Sample records for adolescent romantic partner

  1. Actor and Partner Effects of Adolescents' Romantic Working Models and Styles on Interactions with Romantic Partners (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Simon, Valerie A.


    The present study examined how adolescents' and their romantic partners' romantic working models and relational styles were related to their interactions with each other. Sixty-five couples (M age=18.1 years) were observed interacting. Romantic working models were assessed in interviews about their romantic experiences; romantic styles were…

  2. Early Adolescent Romantic Partner Status, Peer Standing, and Problem Behaviors (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S.; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.


    This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a…

  3. Parental residential and partnering transitions and the initiation of adolescent romantic relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, Katya; Mills, Melinda; Veenstra, René


    This study focused on the possible links between parental residential and partnering transitions (a parent's move out of the household, introduction of a new maternal and paternal partner) and the initiation of romantic relationships in adolescence. Using data from a prospective cohort study of Dutc

  4. The Role of Character Strengths in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: An Initial Study on Partner Selection and Mates' Life Satisfaction (United States)

    Weber, Marco; Ruch, Willibald


    The present study investigated the role of 24 character strengths in 87 adolescent romantic relationships focusing on their role in partner selection and their role in mates' life satisfaction. Measures included the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth, the Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, and an Ideal Partner Profiler for the…

  5. Familial Predictors of Sibling and Romantic-Partner Conflict Resolution: Comparing Late Adolescents from Intact and Divorced Families (United States)

    Reese-Weber, M.; Kahn, J.H.


    The present study examined whether predictors of romantic-partner conflict may vary as a function of family structure. Using a cross-sectional design, we tested a mediation model of conflict resolution behaviours among late adolescents from intact (n=185) and divorced (n=87) families. Adolescents rated conflict resolution behaviours in five dyadic…

  6. Rejection sensitivity and depressive symptoms: Longitudinal actor-partner effects in adolescent romantic relationships. (United States)

    Norona, Jerika C; Roberson, Patricia N E; Welsh, Deborah P


    The present study utilizes the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the longitudinal relationship between rejection sensitivity and one's own and one's partner's depressive symptoms. The sample included adolescent romantic couples from the U.S. (N = 198 adolescents; 50% girls; 90.2% Caucasian) whose rejection sensitivity at Time 1 and depressive symptoms approximately one year later (Time 2) were assessed. Additionally, aggressive behaviors and maintenance behaviors that commonly associated with rejection sensitivity (e.g., self-silencing) are explored as mediators. Results indicate that boyfriends' rejection sensitivity at Time 1 predicted girlfriends' depressive symptoms at Time 2. Additionally, girls' rejection sensitivity predicted their own and their boyfriends' self-silencing. Developmental and clinical implications are discussed.

  7. Late Adolescent Girls' Relationships with Parents and Romantic Partner: The Distinct Role of Mothers and Fathers (United States)

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra


    The distinct role of mothers and fathers in shaping the quality of relationships with romantic partner was explored. One hundred and twenty 17-year old girls were observed during their senior year in high school with each of their parents during a Revealed differences task [Allen, J. P., Hauser, S. T., Bell, K. L., Boykin, K. A., & Tate, D. C.…

  8. Romantic relationships and sexuality in adolescence and young adulthood : The role of parents, peers, and partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bongardt, Daphne; Yu, Rongqin; Dekovic, Maja; Meeus, Wim H J


    The formation of romantic relationships and the engagement in sexual behaviours are considered normative and salient developmental tasks for adolescents and young adults. These developmental tasks are increasingly viewed from an ecological perspective, thus not only as individual processes, but also

  9. Romantic relationships and sexuality in adolescence and young adulthood: The role of parents, peers, and partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bongardt, D.; Yu, R.; Deković, M.; Meeus, W.H.J.


    The formation of romantic relationships and the engagement in sexual behaviours are considered normative and salient developmental tasks for adolescents and young adults. These developmental tasks are increasingly viewed from an ecological perspective, thus not only as individual processes, but also

  10. Romantic Fantasies, Cross-Gender Friendships, and Romantic Experiences in Adolescence (United States)

    Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Walsh, Sophie; Harel, Shirley; Shulman, Shmuel


    Findings of this study, conducted on 142 adolescents (67 ninth graders and 75 eleventh graders), show that romantic experiences among adolescents are manifested in different forms: romantic fantasies, cross-gender friendships, and sustained interactions with a romantic partner. These three forms of experience are manifested differently across age…

  11. Patterns of Interaction in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Distinct Features and Links to Other Close Relationships


    Furman, Wyndol; Shomaker, Lauren B.


    This study examined the similarities and differences between adolescents' interactions with romantic partners and those with friends and mothers. Thirty-two adolescents were observed interacting with a romantic partner, a close friend, and their mother. Adolescents and romantic partners engaged in more conflict than adolescents and friends. Adolescents' affective responsiveness was less positive with romantic partners than with their friends. Additionally, the dyadic positivity was lower in r...

  12. Patterns of Interaction in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Distinct Features and Links to Other Close Relationships (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Shomaker, Lauren B.


    This study examined the similarities and differences between adolescents' interactions with romantic partners and those with friends and mothers. Thirty-two adolescents were observed interacting with a romantic partner, a close friend, and their mother. Adolescents and romantic partners engaged in more conflict than adolescents and friends.…

  13. Seeing the Partner: A Video Recall Study of Emotional Behavior in Same- and Mixed-Sex Late Adolescent Romantic Couples (United States)

    Darling, Nancy; Clarke, Sara A.


    Fifty-three college-aged same- and mixed-sex romantic couples (83% White, 63% female, mean age, 20.8) engaged in a video recall task in which they rated their own and their partners' behaviors and emotions. Females reported feeling more connected to partners and reported fewer negative behaviors than males. Females with male partners reported the…

  14. Within-Family Conflict Behaviors as Predictors of Conflict in Adolescent Romantic Relations (United States)

    Darling, Nancy; Cohan, Catherine L.; Burns, Andrew; Thompson, Louisa


    Continuity in conflict behaviors from (a) adolescents' behavior with parents and their behavior with romantic partners and (b) from parents' marriage to adolescents' romantic relationships were examined in a sample of 58 mother-father-adolescent families and the adolescents' romantic partners. The social relations model was used to analyze…

  15. Shared social and emotional activities within adolescent romantic and non-romantic sexual relationships. (United States)

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Russell, Stephen T


    Typically, "non-romantic" sexual relationships are assumed to be casual; however, the emotional and social distinctions between romantic and non-romantic contexts are not well understood, particularly in adolescence. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) was used to compare shared emotional (e.g., telling partner that they love her/him) and social (e.g., going out in a group) activities within romantic and non-romantic sexual relationships. Adolescents who reported exclusively romantic sexual relationships (n = 1,891) shared more emotional, but not social, activities with their partners than adolescents who were in non-romantic sexual relationships (n = 315; small effect size, r = .07-.13), akin to adolescents who experienced both relationship types (n = 519; small-to-medium effect size, r = .18-.38). Girls shared more emotional and social activities with their partners than boys when in romantic relationships (small effect size, r = .06-.10); there were no significant gender differences within non-romantic sexual relationships. Findings suggest that gendered scripts remain for sexual relationships that are romantic but not for those that are non-romantic. Notably, for the majority of adolescents, non-romantic relationships still held many emotional and social dimensions typical of romantic relationships and differences between relationship types were small. Although non-romantic relationships were less intimate than romantic sexual relationships, there was remarkable heterogeneity within this relationship type. Caution is advised when working with adolescents engaged in "casual" sexual relationships. Understanding the complexity of adolescent sexual relationships is critical for the advancement of effective sex education programming.

  16. Young Adolescents' Perceptions of Romantic Relationships and Sexual Activity (United States)

    Royer, Heather R.; Keller, Mary L.; Heidrich, Susan M.


    The purpose of this article is to describe young adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationships, ratings of important romantic partner characteristics, and acceptability of sexual activity with romantic relationships. Fifty-seven eighth-grade participants (average age = 13.8 years) from one urban US public middle school completed an anonymous…

  17. Exploring Mexican American adolescent romantic relationship profiles and adjustment. (United States)

    Moosmann, Danyel A V; Roosa, Mark W


    Although Mexican Americans are the largest ethnic minority group in the nation, knowledge is limited regarding this population's adolescent romantic relationships. This study explored whether 12th grade Mexican Americans' (N = 218; 54% female) romantic relationship characteristics, cultural values, and gender created unique latent classes and if so, whether they were linked to adjustment. Latent class analyses suggested three profiles including, relatively speaking, higher, satisfactory, and lower quality romantic relationships. Regression analyses indicated these profiles had distinct associations with adjustment. Specifically, adolescents with higher and satisfactory quality romantic relationships reported greater future family expectations, higher self-esteem, and fewer externalizing symptoms than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Similarly, adolescents with higher quality romantic relationships reported greater academic self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Overall, results suggested higher quality romantic relationships were most optimal for adjustment. Future research directions and implications are discussed.

  18. The relation of insecure attachment states of mind and romantic attachment styles to adolescent aggression in romantic relationships. (United States)

    Miga, Erin M; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P; Manning, Nell


    The relation of attachment states of mind and self reported attachment relationship styles to romantic partner aggression was examined in a community sample of 93 adolescents. Higher levels of insecure-preoccupied and insecure-dismissing states of mind, as assessed by the Adolescent Attachment Interview at age 14, were predictive, respectively, of perpetration and victimization of psychological aggression in romantic relationships four years later. Partners' romantic attachment anxiety was linked to both psychological and physical aggression perpetration in romantic relationships. Results are interpreted as suggesting the value of assessing aggression in adolescent romantic relationships in the context of broader patterns of regulation of affect and behavior via the attachment system.

  19. Influence of family of origin and adult romantic partners on romantic attachment security. (United States)

    Dinero, Rachel E; Conger, Rand D; Shaver, Phillip R; Widaman, Keith F; Larsen-Rife, Dannelle


    According to attachment theory, attachment style derives from social experiences throughout the life span. The authors tested this expectation by examining associations between the quality of observed interaction patterns in the family of origin during adolescence and self-reported romantic attachment style and observed romantic relationship behaviors in adulthood (ages 25 and 27). Family and romantic relationship interactions were rated by trained observers from video recordings of structured conversation tasks. Attachment style was assessed with items from D. W. Griffin and K. Bartholomew's (1994a) Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Observational ratings of warmth and sensitivity in family interactions were positively related to similar behaviors by romantic partners and to attachment security. In addition, romantic interactions characterized by high warmth and low hostility at age 25 predicted greater attachment security at 27, after controlling for attachment security at age 25. However, attachment security at age 25 did not predict later romantic relationship interactions after controlling for earlier interactions. These findings underscore the importance of close relationships in the development of romantic attachment security but do not indicate that attachment security predicts the quality of interactions in romantic relationships.

  20. Women's adult romantic attachment style and communication by cell phone with romantic partners. (United States)

    Weisskirch, Robert S


    Cell phones have become important communication media for individuals in romantic relationships. The frequency of and methods used for communication may vary by adults' style of romantic attachment. Female university students (N = 31) currently in romantic relationships responded to a questionnaire. They estimated the frequency of calls and text messages received from and made to their romantic partners and completed the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised instrument, a measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance. Also, the participants reviewed their cell phones' memories and provided accurate frequency of communication to and from the romantic partner. Attachment anxiety was associated with more estimated text messages sent to and received from the romantic partners and actual text messages sent to and received from the romantic partners. Attachment avoidance was associated (r = -.38) with fewer estimated calls made to the romantic partners and fewer actual calls made to the romantic partners (r = -.34).

  1. Adolescent romantic relationships and change in smoking status. (United States)

    Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S; Pollard, Michael S; Go, Myong-Hyun; Green, Harold D


    Although smoking rates have decreased, smoking among adolescents continues to be a problem. Previous research has shown the importance of peer influences on adolescent smoking behavior but has mostly neglected the impact of adolescent romantic relationships. This study examines the influence of romantic relationships with smokers and non-smokers on smoking initiation and cessation over a one-year period using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). For initial non-smokers, we examined whether the total length of time in romantic relationships with smokers and non-smokers at Wave I, as well as amount of exposure to smoking through romantic partners, predicted smoking initiation at Wave II. Among initial regular smokers, we examined whether these same relationship characteristics predicted smoking cessation at Wave II. These analyses were conducted separately for respondents in any type of romantic relationship, as well as just those respondents in close romantic relationships. Results indicated that, for close romantic relationships, cessation was more likely among smokers with more time in relationships with non-smoking partners. Greater exposure to smoking through romantic partners at Wave I significantly decreased the likelihood of cessation among initial smokers and increased the likelihood of initiation among initial non-smokers. For all relationships, greater exposure to smoking through romantic partners at Wave I significantly reduced the likelihood of cessation. These associations held when controlling for best friend smoking, as well as demographic factors and school-level smoking, suggesting that peer-based smoking programs aimed at adolescents should incorporate a focus on romantic relationships.

  2. Assessing Romantic Competence in Adolescence: The Romantic Competence Interview (United States)

    Davila, Joanne; Steinberg, Sara J.; Miller, Melissa Ramsay; Stroud, Catherine B.; Starr, Lisa R.; Yoneda, Athena


    This article presents preliminary psychometric data on the reliability and validity of the newly developed Romantic Competence Interview (RCI). The RCI is an interviewer-assessed measure designed to assess competence among adolescents regardless of romantic relationship status. Eighty-three early adolescent girls (m age = 13.45 years) recruited…

  3. The Relation of Insecure Attachment States of Mind and Romantic Attachment Styles to Adolescent Aggression in Romantic Relationships


    Miga, Erin M.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P; Manning, Nell


    The relation of attachment states of mind and self reported attachment relationship styles to romantic partner aggression was examined in a community sample of 93 adolescents. Higher levels of insecure-preoccupied and insecure-dismissing states of mind, as assessed by the Adolescent Attachment Interview at age 14, were predictive, respectively, of perpetration and victimization of psychological aggression in romantic relationships four years later. Partners’ romantic attachment anxiety was li...

  4. Assessing Romantic Competence among Older Adolescents (United States)

    Shulman, Shmuel; Davila, Joanne; Shachar-Shapira, Lital


    Davila and colleagues (Davila et al., 2009) developed the Romantic Competence Interview to capture the potential for romantic competence during early adolescence. Considering that at later stages of adolescence the majority are likely to be involved in some kind of romantic relationship, the current paper adapts, extends, and examines the concept…

  5. Mate choice in adolescence: idealizing romantic partners = Escolha de parceiro na adolescência: idealizando parceiros românticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hattori, Wallisen Tadashi


    Full Text Available Vários estudos sugerem um padrão universal para as preferências na escolha de parceiros em humanos e diferenças sexuais marcantes. Preenchendo uma lacuna no estudo da escolha de parceiros, nós identificamos características relevantes em parceiros em potencial durante a adolescência e avaliamos o nível de importância das mesmas. Nossas amostras foram compostas por 467 estudantes brasileiros e, através do uso de um questionário aberto e de uma escala Likert, nós observamos as diferenças sexuais e as avaliações do grau de importância para alguns fatores. No entanto, similaridades entre os sexos também emergiram durante as análises. O uso de um questionário aberto permitiu uma atualização na lista de traços considerados importantes pelos adolescentes durante a escolha de parceiro, e adaptar o instrumento que avalia a importância desses traços ao vocabulário e à preferências dos adolescentes, contribuindo com a compreensão do comportamento reprodutivo dos mesmos

  6. Friends or lovers? Person- and variable-oriented perspectives on dyadic similarity in adolescent romantic relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiffge-Krenke, I.; Burk, W.J.


    Variable- and person-oriented approaches were used to examine the affiliative and romantic experiences of adolescents in heterosexual romantic relationships and its associations with relationship conflict and jealousy on a sample of 194 romantic partner dyads. Variable-oriented findings indicated th

  7. Adolescent Friend Similarity on Alcohol Abuse as a Function of Participation in Romantic Relationships: Sometimes a New Love Comes between Old Friends (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan


    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical…

  8. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol


    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…

  9. Satisfaction in Romantic Relationship among Adolescents: Inputs to Guidance Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Romantic relationship among adolescents are common everywhere however not all of us are true natural born, hopeful romantics. Yet there are those who struggle with the whole concept. It is not because they don’t want to enjoy it with their partner but has more to do with their never having understood it. No relationships-themed resource would be complete without some helpful insights regarding the subject of romance. This study was conducted to discover whether or not there is an association between the profile and involvement in a romantic relationship among adolescent. It also outlined the timing of romantic attachment formation and its implications for relationship stability. Fifty high school students attending Batangas National High School were surveyed. Approximately one hundred percent of those surveyed were involved in a relationship. Results showed that adolescents are generally satisfied with their romantic relationships. The respondents are already confident in establishing romantic relationship. The relationship between the length of the romantic relationship and the level of satisfaction was found to be positive

  10. The Past Is Present: Representations of Parents, Friends, and Romantic Partners Predict Subsequent Romantic Representations. (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene


    This study examined how representations of parent-child relationships, friendships, and past romantic relationships are related to subsequent romantic representations. Two-hundred 10th graders (100 female; Mage  = 15.87 years) from diverse neighborhoods in a Western U.S. city were administered questionnaires and were interviewed to assess avoidant and anxious representations of their relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Participants then completed similar questionnaires and interviews about their romantic representations six more times over the next 7.5 years. Growth curve analyses revealed that representations of relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners each uniquely predicted subsequent romantic representations across development. Consistent with attachment and behavioral systems theory, representations of romantic relationships are revised by representations and experiences in other relationships.

  11. Processes through which adolescents believe romantic relationships influence friendship quality. (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer J


    Little is known about how romantic relationships influence adolescents' friendships. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify behaviors through which adolescents believe romantic relationships influence friendship quality. Intimate exchange, co-rumination, encouragement, and conflict resolution were identified as processes through which romantic relationships influence friendship quality. Associations between these variables and friendship quality were investigated with 340 adolescents. Adolescents believed these processes occurred frequently within friendship. Gender differences suggest girls may be more sensitive to the influence of romantic partners on their friendships than are boys. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that greater intimacy, encouragement, compromise, and less co-rumination were associated with more positive beliefs about friendship quality when one friend has a girlfriend or boyfriend. Greater co-rumination and less encouragement were predictive of negative friendship quality. Thus, these processes may represent avenues through which romantic relationships positively and negatively influence friendship quality. Findings highlight the need to understand friendships as part of a complex social network that includes romantic ties.

  12. Does High Educational Attainment Limit the Availability of Romantic Partners? (United States)

    Burt, Isaac; Lewis, Sally V.; Beverly, Monifa G.; Patel, Samir H.


    Research indicates that highly educated individuals endure hardships in finding suitable romantic partners. Romantic hardships affect social and emotional adjustment levels, leading to low self-efficacy in relationship decision making. To address the need for research pertaining to this topic, the authors explored the experiences of eight…

  13. Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eChatel-Goldman


    Full Text Available Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration. 14 couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy.

  14. Adolescent friend similarity on alcohol abuse as a function of participation in romantic relationships: Sometimes a new love comes between old friends. (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan


    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across 2 consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point at which they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Postplacement relationships between birth mothers and their romantic partners. (United States)

    Henney, Susan M; French, Cynthia A; Ayers-Lopez, Susan; McRoy, Ruth G; Grotevant, Harold D


    Using a mixed-methods approach, the understudied population of birth mothers who placed their infants for adoption 12-20 years ago was explored in the context of their romantic relationships. In a semistructured interview, 104 birth mothers answered detailed questions about their romantic relationships and adoption-related experiences. All birth mothers had disclosed the adoption placement to their romantic partners, and most had done so early because they wanted to be truthful about their past. On average, the birth mothers were satisfied with their romantic relationships and almost half did not believe that the adoption had affected it. Regarding contact in the adoption, a majority of the birth mothers' romantic partners (63.5%) were not directly involved in contact with the adoptive family or adopted youth. Implications about how adoption is perceived and processed within intimate relationships are discussed.

  16. Romantic Relationship Patterns from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Family and Peer Experiences in Early Adolescence. (United States)

    Boisvert, Stéphanie; Poulin, François


    The present study identifies and describes romantic relationship patterns from adolescence to adulthood and examines their associations with family and peer experiences in early adolescence. In a 13-year longitudinal study, 281 youth (58 % girls) identified all their romantic partners each year from the ages of 16-24. Dimensions of family relationships (family cohesion, parent-child conflict) and peer relationships (peer likeability, social withdrawal, close friendships, other-sex friendships) were assessed at age 12. Latent class analyses brought out five distinct romantic relationship patterns and significant associations were found with family and peer relationships in early adolescence. These five romantic relationship patterns appeared to follow a continuum of romantic involvement, with romantic relationship patterns situated a both ends of this continuum (later involvement pattern and intense involvement pattern) being associated with more interpersonal experiences in early adolescence.

  17. South African Adolescents' Constructions of Intimacy in Romantic Relationships (United States)

    Lesch, Elmien; Furphy, Claire


    Localized understandings of adolescent romantic relationships are needed to expand our knowledge of the diversity of adolescent romantic experiences and to challenge negative discourses of adolescent heterosexual relationships. This study explored the constructions of intimacy of 20 adolescent men and women in romantic relationships from one…

  18. Fighting Fair: Adaptive Marital Conflict Strategies as Predictors of Future Adolescent Peer and Romantic Relationship Quality (United States)

    Miga, Erin M.; Gdula, Julie Ann; Allen, Joseph P.


    This study examined the associations between reasoning during inter-parental conflict and autonomous adolescent conflict negotiation with peers over time. Participants included 133 adolescents and their parents, peers, and romantic partners in a multimethod, multiple reporter, longitudinal study. Inter-parental reasoning at adolescent age of 13…

  19. Supportive behaviors in adolescent romantic relationships moderate adrenocortical attunement. (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Yeung, Ellen Wanheung; Rogers, Adam A; Poulsen, Franklin O; Kornienko, Olga; Granger, Douglas A


    This study investigated dyadic adrenocortical attunement within adolescent romantic relationships. An ethnically diverse sample (42% Latino) of adolescent heterosexual dating couples (N=91 dyads, Mage=16.5 years, SD=0.99) donated eight saliva samples (later assayed for cortisol) over the course of a 3-h laboratory session. Supportive behaviors were coded during a conflict and jealousy interaction task from video recordings, and participants completed pre-and-post task questionnaires. Parallel process latent growth models revealed a strong positive association between the couples' cortisol intercept, indicating that couples show attunement in initial levels of cortisol. Further, observed supportive behavior moderated the strength of the association between dyadic cortisol slopes. The results imply that low levels of supportive behavior predicted stronger adrenocortical attunement in the change in cortisol levels over time between adolescent romantic partners. These findings indicate that even early romantic relationships exhibit coordination of physiological activity. Findings raise the possibility that adrenocortical attunement may be a dyadic pathway through which the proximal social context of early romantic relationships is translated into risk or resilience in health and behavior.

  20. Romantic attraction and adolescent smoking trajectories. (United States)

    Pollard, Michael S; Tucker, Joan S; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Go, Myong-Hyun


    Research on sexual orientation and substance use has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are more likely to smoke than heterosexuals. This analysis furthers the examination of smoking behaviors across sexual orientation groups by describing how same- and opposite-sex romantic attraction, and changes in romantic attraction, are associated with distinct six-year developmental trajectories of smoking. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health dataset is used to test our hypotheses. Multinomial logistic regressions predicting smoking trajectory membership as a function of romantic attraction were separately estimated for men and women. Romantic attraction effects were found only for women. The change from self-reported heterosexual attraction to lesbian or bisexual attraction was more predictive of higher smoking trajectories than was a consistent lesbian or bisexual attraction, with potentially important differences between the smoking patterns of these two groups.

  1. Lovestruck: women, romantic love and intimate partner violence. (United States)

    Power, Charmaine; Koch, Tina; Kralik, Debbie; Jackson, Debra


    Intimate Partner Violence remains a significant problem globally despite health promotion aimed at raising awareness. In particular, there is a current trend for many young women to view some abusive/violent behaviours as acceptable in their relationships. Intimate Partner Violence has serious implications for its short and long term impacts on the health of women and children. Health workers may find working with women a challenging and sometimes frustrating experience. A way forward is to develop clearer understandings of the complexities of Intimate Partner Violence and to better understand women's investments in romantic relationships. In this paper a secondary analysis of data from a narrative study of women's recovery from IPV relationships is presented in order to illustrate discourses that inform underpinnings of romantic relationships. Transcriptions of audio-taped interviews were analysed using a feminist post-structural approach in order to make visible the ways in which the women negotiated their identities in the discourses of femininity. A critical review of current literature was also undertaken to develop the construct of romantic love. Women revealed that cues for Intimate Partner Violence were present early in the relationship but were not recognised at the time. Two positions within the discourse of romantic love were identified that underpinned their desires to establish and invest in the relationship despite the presence of cues for Intimate Partner Violence. These were 'Desperate for a man' and interpreting jealousy as a sign of love. Romantic love may be desirable for the sharing of warmth, safety and protection, and yet can mask behaviours that are cues for domestic violence. Understanding the complex nature of the ways that women's desires are located in the discourse of romantic love has implications for all nurses working to prevent and reduce the incidence of Intimate Partner Violence.

  2. Consistency and Inconsistency Among Romantic Partners Over Time. (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Harden, K Paige; Shukusky, Jennifer A; Morgan, Taylor Anne; Joel, Samantha


    Theoretical perspectives on mating differentially emphasize whether (and why) romantic partner selection and maintenance processes derive from stable features of individuals (e.g., mate value, mate preferences, relationship aptitude) and their environments (e.g., social homogamy) rather than adventitious, dyad-specific, or unpredictable factors. The current article advances our understanding of this issue by assessing how people's actual romantic partners vary on constructs commonly assessed in evolutionary psychology (Study 1), sociology (Study 2), and close relationships (Study 3). Specifically, we calculated the extent to which the past and present partners of a focal person (i.e., the person who dated all of the partners) cluster on various measures. Study 1 investigated consistency in the observable qualities of the romantic partners, revealing substantial evidence for clustering on coder-rated attributes like attractiveness and masculinity. Study 2 examined qualities self-reported by romantic partners themselves in a demographically diverse sample and found modest evidence for clustering on attributes such as IQ and educational aspirations; however, clustering in this study was largely due to demographic stratification. Study 3 explored target-specific ratings by partners about the focal person and found little evidence for clustering: The ability to elicit high romantic desirability/sexual satisfaction ratings from partners was not a stable individual difference. The variables that affect mating may differ considerably in the extent to which they serve as stable versus unpredictable factors; thus, the fields of evolutionary psychology, sociology, and close relationships may reveal distinct depictions of mating because the constructs and assessment strategies in each differ along this underappreciated dimension. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. To Accept or Reject? The Impact of Adolescent Rejection Sensitivity on Early Adult Romantic Relationships. (United States)

    Hafen, Christopher A; Spilker, Ann; Chango, Joanna; Marston, Emily S; Allen, Joseph P


    Successfully navigating entry into romantic relationships is a key task in adolescence, which sensitivity to rejection can make difficult to accomplish. This study uses multi-informant data from a community sample of 180 adolescents assessed repeatedly from age 16 to 22. Individuals with elevated levels of rejection sensitivity at age 16 were less likely to have a romantic partner at age 22, reported more anxiety and avoidance when they did have relationships, and were observed to be more negative in their interactions with romantic partners. In addition, females whose rejection sensitivity increased during late adolescence were more likely to adopt a submissive pattern within adult romantic relationships, further suggesting a pattern in which rejection sensitivity forecasts difficulties.

  4. Coregulation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia in adult romantic partners. (United States)

    Helm, Jonathan L; Sbarra, David A; Ferrer, Emilio


    Questions surrounding physiological interdependence in romantic relationships are gaining increased attention in the research literature. One specific form of interdependence, coregulation, can be defined as the bidirectional linkage of oscillating signals within optimal bounds. Conceptual and theoretical work suggests that physiological coregulation should be instantiated in romantic couples. Although these ideas are appealing, the central tenets of most coregulatory models await empirical evaluation. In the current study, we evaluate the covariation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in 32 romantic couples during a series of laboratory tasks using a cross-lagged panel model. During the tasks, men's and women's RSA were associated with their partners' previous RSA responses, and this pattern was stronger for those couples with higher relationship satisfaction. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for attachment theory, as well as the association between relationships and health.

  5. Adolescent Daughters' Romantic Competence: The Role of Divorce, Quality of Parenting, and Maternal Romantic History (United States)

    Shulman, Shmuel; Zlotnik, Aynat; Shachar-Shapira, Lital; Connolly, Jennifer; Bohr, Yvonne


    This study examined the links between parental divorce, quality of maternal parenting, spousal relationships and middle adolescent romantic competence in 80 mother-adolescent daughter pairs (40 divorced). Mothers were asked to describe their attitudes and behaviors with regard to their daughters' romantic behavior. In addition, mothers were…

  6. Adolescents' Conceptions of the Influence of Romantic Relationships on Friendships (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer J.


    Although researchers have investigated how adolescents' friendships affect their romantic relationships, the influence of romantic relationships on friendships is unexamined. As a first step, 9th- (n = 198) and 11th grade students (n = 152) reported on their conceptions of friendship when one friend had a romantic relationship and when neither…

  7. Adolescent online romantic relationship initiation: differences by sexual and gender identification. (United States)

    Korchmaros, Josephine D; Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J


    Data from the national Teen Health and Technology Study of adolescents 13-18 years old (N = 5091) were used to examine online formation of romantic relationships. Results show that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) and non-LGBTQ adolescents similarly were most likely to have met their most recent boy/girlfriend in the past 12 months at school. However, they differed on many characteristics of romantic relationship initiation, including the extent to which they initiated romantic relationships online. LGBTQ and non-LGBTQ adolescents also differed on level of offline access to potential partners, offline popularity, and numerous other factors possibly related to online relationship initiation (e.g., Internet use and demographic factors). Even after adjusting for differences in these factors, LGBTQ adolescents were more likely than non-LGBTQ adolescents to find boy/girlfriends online in the past 12 months. The results support the rich-get-richer hypothesis as well as the social compensation hypothesis.

  8. The role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution in predicting shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescents. (United States)

    Appel, Israel; Shulman, Shmuel


    This study examined the role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution patterns in shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescent couples. Data were used from 55 couples aged 15-18 years. Partners completed the Romantic Attraction scale and were observed negotiating a disagreement. Three and 6 months later, they were asked to report whether they were still together. Findings indicated that partners' romantic attraction and the tendency to minimize disagreements during interaction predicted shorter relationship maintenance. In contrast, longer relationship maintenance was predicted by partners' capability to resolve conflicts constructively in a positive atmosphere. Findings are embedded and discussed within Fisher's (2004) evolutionary theory of love.

  9. Adolescents' Explanations for Romantic Dissolutions: A Developmental Perspective (United States)

    Connolly, Jennifer; McIsaac, Caroline


    Our objective was to examine the prevalence and developmental significance of romantic break-ups in adolescence, a relatively unexplored area of study. We examined their occurrence in a sample of 910 adolescents, first noting the frequency of these events across age, gender, and romantic experience, and then analyzing the dissolution explanations…

  10. Emotional and Behavioral Effects of Romantic Relationships in Chinese Adolescents (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyan; Guo, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Li, Xinying; Duan, Qing; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Xiaojia


    Adolescents' romantic relationships have been associated with higher levels of depression, although their links with externalizing behavioral problems remain unclear. The present study examined the impact of adolescent romantic relationships on depression and externalizing behaviors in a large sample of 10,509 Chinese secondary school students…

  11. Friendships and Romantic Relationships of Black and White Adolescents (United States)

    Pagano, Maria E.; Hirsch, Barton J.


    Prior research on adolescent peer relationships has focused on interpersonal dimensions of friendships but not of romantic relationships, and has rarely examined minority groups. We used a random sample of 122 adolescents to examine race and gender differences in friendships, romantic relationships, and the congruence between closest friendship…

  12. Attachment to the Romantic Partner and Sibling: Attachment Hierarchies of Twins and Non-Twin Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Schwarz


    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that romantic partners and siblings are important attachment figures. This study compares the attachment to the romantic partner with the attachment to the sibling as a function of the participant’s sibling type among monozygotic (MZ twins, dizygotic (DZ twins, and non-twin (NT siblings. The results show that MZ twins prefer their sibling to their romantic partner whereas DZ twins are equally attached to their sibling and romantic partner. In contrast, NT siblings are more attached to their romantic partner compared to their sibling. These results indicate that genetic relatedness has profound impact on a person’s attachment hierarchy and the relative rank of the romantic partner and the sibling.

  13. Multiple dimensions of peer influence in adolescent romantic and sexual relationships: a descriptive, qualitative perspective. (United States)

    Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Deardorff, Julianna


    Adolescents undergo critical developmental transformations that increase the salience of peer influence. Peer interactions (platonic and romantic) have been found to have both a positive and negative influence on adolescent attitudes and behaviors related to romantic relationships and sexual behavior. This study used qualitative methodology to explore how peers influence romantic and sexual behavior. Forty adolescents participated in individual semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed, and analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. The concept of peer influence on romantic relationships and sexual behavior emerged as a key theme. Youth described that platonic peers (friends) influenced their relationships and sexual behavior including pressuring friends into relationships, establishing relationships as currency for popularity and social status, and creating relationship norm and expectations. Romantic peers also motivated relationship and sexual behavior as youth described engaging in behavior to avoid hurting and successfully pleasing their partners. Future research should explore multiple types of peer influence in order to better inform interventions to improve the quality of adolescents' romantic and sexual relationships.

  14. The blues of adolescent romance: observed affective interactions in adolescent romantic relationships associated with depressive symptoms. (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Dishion, Thomas J; Overbeek, Geertjan; Burk, William J; Engels, Rutger C M E


    We examined the associations between observed expressions of positive and negative emotions during conflict discussions and depressive symptoms during a 2-year period in a sample of 160 adolescents in 80 romantic relationships (M age = 15.48, SD = 1.16). Conflict discussions were coded using the 10-code Specific Affect Coding System. Depressive symptoms were assessed at the time of the observed conflict discussions (Time 1) and 2 years later (Time 2). Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Girls' expression of both positive and negative emotions at T1 was related to their own depressive symptoms at T2 (actor effect). Boys' positive emotions and negative emotions (actor effect) and girls' negative emotions (partner effect) were related to boys' depressive symptoms at T2. Contrary to expectation, relationship break-up and relationship satisfaction were unrelated to changes in depressive symptoms or expression of negative or positive emotion during conflict discussion. These findings underscore the unique quality of adolescent romantic relationships and suggest new directions in the study of the link between mental health and romantic involvement in adolescence.

  15. Supportive Romantic Relationships as Predictors of Resilience Against Early Adolescent Maternal Negativity. (United States)

    Szwedo, David E; Hessel, Elenda T; Allen, Joseph P


    Negativity in parent-child relationships during adolescence has been viewed as a risk factor for teens' future personal and interpersonal adjustment. This study examined support from romantic partners and close friends during late adolescence as protective against maternal negativity experienced during early adolescence. A combination of observational, self-report, and peer-report measures were obtained from a community sample of 97 youth (58 % female), their mothers, closest friends, and romantic partners assessed at ages 13, 18, and 20. Moderating effects suggested a protective effect of romantic support against maternal negativity across a variety of psychosocial outcomes, including depressive symptoms, self-worth, social withdrawal, and externalizing behavior. Protective effects were found even after controlling for initial levels of outcome behavior and observed support from close friends throughout adolescence. Receiving support from a romantic partner may provide teens with new, positive ways of coping with adversity and help them avoid more serious distress that may be predicted from maternal negativity when such support is not available.

  16. Social networking sites in romantic relationships: attachment, uncertainty, and partner surveillance on facebook. (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M


    Social networking sites serve as both a source of information and a source of tension between romantic partners. Previous studies have investigated the use of Facebook for monitoring former and current romantic partners, but why certain individuals engage in this behavior has not been fully explained. College students (N=328) participated in an online survey that examined two potential explanatory variables for interpersonal electronic surveillance (IES) of romantic partners: attachment style and relational uncertainty. Attachment style predicted both uncertainty and IES, with preoccupieds and fearfuls reporting the highest levels. Uncertainty did not predict IES, however. Future directions for research on romantic relationships and online surveillance are explored.

  17. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Weight-Related Criticism from Romantic Partners. (United States)

    Befort, Christie; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Hull-Blanks, Elva; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura; Sollenberger, Sonja


    Examines weight-related criticism from romantic partners and the importance of the romantic relationship in relation to the body image and self esteem for college freshmen women. Results reveal that self esteem and body image were positively related. Partner importance also predicted self esteem, whereas criticism did not. (Contains 55 references…

  18. Urban adolescent girls' perspectives on romantic relationships: initiation, involvement, negotiation, and conflict. (United States)

    Volpe, Ellen M; Morales-Alemán, Mercedes M; Teitelman, Anne M


    The purpose of this paper was to describe romantic relationships from the perspective of urban, adolescent girls, to address gaps in our understanding of their relationship dimensions. Minority adolescent girls (n  =  17) participated in private semi-structured interviews aimed to elicit the understanding of the adolescents' perspectives on their own relationship experiences and dynamics. The research team conducted conventional content analysis of the interview transcripts. Four major themes emerged about romantic relationships: (1) influence of male pursuit and social norms on relationship initiation factors; (2) a romantic partner is a confidant, friend, and companion; (3) negotiating intimacy respectfully; and (4) relationship conflict through control and abuse. Adolescents described sub-themes of social norms of male pursuit and relationship pressures that dictated relationship initiation. Relationships were depicted by emotional support, caring, and companionship. Adolescents described positive negotiation skills. However, relationship conflict, including controlling behaviors and violence, was illustrated in these same relationships. This study provides a rich description of romantic relationships from the perspectives of urban, adolescent girls. Most salient findings included social pressures and a combination of both positive and negative attributes. Implications include the need for intervention development at the community level to address social pressures, recognition of positive adolescent relationship attributes, and facilitation of skills to identify and address low-quality relationship characteristics.

  19. When and why do ideal partner preferences affect the process of initiating and maintaining romantic relationships? (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J; Eagly, Alice H


    Three studies explored how the traits that people ideally desire in a romantic partner, or ideal partner preferences, intersect with the process of romantic relationship initiation and maintenance. Two attraction experiments in the laboratory found that, when participants evaluated a potential romantic partner's written profile, they expressed more romantic interest in a partner whose traits were manipulated to match (vs. mismatch) their idiosyncratic ideals. However, after a live interaction with the partner, the match vs. mismatch manipulation was no longer associated with romantic interest. This pattern appeared to have emerged because participants reinterpreted the meaning of the traits as they applied to the partner, a context effect predicted by classic models of person perception (S. E. Asch, 1946). Finally, a longitudinal study of middle-aged adults demonstrated that participants evaluated a current romantic partner (but not a partner who was merely desired) more positively to the extent that the partner matched their overall pattern of ideals across several traits; the match in level of ideals (i.e., high vs. low ratings) was not relevant to participants' evaluations. In general, the match between ideals and a partner's traits may predict relational outcomes when participants are learning about a partner in the abstract and when they are actually in a relationship with the partner, but not when considering potential dating partners they have met in person.

  20. Romantic Experience and Psychosocial Adjustment in Middle Adolescence (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Low, Sabina; Ho, Martin J.


    Concurrent and longitudinal relations between the amount of romantic experience and psychosocial adjustment were examined in a 1-year study of a community based sample of 200 tenth graders. Adolescents, parents, and friends completed measures of psychosocial adjustment. The amount of romantic experience was associated with higher reports of social…

  1. Love Schemas, Preferences in Romantic Partners, and Reactions to Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bachman


    Full Text Available Researchers have proposed that people possess different love schemas and that these schemas may shape romantic preferences and reactions to impending commitments.In Study 1, we tested two hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Men and women will prefer potential dates who possess an “ideal” love schema (i.e., the secure. Hypothesis 2: If the ideal is unavailable, men and women will prefer potential dates whose love schemas are similar to their own. In order to test these hypotheses, men and women from the University of Hawaii, who varied in love schemas, were asked to indicate their preferences for potential romantic partners who varied in physical attractiveness, body type, and love schemas. It was found that people did indeed prefer the ideal (the secure and (secondarily those who were similar to them in attachment style—be it clingy, skittish, casual, or disinterested.Study 2 was designed to test Hypothesis 3: Participants’ love schemas will shape their cognitions, feelings, and behaviors when they find themselves on the brink of making a serious romantic commitment. In order to test this hypothesis, men and women from the University of Hawaii were surveyed. Again, as predicted, it was found that the more strongly men and women endorsed the secure schema, the more calm and confident (and the less fearful and trapped they felt when confronting pending commitments. The more strongly they endorsed the clingy, skittish, fickle, casual, and uninterested schemas, the less confident and calm and the more fearful and trapped they felt when confronting an impending commitment.

  2. Adolescent Romantic Couples Influence on Substance Use in Young Adulthood (United States)

    Gudonis-Miller, Lauren C.; Lewis, Lisa; Tong, Yan; Tu, Wanzhu; Aalsma, Matthew C.


    Research has demonstrated that adolescent peer group affiliations are consistent predictors of substance use initiation and maintenance; it is less clear how adolescent "romantic" relationships influence substance use behavior. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants in the final dataset for the…

  3. Analyzing Cultural Models in Adolescent Accounts of Romantic Relationships (United States)

    Milbrath, Constance; Ohlson, Brightstar; Eyre, Stephen L.


    Research on academic achievement has led the way in demonstrating how culturally constructed meanings shape adolescent scholastic behavior. The aim of this research is to move this standpoint of analysis more centrally into the area of adolescent dating and sexuality by focusing on the cultural components of adolescent romantic relationships. This…

  4. Adolescent Romantic Couples Influence on Substance Use in Young Adulthood (United States)

    Gudonis-Miller, Lauren C.; Lewis, Lisa; Tong, Yan; Tu, Wanzhu; Aalsma, Matthew C.


    Research has demonstrated that adolescent peer group affiliations are consistent predictors of substance use initiation and maintenance; it is less clear how adolescent "romantic" relationships influence substance use behavior. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants in the final dataset…

  5. Adolescent Romantic Relationships in China and Canada: A Cross-National Comparison (United States)

    Li, Zhi Hong; Connolly, Jennifer; Jiang, Depeng; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy


    This study compared the romantic involvements of Canadian and Chinese adolescents as well as linkages with friend and parental relationships. Participants were 496 Chinese adolescents and 395 Canadian adolescents, aged 16-17 years. Chinese adolescents were less likely to have any form of romantic involvement, including a romantic relationship,…

  6. Masculinity in adolescent males' early romantic and sexual heterosexual relationships. (United States)

    Bell, David L; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Ott, Mary A


    There is a need to understand better the complex interrelationship between the adoption of masculinity during adolescence and the development of early romantic and sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to describe features of adolescent masculinity and how it is expressed in the contexts of early to middle adolescent males' romantic and sexual relationships. Thirty-three 14- to 16-year-old males were recruited from an adolescent clinic serving a community with high sexually transmitted infection rates and were asked open-ended questions about their relationships-how they developed, progressed, and ended. Participants described a high degree of relationally oriented beliefs and behaviors related to romantic and sexual relationships, such as a desire for intimacy and trust. The males also described a more limited degree of conventionally masculine beliefs and behaviors. These beliefs and behaviors often coexisted or overlapped. Implications for the clinical care of similar groups of adolescents are described.

  7. Sexual communication, satisfaction, and condom use behavior in friends with benefits and romantic partners. (United States)

    Lehmiller, Justin J; Vanderdrift, Laura E; Kelly, Janice R


    Although "friends with benefits" relationships (FWBRs) are common and have been the subject of significant media and research attention, relatively little is known about them, especially in terms of how they differ from other types of relationships. The present research sought to compare the sexual outcomes of FWBRs to those of traditional romantic relationships via an online survey. Results revealed that FWBR partners were less likely to be sexually exclusive, had a lower frequency of sexual interaction, were less sexually satisfied, and generally communicated less about sex than romantic partners did. However, compared to romantic partners, FWBR partners devoted relatively more of the time spent together to sexual activity, practiced safe sex more frequently, communicated more often about extradyadic sexual experiences, and reported a greater number of lifetime casual sex partners. These findings indicate that the sexual outcomes of FWBRs and romantic relationships are quite distinct and provide evidence of the potential public health implications associated with both casual and committed sexual relationships.

  8. Influence of Peers on Young Adolescent Females' Romantic Decisions (United States)

    Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee E.; Garwick, Ann W.


    Background: Initiation of sexual intercourse during early adolescence is a known risk factor for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Purpose: To examine young women's stories describing peer in?uences on their romantic and sexual decisions and behavior during early adolescence. Methods: Semistructured ethnographic interviews were…

  9. Parental Involvement in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Patterns and Correlates (United States)

    Kan, Marni L.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.


    This study examined dimensions of mothers' and fathers' involvement in adolescents' romantic relationships when offspring were age 17. Using cluster analysis, parents from 105 White, working and middle class families were classified as positively involved, negatively involved, or autonomy-oriented with respect to their adolescents' romantic…

  10. Good partner, good parent: Caregiving mediates the link between romantic attachment and parenting style


    Millings, A; Walsh, J.; Hepper, E.; O'Brien, M.


    This cross-sectional, dyadic questionnaire study examined the contribution of romantic attachment and responsive caregiving to parenting style, investigating both gender and partner effects. One hundred and twenty-five couples with children aged 7 to 8 years completed measures of attachment styles, responsive caregiving toward partner, and parenting styles. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the intra- and interpersonal associations between romantic attachment, caregiving respon...

  11. The Salience of Adolescent Romantic Experiences for Romantic Relationship Qualities in Young Adulthood (United States)

    Madsen, Stephanie D.; Collins, W. Andrew


    Conceptual links between aspects of adolescents' dating experiences (i.e., involvement and quality; ages 15-17.5) and qualities of their romantic relationships in young adulthood (ages 20-21) were examined in a prospective longitudinal design. Even after accounting for earlier relationship experiences with parents and peers, aspects of adolescent…

  12. Pubertal Timing and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescents: The Roles of Romantic Competence and Romantic Experiences (United States)

    Stroud, Catherine B.; Davila, Joanne


    In spite of the large literature supporting the link between early pubertal timing and depression in adolescent girls, there are some exceptions. This suggests that there may be factors that interact with pubertal timing, increasing risk for depression in some girls, but not others. This study examined two such factors, romantic competence and…

  13. Appearance commentary from romantic partners: evaluation of an adapted measure. (United States)

    Carriere, Lucille J; Kluck, Annette S


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale (VCOPAS; Herbozo & Thompson, 2006b) after modifying it to capture appearance feedback given by romantic partners (VCOPAS-P). Women participants (N=248) completed the VCOPAS-P, as well as measures of disordered eating, body image dissatisfaction, relationship quality, and socially desirable responding. Exploratory factor analysis identified the best factor structure for the VCOPAS-P, which contained three factors similar to the VCOPAS. Correlations between the VCOPAS-P subscales and measures of disordered eating, body image dissatisfaction, relationship quality, and social desirability responding demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity of the VCOPAS-P. There was a significant positive correlation between the negative comments subscale of the VCOPAS-P and the measures of body dissatisfaction and weight concern (measured by the EDE-Q). Additionally, VCOPAS-P subscales reflecting positive comments about appearance and weight were associated with greater relationship satisfaction.

  14. Compassionate love for a romantic partner, love styles and subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Neto


    Full Text Available Recently a compassionate love scale was developed to assess compassionate love or altruistic love for different targets (e.g., romantic partner, close others and all the humanity; Sprecher & Fehr, 2005. This study was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Compassionate Love Scale in the Portuguese context. In addition, it has been examined how compassionate love for a romantic partner was related to socio-demographic variables, love styles, and subjective well-being. Two hundred and eighty one men and women participated (42% of women with a mean age of 21.89. All participants were currently in a romantic relationship. The Compassionate Love Scale shows satisfactory psychometric properties. Furthermore, our predictions were supported, as those who experience high levels of compassionate love for a romantic partner are more likely to report Eros and altruistic love (Agape, and subjective well-being.

  15. Romantic partners in a market perspective: expectations about what ensures a highly desirable partner. (United States)

    Castro, Felipe N; Hattori, Wallisen T; Yamamoto, Maria Emília; Lopes, Fívia A


    This study used the biological market perspective and influential statistical models from the marketing field to investigate males' and females' expectations regarding which combination of characteristics are most relevant in ensuring desirable partnerships for same-sex individuals. Thus, 358 Brazilian undergraduates assessed eight descriptions of same-gender stimulus targets (formulated with different levels of physical attractiveness, social skills, and current or prospective social status) and evaluated the overall desirability of the targets' expected or probable partners. From the possible combinations, three groups emerged: for one group, mainly composed of men, status characteristics were the most important attributes; for the others, mostly composed of women, social skills or physical characteristics were identified as most important in appealing to a desirable partner. This work expands the understanding of variability in male and female romantic expectations, and its implications are discussed from an evolutionary perspective.

  16. Gender differences in implicit self-esteem following a romantic partner's success or failure. (United States)

    Ratliff, Kate A; Oishi, Shigehiro


    This research examined the influence of a romantic partner's success or failure on one's own implicit and explicit self-esteem. In Experiment 1, men had lower implicit self-esteem when their partner did well at a "social intelligence" task than when their partner did poorly. Women's implicit self-esteem was unaffected by partner performance. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that Dutch men's implicit self-esteem was negatively affected by their romantic partner's success. In Experiment 4, we replicated Experiments 1-3 in both the academic and social domains, and in Experiment 5, we demonstrated that men's implicit self-esteem is negatively influenced by thinking about a romantic partner's success both when the success is relative and when it is not. In sum, men's implicit self-esteem is lower when a partner succeeds than when a partner fails, whereas women's implicit self-esteem is not. These gender differences have important implications for understanding social comparison in romantic relationships.

  17. Romantic Relationships from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. (United States)

    Meier, Ann; Allen, Gina


    Theories on romantic relationship development posit a progression of involvement and intensity with age, relationship duration, and experience in romantic relationships. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study tests these propositions by considering relationship type and patterns of relationships over the course of adolescence and their influence on relationship formation in young adulthood. Findings indicate that relationships become more exclusive, dyadic, of longer duration, and more emotionally and sexually intimate over the course of adolescence. Moreover, relationship experience in adolescence is associated with an increased likelihood of cohabitation and marriage in young adulthood. These findings indicate that instead of being trivial or fleeting, adolescent romantic relationships are an integral part of the social scaffolding on which young adult romantic relationships rest.

  18. The dark side of romantic relationships: Aggression in adolescent couples and links to attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiffge-Krenke, I.; Burk, W.J.


    This study focuses on romantic relationships from the perspective of both partners. This dyadic approach was chosen to account for the fact that both partners may differently contribute to the escalation of aggression. In a sample of 194 romantic partner dyads, differences between female and male pa

  19. Romantic and Sexual Activities, Parent-Adolescent Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls (United States)

    Davila, Joanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Starr, Lisa R.; Miller, Melissa Ramsay; Yoneda, Athena; Hershenberg, Rachel


    Building on evidence that romantic experiences are associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence, we examined their bidirectional association, as well as the role of sexual activity and parent-adolescent stress in their association. Data were collected from 71 early adolescent girls (M age 13.45 years; SD = 0.68) and their primary caregiver…

  20. Low-income mothers as "othermothers" to their romantic partners' children: women's coparenting in multiple partner fertility relationships. (United States)

    Burton, Linda M; Hardaway, Cecily R


    In this article, we investigated low-income mothers' involvement in multiple partner fertility (MPF) relationships and their experiences as "othermothers" to their romantic partners' children from previous and concurrent intimate unions. Othermothering, as somewhat distinct from stepmothering, involves culturally-scripted practices of sharing parenting responsibilities with children's biological parents. We framed this investigation using this concept because previous research suggests that many low-income women practice this form of coparenting in their friend and kin networks. What is not apparent in this literature, however, is whether women unilaterally othermother their romantic partners' children from different women. How often and under what circumstances do women in nonmarital MPF intimate unions with men coparent their partners' children from other relationships? We explored this question using a modified grounded theory approach and secondary longitudinal ethnographic data on 256 low-income mostly unmarried mothers from the Three-City Study. Results indicated that 78% of the mothers had been or were involved in MPF unions and while most had othermothered the children of their friends and relatives, 89% indicated that they did not coparent their partners' children from any MPF relationship. Mothers' reasons for not doing so were embedded in: (a) gendered scripts around second families, or "casa chicas"; (b) the tenuous nature of pass-through MPF relationships; and (c) mothers' own desires for their romantic partners to child-swap. Implications of this research for family science and practice are discussed.

  1. Romantic Functioning and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls: The Moderating Role of Parental Emotional Availability (United States)

    Steinberg, Sara J.; Davila, Joanne


    This study tested associations between adolescent romantic functioning and depressive symptoms and predicted that adolescents with emotionally unavailable parents would be most likely to show an association between poor romantic functioning and depressive symptoms. Data collected from 80 early adolescent nonreferred girls (average age of 13.45; SD…

  2. Do conflict resolution and recovery predict the survival of adolescents' romantic relationships?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao Ha

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that being able to resolve and recover from conflicts is of key importance for relationship satisfaction and stability in adults. Less is known about the importance of these relationship dynamics in adolescent romantic relationships. Therefore, this study investigated whether conflict resolution and recovery predict breakups in middle adolescent couples. Couples who are able to resolve and recover from conflict were expected to demonstrate a lower probability of breaking up. In total, 80 adolescent couples (M age = 15.48, SD = 1.16 participated in a 4-wave prospective questionnaire and observational study, with one year between measurements. In addition to self-report measures, adolescents were observed in real-time during conflicts with their partners. Multilevel Proportional Hazard analyses revealed that, contrary to the hypothesis, conflict resolution and conflict recovery did not predict the likelihood of breakup. Survival differences were not attributable to conflict resolution or conflict recovery. More research is needed to consider the unique relationship factors of adolescent romantic relationships to determine why some relationships survive while others do not.

  3. Self- and Partner-objectification in Romantic Relationships: Associations with Media Consumption and Relationship Satisfaction. (United States)

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L; Ramsey, Laura R; Jaworski, Beth K


    Few studies have examined objectification in the context of romantic relationships, even though strong theoretical arguments have often made this connection. This study addresses this gap in the literature by examining whether exposure to mass media is related to self-objectification and objectification of one's partner, which in turn is hypothesized to be related to relationship and sexual satisfaction. A sample of undergraduate students (91 women and 68 men) enrolled in a university on the west coast of the United States completed self-report measures of the following variables: self-objectification, objectification of one's romantic partner, relationship satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and exposure to objectifying media. Men reported higher levels of partner objectification than did women; there was no gender difference in self-objectification. Self- and partner-objectification were positively correlated; this correlation was especially strong for men. In regression analyses, partner-objectification was predictive of lower levels of relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, a path model revealed that consuming objectifying media is related to lowered relationship satisfaction through the variable of partner-objectification. Finally, self- and partner-objectification were related to lower levels of sexual satisfaction among men. This study provides evidence for the negative effects of objectification in the context of romantic relationships among young adults.

  4. Early adolescent romantic relationships and maternal approval among inner city Latino families. (United States)

    Bouris, Alida; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Ballan, Michelle; Lesesne, Catherine A; Gonzalez, Bernardo


    Latino youth are at high risk for acquiring HIV during adolescence. The present study documented the nature of adolescent romantic relationships among 702 Latino eighth grade students and their mothers in the Bronx, NY. The study examined adolescent romantic relationships, the association between participation in such relationships and intentions to engage in sexual risk behavior, and maternal influences on adolescent's involvement in intimate behaviors in romantic relationships. Almost 50% of youth had been in a romantic relationship, which typically lasted 3-3.5 months. Mothers tended to approve of intimate behaviors and sexual activity in romantic relationships more so for males than females. Latino youth tended to underestimate maternal disapproval of a range of intimate behaviors, and the correlations between perceived and actual maternal approval were generally low in magnitude. Finally, maternal orientations towards their adolescent engaging in romantic relationships were associated with their child's intentions to have sexual intercourse in the future.

  5. Conflict Management with Friends and Romantic Partners: The Role of Attachment and Negative Mood Regulation Expectancies. (United States)

    Creasey, Gary; Kershaw, Kathy; Boston, Ada


    Studied the degree to which attachment orientations were related to negative mood regulation expectancies and conflict management strategies with best friends and romantic partners in a sample of 140 female college students. Discusses results in relation to previous research on attachment theory and implications for interventions. (SLD)

  6. The Role of Romantic Partners, Family, and Peer Networks in Dating Couples' Views about Cohabitation (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.; Smock, Pamela J.


    Emerging adults are increasingly cohabiting, but few studies have considered the role of social context in the formation of their views of cohabitation. Drawing on 40 semistructured interviews with dating couples, we explored the role of romantic partners, family, and peers on evaluations of cohabitation. In couples where each member had a…

  7. Good partner, good parent: responsiveness mediates the link between romantic attachment and parenting style. (United States)

    Millings, Abigail; Walsh, Judi; Hepper, Erica; O'Brien, Margaret


    This cross-sectional, dyadic questionnaire study examined the contribution of romantic attachment and responsive caregiving to parenting style, investigating both gender and partner effects. One hundred and twenty-five couples with children aged 7 to 8 years completed measures of attachment styles, responsive caregiving toward partner, and parenting styles. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the intra- and interpersonal associations between romantic attachment, caregiving responsiveness, and parenting styles. Attachment avoidance and anxiety were both negatively associated with responsive caregiving to partner, which in turn was positively associated with authoritative (optimal) parenting styles and negatively associated with authoritarian and permissive (nonoptimal) parenting styles. Responsive caregiving mediated all links between attachment and parenting, with an additional direct association between attachment anxiety and nonoptimal parenting styles that was not explained by caregiving responsiveness. Findings are discussed with reference to attachment theory.

  8. Depressive Symptoms and Romantic Relationship Qualities from Adolescence through Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Examination of Influences (United States)

    Vujeva, Hana M.; Furman, Wyndol


    Research has consistently demonstrated the negative consequences of depression on adolescents' functioning in peer and family relationships, but little work has examined how depressive symptoms affect the quality of adolescents' and emerging adults' romantic relationships. Five waves of data on depressive symptoms, romantic relationship conflict,…

  9. Romantic Relationships and Delinquent Behaviour in Adolescence: The Moderating Role of Delinquency Propensity (United States)

    Eklund, Jenny M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Hakan


    There is some evidence that adolescent romantic involvement is associated with delinquent behaviour. One aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether this holds for romantic relationships deemed important by the participants. A second aim was to test whether this association was stronger for adolescents with pre-existing delinquent…

  10. Directly Observed Interaction within Adolescent Romantic Relationships: What Have We Learned? (United States)

    Welsh, Deborah P.; Shulman, Shmuel


    Review and conceptual analysis of the papers in this special issue calls attention to several important methodological and conceptual issues surrounding the direct observation of adolescent romantic couples. It also provides an important new foundation of knowledge about the nature of adolescents' romantic relationships. Connections with previous…

  11. Self-perceptions of romantic appeal in adolescents with a cleft lip and/or palate. (United States)

    Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Stock, Nicola Marie; Sharratt, Nicholas David; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin


    During adolescence, romantic relationships are a key developmental milestone. Coupled with the increasing salience of appearance and social acceptance, adolescents with an appearance-altering condition may feel particularly vulnerable when it comes to romantic relationships. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of romantic experiences among adolescents with a cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P), and to investigate how these experiences could be related to depressive symptoms and global self-worth. The study included 661 Norwegian adolescents with CL/P, who were compared to a large national sample. The prevalence of romantic relationships was lower among adolescents with CL/P compared to the reference group, although the overall impact on depressive symptoms and global self-worth appeared to be low. This study is one of few to explore the impact of a congenital visible condition on experiences of romantic relationships and provides preliminary insight into a significant, yet complex topic.

  12. Script-like attachment representations in dreams containing current romantic partners. (United States)

    Selterman, Dylan; Apetroaia, Adela; Waters, Everett


    Recent research has demonstrated parallels between romantic attachment styles and general dream content. The current study examined partner-specific attachment representations alongside dreams that contained significant others. The general prediction was that dreams would follow the "secure base script," and a general correspondence would emerge between secure attachment cognitions in waking life and in dreams. Sixty-one undergraduate student participants in committed dating relationships of six months duration or longer completed the Secure Base Script Narrative Assessment at Time 1, and then completed a dream diary for 14 consecutive days. Blind coders scored dreams that contained significant others using the same criteria for secure base content in laboratory narratives. Results revealed a significant association between relationship-specific attachment security and the degree to which dreams about romantic partners followed the secure base script. The findings illuminate our understanding of mental representations with regards to specific attachment figures. Implications for attachment theory and clinical applications are discussed.

  13. A Qualitative Study of the Role of Friendship in Late Adolescent and Young Adult Heterosexual Romantic Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Kidd


    Full Text Available Friendship is considered one of the pillars of satisfying, long-term, romantic relationships and marriage. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the role of friendship in heterosexual romantic relationships. Eight single participants, ages 18 to 29, were selected from two West Coast metropolitan areas in the United States to explore whether or not friendship facilitates future long term relationships. Participants reported that friendship helped establish economic independence, adult identity and improved communication skills. Participants also reported that the development and stability of long term relationships was tenuous and temporal in their lives. Late adolescents and young adults in our study believed that their selection of partners was very different than their parents and that the success of their long term relationships was enhanced by a strong friendship with their partner.

  14. Implicit and explicit preferences for physical attractiveness in a romantic partner: a double dissociation in predictive validity. (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Eagly, Alice H; Finkel, Eli J; Johnson, Sarah E


    Five studies develop and examine the predictive validity of an implicit measure of the preference for physical attractiveness in a romantic partner. Three hypotheses were generally supported. First, 2 variants of the go/no-go association task revealed that participants, on average, demonstrate an implicit preference (i.e., a positive spontaneous affective reaction) for physical attractiveness in a romantic partner. Second, these implicit measures were not redundant with a traditional explicit measure: The correlation between these constructs was .00 on average, and the implicit measures revealed no reliable sex differences, unlike the explicit measure. Third, explicit and implicit measures exhibited a double dissociation in predictive validity. Specifically, explicit preferences predicted the extent to which attractiveness was associated with participants' romantic interest in opposite-sex photographs but not their romantic interest in real-life opposite-sex speed-daters or confederates. Implicit preferences showed the opposite pattern. This research extends prior work on implicit processes in romantic relationships and offers the first demonstration that any measure of a preference for a particular characteristic in a romantic partner (an implicit measure of physical attractiveness, in this case) predicts individuals' evaluation of live potential romantic partners.

  15. Brief report: how adolescent personality moderates the effect of love history on the young adulthood romantic relationship quality? (United States)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim


    This study examined the effect of previous romantic relationship involvement on later romantic relationship quality and tested whether adolescents' personality type (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, resilients) moderated this link. We answered our research questions in a sample of 320 Dutch participants (213 girls) who had a romantic relationship when they were 21 years old. At 12 years of age, their personality types were identified. At 21 years of age, participants reported their current romantic relationship quality (i.e., commitment, exploration, and reconsideration) and indicated the number of romantic relationships they had before. No main effects of the number of romantic relationships on current romantic relationship quality were found. There were significant interaction effects between personality types and the number of romantic relationships on romantic relationship quality. With more romantic relationship experiences, undercontrollers committed less to and explored less in their current romantic relationship. No such link was found for resilients and overcontrollers.

  16. Romantic Relationship Commitment and Its Linkages with Commitment to Parents and Friends during Adolescence (United States)

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan; van Duin, Jet; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim


    This five-wave longitudinal study examines linkages between adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationship commitment and the development of adolescents' perceptions of commitment to parents and friends. A total of 218 early-to-middle adolescents (39.0 percent boys) and 185 middle-to-late adolescents (30.8 percent boys) participated.…

  17. Environmental Unpredictability in Childhood Is Associated With Anxious Romantic Attachment and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration. (United States)

    Barbaro, Nicole; Shackelford, Todd K


    Human life history theory describes how resources are allocated among conflicting life tasks, including trade-offs concerning reproduction. The current research investigates the unique importance of environmental unpredictability in childhood in association with romantic attachment, and explores whether objective or subjective measures of environmental risk are more informative for testing life history hypotheses. We hypothesize that (1) unpredictability in childhood will be associated with greater anxious attachment, (2) anxious attachment will be associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, and (3) anxious attachment will mediate the relationship between unpredictability in childhood and IPV perpetration. In two studies (totaln= 391), participants in a heterosexual, romantic relationship completed self-report measures of childhood experiences, romantic attachment, and IPV perpetration. Study 1 provides support for Hypothesis 1. Hypothesis 1 is replicated only for men, but not women, in Study 2. Results of Study 2 provide support for Hypothesis 2 for men and women, and Hypothesis 3 was supported for men but not women. The findings contribute to the literature addressing the association of environmental risk in childhood on adult romantic relationship outcomes.

  18. The development of adolescent self-regulation: reviewing the role of parent, peer, friend, and romantic relationships. (United States)

    Farley, Julee P; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen


    Self-regulation plays an important role in adolescent development, predicting success in multiple domains including school and social relationships. While researchers have paid increasing attention to the influence of parents on the development of adolescent self-regulation, we know little about the influence of peers and friends and even less about the influence of romantic partners on adolescent development of self-regulation. Extant studies examined a unidirectional model of self-regulation development rather than a bidirectional model of self-regulation development. Given that relationships and self-regulation develop in tandem, a model of bidirectional development between relationship context and adolescent self-regulation may be relevant. This review summarizes extant literature and proposes that in order to understand how adolescent behavioral and emotional self-regulation develops in the context of social relationships one must consider that each relationship builds upon previous relationships and that self-regulation and relationship context develop bidirectionally.

  19. I say a little prayer for you: praying for partner increases commitment in romantic relationships. (United States)

    Fincham, Frank D; Beach, Steven R H


    Partner-focused petitionary prayer (PFPP) has received little attention in the prayer literature. In two studies, we examine PFPP to see whether it is uniquely important in conveying relationship benefits, whether its benefits are transmitted through an effect on relationship satisfaction, and whether one's own or the partner's PFPP is central to beneficial effects. In Study 1, we examined PFPP in a sample of 316 undergraduate students who were in an "exclusive" romantic relationship, finding that PFPP was related to later level of commitment and that this relationship was partially mediated through enhanced relationship satisfaction. Study 2 examined PFPP in a sample of 205, married African American couples, finding that both partners' PFPP was consequential for commitment, with actor effects partially mediated through relationship quality, and partner effects fully mediated. Together the studies suggest the value of continued investigation of PFPP as a potentially important vehicle for enhancing relationship outcomes.

  20. Caught in a bad romance: adolescent romantic relationships and mental health. (United States)

    Soller, Brian


    Integrating insights from cultural sociology and identity theory, I explore the mental health consequences of adolescent romantic relationship inauthenticity--incongruence between thoughts/feelings and actions within romantic contexts. Applying sequence analysis to National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, I measure relationship inauthenticity by quantifying the extent to which the ordering of events of actual romantic relationships (e.g., holding hands, saying "I love you") diverges from the sequence of events within idealized relationship scripts among 5,316 adolescents. I then test its association with severe depression, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. I find that romantic relationship inauthenticity is positively associated with the risk of all three markers of poor mental health, but only for girls. This study highlights the importance of gender and culture in determining how early romantic involvement influences psychological well-being.

  1. Identity and Intimacy during Adolescence: Connections among Identity Styles, Romantic Attachment and Identity Commitment (United States)

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Pittman, Joe F.; Cadely, Hans Saint-Eloi; Tuggle, Felicia J.; Harrell-Levy, Marinda K.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.


    Integration of adult attachment and psychosocial development theories suggests that adolescence is a time when capacities for romantic intimacy and identity formation are co-evolving. The current study addressed direct, indirect and moderated associations among identity and romantic attachment constructs with a diverse sample of 2178 middle…

  2. The Meaning of Respect in Romantic Relationships among Low-Income African American Adolescents (United States)

    Gowen, L. Kris; Catania, Joseph A.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.


    Although interpersonal respect is considered an important quality in successful romantic relationships, limited attention has been paid to this concept. We examined the meaning of respect in romantic relationships as conceptualized by low-income, sexually active, heterosexually identified, African American adolescents aged 15 to 17 (N = 50).…

  3. Romantic Relationship Dynamics of Urban African American Adolescents: Patterns of Monogamy, Commitment, and Trust (United States)

    Towner, Senna L.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.


    Relationship dynamics develop early in life and are influenced by social environments. STI/HIV prevention programs need to consider romantic relationship dynamics that contribute to sexual health. The aim of this study was to examine monogamous patterns, commitment, and trust in African American adolescent romantic relationships. The authors also…

  4. Conflict Beliefs, Goals, and Behavior in Romantic Relationships during Late Adolescence (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Kobielski, Sarah J.; Martin, Sarah


    Little is known about social cognition regarding conflict in romantic relationships during late adolescence. The current study examined beliefs, social goals, and behavioral strategies for conflict in romantic relationships and their associations with relationship quality among a sample of 494 college students. Two dimensions of conflict beliefs,…

  5. The brain reaction to viewing faces of opposite- and same-sex romantic partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semir Zeki

    Full Text Available We pursued our functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies of the neural correlates of romantic love in 24 subjects, half of whom were female (6 heterosexual and 6 homosexual and half male (6 heterosexual and 6 homosexual. We compared the pattern of activity produced in their brains when they viewed the faces of their loved partners with that produced when they viewed the faces of friends of the same sex to whom they were romantically indifferent. The pattern of activation and de-activation was very similar in the brains of males and females, and heterosexuals and homosexuals. We could therefore detect no difference in activation patterns between these groups.

  6. Racially and ethnically diverse schools and adolescent romantic relationships. (United States)

    Strully, Kate


    Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to "work around" opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships or work around constraints from other groups' preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school.

  7. Perceptions of partners' problematic alcohol use affect relationship outcomes beyond partner self-reported drinking: alcohol use in committed romantic relationships. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Øverup, Camilla S; Overup, Camilla S; Neighbors, Clayton


    Alcohol use is prevalent among college students, including those who are in committed romantic relationships. Individuals' perceptions of their partner's alcohol use may have significant effects on how they view both their partner and their relationship. The current study examines the effect of one's perception of one's romantic partner's drinking as problematic on one's relationship satisfaction and commitment, and whether this varies as a function of one's partner's drinking. Both partners in romantic heterosexual relationships (N = 78 dyads) completed an online survey assessing alcohol use and problems, relationship satisfaction and commitment, and the perception that their partner's drinking was problematic. Analyses using Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (APIMs) revealed a partner-moderated actor interaction, such that partner self-reported drinking significantly moderated the association between the actor's perception of their partner's drinking as problematic and actor relationship outcomes. Results indicated that when partners drank at higher levels, perceiving their drinking as problematic did not have an effect. These individuals were less satisfied regardless of their perceptions. However, when partners drank at lower levels, perceiving their drinking as problematic was negatively associated with relationship outcomes. Furthermore, for alcohol consumption, three-way interactions with gender emerged, indicating that this effect was stronger for males. Results extend the literature on drinking in relationships and on interpersonal perception. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  8. Staying alone or getting attached: development of the motivations toward romantic relationships during adolescence. (United States)

    Kindelberger, Cécile; Tsao, Raphaële


    The authors present the initial validation of a romantic relationship motivation scale, enabling the level of self-determined involvement in romantic relationships during adolescence to be examined. The inclusion of Self-Determination Theory (E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan, 2000) in the motivational constructs enhances the developmental perspective regarding adolescent romantic involvement. The scale was administered to 284 adolescents (163 girls and 121 boys, age 14-19 years) with a self-esteem scale and some questions about their romantic experiences to provide some elements of external validation. The results confirmed the 4-factor structure: intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, external regulation, and amotivation, which follow the self-determination continuum, previously highlighted in friendship motivation. As hypothesized, adolescents became more self-determined with age and girls were more self-determined than boys. Other findings show specific links between motivation for romantic relationships, self-esteem and romantic experiences. It highlights the importance of considering adolescents' motivations when exploring their romantic relationships.

  9. The Association between Romantic Relationships and Delinquency in Adolescence and Young Adulthood. (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Fincham, Frank D; Donnellan, M Brent; Wickrama, K A S


    This study examined the association between romantic relationships and delinquency in adolescence and young adulthood. Using a large, longitudinal, and nationally representative sample, results from negative binomial regressions showed a positive association between romantic involvement and delinquency in adolescence. Further, the cumulative number of romantic relationships from adolescence to young adulthood was positively related to delinquency in young adulthood even controlling for earlier delinquency in adolescence. These analyses also controlled for the effects of participant gender, age at initial assessment, puberty, race/ethnicity, and other demographic characteristics (e.g., family structure and parents' education). Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the role of romantic relationships in the development of young people and for stimulating future research questions.

  10. Developmental trajectories of romantic stages and associations with problem behaviours during adolescence. (United States)

    Connolly, Jennifer; Nguyen, Hien N T; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy; Jiang, Depeng


    Normative romantic development is theorized to progress through a series of stages: affiliative activities, group-based dating, and romantic relationships. The objectives of this research were threefold: empirically examine this progression of romantic stages during adolescence, determine normative and atypical trajectories, and examine links with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. An eight-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 698 adolescents (53.6% female; M(age) = 11.8 years at start of study). A group-based trajectory approach was employed to identify prototypical trajectories of romantic development and a model with three distinct romantic trajectories (i.e., On-time, Early Starters and Late Bloomers) was identified. Both timing and sequencing of romantic activity differed among trajectory groups. Analysis of Variance (ANOVAs) identified associations between Early Starters and externalizing behaviours in early, middle and later adolescence. The findings support progression through theorized stages of romantic activity and highlight the problems that are linked to early-starting and non-sequenced romantic development.

  11. Objectification in Virtual Romantic Contexts: Perceived Discrepancies between Self and Partner Ideals Differentially affect Body Consciousness in Women and Men. (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M; Quinn, Diane M; Marsh, Kerry L


    The current study examined whether exposure to sexually objectifying images in a potential romantic partner's virtual apartment affects discrepancies between people's perception of their own appearance (i.e., self-perceptions) and their perception of the body ideal that is considered desirable to a romantic partner (i.e., partner-ideals). Participants were 114 heterosexual undergraduate students (57 women and 57 men) from a northeastern U.S. university. The study used a 2 (Participant Gender) x 2 (Virtual Environment: Sexualized vs. Non-Sexualized) between-subjects design. We predicted that women exposed to sexually objectifying images in a virtual environment would report greater discrepancies between their self-perceptions and partner-ideals than men, which in turn would contribute to women's body consciousness. Findings support this hypothesis and show that perceived discrepancies account for the relationship between exposure to sexually objectifying images and body consciousness for women but not men. We also found gender asymmetries in objectification responses when each component of perceived discrepancies, i.e., self-perceptions versus perceptions of a romantic partner's body ideal, were examined separately. For men, exposure to muscular sexualized images was significantly associated with their self-perceptions but not their perceptions of the body size that is considered desirable to a romantic partner. For women, exposure to thin sexualized images was significantly associated with their perceptions that a romantic partner preferred a woman with a smaller body size. However, exposure to these images did not affect women's self-perceptions. Implications for gender asymmetries in objectification responses and perceived discrepancies that include a romantic partner's perceptions are discussed.

  12. Conservative Beliefs, Attitudes Toward Bisexuality, and Willingness to Engage in Romantic and Sexual Activities With a Bisexual Partner. (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; Dyar, Christina; Bhatia, Vickie; Latack, Jessica A; Davila, Joanne


    Negative attitudes toward bisexuals have been documented among heterosexuals as well as lesbians/gay men, and a common theme is that bisexuals would not be suitable romantic or sexual partners. While gender, sexual orientation, and attitudes toward bisexuality influence people's willingness to engage in romantic or sexual activities with a bisexual partner, there are other individual differences that may contribute. The current study examined the associations between four types of conservative beliefs and willingness to engage in romantic/sexual activities with a bisexual partner in a sample of heterosexuals and lesbians/gay men (N = 438). Attitudes toward bisexuality were examined as a mediator of these associations. In general, results indicated that higher social dominance orientation, political conservatism, and essentialist beliefs about the discreteness of homosexuality were associated with lower willingness to engage in romantic/sexual activities with a bisexual partner. Further, more negative attitudes toward bisexuality mediated these associations. There were several meaningful differences in these associations between heterosexual women, heterosexual men, lesbian women, and gay men, suggesting that influences on people's willingness to be romantically or sexually involved with a bisexual partner may differ for different gender and sexual orientation groups. Implications for reducing stigma and discrimination against bisexual individuals are addressed.

  13. Affairs of the Heart: Qualities of Adolescent Romantic Relationships and Sexual Behavior (United States)

    Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.


    We know more about parent and peer influences than about the ways in which specific qualities of adolescent romantic relationships may influence sexual decision-making. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, we focus on communication processes and emotional feelings, as well as more basic contours of adolescent romantic…

  14. Stress in romantic relationships and adolescent depressive symptoms: Influence of parental support. (United States)

    Anderson, Samantha F; Salk, Rachel H; Hyde, Janet S


    It is well known that stressful life events can play a role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms; however, there has been little research on romantic stress specifically. The relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms is particularly salient in adolescence, as adolescence often involves the onset of dating. This and other stressors are often dealt with in the context of the family. The present study examined the relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms both concurrently and prospectively, controlling for preexisting depressive symptoms. We then explored whether support from parents buffers the negative effects of romantic stress on depressive symptoms. In addition, the study sought to determine whether the benefits of support vary by parent and child gender. A community sample of 375 adolescents completed self-report measures of parental support (both maternal and paternal), romantic stress, and depressive symptoms. A behavioral measure of maternal support was also obtained. For boys and girls, romantic stress at age 15 predicted depressive symptoms at ages 15 and 18, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Perceived maternal support buffered the stress-depressive symptom relationship for both genders at age 15, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Higher perceived paternal support was associated with lower adolescent depressive symptoms; however, it did not have a buffering effect. These results have implications for the development of effective family-centered methods to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in adolescents.

  15. Consequence-based communication about adolescent romantic experience between parents and adolescents: A qualitative study underpinned by social constructionism. (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Fuller, Jeffrey; Hutton, Alison; Grant, Julian


    Chinese adolescents are increasingly engaging in romantic experiences and high-risk sexual behaviors within a rapidly-changing cultural and socio-economic context. Parental communication about sexuality has been recognized as protective for adolescents to make informed decisions about sexual practice. In this study, we explored what was discussed about adolescent romantic experience between parents and adolescents in China. Twenty-seven parents and 38 adolescents from a northern-eastern city of China were interviewed. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using a social constructionism framework. Four themes were identified: (i) detriments of romantic experience to education and future prospect; (ii) health and sociocultural risks of romantic and sexual engagement; (iii) ways of handling romantic experience; and (iv) marriage and family building. The messages were mainly prohibitive and consequence oriented in nature, and lacked specific romantic and sexual information. These messages reflected sociocultural beliefs in education, sexuality, marriage, and family in China, but did not meet the needs of current adolescents. External support from health professionals, such as nurses, is important for parents and adolescents to improve their sexual knowledge and communication skills.

  16. Mindfulness during romantic conflict moderates the impact of negative partner behaviors on cortisol responses. (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Hertz, Robin; Nelson, Benjamin; Laurent, Sean M


    This study was designed to test whether romantic partners' mindfulness-present moment, nonjudgmental awareness-during a conflict discussion could buffer the effects of negative partner behaviors on neuroendocrine stress responses. Heterosexual couples (n=88 dyads) provided 5 saliva samples for cortisol assay during a laboratory session involving a conflict discussion task. Conflict behaviors were coded by outside observers using the System for Coding Interactions in Dyads, and partners rated their mindfulness during the task using the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Interactions tested using multilevel modeling revealed that participants with higher levels of mindfulness during the conflict showed either quicker cortisol recovery or an absence of slowed recovery in the presence of more negative partner behaviors. Whereas the attitudinal component of mindfulness (curiosity) moderated effects of negative partner engagement in the conflict (i.e., attempts to control, coerciveness, negativity and conflict), the attentional component of mindfulness (decentering) moderated the effect of partner disengagement (i.e., withdrawal). These findings lend support to the idea that mindfulness during a stressful interaction can mitigate the physiological impacts of negative behaviors.

  17. Perceptions of the physical attractiveness of the self, current romantic partners, and former partners. (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Allum, Lucy


    This study examined ratings of physical attractiveness of the self and former and current partners. A total of 304 participants completed measures of attractiveness, relationship satisfaction, love dimensions, self-esteem and sociosexual orientation. Consistent with previous work, results showed that participants rated their current partners as more attractive than themselves and their former partners. However, results also showed that former partners were rated as more attractive than the self on a number of bodily characteristics. Finally, results showed that ratings of former partner physical attractiveness were associated with passion for the former partner, self-esteem, sociosexual orientation, and attributions of relationship termination. These results are discussed in relation to the available literature on positive illusions in intimate relationships.

  18. Links Between Sibling Experiences and Romantic Competence from Adolescence Through Young Adulthood. (United States)

    Doughty, Susan E; Lam, Chun Bun; Stanik, Christine E; McHale, Susan M


    Although previous research has linked sibling relationship experiences to youth's social competencies with peers, we know little about the role of siblings in youth's romantic relationship experiences. Drawing on data from a longitudinal sample of 190 families, this study examined the links between sibling experiences and the development of perceived romantic competence from early adolescence into young adulthood (ages 12-20). The data were collected from 373 youth (50.7 % female) in home interviews on up to five annual occasions. Multi-level models tested the moderating role of sibling gender constellation in romantic competence development and the links between (changes in) sibling intimacy and conflict, and romantic competence. The results revealed that youth with same-sex siblings showed no change in their perceived romantic competence, but those with opposite-sex siblings exhibited increases in romantic competence over time. Controlling for parent-child intimacy, at times when youth reported more sibling intimacy, they also reported greater romantic competence, and youth with higher cross-time average sibling conflict were lower in romantic competence, on average. This study illustrates that sibling experiences remain important in social development into early adulthood and suggests directions for application and future research.

  19. Observing Differences between Healthy and Unhealthy Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Substance Abuse and Interpersonal Process (United States)

    Florsheim, Paul; Moore, David R.


    Previous research on adolescent romantic relationships has been largely based on self-reports and interview data; as a result, relatively little is known about the interpersonal-behavioral dynamics of adolescent couples. In an attempt to address this gap in the previous literature on young couples, the present study used observational methods to…

  20. Romantic Partner Monitoring After Breakups: Attachment, Dependence, Distress, and Post-Dissolution Online Surveillance via Social Networking Sites. (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Tokunaga, Robert S


    Romantic relationship dissolution can be stressful, and social networking sites make it difficult to separate from a romantic partner online as well as offline. An online survey (N = 431) tested a model synthesizing attachment, investment model variables, and post-dissolution emotional distress as predictors of interpersonal surveillance (i.e., "Facebook stalking") of one's ex-partner on Facebook after a breakup. Results indicated that anxious attachment predicted relational investment but also seeking relationship alternatives; avoidant attachment was negatively related to investment but positively related to seeking alternatives. Investment predicted commitment, whereas seeking alternatives was negatively related to commitment. Commitment predicted emotional distress after the breakup. Distress predicted partner monitoring immediately following the breakup, particularly for those who did not initiate the breakup, as well as current partner monitoring. Given their affordances, social media are discussed as potentially unhealthy enablers for online surveillance after relationship termination.

  1. The Influence of Romantic Attachment and Intimate Partner Violence on Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Young Adults (United States)

    Levesque, Christine; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Cloutier, Paula; Dandurand, Cathy


    Several theoretical models for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) have been proposed. Despite an abundance of theoretical speculation, few empirical studies have examined the impact of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI. The present study examines the influence of romantic attachment and received intimate partner violence (physical,…

  2. Correlates of False Self in Adolescent Romantic Relationships (United States)

    Sippola, Lorrie K.; Buchanan, Carie M.; Kehoe, Sabrina


    The goal of this study was to examine the association between interpersonal competencies in the peer domain and feelings of false self in romantic relationships. Participants included 238 White, middle-class boys and girls (Grades 10 and 11). Students completed self report measures of false self in romantic relationships and interpersonal…

  3. In the Eye of the Betrothed: Perceptual Downgrading of Attractive Alternative Romantic Partners. (United States)

    Cole, Shana; Trope, Yaacov; Balcetis, Emily


    People in monogamous relationships can experience a conflict when they interact with an attractive individual. They may have a desire to romantically pursue the new person, while wanting to be faithful to their partner. How do people manage the threat that attractive alternatives present to their relationship goals? We suggest that one way people defend their relationships against attractive individuals is by perceiving the individual as less attractive. In two studies, using a novel visual matching paradigm, we found support for a perceptual downgrading effect. People in relationships perceived threatening attractive individuals as less attractive than did single participants. The effect was exacerbated among participants who were highly satisfied with their current relationships. The studies provide evidence for a perceptual bias that emerges to protect long-term goals. We discuss the findings within the context of a broader theory of motivated perception in the service of self-control.

  4. People overestimate their willingness to reject potential romantic partners by overlooking their concern for other people. (United States)

    Joel, Samantha; Teper, Rimma; MacDonald, Geoff


    Mate preferences often fail to correspond with actual mate choices. We present a novel explanation for this phenomenon: People overestimate their willingness to reject unsuitable romantic partners. In two studies, single people were given the opportunity to accept or decline advances from potential dates who were physically unattractive (Study 1) or incompatible with their dating preferences (Study 2). We found that participants were significantly less willing to reject these unsuitable potential dates when they believed the situation to be real rather than hypothetical. This effect was partially explained by other-focused motives: Participants for whom the scenario was hypothetical anticipated less motivation to avoid hurting the potential date's feelings than participants actually felt when they believed the situation to be real. Thus, other-focused motives appear to exert an influence on mate choice that has been overlooked by researchers and laypeople alike.

  5. More options lead to more searching and worse choices in finding partners for romantic relationships online: an experimental study. (United States)

    Wu, Pai-Lu; Chiou, Wen-Bin


    It is not surprising that the Internet has become a means by which people expand their social networks and form close relationships. Almost every online-dating Web site provides members with search tools. However, do users truly benefit from more complete searches of a large pool of possibilities? The present study, based on the cognitive perspective, examined whether more search options triggered excessive searching, leading to worse choices and poorer selectivity. We argue that more search options lead to less selective processing by reducing users' cognitive resources, distracting them with irrelevant information, and reducing their ability to screen out inferior options. A total of 128 Taiwanese late adolescents and adults with experience in online romantic relationships participated in an experimental study. After entering the characteristics they found desirable in a partner in such a relationship, participants were randomly assigned to receive one of three levels of available profiles. The dependent measures consisted of the number of profiles searched, the average preference difference for all profiles viewed, the preference difference for the chosen profile, and the degree of selectivity. These measures were used to determine whether more attention was devoted to better alternatives and less attention to worse alternatives. The data supported the predictions. Implications and directions for further research are discussed.

  6. Mutual influences between partners' hormones shape conflict dialog and relationship duration at the initiation of romantic love. (United States)

    Schneiderman, Inna; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth


    Early-stage romantic love involves reorganization of neurohormonal systems and behavioral patterns marked by mutual influences between the partners' physiology and behavior. Guided by the biobehavioral synchrony conceptual frame, we tested bidirectional influences between the partners' hormones and conflict behavior at the initiation of romantic love. Participants included 120 new lovers (60 couples) and 40 singles. Plasma levels of five affiliation and stress-related hormones were assessed: oxytocin (OT), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (T), cortisol (CT), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Couples were observed in conflict interaction coded for empathy and hostility. CT and DHEAS showed direct actor effects: higher CT and DHEAS predicted greater hostility. OT showed direct partner effects: individuals whose partners had higher OT showed greater empathy. T and CT showed combined actor-partner effects. High T predicted greater hostility only when partner also had high T, but lower hostility when partner had low T. Similarly, CT predicted low empathy only in the context of high partner's CT. Mediational analysis indicated that combined high CT in both partners was associated with relationship breakup as mediated by decrease in empathy. Findings demonstrate the mutual influences between hormones and behavior within an attachment bond and underscore the dynamic, co-regulated, and systemic nature of pair-bond formation in humans.

  7. Failure to capitalize on sharing good news with romantic partners: Exploring positivity deficits of socially anxious people with self-reports, partner-reports, and behavioral observations. (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Ferssizidis, Patty; Farmer, Antonina S; Adams, Leah M; McKnight, Patrick E


    Extending prior work on social anxiety and positivity deficits, we examined whether individual differences in social anxiety alter the ability to share and respond to the good news of romantic partners (i.e., capitalization support) and how this influences romantic relationship satisfaction and commitment. In this study of 174 heterosexual couples (average age of 21.5 with 58.3% identifying as Caucasian), greater social anxiety was associated with the provision and receipt of less supportive responses to shared positive events as measured by trait questionnaires, partner reports, and behavioral observations in the laboratory. In longitudinal analyses, individuals in romantic relationships with socially anxious partners who experienced inadequate capitalization support were more likely to terminate their relationship and report a decline in relationship quality six months later. As evidence of construct specificity, social anxiety effects were independent of depressive symptoms. Taken together, social anxiety influenced a person's ability to receive and provide support for shared positive events; these deficits had adverse romantic consequences. Researchers and clinicians may better understand social anxiety by exploring a wider range of interpersonal contexts and positive constructs. The addition of capitalization support to the social anxiety literature offers new insights into interpersonal approaches and treatments.

  8. Social-Contextual Influences on Adolescent Romantic Involvement: The Constraints of Being a Numerical Minority. (United States)

    Raley, R Kelly; Sullivan, M Kate


    This research explores white-black differences in adolescent heterosexual romantic involvement and how these differences are shaped by social context. We find that, parallel to patterns of marriage in adulthood, Non-Hispanic white girls are more likely to be in a romantic relationship than African American girls. This is particularly true when we focus on heterosexual romantic relationships formed with schoolmates. Among boys, African Americans are more likely to be romantically involved than Non-Hispanic whites. We investigate the contribution of two broad types of social-demographic factors to these race-ethnic differences, population composition and normative climate. We develop theory about why being a numerical minority should lead to lower levels of relationship formation, especially when interracial relationships are rare. Results support the population composition hypotheses but not the idea that race-ethnic differences arise because of differences in normative climate.

  9. Heterosexual romantic involvement and depressive symptoms in black adolescent girls: effects of menarche and perceived social support. (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S


    Research has accumulated to demonstrate that depressive symptoms are associated with heterosexual romantic involvement during adolescence, but relatively little work has linked this body of literature to the existing literature on associations between early pubertal timing and adolescent depressive symptoms. This study extends prior research by examining whether early menarche and heterosexual romantic involvement interact to predict depressive symptoms in a national sample of Black adolescent girls (N = 607; M age = 15 years; 32 % Caribbean Black and 68 % African American). We further examined whether the adverse effects of heterosexual romantic involvement and early menarche would be mediated by perceived social support from mothers, fathers, and peers. Path analysis results indicated that girls who report current involvement in a heterosexual romantic relationship also reported high levels of perceived peer support than girls with no romantic involvement. High levels of perceived peer support, in turn, predicted low levels of depressive symptoms. Romantically involved girls with an early menarche also reported significantly less depressive symptoms than girls not romantically involved with an early menarche. Neither perceived maternal support nor perceived paternal support mediated associations between heterosexual romantic involvement, menarche, and depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that individual and social factors can impede heterosexual romantic involvement effects on depressive symptoms in Black adolescent girls.

  10. Do conflict resolution and recovery predict the survival of adolescents' romantic relationships?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, P.T.; Overbeek, G.J.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.


    Numerous studies have shown that being able to resolve and recover from conflicts is of key importance for relationship satisfaction and stability in adults. Less is known about the importance of these relationship dynamics in adolescent romantic relationships. Therefore, this study investigated whe

  11. Parent-Child Relationship Trajectories during Adolescence: Longitudinal Associations with Romantic Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Overbeek, Geertjan; Vermulst, Ad


    This study examined the developmental trajectories of parent-child relationships in adolescence, especially with respect to changes in support levels and negativity, and analyzed if and how these trajectories were associated with the subsequent quality of romantic relationships in young adulthood. A sample of 145 German subjects was followed…

  12. Adolescents' Relational Schemas and Their Subjective Understanding of Romantic Relationship Interactions (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.; Welsh, Deborah P.; Fite, Paula J.


    This study examines the association between adolescents' relational schemas and their subjective understanding of interactions in the context of male-female romantic relationships. We employed an innovative multimodal methodology: the video-recall system [Welsh, D. P., & Dickson, J. W. (2005). Video-recall procedures for examining subjective…

  13. Adolescents' Gender Mistrust: Variations and Implications for the Quality of Romantic Relationships (United States)

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.


    Recent research demonstrates that perceptions of gender mistrust are implicated in lower marriage rates among low-income populations. Yet few quantitative studies have examined the factors predicting gender mistrust during adolescence and whether it influences the quality of subsequent nonmarital romantic relationships. Analysis of three waves of…

  14. Blooming Sexuality : A Biopsychosocial Perspective on Adolescent Romantic and Sexual Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baams, L.


    The aim of this dissertation was to examine adolescent romantic and sexual development, in a biopsychosocial model, in which physical, psychological, and social contextual factors are considered. The findings of this dissertation show the importance of individual factors such as pubertal status and

  15. Pathways to romantic relational aggression through adolescent peer aggression and heavy episodic drinking. (United States)

    Woodin, Erica M; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Caldeira, Valerie; Homel, Jacqueline; Leadbeater, Bonnie


    Adolescent peer aggression is a well-established correlate of romantic relational aggression; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Heavy episodic drinking (or "binge" alcohol use) was examined as both a prior and concurrent mediator of this link in a sample of 282 12-18 year old interviewed four times over 6 years. Path analyses indicated that early peer relational and physical aggression each uniquely predicted later romantic relational aggression. Concurrent heavy episodic drinking fully mediated this effect for peer physical aggression only. These findings highlight two important mechanisms by which peer aggression may increase the risk of later romantic relational aggression: a direct pathway from peer relational aggression to romantic relational aggression and an indirect pathway through peer physical aggression and concurrent heavy episodic drinking. Prevention programs targeting romantic relational aggression in adolescence and young adulthood may benefit from interventions that target multiple domains of risky behavior, including the heavy concurrent use of alcohol. Aggr. Behav. 42:563-576, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Young Love: Romantic Concerns and Associated Mental Health Issues among Adolescent Help-Seekers. (United States)

    Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A; Stoyanov, Stoyan R


    Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10-18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs.

  17. Brief report : How adolescent personality moderates the effect of love history on the young adulthood romantic relationship quality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim


    This study examined the effect of previous romantic relationship involvement on later romantic relationship quality and tested whether adolescents' personality type (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, resilients) moderated this link. We answered our research questions in a sample of 320 Dutch

  18. Interpersonal Sensitivity, Romantic Stress, and the Prediction of Depression: A Study of Inner-City, Minority Adolescent Girls (United States)

    Rizzo, Christie J.; Daley, Shannon E.; Gunderson, Brent H.


    The role of interpersonal sensitivity in the relation between romantic stress and depression was examined in 55 adolescent girls from an inner-city high school. Depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and chronic and episodic romantic stress were measured at two time points, 6 months apart. Interpersonal sensitivity was found to moderate the…

  19. Longitudinal association between adolescent attachment, adult romantic attachment, and emotion regulation strategies. (United States)

    Pascuzzo, Katherine; Cyr, Chantal; Moss, Ellen


    Attachment security towards parents and peers in adolescence, and romantic attachment styles and emotion regulation strategies in young adulthood, were evaluated using an eight-year longitudinal design. Fifty-six young adults completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) at age 14, and then, at age 22, the Experience in Close Relationships (ECR) and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), an emotion regulation questionnaire concerning coping strategies, including task-oriented versus emotion-oriented foci. Results indicated that greater insecurity to parents and peers in adolescence predicted a more anxious romantic attachment style and greater use of emotion-oriented strategies in adulthood. Concurrently, anxious adult attachment style was related to more emotion-oriented strategies, whereas an avoidant attachment style was related to less support-seeking. Analyses also identified emotion-oriented coping strategies as a partial mediator of the link between adolescent attachment insecurity to parents and adult anxious attachment, and a complete mediator of the association between adolescent attachment insecurity to peers and adult anxious attachment. These findings support the core assumption of continuity in attachment theory, where relationships to parents influence close romantic relationships in adulthood.

  20. Child Maltreatment, Adolescent Attachment Style, and Dating Violence: Considerations in Youths with Borderline-to-Mild Intellectual Disability (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; MacMullin, Jennifer; Waechter, Randall; Wekerle, Christine


    One of the most salient developmental tasks of adolescence is the entry into romantic relationship, which often involves developing attachments to partners. Adolescents with a history of maltreatment have been found to be at greater risk of insecure attachments to romantic partners than non-maltreated adolescents, and the interaction of…

  1. The Importance of Relationships with Parents and Best Friends for Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Quality: Differences between Indigenous and Ethnic Dutch Adolescents (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Overbeek, Geertjan; de Greef, Marieke; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.


    This study examined how the quality of relationships with parents and friends were related to intimacy, commitment, and passion in adolescents' romantic relationships for indigenous Dutch and ethnic Dutch adolescents. Self-report survey data were used from 444 (88.9%) indigenous Dutch and 55 (11.1%) ethnic Dutch adolescents between 12 and 18 years…

  2. Young Adolescents' Sexual and Romantic Reference Displays on Facebook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; Moreno, Megan A.; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, Tom F M


    Purpose: Social networking sites (SNSs) form increasingly popular venues for adolescents to express their developing identity, including their sexual self. This study investigated how and to what extent early and middle adolescents display sexuality and romance on SNSs and the demographic and psycho

  3. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning (United States)

    Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.


    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…

  4. "He Cheated on Me, I Cheated on Him Back'': Mexican American and White Adolescents' Perceptions of Cheating in Romantic Relationships (United States)

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Hickle, Kristine E.


    A qualitative approach was used to explore the meaning and perceptions of cheating in adolescent romantic relationships. Mexican American and White adolescents (N = 75; 53.3% girls; 56.1% Mexican American), separated by gender and ethnicity into 12 focus groups (three groups per type), discussed personal and peer experiences of cheating in dating…

  5. Animal Magnetism: Metaphoric Cues Alter Perceptions of Romantic Partners and Relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Christy

    Full Text Available The psychological state of love is difficult to define, and we often rely on metaphors to communicate about this state and its constituent experiences. Commonly, these metaphors liken love to a physical force-it sweeps us off our feet, causes sparks to fly, and ignites flames of passion. Even the use of "attraction" to refer to romantic interest, commonplace in both popular and scholarly discourse, implies a force propelling two objects together. The present research examined the effects of exposing participants to a physical force (magnetism on subsequent judgments of romantic outcomes. Across two studies, participants exposed to magnets reported greater levels of satisfaction, attraction, intimacy, and commitment.

  6. Dependent, but not perfectionistic, dysfunctional attitudes predict worsened mood and appraisals after emotional support from a romantic partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Felix


    Full Text Available Background: Receiving emotional support from a romantic partner often leads to emotional costs via negative appraisals about the self and one’s relationship, but it is unclear whether certain individuals are more susceptible to these costs. We evaluate whether the presence of perfectionistic and dependent dysfunctional attitudes leads to more negative effects of receiving emotional support from a romantic partner.Methods: Twenty-nine couples (27 men, 31 women; mean age 24.5 completed the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale and then a daily online questionnaire by recording their mood, appraisals, and received emotional support. Mixed-effects regressions were used to evaluate whether perfectionistic and dependent dysfunctional attitudes moderated the relationship between emotional support receipt and subsequent mood and appraisals.Results: Perfectionism did not interact with emotional support but exerted a main effect of increasing negative moods and appraisals. Dependency interacted with emotional support such that those with more dependent attitudes, reported greater negative next-day moods and appraisals as a function of emotional support.Conclusions: Individuals with dependent, but not perfectionistic, dysfunctional attitudes are more likely to experience emotional and cognitive costs after receiving emotional support. These costs may stem from activation or exacerbation of the attitudes specific to dependency, including need for acceptance, support, and approval of others.

  7. Time Out from Sex or Romance: Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Decisions to Purposefully Avoid Sexual Activity or Romantic Relationships. (United States)

    Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A


    Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The

  8. Perceptions of Partners’ Problematic Alcohol Use Affect Relationship Outcomes Beyond Partner Self-Reported Drinking: Alcohol Use in Committed Romantic Relationships


    Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Overup, Camilla S.; Neighbors, Clayton


    Alcohol use is prevalent among college students, including those who are in committed romantic relationships. Individuals’ perceptions of their partner’s alcohol use may have significant effects on how they view both their partner and their relationship. The current study examines the effect of one’s perception of one’s romantic partner’s drinking as problematic on one’s relationship satisfaction and commitment, and whether this varies as a function of one’s partner’s drinking. Both partners ...

  9. Examining women's perceptions of their mother's and romantic partner's interpersonal styles for a better understanding of their eating regulation and intuitive eating. (United States)

    Carbonneau, Noémie; Carbonneau, Elise; Cantin, Mélynda; Gagnon-Girouard, Marie-Pierre


    Intuitive eating is a positive approach to weight and eating management characterized by a strong reliance on internal physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than emotional and external cues (e.g., Tylka, 2006). Using a Self-Determination Theory framework (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the main purpose of this research was to examine the role played by both the mother and the romantic partner in predicting women's intuitive eating. Participants were 272 women (mean age: 29.9 years) currently involved in a heterosexual romantic relationship. Mothers and romantic partners were both found to have a role to play in predicting women's intuitive eating via their influence on women's motivation for regulating eating behaviors. Specifically, both the mother's and partner's controlling styles were found to predict women's controlled eating regulation, which was negatively related to their intuitive eating. In addition, autonomy support from the partner (but not from the mother) was found to positively predict intuitive eating, and this relationship was mediated by women's more autonomous regulation toward eating. These results were uncovered while controlling for women's body mass index, which is likely to affect women's eating attitudes and behaviors. Overall, these results attest to the importance of considering women's social environment (i.e., mother and romantic partner) for a better understanding of their eating regulation and ability to eat intuitively.

  10. So far away from one's partner, yet so close to romantic alternatives: avoidant attachment, interest in alternatives, and infidelity. (United States)

    Dewall, C Nathan; Lambert, Nathaniel M; Slotter, Erica B; Pond, Richard S; Deckman, Timothy; Finkel, Eli J; Luchies, Laura B; Fincham, Frank D


    Temptation pervades modern social life, including the temptation to engage in infidelity. The present investigation examines one factor that may put individuals at a greater risk of being unfaithful to their partner: dispositional avoidant attachment style. The authors hypothesize that avoidantly attached people may be less resistant to temptations for infidelity due to lower levels of commitment in romantic relationships. This hypothesis was confirmed in 8 studies. People with high, vs. low, levels of dispositional avoidant attachment had more permissive attitudes toward infidelity (Study 1), showed attentional bias toward attractive alternative partners (Study 2), expressed greater daily interest in meeting alternatives to their current relationship partner (Study 5), perceived alternatives to their current relationship partner more positively (Study 6), and engaged in more infidelity over time (Studies 3, 4, 7, and 8). This effect was mediated by lower levels of commitment (Studies 5-8). Thus, avoidant attachment predicted a broad spectrum of responses indicative of interest in alternatives and propensity to engage in infidelity, which were mediated by low levels of commitment.

  11. Romantic and sexual relationships, body image, and fertility in adolescent and young adult testicular cancer survivors: a review of the literature. (United States)

    Carpentier, Melissa Y; Fortenberry, J Dennis


    This review presents a summary of existing knowledge regarding the effect of testicular cancer along four broad domains, including romantic and sexual relationships, body image, and fertility. A total of 37 studies were reviewed. Of note, most research consists of older adult testicular cancer survivors, with very little research attention afforded to adolescent and young adult survivorship. Relationship status (i.e., partnered versus unpartnered) appears to play an important role as it relates to adjustment outcomes in testicular cancer survivors. In addition, sexual function (and thereby fertility) and body image are also frequently compromised. Implications regarding a lack of developmentally focused research on adolescent and young adult testicular cancer survivorship are discussed, along with recommendations for new research.

  12. The moderating role of need for cognition on excessive searching bias: a case of finding romantic partners online. (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Yang, Mu-Li


    Using online-dating websites to expand social networks and form close relationships is popular for people in information technology era. Wu and Chiou (2009) demonstrated that more options triggered excessive searching, leading to poorer decision-making and reduced selectivity. They proposed that the more-means-worse effect refers to more searching leads to worse choices by reducing users' cognitive resources, distracting them with irrelevant information and reducing their ability to screen out inferior options. A 2 by 2 experimental study was conducted to investigate the moderating effect of individual differences in need for cognition (NFC) and number of available options on excessive searching and decision quality. A total of 120 undergraduates with experiences of online romantic relationships participated in the experiment. After participants were administrated their need for cognition, they were assigned to review either a small or a large number of options to search for their most desirable romantic partners via a popular online-dating website in Taiwan. Results indicated that high-NFC participants showed more excessive searching than did low-NFC participants. Moreover, the more-means-worse effect was more salient for high-NFC participants than high-NFC participants. The findings suggest that users with high NFC may be more vulnerable to the negative effect of excessive searching.

  13. The importance of relationships with parents and best friends for adolescents' romantic relationship quality: Differences between indigenous and ethnic Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, P.T.; Overbeek, G.J.; Greef, M. de; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.


    This study examined how the quality of relationships with parents and friends were related to intimacy, commitment, and passion in adolescents' romantic relationships for indigenous Dutch and ethnic Dutch adolescents. Self-report survey data were used from 444 (88.9%) indigenous Dutch and 55 (11.1%)

  14. The Developmental Significance of Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Parent and Peer Predictors of Engagement and Quality at Age 15 (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Spieker, Susan


    From a longitudinal sample (n = 957; 49.9% male; 77.3% White/non-Hispanic) of participants studied from infancy through age 15, adolescents' depth of engagement in, and quality of romantic relationships were predicted from early and contemporaneous parent-child interactive quality and peer social competence. High quality maternal parenting and…

  15. Trajectories of Adolescent Hostile-Aggressive Behavior and Family Climate: Longitudinal Implications for Young Adult Romantic Relationship Competence (United States)

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Xia, Mengya; Feinberg, Mark E.


    The formation and maintenance of young adult romantic relationships that are free from violence and are characterized by love, connection, and effective problem-solving have important implications for later well-being and family functioning. In this study, we examined adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior (HAB) and family relationship quality as…

  16. What Do Older Adults Seek in Their Potential Romantic Partners? Evidence from Online Personal Ads (United States)

    McIntosh, William D.; Locker, Lawrence; Briley, Katherine; Ryan, Rebecca; Scott, Alison J.


    Because of the dearth of available partners, older women looking to date may have to relax their dating standards to find a dating partner, perhaps accepting a life situation that is not what they had hoped for. However older women may be reluctant to sacrifice an often recently-gained lifestyle free of caregiving obligations. Older men, on the…

  17. A Dual Process Motivational Model of Ambivalent Sexism and Gender Differences in Romantic Partner Preferences (United States)

    Sibley, Chris G.; Overall, Nickola C.


    We tested a dual process motivational model of ambivalent sexism and gender differences in intimate partner preferences. Meta-analysis of 32 samples (16 with men, 16 with women; N = 5,459) indicated that Benevolent Sexism (BS) in women was associated with greater preferences for high-resource partners (r = 0.24), whereas Hostile Sexism (HS) in men…

  18. Partner influence and in-phase versus anti-phase physiological linkage in romantic couples. (United States)

    Reed, Rebecca G; Randall, Ashley K; Post, Jessica H; Butler, Emily A


    Between-partner physiological linkage can be in-phase (changes in unison), or anti-phase (changes in opposite directions). In the context of conversation we predicted that in-phase linkage would occur when partners exert strong influence on each other; anti-phase linkage would occur due to the behavioral coordination of turn taking. To test this, blood pressure, inter-beat interval, and skin conductance were recorded from 44 heterosexual couples while they discussed how they influence each other's health-related behaviors. Partner influence was assessed in two ways: 1) partners' global perceptions of how they try to influence each other's health; and 2) behavioral manifestations of influence, specifically demand-withdraw behavior. As predicted, both measures of partner influence moderated physiological linkage of blood pressure such that at low levels of influence linkage was "anti-phase" and at high levels linkage was "in-phase." Several alternative hypotheses were ruled out; the effects were not due to relationship conflict, emotional experience, or simply the pattern of blood pressure over time. These results suggest that partner influence may be driving physiological linkage, which may be one avenue through which partners can affect each other's health.

  19. Benevolent Sexism and Support of Romantic Partner's Goals: Undermining Women's Competence While Fulfilling Men's Intimacy Needs. (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C


    The current research demonstrates how benevolent sexism functions to undermine women's competence while facilitating men's access to heterosexual intimacy by prompting different support behaviors by men and women. Objective coders rated the support provision exhibited during heterosexual couples' (N = 100) video-recorded discussions of each other's personal goals. Men who endorsed benevolent sexism provided more dependency-oriented support, including directly providing plans and solutions and neglecting the recipient's own abilities, which led to their female partners feeling less competent and less positively regarded. In contrast, women who endorsed benevolent sexism provided greater relationship-oriented support, characterized by affection and emphasizing the positive relationship outcomes associated with their partner's goals, which led their male partners to perceive greater regard and intimacy in their relationship. This study is the first to investigate how benevolent sexism prompts naturalistic support behaviors that can impede women's capacity for independent success while supporting the fulfillment of men's intimacy needs.

  20. Attachment states of mind in late adolescence and the quality and course of romantic relationships in adulthood. (United States)

    Tarabulsy, George M; Larose, Simon; Bernier, Annie; Trottier-Sylvain, Karine; Girard, Doryna; Vargas, Maria; Noël, Catherine


    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal relations between attachment state of mind in late adolescence and romantic relationships in adulthood. Participants were drawn from two independent studies that were conducted respectively in 1992 and 1996 and that involved the administration of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to 167 college students. They were followed-up in 2007 (N = 99) to investigate different aspects of their romantic relationships since college. Those who had shown greater preoccupation with attachment in the AAI were more likely to be single in adulthood and to report romantic relationships of shorter length. In addition, they reported lower levels of intimacy, commitment, and passion in their current or recent romantic relationships. Dismissing tendencies were associated with higher levels of perceived passion in romantic relationships. Most of these associations remained significant after controlling for intervening life events, different dimensions of individual adjustment, socio-economic status, as well as probable life events derived from the AAI.

  1. Longitudinal Changes in Emerging Adults' Attachment Preferences for Their Mother, Father, Friends, and Romantic Partner: Focusing on the Start and End of Romantic Relationships (United States)

    Umemura, Tomo; Lacinová, Lenka; Macek, Petr; Kunnen, E. Saskia


    Only a few studies have longitudinally explored to whom emerging adults prefer to turn to seek closeness, comfort, and security (called "attachment preferences"), and previous studies on attachment preferences in emerging adults have focused only on the beginning of romantic relationships but not on the end of relationships. Czech…

  2. Preventing violence by intimate partners in adolescence: an integrative review


    Rebeca Nunes Guedes de Oliveira; Rafaela Gessner; Bianca de Cássia Alvarez Brancaglioni; Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da Fonseca; Emiko Yoshikawa Egry


    Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature on preventing intimate partner violence among adolescents in the field of health based on gender and generational categories. METHOD This was an integrative review. We searched for articles using LILACS, PubMed/MEDLINE, and SciELO databases. RESULTS Thirty articles were selected. The results indicate that most studies assessed interventions conducted by programs for intimate partner violence prevention. These studies adopted quantitat...

  3. Genetic moderation of the association between adolescent romantic involvement and depression: Contributions of serotonin transporter gene polymorphism, chronic stress, and family discord. (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R; Hammen, Constance


    Studies support a link between adolescent romantic involvement and depression. Adolescent romantic relationships may increase depression risk by introducing chronic stress, and genetic vulnerability to stress reactivity/emotion dysregulation may moderate these associations. We tested genetic moderation of longitudinal associations between adolescent romantic involvement and later depressive symptoms by a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR) and examined contributory roles of chronic stress and family discord. Three hundred eighty-one youth participated at ages 15 and 20. The results indicated that 5-HTTLPR moderated the association between age 15 romantic involvement and age 20 depressive symptoms, with strongest effects for short homozygotes. Conditional process analysis revealed that chronic stress functioned as a moderated mediator of this association, fully accounting for the romantic involvement-depression link among short/short genotypes. Also, romantic involvement predicted later depressive symptoms most strongly among short-allele carriers with high family discord. The results have important implications for understanding the romantic involvement-depression link and the behavioral and emotional correlates of the 5-HTTLPR genotype.

  4. 情侣依恋与情感投入:性别的调节作用%Romantic Partner Attachment and Affection Investment: the Moderating Effect of Gender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆爱桃; 张积家; Michael Harris Bond; 张学新


    考察情侣依恋、情感投入和性别之间的关系。结果发现,承诺和满意度与焦虑依恋和逃避依恋相关显著,对两种依恋预测作用显著。性别调节作用仅存在于承诺和满意度与焦虑依恋的关系中:男生的承诺与焦虑依恋关系较强;女生的满意度与焦虑依恋关系较强。承诺和满意度与逃避依恋的关系没有性别差异。焦虑依恋和逃避依恋相对独藏。性别对承诺和满意度与焦虑依恋和逃避依恋的关系中有不同调节作用。%The main focus of social research involving attachment has been on the developmental periods of infancy and early childhood. Recently, there has been a growing interest in extending the study of attachment into adolescence and adulthood and beyond the parental relationship. It was suggested that internal working models were the main sources of continuity between infant attachment experiences and attachment in adolescence and adulthood. So far, a number of studies have provided evidence for the attachment continuity from infancy to school years. And adult attachment has increasingly attracted attention in psychosomatic research due to its substantial impact on many biopsychosocial phenomena, such as social functioning, coping, stress response, and psychological well-being. While it was suggested that attachment processes could exert an impact on the quality of early romantic relationships in western cultures, few studies have directly examined Chinese attachment relationships. The present study was primarily driven by the relative dearth of research on how romantic partner attachment is related to affection investment between males and females in China. In other words, we tried to investigate the role of gender difference in the relationship between romantic partner attachment and affection investment. Of particular interest was the modulating effect of gender. The current sample consisted of 153 students (71 men and 82 women

  5. Revisiting the Role of Communication in Adolescent Intimate Partner Violence (United States)

    Messinger, Adam M.; Rickert, Vaughn I.; Fry, Deborah A.; Lessel, Harriet; Davidson, Leslie L.


    A growing literature suggests that communication strategies can promote or inhibit intimate partner violence (IPV). Research on communication is still needed on a group ripe for early IPV intervention: high school-aged adolescents. This article revisits our previous analyses of young female reproductive clinic patients (Messinger, Davidson, &…

  6. Child and Adolescent Predictors of Male Intimate Partner Violence (United States)

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P.


    Background: This study addresses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict male perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. Methods: We use prospective longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The CSDD is a survey of 411 male born in the 1950s in an inner London area. The men…

  7. Romantic Relationship Experiences from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Role of Older Siblings in Mexican-Origin Families. (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A; Killoren, Sarah E; Whiteman, Shawn D; Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J


    Youth's experiences with romantic relationships during adolescence and young adulthood have far reaching implications for future relationships, health, and well-being; yet, although scholars have examined potential peer and parent influences, we know little about the role of siblings in youth's romantic relationships. Accordingly, this study examined the prospective longitudinal links between Mexican-origin older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences and variation by sibling structural and relationship characteristics (i.e., sibling age and gender similarity, younger siblings' modeling) and cultural values (i.e., younger siblings' familism values). Data from 246 Mexican-origin families with older (M = 20.65 years; SD = 1.57; 50 % female) and younger (M = 17.72 years; SD = .57; 51 % female) siblings were used to examine the likelihood of younger siblings' involvement in dating relationships, sexual relations, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage with probit path analyses. Findings revealed older siblings' reports of involvement in a dating relationship, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage predicted younger siblings' relationship experiences over a 2-year period. These links were moderated by sibling age spacing, younger siblings' reports of modeling and familism values. Our findings suggest the significance of social learning dynamics as well as relational and cultural contexts in understanding the links between older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences among Mexican-origin youth.

  8. Romantic relationships and alcohol use: A long-term, developmental perspective. (United States)

    Rauer, Amy J; Pettit, Gregory S; Samek, Diana R; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Bates, John E


    This study considers the developmental origins of alcohol use in young adulthood. Despite substantial evidence linking committed romantic relationships to less problematic alcohol use in adulthood, the uniformity of these protective benefits across different romantic relationships is unclear. Further, the extent to which the establishment and maintenance of these romantic relationships is preceded by earlier adolescence alcohol use remains unknown. To address these gaps in the literature, the current study utilized multitiple-dimensional, multiple-informant data spanning 20 years on 585 individuals in the Child Development Project. Findings from both variable- and person-centered analyses support a progression of associations predicting adolescent alcohol use (ages 15-16), drinking, and romantic relationships in early adulthood (ages 18-25), and then problematic young adult alcohol use (age 27). Although adolescent alcohol use predicted greater romantic involvement and turnover in early adulthood, romantic involvement, but not turnover, appeared to reduce the likelihood of later problematic drinking. These findings remained robust even after accounting for a wide array of selection and socialization factors. Moreover, characteristics of the individuals (e.g., gender) and of their romantic relationships (e.g., partner substance use problems and romantic relationship satisfaction) did not moderate these findings. Findings underscore the importance of using a developmental-relational perspective to consider the antecedents and consequences of alcohol use early in the life span.

  9. Indicators of gender violence in romantic relationships. Case study in chilean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cruz Sánchez Gómez


    Full Text Available The presence of gender violence is increasing alarmingly in our society and has become one of our most serious social problems. The data indicate that the origin of much of this type of behaviour has its roots in early adolescent relationships, in which the presence and repetition of chauvinist patterns and models has been verified. In this paper we assume that this kind of conduct is related to socially accepted behaviours that form part of the normative patterns typical of socialization processes. To analyse this thesis, an interdisciplinary group of researchers from Spanish and Chilean universities    carried out a qualitative study on behaviours associated with gender violence in groups of adolescents and young people from different economic, geographic, social and ethnic contexts in order to gather evidence about the ways adolescents establish romantic or intimate relationships and to determine whether there are any indications of male chauvinist violence against adolescent women. The research design proposed takes as a reference the principles of Grounded Theory and employs the constant comparative method, that is, the information is collected, coded and analysed simultaneously, with theoretical sampling that involves selecting new cases as a function of their potential to help refine or expand the concepts and theories already developed. Thus, the coding of the discourse was carried out using open coding, axial coding and selective coding, and finally grouping the relevant categories or ideas into meta-categories to build the theoretical schema. Participating in the study were 156 adolescents (77 girls and 79 boys residing in the urban area of the Arica region in Chile, having been selected according to the variables “academic year” and “age”. Seventeen discussion groups were formed until data saturation was attained. The findings show that in these first adolescent dating relationships there is an important number of negative

  10. Harsh, inconsistent parental discipline and romantic relationships: mediating processes of behavioral problems and ambivalence. (United States)

    Surjadi, Florensia F; Lorenz, Frederick O; Conger, Rand D; Wickrama, K A S


    According to the Development of Early Adult Romantic Relationships (DEARR) model (Bryant, C. M., & Conger, R. D. [2002]. Conger, R. D., Cui, M., Bryant, C. M., & Elder, G. H., Jr. [2000] interactional characteristics in the family of origin influence early adult romantic relationships by promoting or inhibiting the development of interpersonal competencies that contribute to relationship success in young adulthood. The present study uses the DEARR model as a general framework to help examine the long-term link between parental discipline practices in adolescence and young adult's interactions in the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Using prospective data from 288 target participants, their families, and their romantic partner, beginning when the targets were adolescents and continuing up to the fifth year of their marital or cohabiting relationships, we found empirical support for the DEARR model. Parental discipline practices in adolescence were associated with romantic relationship quality during the early years of marriage or cohabitation through processes in late adolescence and young adulthood. Specifically, harsh and inconsistent discipline practices were associated with greater attitudinal ambivalence toward parents in adolescence. Inconsistent discipline was also associated with higher risks of externalizing problems during late adolescence years. Externalizing problems and ambivalence toward parents predicted poorer relationship quality through aggressive behaviors and ambivalence toward a romantic partner during the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Implications for practitioners working with couples and families are discussed.

  11. Distinctiveness of Adolescent and Emerging Adult Romantic Relationship Features in Predicting Externalizing Behavior Problems (United States)

    van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Goncy, Elizabeth A.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. Andrew


    Romantic relationship involvement has repeatedly been associated with the incidence of externalizing behavior problems, but little is known about the nature and developmental significance of this relation. The current study extends previous research by investigating whether and through what processes romantic relationships distinctively predict…

  12. Emotional responses to a romantic partner's imaginary rejection: the roles of attachment anxiety, covert narcissism, and self-evaluation. (United States)

    Besser, Avi; Priel, Beatriz


    These studies tested the associations between responses to an induced imaginary romantic rejection and individual differences on dimensions of attachment and covert narcissism. In Study 1 (N=125), we examined the associations between attachment dimensions and emotional responses to a vignette depicting a scenario of romantic rejection, as measured by self-reported negative mood states, expressions of anger, somatic symptoms, and self-evaluation. Higher scores on attachment anxiety, but not on attachment avoidance, were associated with stronger reactions to the induced rejection. Moreover, decreased self-evaluation scores (self-esteem and pride) were found to mediate these associations. In Study 2 (N=88), the relative contributions of covert narcissism and attachment anxiety to the emotional responses to romantic rejection were explored. Higher scores on covert narcissism were associated with stronger reactions to the induced rejection. Moreover, covert narcissism seemed to constitute a specific aspect of attachment anxiety.

  13. Co-Parenting Relationship Experiences of Black Adolescent Mothers in Active Romantic Partnerships With the Fathers of Their Children. (United States)

    Nelson, LaRon E; Thach, Chia T; Shelton, Melissa M; Boyer, Cherrie B


    We conducted an interpretive description of co-parenting relationship experiences of romantically involved Black adolescent mothers and fathers with shared biological children. The study was conducted in Brooklyn, New York, using data from individual in-depth interviews with adolescent mothers and fathers (n = 10). Four themes were identified: (a) putting our heads together; (b) balancing childhood and parenthood; (c) less money, more problems; and (d) if we use condoms, it is for contraception. The co-parenting couples managed very complex relationships, but their mutual interest in the welfare of their children was a relational asset. Co-parents had sparse financial resources but used a moral economy strategy to provide mutual support. Future research is needed that focuses on identifying other co-parent relationship assets and integrating and evaluating their utility for enhancing interventions for adolescent families.

  14. Impact of sexual coercion on romantic experiences of adolescents and young adults. (United States)

    Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol


    Little is known about the effect of sexual coercion on romantic relationship quality and dating experiences. The current study aimed to address this dearth in the literature and test the hypothesis that sexual coercion has a negative impact on victims' subsequent romantic experiences. Using a sample of 94 youth (44 males and 50 females), the current study addressed the impact of sexual coercion on romantic relationship quality and dating experiences. Tracking youth for 8.5 years (M age at Wave 1 = 15.10 years, SD = .49), the current study used piecewise growth curve modeling to account for shifts in the intercept and slope of romantic experiences following sexual coercion. Negative interactions immediately increased following coercion and continued to have an accelerated rate of growth (i.e., a slope change). Jealousy in romantic relationships increased in slope. Serious dating decelerated following the coercive incident. Results were largely consistent across gender and severity of the coercive incident. Contrary to hypotheses, relational support, relationship satisfaction, and casual dating did not significantly change following sexual coercion. Consistent with hypotheses, sexual coercion had a negative impact on romantic experiences. These findings have clinical implications for both prevention and intervention around sexual violence. In addition, the consistency of findings across gender and severity suggests that increased focus should be directed toward both male sexual coercion and less severe sexual coercion.

  15. With or Without You? Contextualizing the Impact of Romantic Relationship Breakup on Crime Among Serious Adolescent Offenders. (United States)

    Larson, Matthew; Sweeten, Gary; Piquero, Alex R


    The decline and delay of marriage has prolonged adolescence and the transition to adulthood, and consequently fostered greater romantic relationship fluidity during a stage of the life course that is pivotal for both development and offending. Yet, despite a growing literature of the consequences of romantic relationships breakup, little is known about its connection with crime, especially among youth enmeshed in the criminal justice system. This article addresses this gap by examining the effects of relationship breakup on crime among justice-involved youth-a key policy-relevant group. We refer to data from the Pathways to Desistance Study, a longitudinal study of 1354 (14% female) adjudicated youth from the juvenile and adult court systems in Phoenix and Philadelphia, to assess the nature and complexity of this association. In general, our results support prior evidence of breakup's criminogenic influence. Specifically, they suggest that relationship breakup's effect on crime is particularly acute among this at-risk sample, contingent upon post-breakup relationship transitions, and more pronounced for relationships that involve cohabitation. Our results also extend prior work by demonstrating that breakup is attenuated by changes in psychosocial characteristics and peer associations/exposure. We close with a discussion of our findings, their policy implications, and what they mean for research on relationships and crime among serious adolescent offenders moving forward.

  16. Preventing violence by intimate partners in adolescence: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Nunes Guedes De Oliveira


    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature on preventing intimate partner violence among adolescents in the field of health based on gender and generational categories. METHOD This was an integrative review. We searched for articles using LILACS, PubMed/MEDLINE, and SciELO databases. RESULTS Thirty articles were selected. The results indicate that most studies assessed interventions conducted by programs for intimate partner violence prevention. These studies adopted quantitative methods, and most were in the area of nursing, psychology, and medicine. Furthermore, most research contexts involved schools, followed by households, a hospital, a health center, and an indigenous tribe. CONCLUSION The analyses were not conducted from a gender- and generation-based perspective. Instead, the scientific literature was based on positivist research models, intimately connected to the classic public healthcare model and centered on a singular dimension.

  17. Romantic Relationships in Intra-Ethnic and Inter-Ethnic Adolescent Couples in Germany: The Role of Attachment to Parents, Self-Esteem, and Conflict Resolution Skills (United States)

    Bucx, Freek; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge


    We investigated romantic relationships in a sample of 380 adolescents who formed 190 heterosexual couples (mean age: females 17 years; males 18 years): 173 intra-ethnic (German) couples and 17 inter-ethnic couples. Factor analyses revealed two types of love experiences: (a) experiences of attraction and a passionate focus on the partner…

  18. Are secret relationships hot, then not? Romantic secrecy as a function of relationship duration. (United States)

    Foster, Craig A; Foster, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith


    Are secret romances alluring or aversive? One theory suggests that romantic secrecy increases obsessive preoccupation with romantic partners and thereby enhances romantic relationships. Another theory suggests that romantic secrecy is burdensome and thereby undermines romantic relationships. We sought to rectify these conflicting perspectives by examining romantic secrecy and relationship duration using a large, Internet-based sample (N = 564). We predicted that romantic secrecy would have a positive influence in newer romantic relationships (obsessive preoccupation theory) and a negative influence in older romantic relationships (burden theory). In contrast, the obtained results indicate that romantic secrecy is a burden to both new and old romantic relationships.

  19. "They'll Always Find a Way to Get to You": Technology Use in Adolescent Romantic Relationships and Its Role in Dating Violence and Abuse. (United States)

    Stonard, Karlie E; Bowen, Erica; Walker, Kate; Price, Shelley A


    Electronic communication technology (ECT), such as mobile phones and online communication tools, is widely used by adolescents; however, the availability of such tools may have both positive and negative impacts within the context of romantic relationships. While an established literature has documented the nature, prevalence, and impact of traditional forms of adolescent dating violence and abuse (ADVA), limited empirical investigation has focused on the role of ECT in ADVA or what shall be termed technology-assisted adolescent dating violence and abuse (TAADVA) and how adolescents perceive the impact of TAADVA relative to ADVA. In this article, the authors explore the role ECT plays in adolescent romantic relationships and psychologically abusive and controlling ADVA behaviors and its perceived impact. An opportunity sample of 52 adolescents (22 males and 30 females) between the ages of 12 and 18 years participated in the study. One all-female and seven mixed-gendered semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Thematic analysis was used to identify three superordinate themes, including (a) perceived healthy versus unhealthy communication, (b) perceived monitoring and controlling communication, and (c) perceived impact of technology-assisted abuse compared with that in person. While ECTs had a positive impact on the development and maintenance of adolescent romantic relationships, such tools also provided a new avenue for unhealthy, harassment, monitoring, and controlling behaviors within these relationships. ECT was also perceived to provide unique impacts in terms of making TAADVA seem both less harmful and more harmful than ADVA experienced in person. Adolescents' perceptions and experiences of ECT in romantic relationships and TAADVA may also vary be gender. Implications of the findings are discussed, and recommendations are made for future research.

  20. Romantic Relationships and and Sexual Experiences of Adolescents and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.H.G. Wiegerink (Diana)


    textabstractObjectives: To describe the development of romantic relationships and sexual experiences of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP) and the physical and emotional obstacles they experience with sexuality. Regarding the ICF domains we investigated whether this development is associated with

  1. Snooping in Romantic Relationships (United States)

    Derby, Kelly; Knox, David; Easterling, Beth


    A 42 item Internet questionnaire was completed by 268 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to assess the frequency, motivations, and outcome of snooping in romantic relationships. Almost two thirds (66%) reported that they had engaged in snooping behavior, most often when the partner was taking a shower. Primary motives were…

  2. Rewards and Costs in Adolescent Other-Sex Friendships: Comparisons to Same-Sex Friendships and Romantic Relationships (United States)

    Hand, Laura Shaffer; Furman, Wyndol


    This study used a social exchange framework to examine the features of non-romantic other-sex (OS) friendships compared with same-sex (SS) friendships and romantic relationships. High school seniors (N = 141) completed open-ended interviews about the benefits and costs of having OS friendships, SS friendships, and romantic relationships in…

  3. Teaching the Romantic Mind. (United States)

    Egan, Kieran


    Considers the emergence of English Romanticism in the early 19th century as the advent of new ways of thinking and knowing. Compares the cognitive skills of romanticism with the development of adolescent cognition. Shows how English teachers can tailor literature instruction to foster the insights of romantic understanding. (HB)

  4. A matter of timing: developmental theories of romantic involvement and psychosocial adjustment. (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene


    The present study compared two theories of the association between romantic involvement and adjustment: a social timetable theory and a developmental task theory. We examined seven waves of longitudinal data on a community based sample of 200 participants (Wave 1 mean age = 15 years, 10 months). In each wave, multiple measures of substance use, externalizing symptoms, and internalizing symptoms were gathered, typically from multiple reporters. Multilevel modeling revealed that greater levels of romantic involvement in adolescence were associated with higher levels of substance use and externalizing symptoms but became associated with lower levels in adulthood. Having a romantic partner was associated with greater levels of substance use, externalizing symptoms, and internalizing symptoms in adolescence but was associated with lower levels in young adulthood. The findings were not consistent with a social timetable theory, which predicts that nonnormative involvement is associated with poor adjustment. Instead, the findings are consistent with a developmental task theory, which predicts that precocious romantic involvement undermines development and adaptation, but when romantic involvement becomes a salient developmental task in adulthood, it is associated with positive adjustment. Discussion focuses on the processes that may underlie the changing nature of the association between romantic involvement and adjustment.

  5. Adolescent Personality in Social Contexts: Pals, Partners, and Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, R.


    The aim of the current dissertation was to show how adolescent personality was linked to youths’ developmental outcomes. Our findings suggest that adolescent personality has concurrent and predictive relations to a variety of important developmental outcomes. Specifically, adolescent personality was

  6. Sexually Transmitted Disease Partner Notification among African-American, Adolescent Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Buchsbaum


    Full Text Available Objective. To better understand preferences and practices regarding partner notification of sexually transmitted infection (STI among female, African-American adolescents. Methods. Participants completed a questionnaire and STI testing at baseline. Those diagnosed with Chlamydia or gonorrhea were recruited for a follow-up study, involving another questionnaire and repeat STI testing after three months. Results. At baseline, most participants (85.1% preferred to tell their partner about an STI diagnosis themselves instead of having a health care provider inform him, and 71.0% preferred to bring their partner for clinic treatment instead of giving him pills or a prescription. Two-thirds of participants were classified as having high self-efficacy for partner notification of a positive STI diagnosis. In the multivariable analysis, older participants and those with fewer lifetime sexual partners were more likely to have high self-efficacy. Ninety-three participants (26.6% had Chlamydia or gonorrhea and, of this subset, 55 participated in the follow-up study. Most adolescents in the follow-up study (76.4% notified their partner about their infection. Conclusion. Although participants were willing to use most methods of partner notification, most preferred to tell partners themselves and few preferred expedited partner therapy. Traditional methods for partner notification and treatment may not be adequate for all adolescents in this population.

  7. Implicit versus Explicit Rejection Self-Perceptions and Adolescents' Interpersonal Functioning. (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Schad, Megan M; Teachman, Bethany A; Chango, Joanna M; Allen, Joseph P


    We investigated associations between implicit and explicit self-perceptions of rejection with interpersonal functioning in close relationships. Adolescents (N=124) reported their explicit rejection self-perceptions on a questionnaire and completed the Implicit Association Test to assess their implicit rejection self-perceptions. After controlling for implicit self-perceptions, adolescents' explicit rejection self-perceptions were associated with the adolescents self-reporting more negative relationship quality with close friends and self-reporting more negative behaviors with romantic partners. After controlling for explicit self-perceptions, adolescents' implicit rejection self-perceptions were associated with their romantic partners reporting more negative relationship quality with them, and observations of adolescents displaying more negative behaviors with romantic partners. Implicit and explicit rejection self-perceptions uniquely explain individual differences in interpersonal behaviors.

  8. Aggression toward Female Partners by At-Risk Young Men: The Contribution of Male Adolescent Friendships. (United States)

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Yoerger, Karen


    Examined deviancy training as a risk factor for aggression toward female partners among boys and young men in the longitudinal Oregon Youth Study. Found that the relation of adolescent deviant peer association and later aggression toward partners was mediated by antisocial behavior. Observed hostile talk about women with male peers explained…

  9. Recruitment of African American and Latino Adolescent Couples in Romantic Relationships: Lessons Learned (United States)

    Rivera, Angelic; Watnick, Dana; Bauman, Laurie J.


    Background: There is considerable literature on effective engagement strategies for recruiting adolescents individually for health research studies, but literature on recruiting adolescent couples is new an minimal. Purpose: This paper describes the recruitment strategies used for Teen Connections (TC), a longitudinal study that recruited 139…

  10. For better and for worse: genes and parenting interact to predict future behavior in romantic relationships. (United States)

    Masarik, April S; Conger, Rand D; Donnellan, M Brent; Stallings, Michael C; Martin, Monica J; Schofield, Thomas J; Neppl, Tricia K; Scaramella, Laura V; Smolen, Andrew; Widaman, Keith F


    We tested the differential susceptibility hypothesis with respect to connections between interactions in the family of origin and subsequent behaviors with romantic partners. Focal or target participants (G2) in an ongoing longitudinal study (N = 352) were observed interacting with their parents (G1) during adolescence and again with their romantic partners in adulthood. Independent observers rated positive engagement and hostility by G1 and G2 during structured interaction tasks. We created an index for hypothesized genetic plasticity by summing G2's allelic variation for polymorphisms in 5 genes (serotonin transporter gene [linked polymorphism], 5-HTT; ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 gene/dopamine receptor D2 gene, ANKK1/DRD2; dopamine receptor D4 gene, DRD4; dopamine active transporter gene, DAT; and catechol-O-methyltransferase gene, COMT). Consistent with the differential susceptibility hypothesis, G2s exposed to more hostile and positively engaged parenting behaviors during adolescence were more hostile or positively engaged toward a romantic partner if they had higher scores on the genetic plasticity index. In short, genetic factors moderated the connection between earlier experiences in the family of origin and future romantic relationship behaviors, for better and for worse.

  11. Perceived impact of body feedback from romantic partners on young adults' body image and sexual well-being. (United States)

    Goldsmith, Kaitlyn M; Byers, E Sandra


    This study investigated the messages individuals receive from their partners about their bodies and their perceived impact on body image and sexual well-being. Young adult men (n=35) and women (n=57) completed open-ended questions identifying messages they had received from partners and the impact of these messages on their body image and sexual well-being. Content coding revealed three verbal (expressions of approval and pride, challenging negative beliefs, expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) and two nonverbal (physical affection, physical expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) positive messages as well as one verbal (disapproval/disgust) and two nonverbal (rejection, humiliation) negative messages. Some participants reported gender-related messages (muscularity/strength, genital appearance, breast appearance, weight, and comparison to others). Positive messages were seen to increase confidence, self-acceptance, and sexual empowerment/fulfillment, whereas negative messages decreased these feelings. Our findings suggest that even everyday, seemingly neutral messages are perceived to have an important impact on young adults.

  12. Früher Beginn: Aggression bei jugendlichen Paaren und ihr Bezug zu Partnerschaftsqualität und Bewältigung von Konflikten [Early start: Aggression in adolescent couples and its link to relationship quality and coping with conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiffge-Krenke, I.; Burk, W.J.


    Aggressive behavior in adult couples is a problem which must be taken seriously and is a frequent reason for psychotherapy and counseling. Less is known about an early start of aggression, e.g. in adolescent romantic relationships. In a sample of 194 romantic partner dyads (age 16-18 years) differen

  13. "Don't tell him you have HIV unless he's 'the one'": romantic relationships among adolescents and young adults with perinatal HIV infection. (United States)

    Fair, Cynthia; Albright, Jamie


    Individuals with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) are surviving into young adulthood. Previous literature has explored the sexual behavior of those with PHIV. However, their perspectives on navigating romantic relationships are not well understood. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 35 young adults living with PHIV recruited from two pediatric infectious disease clinics in the southeast United States. The majority of participants were African American (n=27, 77.2%), female (n=23, 65.7%), and the mean age was 20.7 (range 15-30) years. Questions focused on experiences with dating and romantic relationships as well as relationship advice for others living with HIV. Transcribed interviews were coded for emergent themes. Qualitative analyses revealed that the majority of participants have dated and struggled with their HIV status in their intimate relationships. The majority of those who disclosed their HIV status to past partners had experienced some form of rejection. However, several participants reported receiving support upon disclosure. Some individuals had never disclosed to a romantic partner, but carefully managed intimacy by delaying dating, terminating relationships, and "taking it slow." Advice fell into two broad categories: "be safe" which referred to the physical protection of self and partners, as well as emotional protection from possible rejection. The second advice category was basic encouragement which stressed the importance for young adults living with HIV to have hope that they would find a supportive partner and to be patient. The focus of education must include not only transmission risk factors, but also developing and maintaining healthy relationships in the context of a highly stigmatized illness.

  14. The Relationship Context for Sexual Activity and its Associations with Romantic Cognitions among Emerging Adults. (United States)

    Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol


    Few studies have examined the associations of sexual activity with romantic cognitions, particularly longitudinally. We used a multi-analytic approach to examine the longitudinal, between-person, and within-person associations between sexual activity and romantic cognitions. We distinguished among sexual activity with four different types of partners-romantic partners, friends, acquaintances, and friends with benefits. An ethnically/racially representative sample of 185 participants (94 males & 91 females) completed questionnaires when they were 2.5, 4, and 5.5 years out of high school. Frequent sexual activity with a romantic partner was associated with positive romantic cognitions, including less avoidant and anxious relational styles, greater romantic life satisfaction, and romantic appeal. Frequent sexual activity with various nonromantic partners was often associated with more negative romantic cognitions, including avoidant styles, lower romantic life satisfaction, and lower romantic appeal. Few longitudinal effects were found. Findings contribute to a developmental task theory concepualization of sexual behavior.

  15. Romantic Relationships and Adjustment Problems in China: The Moderating Effect of Classroom Romantic Context (United States)

    Hou, Jinqin; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Zhang, Jianxin; Guo, Fei; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Mianbo; Chen, Zhiyan


    Theoretical and empirical research has shown that adolescent romantic relationships are associated with a wide range of developmental outcomes, including adverse consequences. The present study used a hierarchical linear model to examine the moderating effect of classroom romantic context on the association between adolescent romantic…

  16. Adolescent Peer Relationships and Emerging Adult Romantic Styles: A Longitudinal Study of Youth in an Italian Community (United States)

    Dhariwal, Amrit; Connolly, Jennifer; Paciello, Marinella; Caprara, Gian Vittorio


    This study extends understanding of romantic development in the emerging adult years by using an 8-year longitudinal design in Italy. Peer groups at age 13, interpersonal functioning and emotion regulation at age 17, and romantic styles at age 21 were measured in 388 youth. Early peer groups were shown to be indirectly associated with two romantic…

  17. Perceptions of Parent-Child Attachment Relationships and Friendship Qualities: Predictors of Romantic Relationship Involvement and Quality in Adolescence. (United States)

    Kochendorfer, Logan B; Kerns, Kathryn A


    Relationships with parents and friends are important contexts for developing romantic relationship skills. Parents and friends may influence both the timing of involvement and the quality of romantic relationships. Three models of the joint influence of parents and friends (direct effects model, mediation model, and moderator model) have been proposed. The present study uses data from a longitudinal study (n = 1012; 49.8% female; 81.1% Caucasian) to examine how attachment and friendship quality at age 10 years predict romantic relationship involvement and quality at ages 12 and 15 years. The results supported the direct effects model, with attachment and friendship quality uniquely predicting different romantic relationship outcomes. The findings provide further support for the important influence of family and friends on early romantic relationships.

  18. Cell phone internet access, online sexual solicitation, partner seeking, and sexual risk behavior among adolescents. (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy


    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be "out," and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors.

  19. State of the evidence: intimate partner violence and HIV/STI risk among adolescents. (United States)

    Seth, Puja; DiClemente, Ralph J; Lovvorn, Amy E


    This paper provides a critical narrative review of the scientific literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) and risky sexual behavior as well as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents, aged 14-24 years. Intimate partner violence has been associated with a number of high risk sexual behavior, including inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners, earlier sexual debut, consuming substances while engaging in sexual behavior, and sexually transmitted infections among adolescents. An electronic search of the literature was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science and articles from January 2000 - June 2013 were reviewed. Search terms included a combination of keywords for IPV, HIV/STI risk, and adolescents. The findings from the review indicated that IPV was associated with inconsistent condom use, STIs, early sexual debut, multiple sexual partners, and other HIV/STI-associated risk factors among adolescents. HIV/STI interventions for female adolescents often focus on increasing behavioral and cognitive skills, specifically condom negotiation. However, within the context of an abusive relationship, it becomes challenging for adolescents to enact these skills, where this behavior could potentially place them at greater risk. Components that address violence are necessary within HIV prevention programming. Additionally, integration of IPV screening within healthcare settings is important along with a combined approach that merges resources from healthcare, social, and community-level settings.

  20. Romantic Relationship Patterns in Young Adulthood and Their Developmental Antecedents (United States)

    Rauer, Amy J.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.


    The delayed entry into marriage that characterizes modern society raises questions about young adults' romantic relationship trajectories and whether patterns found to characterize adolescent romantic relationships persist into young adulthood. The current study traced developmental transitions into and out of romantic relationships from age…

  1. Intimate Partner Violence, Power, and Equity Among Adolescent Parents: Relation to Child Outcomes and Parenting


    Gibson, Crystal; Callands, Tamora A.; Magriples, Urania; Divney, Anna; Kershaw, Trace


    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration and power imbalances in parenting partners may result in poor outcomes for parents and children. Previous work in this area has focused on the maternal experiences, neglecting to examine paternal effects. The present study aimed to elucidate the role of IPV, power, and equity in parenting and child outcomes in an urban sample of adolescent parents. 159 male and 182 female parents in a relationship were recruited through university...

  2. Sexual communication between early adolescents and their dating partners, parents, and best friends. (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W; Golin, Carol E; Prinstein, Mitchell J


    This study assessed early adolescents' sexual communication with dating partners, parents, and best friends about six sexual health topics: condoms, birth control, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), pregnancy, and abstinence/waiting. Using a school-based sample of 603 youth (ages 12 to 15; 57% female; 46% Caucasian), we examined communication differences across demographic and developmental factors, tested whether communication with parents and best friends was associated with greater communication with partners, and examined associations between communication and condom use. More than half of participants had not discussed any sexual topics with their dating partners (54%), and many had not communicated with parents (29%) or best friends (25%). On average, communication was more frequent among adolescents who were female, African American, older, and sexually active, despite some variation in subgroups across partner, parent, and friend communication. Importantly, communication with parents and friends--and the interaction between parent and friend communication--was associated with increased communication with dating partners. Further, among sexually active youth, increased sexual communication with partners was associated with more frequent condom use. Results highlight the importance of understanding the broader family and peer context surrounding adolescent sexual decision making and suggest a possible need to tailor sexual communication interventions.

  3. Is love colorblind? Political orientation and interracial romantic desire. (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Richeson, Jennifer A; Son, Deborah; Finkel, Eli J


    The present research examined the association of political orientation with ingroup favoritism in two live romantic contexts. In Study 1, White participants had sequential interactions with both a White and Black confederate and reported their romantic desire for each. In Study 2, both White and Black participants speed-dated multiple potential romantic partners and reported whether they would be interested in meeting each speed-dating partner again. In both studies, White participants' political conservatism positively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: White conservatives were less likely than White liberals to desire Black (interracial) relative to White potential romantic partners. In contrast, Black participants' political conservatism negatively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: Consistent with system-justification theory, Black conservatives were more likely than Black liberals to desire White (interracial) relative to Black potential romantic partners. Political orientation may be a key factor that influences the initiation of interracial romantic relationships.

  4. Romantic relationships in adolescence: satisfaction, conflicts and dating violence - Las relaciones sentimentales en la adolescencia: satisfacción, conflictos y violencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Sánchez Jiménez


    Full Text Available This study aims at analysing adolescents’romantic relationships and dating violence. 446 SecondarySchools students were interviewed (47.50% boys,52.50% girls, mean age 16.08 years old in terms ofsatisfaction, expectations, communication, conflicts,transggressive orientation and dating violence. Resultshave showed that 90% of participants affirmed havehad a sentimental experience, expressing how romanticrelations in adolescence become a very important aspectin these years. Adolescents declared that they were verysatisfied with their dating relations, and girls and olderparticipants showed more satisfaction and future expectationsthan boys and younger ones. Dating violencewas very present, but occasionally, among boys andgirls. No differences were found either for age, sex, orfor aggression and victimization.

  5. Parental Support, Partner Support, and the Trajectories of Mastery from Adolescence to Early Adulthood (United States)

    Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.


    This study examines the long-term associations among parental support, extra-familial partner support, and the trajectories of sense of mastery from adolescence to the early adulthood years. Ten waves of panel data collected over a 16-year period from the Iowa Family Transitions Project (N = 527) were used to test the hypotheses. Results indicated…

  6. The Effects of Adolescent Intimate Partner Violence on Women's Educational Attainment and Earnings (United States)

    Adams, Adrienne E.; Greeson, Megan R.; Kennedy, Angie C.; Tolman, Richard M.


    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, widespread problem that negatively affects women's lives, including their economic status. The current study explored whether the financial harm associated with IPV begins as early as adolescence. With longitudinal data from a sample of 498 women currently or formerly receiving welfare, we used latent…

  7. The Role of Adolescent Physical Abuse in Adult Intimate Partner Violence (United States)

    Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra


    This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with…

  8. Bad Romance: Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Association Between Romantic Relationships and Deviant Behavior. (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C; Dmitrieva, Julia; Cauffman, Elizabeth


    The current study investigates how romantic relationships are related to antisocial behavior longitudinally among delinquent males and females (n=354; ages 14-25). While being in a relationship or not is unrelated to antisocial behavior, romantic partner characteristics (antisocial behavior and antisocial influence) are associated with greater antisocial behavior. As males age, they become increasingly resistant to romantic partner characteristics. In contrast, females become increasingly vulnerable to the effects of romantic partner characteristics on antisocial behavior as they age, particularly when these relationships are relatively shorter. Females in shorter romantic relationships with partners who are antisocial or exert antisocial influence are at risk of persisting in antisocial behavior.

  9. Partnering (United States)


    to meet the de- successful despite the site challenges and sign intent, business changes during the project. (Groves was acquired by the Torno ...34 Complete the contract without need for America company during construction- litigation. Torno embraced Partnering and continued the process which was

  10. Intimate partner violence among adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa. (United States)

    Russell, Marcia; Cupp, Pamela K; Jewkes, Rachel K; Gevers, Anik; Mathews, Catherine; LeFleur-Bellerose, Chantel; Small, Jeon


    This study aimed to describe potentially preventable factors in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization among South African 8th grade students. Data were collected during a pilot evaluation of a classroom 8th grade curriculum on gender-based violence prevention in nine public schools in Cape Town through self-completed interviews with 549 8th grade students, 238 boys and 311 girls. Structural equation models (SEM) predicting IPV were constructed with variables a priori hypothesized to be associated. The majority of students (78.5 %) had had a partner in the past 3 months, and they reported high rates of IPV during that period (e.g., over 10 % of boys reported forcing a partner to have sex, and 39 % of girls reported physical IPV victimization). A trimmed version of the hypothesized SEM (CFI = .966; RMSEA = .051) indicated that disagreement with the ideology of male superiority and violence predicted lower risk of IPV (p violence; encourage use of positive conflict resolution styles; and discourage heavy alcohol use among both boys and girls.

  11. Perceived Acceptance From Outsiders Shapes Security in Romantic Relationships: The Overgeneralization of Extradyadic Experiences. (United States)

    Lemay, Edward P; Razzak, Suad


    Romantic relationships unfold in the context of people's other interpersonal relationships, and processes that occur in those other relationships have been shown to affect the functioning of romantic relationships. In accordance with this perspective, two dyadic daily report studies demonstrated that people generalize experiences of interpersonal acceptance and rejection from other people onto their romantic partners. Participants felt more confident that they were valued by their romantic partners on days they experienced acceptance, relative to rejection, from outsiders. In addition, this overgeneralization of daily extradyadic acceptance and rejection had prospective effects on romantic relationship security the following day, was independent of the romantic partner's actual relationship evaluations on each day, was partially mediated by daily self-esteem, and predicted daily enactment of prosocial and antisocial behaviors toward romantic partners. These results suggest that overgeneralization of daily acceptance and rejection from outsiders shapes the functioning of romantic relationships.

  12. Oxytocin and vulnerable romantic relationships. (United States)

    Grebe, Nicholas M; Kristoffersen, Andreas Aarseth; Grøntvedt, Trond Viggo; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen; Gangestad, Steven W


    Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in the formation and maintenance of various social relationships, including human romantic relationships. Competing models predict, alternatively, positive or negative associations between naturally-occurring OT levels and romantic relationship quality. Empirical tests of these models have been equivocal. We propose a novel hypothesis ('Identify and Invest') that frames OT as an allocator of psychological investment toward valued, vulnerable relationships, and test this proposal in two studies. In one sample of 75 couples, and a second sample of 148 romantically involved individuals, we assess facets of relationships predicting changes in OT across a thought-writing task regarding one's partner. In both studies, participants' OT change across the task corresponded positively with multiple dimensions of high relationship involvement. However, increases in participants' OT also corresponded to their partners reporting lower relationship involvement. OT increases, then, reflected discrepancies between assessments of self and partner relationship involvement. These findings are robust in a combined analysis of both studies, and do not significantly differ between samples. Collectively, our findings support the 'Identify and Invest' hypothesis in romantic couples, and we argue for its relevance across other types of social bonds.

  13. Romantic love and sexual desire in close relationships. (United States)

    Gonzaga, Gian C; Turner, Rebecca A; Keltner, Dacher; Campos, Belinda; Altemus, Margaret


    Drawing on recent claims in the study of relationships, attachment, and emotion, the authors hypothesized that romantic love serves a commitment-related function and sexual desire a reproduction-related function. Consistent with these claims, in Study 1, brief experiences of romantic love and sexual desire observed in a 3-min interaction between romantic partners were related to distinct feeling states, distinct nonverbal displays, and commitment- and reproductive-related relationship outcomes, respectively. In Study 2, the nonverbal display of romantic love was related to the release of oxytocin. Discussion focuses on the place of romantic love and sexual desire in the literature on emotion.

  14. Interactions of adolescent social experiences and dopamine genes to predict physical intimate partner violence perpetration (United States)

    Parker, Edith A.; Peek-Asa, Corinne


    Objectives We examined the interactions between three dopamine gene alleles (DAT1, DRD2, DRD4) previously associated with violent behavior and two components of the adolescent environment (exposure to violence, school social environment) to predict adulthood physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among white men and women. Methods We used data from Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a cohort study following individuals from adolescence to adulthood. Based on the prior literature, we categorized participants as at risk for each of the three dopamine genes using this coding scheme: two 10-R alleles for DAT1; at least one A-1 allele for DRD2; at least one 7-R or 8-R allele for DRD4. Adolescent exposure to violence and school social environment was measured in 1994 and 1995 when participants were in high school or middle school. Intimate partner violence perpetration was measured in 2008 when participants were 24 to 32 years old. We used simple and multivariable logistic regression models, including interactions of genes and the adolescent environments for the analysis. Results Presence of risk alleles was not independently associated with IPV perpetration but increasing exposure to violence and disconnection from the school social environment was associated with physical IPV perpetration. The effects of these adolescent experiences on physical IPV perpetration varied by dopamine risk allele status. Among individuals with non-risk dopamine alleles, increased exposure to violence during adolescence and perception of disconnection from the school environment were significantly associated with increased odds of physical IPV perpetration, but individuals with high risk alleles, overall, did not experience the same increase. Conclusion Our results suggested the effects of adolescent environment on adulthood physical IPV perpetration varied by genetic factors. This analysis did not find a direct link between risk alleles

  15. Cell Phone Internet Access, Online Sexual Solicitation, Partner Seeking, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Adolescents


    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W.; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy


    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific ...

  16. Domestic violence in pregnant adolescents: Characterization of the partners and prevalence of the different forms of expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monterrosa-Castro, Álvaro


    Full Text Available Introduction: Pregnancy in adolescents and domestic violence (DV are worldwide problems. Their prevalence is influenced by cultural factors. Objectives: To characterize pregnant adolescents and their sexual partners, and to determine the prevalence of psychological, physical and sexual DV. Methodology: Cross-sectional study of 406 Colombian pregnant teenagers. Socio-demographic data were collected, and the scales “Are you being abused?” and “Abuse Assessment Screen” were applied. The former identifies domestic violence by the partner, and the latter, DV at any moment, the last year or during pregnancy. Results: Age: 16.5 ± 1.5 years, 92.9 % were in late adolescence, average years of schooling: nine; 50 % dropped out from school when they became pregnant; 70 % depended on their parents, both before and after pregnancy. DV by the partner: 7.1 %; physical DV: 6.7 %; psychological DV: 3.7 %; sexual DV: 2.2 %. DV by partner/husband/other person: 12.4 %; physical or emotional abuse by partner/another person: 21.7 %; fear from the partner: 3.4 %. There was significant association between alcohol consumption by the partner every weekend and DV. Conclusion: Frequency of DV against pregnant adolescents is high and alcohol consumption by the partner is an important risk factor for it.

  17. Attachment and the experience and expression of emotions in romantic relationships: a developmental perspective. (United States)

    Simpson, Jeffry A; Collins, W Andrew; Tran, SiSi; Haydon, Katherine C


    In this longitudinal study, the authors tested a developmental hypothesis derived from attachment theory and recent empirical findings. Target participants were 78 individuals who have been studied intensively from infancy into their mid-20s. When targets were 20-23 years old, the authors tested the way in which interpersonal experiences at 3 pivotal points in each target's earlier social development--infancy/early childhood, early elementary school, and adolescence--predicted the pattern of positive versus negative emotions experienced with his or her romantic partner. A double-mediation model revealed that targets classified as securely attached at 12 months old were rated as more socially competent during early elementary school by their teachers. Targets' social competence, in turn, forecasted their having more secure relationships with close friends at age 16, which in turn predicted more positive daily emotional experiences in their adult romantic relationships (both self- and partner-reported) and less negative affect in conflict resolution and collaborative tasks with their romantic partners (rated by observers). These results are discussed in terms of attachment theory and how antecedent life experiences may indirectly shape events in current relationships.

  18. The Effects of Neighborhood Proportion of Single-Parent Families and Mother-Adolescent Relationships on Adolescents' Number of Sexual Partners. (United States)

    Cleveland, H. Harrington; Gilson, Michael


    Using both individual-level and census-level data, this study predicts the number of sexual partners reported by male and female adolescents from the quality of their mother relationship and neighborhood proportion of single-parent families. Both predictors were associated with number of sexual partners for both males and females in OLS analyses.…

  19. Recovering from conflict in romantic relationships: a developmental perspective. (United States)

    Salvatore, Jessica E; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Steele, Ryan D; Simpson, Jeffry A; Collins, W Andrew


    This study adopted a developmental perspective on recovery from conflict in romantic relationships. Participants were 73 young adults (target participants), studied since birth, and their romantic partners. A novel observational coding scheme was used to evaluate each participant's degree of conflict recovery, operationalized as the extent to which the participant disengaged from conflict during a 4-min "cool-down" task immediately following a 10-min conflict discussion. Conflict recovery was systematically associated with developmental and dyadic processes. Targets who were rated as securely attached more times in infancy recovered from conflict better, as did their romantic partners. Concurrently, having a romantic partner who displayed better recovery predicted more positive relationship emotions and greater relationship satisfaction. Prospectively, target participants' early attachment security and their partners' degree of conflict recovery interacted to predict relationship stability 2 years later, such that having a partner who recovered from conflict better buffered targets with insecure histories.

  20. Effect of partner violence in adolescence and young adulthood on blood pressure and incident hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Jo Clark

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence has adverse health consequences, but little is known about its association with hypertension. This study investigates sex differences in the relationship between intimate partner violence and blood pressure outcomes. Data included 9,699 participants from waves 3 (2001-02 and 4 (2008-09 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (51% female. Systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure and incident hypertension (SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication were ascertained at wave 4. Intimate partner violence was measured at wave 3 with 8 items from the revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Separate victimization and perpetration scores were calculated. Sex-specific indicators of severe victimization and perpetration were created using the 66th percentile among those exposed as a cut point. Sex-specific, linear and logistic regression models were developed adjusting for age, race, financial stress, and education. Thirty-three percent of men and 47% of women reported any intimate partner violence exposure; participants were categorized as having: no exposure, moderate victimization and / or perpetration only, severe victimization, severe perpetration, and severe victimization and perpetration. Men experiencing severe perpetration and victimization had a 2.66 mmHg (95% CI: 0.05, 5.28 higher SBP and a 59% increased odds (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.37 of incident hypertension compared to men not exposed to intimate partner violence. No other category of violence was associated with blood pressure outcomes in men. Intimate partner violence was not associated with blood pressure outcomes in women. Intimate partner violence may have long-term consequences for men's hemodynamic health. Screening men for victimization and perpetration may assist clinicians to identify individuals at increased risk of hypertension.

  1. Transforming narratives into educational tools: the collaborative development of a transformative learning tool based on Nicaraguan adolescents' creative writing about intimate partner violence. (United States)

    Singleton, Robyn; Picado Araúz, María de la Paz; Trocin, Kathleen; Winskell, Kate


    The use of narrative has become increasingly popular in the public health, community development, and education fields. Via emotionally engaging plotlines with authentic, captivating characters, stories provide an opportunity for participants to be carried away imaginatively into the characters' world while connecting the story with their own lived experiences. Stories have been highlighted as valuable tools in transformative learning. However, little published literature exists demonstrating applications of stories in group-based transformative learning curricula. This paper describes the creation of a narrative-based transformative learning tool based on an analysis of Nicaraguan adolescents' meaning-making around intimate partner violence (IPV) in their creative narratives. In collaboration with a Nicaraguan organization, US researchers analyzed a sample of narratives ( n = 55; 16 male-authored, 39 female-authored) on IPV submitted to a 2014 scriptwriting competition by adolescents aged 15-19. The data were particularly timely in that they responded to a new law protecting victims of gender-based violence, Law 779, and contradicted social-conservative claims that the Law 779 destroys family unity. We incorporated results from this analysis into the creation of the transformative learning tool, separated into thematic sections. The tool's sections (which comprise one story and three corresponding activities) aim to facilitate critical reflection, interpersonal dialogue, and self- and collective efficacy for social action around the following themes derived from the analysis: IPV and social support; IPV and romantic love; masculinity; warning signs of IPV; and sexual abuse. As a collaboration between a public health research team based at a US university and a Nicaraguan community-based organization, it demonstrates the potential in the age of increasingly smooth electronic communication for novel community-university partnerships to facilitate the development of

  2. Buddy Study: Partners for better health in adolescents withtype 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AIM To investigate whether assigning young, healthyand motivated lay volunteer partners ("buddies") toadolescents with type 2 diabetes improves hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c).METHODS: Adolescents with type 2 diabetes were randomized to partnering with a "buddy" or to conventionaltreatment. During the initial screening visit,which coincided with a routine outpatient diabetesclinic visit, patients with type 2 diabetes underwenta physical examination, detailed medical history,laboratory measurement of HbA1c, and completed twoquestionnaires (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory andChildren's Depression Inventory) to assess their overallquality of life and the presence of depressive symptoms.Patients were then randomized to the intervention (thebuddy system) or conventional treatment (standardcare). All patients were scheduled to return for followupat 3- and 6-mo after their initial visit. HbA1c wasdetermined at all visits (i.e. , at screening and at the3- and 6-mo follow-up visits) and quality of life anddepressive symptoms were evaluated at the screeningvisit and were reassessed at the 6-mo visit.RESULTS: Ten adolescents, recruited from a pool ofapproximately 200 adolescents, enrolled over a twoyeartime period, leading to premature termination ofthe study. In contrast, we easily recruited motivated layvolunteers. We found no change in HbA1c from the initialto the 6-mo visit in either group, yet our small samplesize limited systematic assessment of this outcome.Participants repeatedly missed clinic appointments, failedto conduct self-glucose-monitoring and rarely broughttheir glucometers to clinic visits. Total quality of life scores(72.6 ± 6.06) at screening were similar to previouslyreported scores in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (75.7± 15.0) and lower than scores reported in normal-weight(81.2 ± 0.9), overweight (83.5 ± 1.8), and obese youthswithout diabetes (78.5 ± 1.8) or in adolescents withtype 1 diabetes

  3. Victimization and Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: The Influence of Parental and Peer Behaviors, and Individual Adjustment (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Banister, Elizabeth M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Yeung, Rachel


    Consistent with the view that adolescent relationships are established in the context of important characteristics of their social networks, we examined the effects of adolescents' experiences of parenting (psychological control and positive monitoring) and of peer aggression and victimization, on their self reports of dating victimization and…

  4. Intimate imitation: Automatic motor imitation in romantic relationships. (United States)

    Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos


    Our relationships with romantic partners are often some of the closest and most important relationships that we experience in our adult lives. Interpersonal closeness in romantic relationships is characterised by an increased overlap between cognitive representations of oneself and one's partner. Importantly, this type of self-other overlap also occurs in the bodily domain, whereby we can represent another's embodied experiences in the same way as we represent our own. However, as yet this bodily self-other overlap has only been investigated in individuals unfamiliar to each other. Here, we investigate bodily self-other overlap between romantic partners, using automatic imitation as an example case of bodily overlap in the motor domain. We found that participants automatically imitated romantic partners significantly more than close others with whom they had a platonic relationship. Furthermore, imitation in these relationships was related to key aspects of relationship quality, as indicated by adult attachment style.

  5. Stability of Self-Reported Same-Sex and Both-Sex Attraction from Adolescence to Young Adulthood. (United States)

    Hu, Yueqin; Xu, Yishan; Tornello, Samantha L


    This study examined how sexual attraction varied across age, gender of participant, and gender of romantic partner, from adolescence to early adulthood. Comparisons between same-sex and both-sex attracted individuals were of particular interest. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), we examined the responses of participants who reported experiencing same-sex attractions or both-sex attractions at least once within four waves (n = 1889). Results indicated that same-sex attractions became more stable over time, whereas both-sex attraction remained unstable even into adulthood. Compared with males, females were less stable in same-sex attraction, but more stable in both-sex attraction. The majority of people who reported same-sex attraction did not report having a same-sex romantic partner before they entered adulthood, and those who reported a same-sex romantic partner were more likely to maintain their same-sex attraction than those who did not. As males got older, the gender of their romantic partner tended to become more consistent with their sexual attraction. However, for females, the consistency between the gender of their romantic partner and sexual attraction did not change over time.

  6. Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence (United States)

    Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa


    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

  7. Influence of friend and parental relationship on romantic experiences of adolescents in China and Canada%中国和加拿大青少年同伴、亲子关系对恋爱状况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志红; 马敬想; Jennifer Connolly


    Aim: To investigate the influence of friend relationship and parental relationship on romantic experience of Chinese and Canadian adolescents . Methods: A total of 496 Chinese and 395 Canadian high school students were surveyed by the Dating Questionnaire , Inventory of Parental Relationship ,Inventory of Peer Relationship. ReSUltS;The percentage of Canadian adolescents having either a current or past romantic partner were higher than their Chinese counterparts (χ2 = 45.078 , 105.112 ,P 0. 05 ). The score of serious dating of girls in Canada was higher than that of boys (t = 2. 082,P 0.05).中国男生群体约会、严肃恋爱关系得分高于女生(t=5.288、7.621,P<0.05),加拿大仅女生严肃恋爱关系得分高于男生(t=2.082,P<0.05).相关分析和逐步回归分析结果表明,两国青少年同伴和亲子关系与恋爱状况有关(P<0.05).结构方程模型(主要拟合指数为χ2=104.834,CFI=0.963,TLI=0.941,RMSEA=0.062)结果表明,中、加两国青少年同伴关系均对恋爱状况有影响(路径系数分别为0.18,0.31,P均<0.05),亲子关系通过同伴关系对恋爱状况产生影响(路径系数分别为0.36,0.16,P<0.05);相比中国青少年,加拿大青少年的同伴关系对恋爱状况的影响更显著(χ2=8.055,P<0.001);中国青少年的亲子关系对恋爱状况的压制影响显著(路径系数为-0.12,P<0.05),加拿大青少年的亲子关系对恋爱状况的影响不显著.结论:中、加两国青少年的恋爱状况有显著差异;两国青少年的同伴、亲子关系对恋爱状况的影响具有相似性.

  8. Problem partners and parenting: exploring linkages with maternal insecure attachment style and adolescent offspring internalizing disorder. (United States)

    Bifulco, Antonia; Moran, Patricia; Jacobs, Catherine; Bunn, Amanda


    An intergenerational study examined mothers' insecure attachment style using the Attachment Style Interview (ASI; Bifulco et al., 2002a) in relation to her history of partner relationships, her parenting competence, and depression or anxiety disorder in her offspring. The sample comprised 146 high-risk, mother-adolescent offspring pairs in London, who were recruited on the basis of the mothers' psychosocial vulnerability for depression. Retrospective, biographical, and clinical interviews were undertaken independently with mother and offspring. A path model was developed, which showed that mothers' insecure attachment style had no direct link to either recalled child neglect/abuse or currently assessed disorder in their adolescent and young adult offspring. The connections appeared to be indirect, through the quality of relationships in the family system: mothers' insecure attachment and their partners' problem behavior accounted for variance in mothers' incompetent parenting as rated by interviewers. These variables predicted her neglect/abuse of the child, which was the only variable directly associated with internalizing disorder in her offspring. Mother's lifetime depression did not add to the model. It is argued that an ecological approach (emphasizing social adversity and different role domains) and a lifespan approach (emphasizing a history of adverse relationships a different life stages) is important in understanding the mechanisms by which parental insecure attachment style influences transmission of risk to the next generation.

  9. Spectrums of love: examining the relationship between romantic motivations and sexual risk among young gay and bisexual men. (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Ventuneac, Ana; Pingel, Emily; Parsons, Jeffrey T


    We examined the association between HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and romantic feelings among single, young gay and bisexual men (YGBM). Romantic feelings may have positive (romantic ideation) and negative (romantic obsession) connotations. Consequently, we hypothesized that YGBM would report greater risks if they reported having obsessive thoughts about their relationship desires; conversely, we hypothesized that YGBM who envision a romantic relationship would report fewer unprotected partners. Using cross-sectional data from a study examining YGBM's online dating experiences (N = 376; ages 18-24), we found a positive association between romantic obsession and number of partners for unprotected receptive (URAI) and insertive (UIAI) anal intercourse. Conversely, we found a negative association between romantic ideation and number of partners for URAI and UIAI. Is love risky or protective? Our results indicate support for both perspectives. We discuss the implications of our findings, highlighting the importance of addressing romantic pursuits into existing HIV prevention interventions for YGBM.

  10. My beliefs of my peers' beliefs: exploring the gendered nature of social norms in adolescent romantic relationships. (United States)

    Hertzog, Jodie L; Rowley, Rochelle Lynn


    Dating violence in adolescent relationships is a growing social problem in the United States. A majority of adolescents have dated by the time they finish high school and these experiences have an impact on their relationship trajectories as adults. Although more and more prevention efforts are aimed at reducing teen dating violence and/or teaching adolescents about healthy relationships, very few of these efforts investigate discrepancies in descriptive and injunctive norms associated with adolescent dating. This pilot study adds to the existing literature by investigating the dating norms of early and mid-adolescents to aid in tailoring prevention efforts among this population. One hundred eighty-seven middle and high school student leaders from public schools in the Midwest completed an annual relationship survey. Findings suggest that participants did not support unhealthy relationship norms overall. However, two patterns of discrepancies emerged: one between participant attitudes (descriptive norms) and their perceptions of peer attitudes (injunctive norms), and another between perceptions participants hold about their male versus female peers' beliefs. Results imply the development of pluralistic ignorance occurs during adolescence and that perceptions of peer norms are in line with the principles of hegemonic masculinity. Implications for possible prevention initiatives and future research directions are noted.

  11. How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways: Parenting during Adolescence, Attachment Styles, and Romantic Narratives in Emerging Adulthood (United States)

    Nosko, Amanda; Tieu, Thanh-Thanh; Lawford, Heather; Pratt, Michael W.


    In this longitudinal study, a quantitative and qualitative examination of the associations among parent-child relations, adult attachment styles, and relationship quality and theme in romantic narratives was conducted. Parenting and adult attachment style were assessed through questionnaires, whereas overall quality of romantic relationships…

  12. An exploratory investigation of adolescent intimate partner violence among African American youth: a gendered analysis. (United States)

    Love, Sharon RedHawk; Richards, Tara N


    Extant research demonstrates that while adolescent intimate partner violence (IPV) is an ever-growing concern in the United States, most research on IPV has focused on adult victims and offenders. To fill this gap in the literature, the present research examines youth IPV by conducting focus groups with 25 male and female youth between the ages of 15 and 19 years whose race was primarily African American. Drawing on open-ended responses by adolescent participants, the present study aimed to shed light on African American youths' perceptions of IPV, their perceptions regarding such violence among their peers, the dynamics of help-seeking behaviors, and what services youth perceive as most helpful in the prevention and intervention of adolescent IPV. Findings reveal that most participants only recognize physical aggression as IPV; express hesitation in disclosing violence to adults, especially nonfamily adults; and report being unaware of and/or unwilling to utilize existing prevention and intervention services traditionally targeted at adult populations. Implications for future research and policy are also presented and discussed.

  13. Intimate partner violence, power, and equity among adolescent parents: relation to child outcomes and parenting. (United States)

    Gibson, Crystal; Callands, Tamora A; Magriples, Urania; Divney, Anna; Kershaw, Trace


    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration and power imbalances in parenting partners may result in poor outcomes for parents and children. Previous work in this area has focused on the maternal experiences, neglecting to examine paternal effects. The present study aimed to elucidate the role of IPV, power, and equity in parenting and child outcomes in an urban sample of adolescent parents. 159 male and 182 female parents in a relationship were recruited through university-affiliated hospitals. Power, equity, and IPV were measured at 6 months post-partum and were used as predictors for parenting and child outcomes 12 months post-partum using general estimating equations. Gender interactions and mediation effects of depression were also assessed. Higher perceived relationship equity was related to better infant temperament (B = 0.052, SE = 0.023, p = 0.02) whereas higher partner power was related to poorer social development (B = -0.201, SE = 0.088, p = 0.02) and fine motor development (B = -0.195, SE = 0.078, p = 0.01). IPV victimization was associated with poor infant temperament (B = -2.925, SE = 1.083, p = 0.007) and lower parenting competence (B = -3.508, SE = 1.142, p = 0.002). Depression mediated the relationship between IPV and parenting and IPV and infant temperament. No gender effects were found. IPV, inequities, and power imbalances were disadvantageous for parenting and child outcomes. Our results suggest that these dynamics may negatively affect both males and females. Interventions to reduce violence in both partners and promote equity in relationships could benefit couples and their children.

  14. The Influence of Dating Anxiety on Normative Experiences of Dating, Sexual Interactions, and Alcohol Consumption among Canadian Middle Adolescents (United States)

    Boyle, Andrea M.; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.


    Adolescents tend to consume alcohol and find romantic and sexual partners in mixed-group settings that are unmonitored by adults. Relatively little is known about the influence that dating anxiety may have with these social interactions. A sample of 163 high school students (aged 14-17 years) completed online surveys assessing dating, sex, and…

  15. Narrative Exposure Therapy: A Proposed Model to Address Intimate Partner Violence-Related PTSD in Parenting and Pregnant Adolescents. (United States)

    Volpe, Ellen M; Quinn, Camille R; Resch, Kathryn; Sommers, Marilyn S; Wieling, Elizabeth; Cerulli, Catherine


    Pregnant and parenting adolescents experience high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its sequelae posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) is an innovative intervention that has demonstrated strong preliminary evidence in improving mental health. The specific aims of this article are 3-fold: (1) provide a brief background about IPV-related PTSD and depression among pregnant and parenting adolescents; (2) describe NET's theoretical principles, its therapeutic process, and provide a review of existing evidence; and (3) discuss NET as a potential treatment to address the mental health burden among adolescents experiencing IPV-related PTSD and depression.

  16. A longitudinal study of interpersonal relationships among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents and young adults: mediational pathways from attachment to romantic relationship quality. (United States)

    Starks, Tyrel J; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian


    The current study examined the potential for mental health to mediate associations between earlier attachment to parents and peers and later relationship adjustment during adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of sexual minority youth. Secondarily, the study examined associations between peer and parental attachment and relationship/dating milestones. Participants included 219 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth who participated in six waves of data collection over 3.5 years. Parental attachment was associated with an older age of dating initiation, while peer attachment was associated with longer relationship length. Both peer and parental attachment were significantly associated with mental health in later adolescence and young adulthood. Mental health mediated the association between peer attachment and main partner relationship quality. While the total indirect effect of parental attachment on main partner relationship quality was statistically significant, specific indirect effects were not. Implications for the application of attachment theory and integration of interpersonal factors into mental health intervention with sexual minority youth are discussed.

  17. Early marriage and intimate partner violence among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam. (United States)

    Hong Le, Minh Thi; Tran, Thach Duc; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Fisher, Jane


    Research about the association between early marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income countries has yielded conflicting evidence. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of and associations between early marriage, and IPV among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam. Secondary analysis of data from the national Survey Assessment of Viet Namese Youth-Round II (SAVY-II) conducted in 2009-2010, which assessed a representative cohort of people aged 14 to 25 years recruited via a systematic household survey was undertaken. Prevalence was established using descriptive statistics. The association between early marriage and IPV was examined using multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for potential risk factors. Of 10,044 participants, 1,701 had ever married and were included in analyses. Early marriage (before age 18), and experiences of verbal, physical, or sexual IPV were more common among females than males. More young married men than women reported experiences of controlling behaviors by their partners. Early marriage, being illiterate, and exposure to sexual abuse were associated with experience of IPV among young females, but not among young males. Poverty and exposure to family violence was associated with IPV in both sexes. Addressing early marriage, low educational opportunities for girls, childhood sexual abuse, family violence, and poverty should be considered in strategies to reduce IPV in Viet Nam.

  18. Can we be (and stay) friends? Remaining friends after dissolution of a romantic relationship. (United States)

    Bullock, Melinda; Hackathorn, Jana; Clark, Eddie M; Mattingly, Brent A


    Although many individuals report being friends with their ex-romantic partners (Wilmot, Carbaugh, & Baxter, 1985), the literature regarding post-romantic friendships is very limited. We investigated whether satisfaction in the dissolved romantic relationship could predict post-romantic friendships and friendship maintenance. We found that the more satisfied individuals were during the dissolved romance, the more likely they were to remain friends and the more likely they were to engage in friendship maintenance behaviors. We also found that friendship maintenance fully mediated the association between past romantic satisfaction and current friendship satisfaction.

  19. Romantic love modulates women's identification of men's body odors. (United States)

    Lundström, Johan N; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn


    Romantic love is one of our most potent and powerful emotions, but very little is known with respect to the hormonal and psychological mechanisms in play. Romantic love is thought to help intimate partners stay committed to each other and two mechanisms have been proposed to mediate this commitment: increased attention towards one's partner or deflected attention away from other potential partners. Both mechanisms find support in the literature. We explored the potential influence of each of these mechanisms by assessing women's ability to identify (ID) body odors originating from their boyfriend, a same-sex friend, and an opposite-sex friend and the relationship between this ability and the degree of romantic love expressed towards their boyfriend. We hypothesized that an increase in attention towards one's partner would render a positive correlation between ID of a boyfriend's body odor and degree of romantic love; conversely, we hypothesized that attention deflected away from other potential partners would render a negative correlation between ID of an opposite-sex friend's body odor and degree of romantic love for the boyfriend. Our results supported the deflection theory as we found a negative correlation between the degree of romantic love for the subjects' boyfriends and their ability to ID the body odor of an opposite-sex friend but not of their boyfriend or same-sex friend. Our results indicate that romantic love deflects attention away from potential new partners rather than towards the present partner. These changes are likely mediated by circulating neuropeptides and a testable model is suggested.

  20. Predicting Romantic Involvement, Relationship Cognitions, and Relationship Qualities from Physical Appearance, Perceived Norms, and Relational Styles regarding Friends and Parents (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Winkles, Jessica K.


    Using a sample of 199 adolescents, the present study examined Furman and Wehner's (1999) hypothesis that the predictors of the degree of romantic involvement and the predictors of romantic relationship cognitions and qualities differ. As hypothesized, physical appearance and friends' normative romantic involvement were related to the degree of…

  1. Changing me to keep you: state jealousy promotes perceiving similarity between the self and a romantic rival. (United States)

    Slotter, Erica B; Lucas, Gale M; Jakubiak, Brittany; Lasslett, Heather


    Individuals sometimes alter their self-views to be more similar to others--traditionally romantic partners--because they are motivated to do so. A common motivating force is the desire to affiliate with a partner. The current research examined whether a different motivation--romantic jealousy--might promote individuals to alter their self-views to be more similar to a romantic rival, rather than a partner. Romantic jealousy occurs when individuals perceive a rival as a threat to their relationship and motivates individuals to defend their relationship. We proposed that one novel way that individuals might defend their relationship is by seeing themselves as more similar to a perceived romantic rival. We predicted individuals would alter their self-views to be more similar to a rival that they believed their partner found attractive. Importantly, we predicted that state romantic jealousy would motivate these self-alterations. Three studies confirmed these hypotheses.

  2. Patterns and Correlates of Serostatus Disclosure to Sexual Partners by Perinatally-Infected Adolescents and Young Adults. (United States)

    Weintraub, Amy; Mellins, Claude A; Warne, Patricia; Dolezal, Curtis; Elkington, Katherine; Bucek, Amelia; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Bamji, Mahrukh; Wiznia, Andrew; Abrams, Elaine J


    Similar to same-age peers, perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth in the US are engaging in sex, including condomless sex. Understanding decisions about serostatus disclosure to sexual partners is important to domestic and global HIV prevention efforts, since large numbers of PHIV+ children are entering adolescence and becoming sexually active. Using Social Action Theory (SAT) to inform variable selection, we examined correlates of disclosure among 98 PHIV+ adolescents/young adults in New York City. Over half of these youth reported not disclosing to any casual partners (59 %) or to any partners when using condoms (55 %). In bivariate analyses, increased disclosure was associated with older age; being female; earlier age of learning one's serostatus; and increased STD knowledge, disclosure intentions, and parent-child communication. Multiple regression analyses revealed a strong fit with the SAT model. As with adults, disclosure to sexual partners is difficult for PHIV+ youth and challenges prevention efforts. Effective interventions that help youth with disclosure decisions are needed to curb the epidemic.

  3. Youth as partners, participants or passive recipients: a review of children and adolescents in community-based participatory research (CBPR). (United States)

    Jacquez, Farrah; Vaughn, Lisa M; Wagner, Erin


    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an orientation to research that places value on equitable collaborations between community members and academic partners, reflecting shared decision making throughout the research process. Although CBPR has become increasingly popular for research with adults, youth are less likely to be included as partners. In our review of the literature, we identified 399 articles described by author or MeSH keyword as CBPR related to youth. We analyzed each study to determine youth engagement. Not including misclassified articles, 27 % of percent of studies were community-placed but lacked a community partnership and/or participatory component. Only 56 (15 %) partnered with youth in some phase of the research process. Although youth were most commonly involved in identifying research questions/priorities and in designing/conducting research, most youth-partnered projects included children or adolescents in several phases of the research process. We outline content, methodology, phases of youth partnership, and age of participating youth in each CBPR with youth project, provide exemplars of CBPR with youth, and discuss the state of the youth-partnered research literature.

  4. Brief Report: Activities in Heterosexual Romantic Relationships--Grade Differences and Associations with Relationship Satisfaction (United States)

    Carlson, Wendy; Rose, Amanda J.


    Whereas much research addresses relations of youths' heterosexual romantic relationships with sexual and/or delinquent activities, less attention has been paid to youths' more normative, day-to-day activities with romantic partners. This gap in the literature is problematic given that these activities define the substance of the relationships and…

  5. Sweet love: The effects of sweet taste experience on romantic perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, D.N.; Tan, K.; Arriaga, X.B.; Chan, K.Q.


    Terms of endearment such as sweetie, honey, and sugar are commonly used in the context of describing romantic partners. This article explores how a relatively subtle manipulation, namely taste sensations, might influence romantic perceptions of a nonestablished relationship. Consistent with predicti

  6. Pedagogy and "Romantic" Love (United States)

    Halpin, David


    This paper, which is significantly inspired by and based upon aspects of the writings of particular British nineteenth-century Romantic poets, outlines a positive, necessary even, role for friendship, love and passion in pedagogy.

  7. Romantic Love in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor C. de Munck


    Full Text Available We seek to advance cultural models theory by contributing to issues related to theory, methods, and testing the external validity of a cultural model. We propose that cultural models are learned as if they were truly properties of collectivities but have no primary existence except in individual representations of them. The shared aspect of cultural models also implies collective awareness of the if–then entailments of cultural models. We use inductive ethnographic methods of freelisting (n = 80 and pile sorting (n = 39 to derive a cultural model of romantic love in the United States. From these tasks, we developed a cultural model of successful romantic love consisting of normative scenarios. For successful romantic love relations, a person would feel excited about meeting their beloved; make passionate and intimate love as opposed to only physical love; feel comfortable with the beloved, behaving in a companionable, friendly way with one’s partner; listen to the other’s concerns, offering to help out in various ways if necessary; and, all the while, keeping a mental ledger of the degree to which altruism and passion are mutual. Our model is supported through an examination of two extended case studies. Further research is required, of course, but we believe we have a rather novel and dynamic cultural model that is falsifiable and predictive of successful love relationships. The model is unique in that it combines passion with comfort and friendship as properties of romantic love.

  8. Online communication predicts Belgian adolescents’ initiation of romantic and sexual activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbosch, L.; Beyens, I.; Vangeel, L.; Eggermont, S.


    Online communication is associated with offline romantic and sexual activity among college students. Yet, it is unknown whether online communication is associated with the initiation of romantic and sexual activity among adolescents. This two-wave panel study investigated whether chatting, visiting

  9. The significance of romantic love for marriage. (United States)

    Willi, J


    In this study, 605 subjects were asked about romantic love and marriage. Married people differentiated themselves from single people with stable partners and divorced people with new partners by more frequently living together with their great love, more reciprocity in that love, and less disappointments in love relationships prior to the current relationship; but they also described themselves as less happy and satisfied than the single and divorced respondents, particularly with regard to tenderness, sex, and conversation with their partners. Independent of marital status, those who were greatly in love with their partners describe themselves as happier. Love at first sight, relative to a gradually developing love, nevertheless, did not have a worse prognosis for happiness in marriage. Being in love seems to be of greater importance for the prognosis of the marriage than marital happiness and satisfaction.

  10. Predicting violence in romantic relationships during adolescence and emerging adulthood: a critical review of the mechanisms by which familial and peer influences operate. (United States)

    Olsen, James P; Parra, Gilbert R; Bennett, Shira A


    For three decades, researchers have sought to gain a greater understanding of the developmental antecedents to later perpetration or victimization of violence in romantic relationships. Whereas the majority of early studies focused on family-of-origin factors, attention in recent years has turned to additional ecologies such as peer relationships. This review highlights accomplishments of both family and peer studies that focus on violent romantic relationships in an effort to summarize the current state of knowledge. Attention is given to epidemiology and developmental family and peer factors, with special attention given to mechanisms that mediate and/or moderate the relation between family and peer factors and later participation in violent relationships. A critical approach is taken throughout the review in order to identify limitations of previous studies, and to highlight key findings. A case is made for viewing these developmental antecedents as a result of multiple developmental ecologies that is perhaps best summarized as a culture of violence.

  11. African American adolescents meeting sex partners online: closing the digital research divide in STI/HIV prevention. (United States)

    Whiteley, Laura B; Brown, Larry K; Swenson, Rebecca R; Valois, Robert F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; DiClemente, Ralph; Salazar, Laura F; Romer, Daniel


    Minority adolescents are affected disproportionately by HIV and STIs, and the Internet is a popular venue to meet sex partners. Little is known about the risks of this behavior for minority adolescents. The majority of studies that have examined sexual risk behavior online or STI/HIV prevention programs online have been among adult MSM. In this study, data from 1,045 African American youth found that 6% met sex partners online and in chat rooms. Odds ratios, adjusting for gender, found this behavior was associated with alcohol (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI [1.1, 4.7]) and drug use (AOR = 3.45, 95% CI [1.9, 6.1]), unprotected vaginal (AOR = 4.71, 95% CI [1.9, 8.4]) and anal sex (AOR = 4.77, 95% CI [1.3,17.1]) in the last 90 days, more lifetime vaginal (AOR = 3.65, 95% CI [2.0, 6.8]) and anal sex (AOR = 2.74, 95% CI [1.5, 4.8]), greater sexual sensation seeking (AOR = 2.92, 95% CI [1.5, 5.7]) and greater depression (AOR = 2.06, 95% CI [1.2, 3.6]. A final multiple logistic regression analyses found that male gender (AOR = 3.13, 95% CI [1.7, 5.8]), drug use at last sex (AOR = 2.41, 95% CI [1.3, 4.5]), lifetime history of vaginal (AOR = 2.90, 95% CI [1.5, 5.5]) and anal sex (AOR = 2.09, 95% CI [1.2, 3.6]), and cocaine use (AOR = 8.53, 95% CI [2.7, 27.3]) were independently associated with having sex with a partner met online. Meeting sex partners online is associated with a variety of risks among African American youth; however, the Internet may be an opportunity for intervention.

  12. Quality Counts: Developmental Shifts in Associations Between Romantic Relationship Qualities and Psychosocial Adjustment. (United States)

    Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol


    The present study assessed a developmental task theory of romantic relationships by examining associations between romantic relationship qualities and adjustment across 9 years using a community-based sample of 100 male and 100 female participants (Mage Wave 1 = 15.83) in a Western U.S. city. Using multilevel modeling, the study examined the moderating effect of age on links between romantic relationship qualities and adjustment. Consistent with developmental task theory, high romantic quality was more negatively associated with internalizing symptoms and dating satisfaction during young adulthood than adolescence. Romantic relationship qualities were also associated with externalizing symptoms and substance use, but the degree of association was consistent across ages. The findings underscore the significance of romantic relationship qualities across development.

  13. Mediating effect of social support on relationship between romantic partner attachment and life satisfaction in undergraduate students%社会支持在情侣依恋与生活满意度关系中的中介作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵思萌; 王晓玲; 陆爱桃; 金淼; CHAN China; 许艺青; 黎焕枝


    目的:考察香港大学生情侣依恋和生活满意度的关系,及社会支持对情侣依恋与生活满意度的中介效应.方法:采用方便取样,选取香港某大学生153名.用亲密关系经历量表、生活满意度量表(SWLS)和社会支持量表(SSQ)测查.结果:女生SSQ得分高于男生,而亲密关系经历量表的依恋回避维度得分低于男生.依恋回避、依恋焦虑得分均与SSQ,SWLS得分呈负相关(r=-0.69,-0.22,-0.24,-0.29;P<0.05),SSQ得分与SWLS得分呈正相关(r=0.28;P<0.05).社会支持对情侣依恋和生活满意度有部分中介效应(△R2=0.15,P<0.01).结论:大学生的情侣依恋与其生活满意度直接相关,并通过所获得的社会支持间接与生活满意度相关.%Objective: To investigate the relationship between romantic partner attachment and life satisfaction, and the mediating effect of social support on this relationship in college students. Methods: Totally 153 Hong Kong undergraduates were recruited by convenient sampling. They were assessed with the Experiences in Close Relationships ( ECR) , Social Support Questionnaire ( SSQ) , and Satisfaction with Life Scale ( SWLS) used. Results:The females obtained higher scores in SSQ, but lower score in avoidance attachment than males ( Ps < 0. 05) . Each of avoidance attachment and anxiety attachment was negatively associated with SSQ and SWLS, respectively ( r = -0. 69, - 0. 22, - 0. 24, - 0. 29; P < 0. 05). however, SSQ and SWLS were positively correlated with each other ( r = 0. 28. P < 0. 05). The romantic partner attachment had an effect on life satisfaction with social support as the mediator( ΔR2 = 0. 15. P < 0. 01). Conclusion: Romantic partner attachment is not only directly but also indirectly associated with life satisfaction.

  14. Arbitrary social norms influence sex differences in romantic selectivity. (United States)

    Finkel, Eli J; Eastwick, Paul W


    Men tend to be less selective than women when evaluating and pursuing potential romantic partners. The present experiment employed speed-dating procedures to test a novel explanation for this sex difference: The mere act of physically approaching a potential romantic partner (vs. being approached), a behavior that is more characteristic of men than of women, increases one's attraction to that partner. This hypothesis was supported in a sample of speed daters (N = 350) who attended a heterosexual event where either men (eight events) or women (seven events) rotated from one partner to the next while members of the other sex remained seated. Rotators were significantly less selective than were sitters, which meant that the tendency for men to be less selective than women at events where men rotated disappeared at events where women rotated. These effects were mediated by increased self-confidence among rotators relative to sitters.

  15. Self-forgiveness in romantic relationships: it matters to both of us. (United States)

    Pelucchi, Sara; Paleari, F Giorgia; Regalia, Camillo; Fincham, Frank D


    This study investigates self-forgiveness for real hurts committed against the partner in a romantic relationship (N = 168 couples). Using a dyadic perspective, we evaluated whether offender self-forgiveness, conceived as a bidimensional construct distinct from self-excusing, was uniquely related to both own and partner relationship satisfaction. For both males and females, offending partners were more satisfied with their romantic relationship to the extent that they had more positive and less negative sentiment and thoughts toward themselves, whereas victimized partners were more satisfied with the relationship when the offending partner had less negative sentiment and thoughts (but not more positive ones) toward himself/herself. The implications of these findings for understanding self-forgiveness and its pro-relationship effects in romantic couples are discussed.

  16. Being in a Romantic Relationship Is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Density in Striatum and Increased Subjective Happiness. (United States)

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K; Hamano, Yuki H; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro


    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68). Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113). Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.

  17. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kawamichi


    Full Text Available Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68. Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry (VBM study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113. Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.

  18. Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Behavior Problems among Latina Adolescent Mothers: The Buffering Effect of Mother-Reported Partner Child Care Involvement (United States)

    Smith, Erin N.; Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia


    We examined the relations between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 125 adolescent Latina mothers (primarily Puerto Rican) and their toddlers. We also tested the influence of mother-reported partner child care involvement on child behavior problems and explored mother-reported partner…

  19. Internalizing and Externalizing Problem Behaviors in Adolescence and Young adulthood : Longitudinal Studies on the Role of Co-occurrence and Intimate Bonds with Parents and Partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, G.J.


    Two main issues formed a starting point for the different empirical studies that make up this dissertation: (1) what is the prevalence, course, and comorbidity of problem behavior in adolescence and young adulthood?, and (2) what is the role of intimate relationships with parents and partners in the

  20. Testing the Cycle of Violence Hypothesis: Child Abuse and Adolescent Dating Violence as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood (United States)

    Gomez, Anu Manchikanti


    Child abuse is an important determinant of future violence perpetration and victimization. Past research examining linkages between child abuse and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) has predominantly focused on married individuals and not considered adolescent dating violence. In the present study, data from three waves of the National…

  1. Adolescent Psychosocial Risk Factors for Severe Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood (United States)

    Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia


    The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…

  2. Understanding Adolescent and Family Influences on Intimate Partner Psychological Violence during Emerging Adulthood and Adulthood (United States)

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.


    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection,…

  3. Parent-Child Positivity and Romantic Relationships in Emerging Adulthood: Congruence, Compensation, and the Role of Social Skills (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.


    Romantic relationship quality in adolescence and early adulthood has often been linked to earlier parent-child relationship quality but it is possible that these links are nonlinear. Moreover, the role of social skills as mediator of associations between parent-child and romantic relations has been discussed but not rigorously tested. Using data…

  4. Falling in love with romantic ideals: women in relationships with child molesters. (United States)

    McLaren, Helen


    Drawing on data from a larger research study, this paper explores intersecting and competing social relations that influenced the romantic desires of women who became intimately involved with men who molested children. Through a feminist poststructuralist lens, women's narratives were analysed with the use of feminist interpretations of Foucauldian discourse theory. Analysis informed of a discursive power over participants that made the attainment of romantic desires an imperative for ensuring social respect, worth and credibility as women. When all was not ideal, these same romantic desires compelled women to fix and hold onto their relationships--even when with men that attract damning societal responses towards them. Even upon acknowledgement of their partners' sexual transgressions, the fear of relationship breakdown meant that romantic desires again featured as imperatives for the women. The imagined pleasure of achieving romantic desires is discursive; so powerful that it outweighed women's fears and dangers of precarious intimate life with men who commit abhorrent acts.

  5. The role of important non-parental adults (VIPs) in the lives of older adolescents: a comparison of three ethnic groups. (United States)

    Haddad, Eileen; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen


    Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The present study compared VIPs of 355 Hispanic, Asian, and European American older adolescents (age range = 17-19 years; M = 18.7 years; 62% female). Results indicated that, despite ethnic differences in their social capital, VIPs' psychological characteristics (e.g., warmth and acceptance, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were similar. VIPs were perceived to have more positive psychological profiles than parents and peers, and in some cases, romantic partners. Moreover, with a few exceptions, the associations between VIP characteristics and adolescent adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were largely similar across ethnic groups. Finally, VIPs made unique contributions to adolescents' self-esteem and problem behaviors even after the effects of romantic partners were considered. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  6. Heathcliff as a Romantic Hero


    KLIMEŠOVÁ, Daniela


    The aim of the bachelor thesis is primarily in the opening chapter to define Romanticism in English literature of the nineteenth century. Yet the main focus is on the concept of the Romantic hero both in poetry and prose of English Romantics (Byron, Shelley). The thesis also tries to characterize the main male character of Emily Brontë's novel Wuthering Heights in detail focusing particularly on his Romantic features. At the end it tries to outline primary internal discrepancies of the Romant...

  7. You are so beautiful... to me: seeing beyond biases and achieving accuracy in romantic relationships. (United States)

    Solomon, Brittany C; Vazire, Simine


    Do romantic partners see each other realistically, or do they have overly positive perceptions of each other? Research has shown that realism and positivity co-exist in romantic partners' perceptions (Boyes & Fletcher, 2007). The current study takes a novel approach to explaining this seemingly paradoxical effect when it comes to physical attractiveness--a highly evaluative trait that is especially relevant to romantic relationships. Specifically, we argue that people are aware that others do not see their partners as positively as they do. Using both mean differences and correlational approaches, we test the hypothesis that despite their own biased and idiosyncratic perceptions, people have 2 types of partner-knowledge: insight into how their partners see themselves (i.e., identity accuracy) and insight into how others see their partners (i.e., reputation accuracy). Our results suggest that romantic partners have some awareness of each other's identity and reputation for physical attractiveness, supporting theories that couple members' perceptions are driven by motives to fulfill both esteem- and epistemic-related needs (i.e., to see their partners positively and realistically).

  8. I get so lonely, baby: The effects of loneliness and social isolation on romantic dependency. (United States)

    Hasan, Michelle; Clark, Eddie M


    Individuals lacking fulfilling interpersonal interactions may experience feelings of loneliness. Consequently, these individuals may over-rely on their romantic partners to fulfill the need to belong. This study examined the effects of loneliness and social isolation on dependency on a romantic partner in a sample of college students (N = 104). Participants who were in a romantic relationship completed measures of loneliness, social isolation, and romantic dependency near the beginning of the semester (Time 1) and approximately 6 weeks later toward the end of the semester (Time 2). Toward the beginning of the semester, there were no significant predictors of dependency. Toward the end of the semester, individuals who reported higher social isolation reported higher levels of dependency. Time 1 dependency also predicted Time 2 dependency. Future methodological directions and suggestions regarding the examination of perceptions of loneliness and relationship expectations are discussed.

  9. Brief report: Activities in heterosexual romantic relationships: grade differences and associations with relationship satisfaction. (United States)

    Carlson, Wendy; Rose, Amanda J


    Whereas much research addresses relations of youths' heterosexual romantic relationships with sexual and/or delinquent activities, less attention has been paid to youths' more normative, day-to-day activities with romantic partners. This gap in the literature is problematic given that these activities define the substance of the relationships and likely are connected to relationship satisfaction. In the current study, 223 youths in fifth (28 boys; 32 girls), eighth (31 boys; 40 girls), and eleventh (36 boys; 56 girls) grades reporting current romantic relationships indicated their engagement in activities with romantic partners and relationship satisfaction. Findings revealed important grade differences in activity involvement, with eighth- and eleventh-graders reporting higher engagement than fifth-graders, especially in out-of-school activities. Additionally, engagement in out-of-school activities was most strongly associated with relationship satisfaction for all grades.

  10. Factors linking childhood experiences to adult romantic relationships among African Americans. (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H


    It is well known that a high-quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults, and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships, although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  11. Romantic relationship formation, maintenance and changes in personal networks. (United States)

    Rözer, Jesper Jelle; Mollenhorst, Gerald; Volker, Beate


    According to the social withdrawal hypothesis, a personal network becomes smaller when a person starts dating, cohabitates and marries. This phenomenon is widely established in the literature. However, these studies were usually done with cross-sectional data. As a consequence, it is still unclear whether or how personal networks actually change after the formation of a romantic relationship (i.e. dating), after starting cohabitation and after getting married. It is also unclear how long and to what extent social withdrawal continues. To overcome these shortcomings, we examine how the size and composition of personal networks change after relationship formation. We use two waves of the PAIRFAM dataset (2008 and 2011), which include information about 6640 Germans who were between 16 and 39 years of age at the time of the second interview in 2008. Results from fixed effects regression models underscore that the association between romantic relationships and changes in personal networks is more dynamic than previous studies suggested. For example, after the formation of a romantic relationship people show a decrease in non-kin contacts, while an increase in non-kin contacts is observed after two years of dating, as well as after two years of cohabitation. These network changes suggest that people adapt their social networks to the demands and constraints of each phase of a romantic relationship. Because the decline in network size after dating is not stable, there is no need to be afraid that those who have a romantic partner remain isolated from other relationships.

  12. Brief Report: Activities in Heterosexual Romantic Relationships: Grade Differences and Associations with Relationship Satisfaction


    Carlson, Wendy; Rose, Amanda J.


    Whereas much research addresses relations of youths’ heterosexual romantic relationships with sexual and/or delinquent activities, less attention has been paid to youths’ more normative, day-to-day activities with romantic partners. This gap in the literature is problematic given that these activities define the substance of the relationships and likely are connected to relationship satisfaction. In the current study, 223 youths in fifth (28 boys; 32 girls), eighth (31 boys; 40 girls), and el...

  13. The Development and Prospects of Research on Adolescents' Romantic Relationship%青少年浪漫关系研究的现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文; 毛晶晶


    浪漫关系(romantic relationship)是情侣在交往过程中形成的一种心理关系,由亲密、激情和承诺三部分组成.本文对浪漫关系的概念、类型、行为系统,以及发展等方面进行了分析.家庭、同伴、个体沟通手段,以及文化背景等是青少年浪漫关系的主要影响因素.当前浪漫关系的研究方法主要包括自我报告法、访谈法、观察法、叙述法以及实验法.未来研究应着重探讨青少年浪漫关系机制,及其与心理健康的关系和青少年浪漫关系的本土化研究与跨文化研究的比较.

  14. Associations between Young Adult Romantic Relationship Quality and Problem Behaviors: An Examination of Personality-Environment Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim


    This longitudinal study examined person-environment interplay by testing interaction effects between adolescent personality type (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, and resilients) and young adult romantic relationship quality on young adult delinquency and anxiety. The study employed six wave

  15. Personality Effects on Romantic Relationship Quality through Friendship Quality : A Ten-Year Longitudinal Study in Youths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H. J.


    This study examined whether individuals with different personality types (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, resilients) had different friendship quality development throughout adolescence. It also investigated whether personality types were indirectly related to romantic relationship quality

  16. Same-Sex Sexual Attraction Does Not Spread in Adolescent Social Networks



    Peers have a powerful effect on adolescents' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Here, we examine the role of social networks in the spread of attitudes towards sexuality using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Although we found evidence that both sexual activity (OR = 1.79) and desire to have a romantic relationship (OR = 2.69) may spread from person to person, attraction to same sex partners did not spread (OR = 0.96). Analyses of comparable power t...

  17. The development of romantic relationships and adaptations in the system of peer relationships. (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J


    In this review, it is proposed that a systems approach to the study of the development of romantic relationships might enhance our understanding of the nature of social relationships, and the links between social relationships and individual psychosocial functioning. First, a selected literature review is provided on the normative development of romantic relationships during adolescence, antecedents of different romantic involvement pathways, and positive and negative qualities of these relationships. Second, the focus is placed on the how the development of romantic relationships occurs within existing systems of relationships including peer networks and close friendships. It is suggested that the development of romantic relationships may change the peer network and nature of relationships with friends and others, and particular types of transitions in social relationships will likely occur. The timing of these transitions and an understanding of the entire peer system as romantic relationships develop will likely improve our understanding of individual developmental processes such as identity formation and the development of externalizing and internalizing problems. Finally, it is proposed that adolescents are faced with a complicated task that includes developing romantic interests and relationships but managing their changing social networks.

  18. The personal meaning of romantic relationships for young people with psychosis. (United States)

    Redmond, Cara; Larkin, Michael; Harrop, Chris


    Romantic relationships are of particular importance to young people, and play a key role in the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Psychosis typically develops during late adolescence or early adulthood, a crucial period for gaining romantic experience. The significance of these relationships for young people with psychosis has never been explored. Eight participants were interviewed about their experiences and perceptions of romantic relationships using a semi-structured interview. The research was conducted using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Five overarching themes emerged, suggesting that participants experienced conflict regarding romantic relationships, as they considered such relationships incompatible with psychosis, whilst they also associated them with normality and recovery. Relationships were perceived to be "risky", and participants were concerned with strategies for reducing these risks. Respondents typically perceived themselves to have a relative lack of experience and resources, making it more difficult for them to engage in romantic relationships. As romantic relationships are associated with a range of personal and social benefits, young people who have experienced psychosis may benefit from services supporting them in negotiating stigma and facilitating their involvement in romantic relationships.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Kajokienė


    Full Text Available Purpose. To reveal how mid-adolencent girls are experiencing their „novice“ sexual self in the space of first romantic relationship. Methodology. The qualitative hermeneutic longitudinal reserach, with the Interpretative Phenomenolocal data Analysis (Smith et al., 2009. Purposive sample. 9 female participants: 18 interviews’transcribts. Findings. 5 thematic categories emerged which describe different aspects of being sexual in the first romantic bond: Individualistic Self; Open Self; Happy Self; Excited Self; Experimenting Self Practical implications. Data have value for health educators, clinical psychologists, parents and teenages themselves. Research type: Empirical research paper. Keywords: qualitative longitudinal study, adolescent girl, sexual self, romantic relationships

  20. Family Cohesion and Romantic and Sexual Initiation: A Three Wave Longitudinal Study.


    van der Graaf, H.; Schoot, A.G.J. van de; Woertman, L.; Hawk, S.T.; Meeus, Wim


    Although the relation between family relationships and the timing of sexual debut has been the focus of many studies, research on mediating factors is scarce. This study examines whether low levels of family cohesion result in an earlier onset of romantic and sexual experiences, and whether the link between family cohesion and an early sexual debut is mediated by early romantic initiation. A longitudinal sample of 314 adolescent girls and 222 boys, aged 12–17 at Wave 1, completed questionnair...

  1. With or without you: does partner satisfaction and partner-directed violence influence the presence of a partner on women's Facebook cover profile photographs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Prokop

    Full Text Available Social network sites (SNSs provide new opportunities for online self-presentation of millions of users. The cover profile photograph (CPP along with written information regarding relationship status is a central component of online self-presentation, although their associations with actual romantic relationships are not clear. We investigated relationships between the presence of a current romantic partner on the CPP and the displayed relationship status and partner satisfaction, partner-directed violence and women's intrasexual competition with peers. A total of 28 % of the 158 women with a Facebook profile and being involved in a romantic relationship had their romantic partners on their CPP. As predicted, women with their partners on the CPP were more satisfied with their romantic relationship than others. Furthermore, women who did not have their partner on the CPP tended to conceal or lie in their displayed mating status suggesting that this may be a strategy how to attract another potential mate. The partner-directed violence and intrasexual competition hypotheses were not supported. Overall, the CPP and an honestly displayed relationship status is an expression of relationship satisfaction amongst women.

  2. Positive and negative qualities of South African adolescents' parent and peer relationships. (United States)

    Lesch, Elmien; de Jager, Nadia


    Parent and peer relationships are important social resources for adolescents. South African research on adolescents' relationships, however, underemphasises these relationships as potential positive resources. Studies also tend to use samples from urban populations, while rural and semi-rural adolescent populations are neglected. This study focused on White and Coloured adolescents living in one South African semi-rural community and their ratings of positive and negative relationship qualities in relationships with parents and peers. Using the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI), we found that mothers, best friends and romantic partners were relatively equal sources of social support. Mothers' high ratings for support, conflict and punishment may point to mothers bearing the primary responsibility for child care. Fathers' low support ratings raise concern as father involvement is important for adolescents' well-being. White participants overall rated their relationship higher for support and lower for negative qualities than the Coloured participants.

  3. The Long-Term Effects of Stress on Partner Weight Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Fletcher

    Full Text Available Recent experimental evidence suggests that stressed males find heavier women more attractive than non-stressed males. The aim of this study is to examine whether these results also appear in actual mating patterns of adults from a national sample.Regression analysis linking partner weight measures to own measures of childhood stress, as measured by mistreatment. Cross-sectional data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Romantic Partners Sample is used to measure partner weight, childhood stressful events, and socio-demographic characteristics. Childhood experiences of adult mistreatment are retrospectively collected.Men who experienced childhood mistreatment are more likely to have obese female partners during young adulthood. The results are strongest for interactions with social services, adult neglect and physical abuse. We also present novel evidence of the opposite association in similarly stressed women whose male partners are more likely to be thin.These results suggest that preferences for partner characteristics are sensitive to histories of stress and that previously hypothesized patterns occur outside the experimental setting.

  4. Perceived and Actual Weight Stigma Among Romantic Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Collisson


    Full Text Available According to research on weight bias, relationship stigma may be greater among romantic couples comprised of at least one overweight partner, as compared to two healthy-weight partners. However, comparison theories predict that the stigma of being overweight may be greater among mixed-weight couples (i.e., romantic partners with dissimilar body mass indexes; BMI than matched-weight couples (e.g., similarly overweight partners. To test these rival hypotheses, we assessed perceived and actual stigma experienced by mixed-weight and matched-weight couples. In two studies, people inferred (Study 1 or reported the actual amount (Study 2 of relational stigma and weight-related discomfort experienced by a healthy-weight/overweight person in a mixed/matched-weight relationship. Supporting the weight bias hypothesis, people inferred overweight people and their partners experience greater stigma and weight-related discomfort (Study 1. However, only overweight people in a matched-weight, as compared to mixed-weight, relationships actually reported greater relational stigma and weight-related discomfort (Study 2.

  5. Financial stress, parent functioning and adolescent problem behavior: an actor-partner interdependence approach to family stress processes in low-, middle-, and high-income families. (United States)

    Ponnet, Koen


    The family stress model proposes that financial stress experienced by parents is associated with problem behavior in adolescents. The present study applied an actor-partner interdependence approach to the family stress model and focused on low-, middle-, and high-income families to broaden our understanding of the pathways by which the financial stress of mothers and fathers are related to adolescent outcomes. The study uses dyadic data (N = 798 heterosexual couples) from the Relationship between Mothers, Fathers and Children study in which two-parent families with an adolescent between 11 and 17 years of age participated. Path-analytic results indicated that in each of the families the association between parents' financial stress and problem behavior in adolescents is mediated through parents' depressive symptoms, interparental conflict, and positive parenting. Family stress processes also appear to operate in different ways for low-, middle-, and high-income families. In addition to a higher absolute level of financial stress in low-income families, financial stress experienced by mothers and fathers in these families had significant direct and indirect effects on problem behavior in adolescents, while in middle- and high-income families only significant indirect effects were found. The financial stress of a low-income mother also had a more detrimental impact on her level of depressive feelings than it had on mothers in middle-income families. Furthermore, the study revealed gender differences in the pathways of mothers and fathers. Implications for research, clinical practice, and policy are also discussed.

  6. The Mediating Role of Romantic Desolation and Dating Anxiety in the Association Between Interpersonal Competence and Life Satisfaction Among Polish Young Adults. (United States)

    Adamczyk, Katarzyna; Segrin, Chris

    This study investigates the role of romantic desolation on life satisfaction in young adulthood. Using data from a Polish sample of 330 (205 females and 125 males) young adults aged 20-30, who completed Polish versions of the Satisfaction With Life Scale, Dating Anxiety Scale, Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire-Revised, and Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults-Short Form, romantic desolation (romantic loneliness and lack of a romantic partner) and dating anxiety were tested as mediators of the association between interpersonal competence and life satisfaction. Results revealed that single individuals reported lower life satisfaction and higher romantic loneliness than did partnered individuals. At the same time, no differences emerged between single and partnered individuals in dating anxiety or interpersonal competence. Structural equation modeling results showed that low interpersonal competence has an indirect effect on romantic desolation through higher levels of dating anxiety. Also, dating anxiety had an indirect effect on lower life satisfaction through increased romantic desolation. These results highlight the important role of dating anxiety and romantic desolation for explaining why low interpersonal competence is associated with diminished life satisfaction in young adults.

  7. Conflicting pressures on romantic relationship commitment for anxiously attached individuals. (United States)

    Joel, Samantha; MacDonald, Geoff; Shimotomai, Atsushi


    Anxious attachment predicts strong desires for intimacy and stability in romantic relationships, yet the relation between anxious attachment and romantic commitment is unclear. We propose that extant literature has failed to find a consistent relation because anxiously attached individuals experience conflicting pressures on commitment. Data from Australia (N=137) show that relationship satisfaction and felt security each act as suppressors of a positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment. Data from Japan (N=159) replicate the suppression effect of felt security and also demonstrate that the residual positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment can be partly explained by dependence on the partner. These findings suggest that anxiously attached individuals may be ambivalent about commitment. Dissatisfaction and worries about negative evaluation appear to exert downward pressure on commitment, counteracting the upward pressure that is exerted by factors such as relational dependency.

  8. Sexual victimization and family violence among urban African American adolescent women: do violence cluster profiles predict partner violence victimization and sex trade exposure? (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen


    Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.



    Zharylgapov, Zhansaya


    The author reveals romantic images creation problems in the early stories of the famous Kazakh writer М. Аuezov, pays special attention to the characteristic peculiarities of romantic manifestation in a main hero portrayal, and traces the typological interconnections of М. Аuezov's Kazakh romantic prose with West-European and Russian romanticism.

  10. Knowing me, knowing you: a study of self and partner life story knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panattoni, Katherine W.; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard

    and communion themes and redemption and contamination sequences between one’s own life story and that of a romantic partner’s, and 2) higher positivity - via redemption sequences - in one’s own life story. Methodologically, participants (N=80) describe life story episodes for themselves and romantic partners...

  11. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels. (United States)

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J


    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.

  12. The consequences of suppressing affective displays in romantic relationships: A challenge and threat perspective. (United States)

    Peters, Brett J; Jamieson, Jeremy P


    Emotion suppression is one of the most studied topics in emotion regulation. However, little is known about how response-focused regulation strategies unfold in romantic relationships from the perspectives of both emotion regulators and their interaction partners. Using the biopsychosocial (BPS) model of challenge and threat as an organizing framework, 2 experiments examined effects of expressive suppression (vs. expression) on affective, cognitive, physiological, and behavioral processes in regulators and their romantic partners. In Experiment 1 a crowd-sourced sample of individuals currently in a romantic relationship simulated scenarios in which the self or partner engaged in response-focused emotion regulation (expression or suppression of affective displays). Suppressors expected worse outcomes compared with expressers. However, individuals on the receiving end of suppression (suppression targets) did not differ from expression targets. Experiment 2 then examined romantic couples' responses to suppression/expression in vivo. Regulators were randomly assigned to suppress/express affective displays and partners (targets) were unaware of the manipulation. Suppressors and suppression targets exhibited more malignant physiological responses (increased vascular resistance and elevated cortisol reactivity) during an emotional conversation and reduced intimacy behavior as measured with a novel touch task. Consequences for relationship processes are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Mapping Young Adults' Use of Fathers for Attachment Support: Implications on Romantic Relationship Experiences (United States)

    Freeman, Harry; Almond, Tasha M.


    A mixed methods approach was used to examine how young adults (n = 1012) perceive fathers as targets for attachment support. Participants ranked the level of attachment support received and sought from fathers, mothers, best friends, and romantic partners, and provided relationship-specific information on additional indices of social support…

  14. Where do you end and I begin? Evidence for anticipatory, motivated self-other integration between relationship partners. (United States)

    Slotter, Erica B; Gardner, Wendi L


    Perceiving similarity between oneself and one's romantic partner benefits both the individual and the relationship and can arise from multiple pathways that draw either the partner closer to the self or the self closer to the partner. The current research focuses on the latter. The authors investigate novel circumstances under which the self-concepts of individuals in romantic relationships may intertwine. Although self-other integration typically grows from the depth of shared experiences between relationship partners, the current research proposes a secondary pathway through which self-other integration may occur: Specifically, motivation to draw close to a romantic partner may be sufficient to evoke self-other integration even in the absence of shared experience. In 6 studies, the authors explored this anticipatory self-other integration pathway, using both current and potential romantic partners. The results supported the hypotheses by demonstrating that self-other integration can occur in an anticipatory fashion with the appropriate motivation.


    Simons, Ronald L; Barr, Ashley B


    Although research regarding the impact of marriage on desistance is important, most romantic relationships during early adulthoood, the period in the life course when involvement in criminal offending is relatively high, do not involve marriage. Using the internal moderator approach, we tested hypotheses regarding the impact of non-marital romantic relationships on desistance using longitudinal data from a sample of approximately 600 African American young adults. The results largely supported the study hypotheses. We found no significant association between simply being in a romantic relationship and desistance from offending. On the other hand, for both males and females quality of romantic relationship was rather strongly associated with desistance. Partner antisociality only influenced the offending of females. Much of the effect of quality of romantic relationship on desistance was mediated by a reduction in commitment to a criminogenic knowledge structure (a hostile view of people and relationships, concern with immediate gratification, and cynical view of conduct norms). The mediating effect of change in affiliation with deviant peers was not significant once the contribution of criminogenic knowledge structure was taken into account. The findings are discussed in terms of social control and cognitive accounts of the mechanisms whereby romantic relationships influence desistance.

  16. Disorganized Behavior in Adolescent-Parent Interaction: Relations to Attachment State of Mind, Partner Abuse, and Psychopathology (United States)

    Obsuth, Ingrid; Hennighausen, Katherine; Brumariu, Laura E.; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen


    Disoriented, punitive, and caregiving/role-confused attachment behaviors are associated with psychopathology in childhood, but have not been assessed in adolescence. A total of 120 low-income late adolescents (aged 18-23 years) and parents were assessed in a conflict-resolution paradigm. Their interactions were coded with the Goal-Corrected…

  17. Parent and Family Influences on Young Women's Romantic and Sexual Decisions (United States)

    Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee; Garwick, Ann


    Parents can play an important role in reducing their children's risk for teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, and in promoting sexual health during adolescence. The purpose of this study was to explore communication between parents, family members and young people and how it influences their romantic and sexual behaviours.…

  18. The use of social networking sites for relationship maintenance in long-distance and geographically close romantic relationships. (United States)

    Billedo, Cherrie Joy; Kerkhof, Peter; Finkenauer, Catrin


    Social networking sites (SNS) play an increasingly important role in maintaining geographically close romantic relationships (GCRR). However, knowledge about SNS use in long-distance romantic relationships (LDRR) is still lacking. The present study examined the relative importance of SNS in maintaining LDRR compared to GCRR, particularly with regard to the use of SNS to express involvement (via relational maintenance behaviors) and to gauge a partner's involvement (via partner surveillance and jealousy) in the relationship. An online survey was conducted among predominantly young adult Facebook users who were in a romantic relationship (N=272). Results showed that participants who were in a LDRR reported higher levels of relational maintenance behaviors through SNS than participants who were in a GCRR. Also, as compared to participants who were in a GCRR, participants who were in a LDRR used SNS more for partner surveillance and experienced higher levels of SNS jealousy.

  19. "All the men here have the Peter Pan syndrome--they don't want to grow up": Navajo adolescent mothers' intimate partner relationships--a 15-year perspective. (United States)

    Dalla, Rochelle L; Marchetti, Alexandria M; Sechrest, Elizabeth Beth A; White, Jennifer L


    In 1992 and 1995, data were collected from 29 Navajo Native American adolescent mothers. In 2007 and 2008, data were collected from 21 of the original 29 (72%). Guided by feminist family theory, this investigation sought to (a) examine Navajo adolescent mothers' intimate partner relationships during the transition to parenthood, (b) identify themes in the young mothers' intimate partnerships across time, and (c) assess participants' psychosocial well-being in adulthood. Four themes emerged in the women's long-term intimate relationships: limited support, substance abuse, infidelity, and intimate partner violence. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  20. Preparing Students for Romantic Relationships (United States)

    Weissbourd, Richard; Peterson, Amelia; Weinstein, Emily


    One of the most important aspects in our lives is learning how to have mutual, caring romantic relationships. Yet while schools and many other industries in this country devote tremendous attention and resources to preparing the young for work, they do remarkably little to prepare them for generous, self-respecting sex and love. Educators and…

  1. Taking Chances in Romantic Relationships (United States)

    Elliott, Lindsey; Knox, David


    A 64 item Internet questionnaire was completed by 381 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to assess taking chances in romantic relationships. Almost three fourths (72%) self-identified as being a "person willing to take chances in my love relationship." Engaging in unprotected sex, involvement in a "friends with…

  2. Albery Whitman, a Rebellious Romantic. (United States)

    Marshall, Carl L.

    One of the Afro-American writers who spoke out clearly during the postreconstruction period was Albery A. Whitman (1851-1902). A romantic poet, Whitman produced seven volumes of poetry. His profound belief in freedom and equality for his race is expressed forcefully in two long narrative poems, "Not a Man and Yet a Man" and "The…

  3. Validating an Index of Adolescent Sexual Behavior Using Psychosocial Theory and Social Trait Correlates


    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy


    Using a web-based survey of adolescents 14–16 years of age, a hierarchical index of heterosexual behavior was developed with excellent psychometric properties. The easiest sexual behavior to perform was “deep kissing” and the most difficult was “receiving anal sex” for females and “giving anal sex” for males. The index was validated with data that show increased sexual activity with being older and of minority status, with social traits such as physical development, having a romantic partner,...

  4. Predictors of young adults' representations of and behavior in their current romantic relationship: prospective tests of the prototype hypothesis. (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I; Collins, W Andrew; Sroufe, L Alan; Egeland, Byron


    Although attachment theory suggests that childhood experiences with caregivers serve as a prototype for adult love relationships, few explicit tests of this hypothesis exist in the literature. Drawing on data from a longitudinal cohort followed from birth to young adulthood, this paper examined correlates and antecedents of young adults' representations of and behavior in their current romantic relationship. Young adults who experienced a secure relationship with their primary caregiver in infancy as assessed in the Strange Situation were more likely to (a) produce coherent discourse regarding their current romantic partnership in the context of the Current Relationship Interview (CRI) and (b) have a higher quality romantic relationship as observed in standard conflict and collaboration tasks. Infant security accounted for variation in CRI security above and beyond the observed quality of participants' current romantic relationship. In contrast, the association between infant and romantic security was partially mediated by individuals' self-reports about their romantic experiences, suggesting that one plausible mechanism by which early experiences with caregivers shape young adults' representations of their attachments with romantic partners is through adults' expectations for and perceptions of love relationships.

  5. Romantic relationship stages and social networking sites: uncertainty reduction strategies and perceived relational norms on facebook. (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Anderegg, Courtney


    Due to their pervasiveness and unique affordances, social media play a distinct role in the development of modern romantic relationships. This study examines how a social networking site is used for information seeking about a potential or current romantic partner. In a survey, Facebook users (N=517) were presented with Facebook behaviors categorized as passive (e.g., reading a partner's profile), active (e.g., "friending" a common third party), or interactive (e.g., commenting on the partner's wall) uncertainty reduction strategies. Participants reported how normative they perceived these behaviors to be during four possible stages of relationship development (before meeting face-to-face, after meeting face-to-face, casual dating, and exclusive dating). Results indicated that as relationships progress, perceived norms for these behaviors change. Sex differences were also observed, as women perceived passive and interactive strategies as more normative than men during certain relationship stages.

  6. The prosocial versus proself power holder: how power influences sacrifice in romantic relationships. (United States)

    Righetti, Francesca; Luchies, Laura B; van Gils, Suzanne; Slotter, Erica B; Witcher, Betty; Kumashiro, Madoka


    Romantic partners often have to sacrifice their interests to benefit their partner or to maintain the relationship. In the present work, we investigated whether relative power within the relationship plays an important role in determining the extent to which partners are likely to sacrifice. Drawing from both classic theories and recent research on power, we tested two competing predictions on the relationship between power and sacrifice in romantic relationships. We tested whether (a) power is negatively related to sacrifice and (b) power is positively related to sacrifice. Furthermore, we also explored whether the association between power and sacrifice is moderated by commitment and inclusion of the other in the self. To test our hypotheses, we used different methodologies, including questionnaires, diary studies, and videotaped interactions. Results across the five studies (N = 1,088) consistently supported the hypothesis that power is negatively related to tendencies to sacrifice in close relationships.

  7. Effects of empathy and conflict resolution strategies on psychophysiological arousal and satisfaction in romantic relationships. (United States)

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M; Oliveira-Silva, Patrícia; Simon-Dack, Stephanie; Lefdahl-Davis, Erin; Adams, David; McConnell, John; Howell, Desiree; Hess, Ryan; Davis, Andrew; Gonçalves, Oscar F


    The present research builds upon the extant literature as it assesses psychophysiological factors in relation to empathy, conflict resolution, and romantic relationship satisfaction. In this study, we examined physiological reactivity of individuals in the context of emotionally laden interactions with their romantic partners. Participants (N = 31) completed self-report measures and attended in-person data collection sessions with their romantic partners. Participants were guided through discussions of problems and strengths of their relationships in vivo with their partners while we measured participants' skin conductance level (SCL) and interbeat interval (IBI) of the heart. We hypothesized that participants' level of empathy towards their partners would be reflected by physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) and relationship satisfaction, such that higher levels of empathy would be linked to changes in physiological arousal and higher relationship satisfaction. Further, we hypothesized that differences would be found in physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) based on the type of conflict resolution strategy used by participants. Finally, we hypothesized that differences would be found in empathy towards partner and relationship satisfaction based on the type of conflict resolution strategies used by participants. Results partially supported hypotheses and were discussed in light of existing knowledge based on empirical and theoretical sources.

  8. Romantic relationship development in the age of Facebook: an exploratory study of emerging adults' perceptions, motives, and behaviors. (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M


    Social networking sites are becoming a prevalent form of communication in the escalation of romantic relationships. An online survey (n=403) addressed emerging adults' experiences with Facebook and romantic relationships, particularly a unique affordance of Facebook: the ability to declare oneself as "In a Relationship" and actively link one's profile to a romantic partner's, commonly known as going Facebook official. Results identified common social perceptions of the meaning of this status (regarding commitment, intensity, and social response) and both interpersonal and social motives for posting it on Facebook. Additionally, sex differences were identified in perceptions of meaning, wherein women felt this status conveyed commitment and intensity moreso than men did. Implications of this discrepancy on heterosexual relationship satisfaction and the prevailing role of technology in romantic relationships are discussed.

  9. Parents as partners in adolescent HIV prevention in Eastern and Southern Africa: an evaluation of the current United Nations' approach. (United States)

    Wathuta, Jane


    The United Nations's (UN) sustainable development goals (SDGs) include the target (3.3) of ending the HIV/AIDS epidemic by 2030. A major challenge in this regard is to curb the incidence of HIV among adolescents, the number two cause of their death in Africa. In Eastern and Southern Africa, they are mainly infected through heterosexual transmission. Research findings about parental influence on the sexual behavior of their adolescent children are reviewed and findings indicate that parental communication, monitoring and connectedness contribute to the avoidance of risky sexual behavior in adolescents. This article evaluates the extent to which these three dimensions of parenting have been factored in to current HIV prevention recommendations relating to adolescent boys and girls. Four pertinent UN reports are analyzed and the results used to demonstrate that the positive role of parents or primary caregivers vis-à-vis risky sexual behavior has tendentially been back-grounded or even potentially undermined. A more explicit inclusion of parents in adolescent HIV prevention policy and practice is essential - obstacles notwithstanding - enabling their indispensable partnership towards ending an epidemic mostly driven by sexual risk behavior. Evidence from successful or promising projects is included to illustrate the practical feasibility and fruitfulness of this approach.

  10. Elevated romantic love and jealousy if relationship status is declared on Facebook. (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Szekeres, Ádám; Kiss, Zoltán G; Farkas, Péter; Roland-Lévy, Christine


    Declared relationship status on Facebook can serve as a public commitment and as an extra layer of a couple's security. However, the question arises: do those who report the relationship status feel stronger romantic love and jealousy toward their partners than those who do not share such information publicly? To test this assumption, profile information and questionnaire data of romantic love and jealousy were gathered from 292, 230 females) respondents that were in a relationship. Our results suggest that announcing the relationship status is associated with elevated romantic love and jealousy. Therefore, being "Facebook official" can be interpreted as a tie-sign indicating that the couple is "out of the market," and can promote their unity as a "digital wedding ring."

  11. Elevated romantic love and jealousy if relationship status is declared on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor eOrosz


    Full Text Available Declared relationship status on Facebook can serve as a public commitment and as an extra layer of a couple’s security. However, the question arises: do those who report the relationship status feel stronger romantic love and jealousy towards their partners than those who do not share such information publicly? To test this assumption, profile information and questionnaire data of romantic love and jealousy were gathered from 292 (230 females respondents that were in a relationship. Our results suggest that announcing the relationship status is associated with elevated romantic love and jealousy. Therefore, being Facebook official can be interpreted as a tie-sign indicating that the couple is out of the market, and can promote their unity as a digital wedding ring.

  12. Developmental Relations and Patterns of Change between Alcohol Use and Number of Sexual Partners from Adolescence through Adulthood (United States)

    Dogan, Shannon J.; Stockdale, Gary D.; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.


    We explored two unanswered questions about the role of alcohol use in sexual behavior. First, we considered whether alcohol use temporally precedes and predicts changes in sexual behavior assessed as the number of sexual partners, whether the reverse pattern holds, or whether the association reflects a common, external cause. Second, we assessed…



    Buyukkoyuncu, Maria


    Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda's short story, “La dama de Amboto” (TheDame of Mt. Amboto), is classified under the genre of Romantic legends.The authoress develops a fictive narrative in which the theme, characters andmotives inscribe themselves perfectly in the discourse of canonicalRomanticism. However, the reading of this text in the light of the theories offeminist criticism exposes to us a discourse in which develop and take shapea whole network of subject matter and na...

  14. Proper and dark heroes as DADS and CADS : Alternative mating strategies in British Romantic literature. (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne; Jobling, Ian


    Empirical tests described in this article support hypotheses derived from evolutionary theory on the perceptions of literary characters. The proper and dark heroes in British Romantic literature of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries respectively represent long-term and short-term mating strategies. Recent studies indicate that for long-term relationships, women seek partners with the ability and willingness to sustain paternal investment in extended relationships. For short-term relationships, women choose partners whose features indicate high genetic quality. In hypothetical scenarios, females preferred proper heroes for long-term relationships. The shorter the relationship under consideration, the more likely women were to choose dark heroes as partners.

  15. Is Working Risky or Protective for Married Adolescent Girls in Urban Slums in Kenya? Understanding the Association between Working Status, Savings and Intimate-Partner Violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Muthengi

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that women's empowerment, though beneficial in many aspects, can also increase the risk of intimate-partner violence (IPV. This study seeks to examine the association between work and experience of physical violence among married adolescents, and to understand the impact of access to independent financial resources on this risk. Authors draw on the asset-building framework and the ecological model.The data is from a baseline survey of girls aged 15-19 residing in urban slums in four cities and towns in Kenya (Nairobi, Thika, Nakuru and Kisumu. The analytic sample is 452 married girls. Logistic regression is used to examine associations between working status, savings and experience of IPV in the previous six months, controlling for other factors. This is complemented by content analysis of in-depth interviews with 32 adolescent girls and 16 young men.Compared to girls who did not work, working with no regular savings was significantly associated with greater odds (OR = 1.96, p<0.01 of experiencing IPV. There was no difference between girls who did not work and those who worked but had regular savings. Qualitative findings indicate savings decrease girls' dependency on men and allow them to leave abusive partners.Findings imply that in these communities with patriarchal gender norms and high levels of poverty, female employment and financial conflicts can be triggers of violence in marriages. On the other hand, girls' management of and access to independent financial resources through savings can potentially help to reduce this risk.

  16. Oxytocin during the initial stages of romantic attachment: relations to couples' interactive reciprocity. (United States)

    Schneiderman, Inna; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Leckman, James F; Feldman, Ruth


    Romantic relationships can have a profound effect on adults' health and well-being whereas the inability to maintain intimate bonds has been associated with physical and emotional distress. Studies in monogamous mammalian species underscore the central role of oxytocin (OT) in pair-bonding and human imaging studies implicate OT-rich brain areas in early romantic love. To assess the role of OT in romantic attachment, we examined plasma OT in 163 young adults: 120 new lovers (60 couples) three months after the initiation of their romantic relationship and 43 non-attached singles. Twenty-five of the 36 couples who stayed together were seen again six months later. Couples were observed in dyadic interactions and were each interviewed regarding relationship-related thoughts and behaviors. OT was significantly higher in new lovers compared to singles, F(1,152)=109.33, promantic attachment. These high levels of OT among new lovers did not decrease six months later and showed high individual stability. OT correlated with the couples' interactive reciprocity, including social focus, positive affect, affectionate touch, and synchronized dyadic states, and with anxieties and worries regarding the partner and the relationship, findings which parallel those described for parent-infant bonding. OT levels at the first assessment differentiated couples who stayed together six months later from those who separated during this period. Regression analysis showed that OT predicted interactive reciprocity independent of sex, relationship duration, and the partner's OT. Findings suggest that OT may play an important role at the first stages of romantic attachment and lend support to evolutionary models suggesting that parental and romantic attachment share underlying bio-behavioral mechanisms.

  17. Self-perceived attractiveness, romantic desirability and self-esteem: a mating sociometer perspective. (United States)

    Bale, Christopher; Archer, John


    Sociometer theory proposes that self-esteem is an adaptation which evolved to monitor and regulate interpersonal relationships. It is therefore sensitive to self-assessments in domains relevant to relational desirability. Positive relationships between self-perceived physical attractiveness and self-esteem found in previous studies may reflect the functioning of a mating sociometer, designed to monitor individuals' desirability as romantic or sexual partners. We thus predicted that these relationships should be mediated by self-perceptions of romantic desirability, or more specifically, individuals' confidence in their abilities to successfully establish and maintain romantic relationships. Two hundred and eighty seven young adults (98 male) completed an online measure of self-perceived attractiveness, together with measures of self-confidence in appearance and romantic relationships, body-esteem and global self-esteem. Linear regression analyses indicated that self-perceived attractiveness, self-confidence in appearance and body-esteem all significantly predicted self-esteem, and that in each case, the relationship was mediated by romantic self-confidence. Self-perceived attractiveness predicted self-esteem significantly more strongly in females than in males. We discuss these results in relation to sociometer and parental investment theories, and explore limitations and future directions.

  18. Self-Perceived Attractiveness, Romantic Desirability and Self-Esteem: A Mating Sociometer Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bale


    Full Text Available Sociometer theory proposes that self-esteem is an adaptation which evolved to monitor and regulate interpersonal relationships. It is therefore sensitive to self-assessments in domains relevant to relational desirability. Positive relationships between self-perceived physical attractiveness and self-esteem found in previous studies may reflect the functioning of a mating sociometer, designed to monitor individuals' desirability as romantic or sexual partners. We thus predicted that these relationships should be mediated by self-perceptions of romantic desirability, or more specifically, individuals' confidence in their abilities to successfully establish and maintain romantic relationships. Two hundred and eighty seven young adults (98 male completed an online measure of self-perceived attractiveness, together with measures of self-confidence in appearance and romantic relationships, body-esteem and global self-esteem. Linear regression analyses indicated that self-perceived attractiveness, self-confidence in appearance and body-esteem all significantly predicted self-esteem, and that in each case, the relationship was mediated by romantic self-confidence. Self-perceived attractiveness predicted self-esteem significantly more strongly in females than in males. We discuss these results in relation to sociometer and parental investment theories, and explore limitations and future directions.

  19. Adolescent romance: between experience and relationships. (United States)

    Shulman, S; Seiffge-Krenke, I


    This concluding and integrative paper calls attention to several features and conceptual issues addressed by the contributors of this special issue. The first issue pertains to developmental perspectives in the study of how adolescent romance evolves. The second deals with the various features and concepts of adolescent romance. The third topic discusses the association of adolescent romance with other close relationships occurring during this time span. The fourth topic highlights the importance of the diversity of developmental contexts in shaping romantic relationships. Finally, conceptual issues in the study of adolescent romance are reviewed and the need for future studies of early adolescent romantic experiences is discussed.

  20. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies. (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer


    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  1. Notes towards a definition of Romantic Nationalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerssen, J.


    While the concept ‘Romantic nationalism’ is becoming widespread, its current usage tends to compound the vagueness inherent in its two constituent terms, Romanticism and nationalism. In order to come to a more focused understanding of the concept, this article surveys a wide sample of Romantically i

  2. Gender differences in romantic jealousy. (United States)

    Pines, A M; Friedman, A


    Findings of studies of gender differences in jealousy are contradictory. In the present study, conflicting literature was addressed by distinguishing 5 dimensions of jealousy: level, trigger, experience, focus, and responses. In 4 studies, 3 in the U.S. and 1 in Israel, gender differences were explored in these 5 dimensions of romantic jealousy. Although there were no gender differences in the likelihood, frequency, duration, or intensity of jealousy, there were differences in the responses to certain jealousy-producing occasions as well as in the focus, experience, and expression of jealousy.

  3. Conceptualization and Assessment of Disengagement in Romantic Relationships


    Barry, Robin A.; Lawrence, Erika; Langer, Amie


    Research examining relationship distress and dissolution highlights the importance of romantic disengagement. However, prior conceptualizations and measures of romantic disengagement have tended to combine disengagement with related but distinct constructs hindering the study of romantic disengagement. In the present study we conducted exploratory factor analyses to demonstrate that disengagement is a relatively distinct construct and to clarify the conceptualization of romantic disengagement...

  4. Self-Perceived Attractiveness, Romantic Desirability and Self-Esteem: A Mating Sociometer Perspective


    Bale, Christopher; Archer, John


    Sociometer theory proposes that self-esteem is an adaptation which evolved to monitor and regulate interpersonal relationships. It is therefore sensitive to self-assessments in domains relevant to relational desirability. Positive relationships between self-perceived physical attractiveness and self-esteem found in previous studies may reflect the functioning of a mating sociometer, designed to monitor individuals' desirability as romantic or sexual partners. We thus predicted that these rela...

  5. Does Identity Precede Intimacy? Testing Erikson's Theory on Romantic Development in Emerging Adults of the 21st Century (United States)

    Beyers, Wim; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge


    Erikson stated that healthy identity development during adolescence is a precursor of intimacy in romantic relationships during emerging adulthood. However, from a developmental contextual perspective, there are reasons to question this strict developmental ordering. Using interview and questionnaire data from a longitudinal study on 93…

  6. How a Supportive Partner May Increase Relationship Satisfaction (United States)

    Cramer, Duncan


    The way in which satisfaction with a romantic relationship may be affected by how supportive a partner is and how constructively they deal with conflict in that relationship was examined in young adults. Both greater support and less conflict were found to be independently associated with relationship satisfaction, implying that both are necessary…

  7. A Darker Shade of Love: Machiavellianism and Positive Assortative Mating Based on Romantic Ideals. (United States)

    Ináncsi, Tamás; Láng, András; Bereczkei, Tamás


    Machiavellianism is a personality trait that is characterized by manipulative and exploitative attitude toward others, lack of empathy, and a cynical view of human nature. In itself or as part of the Dark Triad it has been the target of several studies investigating romantic relations. Nevertheless, the relationship between Machiavellianism and romantic ideals has not been revealed yet. An undergraduate sample of 143 (92 females) with an average age of 19.83 years (SD = 1.51 years) filled out self-report measures of Machiavellianism (Mach-IV Scale) and romantic ideals (Ideal Standards Scale and NEO-FFI-IDEAL). According to our results, Machiavellianism correlated negatively with the importance of partner's warmth-trustworthiness, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and with the importance of intimacy and loyalty in their ideal relationships. Machiavellianism correlated positively with the ideal partner's possession over status and resources. Explorative factor analysis revealed three components of ideal partner's characteristics. Machiavellianism loaded significantly on two out of three components. Results are discussed with regard to Ideal Standards Model and the Big Five model of personality.

  8. Sexual Esteem in Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Sexual Behavior, Contraception Use, and Romantic Relationships. (United States)

    Maas, Megan K; Lefkowitz, Eva S


    Sexual esteem is an integral psychological aspect of sexual health (Snell & Papini, 1989 ), yet it is unclear whether sexual esteem is associated with sexual health behavior among heterosexual men and women. The current analysis used a normative framework for sexual development (Lefkowitz & Gillen, 2006 ; Tolman & McClelland, 2011 ) by examining the association of sexual esteem with sexual behavior, contraception use, and romantic relationship characteristics. Participants (N = 518; 56.0% female; mean age = 20.43 years; 26.8% identified as Hispanic/Latino; among non-Hispanic/Latinos, 27.2% of the full sample identified as European American, 22.4% Asian American, 14.9% African American, and 8.7% multiracial) completed Web-based surveys at a large Northeastern university. Participants who had oral sex more frequently, recently had more oral and penetrative sex partners (particularly for male participants), and spent more college semesters in romantic relationships tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who had sex less frequently, with fewer partners, or spent more semesters without romantic partners. Sexually active male emerging adults who never used contraception during recent penetrative sex tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who did use it, whereas female emerging adults who never used contraception tended to have lower sexual esteem than those who did use it. Implications of these results for the development of a healthy sexual self-concept in emerging adulthood are discussed.

  9. Narcissism and romantic relationships: The differential impact of narcissistic admiration and rivalry. (United States)

    Wurst, Stefanie N; Gerlach, Tanja M; Dufner, Michael; Rauthmann, John F; Grosz, Michael P; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Denissen, Jaap J A; Back, Mitja D


    Narcissism is known to be related to romantic success in short-term contexts (dating, early stage relationships) but also to problems in long-term committed relationships. We propose that these diverging romantic outcomes of narcissism can be explained by differential associations with agentic versus antagonistic dimensions of grandiose narcissism: Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry. Both dimensions serve the central narcissistic goal of gaining and maintaining a grandiose self-view, but do so by different processes: Admiration is characterized by the tendency to promote the positivity of one's self-view by seeking social admiration (assertive self-enhancement). Rivalry is characterized by the tendency to protect oneself from a negative self-view by derogating others (antagonistic self-protection). Across 7 studies (total N = 3,560) using diverse measures and methodological approaches (self-, peer, and partner reports, as well as interpersonal perception measures in video-based studies, face-to-face laboratory encounters, and online surveys), we show that the short-term romantic appeal associated with narcissism is primarily attributable to the dimension of Admiration, whereas the long-term romantic problems associated with narcissism are primarily attributable to the dimension of Rivalry. These results highlight the utility of a 2-dimensional reconceptualization of grandiose narcissism for explaining its heterogeneous romantic outcomes. The findings further underscore the idea that different facets of personality traits might impact different aspects of romantic relationship quality, depending on the stage of the relationship. Such a more nuanced view increases the predictive validity of personality traits in social relationship research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Breaking up Romantic Relationships: Costs Experienced and Coping Strategies Deployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin Perilloux


    Full Text Available This study examined differences between men and women, and between individuals experiencing rejection (Rejectees and individuals doing the rejecting (Rejectors in romantic relationship break-ups. We tested fourteen evolution-based predictions about romantic breakups using data from 193 participants; ten received support. Women more than men, for example, experienced costly sequelae such as the loss of a mate's physical protection and harmful post-breakup stalking by the ex-partner. Both men and women who were rejected, compared with those who did the rejecting, experienced more depression, loss of self-esteem, and rumination. Rejectors, on the other hand, experienced the reputational cost of being perceived by others as cruel. Exploratory data analyses revealed that women more than men reported experiencing negative emotions after a breakup, particularly feeling sad, confused, and scared. Both sexes used an array of strategies to cope with the breakup, ranging from high base-rate strategies such as discussing the breakup with friends to low base-rate strategies such as threatening suicide. The largest sex difference in coping strategies centered on the act of shopping, used by women Rejectors as well as women Rejectees, likely a strategy of appearance enhancement prior to reentering the mating market. Discussion focuses on the adaptive significance of sex differences and individual differences based on rejection status.

  11. Romantic Relationships and Criminal Desistance: Pathways and Processes. (United States)

    Wyse, Jessica Jb; Harding, David J; Morenoff, Jeffrey D


    In dominant theories of criminal desistance, marital relationship formation is understood to be a key "turning point" away from deviant behavior. Empirical studies supporting this claim have largely focused on the positive role of marriage in men's desistance from crime, and relatively few studies have examined the role that non-marital relationships may play in desistance. Drawing on 138 longitudinal in-depth interviews with 22 men and women reentering society from prison, this paper extends the scope of desistance research by additionally considering the significance of more fleeting and fluid relationships, and the diverse processes through which romantic relationships of all sorts are linked with criminal behaviors. We present an empirically-based typology detailing six processes, grouped within three conceptual categories, through which romantic relationships had their effects. These pathways include material circumstances, social bonds and interactions, and emotional supports and stressors. We also consider gender differences in these processes. While more tenuous bonds to marginally conventional partners would seem to exert little effect, as one of the few relationships and social roles available to many former prisoners, we found that they wielded important influence, if not always in a positive direction.

  12. The role of the posterior temporal and medial prefrontal cortices in mediating learning from romantic interest and rejection. (United States)

    Cooper, Jeffrey C; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O'Doherty, John P


    Romantic interest or rejection can be powerful incentives not merely for their emotional impact, but for their potential to transform, in a single interaction, what we think we know about another person--or ourselves. Little is known, though, about how the brain computes expectations for, and learns from, real-world romantic signals. In a novel "speed-dating" paradigm, we had participants meet potential romantic partners in a series of 5-min "dates," and decide whether they would be interested in seeing each partner again. Afterward, participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they were told, for the first time, whether that partner was interested in them or rejected them. Expressions of interest and rejection activated regions previously associated with "mentalizing," including the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and rostromedial prefrontal cortex (RMPFC); while pSTS responded to differences from the participant's own decision, RMPFC responded to prediction errors from a reinforcement-learning model of personal desirability. Responses in affective regions were also highly sensitive to participants' expectations. Far from being inscrutable, then, responses to romantic expressions seem to involve a quantitative learning process, rooted in distinct sources of expectations, and encoded in neural networks that process both affective value and social beliefs.

  13. Same-sex sexual attraction does not spread in adolescent social networks. (United States)

    Brakefield, Tiffany A; Mednick, Sara C; Wilson, Helen W; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H


    Peers have a powerful effect on adolescents' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Here, we examine the role of social networks in the spread of attitudes towards sexuality using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Although we found evidence that both sexual activity (OR = 1.79) and desire to have a romantic relationship (OR = 2.69) may spread from person to person, attraction to same sex partners did not spread (OR = 0.96). Analyses of comparable power to those that suggest positive and significant peer-to-peer influence in sexual behavior fail to demonstrate a significant relationship on sexual attraction between friends or siblings. These results suggest that peer influence has little or no effect on the tendency toward heterosexual or homosexual attraction in teens, and that sexual orientation is not transmitted via social networks.

  14. Romantic Relationship Satisfaction Moderates the Etiology of Adult Personality. (United States)

    South, Susan C; Krueger, Robert F; Elkins, Irene J; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt


    The heritability of major normative domains of personality is well-established, with approximately half the proportion of variance attributed to genetic differences. In the current study, we examine the possibility of gene × environment interaction (G×E) for adult personality using the environmental context of intimate romantic relationship functioning. Personality and relationship satisfaction are significantly correlated phenotypically, but to date no research has examined how the genetic and environmental components of variance for personality differ as a function of romantic relationship satisfaction. Given the importance of personality for myriad outcomes from work productivity to psychopathology, it is vital to identify variables present in adulthood that may affect the etiology of personality. In the current study, quantitative models of G×E were used to determine whether the genetic and environmental influences on personality differ as a function of relationship satisfaction. We drew from a sample of now-adult twins followed longitudinally from adolescence through age 29. All participants completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) and an abbreviated version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Biometric moderation was found for eight of the eleven MPQ scales examined: well-being, social potency, negative emotionality, alienation, aggression, constraint, traditionalism, and absorption. The pattern of findings differed, suggesting that the ways in which relationship quality moderates the etiology of personality may depend on the personality trait.

  15. Romantic attachment insecurity predicts sexual dissatisfaction in couples seeking marital therapy. (United States)

    Brassard, Audrey; Péloquin, Katherine; Dupuy, Emmanuelle; Wright, John; Shaver, Phillip R


    Researchers and practitioners have noted the importance of considering individual characteristics as well as couple dynamics when attempting to understand couples and sexual difficulties. Using a dyadic approach, this study examined the links between 2 forms of romantic attachment insecurity (anxiety and avoidance) and sexual dissatisfaction among members of couples seeking couple therapy. A large clinical sample of 242 French-speaking couples completed the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale and the Index of Sexual Satisfaction. Analyses based on the actor-partner interdependence model revealed that both attachment anxiety and avoidance predicted individuals' own sexual dissatisfaction (actor effects). The authors also observed 2 partner effects: (a) anxiety in men predicted female partners' sexual dissatisfaction and (b) avoidance in women predicted male partners' sexual dissatisfaction. The results support attachment theory and have clinical implications for emotion-focused couple therapy and other approaches to couple therapy.

  16. Avoidance, anxiety, and sex: the influence of romantic attachment on HIV-risk among pregnant women. (United States)

    Kershaw, Trace S; Milan, Stephanie; Westdahl, Claire; Lewis, Jessica; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Fletcher, Rachel; Ickovics, Jeannette


    Most unprotected sex occurs in close relationships. However, few studies examine relational factors and sexual risk among high-risk populations. Romantic Attachment Theory states that individuals have cognitive working models for relationships that influence expectations, affect, and behavior. We investigated the influence of attachment avoidance and anxiety on sexual beliefs (e.g., condom use beliefs, self-efficacy), behavior (e.g., condom use, multiple partners, unprotected sex with risky partners), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among 755 high-risk, young pregnant women (ages 14-25) recruited from urban prenatal clinics. Attachment anxiety predicted sexual beliefs, condom use, and unprotected sex with risky partners controlling for demographic variables. Sexual beliefs did not mediate the relationship between attachment orientation and sexual behavior. Current relationship with the father of the baby did mediate the effect of attachment anxiety on multiple partners and STIs. Results indicate the importance of including general relational factors, such as attachment, in HIV prevention.

  17. Blind jealousy? Romantic insecurity increases emotion-induced failures of visual perception. (United States)

    Most, Steven B; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Graber, Elana; Belcher, Amber; Smith, C Veronica


    Does the influence of close relationships pervade so deeply as to impact visual awareness? Results from two experiments involving heterosexual romantic couples suggest that they do. Female partners from each couple performed a rapid detection task where negative emotional distractors typically disrupt visual awareness of subsequent targets; at the same time, their male partners rated attractiveness first of landscapes, then of photos of other women. At the end of both experiments, the degree to which female partners indicated uneasiness about their male partner looking at and rating other women correlated significantly with the degree to which negative emotional distractors had disrupted their target perception during that time. This relationship was robust even when controlling for individual differences in baseline performance. Thus, emotions elicited by social contexts appear to wield power even at the level of perceptual processing.

  18. Geosocial Networking App Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Serious Romantic Relationships. (United States)

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Coventry, Ryan; Puckett, Jae A; Phillips, Gregory; Mustanski, Brian


    Geosocial networking (GSN) mobile phone applications ("apps") are used frequently among men who have sex with men (MSM) to socialize and meet sexual partners. Though GSN apps are used by some MSM in partnered relationships, little is known about how the use of GSN apps among MSM in serious romantic relationships can influence couples' sexual and relationship health. MSM in serious relationships (N = 323; M age = 40 years) were recruited through a popular GSN app for MSM. Participants completed open-ended items regarding the costs and benefits of app use to their relationships, discussions of app use with their partners, and preferences for relationship education related to app use. Reported benefits of app use included improving sex and communication with one's primary partner and fulfilling unmet sexual needs. Although approximately half had not discussed app use with their partners, citing app use as a "non-issue," many cited various drawbacks to app use, including jealousy and being a distraction from the relationship. Few described sexual health concerns as a drawback to meeting partners through apps. Regarding relationship education preferences, most wanted help with general communication skills and how to express one's sexual needs to a partner. Although GSN app use can enhance relationships and sex among partnered MSM, unclear communication about app use may contribute to negative relationship outcomes and could prevent partners from having sexual needs met. Relationship and sexual health education programs for male couples should consider addressing social media and technology use in their curricula.

  19. Risk factors for victimization in romantic relationships of young women: a review of empirical studies and implications for prevention. (United States)

    Vézina, Johanne; Hébert, Martine


    This article reviews the literature on risk factors for victimization in romantic relationships of adolescent girls and young adult women. The review includes 61 empirical studies published between 1986 and 2006 that have investigated risk factors for sustained psychological, sexual, and physical violence in romantic relationships of young women ages 12 to 24. An ecological approach is used as a conceptual model to review risk factors into four categories: sociodemographic factors, individual factors (personal and interpersonal), environmental factors (family, community, and peers), and contextual factors (linked to the romantic relationship). Methodological limitations of the studies in terms of measurement issues, samples studied, research designs, and underlying conceptual models are discussed. Finally, implications for prevention programming are considered. Recommendations are presented about which clientele should be targeted, which risk factors should be considered, and when programs should be implemented.

  20. Adolescent adjustment in the context of life change: the supportive role of parental structure provision. (United States)

    Flamm, Elizabeth S; Grolnick, Wendy S


    This study examined the associations among disruptive life events, supportive parenting practices, adolescent self-perceptions, and emotional outcomes. One-hundred and three 7th graders (68% minority, 32% European American) and their parents completed recent negative life events checklists. Parents also reported the total number of major transitions (changes in residences, schools, parent's romantic partners) that adolescents experienced since birth. Life events were related to lower adolescent-reported perceptions of competence and control, higher adolescent-reported depression and behavior problems, and higher parent-reported conduct problems. Regression analyses supported a mediational model in which competence and control perceptions explained relations between adolescent life events and symptomatology. Parental structure-the provision of clear, consistent and predictable rules and expectations-was associated with more adaptive adolescent functioning, especially among girls. Regressions indicated that structure related to higher perceptions of competence and control and fewer behavioral problems, even after accounting for the risk associated with negative life events and transitions.

  1. Romantic tropes in late modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Artwińska


    Full Text Available The article discusses the book entitled Romantyzm i nowoczesność (Kraków 2009, edited by Michał Kuziak in which the authors examine a possibility of an application of modern methodological propositions for an analysis of Romanticism in literature. The reviewer presents and briefly discusses each of the articles contained in the book, focusing particularly on the extent to which individual articles correspond to the main assumptions of the volume. Thus, the reviewer provides the reader with an analysis of the concepts of modernity and Romanticism presented by the authors, but also points out convergence points, interceptions and dependencies occurring between them. The volume, presenting novel interpretations and approaches to individual literary works, methodological reflections and studies on selected problems in aesthetics and Romantic ideology, has been critically acclaimed. The reviewer recommends the book as an interesting piece of writing not only for researchers in the history of the literature of the nineteenth century, but also for those studying culture and for theoreticians of narrative discourse.

  2. Making It “Facebook Official”: Reflecting on Romantic Relationships Through Sustained Facebook Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady Robards


    Full Text Available For the past 12 years, Facebook has played a significant role in mediating the lives of its users. Disclosures on the site go on to serve as intimate, co-constructed life records, albeit with unique and always-evolving affordances. The ways in which romantic relationships are mediated on the site are complex and contested: “What is the significance of articulating a romantic relationship on Facebook?” “Why do some choose to make socially and culturally critical moments like the beginning and ends of relationships visible on Facebook, whereas others (perhaps within the same relationship do not?” “How do these practices change over time?” and “When is it time to go “Facebook official”?” In this article, we draw on qualitative research with Facebook users in their 20s in Australia and the United Kingdom who have been using the site for 5 years or more. Interviews with participants revealed that romantic relationships were central to many of their growing up narratives, and in this article, we draw out examples to discuss four kinds of (non-exclusive practices: (1 overt relationship status disclosures, mediated through the “relationship status” affordance of the site, (2 implied relationship disclosures, mediated through an increase in images and tags featuring romantic partners, (3 the intended absence of relationship visibility, and (4 later-erased or revised relationship disclosures. We also critique the ways in which Facebook might work to produce normative “relationship traces,” privileging neat linearity, monogamy, and obfuscating (perhaps usefully, perhaps not the messy complexity of romantic relationships.

  3. Sustainable Decisions Signal Sustainable Relationships: How Purchasing Decisions Affect Perceptions and Romantic Attraction. (United States)

    DiDonato, Theresa E; Jakubiak, Brittany K


    In the pursuit of love, individuals strategically use luxury products to signal status and other attractive attributes. Might eco-friendly products also signal mate-relevant information? The current research examined inferences from eco-friendly purchases and how they predict perceived suitability for short- and long-term romantic relationships. Participants read descriptions of a stranger's eco-friendly or luxury purchase decisions, reported their perceptions of the purchaser, and indicated their potential romantic interest in the purchaser. The influence of the relative price of the chosen product was also investigated. Compared to luxury purchasers, eco-friendly purchasers were ascribed greater warmth, competence, and good partner traits, but less physical appeal, and they were preferred for long-term but not short-term relationships. The social costs and benefits of "going green" are discussed in light of their implications for environmental sustainability efforts.

  4. Mimicking attractive opposite-sex others: the role of romantic relationship status. (United States)

    Karremans, Johan C; Verwijmeren, Thijs


    Based on the recent literature indicating that nonconscious behavioral mimicry is partly goal directed, three studies examined, and supported, the hypothesis that people who are involved in a romantic relationship nonconsciously mimic an attractive opposite-sex other to a lesser extent than people not involved in a relationship. Moreover, Studies 2 and 3 revealed that romantically involved persons tended to mimic an attractive alternative less to the extent that they were more close to their current partner. Finally, Study 3 provided preliminary support for a potential underlying mechanism, revealing that the effect of relationship status on level of mimicry displayed toward an opposite-sex other is mediated by perceived attractiveness of the opposite-sex other. The present findings suggest that behavioral mimicry serves an implicit self-regulatory function in relationship maintenance. Implications for both the literature on relationship maintenance and the literature on behavioral mimicry are discussed.

  5. Daily Affective and Behavioral Forecasts in Romantic Relationships: Seeing Tomorrow Through the Lens of Today. (United States)

    Lemay, Edward P; Lin, Jonathan L; Muir, Heather J


    The current research examined accuracy and bias in daily forecasts within romantic relationships. Results of an extensive daily report study involving 200 romantic dyads and 4,822 daily observations suggested that predictions regarding affect and partner behavior that will occur tomorrow are somewhat accurate, predicted by actual experiences tomorrow, but are largely biased by current experiences. Participants appeared to project the current state of their relationship into the future, a temporal projection bias. This bias predicted forecasters' pro-relationship motivation and behavior. Forecasters were less likely to exhibit the temporal projection bias when they were high in relationship commitment, and they were more likely to exhibit the bias when they were high in need for cognitive closure, suggesting that motivation can constrain or amplify tendencies to project the present into the future. Implications for interpersonal relationships are discussed.

  6. Just Another Aspie/NT Love Story: A Narrative Inquiry Into Neurologically-Mixed Romantic Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlo Goldstein Hode


    Full Text Available This paper explores the complexities, issues, and challenges of neurologically mixed romantic relationships; specifically focusing on relationships in which one partner is diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome. Using a narrative approach to data drawn from online discussion boards, blogs, autobiographies, and research articles, the findings are presented in the form of a narrative reconstruction. Reconstructing data into a fictional, non-traceable format is a fruitful method of attending to the ethical and privacy issues inherent in online research. Starting with a discussion of autism and Asperger’s communication and traits, identity politics, and online community building, this article articulates some of the ways that neurological differences result in real differences in emotional needs, sensory perceptions, and ways of thinking and communicating in romantic relationships.

  7. Disrupting intergenerational continuity in harsh parenting: Self-control and a supportive partner. (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J; Conger, Rand D; Conger, Kathi J


    Harsh, abusive, and rejecting behavior by parents toward their children is associated with increased risk for many developmental problems for youth. Children raised by harsh parents are also more likely to treat their own children harshly. The present study addresses conditions that would break this intergenerational cycle of harsh parenting. Data come from a three-generation study of a cohort of 290 adolescents (Generation 2 [G2], 52% female) grown to adulthood and their parents (Generation 1 [G1]). During adolescence, observers rated G1 harsh parenting to G2. Several years later observers rated G2 harsh parenting toward their oldest child (Generation 3 [G3]). Several adaptive systems fundamental to human resilience attenuate intergenerational continuity in harshness. G2 parents were relatively less harsh to G3 children (notwithstanding a history of harshness from G1) when G2's romantic partner (a) communicated positively with G2 and (b) had a good relationship with G3, and (c) when G2 was high on self-control. Interventions that target all of these protective factors may not only break but also reverse the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment.

  8. A Phenomenological Study of Falling out of Romantic Love (United States)

    Sailor, Joanni L.


    Romantic love is considered a necessary ingredient in marriage. In this study, the experience of falling out of romantic love with one's spouse was examined. Eight individuals who had fallen out of romantic love with their spouse were interviewed. By using Moustakas' Transcendental Phenomenological method, several themes emerged which provided a…

  9. Love Changes Everything: The Transformative Potential of Popular Romantic Fiction. (United States)

    Jarvis, Christine


    In a cultural studies course, 36 women studied popular romantic novels within the context of transformative feminist adult education. They identified the constraints of romantic discourse in their own lives and the power structure of romantic relationships, resulting in changed perspectives affecting their personal lives. (SK)

  10. Seeking security or growth: a regulatory focus perspective on motivations in romantic relationships. (United States)

    Winterheld, Heike A; Simpson, Jeffry A


    Using a multimethod approach, we examined how regulatory focus shapes people's perceptual, behavioral, and emotional responses in different situations in romantic relationships. We first examined how chronic regulatory focus affects romantic partners' support perceptions and problem-solving behaviors while they were engaged in a conflict resolution discussion (Study 1). Next, we experimentally manipulated regulatory focus and tested its effects on partner perceptions when individuals recalled a prior conflict resolution discussion (Study 2). We then examined how chronic regulatory focus influences individuals' emotional responses to hypothetical relationship events (Study 3) and identified specific partner behaviors to which people should respond with regulatory goal-congruent emotions (Study 4). Strongly prevention-focused people perceived their partners as more distancing and less supportive during conflict (Studies 1 and 2), approached conflict resolution by discussing the details related to the conflict (Study 1), and experienced a negative relationship outcome with more agitation (Study 3). Strongly promotion-focused people perceived their partners as more supportive and less distancing (Studies 1 and 2), displayed more creative conflict resolution behavior (Study 1), and experienced a negative relationship outcome with more sadness and a favorable outcome with more positive emotions (Study 3). In Study 4, recalling irresponsible and responsible partner behaviors was associated with experiencing more prevention-focused emotions, whereas recalling affectionate and neglectful partner behaviors was associated with more promotion-focused emotions. The findings show that regulatory focus and approach-avoidance motivations influence certain interpersonal processes in similar ways, but regulatory focus theory also generates novel predictions on which approach-avoidance models are silent.

  11. Epidemics scenarios in the "Romantic network"

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Alexsandro M


    The structure of sexual contacts, its contacts network and its temporal interactions, play an important role in the spread of sexually transmitted infections. Unfortunately, that kind of data is very hard to obtain. One of the few exceptions is the "Romantic network" which is a complete structure of a real sexual network of a high school. In terms of topology, unlike other sexual networks classified as scale-free network. Regarding the temporal structure, several studies indicate that relationship timing can have effects on diffusion through networks, as relationship order determines transmission routes.With the aim to check if the particular structure, static and dynamic, of the Romantic network is determinant for the propagation of an STI in it, we perform simulations in two scenarios: the static network where all contacts are available and the dynamic case where contacts evolve in time. In the static case, we compare the epidemic results in the Romantic network with some paradigmatic topologies. We further...

  12. Peer status and aggression as predictors of dating popularity in adolescence. (United States)

    Houser, John J; Mayeux, Lara; Cross, Cassandra


    Research has identified links between dating and aversive behavior such as aggression and bullying in adolescence, highlighting the need for studies that further our understanding of romantic relationships and their dynamics during this period. This study tested the associations between dating popularity and overt and relational aggression, social preference, and peer popularity. Of particular interest were the moderating roles of social preference and peer popularity in the association of aggression with dating popularity. Further moderation by gender was also explored. Participants were 478 ninth-graders (48% girls) with peer nomination scores for peer status, aggression, and dating popularity. Dating popularity was positively correlated with popularity, social preference, and overt and relational aggression. Regression models indicated that popular, overtly aggressive girls were seen as desirable dating partners by their male peers. Relational aggression was associated with dating popularity for both boys and girls, especially for youths who were well-liked by peers. These findings are interpreted in light of developmental-contextual perspectives on adolescent romantic relationships and Resource Control Theory.

  13. Social Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tikkanen, Tarja; Hansen, Leif Emil; Guðmundsson, Bernharður


    based on a survey carried out in the Nordic countries in the regie of Nordic Council of Ministries the article deals with the role of social partners in senior and older workers policies and practises......based on a survey carried out in the Nordic countries in the regie of Nordic Council of Ministries the article deals with the role of social partners in senior and older workers policies and practises...

  14. What Are the Odds: An Examination of Adolescent Interracial Romance and Risk for Depression (United States)

    Miller, Byron


    Previous studies find that romantic relationships adversely affect adolescents' psychological well-being, yet none examine the differential effects of adolescent romance for same-race and interracial daters. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), I find that heterosexual adolescents in same-race…

  15. “Bad Romance”: Links between Psychological and Physical Aggression and Relationship Functioning in Adolescent Couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiffge-Krenke, I.; Burk, W.J.


    Assortative mating is an important issue in explaining antisocial, aggressive behavior. It is yet unclear, whether the similarity paradigm fully explains frequent displays of aggression in adolescents’ romantic relationships. In a sample of 194 romantic partner dyads, differences between female and

  16. Adolescents' Emotional Reactivity across Relationship Contexts (United States)

    Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Blair, Bethany L.


    Adolescents' emotional reactivity in family, close friendships, and romantic relationships was examined in a community-based sample of 416 two-parent families. Six waves of annual data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Emotional reactivity to interparental conflict during early adolescence was associated prospectively with…

  17. Conceptualization and Assessment of Disengagement in Romantic Relationships. (United States)

    Barry, Robin A; Lawrence, Erika; Langer, Amie


    Research examining relationship distress and dissolution highlights the importance of romantic disengagement. However, prior conceptualizations and measures of romantic disengagement have tended to combine disengagement with related but distinct constructs hindering the study of romantic disengagement. In the present study we conducted exploratory factor analyses to demonstrate that disengagement is a relatively distinct construct and to clarify the conceptualization of romantic disengagement. More importantly, we developed a novel measure- the Romantic Disengagement Scale (RDS). The RDS demonstrated adequate fit across samples of dating individuals, married couples and women in physically aggressive relationships. The RDS also demonstrated strong divergent and incremental validity. Implications for enhancing conceptual models, research methodology, and clinical interventions are discussed.

  18. The Impact of Health, Wealth, and Attractiveness on Romantic Evaluation from Photographs of Faces. (United States)

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Clout, Jerri M; Rule, Nicholas O


    A large literature suggests that men and women differ in their self-reported mate preferences such that men place greater weight on physical attractiveness than women do, whereas women value financial prospects more than men. Yet, little research has addressed how these differences generalize to other contexts, such as modern online dating in which mate selection may largely depend on visual cues. Distinct from the sex differences observed in previous studies relying on self-reports, we found that men and women both used perceptions of health and attractiveness to select hypothetical partners based on photographs of their faces. Importantly, although people reliably identified others' wealth from their photographs, these perceptions did not influence men's or women's partner selections. Thus, men and women may select romantic partners similarly based on limited visual information.

  19. Family and school socioeconomic disadvantage: interactive influences on adolescent dating violence victimization. (United States)

    Spriggs, Aubrey L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J


    Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by social disorganization theory, relative deprivation theory, and gendered resource theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of socioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males' physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males' victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization.

  20. Predicting romantic interest and decisions in the very early stages of mate selection: standards, accuracy, and sex differences. (United States)

    Fletcher, Garth J O; Kerr, Patrick S G; Li, Norman P; Valentine, Katherine A


    In the current study, opposite-sex strangers had 10-min conversations with a possible further date in mind. Based on judgments from partners and observers, three main findings were produced. First, judgments of attractiveness/vitality perceptions (compared with warmth/trustworthiness and status/resources) were the most accurate and were predominant in influencing romantic interest and decisions about further contact. Second, women were more cautious and choosy than men-women underestimated their partner's romantic interest, whereas men exaggerated it, and women were less likely to want further contact. Third, a mediational model found that women (compared with men) were less likely to want further contact because they perceived their partners as possessing less attractiveness/vitality and as falling shorter of their minimum standards of attractiveness/vitality, thus generating lower romantic interest. These novel results are discussed in terms of the mixed findings from prior research, evolutionary psychology, and the functionality of lay psychology in early mate-selection contexts.

  1. Romantic Poets and Prose Writers. Goldentree Bibliographies. (United States)

    Fogle, Richard Harter, Comp.

    Intended as a guide to scholarship on Romantic writers, this selective bibliography attempts to cover the major works and topics, with emphasis on work published in the 20th century. Omitted are unpublished dissertations and most literary histories, bibliographies of bibliography, short notes and explications, and older biographical works that…

  2. PARTNER Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L


    Hadrontherapy uses particle beams to treat tumours located near critical organs and tumours that respond poorly to conventional radiation therapy. It has become evident that there is an emerging need for reinforcing research in hadrontherapy and it is essential to train professionals in this rapidly developing field. PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Training project funded by the European Commission with 5.6 million Euros aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network. The project offers research and training opportunities to 25 young biologists, engineers, physicians and physicists and is allowing them to actively develop modern techniques for treating cancer in close collaboration with leading European Institutions. For this purpose PARTNER relies on cutting edge research and technology development, ef...

  3. Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex mediates rapid evaluations predicting the outcome of romantic interactions. (United States)

    Cooper, Jeffrey C; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O'Doherty, John P


    Humans frequently make real-world decisions based on rapid evaluations of minimal information; for example, should we talk to an attractive stranger at a party? Little is known, however, about how the brain makes rapid evaluations with real and immediate social consequences. To address this question, we scanned participants with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they viewed photos of individuals that they subsequently met at real-life "speed-dating" events. Neural activity in two areas of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), paracingulate cortex, and rostromedial prefrontal cortex (RMPFC) was predictive of whether each individual would be ultimately pursued for a romantic relationship or rejected. Activity in these areas was attributable to two distinct components of romantic evaluation: either consensus judgments about physical beauty (paracingulate cortex) or individualized preferences based on a partner's perceived personality (RMPFC). These data identify novel computational roles for these regions of the DMPFC in even very rapid social evaluations. Even a first glance, then, can accurately predict romantic desire, but that glance involves a mix of physical and psychological judgments that depend on specific regions of DMPFC.

  4. In Search of Emerging Same-Sex Sexuality: Romantic Attractions at Age 13 Years. (United States)

    Li, Gu; Hines, Melissa


    Sex-typed behavior in childhood is significantly related to sexual orientation in adulthood. In addition, same-sex attractions in early adolescence are more non-exclusive than in adulthood and can differ from later same-sex orientations. However, little research has focused on romantic attractions as they emerge during early adolescence. Drawing a sample from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (197 girls, 204 boys), the current study examined whether same-sex romantic attractions at age 13 years were exclusive, and whether they were predicted by sex-typed behavior at age 3.5 years. No young adolescents in this sample reported exclusive same-sex attractions, and increased same-sex attractions were not significantly related to reduced other-sex sexualities. Childhood sex-typed behavior did not significantly predict early same-sex attractions, suggesting that early same-sex attractions differ from later same-sex orientations. The current study highlights the importance of studying the development of sexuality beginning prior to adulthood.

  5. [Resistance and compliance to contraception in adolescents]. (United States)

    Pichot, F; Dayan-lintzer, M


    Although inadequate information on sex and contraception is frequently believed to account for contraceptive failure in adolescents, other factors including resistence to contraception or poor compliance with method requirements have been invoked to explain contraceptive failures in well-informed adolescents. Sexual relations are beginning at ever-younger ages in France; a 1980 survey indicated that 50% had their 1st sexual relations before age 17. Sexual activity is sporadic and irregular but usually occurs with the same partner. At least 50% of 1st sexual relations are unprotected by contraception, and half of adolescent pregnancies occur in the 1st 6th months of sexual activity. 6-12 months pass on average before sexually active adolescents begin to use contraception. Rates of pregnancy and abortion have increased especially among adolescents under 16, and in 1979 almost 20% of all abortions were in women under 20 years old. In 1980, only 20% of adolescents used contraception, with 17.3% using oral contraceptives. Few statistics exist on the complex phenomenon of conscious or subconscious contraceptive resistence in adolescence, and clinical experience serves as a better guide. A frequent attitude among adolescents is that sexual relations should be spontaneous and romantic, traits viewed as incompatible with contraception. "Magical thinking", failure to appreciate the real risk of pregnancy, and dissociation of sex and pregnancy are common. Adolescents who doubt their fecundity may engage in unprotected relations to reassure themselves, while some seeking to assert their femininity may use pills although they have no need for contraception. Guilt and ambivalence may be unconscious motivations for poor contraceptive use. Young girls in cold, uncaring, neglectful, or conflict-ridden homes may seek affection from a sexual partner and wish to have a baby to demonstrate their attachment. Such situations often lead to well-accepted pregnancies and may also

  6. Social Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Emil


    the demographic change and promote opportunities for lifelong learning and career development among their senior members (45+). Workforce in the Nordic countries tend to be highly organised – especially the older workers. The social partners’ involvement in the discussion of sustainable society....... The findings showed, on one hand, that while some social partners have started very good work, for many the issues of lifelong learning and opportunities for career development for older workers are not on their agenda. Besides differences between the unions in regards many aspects and within most countries...... lifelong learning and career development to their senior members during their last 15-20 years in working life. In this issue the social partners can and should play an active role – indeed, a leading role if needed – among the other key actors in society....

  7. Family and Personal Networks : How a Partner and Children Affect Social Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rözer, J.J.


    This books describes and explains how a romantic partner and child(-ren) affect social relationships. Whereas many scholars have studied the importance of personal networks as a resource for the individual, comparatively little is known about how social networks emerge and how network composition ca


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru MARIAN


    Full Text Available The undercover partner takes part in the process of providing the investigating bodies with information. This institution carries out activities similar to undercover investigator. These both represent a proactive investigating instrument used by criminal authorities to obtain better results concerning the fight against criminality. Under the cover another identity, they carefully search for crimes or favorable circumstances for commitment of others new.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian ALEXANDRU


    Full Text Available The undercover partner takes part in the process of providing the investigating bodies with information. This institution carries out activities similar to undercover investigator. These both represent a proactive investigating instrument used by criminal authorities to obtain better results concerning the fight against criminality. Under the cover another identity, they carefully search for crimes or favorable circumstances for commitment of others new.

  10. No Romantic Prometheus: Marry Shelley's Frankenstein and Rejection of Romanticism


    Samira Sasani; Hamid Reza Pilevar


    The tool for Mary Shelley to criticize and satirize Romanticism is her famous character, Victor Frankenstein, or as the subtitle of the novel suggests: The Modern Prometheus. In Romantic beliefs, Prometheus was the symbol of limitless ability and freedom to whom many Romantic Poets pay tribute. In contrast, in Mary Shelley’s opinion, this ‘metaphysical revolt’ cannot go unpunished. The aim of this paper is to examine, through a Foucauldian reading, the mythic character of Prometheus in Romant...

  11. The influence of paternal and maternal drinking patterns within two-partner families on the initiation and development of adolescent drinking. (United States)

    Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Koning, Ina M; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E E; Van der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vollebergh, Wilma A M


    As it is still unclear to what extent parental drinking is a predictor of children's alcohol use, we tested the association of specific paternal and maternal drinking patterns with both initiation and development of adolescent alcohol use. Longitudinal data (four annual measurements) of parent-child dyads (N=2319) have been used. Parental drinking patterns have been identified using latent class analysis. The association of parental drinking patterns with the initiation and development of 12-15 year olds' drinking have been examined with latent growth curve modeling. Only two out of six parental drinking patterns were related to adolescent drinking. That is, having a heavy drinking father or two heavy episodic drinking parents particularly predicts early and heavier adolescent drinking. When controlled for parenting behaviors and background variables, such as adolescent gender, age and socioeconomic status (SES), these findings remained significant. Interaction analyses revealed that the influence of parental heavy (episodic) drinking differs across gender and is especially strong among adolescents with lower SES. Thus, parental heavy (episodic) drinking, and not so much the frequency of drinking, predicts the initiation and development of alcohol consumption in their offspring. Parents and professionals must be aware that parental heavy drinking affects their offspring, particularly adolescents with lower SES, resulting in earlier and heavier drinking among this high-risk group.

  12. Regretful liaisons: exploring the role of partner regret in the association between sexual and relationship satisfaction. (United States)

    Cunningham, Karlene; German, Nicole M; Mattson, Richard E


    Regrets over partner selection can negatively influence romantic relationship functioning. It may even undermine stability in otherwise satisfied unions. The present study extends research on partner regret by exploring its several possible links with sexual satisfaction and satisfaction with the relationship as a whole. The authors analyzed data provided by 351 individuals using path analysis. Primary findings indicate that partner regret reduces sexual satisfaction by first depreciating satisfaction with the relationship as a whole. This effect was especially pronounced for parents and women. Implications for assessment and targeted interventions for partner regret are discussed.

  13. Epidemics scenarios in the "Romantic network".

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    Alexsandro M Carvalho

    Full Text Available The networks of sexual contacts together with temporal interactions play key roles in the spread of sexually transmitted infections. Unfortunately, data for this kind of network is scarce. One of the few exceptions, the "Romantic network", is a complete structure of a real sexual network in a high school. Based on many network measurements the authors of the work have concluded that it does not correspond to any other model network. Regarding the temporal structure, several studies indicate that relationship timing can have an effect on the diffusion throughout networks, as relationship order determines transmission routes. The aim is to check if the particular structure, static and dynamic, of the Romantic network is determinant for the propagation of an STI. We performed simulations in two scenarios: the static network where all contacts are available and the dynamic case where contacts evolve over time. In the static case, we compared the epidemic results in the Romantic network with some paradigmatic topologies. In the dynamic scenario, we considered the dynamics of formation of pairs in the Romantic network and we studied the propagation of the diseases. Our results suggest that although this real network cannot be labeled as a Watts-Strogatz network, it is, in regard to the propagation of an STI, very similar to a high disorder network. Additionally, we found that: the effect that any individual contacting an externally infected subject is to make the network closer to a fully connected one, the higher the contact degree of patient zero the faster the spread of the outbreaks, and the epidemic impact is proportional to the numbers of contacts per unit time. Finally, our simulations confirm that relationship timing severely reduced the final outbreak size, and also, show a clear correlation between the average degree and the outbreak size over time.

  14. Daily parenting engagement among new mothers and fathers: the role of romantic attachment in dual-earner families. (United States)

    Lang, Sarah N; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Kotila, Letitia E; Kamp Dush, Claire M


    We investigated the association of prenatal assessments of mothers' and fathers' self-reported romantic attachment anxiety and avoidance with the time mothers and fathers reported in proximity-focused and exploration-focused engagement with their infants at 9 months postpartum. Our sample of 136 dual-earner couples came from a larger longitudinal study of the transition to parenthood. Time in proximity-focused (interactions that emphasize physical or emotional connection) and exploration-focused (activities that stimulate and build knowledge of the world) engagement on workdays and nonworkdays were measured using time diaries. Using actor-partner interdependence models, we found significant across-partners associations between romantic attachment and parental engagement. In particular, analyses revealed interesting interactions: fathers higher in avoidance spent more time in exploration-focused engagement on workdays when mothers were more anxious, whereas mothers higher in anxiety spent more time in proximity-focused engagement on nonworkdays when fathers were more avoidant. Moreover, fathers demonstrated a compensatory pattern of engagement in response to mother's greater attachment anxiety or avoidance. Findings support the utility of studying romantic attachment within a family system and extend the literature on correlates of early parental engagement.

  15. Romantic imagination in a comparative perspective: English and Slovak Romantic literature

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    Pokrivčák Anton


    Full Text Available The paper discusses Romantic imagination in two, relatively distant, national literatures. The first part is concerned with the problems comparative literature has faced in recent decades. In the second part, the work of two Slovak Romantic writers, Ján Kollár and Janko Kráľ, is compared to the poetry of Lord Gordon Byron and William Wordsworth. By identifying certain affinities between the discussed literary works, the authors point to the importance of the concept of national literature which has not lost its role even in contemporary literary studies.

  16. Examining Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity during Early Adolescence (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Park, Lora E.


    The present study of 150 adolescents ("M" age = 13.05 years) examined the associations between appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) and psychological adjustment during early adolescence, and evaluated three types of other-gender peer experiences (other-gender friendship, peer acceptance, and romantic relationships) as…

  17. Don't it make my brown eyes green? An analysis of Facebook use and romantic jealousy. (United States)

    Muscanell, Nicole L; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Rice, Lindsay; Murphy, Shannon


    Social networking Web sites, such as Facebook, have changed the way in which people communicate online. The present study examined the relationship between jealousy and Facebook use experimentally by asking participants to imagine viewing their romantic partner's Facebook page. We varied the hypothetical privacy settings and number of photos of the couple publicly available on Facebook. Results indicated that imagined privacy settings and the presence of couple photos affected negative emotions (jealousy, anger, disgust, and hurt). Furthermore, we found sex differences indicating that women felt more intense negative emotions after thinking about the fictitious scenario than did men, particularly when evidence of infidelity was public to others. These results have implications for sex differences in jealousy and suggest that the manner in which people employ Facebook privacy settings can be negative for romantic relationships.

  18. Transitions in romantic relationships and development of self-esteem. (United States)

    Luciano, Eva C; Orth, Ulrich


    Research suggests that self-esteem increases during late adolescence and young adulthood, but that there is large interindividual variability in this development. However, little is known about the factors accounting for these findings. Using propensity score matching, we tested whether important transitions in the domain of romantic relationships (i.e., beginning a relationship, marrying, and breaking up) explain why individuals differ in the particular self-esteem trajectory they follow. Data came from a longitudinal German study with a large sample of 3 nationally representative cohorts of late adolescents and young adults (total N = 9,069). The analyses were based on 4 assessments across a 3-year period. Using matched samples, the results showed that beginning a relationship increased self-esteem and that the increase persisted when the relationship held at least for 1 year. Experiencing a relationship break-up decreased self-esteem, but the effect disappeared after 1 year, even if the participant stayed single. Marrying did not influence self-esteem. Additionally, we tested for selection effects of self-esteem on the later occurrence of relationship transitions. High self-esteem predicted the beginning of a relationship and low self-esteem predicted relationship break-up. All findings held across gender, age, and migration background. Furthermore, relationship quality mediated the effect of self-esteem on relationship break-up and the effect of beginning a longer versus a short relationship on self-esteem. The findings have significant implications because they show that self-esteem influences whether important transitions occur in the relationship domain and that, in turn, experiencing these transitions influences the further development of self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Imposed Hispanicity: How the Imposition of Racialized and Gendered Identities in Texas Affects Mexican Women in Romantic Relationships with White Men

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    Jennifer C. Guillén


    Full Text Available Intimate, romantic spaces are important sites for the examination of self-identification and perceived identification, especially with regard to gender and racial power. In this article I examine how white men in romantic relationships or marriages with Mexican women and residing in Texas, impose “Hispanic” as a racial identity as a discursive tactic that reinforces the hegemonic power of being white and being a man in order to define the situation, impose ideals that distance Mexican partners from being “too ethnic” or “threatening” in order to achieve closer proximity to “honorary whiteness” and acceptability of racial others, and creates a romantic space that is coercive instead of loving and safe. This study thus finds that white men used their hegemony to not only employ imposed Hispanicity, which I define as an institutionally created but culturally and institutionally imposed label, and an action based on the use of direct and indirect coercion and force by others, in this case, white romantic partners, for the purpose of establishing power and determining the situation in which racial definitions are made. Therefore, “Hispanic” becomes an identity that is chosen by others and while participants of Mexican descent do employ agency, the socially imposed conditions and expectations associated with “Hispanic” serve to police the identities, bodies, lives, and actions of people of Latin American descent.

  20. Patterns of relationship and sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents and associations with well-being: A latent class approach. (United States)

    Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Vasilenko, Sara A


    To broaden our understanding of romance and sexuality during adolescence in Latin American countries, we used a person-oriented approach (latent class analysis) to examine classes marked by different patterns of romantic and sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents. We found 5 classes: Inactive (8.53%), Early stage (37.8%), Waiting class (27.5%), Physical (8.4%) and Committed (17.9%); but no group dating class. We also explored how these classes were associated with adolescents' mental health and school performance. Middle school adolescents in the Committed class (high in romantic and sexual behaviors) had the highest level of depressive symptoms. Girls in the Inactive class and boys in the Physical class had the lowest level of symptoms. Adolescents in the Committed class also reported less academic motivation and achievement, whereas adolescents in the Inactive class reported higher motivation. This study expands our knowledge of adolescent romantic and sexual development in Mexico.

  1. Ovulatory shifts in women's attractions to primary partners and other men: further evidence of the importance of primary partner sexual attractiveness.

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    Christina M Larson

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented shifts in women's attractions to their romantic partner and to men other than their partner across the ovulation cycle, contingent on the degree to which her partner displays hypothesized indicators of high-fitness genes. The current study set out to replicate and extend this finding. Forty-one couples in which the woman was naturally cycling participated. Female partners reported their feelings of in-pair attraction and extra-pair attraction on two occasions, once on a low-fertility day of the cycle and once on a high-fertility day of the cycle just prior to ovulation. Ovulation was confirmed using luteinizing hormone tests. We collected two measures of male partner sexual attractiveness. First, the women in the study rated their partner's sexual attractiveness. Second, we photographed the partners and had the photos independently rated for attractiveness. Shifts in women's in-pair attractions across the cycle were significantly moderated by women's ratings of partner sexual attractiveness, such that the less sexually attractive women rated their partner, the less in-pair attraction they reported at high fertility compared with low fertility (partial r = .37, p(dir = .01. Shifts in women's extra-pair attractions across the cycle were significantly moderated by third-party ratings of partner attractiveness, such that the less attractive the partner was, the more extra-pair attraction women reported at high relative to low fertility (partial r = -.33, p(dir = .03. In line with previous findings, we found support for the hypothesis that the degree to which a woman's romantic partner displays indicators of high-fitness genes affects women's attractions to their own partner and other men at high fertility.

  2. Irrational Beliefs and Abuse in University Students' Romantic Relations (United States)

    Kaygusuz, Canani


    Problem Statement: The complex nature of romantic relationships, in general, makes the continuation of these relationships a challenge. This situation is even more problematic in traditional societies, as social norms for these relations are more strict and more disciplinarian. University students want to be in romantic relationships due to their…

  3. Measuring Long-Distance Romantic Relationships: A Validity Study (United States)

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber


    This study investigated aspects of construct validity for the scores of a new long-distance romantic relationship measure. A single-factor structure of the long-distance romantic relationship index emerged, with convergent and discriminant evidence of external validity, high internal consistency reliability, and applied utility of the scores.…

  4. Romantic Knowledge. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.5.15 (United States)

    Pelfrey, Patricia A.


    While British Romantic literature provides ample evidence of the pleasures of knowledge, it also reveals strong counter-evidence of its power to inflict a sense of intellectual impairment and diminution. This Romantic ambivalence sprang from a complex of ideas and anxieties about the potentially corrosive effects of certain kinds of education and…

  5. Assessing Decision Making in Young Adult Romantic Relationships (United States)

    Vennum, Amber; Fincham, Frank D.


    Romantic relationships among young adults are rich with ambiguity and without a clear, universal progression emphasizing the need for active decision making. Lack of active decision making in romantic relationships can lead to increases in constraints (e.g. pregnancy, shared living space or finances) that promote the continuation of relationships…

  6. Romantic Relationships and Interpersonal Violence among Adults with Developmental Disabilities (United States)

    Ward, Karen M.; Bosek, Rebecca L.; Trimble, Erin L.


    Romantic relationships are important in the lives of adults with developmental disabilities. The purpose of this study was to explore dating and romantic relationships among these adults and to identify the nature and extent of interpersonal violence in their relationships. A random sample of 47 women and men participated in semistructured…

  7. Assessment of Romantic Perfectionism: Psychometric Properties of the Romantic Relationship Perfectionism Scale (United States)

    Matte, Melody; Lafontaine, Marie-France


    The objective of the present study was to provide validity evidence for the scores from the Romantic Relationship Perfectionism Scale. Results indicate a two-factor structure, adequate reliability, and overall good convergent, concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity evidence. The strengths and limitations of this measure are discussed.…

  8. Father Involvement, Dating Violence, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a National Sample of Adolescent Females. (United States)

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R


    This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection.

  9. Love at first fright: partner salience moderates roller-coaster-induced excitation transfer. (United States)

    Meston, Cindy M; Frohlich, Penny F


    This study examined the effects of residual nervous system arousal on perceptions of sexual attraction. Researchers approached individuals (males, n = 165; females, n = 135) at amusement parks as they were either waiting to begin or as they had just gotten off a roller-coaster ride. Participants were shown a photograph of an average attractive, opposite-gendered individual and asked to rate the individual on attractiveness and dating desirability. Participants were also asked to rate their seatmates' levels of attractiveness. Consistent with the predictions of excitation transfer theory, for males and females riding with a nonromantic partner, ratings of attractiveness and dating desirability toward the photographed individual were higher among persons exiting than entering the ride. Among persons riding with a romantic partner, there were no significant differences in attractiveness or dating desirability ratings between persons entering and exiting the ride. The findings are discussed in terms of the potential moderator effects of a salient romantic partner on excitation transfer.

  10. Health, Anticipated Partner Infidelity, and Jealousy in Men and Women

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    Steven Arnocky


    Full Text Available Health has been identified as an important variable involved in mate choice. Unhealthy organisms are generally less able to provide reproductively important resources to partners and offspring and are more likely to pass on communicable disease. Research on human mate preferences has shown that both men and women prefer healthy mates. Yet to date, little research has examined how health relates to one’s own mating experiences. In the present study, 164 participants (87 women who were currently in heterosexual romantic relationships completed measures of frequency and severity of health problems, anticipated partner infidelity, and intensity of jealousy felt in their current relationship. Mediation analyses showed that health problems predicted greater anticipated partner infidelity and jealousy scores and that anticipated partner infidelity mediated the links between health and jealousy for both frequency and severity of health problems, controlling for both sex and relationship duration. These findings suggest that unhealthy people perceive themselves to be at a mating disadvantage, experiencing associated differences in perceptions and emotions surrounding their romantic partners’ fidelity.

  11. Commitment: Functions, Formation, and the Securing of Romantic Attachment. (United States)

    Stanley, Scott M; Rhoades, Galena K; Whitton, Sarah W


    In this theoretical paper, we review central concepts in the psychological literature on relationship commitment to provide a foundation to discuss two themes related to long-term romantic relationships and marriages. First, we describe and discuss the role that commitment plays in stabilizing romantic attachment. Second, we use empirical research on cohabitation to highlight how the formation of commitment can be undermined by what are now common trajectories of couple development. The first topic underscores an increasingly important role for commitment in an age of companionate marriage. The second topic draws attention to dynamics that can affect the strength of romantic commitments, especially in marriage.

  12. Do Finns Date? Cultural Interpretations of Romantic Relating

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    Saila Poutiainen


    Full Text Available Dating, the stage in American romantic relationships, is a popular theme in interpersonal communication research. This article claims that dating is a cultural construct and concept. The claim is supported by two means: (1 by examining the perceptions of relationships, communication, and personhood that are embedded in American women‟s interviews, and (2 by comparing these perceptions with Finnish women‟s interviews about relationship initiation. The cultural meanings of dating should be acknowledged when making generalizations and building theoretical constructs on romantic relationships, as well as in applying American research results in describing Finnish romantic relationships.

  13. Emergence of sex differences in the development of substance use and abuse during adolescence. (United States)

    Kuhn, Cynthia


    Substance use and abuse begin during adolescence. Male and female adolescent humans initiate use at comparable rates, but males increase use faster. In adulthood, more men than women use and abuse addictive drugs. However, some women progress more rapidly from initiation of use to entry into treatment. In animal models, adolescent males and females consume addictive drugs similarly. However, reproductively mature females acquire self-administration faster, and in some models, escalate use more. Sex/gender differences exist in neurobiologic factors mediating both reinforcement (dopamine, opioids) and aversiveness (CRF, dynorphin), as well as intrinsic factors (personality, psychiatric co-morbidities) and extrinsic factors (history of abuse, environment especially peers and family) which influence the progression from initial use to abuse. Many of these important differences emerge during adolescence, and are moderated by sexual differentiation of the brain. Estradiol effects which enhance both dopaminergic and CRF-mediated processes contribute to the female vulnerability to substance use and abuse. Testosterone enhances impulsivity and sensation seeking in both males and females. Several protective factors in females also influence initiation and progression of substance use including hormonal changes of pregnancy as well as greater capacity for self-regulation and lower peak levels of impulsivity/sensation seeking. Same sex peers represent a risk factor more for males than females during adolescence, while romantic partners increase risk for women during this developmental epoch. In summary, biologic factors, psychiatric co-morbidities as well as personality and environment present sex/gender-specific risks as adolescents begin to initiate substance use.

  14. Forgiveness and Conflict Resolution in Close Relationships: Within and Cross Partner Effects

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    Full Text Available Do forgiveness and conflict tactics (compromise, aggression, and avoidancein response to conflicts instigated by a romantic partner's offence uniquely predict effective arguing and relationship quality? Using 92 Italian couples we tested a mediational model in which each partner's responses to conflict predicted bothe partners' perceived effective arguing that, in turn, predict their own relationship quality. For both men and women, negative responses to conflict (unforgiveness, aggression, and avoidance overlapped and jointly predicted self-reported and partner-reported relationship quality, directly and indirectly via effective arguing. Positive responses investigated (benevolence and compromise did not overlap for either men or women. Men's positive positive responses to conflict uniquely predicted self-reported and partner-reported relationship quality via effective arguing, whereas women's positive responses did not predict them independently of their male partner's tactics.

  15. An inventory and update of jealousy-evoking partner behaviours in modern society. (United States)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P H; Groothof, Hinke A K


    The goal of the present study was to identify the most important jealousy-evoking partner behaviours and to examine the extent to which these behaviours evoke jealousy. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was constructed containing 42 jealousy-evoking partner behaviours, including a partner's extra-dyadic involvement with someone else by means of modern communication devices, such as the Internet. A second study examined the extent to which undergraduates and a community sample experienced jealousy in response to these partner behaviours. Results showed that explicit unfaithful behaviours evoked most feelings of jealousy, followed by a partner's emotional or romantic involvement with someone else by means of modern communication devices. In general, older individuals responded with less jealousy in response to a partner's unfaithful and suspicious behaviours. Clinical implications are discussed.

  16. Predicting Improvement in Depression Across Therapies Using Indicators of Romantic Relationship Functioning: A Preliminary Investigation. (United States)

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Denton, Wayne H


    Depression is a common presenting problem, often affected by couple interactions in unique ways. However, research in the area of romantic relationship functioning and depression often replicates previous research or consists of literature reviews, limiting the clinical relevancy. The purpose of this preliminary study is to expand the research on the effects of relational processes on depression treatment outcomes. We tested whether initiator tendency, attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, and marital satisfaction predicted improvement in depression for women with Major Depressive Disorder enrolled in a depression treatment clinical trial (n = 17). Women completed treatments of either pharmacotherapy or combined Emotionally Focused Therapy for couples and pharmacotherapy. We found that higher baseline levels of partner initiator tendency resulted in less change in depression (worse outcomes), regardless of treatment type and that higher baseline levels of attachment avoidance predicted better depression outcomes in treatment. Marital satisfaction, however, was not linked to change in depression. Initiator tendency is discussed as a critical romantic relationship factor for depression treatment outcomes.

  17. Attachment style moderates partner presence effects on pain: a laser-evoked potentials study. (United States)

    Krahé, Charlotte; Paloyelis, Yannis; Condon, Heather; Jenkinson, Paul M; Williams, Steven C R; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini


    Social support is crucial for psychological and physical well-being. Yet, in experimental and clinical pain research, the presence of others has been found to both attenuate and intensify pain. To investigate the factors underlying these mixed effects, we administered noxious laser stimuli to 39 healthy women while their romantic partner was present or absent, and measured pain ratings and laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) to assess the effects of partner presence on subjective pain experience and underlying neural processes. Further, we examined whether individual differences in adult attachment style (AAS), alone or in interaction with the partner's level of attentional focus (manipulated to be either on or away from the participant) might modulate these effects. We found that the effects of partner presence vs absence on pain-related measures depended on AAS but not partner attentional focus. The higher participants' attachment avoidance, the higher pain ratings and N2 and P2 local peak amplitudes were in the presence compared with the absence of the romantic partner. As LEPs are thought to reflect activity relating to the salience of events, our data suggest that partner presence may influence the perceived salience of events threatening the body, particularly in individuals who tend to mistrust others.

  18. Polynesian Music, Captain Cook, and the Romantic Movement in Europe. (United States)

    Kaeppler, Adrienne L.


    The descriptions of Polynesian music and dance resulting from Cook's voyages influenced the romantic composers of the early nineteenth century, especially in the incorporation of exotic and mystical themes. (Author)

  19. Self-determination theory and romantic relationship processes. (United States)

    Knee, C Raymond; Hadden, Benjamin W; Porter, Ben; Rodriguez, Lindsey M


    Self-determination theory can be viewed as a theory of optimal relationship development and functioning. We examine the concept of self that is employed in self-determination theory and explain how its unique definition allows an important and novel characterization of investing one's "self" in romantic relationships. A self-determined perspective on romantic relationships integrates several theories on romantic relationship development, but also goes beyond them by explicitly articulating the personality, developmental, and situational factors that facilitate optimal self-investment and relational functioning. Self-determination promotes openness rather than defensiveness and facilitates perspective-taking, authenticity, and support of close others. The dyadic context of romantic relationships affords great opportunity for theoretical development and integration of self-determination theory with current theories of interdependence and relational well-being.

  20. Bridging the Sciences of Mindfulness and Romantic Relationships. (United States)

    Karremans, Johan C; Schellekens, Melanie P J; Kappen, Gesa


    Research on mindfulness, defined as paying conscious and non-judgmental attention to present-moment experiences, has increased rapidly in the past decade but has focused almost entirely on the benefits of mindfulness for individual well-being. This article considers the role of mindfulness in romantic relationships. Although strong claims have been made about the potentially powerful role of mindfulness in creating better relationships, it is less clear whether, when, and how this may occur. This article integrates the literatures on mindfulness and romantic relationship science, and sketches a theory-driven model and future research agenda to test possible pathways of when and how mindfulness may affect romantic relationship functioning. We review some initial direct and indirect evidence relevant to the proposed model. Finally, we discuss the implications of how studying mindfulness may further our understanding of romantic relationship (dys)functioning, and how mindfulness may be a promising and effective tool in couple interventions.

  1. Transcendental philosophy within perspectives of the romantic fragmentariness

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    Vlaški Stanko


    Full Text Available The relation of Jena romantics to Kant’s transcendental philosophy could be considered from the point of view of the romantic theory of the fragment. The author claims that fragmentariness had a transcendental character in the philosophical ref lections of Friedrich Schlegel and Novalis. That is the reason that they have acquired the opportunity of approaching to the immanent tension of Kant’s philosophical project. The problem of ref lection of relation between systematicity and incompleteness of knowledge and of man’s theoretical and practical side is among the most important. The author tries to evaluate the importance of Fichte’s version of critical idealism for romantics, considering the crucial romanticists’ intention of historization of transcendental idealism with the help of the fragment. Final chapter refers to recent interpretations of the romantic fragment which tend to ignore this intention.

  2. 'Platonic jealousy': a conceptualization and review of the literature on non-romantic pathological jealousy. (United States)

    Hill, R; Davis, P


    Romantic jealousy has long been of interest to psychodynamically oriented clinicians. More recently empirical investigations have emerged into the causes and treatments of romantic jealousy. What has not kept pace with this interest is a wider research agenda into non-romantic forms of jealousy. While work has appeared in relation to specific groups or topics, such as sibling rivalry, no attempt has been made to draw together the material on non-romantic jealousy. In this paper the theoretical and empirical material on non-romantic jealousy is reviewed in order to answer two fundamental questions. Firstly, is non-romantic jealousy necessarily pathological? Secondly, to what extent is it helpful to subsume all forms of non-romantic jealousy under one term? It is suggested that while non-romantic jealousy is not always pathological, the term non-romantic jealousy may be a useful differentiating term, not least in highlighting an important area for future research.

  3. The Embodiment of Sublime in British Romantic Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pang Xuetong


    As a literary term,sublime,for a time,has become one of the leading criteria of literary criticism and a representative characteristic of high art. In British romantic poetry,sub-lime has a very broad embodiment. This paper,with the theoretical foundation of the sublime by Longinus,Burke and Kant,probes into the embodiment of sublime in the works of British Romantic poets,including Blake,Wordsworth,Coleridge,Keats and Shelley.

  4. Young Women\\'s Anger in Romantic Relationships


    Jaramillo Sierra, Ana L


    The present study investigated how young women "do" and "undo" gender in relation to their anger in romantic relationships. With this aim, I conducted in-depth interviews with 24 young women between the ages of 18 and 25. I interviewed participants about the characteristics of their current romantic relationships and their experiences of anger in this context. I used a constructivist grounded theory methodology involving open, axial, and theoretical coding to analyze the data collected thr...

  5. Seven types of nonsexual romantic physical affection among Brigham young university students. (United States)

    Gulledge, Andrew K; Stahmann, Robert F; Wilson, Colwick M


    College students from Brigham Young University (N= 186; 68 men, 118 women, M age=22.7 yr., SD=3.5) completed a survey regarding nonsexual, romantic physical affection-defined as any touch intended to arouse feelings of love in the giver or the recipient. Respondents included both dating and married individuals, although this was not specified on the questionnaire. This descriptive study reports the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation for each of the seven physical affection types: backrubs/massages, caressing/stroking, cuddling/holding, holding hands, hugging, kissing on the face, and kissing on the lips. Grouped frequency distributions further describe the amounts of each type of physical affection. Although physical affection has been underrepresented in the literature, studies have shown it to be associated with relationship satisfaction, partner satisfaction, psychological intimacy, feeling understood, the development of attachment bonds, modulating cardiovascular arousal, and easier conflict resolution.

  6. Consequences of interpersonal spin on couple-relevant goal progress and relationship satisfaction in romantic relationships. (United States)

    Sadikaj, Gentiana; Rappaport, Lance M; Moskowitz, D S; Zuroff, David C; Koestner, Richard; Powers, Theodore


    Large fluctuations in a person's interpersonal behavior across situations and over time are thought to be associated with poor personal and interpersonal outcomes. This study examined 2 outcomes, relationship satisfaction and goal progress, that could be associated with individual differences in dispersion of interpersonal behavior (interpersonal spin) in romantic relationships. Need satisfaction and perceived autonomy support for goal pursuit from the partner were examined as mediator variables. Spin was measured using an event-contingent recording (ECR) methodology with a sample of 93 cohabiting couples who reported their interpersonal behavior in interactions with each other during a 20-day period. Relationship satisfaction and goal completion were measured at the end of the ECR procedure (T2) and approximately 7 months after the ECR (T3). Need satisfaction and perceived autonomy support were measured at T2. In both genders, higher spin was associated with lower T2 relationship satisfaction. There was also a decline in relationship satisfaction from T2 to T3 among men with high spin partners. In both genders, higher spin was associated with lower need satisfaction, and lower need satisfaction was associated with a decline in relationship satisfaction from T2 to T3. In both genders, higher spin was associated with lower perceived autonomy support, and lower support was associated with decreased progress in goal completion from T2 to T3. The effects of spin were independent of the effects of mean levels of behavior. These findings extend the understanding of the detrimental consequences of dispersion in interpersonal behavior to the disruption of the person's romantic relationships.

  7. Gender, Popular Culture, and Curriculum: Adolescent Romance Novels as Gender Text. (United States)

    Christian-Smith, Linda K.


    Shows how adolescent femininity is constructed in 34 adolescent romance novels written from 1942-1982. Most feature the "good girl" characterized by filial obedience and adherence to male-dominated romantic conduct, although sixties and seventies novels showed strain in gender relations. Narrative versions of femininity are fictional…

  8. Social reorientation in adolescence : neurobiological changes and individual differences in empathic concern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overgaauw, Sandy


    One of the most prominent changes in adolescence is social reorientation. In other words, adolescents develop more intimate relationships with peers, they discover what it is like to be involved in a romantic relationship, and they take (social) risks by for example showing risky driving in the pres

  9. The Initiation of Dating in Adolescence : The Effect of Parental Divorce. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, Katya; Mills, Melinda; Veenstra, Rene


    This study examined the effect of parental divorce on the time it took adolescents to initiate their first romantic relationships. Individual differences in temperament and pubertal development and the age of the adolescent at the time of divorce were also taken into account. Hypotheses were tested

  10. The Initiation of Dating in Adolescence: The Effect of Parental Divorce. The TRAILS Study (United States)

    Ivanova, Katya; Mills, Melinda; Veenstra, Rene


    This study examined the effect of parental divorce on the time it took adolescents to initiate their first romantic relationships. Individual differences in temperament and pubertal development and the age of the adolescent at the time of divorce were also taken into account. Hypotheses were tested using event history analysis with a sample of…

  11. It's a matter of time: The effect of depletion on communal action in romantic relationships is moderated by relationship length. (United States)

    Kammrath, Lara K; Peetz, Johanna; Hara, Kimberley; Demarco, Arden; Wood, Kristen; Kirkconnell, Jackie; Meirovich, Harley; Allen, Thomas


    Researchers have only begun to turn their attention to the role of self-control in communal action (rather than communal restraint) in relationships. Conflicting results from early studies indicate that the association between self-control and communal action may be quite complex, and potentially moderated by many variables. Here we investigate how relationship length may moderate the extent to which communal actions require self-control resources. In 5 studies, we investigated the role of self-control resources in implementing (Studies 1 and 2) and in choosing (Studies 3-5) communal actions for a romantic partner, as a function of the length of time partners had been together. The data supported the hypothesis that as relationships mature over time, communal actions may require less self-control to implement and may become a decisional default. These findings suggest that communal actions may be a more deliberative response in newer romantic relationships but a more reflexive response in more established relationships.

  12. Effects of everyday romantic goal pursuit on women's attitudes toward math and science. (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Young, Ariana F; Troisi, Jordan D; Pinkus, Rebecca T


    The present research examined the impact of everyday romantic goal strivings on women's attitudes toward science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). It was hypothesized that women may distance themselves from STEM when the goal to be romantically desirable is activated because pursuing intelligence goals in masculine domains (i.e., STEM) conflicts with pursuing romantic goals associated with traditional romantic scripts and gender norms. Consistent with hypotheses, women, but not men, who viewed images (Study 1) or overheard conversations (Studies 2a-2b) related to romantic goals reported less positive attitudes toward STEM and less preference for majoring in math/science compared to other disciplines. On days when women pursued romantic goals, the more romantic activities they engaged in and the more desirable they felt, but the fewer math activities they engaged in. Furthermore, women's previous day romantic goal strivings predicted feeling more desirable but being less invested in math on the following day (Study 3).

  13. Facebook tells me so: applying the theory of planned behavior to understand partner-monitoring behavior on Facebook. (United States)

    Darvell, Millie J; Walsh, Shari P; White, Katherine M


    The social networking site (SNS) Facebook is becoming increasingly recognized as a medium through which individuals can investigate and monitor others' activities. However, little is known about whether Facebook monitoring behavior occurs within romantic relationships and, accordingly, the psychological predictors of this behavior. The present study employed an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework including self-esteem, partner trust, and demographic characteristics, to predict frequent Facebook partner-monitoring. Facebook users (N=244) in romantic relationships completed measures assessing the standard TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control), additional predictor variables (self-esteem and partner trust), and demographic characteristics (age, gender, relationship length, daily Facebook logins, and time spent per login). One week later, participants reported their level of Facebook partner-monitoring during the previous week. Regression analyses supported the standard TPB constructs of attitude and subjective norm in predicting intentions to engage in frequent Facebook partner-monitoring, with intention, in turn, predicting behavior. Partner trust, but not self-esteem, significantly predicted frequent Facebook partner-monitoring intentions. Of the demographic characteristics, daily Facebook logins significantly predicted both intention and behavior and, unexpectedly, relationship length directly affected behavior. Overall, the current study revealed that frequent Facebook partner-monitoring is influenced by attitudinal, normative, and relational factors and, potentially, increased visits to Facebook. These findings provide a new understanding of an individual's use of the world's leading SNS to monitor their partner's activities and provide a foundation for future studies to investigate the potential negative implications this activity may have for those in romantic relationships.

  14. Poems From/de Infernal: Romantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vek Lewis


    Full Text Available These poems came about when, living in a house in Xalapa, Mexico, without a stereo and no guitar or piano to speak of, I had to invent my own music. Love is infernal, not eternal. The image of the beloved that betrays you, always an image that is both iconic and sacrilegious, an internal and infernal ecstasy that the bolero gives life to. I only realised afterwards that I had written an update of this Caribbean-Mexican genre, a mi manera. So it seemed suitable that they should be in Spanish and English (the latter my first language, exorcising both los demonios de la mirada amada y los demonios de la lengua. These pieces come from a collection of erotic poetry accompanied by interpretive images that will be released by an art press in Spain in 2009. Infernal/romantic is one half of a collaborative project between myself, the Madrid-based Chilean poet, Violeta Medina, and several artists. The collection speaks to desires that are clearly other and demonic.

  15. Does power help or hurt? The moderating role of self-other focus on power and perspective-taking in romantic relationships. (United States)

    Gordon, Amie M; Chen, Serena


    Reconciling competing viewpoints suggesting that power helps and hurts perspective-taking in close relationships, in two experiments and two daily experience studies we tested the hypothesis that power's effect on perspective-taking depends on the extent to which people are relatively self-versus other-focused. In Study 1, recalling a time of high (vs. low) power over a romantic partner reduced inclinations to take the partner's perspective for relatively self-focused but not other-focused individuals. Studies 2 and 3 replicated Study 1 using daily variations in power and perspective-taking. In Study 4, being the "in-charge" partner during a conflict conversation reduced empathic accuracy for more self-focused individuals. Self-other focus was assessed with measures of gratitude, relational self-construal, and social value orientation. The current findings provide evidence that, particularly for the more self-focused, relationship power influences people's inclinations to take their romantic partner's perspective in daily life as well as their empathic accuracy during conflict.

  16. Romantic Ideals, Mate Preferences, and Anticipation of Future Difficulties in Marital Life: A comparative study of young adults in India and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrine eBejanyan


    Full Text Available Previous studies have established that Indians tend to be greater in collectivism and gender role traditionalism than Americans. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these differences explained further cultural differences in romantic beliefs, traditional mate preferences, and anticipation of future difficulties in marital life. Results revealed that Indians reported greater collectivism than Americans and, in turn, held stronger romantic beliefs. Additionally, Indians’ greater collectivism and endorsement of more traditional gender roles in part predicted their preferences for a marital partner possessing traditional characteristics, and fully accounted for their heightened concerns about encountering future difficulties in marital life. These results shed light on the processes underlying cultural differences in relationship attitudes and preferences, and point to culture-specific therapies to enhance marital functioning.

  17. Romantic ideals, mate preferences, and anticipation of future difficulties in marital life: a comparative study of young adults in India and America. (United States)

    Bejanyan, Kathrine; Marshall, Tara C; Ferenczi, Nelli


    Previous studies have established that Indians tend to be greater in collectivism and gender role traditionalism than Americans. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these differences explained further cultural differences in romantic beliefs, traditional mate preferences, and anticipation of future difficulties in marital life. Results revealed that Indians reported greater collectivism than Americans and, in turn, held stronger romantic beliefs. Additionally, Indians' greater collectivism and endorsement of more traditional gender roles in part predicted their preferences for a marital partner possessing traditional characteristics, and fully accounted for their heightened concerns about encountering future difficulties in marital life. These results shed light on the processes underlying cultural differences in relationship attitudes and preferences, and point to culture-specific therapies to enhance marital functioning.

  18. Olympic Partner Programme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The Olympic Partner Programme (TOP) is an international Olympic marketing programme created by the International Olympic Committee (IOC),which includes the Organising Committees of the Games,the National Olympic Committees and the TOP Partners.

  19. Improving Access to Standardized Fertility Preservation Information for Older Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: Using a User-Centered Approach with Young Adult Patients, Survivors, and Partners to Refine Fertility Knowledge Transfer. (United States)

    Tam, Seline; Puri, Natasha; Stephens, Derek; Mitchell, Laura; Giuliani, Meredith; Papadakos, Janet; Gupta, Abha A


    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients under 40 should be made aware of their fertility risks and preservation options throughout their care. However, discussions on fertility preservation (FP) do not routinely occur. With a dearth of FP resources, oncology providers may lack knowledge around FP. Thus, informational needs can be unmet, leading to anxiety and distress in patients. Provision of pertinent and timely information can help patients cope better with their diagnosis. FP pamphlets were developed for men and women with cancer. A cross-sectional in-house survey, using convenience sampling, evaluated the pamphlets' effectiveness and measured ease of understanding, acceptability, and perceived utility. Patients and partners were also asked to provide recommendations and complete the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) measuring health literacy level. This helps determine if health literacy influences perception of pamphlet effectiveness. All participants (n = 56) reviewed both pamphlets. Fifty-four participants (96 %) found the pamphlet for men useful, while 29 participants (52 %) improved their male fertility knowledge. The pamphlet for women was useful for 52 participants (93 %) and improved knowledge in 35 (63 %) of them. Although the majority of participants had adequate health literacy (98 %), there was insufficient sample diversity to determine if health literacy influenced the pamphlet's effectiveness. Participants indicated preference in receiving verbal (73 %) and written (66 %) information over watching videos or in-class education. They recommended including fertility clinics, financial resources, and statistics in the brochures. These FP pamphlets were concluded as effective in supporting patients in making FP decisions.

  20. The Constitution of Partnering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    The constitution of partnering. Afhandlingen behandler konstitueringen af ledelseskonceptet partnering og dets anvendelse i dansk byggeri. Partnering er et udbredt koncept i byggeriet som betoner samarbejde, tillid og gensidighed mellem de deltagende parter, og konceptet har de senere år har været...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel de Lima Santos


    Full Text Available This article deals with the connections between the assimilation of certain shamanic practices related to Romantic inspiration in English literature. The interest in the world of altered states of consciousness as a manifestation of the sacred is typical among Romantic writers in nineteenth-century England. These writers in fact sought the manifestation of the world of dreams by means of ingesting substances that alter consciousness, thus assimilating a practice that is likewise and primarily shamanic. This search is the object under investigation in this article, which aims at showing that, despite conspicuous cultural differences, there are indeed similarities that pervade shamanic practices and the Romantic ideal in their quests toward the sacred.

  2. Romantic worldview as a narcissistic construct’

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    Branko Mitrović


    Full Text Available The view that human intellectual life and values are predetermined by one’s membership of a collective such as culture, ethnicity, class or linguistic community has been the core of the Romantic intellectual tradition from German eighteenth-century romantics to late twentieth-century postmodernist social constructivists. The view fundamentally depends on the acceptance of a number of paradoxes and theoretical positions that are philosophically difficult to defend; its widespread popularity can only indicate an extra-theoretical motivation to accept it. In this paper I argue that modern psychological research about narcissism provides a comprehensive explanation for this motivation. While the results of the analysis could be applied to any segment of the Romantic tradition, this paper mainly concentrates on German art historiography of the era between Bismarck and Adenauer.

  3. An inexpensive system for measuring the processing of relational information by romantic partners. (United States)

    De Clercq, A; Buysse, A


    The present paper describes the computer aspects of a reaction time experiment with couples. The hardware consists of two computers connected through a local area network. Issues that deal with the first PC include timing routines, screen control, mice data decoding, and synchronization of computer software--written in Assembler for a PC without hard disk--with information presented in a videotape. The second computer was used for data processing that was written in VBA. Although the system was created for a dedicated purpose, it is easily applicable to other environments.

  4. Dangerous Liaisons? Dating and Drinking Diffusion in Adolescent Peer Networks (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.


    The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence. Yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating, and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks.…

  5. Close Relationships and Attributions for Peer Victimization among Late Adolescents (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra


    This study examined the effect of close relationships (best friendship and romantic relationship) on late adolescents' casual attributions for peer victimization. A total of 1106 twelfth grade students completed self-report measures of perceived peer victimization, self-blame attribution, psychological maladjustment (loneliness and social…

  6. The romantic imagination and astronomy on all sides infinity

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegand Brothers, Dometa


    The Romantic Imagination and Astronomy is the first book to reconstruct the history of the science of astronomy and its importance to the Romantic imagination in exploration and colonization by imperial England. It examines how the science of astronomy in exploration and discovery, from Edmund Halley and William Herschel to Captain Cook, changed the world by tying the 'pure' science of astronomy to the practical, commercial, and martial aims of navigation for the maritime nation of England. It demonstrates that the same 'pure' science of astronom

  7. [Association between approach-avoidance commitment to romantic relationships, emotional experiences in romantic relationships, and personal mental health]. (United States)

    Komura, Kentaro


    The present study examined the association between approach-avoidance commitment, emotional experiences in romantic relationships, and mental health. It was hypothesized that the association between avoidance commitment and emotional experiences was moderated by approach commitment. Two hundred and three undergraduates who were involved in romantic relationships participated in a questionnaire survey. Results revealed that approach commitment was associated with greater positive emotion and less negative emotion, and these emotional experiences were associated with higher mental health. On the other hand, the association between avoidance commitment and emotional experiences was moderated by approach commitment. That is, only when approach commitment was weak, avoidance commitment was associated with fewer positive emotions and greater negative emotions, and that these emotional experiences were associated with lower mental health. These results reveal that approach-avoidance commitment was associated with mental health via emotional experiences in romantic relationships, and verified Johnson's (1999) and Levinger's (1999) theoretical argument.

  8. Correlates and predictors of sexual health among adolescent Latinas in the United States: A systematic review of the literature, 2004-2015. (United States)

    Morales-Alemán, Mercedes M; Scarinci, Isabel C


    Adolescent Latinas in the United States (US) are disproportionately affected by early pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in comparison to their non-Hispanic white counterparts. However, only a few studies have sought to understand the multi-level factors associated with sexual health in adolescent Latinas. Adhering to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a systematic literature review to better understand the correlates and predictors of sexual health among adolescent Latinas in the US, identify gaps in the research, and suggest future directions for empirical studies and intervention efforts. Eleven studies were identified: five examined onset of sexual intercourse, nine examined determinants of sexual health/risk behaviors (e.g., number of sexual partners and condom use), and three examined determinants of a biological sexual health outcome (i.e., STIs or pregnancy). Two types of variables/factors emerged as important influences on sexual health outcomes: proximal context-level variables (i.e., variables pertaining to the individual's family, sexual/romantic partner or peer group) and individual-level variables (i.e., characteristics of the individual). A majority of the studies reviewed (n=9) examined some aspect of acculturation or Latino/a cultural values in relation to sexual health. Results varied widely between studies suggesting that the relationship between individual and proximal contextual variables (including acculturation) and sexual health may be more complex than previously conceived. This review integrates the findings on correlates and predictors of sexual health among adolescent Latinas, and supports the need for strengths-based theoretically guided research on the mechanisms driving these associations.

  9. Adolescent witnesses in cases of teen dating violence: An analysis of peer responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Bonache


    Full Text Available Gender violence is a serious problem that also affects the adolescent population (González & Santana, 2001. The victims of such violence in adolescence, should they seek help, rely primarily on their peers and rarely report it to adults (Weisz et al., 2007. The responses or reactions of avoidance, minimization or protection that their peers may have contribute to the victim maintaining or breaking the "unhealthy" relationship. An experimental study was designed to examine the reactions of adolescents in the event that they are witness to an episode of violence (verbal and physical aggression towards a friend. The main objective was to analyze the differences in their reactions according to sex of the witness, familiarity with the perpetrator (stranger vs. a friend and the relationship between aggressor and victim (a date, romantic partner. An exploratory analysis of the influence of the witnesses’ sexist beliefs (hostile and benevolent on these reactions was also performed. Thus, more negative reactions were found (greater passivity and less empathy among men in the case where the victim maintained a relationship with the offender than in the case of a date, especially if the perpetrator was a stranger. Also, in the girls more avoidance responses were found when the violent episode occurred between members of a couple on a date. Finally, the practical implications of the findings are discussed, highlighting the need to include guidelines in programs against gender violence among adolescents on how to behave if in relation to the victim when they are witnesses of gender violence.

  10. Partner distress in the context of adult anorexia nervosa: The role of patients’ perceived negative consequences of AN and partner behaviors (United States)

    Fischer, Melanie S.; Baucom, Donald H.; Kirby, Jennifer S.; Bulik, Cynthia M.


    Objective Romantic partners can play an important role in the recovery from anorexia nervosa (AN). It is important to understand partners’ behaviors and variables associated with their own distress. The aim was to examine associations of patients’ perceived negative consequences of AN, behavioral strategies employed by partners, and partner distress. Method We used a cross-sectional design to assess associations between self-reports of patients’ perceived negative consequences of AN, partners’ caregiver distress, negative affect, relationship satisfaction, and observational coding measures of partners’ behavioral strategies of change promotion and acceptance/validation. Sixteen adult patient-partner dyads in committed relationships were assessed at baseline of a couple-based intervention for AN. Results Partners’ change promotion moderated the association between patients’ perceived negative consequences of AN and partners’ caregiver distress. Partners’ acceptance/validation was associated with partners’ negative affect. Discussion This report represents the first description of specific partner behaviors in the context of AN. Partners who reported the least distress were those who were trying to promote changes in AN behaviors in patients who reported high negative consequences of AN, and partners who were trying to show understanding of the patients’ experience. Future studies should examine the impact of partner behaviors on AN treatment outcome. PMID:25087574

  11. Attachment, love styles and spirituality as predictors for changing partners in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Tisovec


    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to determine whether partners in an adult relationship who report less secure style of parental attachment in childhood more often change partners than those who report a secure attachment style, and whether those who change their partners correlate in the romantic style, and whether the features of the spiritual dimensions of personality will distinguish from those who change partners less frequently. The sample included 353 participants, aged from 15 to 66 years. On the basis of the research we came to the conclusion that parental attachment is associated with changing partners. Individuals whose parents were available to their children, provided them with support and attention, were changing partners less often than those, who did not have that much support and attention. The study showed that individuals who were frequently changing their partners showed two distinctive love styles - play and friendship. Those who do not agree with changing partners or had less partnerships, showed a distinctive trend of erotic, pragmatic and selfless love styles.The study also showed significant correlation between spirituality and changing partners - those who were more spiritual (particularly in the sense that they are more committed to find emotional satisfaction in prayer or meditation, had more partnerships and sexual intercourses.

  12. Sexual Attraction and Romantic Love: Forgotten Variables in Marital Therapy. (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas W.


    Addresses lack of attention in marriage therapy literature to romantic love and sexual attraction. Notes that few guidelines are available to therapists concerning how to deal with love as an issue in therapy. Presents model based on assumption that marriage problems are emotional in nature and that success of marital therapists depends upon skill…

  13. Romantic American Literature: Sources for Criticism. A Research Guide. (United States)

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This handout is a guide to library resources in the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte for the criticism of Romantic (19th century) American literature. The guide explains important reference sources in the Atkins library reference collection and how to find biographical and critical information in books and…

  14. A Romantic Study of Shelly's "Ode to the West Wind"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Ode to the West Wind is one of the marvelous poetry of Percy Bysshe Shelley. In order to study the Romanticism in Shelly's Ode to the West Wind, this thesis, by studying the features of Romanticism, shows the fascinating romantic beauty and glamour of this poetry.

  15. Romanticism and Romantic Science: Their Contribution to Science Education (United States)

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Schulz, Roland


    The unique contributions of romanticism and romantic science have been generally ignored or undervalued in history and philosophy of science studies and science education. Although more recent research in history of science has come to delineate the value of both topics for the development of modern science, their merit for the educational field…

  16. Romantic Attachment and Relationship Functioning in Same-Sex Couples (United States)

    Mohr, Jonathan J.; Selterman, Dylan; Fassinger, Ruth E.


    The present study was designed to investigate links between dimensions of romantic attachment and relationship functioning in a cross-sectional sample of people in same-sex relationships, with the goals of replicating basic findings from research on heterosexual couples and advancing understanding of unique issues faced by same-sex couples. The…

  17. Sexuality (and Lack Thereof) in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: A Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Boislard, Marie-Aude; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Blais, Martin


    Youth sexuality has been primarily studied with a focus on its potential public health issues, such as sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies, and its comorbidity with other risky behaviors. More recently, it has been studied as a normative step in romantic partnerships, either pre- or post-marital, as well as outside the context of romantic involvement. In this paper, we review the extensive literature on sexuality in adolescence and early adulthood both within and outside romantic relationships (i.e., casual sexual relationships and experiences; CSREs). Furthermore, the recent recognition of youth sexuality as a developmental task has led to a renewed interest from scholars in youth who abstain from sexual encounters, whether deliberately or not. A brief overview of the literature on cultural differences in sexuality, and sexual-minority youth sexual development is also provided. This paper concludes by suggesting future directions to bring the field of youth sexuality and romantic relationships forward.

  18. Perceiving and Wanting to Be Valued by Others: Implications for Cognition, Motivation, and Behavior in Romantic Relationships. (United States)

    Lemay, Edward P; Spongberg, Kerry


    Two studies examined implications of two individual differences--perception of being valued by others and desire to be valued by others--for romantic relationships. Study 1 included 171 participants involved in romantic relationships (59 males, 112 females) and examined attributions and behavioral intentions in hypothetical scenarios. Study 2 involved 160 heterosexual couples who completed daily reports and/or an observed conflict discussion. Perception of being valued by others and desire to be valued by others independently predicted more pro-relationship responses and reduced relationship-destructive responses, including more care, commitment, and regard for partners; more responsive and ingratiating behavior; less negative behavior; and more positive perceptions and behavioral intentions. Perceived and desired interpersonal value were related to attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, and trait self-esteem. However, perceived and desired interpersonal value were superior predictors of relationship outcomes, even in replications of foundational attachment studies. Individual differences in believing that one is valued by others and wanting to be valued by others independently predict relationship maintenance, and these dimensions may be at the core of many effects of attachment dimensions and self-esteem. These individual differences appear to be important aspects of personality that guide cognition, motivation, and behavior in interpersonal relationships.

  19. Neural substrates and behavioral profiles of romantic jealousy and its temporal dynamics. (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Yu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie; Liang, Jie; Lu, Lin; Zhou, Xiaolin; Shi, Jie


    Jealousy is not only a way of experiencing love but also a stabilizer of romantic relationships, although morbid romantic jealousy is maladaptive. Being engaged in a formal romantic relationship can tune one's romantic jealousy towards a specific target. Little is known about how the human brain processes romantic jealousy by now. Here, by combining scenario-based imagination and functional MRI, we investigated the behavioral and neural correlates of romantic jealousy and their development across stages (before vs. after being in a formal relationship). Romantic jealousy scenarios elicited activations primarily in the basal ganglia (BG) across stages, and were significantly higher after the relationship was established in both the behavioral rating and BG activation. The intensity of romantic jealousy was related to the intensity of romantic happiness, which mainly correlated with ventral medial prefrontal cortex activation. The increase in jealousy across stages was associated with the tendency for interpersonal aggression. These results bridge the gap between the theoretical conceptualization of romantic jealousy and its neural correlates and shed light on the dynamic changes in jealousy.

  20. Troubled times, troubled relationships: how economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence. (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette


    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV.

  1. PublisherPartners webshop


    Piferrer Torres, Enric


    Projecte realitzat en col·laboració amb Fontys University of Applied Sciences i l'empresa PublisherPartners. The main goal in the project was to build a website where the company PublisherPartners could sell and offer its products online to the customer

  2. Keeping the door open: romantic science and the experience of self


    Halliwell, Martin


    The thesis positions three modem thinkers working in different areas of the human sciences - William James, Ludwig Binswanger and Oliver Sacks - within a framework of romantic science. Romantic science is a term which is developed explicitly in the work of Sacks and also illuminates the central concerns of James and Binswanger. As such, romantic science provides a useful framework in which to discuss conceptual changes in the medical humanities (a branch of the human sciences directed to pati...

  3. To have sex or not to have sex? An online focus group study of sexual decision making among sexually experienced and inexperienced gay and bisexual adolescent men. (United States)

    DuBois, L Zachary; Macapagal, Kathryn R; Rivera, Zenaida; Prescott, Tonya L; Ybarra, Michele L; Mustanski, Brian


    Adolescent gay and bisexual men (AGBM) are at disproportionately high risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, yet healthy sexuality and HIV prevention programs grounded in experiences unique to AGBM (e.g., coming out) are lacking, as is the formative work necessary to inform such programs. A richer understanding of factors informing AGBM's decisions to have or not have sex is needed. To fill this gap in the literature, we conducted qualitative and mixed-methods analyses of data collected in online focus groups with 75 ethnically diverse 14-18-year-old AGBM across the United States. Findings suggest that many reasons why AGBM choose to have or abstain from sex mirror those noted in the previous literature as influential for heterosexual adolescents (e.g., temptation, "horniness"). AGBM conveyed additional experiences/concerns that appeared unique to their sexual identity, particularly fears about pain during anal sex, and difficulties safely and accurately identifying same-sex partners. Both sexually experienced and inexperienced youth voiced reasons to wait or stop having sex. Sexually inexperienced youth said their motivations centered on wanting to avoid STIs and HIV, a desire to wait for the right partner, and the specialness of sex. On the other hand, sexually experienced AGBM said they stopped having sex if there was not an available partner they had interest in, or to improve their romantic relationship. Thus, while our findings suggest that there may be common factors across sexual identities that impact youth's sexual decision making, healthy sexuality programs for AGBM also need to address issues specific to being gay and bisexual.

  4. The Romantic World View: Seven Symptoms and Five Metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P. Sebold


    Full Text Available The psychological experience of romanticism for the romantic writers as well as for their readers depends on the united effect of seven symptoms and five metaphors of deep human significance. The seven symptoms are: the predominance of sentiment over thought; the fusion of the poet’s soul with that of nature; the pseudo-divinity of the romantic; the sensation of solitude; the attitude of superiority; cosmic grief; and delight in grief. The five metaphors are: the loss of youth; the Satanity of the innocent soul; love; the single tear; and the contemplation of suicide. The examples abound in Spanish literary texts produced between 1770 and 1870, and this refutes the notion that Spanish romanticism is late and of scant duration.

  5. The romantic drive and human sciences in western culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Dias Duarte


    Full Text Available Modern Western culture is based upon the tension between a basic universalism and its permanent romantic counterpoint. Science is one of the main expressions of the universalistic attitude and the romantic genius dealt actively with it, criticizing and transforming it in many different ways. The emergence of modern 'human sciences' (originally conceived of as the Geisteswissenschaften, or 'moral sciences' is due to this tension, in the sense that they came to provide a sense of reality and knowledge very different from that prevailing in the pristine universalistic ideology. The themes of 'difference', 'totality', 'uniqueness', 'flow', 'drive', 'experience', and 'understanding' inspired or challenged the great founding fathers of the human sciences - eventually in contradictory directions. They remain nowadays as powerful as ever, either as the necessary rationalization for any anthropological research or as the channel for the so-called 'post-modern' speculations. To make them explicit and understandable is the task of this article.

  6. Humor in romantic contexts: do men participate and women evaluate? (United States)

    Wilbur, Christopher J; Campbell, Lorne


    Several lines of research illustrate that humor plays a pivotal role in relationship initiation. The current article applies sexual selection theory to argue that humor production is a fitness indicator, allowing men to transmit information tacitly about their underlying qualities. And whereas prior research has emphasized women's appreciation of humor as a signal of interest, the focus here is on how women evaluate prospective suitors' humorous offerings. Two studies, including an ecologically valid study of online dating advertisements, provided evidence for men's production and women's evaluation of humor in romantic contexts. A third study revealed that women's evaluations of potential mates' humor are predictive of their romantic interest. Moreover, this article shows that preferences for and perceptions of humor are associated with preferences for and perceptions of intelligence and warmth, consistent with the argument that one function of humor is as a fitness indicator that provides information about underlying mate quality.

  7. Collateral Intimate Partner Homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Meyer


    Full Text Available Collateral intimate partner homicide (CIPH is an underinvestigated genre of intimate partner violence (IPV where an individual(s connected to the IPV victim is murdered. We conducted a content analysis of a statewide database of CIPH newspaper articles (1990-2007. Out of 111 collateral murder victims, there were 84 IPV female focal victims and 84 male perpetrators. The most frequently reported CIPH decedent was the focal victim’s new partner (30%; 45% of focal victims were themselves killed. News reports framed CIPH as the unexpected result of interpersonal conflict, despite evidence of a systematic pattern of coercion and violence that capitulated in murder.

  8. Sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatu Melkiory C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual activities are increasingly changing from the cultural point of view what they used to be. Knowledge of these practices among adolescents may be a basis to create awareness among adolescents on practices that involve risks. This study aims to assess sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among in-school and out-of-school but unmarried adolescents aged 10 to 19 in five locations in Tanzania. A questionnaire was used to collect information and to characterize sexual practices among these adolescents. Results About 32% of adolescents reported being sexually active; a higher proportion being males than females. The only inquired and reported sexual practices include vaginal sex, masturbation, oral and anal sex. About 15% of sexually active adolescents reported having multiple sexual partners. Significantly more males reported having multiple partners than females. Nearly 42% of sexually active adolescents reported having used a condom during most recent sexual act. Females reported older partners at first sexual act. Conclusion Adolescents experience several sexual practices that include penetrative and non-penetrative. More males reported being sexually active than females. Despite adolescents reporting having multiple sexual partners, reported condom use during the most recent sexual act was low. We advocate for a more enhanced approach of reproductive health education that includes safer sex to adolescents without forgetting those in-schools.

  9. Gottlieb Bindesbøll and Romantic Historicism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Thule


    The article demonstrates how the Danish architect Gottlieb Bindesbøll (1800-1856) employed a form of repetition of motifs many places in his architecture, regardless of style. A closer look shows that this is not only a distinctive feature of a single architect's work, but also a new way of achie...... of achieving consistency. This design principle emerged in the romantic view of architecture as an organic entity and later became influential among twentieth-century Danish architects....

  10. Love Me Tinder: Online Identity Performance and Romantic Relationship Initiation


    Villani, Anna Marie; Hvass, Charlotte Colstrup; Lund-Larsen, Ida; Rørhøj, Jacob Mark; Vintersborg, Kathrine Mosbæk; Hansen, Mathias Constant Bek; Bengtsson, Teresa Imaya


    Our project explores Tinder – a mobile dating application we view as a product of our time, a modern phenomenon. Specifically, we look at online identity and romantic relationship initiation, taking into account Tinder’s evolution as an application, the users, and subjectivities. Through semiotics and image rhetoric, we analyze the taglines and photographs users post in their profiles. We relate this to performance theory, viewing Tinder as a virtual stage. We delve deeper into Tinder, honing...

  11. The Native American adolescent: social network structure and perceptions of alcohol induced social problems. (United States)

    Rees, Carter; Freng, Adrienne; Winfree, L Thomas


    Race/ethnicity and the structure of an adolescent's social network are both important factors in the etiology of delinquent behavior. Yet, much of the minority-group delinquency literature overlooks the Native American youth population that traditionally exhibits high rates of alcohol use and abuse. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we compare the structural characteristics of school-based friendship networks of American Indian youth and other racial/ethnic groups. Our core sample for the descriptive analysis consists of 70,841 youth (Caucasian = 42,096; Black = 13,554; Asian = 4,758; Hispanic = 4,464; American Indian = 3,426; Other = 2,543; Female = 50%). We find that Native American youth generally occupy similar social positions within school hierarchies compared to other minority groups. However, American Indian youth have fewer ties at the school level than Caucasian youth, including reports of fewer reciprocated friendships, a smaller number of in-school friends, and membership in less cohesive personal networks. We also focus on the detrimental social and physical consequences of alcohol use during adolescence and offer an extended consequences model (n = 5,841) that includes the interactive effects of race/ethnicity, age, and drinking influences on relationships with friends (Caucasian = 59%; Black = 19%; Asian = 7%; Hispanic = 7%; American Indian = 5%; Other = 3%; Female = 54%). American Indian youth are no more likely than other youth to report personal drinking as being detrimental to social relationships with parents, peers, and romantic partners. We address ties between our findings and criminal justice policies and practices, as well as the implications for similar network analyses involving other racial/ethnic groups.

  12. Multidimensional Architecture of Love: From Romantic Narratives to Psychometrics. (United States)

    Karandashev, Victor; Clapp, Stuart


    Romantic love has been explored by writers for centuries revealing multiple emotions and feelings related to this phenomenon. Scientific efforts to understand love began in the mid-twentieth century and greatly advanced the topic in the past few decades. Several instruments measuring love were developed. They are still, however, limited in their scope. The purpose of our study was to explore love's emotional complexity through discourse analysis of romantic narratives and apply the constructs identified in those narratives to the reality of love relationships. In the first study, the discourse analysis of quotes selected from a representative sample of romantic narratives lead to a comprehensive set of items measuring the variety of love constructs. Second and third studies, utilizing 498 participants of various ages, empirically explored the diversity of love constructs and their architecture. The study brought many constructs to the arena of love research. A hierarchical cluster analysis allowed depicting these dimensions in varying models. Mental representations of love structures varied depending on the participants' mental complexity and other factors.

  13. The Cult of the Romantic Hero: Literature and Memorials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ángel Sánchez-García


    Full Text Available : In the West the cult of the remains and relics of heroes is a tradition that can essentially be traced back to Ancient Greece. Nevertheless, when analyzing the re-emergence of the hero cult during a period as decisive in modern European history as the nineteenth century we should not restrict ourselves to the study of ancient tombs and memorials as archaeological artefacts alone. This paper will thus approach the cult of the Romantic hero from the perspective of cultural history, drawing on the literature and art inspired by historical figures that were the object of this new veneration. Taking Pierre Nora’s characterization of places of memory or lieux de mémoire as a starting point, this paper will reveal some of the links, from the literary to the artistic, that were used to encapsulate and project the glorification of Romantic heroes. An obsession with building tombs and memorials took root in the Romantic age, becoming the most visible manifestation of political strategies designed to convert memory into history. In examining the cases of Horatio Nelson, Antoine de Guillaume-Lagrange, John Moore and Napoleon, this paper underscores the value of focusing on the glorification of the figures being remembered – of their lives and actions – through literature and the first funeral rites, and on the structures and artworks that housed their remains and preserved their memories

  14. Examining the possible functions of kissing in romantic relationships. (United States)

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I M


    Recent research suggests that romantic kissing may be utilized in human sexual relationships to evaluate aspects of a potential mate's suitability, to mediate feelings of attachment between pair-bonded individuals, or to facilitate arousal and initiate sexual relations. This study explored these potential functions of romantic kissing by examining attitudes towards the importance of kissing in the context of various human mating situations. The study involved an international online questionnaire, which was completed by 308 male and 594 female participants aged 18-63 years. Support was found for the hypothesis that kissing serves a useful mate-assessment function: women, high mate-value participants, and participants high in sociosexual orientation placed greater importance on kissing in romantic relationships and stated that an initial kiss was more likely to affect their attraction to a potential mate than did men, low-mate value participants or low sociosexual orientation participants. Kissing also seemed to be utilized in the mediation of pair-bond attachments: kissing was seen to be more important at established stages of relationships by low sociosexual participants, kissing was generally seen as more important in long-term relationship contexts (but particularly so by women), and kissing frequency was found to be related to relationship satisfaction. The findings of this research showed very little evidence to support the hypothesis that the primary function of kissing is to elevate levels of arousal.

  15. The Constitution of Partnering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    promoveret af branchen og af staten som et væsentligt led i udviklingen af byggeriets arbejdsformer. Med et udgangspunkt i en Foucauldiansk analyse af dispositiver, rum og orden bidrager afhandlingen med en ny differentieret forståelse af mulighederne for at håndtere branchens modsætningsfyldte fornyelse...... om, hvordan partnering som koncept er fremkommet og har udviklet sig og hvilke konstitutive effekter partnering har på byggeriets praksis. Det teoretiske udgangspunkt i Foucault begrundes i behovet for at fastholde en mangefacetteret og historisk analyse af partnering i modsætning til de...... fremherskende endimensionelle og rationelle forståelser, som ikke svarer til den oplevede og observerede praksis i byggebranchen. I afhandlingens første del diskuteres den analytiske anvendelse af et teoretisk nøglebegreb fra Foucault i analysen af partnering; dispositivet. Hermed forstås de bagvedliggende...

  16. Pacific Partners Wargame Analysis (United States)


    such as medical qualifications and malpractice considerations, can be explored as part of interoperability. Partner nations are motivated to...specialized problems. Intellectual exchanges and fora involving experts from government, industry, academic and other institutions could be employed in

  17. Green Power Partner List (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  18. Breaking up is hard to do: unwanted pursuit behaviors following the dissolution of a romantic relationship. (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J; Palarea, R E; Cohen, J; Rohling, M L


    This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of unwanted pursuit behaviors among college students. Participants (n = 282) had experienced the termination of a meaningful romantic relationship. Two questionnaires were administered. One assessed unwanted pursuit behaviors that were perpetrated by individuals who had not initiated the relationship breakup (breakup sufferers; n = 120); the other assessed individuals who had initiated the relationship breakup (relationship dissolvers; n = 162). Results indicated that most breakup sufferers had engaged in at least one act of unwanted pursuit (i.e., unwanted phone calls, unwanted in-person conversations) after the breakup. Breakup sufferers were more likely than relationship dissolvers to perceive a positive impact from their unwanted pursuit behavior. Partner-specific attachment experiences and love styles emerged as significant predictors of unwanted pursuit behavior perpetration, according to both victims and perpetrators of unwanted pursuit. However, only victims of unwanted pursuit revealed an association between levels of relationship violence and unwanted pursuit behavior perpetration. Victims also reported that their unwanted pursuit was related to a lack of friendship between themselves and their expartners. In contrast, there was a positive association between feelings of friendship and unwanted pursuit for perpetrators. The implications of these findings and their application to the stalking literature are discussed.

  19. Online dating and mating: the use of the internet to meet sexual partners. (United States)

    Couch, Danielle; Liamputtong, Pranee


    Australia has experienced a large increase in Internet usage, and online dating is used for seeking romantic and sexual partners. Using a qualitative approach, 15 people who use online dating took part in in-depth, online chat interviews. Nearly all participants used multiple dating sites to seek partners and making use of email, chat and webcam to engage with, assess, validate and qualify their potential sexual partners. They would "filter" the identity of other online daters before taking further actions. They used an array of filters and filtering processes to determine when and how they might progress to face-to-face meetings with these other online daters, and if and how there might be sexual outcomes from these meetings. Participants filtered using the text, photographs, chat, and webcam opportunities available online, and followed progressive personalized steps in communication and engagement in the lead-up to meeting other online daters in person.

  20. Adult Attachment Styles, Destructive Conflict Resolution, and the Experience of Intimate Partner Violence. (United States)

    Bonache, Helena; Gonzalez-Mendez, Rosaura; Krahé, Barbara


    Although there is ample evidence linking insecure attachment styles and intimate partner violence (IPV), little is known about the psychological processes underlying this association, especially from the victim's perspective. The present study examined how attachment styles relate to the experience of sexual and psychological abuse, directly or indirectly through destructive conflict resolution strategies, both self-reported and attributed to their opposite-sex romantic partner. In an online survey, 216 Spanish undergraduates completed measures of adult attachment style, engagement and withdrawal conflict resolution styles shown by self and partner, and victimization by an intimate partner in the form of sexual coercion and psychological abuse. As predicted, anxious and avoidant attachment styles were directly related to both forms of victimization. Also, an indirect path from anxious attachment to IPV victimization was detected via destructive conflict resolution strategies. Specifically, anxiously attached participants reported a higher use of conflict engagement by themselves and by their partners. In addition, engagement reported by the self and perceived in the partner was linked to an increased probability of experiencing sexual coercion and psychological abuse. Avoidant attachment was linked to higher withdrawal in conflict situations, but the paths from withdrawal to perceived partner engagement, sexual coercion, and psychological abuse were non-significant. No gender differences in the associations were found. The discussion highlights the role of anxious attachment in understanding escalating patterns of destructive conflict resolution strategies, which may increase the vulnerability to IPV victimization.

  1. Maternal and Paternal Parenting during Adolescence: Forecasting Early Adult Psychosocial Adjustment. (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Beach, Steven R. H.


    Investigates the relationship of maternal and paternal parenting behavior during adolescence to four domains of early adult functioning. Higher levels of maternal firm control were associated with more secure early adult romantic attachment and lower levels of educational achievement. There were no main effects for fathers, but paternal parenting…

  2. The Impact of Family Violence, Family Functioning, and Parental Partner Dynamics on Korean Juvenile Delinquency (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo


    The present study was aimed at determining the family factors related to juvenile delinquency and identifying the effect of family violence, family functioning, parental partner dynamics, and adolescents' personality on delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-reporting…

  3. Long-Distance and Proximal Romantic Relationship Satisfaction: Attachment and Closeness Predictors (United States)

    Roberts, Amber; Pistole, M. Carole


    Relationship satisfaction was examined in college student long-distance romantic relationships (LDRRs) and geographically proximal romantic relationships (PRRs). LDRR/PRR attachment style proportions and relationship satisfaction were similar. Multiple regression analyses revealed that low attachment avoidance contributed uniquely to high LDRR…

  4. A Cross-Cultural Study of Differences in Romantic Attitudes between American and Albanian College Students (United States)

    Hoxha, Eneda; Hatala, Mark N.


    Cross-cultural differences in romantic attitudes are often taken for granted and accepted. However, very little research has been conducted to clearly state how much and how different Albanian and American college students are in the way they love. Results indicate that Americans are more romantic than Albanians. In addition, Americans are more…

  5. Bouncing Back from a Breakup: Attachment, Time Perspective, Mental Health, and Romantic Loss (United States)

    Gilbert, Steven P.; Sifers, Sarah K.


    Coping with a romantic breakup is a normal developmental task of emerging adulthood. Because of their role in influencing interpersonal relationships and adjustment, attachment history and time perspectives may influence resilience to romantic loss. In an online survey of 1,404 university students ages 18-25 who reported experiencing recent…

  6. Perceived Influence of Parenting Styles over Irrational Belief in Romantic Relations (United States)

    Sardogan, Mehmet Emin


    The aim of this study is to investigate if perceived parenting styles have any influence on irrational belief in romantic relations among university students. To determine the students' irrational belief in romantic relations "Belief Inventory in Relations" by Kalkan and to determine their perception for parenting styles "Scale of…

  7. Shared and Distinctive Origins and Correlates of Adult Attachment Representations: The Developmental Organization of Romantic Functioning (United States)

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. A.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Roisman, Glenn I.


    To test proposals regarding the hierarchical organization of adult attachment, this study examined developmental origins of generalized and romantic attachment representations and their concurrent associations with romantic functioning. Participants (N = 112) in a 35-year prospective study completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Current…

  8. Are College Students Replacing Dating and Romantic Relationships with Hooking Up? (United States)

    Siebenbruner, Jessica


    This study assessed female college students' ("N" = 197) participation in dating, romantic relationships, hooking up behaviors, and the intersection of these activities. Hooking up was prevalent among students ("n" = 78; 39.6%), but dating ("n" = 139; 70.6%) and romantic relationship ("n" = 147; 74.6%)…

  9. The Mediator Role of Need Satisfaction between Subjective Well-Being and Romantic Relationships Quality (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali; Dogan, Tayfun


    Problem Statement: The most important part of identity exploration for emerging adults is love. Establishing healthy intimate relationships support the process of identity exploration. In addition to the positive and negative factors that affect romantic relationships, the concept of quality is also very important in these romantic relationships.…

  10. The Unnatural Nature of Nature and Nurture: Questioning the Romantic Heritage (United States)

    Stables, Andrew


    From a cultural-historical perspective, nature and nurture (and thus education) are contested concepts. The paper focuses on the nature/nurture debate in the work of William Shakespeare (influenced by Montaigne) and in the Romantic tradition (evidenced by Rousseau and Wordsworth), and argues that while our Romantic inheritance (still highly…

  11. Identity in University Students: The Role of Parental and Romantic Attachment (United States)

    Avila, Marisa; Cabral, Joana; Matos, Paula Mena


    In this study with 236 Portuguese university students, we examined two competing models for understanding identity. In the first model, the direct independent effects of parental and romantic attachment on identity were tested. The second model examined the mediating role of romantic attachment representations in the link between parental…

  12. The Love Equation : Computational Modeling of Romantic Relationships in French Classical Drama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsdorp, F.B.; Kestemont, Mike; Schöch, Christof; van den Bosch, Antal; Finlayson, Mark; Miller, Ben; Lieto, Antonio; Ronfard, Remi


    We report on building a computational model of romantic relationships in a corpus of historical literary texts. We frame this task as a ranking problem in which, for a given character, we try to assign the highest rank to the character with whom (s)he is most likely to be romantically involved. As d

  13. The love equation: Computational modeling of romantic relationships in French classical drama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsdorp, F.; Kestemont, M.; Schöch, C.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den


    We report on building a computational model of romantic relationships in a corpus of historical literary texts. We frame this task as a ranking problem in which, for a given character, we try to assign the highest rank to the character with whom (s)he is most likely to be romantically involved. As d

  14. Romantic Relationships: An Important Context for HIV/STI and Pregnancy Prevention Programmes with Young People (United States)

    Coyle, Karin K.; Anderson, Pamela M.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill; Walker, James D.; Charles, Vignetta Eugenia


    Romantic relationships are central in the lives of young people. This paper uses data on romantic relationships from urban youth in the USA to illustrate how using a relationships perspective in HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention programmes broadens the skills and content covered, and contextualises the learning to enhance relevance and use.…

  15. Perceived Influence of Parenting Styles over Irrational Belief in Romantic Relations (United States)

    Sardogan, Mehmet Emin


    The aim of this study is to investigate if perceived parenting styles have any influence on irrational belief in romantic relations among university students. To determine the students' irrational belief in romantic relations "Belief Inventory in Relations" by Kalkan and to determine their perception for parenting styles "Scale…

  16. Feminism, status inconsistency, and women's intimate partner victimization in heterosexual relationships. (United States)

    Franklin, Cortney A; Menaker, Tasha A


    This study used a random community sample of 303 women in romantic relationships to investigate the role of educational and employment status inconsistency and patriarchal family ideology as risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, while considering demographic factors and relationship context variables. Sequential multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated a decrease in the odds of IPV victimization for Hispanic women and women who were older as compared with their counterparts. In addition, increased relationship distress, family-of-origin violence, and employment status inconsistency significantly increased the odds of IPV. Clinical intervention strategies and future research directions are discussed.

  17. Predictability of conversation partners

    CERN Document Server

    Takaguchi, Taro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki


    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, Song et al. (2010) found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one's conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one's next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between close sensor nodes. We find t...

  18. The sources of self-esteem: Initating and maintaining romantic intimacy at emerging adulthood in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Özabacı


    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship of emerging adults’ in initiating and maintaining romantic intimacy with sub-dimensions and explores the extent that self-esteem in emerging adults could explain the initiation and maintenance of a romantic relationship. The participants included 136 male and 106 female totaling 242 university students. In order to collect data, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Markers of Starting Romantic Intimacy Scale and Quality of Relationship Inventory were used. According to the results, emerging adults perceived both having markers of starting romantic intimacy and the positive quality of relationship as significant sources for their self-esteem. The results of the present study emphasize the significance of self-esteem for starting and maintaining romantic intimacy.

  19. Time to face it! Facebook intrusion and the implications for romantic jealousy and relationship satisfaction. (United States)

    Elphinston, Rachel A; Noller, Patricia


    Young people's exposure to social network sites such as Facebook is increasing, along with the potential for such use to complicate romantic relationships. Yet, little is known about the overlaps between the online and offline worlds. We extended previous research by investigating the links between Facebook intrusion, jealousy in romantic relationships, and relationship outcomes in a sample of undergraduates currently in a romantic relationship. A Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire was developed based on key features of technological (behavioral) addictions. An eight-item Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire with a single-factor structure was supported; internal consistency was high. Facebook intrusion was linked to relationship dissatisfaction, via jealous cognitions and surveillance behaviors. The results highlight the possibility of high levels of Facebook intrusion spilling over into romantic relationships, resulting in problems such as jealousy and dissatisfaction. The results have implications for romantic relationships and for Facebook users in general.

  20. Regulation of Romantic Love Feelings: Preconceptions, Strategies, and Feasibility. (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van Strien, Jan W


    Love feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up) or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-term relationships). If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Questionnaire responses showed that people perceive love feelings as somewhat uncontrollable. Still, in four open questions people reported to use strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, distraction, avoidance, and undertaking (new) activities to cope with break-ups, to maintain long-term relationships, and to regulate love feelings. Instructed up-regulation of love using reappraisal increased subjective feelings of attachment, while love down-regulation decreased subjective feelings of infatuation and attachment. We used the late positive potential (LPP) amplitude as an objective index of regulation success. Instructed love up-regulation enhanced the LPP between 300-400 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship and in participants who had recently experienced a romantic break-up, while love down-regulation reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. These findings corroborate the self-reported feasibility of love regulation, although they are complicated by the finding that love up-regulation also reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. To conclude, although people have the preconception that love feelings are uncontrollable, we show for the first time that intentional regulation of love feelings using reappraisal, and perhaps other strategies, is feasible. Love regulation will benefit individuals and society because it could enhance positive effects and reduce negative effects of romantic

  1. The Cult of the Romantic Hero: Literature and Memorials


    Jesús Ángel Sánchez-García


    : In the West the cult of the remains and relics of heroes is a tradition that can essentially be traced back to Ancient Greece. Nevertheless, when analyzing the re-emergence of the hero cult during a period as decisive in modern European history as the nineteenth century we should not restrict ourselves to the study of ancient tombs and memorials as archaeological artefacts alone. This paper will thus approach the cult of the Romantic hero from the perspective of cultural history, drawing on...

  2. Cumulative risk on the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) underpins empathic communication difficulties at the first stages of romantic love. (United States)

    Schneiderman, Inna; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Ebstein, Richard P; Feldman, Ruth


    Empathic communication between couples plays an important role in relationship quality and individual well-being and research has pointed to the role of oxytocin in providing the neurobiological substrate for pair-bonding and empathy. Here, we examined links between genetic variability on the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and empathic behaviour at the initiation of romantic love. Allelic variations on five OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with susceptibility to disorders of social functioning were genotyped in 120 new lovers: OXTRrs13316193, rs2254298, rs1042778, rs2268494 and rs2268490. Cumulative genetic risk was computed by summing risk alleles on each SNP. Couples were observed in support-giving interaction and behaviour was coded for empathic communication, including affective congruence, maintaining focus on partner, acknowledging partner's distress, reciprocal exchange and non-verbal empathy. Hierarchical linear modelling indicated that individuals with high OXTR risk exhibited difficulties in empathic communication. OXTR risk predicted empathic difficulties above and beyond the couple level, relationship duration, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Findings underscore the involvement of oxytocin in empathic behaviour during the early stages of social affiliation, and suggest the utility of cumulative risk and plasticity indices on the OXTR as potential biomarkers for research on disorders of social dysfunction and the neurobiology of empathy.

  3. A dyadic analysis of relationships and health: does couple-level context condition partner effects? (United States)

    Barr, Ashley B; Simons, Ronald L


    Adding to the growing literature explicating the links between romantic relationships and health, this study examined how both couple-level characteristics, particularly union type (e.g., dating, cohabiting, or marriage) and interracial pairing, and interpersonal characteristics (e.g., partner strain and support), predicted young adults' physical and mental health. Using dyadic data from a sample of 249 young, primarily Black couples, we hypothesized and found support for the importance of couple-level context, partner behavior, and their interaction in predicting health. Interracial couples (all Black/non-Black pairings) reported worse health than monoracial Black couples. Union type, however, did not directly predict health but was a significant moderator of partner strain. That is, the negative association between partner strain and self-reported health was stronger for cohabiting and married couples versus their dating counterparts, suggesting that coresidence, more so than marital status, may be important for understanding partner effects on physical health. For psychological distress, however, partner support proved equally beneficial across union types.

  4. Partners in Accomplished Teaching. (United States)

    National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, Arlington, VA.

    This report describes Partners in Accomplished Teaching, a project of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) designed to help increase the number of teachers achieving National Board Certification. It focuses on efforts in St. Paul, Minnesota; Mississippi; North Carolina; and San Antonio, Texas. The St. Paul program is a…


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    This paper adopts practicebased theory for understanding interorganisational knowledge work and extents it with a discussion of the role of redundancy. The paper presents a case study of a project partnership in construction using the partnering concept. The project group responsible...

  6. Partners and Competitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The United States and China are entering an entirely new and complex era in their economic relationship. In a nutshell, China is both partner and competitor, and simplistic efforts to cast the complexity of U.S.-China economic relations as either one of partnership or competition are unhelpful to the development of effective policy.

  7. Content for Conversation Partners. (United States)

    Olson, Kathleen


    Suggests that a good strategy for helping English language learners to develop communicative competence in English is by pairing them with native English speakers. In such conversation programs, conversation partners should be provided with topics and activities that incorporate the goals, interests, and experiences of the learners. Recommends…

  8. Partnering i praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer; Bang, Henrik L.; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Publikationen sammenfatter resultater og erfaringer vedrørende brug af partnering i realiseringen af LO's hovedsæde i Havnestaden, København. Forløbet i byggesagen adskiller sig fra traditionelle byggesager på en række områder. Vigtigst af disse er anvendelsen af en række partneringstiltag, der u...

  9. Becoming a sexual being: The 'elephant in the room' of adolescent brain development. (United States)

    Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Galván, Adriana; Harden, K Paige; Dahl, Ronald E


    The onset of adolescence is a time of profound changes in motivation, cognition, behavior, and social relationships. Existing neurodevelopmental models have integrated our current understanding of adolescent brain development; however, there has been surprisingly little focus on the importance of adolescence as a sensitive period for romantic and sexual development. As young people enter adolescence, one of their primary tasks is to gain knowledge and experience that will allow them to take on the social roles of adults, including engaging in romantic and sexual relationships. By reviewing the relevant human and animal neurodevelopmental literature, this paper highlights how we should move beyond thinking of puberty as simply a set of somatic changes that are critical for physical reproductive maturation. Rather, puberty also involves a set of neurobiological changes that are critical for the social, emotional, and cognitive maturation necessary for reproductive success. The primary goal of this paper is to broaden the research base and dialogue about adolescent romantic and sexual development, in hopes of advancing understanding of sex and romance as important developmental dimensions of health and well-being in adolescence.

  10. Blame it on patriarchy: more sexist attitudes are associated with stronger consideration of cosmetic surgery for oneself and one's partner. (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Pietschnig, Jakob; Stewart, Natasha; Nader, Ingo W; Stieger, Stefan; Shannon, Samantha; Voracek, Martin


    In the present work, we examined associations between oppressive, sexist beliefs and consideration of cosmetic surgery for oneself and also endorsement of cosmetic surgery for one's romantic partner. A total of 554 German-speaking volunteers from the community, mainly in Austria, completed measures of consideration of cosmetic surgery and three measures of sexist attitudes, while a subset of participants in romantic relationships completed a measure of endorsement of cosmetic surgery for their partners along with the measures of sexism. Preliminary analyses showed that women and single respondents were more likely to consider having cosmetic surgery than men and committed respondents, respectively. Further analyses showed that consideration of cosmetic surgery for oneself was significantly associated with sexist attitudes, particularly hostile attitudes to women. In addition, among participants in a relationship, sexist attitudes were associated with endorsement of cosmetic surgery for one's partner. These results indicate that attitudes to cosmetic surgery for oneself and one's partner are shaped by gender-ideological belief systems in patriarchal societies. Possible implications for understanding the motivations for having cosmetic surgery, among both single respondents and couples, are discussed.

  11. Predictability of Conversation Partners (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki


    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  12. Romantic love v.s. drug addiction may inspire a new treatment for addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Zou


    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses the evidences from our recent studies to compare the neural alterations between romantic love and drug addiction, moreover we also compare the behavioral and neurochemical alterations between romantic love and drug addiction. From the behavioral comparisons we find that there are many similarities between the early stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage romantic love is considered as a behavioral addiction, while significant differences exist between the later stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage of romantic love eventually developed into a prosocial behavior. The neuroimaging comparisons suggest that romantic love and drug addiction both display the functional enhancement in reward and emotion regulation network. Except the similar neural changes, romantic love display special function enhancement in social cognition network, while drug addiction display special dysfunction in cognitive control network. The neurochemical comparisons show that there are many similarities in the dopamine (DA system, while significant differences in oxytocin (OT system for romantic love and drug addiction. These indicate that the functional alterations in reward and emotion regulation network and the DA system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a behavioral addiction, and the functional alterations in social cognition network and the OT system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a prosocial

  13. Romantic Love vs. Drug Addiction May Inspire a New Treatment for Addiction. (United States)

    Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Zhang, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaochu


    Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses the evidences from our recent studies to compare the neural alterations between romantic love and drug addiction, moreover we also compare the behavioral and neurochemical alterations between romantic love and drug addiction. From the behavioral comparisons we find that there are many similarities between the early stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage romantic love is considered as a behavioral addiction, while significant differences exist between the later stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage of romantic love eventually developed into a prosocial behavior. The neuroimaging comparisons suggest that romantic love and drug addiction both display the functional enhancement in reward and emotion regulation network. Except the similar neural changes, romantic love display special function enhancement in social cognition network, while drug addiction display special dysfunction in cognitive control network. The neurochemical comparisons show that there are many similarities in the dopamine (DA) system, while significant differences in oxytocin (OT) system for romantic love and drug addiction. These findings indicate that the functional alterations in reward and emotion regulation network and the DA system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a behavioral addiction, and the functional alterations in social cognition network and the OT system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a prosocial behavior. It

  14. Genetic and neural correlates of romantic relationship satisfaction. (United States)

    Luo, Siyang; Yu, Dian; Han, Shihui


    Romantic relationship satisfaction (RRS) is important for mental/physical health but varies greatly across individuals. To date, we have known little about the biological (genetic and neural) correlates of RRS. We tested the hypothesis that the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), the promoter region of the gene SLC6A4 that codes for the serotonin transporter protein, is associated with individuals' RRS. Moreover, we investigated neural activity that mediates 5-HTTLPR association with RRS by scanning short-short (s/s) and long-long (l/l) homozygotes of 5-HTTLPR, using functional MRI, during a Cyberball game that resulted in social exclusion. l/l compared with s/s allele carriers reported higher RRS but lower social interaction anxiety. l/l compared with s/s carriers showed stronger activity in the right ventral prefrontal cortex (RVPFC) and stronger functional connectivity between the dorsal and rostral ACC when being excluded from the Cyberball game. Moreover, the 5-HTTLPR association with RRS was mediated by the RVPFC activity and the 5-HTTLPR association with social interaction anxiety was mediated by both the dorsal-rostral ACC connectivity and RVPFC activity. Our findings suggest that 5-HTTLPR is associated with satisfaction of one's own romantic relationships and this association is mediated by the neural activity in the brain region related to emotion regulation.

  15. Romanticism and Romantic Science: Their Contribution to Science Education (United States)

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Schulz, Roland


    The unique contributions of romanticism and romantic science have been generally ignored or undervalued in history and philosophy of science studies and science education. Although more recent research in history of science has come to delineate the value of both topics for the development of modern science, their merit for the educational field has not been explored. Romanticism was not only an obvious historical period, but a particular state of mind with its own extraordinary emotional sensitivity towards nature. It is especially the latter which we hope to revisit and reclaim for science education. After discussing several key historical contributions, we describe nine characteristics of `Romantic Science' in order to focus on six ideas/possibilities that we believe hold much value for transforming current science education: (1) the emotional sensitivity toward nature, (2) the centrality of sense experience, (3) the importance of "holistic experience", (4) the importance of the notions of mystery and wonder, (5) the power of science to transform people's outlook on the natural world, and (6) the importance of the relationship between science and philosophy. It is argued that in view of a pragmatist/utilitarian conception of school science prevalent today the aforementioned ideas (especially the notion of wonder and the poetic/non-analytical mode of knowledge), can provide food for thought for both science teachers and researchers seeking to work out an aesthetic conception, one that complements current approaches such as inquiry science and conceptual change.

  16. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa E. DiDonato


    Full Text Available Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224 imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  17. The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love. (United States)

    Bartels, Andreas; Zeki, Semir


    Romantic and maternal love are highly rewarding experiences. Both are linked to the perpetuation of the species and therefore have a closely linked biological function of crucial evolutionary importance. Yet almost nothing is known about their neural correlates in the human. We therefore used fMRI to measure brain activity in mothers while they viewed pictures of their own and of acquainted children, and of their best friend and of acquainted adults as additional controls. The activity specific to maternal attachment was compared to that associated to romantic love described in our earlier study and to the distribution of attachment-mediating neurohormones established by other studies. Both types of attachment activated regions specific to each, as well as overlapping regions in the brain's reward system that coincide with areas rich in oxytocin and vasopressin receptors. Both deactivated a common set of regions associated with negative emotions, social judgment and 'mentalizing', that is, the assessment of other people's intentions and emotions. We conclude that human attachment employs a push-pull mechanism that overcomes social distance by deactivating networks used for critical social assessment and negative emotions, while it bonds individuals through the involvement of the reward circuitry, explaining the power of love to motivate and exhilarate.

  18. The Medieval Swedish Horror Ballad in the Romantic Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhr, Mattias


    In the late 18th century the Horror Ballad became popular in Sweden. The rediscovery of medieval tales and ballads inspired the Romantic authors. Clas Livijn uses the medieval folksong of "Hafsfrun" in his dramatic play of the same title (1806). In Livijn’s own library we also find many Scandinav......In the late 18th century the Horror Ballad became popular in Sweden. The rediscovery of medieval tales and ballads inspired the Romantic authors. Clas Livijn uses the medieval folksong of "Hafsfrun" in his dramatic play of the same title (1806). In Livijn’s own library we also find many...... Scandinavian texts from the 17th century, by Saxo Gramaticus, Verelius and others as well as modern printings of old texts by for instance Afzelius. The Horror Ballad in Sweden was introduced by Johan Henrik Kellgren in “Fredrics vålnad” in 1793, although it’s in reality a translation of “Ludvigs Gjenfærd...

  19. Partner dissimilarity in life satisfaction: Stability and change, correlates, and outcomes. (United States)

    Schade, Hannah M; Hülür, Gizem; Infurna, Frank J; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Gerstorf, Denis


    Dissimilarities between partners in prominent domains of functioning are often thought to be a risk factor for compromised relationship quality and relationship dissolution. However, the nature, correlates, and consequences of developmental trajectories of within-couple dissimilarities in key quality-of-life indicators such as life satisfaction are not well understood. In the current study, we applied multilevel growth models to up to 31-wave annual longitudinal data from 13,714 romantic partners in the German Socio-Economic Panel (age at baseline: M = 43 years, SD = 15, range 17-92 years). Partner dissimilarity was calculated at the within-couple level and indicated considerable differences in life satisfaction between partners within a given couple (0.64 SD or 1.14 units on an 11-point scale). Over time, partner dissimilarity slightly increased among partners who remained together. Examining individual and relationship correlates indicated that dissimilarity was greatest for couples who were older, had children, or had a shorter relationship history. Also, dissimilarity was greater when individual life satisfaction or satisfaction with family life was low, particularly among wives, as well as among couples who later separated. Examining consequences, larger levels of and increases in partner dissimilarity were independently predictive of lower satisfaction with family life at the end of the study, over and above individual life satisfaction of either partner as well as key individual and relationship correlates. Our discussion focuses on the advantages of investigating (developmental trajectories of) within-couple dissimilarity and its implications for individual and partner development. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Physical Dating Aggression Growth during Adolescence (United States)

    Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta


    The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…