - 12th) from 55 classrooms, in 13 schools in Shanghai, China. Results showed that self-esteem ( b se→adj = 0.05, SE = 0.01, p school adjustment and grades, respectively. More importantly, results showed that independent self-construal moderated the relationship between parental autonomy granting and adolescents' grades ( b indepxautom = 0.06, SE = 0.02, p autonomy granting, which then impacts their school functioning.
Beiusanu, Corina; Vlaicu, Brigitha
The present study was centered on the particularities of the duration of preparing homework, taking breaks during homework preparation, and the way the breaks should take place for small school children. The study has been done on a sample of 235 small school children from Oradea, 114 boys and 121 girls, between the ages 7 and 10 years old, using an anonymous questioner, with 41 items, which investigates the lifestyle of the small school children. The duration of homework preparation it is significantly more reduced for the school children in 1st grade in comparison with the ones in 3 grade (p lunch. Half of the children from grades I-IV prepare their homework with no break. A very small number of children spend their homework break time in a healthy manner, while the rest prefer to play computer games (46.95%) or to watch television (46.08%). More than half of the schoolchildren need 1-2 hours at home to prepare their homework. Most of the school children prepare their homework after lunch, in an optimal interval of time. Half of the questioned children prepare their homework with no break. Those who are taking breaks prefer activities which get the children even more tired, therefore being non-hygienic methods of spending homework breaks.
Rau, Thea; Ohlert, Jeannine; Fegert, Jörg M; Allroggen, Marc
Disclosure of Adolescents in Residential Care Institutions and Boarding Schools after Exposure to Sexual Violence In international research, many papers exist about the issue of disclosure after having experienced sexual violence. However, specific research regarding disclosure processes of children and adolescents in institutional care are missing, even though those are particularly often affected by sexual violence. In the Germany-wide study "Sprich mit!", adolescents from the age of 15 up (n = 322; average age 16,69 (SD = 1,3); 57,1 % males) who live in residential care or boarding schools were asked for experiences of sexual violence and their consequences by means of a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that the majority of the adolescents (82 %) entrusted themselves to someone, mostly towards peers (56 %) and less frequent towards adults (24 %). Boys and girls opened up equally often, regardless of the severity of the experienced violence. Adolescents who entrusted themselves towards their peers indicated retrospectively more satisfaction than those entrusting themselves towards adults, even if there were no consequences following the disclosure. Considering that the disclosure towards peers did not initiate a process of help, adolescents in institutional care should be better informed about relevant possibilities to entrust themselves and receive support.
Wang, Lifei; Feng, Zhengzhi; Yang, Guoyu; Yang, Yaling; Wang, Kaifa; Dai, Qin; Zhao, Mengxue; Hu, Chaobing; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Keyu; Guang, Yu; Xia, Fan
The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in a school-based sample of 7-17-year-old children and adolescents in west-central China. A large cross-sectional sample survey of 10657 children and adolescents was conducted in Chongqing, a municipality in west-central China. Data were collected from the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist (ASLEC) and social-demographic variables which were evaluated with a structured scale. The total prevalence of depression risk was 23.9%. The risk factors for depressive symptoms included age older than 12 years, grade lower than 10, having unmarried parents, being taken care of by people other than two parents (single parent, grandparent(s), other relatives, or others), and living in a low-income family. The pressures of health and adaptation, interpersonal relationship, and study were also strong predictors of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among children and adolescents in Chongqing of China is relatively high compared with most figures reported in other cities. There is an urgent need to develop efficacious interventions aimed at the prevention and early recognition of childhood and adolescent depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A,; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to increase service use. This paper examines associations of school resources with past-year mental health service use among students with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. Method Data come from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescent mental health that included 4,445 adolescent-parent pairs in 227 schools in which principals and mental health coordinators completed surveys about school resources-policies for addressing student emotional problems. Adolescents and parents completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and reported mental health service use across multiple sectors. Multilevel multivariate regression was used to examine associations of school mental health resources and individual-level service use. Results Roughly half (45.3%) of adolescents with a 12-month DSM-IV disorder received past-year mental health services. Substantial variation existed in school resources. Increased school engagement in early identification was significantly associated with mental health service use for adolescents with mild/moderate mental and behavior disorders. The ratio of students-to-mental health providers was not associated with overall service use, but was associated with sector of service use. Conclusions School mental health resources, particularly those related to early identification, may facilitate mental health service use and influence sector of service use for youths with DSM disorders. PMID:23622851
Gonzales, C; Mulligan, D; Kaufman, A; Davis, S; Hunt, K; Kalishman, N; Wallerstein, N
Participants in this discussion of the potential of school-based health care services for adolescents included family medicine physicians, school health coordinators, a school nurse, and a community worker. It was noted that health care for adolescents tends to be either inaccessible or underutilized, largely because of a lack of sensitivity to adolescent culture and values. An ideal service for adolescents would offer immediate services for crises, strict confidentiality, ready access to prescribed medications, a sliding-scale scheme, and a staff that is tolerant of divergent values and life-styles. School-based pilot adolescent clinics have been established by the University of New Mexico's Department of Family, Community, and Emergency Medicine to test the community-oriented health care model. On-site clinics provide urgent medical care, family planning, pregnancy testing, psychological counseling, alcohol and drug counseling, and classroom health education. Experience with these programs has demonstrated the necessity for an alliance among the health team and the school administration, parents, and students. Financial, ethical, and political factors can serve as constraints to school-based programs. In some cases, school administrators have been resistant to the provision of contraception to students on school grounds and parents have been unwilling to accept the adolescent's right to confidentiality. These problems in part stem from having 2 separate systems, each with its own values, orientation, and responsibilities, housed in 1 facility. In addition, there have been problems generating awareness of the school-based clinic among students. Health education theater groups, peer counseling, and student-run community services have been effective, however, in increasing student participation. It has been helpful to mold clinic services to meet the needs identified by teenagers themselves. There is an interest not only in curative services, but in services focused
Sangeeta Jain Sharma
Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition leads to poor cognitive performance and physical growth in children and is a major component of school health services. Imbalanced nutrition in adolescence can put them at high risk of chronic diseases particularly if combined with adverse lifestyle. Aims & Objectives: This study was designed to assess and compare the nutritional status of government and private school children of Muzaffarnagar city. Material and Methods: School based, comparative Cross-sectional study. One private and one government school was selected using unistage stratified random sampling. A total of 1960 (980 each from private school and government school school children of class 6-12 were studied for socio-epidemiological details, dietary habits, and physical activity. Information on education status, occupation, monthly income of their parents was also collected. Required anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: Of 980 children from private school, 90 (9.18% were underweight,138 (14.08% were overweight, and 137 (13.97% were obese. Majority of children from government school were underweight 215 (21.94% except for 24 (2.45% overweight children. Conclusion: This study shows the dual nature of nutritional problem, under-nutrition among the lower socioeconomic class of govt. school at one side and worrisome epidemic of obesity among the affluent of private school
Manjeet S Bhatia
Full Text Available Background: Stampede is described as a sudden movement of a mass of people in response to a particular circumstance or stimulus. Human stampedes are quite often reported from crowded places like places of worship, sporting events, political rallies, etc. There are reports of development of posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive and anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents subsequent to both natural and man-made disasters. The present tragedy struck in a Government Secondary School in Delhi on September 9, 2009. The study describes the long-term psychiatric morbidity in children following stampede. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted by the department of psychiatry of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 38 children (all adolescent girls were registered at the casualty of the hospital and 1 absconded, 5 were brought dead. A total of 32 children were included in the study. After first assessment in the casualty, subsequent assessments at 8 weeks and 6 months were done using semi-structured performa, GHQ and Child′s reaction to traumatic event scale (CRTES-Revised. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: The age-group of the children were 12-20 years(mean 14.3, all girls, studying in grades - VII to X Eight weeks follow up GHQ score was high in 27 (87%. On CRTESQ-R scale, 22 children were in high distress group (71%. Twenty-two children had symptoms of PTSD and five were in moderate distress group. Eleven children also had a comorbid diagnosis of depressive disorder, six had phobic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. There were statistically significant differences in mean GHQ scores at baseline and at 6 months follow up. There was also significant decrease in CRTESQ-R scale scores between baseline and 6 months. Conclusion: The children who were victims of stampede warrant the need for long-term intervention.
Raible, Claire A.; Dick, Rebecca; Gilkerson, Fern; Mattern, Cheryl S.; James, Lisa; Miller, Elizabeth
Background: Project Connect is a national program to build partnerships among public health agencies and domestic violence services to improve the health care sector response to partner and sexual violence. Pennsylvania piloted the first school nurse-delivered adolescent relationship abuse intervention in the certified school nurses' office…
The author combines a literature review with results from her school-based research to argue that the anti-sex rhetoric surrounding sex education and school-based clinics inhibits the development of sexual responsibility and subjectivity in female adolescents. Current practices lead to increased victimization, teenage pregnancy, and dropout rates.…
Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann; Bream, Victoria
Based on data from 2,722 British adolescents, this study explores whether perceived father involvement can be associated with school attitudes. Multiple regression analysis showed that both father involvement and mother involvement contributed significantly and independently to positive school attitudes. Furthermore, the association between father…
Out-of-school peer educators [PE] are resourceful in transmitting reproductive health information but their retention remains a contentious issue. This study aimed to assess motivation and sustainability of out-of-school PEs in disseminating reproductive health information among adolescents. A structured questionnaire was ...
We evaluated the knowledge, attitudes to and consequences of menstrual morbidities among in –school adolescents in Ibadan and determined their effect on school attendance. The pattern of drug use for menstrual symptoms was also assessed. Self-administered questionnaires were given to 1194 respondents in ...
Objective: To examine psychosocial correlates of lifetime alcohol use among adolescents in rural South African high schools. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 1600 students from 20 randomly selected high schools in the Mankweng district within Limpopo province. Self-report data on alcohol use, demographic, ...
Adolescence is a notable period during which a considerable share of students tends to engage in problem behavior in school. Students for example skip class, fail to do their best in school, or have serious arguments with their teachers. A student’s decision to engage in such behavior is not usually
Yáñez, A M; López, R; Serra-Batlles, J; Roger, N; Arnau, A; Roura, P
Smoking represents a public health problem, one which begins during adolescence. The main objective of this study was to analyze the association between smoking and parental and school factors. The study sample consisted of the students from the 20 secondary schools in the region of Osona, Barcelona, Spain. A self-report questionnaire was used to obtain information on the following variables: smoking habit, age of initiation, frequency, type of school (state school or private-subsidized), sex, age, persons living in the home, town, whether the student had lunch at school, whether the student often had lunch or dinner alone at home. A total of 2280 students participated in the study (91%). Mean age was 15.5 years. Of the participants, 20% said they were smokers; 5%, ex-smokers; 34% had tried smoking at least once, and 41% had never smoked. Factors significantly associated with smoking in the multivariate analysis were age, rural town, state school, single parent family, eating alone, and not lunching at school. Smoking prevalence is high among adolescents in our society and there is no gender difference. Our results show that family structure and dynamics can influence smoking in adolescents. Smoking is less prevalent among adolescents who have lunch at school.
Murberg, Terje A.; Bru, Edvin
This study examines the relationships between school-related stress, gender and psychosomatic symptoms in a sample of 531 adolescent pupils in years (grades) 8, 9 and 10 (aged 13-16 years) from two compulsory schools in Norway. Results showed that 18.1 percent reported being very much affected by at least one of the assessed psychosomatic…
The purpose of this article is to describe how school staff members, learners and parents collaborate to prevent adolescent learner violence in two different urban secondary schools. The increase in acts of interpersonal learner violence has a destructive effect on the safe and positive development of young people.
Some legal cases on the freedom of speech in adolescent public school students are discussed. It is suggested that schools, social scientists and psychologists should build a social consensus on the extent to which the freedom of speech for abusive students can be allowed so as not to affect development of other students.
Zhu, Yin; Au, Chun-Ting; Lam, Hugh S; Chan, Ching-Ching K; Ho, Crover; Wing, Yun-Kwok; Li, Albert M
We aimed to examine if sleep architecture was altered in school-aged children with primary snoring (PS). Children ages 6 to 13 years from 13 primary schools were randomly recruited. A validated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) screening questionnaire was completed by their parents. Children at high risk for OSA and a randomly chosen low-risk group were invited to undergo overnight polysomnography (PSG) and clinical examination. Participants were classified into healthy controls, PS, mild OSA, and moderate to severe OSA (MS OSA) groups for comparison. A total of 619 participants underwent PSG (mean age, 10.0 ± 1.8 years; 396 (64.0%) boys; 524 (84.7%) prepubertal). For the cohort as a whole, there were no significant differences in measures of sleep architecture between PS and nonsnoring healthy controls. In the multiple regression model, percentage of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) stage 1 (N1) sleep had a significantly positive association, whereas percentage of slow-wave sleep (SWS) had a significantly negative association with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity after controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) z score, and pubertal status. In prepubertal children with PS, no significant disruption of sleep architecture was found. However, pubertal adolescent PS participants had significantly higher adjusted percentage of N1 sleep and wake after sleep onset (WASO) compared to healthy controls. PS did not exert significant adverse influences on normal sleep architecture in prepubertal school-aged children. Nevertheless, pubertal adolescents with PS had increased N1 sleep and WASO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Abou Nazel, M W; Fahmy, S I; Younis, I A; Seif el-Din, A G; Abdel Fatah, M; Mokhtar, S; Ayoub, A I
Using a constructed Arabic version of Children Depression Inventory (CDI), screening of a stratified random sample of 1% (1561) of Alexandria Preparatory school adolescents was carried out. The prevalence of depressive scorers was 10.25% of total sample. A sub-sample of depressed scorers (111 pupils) were compared with controls (non-depressed scorers) matched on age and sex to study a variety of personal, familial, medical and scholastic ecological variables. Pupils neuroticism scorers were most predictive of depressive scorers where they explained 59.79% of the variance. Other ecological factors including peer and sibling relationships, introversive and lie scale scorers and scholastic performance explained an additional 14.87% of the variance. Using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Mother-Father relationship check list, a sub-sample of depressed pupils' mothers were compared with controls of non-depressed pupils' mothers (42 mothers for each). Results indicated a strong positive correlation between pupils, CDI scores and their mothers BDI scores. On the other hand poor mother-father relationship was significantly associated with depressive scores of pupils. Findings, pointed to the need for reconsideration of school mental health program, since the presented medical and social services to depressed pupils were very poor.
Mora-de Sambricio, A; Garrido-Stratenwerth, E
Low back pain is a common cause of lost playing time in young athletes, and spondylolysis is its most common identifiable cause. Despite technological advances in radiology, which can lead to an early diagnosis with better prognosis, progression to spondylolisthesis is sometimes asymptomatic and may not be detected until late stages. There are wide variations, suggesting lack of consensus as regards the objective of treatment, which consists of clinical, radiological, biomechanical or functional improvement. There is also a lack of agreement regarding the ideal conservative treatment, surgical indications and need of slip reduction, and most of the established recommendations are not evidence based. We present a review of literature, which summarizes the current knowledge of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri
The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because...... there is no nutritional requirement for free sugars, and infants have an innate preference for sweet taste, which may be modified and reinforced by pre- and postnatal exposures. Sugar containing beverages/free sugars increase the risk for overweight/obesity and dental caries, can result in poor nutrient supply...... and reduced dietary diversity and may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, and other health effects. The term 'free sugars', includes all monosaccharides/disaccharides added to foods/beverages by the manufacturer/cook/consumer, plus sugars naturally present...
Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri
The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because...... there is no nutritional requirement for free sugars, and infants have an innate preference for sweet taste, which may be modified and reinforced by pre- and postnatal exposures. Sugar containing beverages/free sugars increase the risk for overweight/obesity and dental caries, can result in poor nutrient supply...... and reduced dietary diversity and may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, and other health effects. The term 'free sugars', includes all monosaccharides/disaccharides added to foods/beverages by the manufacturer/cook/consumer, plus sugars naturally present...
Fatores associados à dislipidemia em crianças e adolescentes de escolas públicas de Salvador, Bahia Factors associated with dyslipidemia in children and adolescents enrolled in public schools of Salvador, Bahia
Osvaldo Dário de Alcântara Neto
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo aborda os fatores associados a dislipidemia em crianças e adolescentes matriculados na rede pública de ensino da cidade de Salvador, BA. MÉTODOS: Os participantes foram submetidos a avaliação antropométrica, coleta de sangue para dosagem de colesterol e triglicérides. As informações relacionadas a consumo alimentar, atividade física e condições socioeconômicas e de moradia da família foram fornecidas pelos responsáveis. Regressão logistica mutivariada foi utilizada para as avaliações de interesse. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de dislipidemia encontrada no presente estudo foi de 25,5% (IC:95% 22,7; 28,3. Observou-se associação positiva e estatiticamentre significante entre dislipidemia e excesso de peso (0R = 3,40; IC95%: 2,07-5,58, moderado e alto consumo de alimentos de risco (OR = 1,49; IC95%: 1,01-2,19, baixo e moderado consumo de alimentos protetores (OR = 1,54; IC95%: 1,05-2,26 e menor nível de escolaridade materna (OR = 1,72; IC95%: 1,05-2,26. CONCLUSÃO: O excesso de peso, consumo alimentar inadequado e baixa escolaridade materna constituem fatores associados a dislipidemia.OBJECTIVE: We assessed the factors associated with dyslipidemia in children and adolescents enrolled in the public school system of the city of Salvador, Bahia. METHODS: All participants were submitted to anthropometric evaluation and to cholesterol and triglyceride blood tests. Data related to food intake, physical activity and family socioeconomic and housing conditions were obtained from parents or guardians. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 25.5% (IC:95% 22.7; 28.3. We observed a significant positive association between dyslipidemia and the following factors: overweight (OR = 3.40, 95% CI 2.07 to 5.58, moderate and high intake of risk food (OR = 1.49, 95%: 1.01 to 2.19, low and moderate intake of protective foods (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.26 and lower
Nalugya-Sserunjogi, Joyce; Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Ovuga, Emilio; Kiwuwa, Steven M; Musisi, Seggane; Nakimuli-Mpungu, Etheldreda
Depression in adolescents constitutes a global public health concern. However, data on its prevalence and associated factors are limited in low income countries like Uganda. Using a cross-sectional descriptive study design, 519 adolescent students in 4 secondary schools in Mukono district, Uganda, were randomly selected after meeting study criteria. The 4 school types were: boarding mixed (boys and girls) school; day mixed school; girls' only boarding school; and, boys' only boarding school. The 519 participants filled out standardized questionnaires regarding their socio-demographic characteristics and health history. They were then screened for depression using the Children Depression Inventory (CDI) and those with a cut-off of 19 were administered the Mini International Neuro-Psychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents 2.0 (MINI-KID), to ascertain the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM IV) diagnostic types of depression and any co morbidity. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with significant depression symptoms (a score of 19 or more on the CDI). There were 301 (58 %) boys and 218 (42 %) girls with age range 14-16 years and a mean age of 16 years (SD 2.18). Of 519 participants screened with the CDI, 109 (21 %) had significant depression symptoms. Of the 109 participants with significant depression symptoms, only 74 were evaluated with the MINI-KID and of these, 8 (11 %) met criteria for major depression and 6 (8 %) met criteria for dysthymia. Therefore, among participants that were assessed with both the CDI and the MINI-KID (n = 484), the prevalence of depressive disorders was 2.9 %. In this sample, 15 (3.1 %) reported current suicidal ideation. In the logistic regression analyses, significant depression symptoms were associated with single-sex schools, loss of parents and alcohol consumption. This is a cross-sectional study therefore, causal relationships are difficult to
Raval, Vaishali V; Ward, Rose M; Raval, Pratiksha H; Trivedi, Shwetang S
Much like other parts of Asia, late adolescence in India is a particularly stressful time with academic pressures of a highly competitive examination system that determines future occupational success. The present study examined interrelations among reports of parenting, adolescents' regulation of academics-related emotions, school engagement, adolescent socio-emotional functioning and state-exam performance. Four hundred and fifty 10th and 12th graders from suburban high schools in India participated, along with their mothers. At the beginning of the school year, mothers completed measures of parenting, and adolescents completed measures of emotion regulation, school engagement and behaviour problems. At the end of the school year, grades from state exams were obtained from the schools. A multiple mediator model was tested using structural equation modelling. Authoritarian parenting was positively related to adolescent behaviour problems, but not adolescent state-exam performance. Maternal non-supportive responses to adolescent negative emotion were indirectly positively related to adolescent behaviour problems through adolescent emotion dysregulation. Adolescent school engagement mediated the positive relation between maternal supportive responses to adolescent negative emotion and adolescent state-exam performance. These findings underscore the relevance of adolescent emotions for their academic functioning, with implications for the development of interventions for those who struggle during these highly stressful years. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.
Kriemler, S; Meyer, U; Martin, E
School-based interventions are thought to be the most universally applicable and effective way to counteract low physical activity (PA) and fitness although there is controversy about the optimal strategy to intervene.......School-based interventions are thought to be the most universally applicable and effective way to counteract low physical activity (PA) and fitness although there is controversy about the optimal strategy to intervene....
Kõlves, Kairi; de Leo, Diego
There are notable differences in suicide methods between countries. The aim of this paper is to analyse and describe suicide methods in children and adolescents aged 10-19 years in different countries/territories worldwide. Suicide data by ICD-10 X codes were obtained from the WHO Mortality Database and population data from the World Bank. In total, 101 countries or territories, have data at least for 5 years in 2000-2009. Cluster analysis by suicide methods was performed for countries/territories with at least 10 suicide cases separately by gender (74 for males and 71 for females) in 2000-2009. The most frequent suicide method was hanging, followed by poisoning by pesticides for females and firearms for males. Cluster analyses of similarities in the country/territory level suicide method patterns by gender identified four clusters for both gender. Hanging and poisoning by pesticides defined the clusters of countries/territories by their suicide patterns in youth for both genders. In addition, a mixed method and a jumping from height cluster were identified for females and two mixed method clusters for males. A number of geographical similarities were observed. Overall, the patterns of suicide methods in children and adolescents reflect lethality, availability and acceptability of suicide means similarly to country specific patterns of all ages. Means restriction has very good potential in preventing youth suicides in different countries. It is also crucial to consider cognitive availability influenced by sensationalised media reporting and/or provision of technical details about specific methods.
Kouwenberg, Maartje; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; de Rooij, Mark
Victimization is a relatively common, yet serious problem, with potentially severe consequences for children's psychosocial and academic functioning. Children who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (DHH) may be at a higher risk for victimization than hearing children. The aims of the present study were to compare DHH and hearing children on i) self-reported experiences of victimization and ii) associations between victimization, parental- and child variables. In total 188 children (mean age 11;11 years) from the Netherlands and Dutch-speaking part of Belgium participated in the study. No difference between DHH and hearing children were found on general experiences of victimization. However, differences between the groups were found on specific forms of experienced victimization and on the associations between victimization and parental variables. For DHH children, parental sensitivity and parents who challenge their DHH children to become competent in the practical, emotional, cognitive and social domain is associated with them being less victimized. For hearing children at this age these relations were reversed, absent or more complex. Finally, DHH children in special schools were more victimized than DHH children in regular schools. It can be concluded that parents can play an important role in reducing social problems experienced by DHH children and young adolescents. PMID:23284923
McNeely, Clea A; Morland, Lyn; Doty, S Benjamin; Meschke, Laurie L; Awad, Summer; Husain, Altaf; Nashwan, Ayat
The US education system must find creative and effective ways to foster the healthy development of the approximately 2 million newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents, many of whom contend with language barriers, limited prior education, trauma, and discrimination. We identify research priorities for promoting the school success of these youth. The study used the 4-phase priority-setting method of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative. In the final stage, 132 researchers, service providers, educators, and policymakers based in the United States were asked to rate the importance of 36 research options. The highest priority research options (range 1 to 5) were: evaluating newcomer programs (mean = 4.44, SD = 0.55), identifying how family and community stressors affect newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents' functioning in school (mean = 4.40, SD = 0.56), identifying teachers' major stressors in working with this population (mean = 4.36, SD = 0.72), and identifying how to engage immigrant and refugee families in their children's education (mean = 4.35, SD = 0.62). These research priorities emphasize the generation of practical knowledge that could translate to immediate, tangible benefits for schools. Funders, schools, and researchers can use these research priorities to guide research for the highest benefit of schools and the newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents they serve. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available According to Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model, school is an essential microsystem of the developing child. Schools provide important developmental contexts for children and adolescents, as they constitute environments that might either foster or evoke students’ emotional instability. In particular, less is known about the precise and dynamic interplay of students’ socio-environmental aspects in school (i.e., sense of school belonging, social relationships with teachers and peers and emotional instability (i.e., depressive symptoms, perceived stress, feelings of loneliness during adolescence. To close this gap, this study examined within- and over-time cross-lagged associations based on data from a quantitative questionnaire-based survey of adolescent students (T1: N= 1088; Mage = 13.70, SD = 0.53 from 23 secondary schools in Brandenburg, Germany. Results of latent cross-lagged panel design supports the mutual relations for within-time associations, which is in line with Bronfenbrenner’s model. However, only the over-time association between school belonging and teacher-student relationship was found to be reciprocal.
Gadodia, A.; Seith, A.; Sharma, R.; Choudhury, A.R.; Bhutia, O.; Gupta, A.
Full text: Jaw lesions in paediatric and adolescent population are uncommon and can arise in odontogenic or non-odontogenic tissues. With the advent of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), algorithm for imaging jaw lesions has changed dramatically. This pictorial essay describes the imaging appearance of commonly encountered jaw lesions in children and adolescents with emphasis on MDCT findings
Neff, Kristin D.; Cooper, Carey E.; Woodruff, Althea L.
Two studies examined children's and adolescents' developing perceptions of gender inequality. The first study examined perceptions of inequality among 272 early, middle, and late adolescents, focusing on the spheres of politics, business, and the home. Results indicated an age-related increase in perceptions of male dominance. Men were seen to…
CONCLUSION: Higher percentage of insulin-resistant participants was of female gender and was adolescents. In general, insulin resistant obese children and adolescents tend to have a worse metabolic profile in comparison to individuals without insulin resistance. It is of note that the highest insulin resistance was also linked with the highest concentrations of triglycerides.
Karlson, Kristian Bernt
This paper examines the role of adaptation in expectation formation processes by analyzing how educational tracking in high schools affects adolescents' educational expectations. I argue that adolescents view track placement as a signal about their academic abilities and respond to it in terms...... of modifying their educational expectations. Applying a difference-in-differences approach to the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988, I find that being placed in an advanced or honors class in high school positively affects adolescents’ expectations, particularly if placement is consistent across...... subjects and if placement contradicts tracking experiences in middle school. My findings support the hypothesis that adolescents adapt their educational expectations to ability signals sent by schools....
year retrospective study of coroner autopsies carried out on children I adolescents aged between 0-19 years, evaluated the pattern, causes and demographic features of childhood deaths in Rivers state, Nigeria. Methods A retrospective remew of ...
Jan 11, 2010 ... b Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab ... Keywords: injuries; children; adolescents; prevalence; prevention ... performance, and may even develop an extent of mental.
Rehabilitation in radiotherapy of osteosarcomas in children and adolescents is manifested in rational planning of radiotherapy and in simplest orthopedic measures carried out simultaneously with irradiation and aimed at removal of contractures in limb joints
Silva, Carlos Henrique Martins da; Silva, Taís Estevão da; Morales, Nívea Macedo O; Fernandes, Karla P; Pinto, Rogério M C
Allergic rhinitis (AR) remains a significant pediatric health problem because of the burden of uncontrolled symptoms on daily activities and on general well being. to assess the impact of AR on health-related quality of life (HRQL) of children and adolescents using a generic instrument, the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ - PF50). Between January and November 2004, parents or caregivers of 23 children and adolescents with AR without comorbidities and with positive prick tests for at least one air allergen were invited to participate of a cross-sectional study and asked to answer the self-administered CHQ-PF50. The scores were compared to those of healthy children and adolescents. Patient scores were lower (psize effect was higher in the physical score compared to the psychosocial summary score. allergic rhinitis has a global negative impact on the HRQL of children and adolescents, with major repercussions in physical function; AR also negatively affects family relations.
Fabiana A. Silva
Conclusion: Lower frequency of meals was related to lower income in children and adolescents, larger number of sons in the family, and increased values of body mass index and low‐density lipoprotein.
A computed tomographic system for determining the internal diameters, cross-sectional area, and length of the trachea in children and adolescents was developed. Intraluminal volumes were calculated from these measurements.The results of 18 analyses are reported
Duque, Paula Andrea; Vásquez, Rafael; Cote, Miguel
Conversion disorder is diagnosed late, by exclusion and with a high risk of complications. There is a wide experience in adults that is not extrapolated to paediatric patients. According to the literature, the prognosis is better in children, but this changes when other variables such are included, such as comorbidities, late diagnosis and a very convincing social image of the neurological disease. To review the medical literature on the clinical features, diagnosis, comorbidities and treatment of this disorder. A literature research was performed on Medline and Pubmed, the terms used were "conversion disorder", pseudoseizures, treatment, clinic, children ("conversion disorder" OR hysteria OR hysterical) (child OR children OR childhood OR pediatric OR paediatric). The most relevant material found is included in this review. Conversion disorder is often an imprecise diagnosis in high complexity paediatric services. No consensus was found in the literature search on how to treat patients after the initial diagnosis. The evidence that it becomes chronic is not strong enough, just as the evidence is not convincing enough to argue that comorbidity factors are those maintained over time. Clearly, there is no medical experience of the natural history of this disorder in children and adolescents. It is only known is that it is a complex condition, on which there is experience only in the diagnosis and treatment of the acute state, but not so in the long-term care. It is proposed that each patient is studied in detail in order to define the psychiatric diagnosis and its treatment. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Priscila Missaki Nakamura
Full Text Available Less than half of adolescents reach the recommended300 minutes per week of physical activity (PA. Physical educationclasses and sports participation provideopportunities for adolescents to accumulate moretime for PA practice; however, littleis known about the influence of these variables onthe level of total physical activity ofadolescents. The aim of this study was toinvestigate the association between the practiceof physical education (PE in schools and sportsactivities (SA with the practice oftotal PA of adolescents. The study wascross-sectional and involved 467 adolescents ofhigh school (15.8 ± 0.9 years-old from the city ofRio Claro, in the State of São Paulo. Participants completed the Physical ActivityQuestionnaire to Older Children (PAQ-Cand questions related to the practice of PE and SAin schools. We performed a logisticregression with p<0.05 using SPSS. Girls hadlower prevalence of PA than boys, 9.4% and26.8%, respectively. Boys who did not participateof PE classes (OR=0.25, CI95%=0.09-0.66 and SA in schools (OR=0.34, CI95%=0.12-0.95were less likely to be active in PAthan boys who practiced these activities. Theparticipation in PE classes or engagementin some SA were positively associated with thepractice of total PA in boys.
Priscila Missaki Nakamura
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n5p517 Less than half of adolescents reach the recommended300 minutes per week of physical activity (PA. Physical educationclasses and sports participation provideopportunities for adolescents to accumulate moretime for PA practice; however, littleis known about the influence of these variables onthe level of total physical activity ofadolescents. The aim of this study was toinvestigate the association between the practiceof physical education (PE in schools and sportsactivities (SA with the practice oftotal PA of adolescents. The study wascross-sectional and involved 467 adolescents ofhigh school (15.8 ± 0.9 years-old from the city ofRio Claro, in the State of São Paulo. Participants completed the Physical ActivityQuestionnaire to Older Children (PAQ-Cand questions related to the practice of PE and SAin schools. We performed a logisticregression with p<0.05 using SPSS. Girls hadlower prevalence of PA than boys, 9.4% and26.8%, respectively. Boys who did not participateof PE classes (OR=0.25, CI95%=0.09-0.66 and SA in schools (OR=0.34, CI95%=0.12-0.95were less likely to be active in PAthan boys who practiced these activities. Theparticipation in PE classes or engagementin some SA were positively associated with thepractice of total PA in boys.
Engström, K; Laflamme, L; Diderichsen, F
Hospital Discharge and Causes of Death registers) with documented socioeconomic differences: injuries due to traffic, interpersonal violence, and self-infliction. The Relative Index of Inequality was used to measure the magnitude of relative socioeconomic differences, for each year of observation. Where...... the two older cohorts (10-14 and 15-19, in 1990). In conclusion, this study provides limited evidence of equalisation in injury risks between socioeconomic groups among Swedish adolescents. Equalisation appears to be a gender-specific phenomenon, that is, among girls, and manifests itself around the age...... culture effects-as hypothesised by West-is debatable, particularly in the case of self-inflicted injuries....
Russo, Paolo M; Biasi, Valeria; Cipolli, Carlo; Mallia, Luca; Caponera, Elisa
This study aimed to cast light on the relationships between sleep habits, perceived sleep problems and school performance in Evening-type (E-type) compared with Morning-type (M-type) early adolescents. Comparison of questionnaire data of E-type and M-type adolescents random-selected from a large sample of eight-grade adolescents who took part in a national survey of competence in mathematics and science. The proportions of sleep problems that were observed to occur more than once per week and the frequency of struggling to fall asleep and/or falling asleep in distinct everyday situations were much higher in E-type than in M-type adolescents. Moreover, E-type adolescents showed more disturbed and poorer sleep during both school and weekend days and reported lower grades in mathematics, science and Italian. E-type adolescents showed a partial recovery of sleep debt during weekend days. This finding suggests that they could improve their school performance if tests and classwork would be scheduled on their most alert school days, namely the post-weekend ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chabanova, Elizaveta; Bille, Dorthe S; Thisted, Ebbe
The objective was to investigate T(2) relaxation values and to optimize hepatic fat quantification using proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 3T in overweight and obese children and adolescents.......The objective was to investigate T(2) relaxation values and to optimize hepatic fat quantification using proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 3T in overweight and obese children and adolescents....
Artemis Kimon Tsitsika
Full Text Available Bullying is a universal problem which continues to be a serious threat to physical and emotional health of children and adolescents. This article highlights the prevalence, the common characteristics of bullies and victims, as well as the short- and long-term impact of bullying involvement. Key areas highlighted include the efficacy of bullying prevention programs, which can help health care providers to assess and provide interventions to children and adolescents affected by bullying.
Almas K; Paul T
Plaque related periodontal diseases in children and adolescents have long been recognized, but recent studies have highlighted their prevalence and presentation. The aim of this article is to highlight the current classification of periodontal diseases of children and adolescents and to review the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. This will help dental practitioners to diagnose and treat their juvenile and young adult patients suffering from different types of periodontal diseases.
Raghutaman, G.; Cherian, Alice
The aims of the study were (1) To analyse the temperament of children and adolescents presenting with Somatoform disorder and Dissociative (conversion) disorder and (2) To evaluate the nosological status of conversion disorder from the angle of temperament. Temperament of 30 children and adolescents having the diagnosis of either Dissociative (Conversion) disorder or Somatoform disorder were compared with temperament of 30 matched normal control groupTemperament was assessed by using Temperam...
Gordon, Michael; Russo, Kate
This pilot study explored the experiences and understanding of clinical psychology practices and services of children and adolescents attending clinical psychology outpatient appointments. Fifteen young participants took part in the study. A content analysis indicated that young children and adolescents have an appropriate understanding of the…
Muellmann, S; Landgraf-Rauf, K; Brand, T; Zeeb, H; Pischke, C R
Objective: To summarize the current evidence on the effectiveness of school-based interventions for the maintenance of mental health and the prevention of psychosocial problems among pupils. Methods: A systematic literature search of reviews published between 2007 and 2015 was carried out. Databases searched included Medline, PsycINFO, Campbell Library, Cochrane Library, NICE, ERIC, and Web of Science. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment (using AMSTAR criteria) were performed by 2 independent reviewers. Results: 6 reviews covering 331 primary studies were included in this review of reviews. Findings of three reviews with a focus on the maintenance and/or promotion of mental health and general well-being suggested that interventions aimed at changes in the social and the school environment were more effective than those that only targeted individual behavior change among pupils. Interventions for the reduction of mobbing/bullying were most effective if they comprised organizational changes at schools, such as playground and schoolyard supervision, and disciplinary measures. One review suggested strong evidence for the effectiveness of classroom management to reduce violent behavior among pupils. Conclusions: Participation in interventions promoting changes in the school environment, in addition to individual behavior change, appears to be associated with improved mental health among pupils and reductions in mobbing/bullying and violent behavior at schools. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Al-Khotani, Amal; Naimi-Akbar, Aron; Albadawi, Emad; Ernberg, Malin; Hedenberg-Magnusson, Britt; Christidis, Nikolaos
Studies have indicated that the prevalence of symptoms and signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are rare early in childhood, but become more prevalent in adolescents and adulthood. To our knowledge, no study has investigated the prevalence of TMD-diagnoses in children in the general population. The aim was thus to investigate the prevalence of TMD-diagnoses among children and adolescents in the general population using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD). The current cross-sectional study consisted of 456 children and adolescents, aged between 10 and 18, randomly enrolled from 10 boy's- and 10 girl's- schools in Jeddah. The participants first answered two validated questions about TMD-pain, followed by a clinical examination according to RDC/TMD. One hundred twenty-four participants (27.2 %) were diagnosed with at least one TMD-diagnosis. Myofascial pain was the most common diagnosis (15 %) followed by disc displacement with reduction, arthralgia, myofascial pain with limited mouth opening and osteoarthrosis. Children diagnosed with myofascial pain more often reported orofacial pain, headache and tooth clenching (p headache as well as bruxism were associated with a TMD-pain diagnosis and disc displacement. A surprisingly low percentage of children and adolescents sought treatment by a dentist or physician for their pains.
de Groot, Renate; van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul
Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents and explored whether mental health and cardiovascular fitness mediated this association. 328 Students in grades 7 and 9 (mean age 13.8 years; 49% boys) were included. PA was measured o...
Rosanowski, F; Hoppe, U; Pröschel, U; Eysholdt, U
The problem of tinnitus in adults is reviewed systematically in nearly all standard otolaryngology reference works, whereas textbooks and monographs that focus on pediatric otorhinolaryngology or audiology and hearing in children and adolescents provide only little information concerning the epidemiology, etiology and therapy of tinnitus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychosomatic aspects of chronic tinnitus in this younger age group. A rational diagnostic approach is discussed as to which diagnostic measures are necessary in the pediatric group for deciding which therapeutic option to chose. The therapeutic outcome of tinnitus counselling in non-severe cases and of parenteral lidocaine infusions in cases of a troublesome tinnitus is presented. From January 1992 to December 1995, 31 children and adolescents in the age range from 6 to 17 years were treated for a chronic tinnitus without a measurable hearing loss. In 20 cases the tinnitus was bilateral; in 11 cases it was unilateral, without side preference. In 24 patients the case history gave no hint of a major annoyance by the tinnitus or significant psychological components. In these cases tinnitus counselling was carried out. In 7 cases-3 girls and 4 boys in the age range from 10 to 17 years-the kind and grade of symptom satisfied the ICD-10 criteria of a depressive episode. These patients were hospitalized for 10 days and a lidocaine infusion therapy (2 mg/kg Xylocain Cor in 500 ml HAES 6%) was performed as treatment for the somatic component of the disorder. Data were analyzed catamnestically using the patients' files. In all cases normal hearing threshold and speech intelligibility were ascertained by pure-tone and speech audiometry. Auditory evoked brainstem potentials gave no further information. The measurement of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions gave no consistent results in either of the two groups. Tinnitus measurement and audiometric masking could only be carried out in patients
Azagba, Sunday; Asbridge, Mark
Smoking susceptibility in early adolescence is strongly predictive of subsequent smoking behavior in youth. As such, smoking susceptibility represents a key modifiable factor in reducing the onset of smoking in young people. A growing literature has documented a number of factors that influence susceptibility to smoking; however, there is limited amount of research examining associations of susceptibility to smoking and school connectedness. The current study examines whether school connectedness has an independent protective effect on smoking susceptibility among younger adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 12,894 Canadian students in grades 6-8 (11-14 years old), surveyed as part of the 2010-2011 Youth Smoking Survey, was analyzed. Multilevel logistic regression models examined unadjusted and adjusted associations between school connectedness and smoking susceptibility. The impacts of other covariates on smoking susceptibility were also explored. Approximately 29% of never-smokers students in grades 6-8 in Canada were susceptible to future smoking. Logistic regression analysis, controlling for standard covariates, found that school connectedness had strong protective effects on smoking susceptibility (odds ratio [OR] 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.94). The finding that school connectedness is protective of smoking susceptibility, together with previous research, provides further evidence that improving school conditions that promote school connectedness could reduce risky behavior in adolescents. While prevention efforts should be directed at youth of all ages, particular attention must be paid to younger adolescents in the formative period of 11-14 years of age.
Nury, Edris; Sarti, Asia; Dijkstra, Coosje; Seidell, Jacob C; Dedding, Christine
School gardening programmes are among the most promising interventions to improve children's vegetable intake. Yet, low vegetable intake among children remains a persistent public health challenge. This study aimed to explore children's perspectives, experiences, and motivations concerning school
Schwartz, Lisa A.; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Barakat, Lamia P.
Background Despite high rates of school absenteeism in adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD), the issue remains understudied. Potential associates of school absenteeism in adolescents with SCD include demographic (age, income), psychosocial (IQ, self-efficacy, competence, internalizing symptoms, negative thinking), and health-related (hemoglobin, health-care utilization, pain, disease knowledge). Procedure Forty participants ages 12–18 completed measures of psychosocial functioning, IQ, and pain. Medical chart reviews identified other health-related variables. A subsample also completed an assessment of goals. Using school records, absenteeism was the percent of school days missed in the previous year. Correlations tested associates of absenteeism and linear regression tested a model of absenteeism. Results Participants missed an average of 12% of the school year and more than 35% missed at least 1 month of school. Health-related and psychosocial variables, but not demographic variables, correlated with absenteeism. Attendance at clinic appointments and parent-reported teen pain frequency were significant associates of absenteeism in the regression model. For those who completed goal assessment, over 40% of goals identified were academically focused. Absenteeism was positively related to current academic goals and health-related hindrance of academic goals, and negatively related to future-oriented academic goals. Conclusions School absenteeism is a significant problem for adolescents with SCD despite the presence of academic goals. Collaboration between schools, parents, patients, and providers to understand and manage the impact of SCD on school attendance is recommended. PMID:19006248
Koyuncuoğlu Güngör, Neslihan
Obesity among children, adolescents and adults has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century. The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased remarkably over the past 3 decades. The growing prevalence of childhood obesity has also led to appearance of obesity-related comorbid disease entities at an early age. Childhood obesity can adversely affect nearly every organ system and often causes serious consequences, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia, fatty liver disease and psychosocial complications. It is also a major contributor to increasing healthcare expenditures. For all these reasons, it is important to prevent childhood obesity as well as to identify overweight and obese children at an early stage so they can begin treatment and attain and maintain a healthy weight. At present, pharmacotherapy options for treatment of pediatric obesity are very limited. Therefore, establishing a comprehensive management program that emphasizes appropriate nutrition, exercise and behavioral modification is crucial. The physician’s role should expand beyond the clinical setting to the community to serve as a role model and to advocate for prevention and early treatment of obesity. PMID:25241606
Gyulai-Gaál, Szabolcs; Takács, Daniel; Barabás, József; Tarján, Ildikó; Martonffy, Katalin; Szabó, György; Suba, Zsuzsanna
Mixed odontogenic tumors in the jaws of children and adolescents usually cause dentition anomalies. The typical forms of these are ameloblastic fibroma, ameloblastic fibroodontoma, complex odontoma and compound odontoma. In the present study mixed odontogenic tumor cases are presented in patients under 20 years of age. All of them were associated with tooth eruption disturbances. Further aim of this study was to discuss the nature and interrelationships of this group of lesions. Ameloblastic fibromas (AFs) are true, mixed, soft tissue neoplasms, deriving from the proliferation of both odontogenic epithelium and mesenchyma. They have a potential to both recurrence and malignant transformation. Ameloblastic fibroodontomas (AFOs) may be regarded as hamartomas, which exhibit epithelial, mesenchymal and abundant hard tissue components of the developing teeth. Odontomas are calcifying benign hamartomas, and represent the most common type of odontogenic jaw tumors among patients less than 20y, having complex and compound variants. Complex odontomas (CXOs) are built up from amorphous hard tissue elements, and generally occur in the premolar or molar regions of the maxilla. Compound odontomas (CDOs) usually appear in the maxilla, in the region of the incisors and canines, and contain small, radio-opaque structures reminiscent of rudimentary teeth. Early diagnosis and treatment of mixed odontogenic jaw tumors in children may prevent the serious orthodontic complications and jaw deformations.
Full Text Available Obesity, especially upper body fat distribution, has become an increasingly important medical problem in children and adolescents. Outcomes related to childhood obesity include, as in adult population, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, left ventricular hypertrophy, obstructive sleep apnea, orthopedic and socio-psychological problems. Obese children are at approximately 3-fold higher risk for hypertension from non-obese ones. Obesity-hypertension appears to be characterized by a preponderance of isolated systolic hypertension, increased heart rate and blood pressure variability, increased levels of plasma catecholamine and aldosterone, and salt-sensitivity. Lifestyle changes of weight loss, healthier diet and regular physical exercise are effective in obesity-hypertension control, though pharmacological treatment is frequently necessary. Screening for dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance should be performed in paediatric patients with obese hypertension on regular basis, at least once annually or semiannually to discover metabolic syndrome and to prevent its increased cardiovascular risk. Of course, prevention of obesity is the primary goal. .
Mecham, Neil A.
Concern over the social development of children who are home schooled has caused parents and educators to question the wisdom of this practice. A review of home-schooling research has not revealed whether a difference exists between the social skills of homeschooled children and children who attend public schools. This study explored the socialization of home-schooled children by comparing Social Skills Rating System scores of home-schooled children with the scores of their mothers and a comp...
Badura, Petr; Sigmund, Erik; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Sigmundova, Dagmar; Sirucek, Jan; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
Organized leisure-time activities (OLTA) have been identified as a context suitable for improvement of school performance. This study aimed to assess the associations between participation in OLTA and school engagement, school-related stress, academic achievement and whether these associations differ by specific pattern of OLTA participation, gender and age. Furthermore, it assessed whether OLTA participants are more likely to acquire support for schoolwork from outside the family. The sample concerned 10,483 adolescents (49.2% boys) aged 11, 13 and 15 from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children data collection in 2014 in the Czech Republic. Logistic regressions adjusted for gender and age were used to analyse the associations between participation in OLTA and four education-related outcomes. Participation in OLTA was associated with higher school engagement, lower levels of school-related stress and better academic achievement regardless of gender and age. The strongest associations were observed for adolescents involved in various types of OLTA concurrently, with odds ratios ranging from 1.34 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-1.54) for lower school-related stress to 1.97 (95% CI 1.73-2.25) for above-average academic achievement. OLTA participants were also more likely to have a non-familial person to help them with schoolwork, though this association was weaker in 15-year-olds. Youth involvement in OLTA is linked to general better school performance and attachment to school. Adolescents participating in more activities at the same time have the best school performance.
Full Text Available Organized leisure-time activities (OLTA have been identified as a context suitable for improvement of school performance. This study aimed to assess the associations between participation in OLTA and school engagement, school-related stress, academic achievement and whether these associations differ by specific pattern of OLTA participation, gender and age. Furthermore, it assessed whether OLTA participants are more likely to acquire support for schoolwork from outside the family.The sample concerned 10,483 adolescents (49.2% boys aged 11, 13 and 15 from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children data collection in 2014 in the Czech Republic. Logistic regressions adjusted for gender and age were used to analyse the associations between participation in OLTA and four education-related outcomes.Participation in OLTA was associated with higher school engagement, lower levels of school-related stress and better academic achievement regardless of gender and age. The strongest associations were observed for adolescents involved in various types of OLTA concurrently, with odds ratios ranging from 1.34 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.17-1.54 for lower school-related stress to 1.97 (95% CI 1.73-2.25 for above-average academic achievement. OLTA participants were also more likely to have a non-familial person to help them with schoolwork, though this association was weaker in 15-year-olds.Youth involvement in OLTA is linked to general better school performance and attachment to school. Adolescents participating in more activities at the same time have the best school performance.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: School and school-related physical activity (PA are important for the total PA of children and youth. The total amount of PA is higher within school days compare to weekends. Children and youth, who use active transportation (to/from the school, confirm the higher PA per week compared to those without active transportation (using car, train, bus. There is a lack of available data in the Czech Republic about active transportation of children and adolescents. AIM: The main aim of the study is the objectification of the school-related transport monitoring of the adolescents. One of the additional outcomes is to enrich this relatively new scientific area in the Czech Republic. METHODS: There was one high school chosen for this project - Gymnázium Nový Jičín. Data were collected by using ActiGraph GT1M, pedometer YAMAX SW-700, NQLS questionnaire and internet system INDARES. RESULTS: By using the newly developer map module "tracker", within the system INDARES, we could compare the participants which active transport (AT was lower than 1000 m, with participants with the AT values higher than 1000 m. We found out significant diﬀerences between school days and weekends in the intensity of 1 to 3 MET. The statistical significance was supported by the coefficient eﬀect size (d = 0.83. The participants recording AT values lower than 1000 m showing significantly higher level of PA in school days then during weekends (p = .003; F = 26.149; ω2 = 0.456. Similar results were found in participants recording AT values higher than 1000 m; the diﬀerences between school days and weekends are highly significant (p = .0004; F = 26.149; ω 2 = 0.456. CONCLUSIONS: We have contributed to the objectification of the school-related transport monitoring of the adolescents by the creation of the map module within the INDARES system. The usage of a triangulation approach (objective methods - subjective methods - system INDARES into the PA monitoring in
Smith, Dana G.; Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine
Disadvantageous decision making is cited as one of the premier problems in childhood development, underlying risky behavior and causing adolescents to make poor choices that could prove detrimental later in life. However, there are relatively few studies looking at the development of decision making in children and adolescents, and fewer still…
Madhuri, Vrisha; Dutt, Vivek; Gahukamble, Abhay D; Tharyan, Prathap
Fractures of the femoral shaft in children are relatively uncommon but serious injuries that disrupt the lives of children and their carers and can result in significant long-term disability. Treatment involves either surgical fixation, such as intramedullary nailing or external fixation, or conservative treatment involving prolonged immobilisation, often in hospital. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of interventions for treating femoral shaft fractures in children and adolescents. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (accessed 16 August 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2013 Issue 7), MEDLINE (1946 to August Week 1 2013), EMBASE (1980 to 2012 week 9), CINAHL (16 August 2013), clinical trials registries, conference proceedings and reference lists; and contacted trial authors and experts in the field. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing conservative and surgical interventions for diaphyseal fractures of the femur in children under 18 years of age. Our primary outcomes were functional outcome measures, unacceptable malunion, and serious adverse events. Two authors independently screened and selected trials, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence for each outcome for each comparison using the GRADE approach. We pooled data using a fixed-effect model. We included 10 trials (six randomised and four quasi-randomised) involving a total of 527 children (531 fractures). All trials were at some risk of bias, including performance bias as care provider blinding was not practical, but to a differing extent. Just one trial was at low risk of selection bias. Reflecting both the risk of bias and the imprecision of findings, we judged the quality of evidence to be 'low' for most outcomes, meaning that we are unsure about the estimates of effect. Most trials failed to report on self-assessed function or when
Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Khine, Myint Swe; Melkonian, Michael; Welch, Anita G; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed; Rashad, Fatimah F
Drawing on data from the 2012 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and employing multilevel modeling as an analytic strategy, this study examined the relations of adolescent children's perceptions of their parents' attitudes towards mathematics to their own attitudes towards mathematics and mathematics achievement among a sample of 5116 adolescents from 384 schools in the United Arab Emirates. The results of this cross-sectional study revealed that adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children not only to study but also for their career tended to report higher levels of intrinsic and instrumental motivation to learn mathematics, mathematics self-concept and self-efficacy, and mathematics work ethic. Moreover, adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report positive intentions and behaviors toward mathematics. However, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report higher levels of mathematics anxiety. Finally, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children to study performed significantly better on the mathematics assessment than did their peers whose parents disregarded the importance of learning mathematics. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nam, Eun Woo; Sharma, Bimala; Kim, Ha Yun; Paja, Doris Jackeline Vasquez; Yoon, Young Min; Lee, Sun Ha; Kim, Eun Hwan; Oh, Chung Hyeon; Kim, Yun Seop; Song, Chang Hoon; Kim, Jong Koo
Adolescent obesity and hypertension are global public health issues. The burden of adolescent obesity and hypertension in Peru is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity and hypertension and their relationship among school-attending adolescents and to assess the need for health-promoting school programs in the study area. A cross-sectional school-based survey was conducted in a randomly selected sample of 952 secondary school adolescents from 11 schools in Lima or Callao, Peru, in 2014. Weight, height, and blood pressure (BP) were measured and categorized. Obesity was defined as ≥ 95(th) percentile in body mass index (BMI) for age and sex. Hypertension was defined as average systolic blood pressure and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥95(th) percentile in BP for sex, age, and height. Chi-square test and univariate logistic regressions were used at a 5% significance level to determine the relationship between BMI and BP category. The mean age of subjects was 14.6 years; 46.4% were boys and 53.6% were girls. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 20.2% and 9.5% overall, 17.4% and 11.1% for boys, and 22.5% and 8.0% for girls, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was 26.7% overall, 34.8% for boys, and 19.6% for girls. In both sexes, BMI was strongly associated with BP (p Overweight and obesity are strongly associated with BP status among adolescents. Health-promoting school programs may reduce the burdens of obesity and hypertension among school-going adolescents.
Schwerdtfeger Gallus, Kami L.; Shreffler, Karina M.; Merten, Michael J.; Cox, Ronald B., Jr.
Interpersonal traumas experienced early in life adversely impact psychological well-being in children and adolescents, yet the specific role that social support can have in reducing negative outcomes following trauma exposure is unclear. Using a general population sample of seventh-grade students in an urban public school district in the South…
The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of refractive errors in primary school children in the Nigerian Army children school. Bonny Camp, Lagos, Nigeria. A total of 919 pupils from two primary schools (one private school and one public school) were screened. The schools and classes were selected using ...
Full Text Available Bullying is still a significant problem today. Bullying occurs starting from the primary level up to college. The impact of the bullying on victims can be a lonely, difficult to adjust, insecurity, low self-esteem, depression and the worst is suicide. The earlier effort to detect bullying experienced by children will be able to prevent long-term effects caused. This study was conducted on 258 students of class 4-5 primary school in Yogyakarta. Data was collected through open-ended questionnaires associated with feelings and experiences of bullying in schools both as perpetrators and victims. The result showed that students feel negative emotions associated with bullying at school and most children experience bullying at school with a variety of forms, ranging from physical, verbal and relational from peers at school. These findings have implications related to the effort to do the school to help students cope with the impact of bullying experienced.
The perplexing numbers of Somali children withdrawn from schools in Norway and sent to Somalia is the concern of this study. These students are often brought back and re-enroll later as adolescents with concomitant educational challenges. The findings are critically analyzed employing John Ogbu's cultural ecology of minorities and a CHAT-based…
Dissing, Kristina Boe; Hestbæk, Lise; Hartvigsen, Jan
Background Spinal pain in children and adolescents is a common condition, usually transitory, but the picture of spinal pain still needs elucidation, mainly due to variation in measurement methods. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of spinal pain in 8-15 year-old Danish school ...
Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is one of the most common reasons that children and adolescents are teased at school. We carried out a study in order to investigate: i the relation between weight status and school bullying and ii the relation between weight status categories and types of victimization and bullying in an outpatient sample of Italian children and adolescents with different degrees of overweight from minimal overweight up to severe obesity.Nine-hundred-forty-seven outpatient children and adolescents (age range 6.0-14.0 years were recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the country of Italy. The participants were classified as normal-weight (N = 129, overweight (N = 126, moderately obese (N = 568, and severely obese (N = 124. The nature and extent of verbal, physical and relational bullying and victimization were assessed with an adapted version of the revised Olweus bully-victim questionnaire. Each participant was coded as bully, victim, bully-victim, or not involved.Normal-weight and overweight participants were less involved in bullying than obese participants; severely obese males were more involved in the double role of bully and victim. Severely obese children and adolescents suffered not only from verbal victimization but also from physical victimization and exclusion from group activities. Weight status categories were not directly related to bullying behaviour; however severely obese males perpetrated more bullying behaviour compared to severely obese females.Obesity and bullying among children and adolescents are of ongoing concern worldwide and may be closely related. Common strategies of intervention are needed to cope with these two social health challenges.
Mehan Meenakshi, Munshi Aparna, Surabhi Somila, Bhatt Trushna, Kantharia Neha
Background: Recent shift in lifestyle and behavioral patterns in population have caused an obesity epidemic during formative years. Present study evaluated existing health and nutrition policies in a private school in an urban Indian city and assessed prevalence of obesity in adolescent children & their association if any, with predictive behaviors of obesity. Methods: A private coeducational school located in an urban Indian city was selected and its existing health policies were eva...
Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; dos Santos, Luana Caroline
This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were evaluated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationsh...
Ellis, Demetrius; Miyashita, Yosuke
Demetrius Ellis, Yosuke MiyashitaChildren’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA, USAAbstract: The prevalence of hypertension has increased at an accelerated rate in older children and adolescents. This has raised great concern about premature development of cardiovascular disease, which has major long-term health and financial implications. While obesity and sedentary habits largely explain this phenomenon, there are other social and cultu...
Thomé,Ursula; Alves,Sandra Regina da Paixão; Guerreiro,Sabrina Mendonça; Costa,Célia Regina Carvalho Machado da; Moreira,Fernanda de Souza; Lima,Andrea Bandeira; Tavares,Maria Rita Ferreira; Maia Filho,Heber Souza
Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent chronic disorders of childhood which can threaten child development and mental health. Among cognitive disorders, dyscalculia is one of the most important. In this study, 39 children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment to determine the intellectual level, math skills, reading and writing performance and neuropsychological profile. It was observed that the mathematical ability was below schooling ex...
Canabrava, Karina L. R.; Faria, Fernanda R.; de Lima, Jorge R. P.; Guedes, Dartagnan P.; Amorim, Paulo R. S.
Purpose: This study aimed to compare the energy expenditure and intensity of active video games to that of treadmill walking in children and adolescents. Method: Seventy-two boys and girls (aged 8-13 years) were recruited from local public schools. Energy expenditure and heart rate were measured during rest, during 3-km/hr, 4-km/hr, and 5-km/hr…
Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.
The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status appears to have an effect on their children's behaviour. Place of residence (urban or semi-rural areas) and gender does not influence their knowledge about different diets. It was, finally, shown that as children grow older they tend to eat less healthy foods.
D'Entremont, Denise Morel
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a relatively new diagnostic label. As more physicians become familiar with the diagnosis of this syndrome, schools will begin to see children with the label FAS and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE). Children with FAS often do not pick up skills from their environment as easily as some of their peers. They often need to…
Steinberg, L; Lamborn, S D; Dornbusch, S M; Darling, N
This article examines the impact of authoritative parenting, parental involvement in schooling, and parental encouragement to succeed on adolescent school achievement in an ethnically and socio-economically heterogeneous sample of approximately 6,400 American 14-18-year-olds. Adolescents reported in 1987 on their parents' general child-rearing practices and on their parents' achievement-specific socialization behaviors. In 1987, and again in 1988, data were collected on several aspects of the adolescents' school performance and school engagement. Authoritative parenting (high acceptance, supervision, and psychological autonomy granting) leads to better adolescent school performance and stronger school engagement. The positive impact of authoritative parenting on adolescent achievement, however, is mediated by the positive effect of authoritativeness on parental involvement in schooling. In addition, nonauthoritativeness attenuates the beneficial impact of parental involvement in schooling on adolescents achievement. Parental involvement is much more likely to promote adolescent school success when it occurs in the context of an authoritative home environment.
Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to “work around” opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships and/or work around constraints from other groups’ preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670
Wolfson, Amy R; Carskadon, Mary A
The present paper reviews and critiques studies assessing the relation between sleep patterns, sleep quality, and school performance of adolescents attending middle school, high school, and/or college. The majority of studies relied on self-report, yet the researchers approached the question with different designs and measures. Specifically, studies looked at (1) sleep/wake patterns and usual grades, (2) school start time and phase preference in relation to sleep habits and quality and academic performance, and (3) sleep patterns and classroom performance (e.g., examination grades). The findings strongly indicate that self-reported shortened total sleep time, erratic sleep/wake schedules, late bed and rise times, and poor sleep quality are negatively associated with academic performance for adolescents from middle school through the college years. Limitations of the current published studies are also discussed in detail in this review.
Vereecken, Carine; Haerens, Leen; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Maes, Lea
To identify the correlates of the home food environment (parents' intake, availability and food-related parenting practices) at the age of 10 years with dietary patterns during childhood and in adolescence. Primary-school children of fifty-nine Flemish elementary schools completed a questionnaire at school in 2002. Four years later they completed a questionnaire by e-mail or mail at home. Their parents completed a questionnaire on food-related parenting practices at baseline. Longitudinal study. The analyses included 609 matched questionnaires. Multi-level regression analyses were used to identify baseline parenting practices (pressure, reward, negotiation, catering on demand, permissiveness, verbal praise, avoiding negative modelling, availability of healthy/unhealthy food items and mothers' fruit and vegetable (F&V) and excess scores) associated with children's dietary patterns (F&V and excess scores). Mother's F&V score was a significant positive independent predictor for children's F&V score at baseline and follow-up, whereas availability of unhealthy foods was significantly negatively associated with both scores. Negotiation was positively associated with children's follow-up score of F&V, while permissiveness was positively associated with children's follow-up excess score. Availability of unhealthy foods and mother's excess score were positively related to children's excess score at baseline and follow-up. Parental intake and restricting the availability of unhealthy foods not only appeared to have a consistent impact on children's and adolescents' diets, but also negotiating and less permissive food-related parenting practices may improve adolescents' diets.
Tee, Guat Hiong; Kaur, Gurpreet
Cigarette smoking in adolescent is a significant public health problem, leading to the risk of addiction, morbidity, and mortality in the long term. This study determined the prevalence and correlates of current smoking among adolescent school children. A nationwide school-based survey among 25 507 students between Forms 1 to 5 (aged 12-17) was conducted using a 2-stage cluster sampling design. The prevalence of current smoking was 11.5%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that current smoking was significantly associated with males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.87, 4.98), current drinking (aOR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.46, 3.74), drug used (aOR = 2.97; 95% CI = 1.24, 7.11), and being bullied (aOR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.98) at least once in the past 12 months. Smoking is associated with several behaviors that pose risks to adolescents, such as social issues and smoking-related health problems. Thus, early and integrated prevention programs that address multiple risk behaviors simultaneously are required. © 2014 APJPH.
Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Bjorklund, David F
Young children often use magical explanations to account for ordinary phenomena (e.g., "The sun's not out today because it is mad"). We labeled these explanations supernatural thinking. Previous research reports that supernatural thinking attributed to preschool-age children evokes both positive affect and perceptions of helplessness from both adults and older (14-17 years old) but not younger (10-13 years old) adolescents. In this study, we asked if cues of cognitive immaturity are more influential in affecting adolescents' judgments of children than physical cues (faces). 245 adolescents aged between 10 and 17 rated pairs of children who physically and/or cognitively resembled either a 4- to 7-year-old or an 8- to 10-year-old child in three between-subject conditions (Consistent, Inconsistent, Faces-Only) for 14 traits classified into four trait dimensions (Positive Affect, Negative Affect, Intelligence, Helplessness). For both younger and older adolescents, cognitive cues had a greater influence on judgments than facial cues. However, only the older adolescents demonstrated a positive bias for children expressing immature supernatural thinking. Adopting an evolutionary developmental perspective, we interpreted this outcome in late (but not early) adolescence as preparation for potential parenthood.
Janssens, Astrid; Hayen, Sarah; Walraven, Vera; Leys, Mark; Deboutte, Dirk
Over the years, increasing numbers of children and adolescents have sought help for acute psychiatric problems. The responses to this treatment-seeking behavior are heterogeneous in different settings and nations. This review aimed to provide an answer to the questions "which care should be offered to children and adolescents presenting with a psychiatric emergency or crisis and how should it be organized." We committed a literature review to find out if any recommendations can be made regarding the organization of emergency care for children and adolescents with acute mental health problems. The lack of a clear definition of emergencies or urgencies hampered this review; we note the differences between adult and child or adolescent psychiatry. The theoretical models of care found in the literature are built up from several process and structural components, which we describe in greater detail. Furthermore, we review the main service delivery models that exist for children and adolescents. Currently, emergency psychiatric care for children and adolescents is practiced within a wide range of care models. There is no consensus on recommended care or recommended setting for this population. More research is needed to make exact recommendations on the standardization of psychiatric care for young people in emergency settings.
Tamiru, Dessalegn; Belachew, Tefera
Background Household food insecurity has a substantial contribution to poor health outcomes among young children and adolescents. Food insecurity also affects optimal cognitive development and physiological function of these vulnerable groups. There is a gap of documented data regarding the association of food insecurity and morbidity among school adolescents in Ethiopia. Objective The aim of this study is to assess the interrelationship of household food insecurity and morbidity report among school adolescent in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was done from October to November, 2013. Data were gathered using structured questionnaires through interview of students and their caregivers. A total of 1000 students were selected by using simple random sampling methods using their rosters as a frame. Data were also checked for missing values and outliers, and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Regression analyses were used to see the strength of association between independent and dependent variables using odds ratios and 95% of confidence intervals. Results Adolescents from food insecure households had more reported illness (39.3%) than adolescents from food secure households (24.7%) (p insecure households were two times more exposed to morbidity [AOR = 2.04(1.32, 3.14)] than adolescents from food secure households. This study also showed that males had 48% less reported illness [AOR = 0.52(0.01, 0.23)] than females. Adolescents who had attended health education had less reported illness [AOR = 0.57(0.38, 0.86)] than those who did not ever attend. This study also showed that having a farmer [AOR = 0.46(0.28, 0.74)] and government employee [AOR = 0.33 (0.17, 0.64)] father were inversely associated with adolescent morbidity. Conclusion The findings of this study showed that household food insecurity, female gender and lack of attending health education had a significant contribution to adolescent morbidity. Therefore, there is a need
Full Text Available Background: Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common form of malnutrition, early intervention during adolescence (girls can prevent high morbidity and mortality of these future mothers. Objectives: To study prevalence & factors contributing to anaemia among adolescent school girls. Material and Methods: Area or region addressed – Iron deficiency anemia in adolescent girls. Present study was conducted among 317 adolescent (10-19Yrs government schoolgirls of Bhopal city from June2005-July2006. Three study groups were selected from three different girls’ school by random sampling method. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS. Result & Conclusion: Overall prevalence was 58.4% among adolescent schoolgirls. Prevalence of anemia was dependent on the knowledge about prevention of anemia, literacy level, food habits, birth order & also frequency of Iron rich source viz. green leafy vegetable & non vegetarian diet. While there was no significant relation of anemia with duration of menstrual flow but there was significant (P<0.05 difference in number of anaemic cases with age at menarche i.e. with higher age at menarche; there was more chances of anemia. Level of anemia was higher (p<0.05 in early adolescent (10 -13 Years age group (81% as compared to middle (58.3% and late adolescent (17-19 years age group girls (48.7%.
Matos, M G; Gaspar, T; Tomé, G; Paiva, T
This study aims to evaluate the influences of sleep duration and sleep variability (SleepV), upon adolescents' school-related situations. The Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey is based on a self-completed questionnaire. The participants were 3164 pupils (53.7% girls), attending the 8th and 10th grades, 14.9 years old, and were inquired about subjective sleep duration during the week and weekends, SleepV, fatigue, difficulties in sleep initiation, school achievement, feelings towards schools, pressure with school work and skipping classes. Multiple regression models used, as dependent variables: (a) school achievement, (b) disliking school, (c) pressure with school work and (d) skipping classes, using as independent variables, each of the remaining school-related variables, fatigue, total sleep duration and difficulties in sleep initiation. The average sleep duration in the week and during weekdays was lower than recommended for these age groups, and almost half of students had high SleepV between weekdays and weekends. A logistic model revealed that the absence of SleepV was associated with lower perception of school work pressure, less frequent skipping classes, more infrequent fatigue and more infrequent difficulties in sleep initiation. Poor sleep quality, SleepV and insufficient sleep duration affected negatively school-related variables. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Carbonated beverages including energy drinks make up an increasing percentage of energy intake amongst adults as well as children and adolescents. Due to high content of di- or monosaccharides and biologically active compounds (mainly caffeine), their regular intake may involve addictions and potential health risks, including diabetes. Although consumption of energy drinks is usually not recommended by the manufacturers to the children under the age of 16, due to its popularity and unrestricted availability on market energy drinks are easily accessible to younger children. Low awareness of the potential health risks involved with such beverages in society together with unrestricted distribution and advertising requires undertaking general information campaign concerning energy drinks. In this paper a critical review has been made to discuss potential somatic and psychological health risks issue. Moreover, conclusions were supported with the results of the survey conducted among college and high-school adolescents.
The aim of the thesis Social games with pre-school children is to present social games as one of the work methods for relational learning. The theoretical part defines the social development of pre-school children and focuses on social skills that begin to emerge in the preschool period and of course social games. The purpose of social games is active learning, meaning they provide concrete situations, through which children actively learn as well as use social skills and express their views ...
Tahirović, Husref; Toromanović, Alma
The aim of the study was to estimate, according to parents and their children with diabetes, how far school personnel have an understanding of diabetes and is trained to provide appropriate treatment of diabetes emergencies. The study included 37 children and adolescents with diabetes type 1 (17 girls and 20 boys) from 31 schools in the Canton of Tuzla, aged 7-18 years. A descriptive research method was used in the study and for data gathering a closed type survey was used. Only 13 or 35.3 % of the 37 surveyed parents were satisfied with the care of their child with diabetes at school, while 24 or 64.7 % parents expressed dissatisfaction with it. According to the parents' statements, class teachers are 100 % informed about the existence of students with diabetes type 1 at their schools, while PE teachers (97.9 %) and the headmasters of the schools (81.1 %) are less well-informed. Regarding the question about whether the school personnel is trained for diabetes-related tasks, the parents answered YES in 25.7 % cases; 54.3 % of them answered NO, and 20 % of them answered DON'T KNOW. However, only 35.2 % of parents found that some of the employees at the school are trained to recognize the symptoms of hypoglycemia while the number of positive answers concerning treatment of hypoglycemia (18.9 %) or glucagon administration (13.5 %) was much lower. The answer to the question: "Is blood glucose testing allowed in the classroom?" in 91.5 % cases was YES, 5.7 % NO and in 2.8 % of cases was DON'T KNOW. The results of our survey show that children with diabetes do not have appropriate diabetes care in school.
Kasen, S; Cohen, P; Brook, J S
Outside of the family, schools are the most proximal socializing agent available to convey societal norms and prohibitions to young people. In some cases, a positive school experience can compensate for the antisocial influence of family and community. The present study investigated the predictive ability of school-related factors on later deviancy in a random sample of 452 US adolescents 12-18 years of age attending 150 junior or senior high schools in upstate New York and enrolled in a broader prospective study. A measure of conduct problems, obtained 2 years before measurement of school factors, was used to control for the predisposing effects of problematic behavior on later deviance. Academic achievement, academic aspirations, and a learning-focused school environment had deterrent effects on all deviant outcomes assessed--dropping out of school, adolescent pregnancy, engaging in criminal activities, criminal conviction, antisocial personality disorder, and alcohol abuse--independent of age, gender, intelligence quotient, socioeconomic status, childhood conduct problems, and proportion of deviance-oriented friends in adolescence. Given the persistence of deviant behavioral patterns of adolescence into adulthood, the systems-level influences identified in this study should be given careful attention.
Pourabbasi, Ata; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Ebrahimi Qavam, Soqra; Farzami, Jalal; Larijani, Bagher
Diabetes in children and adolescents is a chronic condition with an expanding trend in the community. Several studies have shown cognitive dysfunctions are the most important side effects of diabetes among individuals of younger ages. Due to cultural differences and their impact on cognitive issues, the authors decided to assess the cognitive functions of Iranian children and adolescents with diabetes. Cognitive functions including memory, attention and executive functions were evaluated in 62 diabetic children and adolescents and healthy peers using CANTAB cognitive tests. Other data such as demographic, school performance and medical information were collected by questionnaires. Except in the case of few variables in RVP, SSP and SST, no significant difference exists between diabetic children and the control group in terms of different cognitive domains. But cognitive variables, especially in PRM, SWM and SOC test, has been shown to be deteriorated with increasing HbA1C values in serum levels. Diabetes has no impact on the cognitive functioning of children provided by maintaining a glycemic control. It is proposed that the adoption of appropriate parenting styles and family and social support can prevent cognitive changes in children with diabetes.
Full Text Available Diabetes in children and adolescents is a chronic condition with an expanding trend in the community. Several studies have shown cognitive dysfunctions are the most important side effects of diabetes among individuals of younger ages. Due to cultural differences and their impact on cognitive issues, the authors decided to assess the cognitive functions of Iranian children and adolescents with diabetes. Cognitive functions including memory, attention and executive functions were evaluated in 62 diabetic children and adolescents and healthy peers using CANTAB cognitive tests. Other data such as demographic, school performance and medical information were collected by questionnaires. Except in the case of few variables in RVP, SSP and SST, no significant difference exists between diabetic children and the control group in terms of different cognitive domains. But cognitive variables, especially in PRM, SWM and SOC test, has been shown to be deteriorated with increasing HbA1C values in serum levels. Diabetes has no impact on the cognitive functioning of children provided by maintaining a glycemic control. It is proposed that the adoption of appropriate parenting styles and family and social support can prevent cognitive changes in children with diabetes.
Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.
The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…
Turley, Matthew R.; Obrzut, John E.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can affect people of all ages but the literature is lacking on children and adolescents who experience PTSD. The consequences of this disorder extend beyond the basic symptoms by which it is defined. Neuroanatomically, the brains of children with PTSD have been found to be abnormally symmetrical in several…
Lapierre, M.A.; Fleming-Milici, F.; Rozendaal, E.; McAlister, A.R.; Castonguay, J.
In ~100 years, marketing to children went from a severely frowned upon practice to an integral part of growing up as companies came to realize that investing in marketing to children and adolescents provides excellent immediate and future dividends. Each year, enormous sums of money are spent to
Orbach, Daniel; Mosseri, Veronique; Gallego, Soledad
BACKGROUND: This article reports risk factors and long-term outcome in localized nonparameningeal head and neck rhabdomyosarcomas in children and adolescents from a combined dataset from 3 consecutive international trials. METHODS: Data from 140 children (9.3% of total) prospectively enrolled in ...
Approximately 6400 children and adolescents lose a parent in the Netherlands and even more children are confronted with other types of loss such as the death of a close friend or grandparent. The death of a loved one is one of the most devastating events that can occur in children’s and adolescents’
Jalali, Maryam; Bagheri, Narges; Mahmoodi, Masoomeh
Today children's literature and its place have attracted in the collection of literature, according to many writers the world. Making fun of the text by writer is best way to communicate with the Children and Adolescents. Travel writing is considered as an interdisciplinary literature combined by literature, history, geography and sociology. It is…
Wilens, Timothy E.; Kratochvil, Christopher; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Gao, Haitao
Objective: Controversy exists over changes in tolerability and response to medications across the life span. Here the authors report data contrasting the efficacy and tolerability of atomoxetine between children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Data were analyzed for children ages 6-11 (510 atomoxetine,…
Because children and adolescents are not just miniature adults, it is important to know that children might be vulnerable to injury and may not respond positively to certain types or intensities of training. It is also important to recognize how training can positively affect growth and development, so it can be judiciously applied at critical…
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, British Columbia Children's Hospital, Canada. All authors have ... trend of lower erosion scores was seen in children compared to adolescents. Greater frequency of .... marketing efforts by major soft-drink companies. Nev- ertheless ... liability of a food frequency questionnaire. Community.
Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Wolfenden, Luke; Campbell, Elizabeth; Freund, Megan; Hodder, Rebecca; Wiggers, John
The mental health of children and adolescents is a key area of health concern internationally. Previous empirical studies suggest that resilience may act as a protective mechanism towards the development of mental health problems. Resilience refers to the ability to employ a collection of protective factors to return to or maintain positive mental health following disadvantage or adversity. Schools represent a potential setting within which protective factors of all children and adolescents may be fostered through resilience-focussed interventions. Despite this potential, limited research has investigated the effectiveness of universal school-based resilience-focussed interventions on mental health outcomes in children and adolescents. The objective of the present review is to assess the effects of universal school-based resilience-focussed interventions, relative to a comparison group, on mental health outcomes in children and adolescents. Eligible studies will be randomised (including cluster-randomised) controlled trials of universal interventions explicitly described as resilience-focussed or comprising strategies to strengthen a minimum of three internal protective factors, targeting children aged 5 to 18 years, implemented within schools, and reporting a mental health outcome. Screening for studies will be conducted across six electronic databases: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Two reviewers will retrieve eligible articles, assess risk of bias, and extract data. Where studies are sufficiently homogenous and reported outcomes are amenable for pooled synthesis, meta-analysis will be performed. Narrative description will be used to synthesise trial outcome data where data cannot be combined or heterogeneity exists. This review will aid in building an evidence
Ngantcha, Marcus; Janssen, Eric; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Ehlinger, Virginie; Le-Nezet, Olivier; Beck, François; Spilka, Stanislas
Screen-based media overuse has been related to harmful consequences especially among children and adolescents. Given their complex interrelationships, predictors of screen time (ST) should be analyzed simultaneously rather than individually to avoid incomplete conclusions. Structural equation models were conducted to examine associations between media ST (television, video games, and computers) along with harmful consequences in adolescents' well-being, such as underweight and overweight, depression, and school failure. Predictors included individual (gender, age, and physical activity), family (structure and socioeconomic background), and substance use variables. We used the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey organized in 2014, including eighth- and ninth-grade students living in France (N = 3720). Students reported spending 3 hours per day in front of each media. Spending more than 2 hours behind each of those 3 media was associated with lower life satisfaction, less physical activity, active school bullying, and grade repetition. Socioeconomic status was the most important predictor of ST, whereas regular substance uses showed modest associations. The main implication of our findings is to sensitize parents and stakeholders about the limitation of ST, including their own use that adolescents are likely to mimic. Alternative measures such as off-line time should be encouraged.
Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, the mycotoxin produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum and found in contaminated cereal-based foodstuff, has been consistently detected in body fluids in adults. Available data in children and adolescents are scarce. This study assessed urinary DON concentrations in children aged 3–9 years (n = 40 and adolescents aged 10–17 years (n = 39 in the UK. Morning urine samples were collected over two consecutive days and analysed for free DON (un-metabolised form, DON-glucuronides (DON-GlcA, deepoxy deoxynivalenol (DOM-1, and total DON (sum of free DON, DON-GlcA, and DOM-1. Total DON was detected in the urine of >95% of children and adolescents on both days. Mean total DON concentrations (ng/mg creatinine were 41.6 and 21.0 for children and adolescents, respectively. The greatest total DON levels were obtained in female children on both days (214 and 219 ng/mg creatinine on days 1 and 2, respectively. Free DON and DON-GlcA were detected in most urine specimens, whereas DOM-1 was not present in any sample. Estimation of dietary DON exposure suggested that 33–63% of children and 5–46% of adolescents exceeded current guidance regarding the maximum provisional tolerable daily intake (PMTDI for DON. Although moderate mean urinary DON concentrations were shown, the high detection frequency of urinary DON, the maximum biomarker concentrations, and estimated dietary DON exposure are concerning.
Velö, Szabina; Keresztény, Ágnes; Miklósi, Mónika; Dallos, Gyöngyvér; Szentiványi, Dóra; Gádoros, Júlia; Balázs, Judit
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent childhood psychiatric disorder, it affects around 3-12% of the children. ADHD is associated with numerous social and emotional impairments. Quality of life (QoL) studies of children with ADHD established low QoL in the most cases. Our aim was to examine QoL of children with ADHD according to the following aspects: age, children's self-report and parentproxy report, and we also would like to compare them with healthy control group along several dimensions of QoL. The clinical group consist of a treatmant naive group of children with ADHD, who were just diagnosed in the Vadaskert Hospital. The healthy control group consist of children from elementary schools. The children of control group do not have ADHD and do not stand under psychological or psychiatrical treatment. In our study we applied Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Kid and Intervertat Lebensqualitat Kindern und Jugendlichen questionare. Compared children with ADHD to healthy control group they have significantly lower QoL at many areas (school, peer realtions, generally) due their self report. By parent's proxy report children with ADHD have lower QoL according to all of the QoL domains. Parents of children with ADHD reported significantly lower QoL for their children in the most areas (school, family, peer realtion, mental state, generally) then the affected children. Adolescent with ADHD have lower QoL in 3 domains (school, peer relations, generally) than children with ADHD, while children with ADHD have lower QoL in one dimension (being alone) compared with adolescents with ADHD. Based on our results children with ADHD compared to healthy control group have lower QoL in many dimensions and there are age-related differences in the assessment of QoL. Additionally, our study draw the attention to the differences of QoL assessment between children and parents.
Willgerodt, Mayumi A.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.; Ward, Teresa M.; Lentz, Martha J.
Inadequate sleep occurs in 25% of our nation's children; poor sleep is associated with physical, cognitive, and social consequences. Developing good sleep hygiene in middle childhood is important, because habits typically extend to adolescence and adulthood; yet, there has been little research on sleep interventions for school-age children. The…
Ebesutani, Chad; Okamura, Kelsie; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Chorpita, Bruce F.
The current study was the 1st to examine the psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children-Parent Version (PANAS-C-P) using a large school-based sample of children and adolescents ages 8 to 18 (N = 606). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor (correlated) model of positive affect (PA) and negative…
Mitchikpe, C.E.S.; Ram, D.; Ead, A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Kok, F.J.
Malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are major public health problems in developing countries. Most affected groups are children, adolescents, women of reproductive age and pregnant women. School-age children also represent an important vulnerable age category because they are still in the
Derivois, Daniel; Guillier-Pasut, Nathalie; Karray, Amira; Cénat, Jude-Mary; Brolles, Lisbeth; Matsuhara, Hanae
The aim of this pilot study is to identify the best way of preventing and assessing the livelihood and risk of school dropout amongst children entrusted to the care of the French child protection system in the Département of Rhone. The sample comprised 91 children and adolescents aged 4- to 17-years-old, of whom 45 were girls. The data were…
Spaten, Ole Michael
on childrens's development may be conquered by broader perspectives in theory and, methodology. He proposed a scientific perspective as the ecology of human development and, the Person-Process-Context-Time model (ibid). Our results includes that childrens's and adolescent's active internalization (Valsiner...... & Van der Veer, 1988). amd dialogical, cultural self-autorship are important themes for an understanding of processes of self-concept development among Danish children and adolescents from diverse cultual backgrounds. Limitations for this research as well as further directions for new studies...
Lucinéia de Pinho
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents attending public municipal schools in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to test the association between these patterns and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status of the adolescents. METHODS: this was an analytical, cross-sectional study with randomized sample of 474 adolescents of both genders, between 11 and 17 years of age, attending municipal public schools in the urban area of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. The parents provided demographic and economic data. The nutritional status (body mass index - BMI of the adolescents was determined at school, and their dietary habits were assessed though the administration of the Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adolescents (FFQA. Based on 26 categories extracted from FFQA, dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis (PCA and associated to anthropometric and socioeconomic factors using multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: the three dietary patterns identified, "junk food," "healthy," and "traditional", explained 23.26%, 6.90%, and 5.24% of data variability, respectively. Adolescents with per capita family income exceeding half a minimum wage were more likely to consume the "junk food" pattern (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.07-2.56, and overweight adolescents had lower chances of eating the "healthy" food pattern (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.35-0.91. CONCLUSIONS: deviations from the "healthy" patterns were not associated to low income, but rather to bad eating habits in the studied population. Overweight adolescents did not adhere to the "healthy" dietary pattern, emphasizing the need for nutritional education among them.
that school children in Ogun State do not perceive themselves to be healthy and suggest the use of school health questionnaire to assess and identify common health problems in school children. Keywords: School-age children, common health problems, questionnaire, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the distress associated to psychopathology in children and adolescents. The sample included 330 children aged 8 to 17 years attending outpatient mental health services of the public network in Barcelona(Spain assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. A substantial part of children brought to treatment suffered distress associated to internalizing and externalizing psychological symptoms. Psychological distress was most frequent among girls and among adolescents, and was more frequently reported by children and adolescents than by their parents. It was also a marker of perception of need of psychological help, and it was significantly related to diagnosis, subthreshold conditions and functional impairment. Individual symptoms of depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder and oppositional defiant disorder were most associated with psychological distress. Given the potential importance of subjective distress as well as impairment for the identification and definition of psychopathology and planning of treatment, diagnostic assessment should include questions related to distress.