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Sample records for adolescent psychopathology including

  1. The Relationship Between Parental Psychopathology and Adolescent Psychopathology: An Examination of Gender Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley Ohannessian, Christine; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Schuckit, Mark A.; Nurnberger, John I.

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the relationship between parental psychopathology (specifically, alcohol dependence and depression) and adolescent psychopathology, by the gender of the adolescent and the gender of the parent. The sample included 426 13- to 17-year-old adolescents and their parents. All participants were administered…

  2. Bulimic behaviours and psychopathology in obese adolescents and in their parents.

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    Isnard, Pascale; Quantin, Laure; Cortese, Samuele; Falissard, Bruno; Musher-Eizenman, Dara; Guedeney, Antoine; Frelut, Marie-Laure; Mouren, Marie-Christine

    2010-12-01

    To help identify and advance the understanding of the potential mechanisms underlying the association between parents' and adolescents' psychological maladjustment in obesity, we evaluated bulimic behaviours and psychopathology in a clinical sample of obese adolescents and in their parents. This is a cross-sectional cohort study including 115 severely obese, treatment-seeking adolescents aged 12-17 years (mean age: 14.2; mean body mass index z-score: 4.32), and their parents (115 mothers and 96 fathers). Adolescents filled out the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). Their parents completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the BITE. A child psychiatrist filled out the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA) for the adolescents. Obese adolescents demonstrated significant correlations between the severity of bulimic symptoms and the degree of emotional symptomatology, such as depression and anxiety, but not with the severity of obesity. Psychopathological maladjustment and bulimic symptoms in obese adolescents were significantly associated with the maternal psychopathological disturbances, especially anxiety and somatisation in mother. In fact, maternal psychopathology, not maternal bulimic symptoms, was the factor most strongly associated with bulimic behaviours in obese adolescents. These results highlight the importance of including an adolescent and parental psychiatric assessment (bulimic, depressive and anxiety symptoms), particularly maternal psychopathology in the treatment of severely obese adolescents.

  3. The neglected role of positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology.

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    Gilbert, Kirsten E

    2012-08-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by elevated stress, heightened risky behaviors, and increases in psychopathology. Emotion dysregulation is a hypothesized contributor to negative outcomes and to the onset of psychopathology during adolescence. However, the dysregulation of negative emotion has been the focus of research while the literature on positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology is limited. This review highlights both the development of normative and dysregulated positive emotion during adolescence. First, the literature on normative adolescent emotional development and on negative emotional regulation is briefly reviewed, followed by a discussion of current theories of positive emotion, which are grounded in the adult literature. From a developmental perspective, the dimension of approach motivation within positive emotion is emphasized throughout and frames the review. This conceptualization guides organization of literatures on normative experiences of positive emotion in adolescence and the role of dysregulated positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology, specifically adolescent depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, externalizing disorders and eating disorders. Last, future directions in the study of adolescent positive emotion and its regulation and the implications of highlighting approach motivation in normative and dysregulated positive emotion in adolescence are detailed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparing Factor Structures of Adolescent Psychopathology

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    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa

    2011-01-01

    Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…

  5. Parental and Late Adolescent Psychopathology: Mothers May Provide Support When Needed Most

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    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation…

  6. Emotion Dysregulation and Adolescent Psychopathology: A Prospective Study

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    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background Emotion regulation deficits have been consistently linked to psychopathology in cross-sectional studies. However, the direction of the relationship between emotion regulation and psychopathology is unclear. This study examined the longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between emotion regulation deficits and psychopathology in adolescents. Methods Emotion dysregulation and symptomatology (depression, anxiety, aggressive behavior, and eating pathology) were assessed in a large, diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1,065) at two time points separated by seven months. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between emotion dysregulation and symptoms of psychopathology. Results The three distinct emotion processes examined here (emotional understanding, dysregulated expression of sadness and anger, and ruminative responses to distress) formed a unitary latent emotion dysregulation factor. Emotion dysregulation predicted increases in anxiety symptoms, aggressive behavior, and eating pathology after controlling for baseline symptoms but did not predict depressive symptoms. In contrast, none of the four types of psychopathology predicted increases in emotion dysregulation after controlling for baseline emotion dysregulation. Conclusions Emotion dysregulation appears to be an important transdiagnostic factor that increases risk for a wide range of psychopathology outcomes in adolescence. These results suggest targets for preventive interventions during this developmental period of risk. PMID:21718967

  7. Childhood Maltreatment Exposure and Disruptions in Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Pathway to Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology

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    Jenness, Jessica L.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology. PMID:27695145

  8. Childhood Maltreatment Exposure and Disruptions in Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Pathway to Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleniak, Charlotte; Jenness, Jessica L; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-06-01

    Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology.

  9. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

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    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  10. Assessment of Distress Associated to Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents

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    Wendy Reich

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the distress associated to psychopathology in children and adolescents. The sample included 330 children aged 8 to 17 years attending outpatient mental health services of the public network in Barcelona(Spain assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. A substantial part of children brought to treatment suffered distress associated to internalizing and externalizing psychological symptoms. Psychological distress was most frequent among girls and among adolescents, and was more frequently reported by children and adolescents than by their parents. It was also a marker of perception of need of psychological help, and it was significantly related to diagnosis, subthreshold conditions and functional impairment. Individual symptoms of depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder and oppositional defiant disorder were most associated with psychological distress. Given the potential importance of subjective distress as well as impairment for the identification and definition of psychopathology and planning of treatment, diagnostic assessment should include questions related to distress.

  11. The role of fathers in child and adolescent psychopathology: make room for daddy.

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    Phares, V; Compas, B E

    1992-05-01

    This review summarizes research concerning the relation between paternal factors and child and adolescent psychopathology. When compared with mothers, fathers continue to be dramatically underrepresented in developmental research on psychopathology. However, findings from studies of children of clinically referred fathers and nonreferred samples of children and their fathers indicate that there is substantial association between paternal characteristics and child and adolescent psychopathology. Findings from studies of fathers of clinically referred children are stronger for fathers' effects on children's externalizing than internalizing problems. In most cases the degree of risk associated with paternal psychopathology is comparable to that associated with maternal psychopathology. Evidence indicates that the presence of paternal psychopathology is a sufficient but not necessary condition for child or adolescent psychopathology.

  12. Single Mother Parenting and Adolescent Psychopathology.

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    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-10-01

    Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.

  13. Maternal ADHD, Parenting, and Psychopathology Among Mothers of Adolescents With ADHD.

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    Babinski, Dara E; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Wymbs, Brian T; Sibley, Margaret H; Derefinko, Karen J; Kuriyan, Aparajita B

    2016-05-01

    This study describes the parenting and psychopathology of mothers with ADHD of adolescents with ADHD (MCA), non-ADHD mothers of adolescents with ADHD (CA), and non-ADHD mothers of adolescents without ADHD (COMP). Two sets of pairwise comparisons: (a) COMP versus CA and (b) CA versus MCA were conducted. We hypothesized that CA would experience greater distress in parenting and psychopathology compared with COMP and that MCA would experience even more impairment compared with CA. Few differences emerged in comparisons of CA and COMP, with the exception of CA reporting greater parent-adolescent conflict and internalizing problems. In contrast, differences consistently emerged in comparisons of MCA and CA showing more difficulty for MCA in parenting and psychopathology. These findings underscore the need for treatments that address parental ADHD when adolescent ADHD is the intended target. © The Author(s) 2012.

  14. Psychological functioning of adolescent transsexuals: personality and psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, L.; de Ruiter, C.; Ringelberg, H.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    1997-01-01

    Adolescent transsexuals were compared with adolescent psychiatric out-patients and first-year university students to determine the extent to which other psychopathology is a necessary condition for the development of transsexualism. Three areas of psychological functioning associated with

  15. A general psychopathology factor in early adolescence.

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    Patalay, Praveetha; Fonagy, Peter; Deighton, Jessica; Belsky, Jay; Vostanis, Panos; Wolpert, Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a general psychopathology dimension reflecting common aspects among disorders has been identified in adults. This has not yet been considered in children and adolescents, where the focus has been on externalising and internalising dimensions. To examine the existence, correlates and predictive value of a general psychopathology dimension in young people. Alternative factor models were estimated using self-reports of symptoms in a large community-based sample aged 11-13.5 years (N = 23 477), and resulting dimensions were assessed in terms of associations with external correlates and future functioning. Both a traditional two-factor model and a bi-factor model with a general psychopathology bi-factor fitted the data well. The general psychopathology bi-factor best predicted future psychopathology and academic attainment. Associations with correlates and factor loadings are discussed. A general psychopathology factor, which is equal across genders, can be identified in young people. Its associations with correlates and future functioning indicate that investigating this factor can increase our understanding of the aetiology, risk and correlates of psychopathology. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  16. Bulimic behaviours and psychopathology in obese adolescents and in their parents

    OpenAIRE

    Isnard, Pascale; Quantin, Laure; Cortese, Samuele; Falissard, Bruno; Musher-Eizenman, Dara; Guedeney, Antoine; Frelut, Marie-Laure; Mouren, Marie-Christine

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To help identify and advance the understanding of the potential mechanisms underlying the association between parents? and adolescents? psychological maladjustment in obesity, we evaluated bulimic behaviours and psychopathology in a clinical sample of obese adolescents and in their parents. Methods. This is a cross-sectional cohort study including 115 severely obese, treatment-seeking adolescents aged 12?17 years (mean age: 14.2; mean body mass index z-score: 4.32), and their paren...

  17. Psychopathology of adolescents with an intellectual disability who present to general hospital services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoratos, Oreste; McPherson, Lyn; Franklin, Catherine; Tonge, Bruce; Einfeld, Stewart; Lennox, Nicholas; Ware, Robert S

    2017-10-01

    Adolescents with intellectual disability have increased rates of psychopathology compared with their typically developing peers and present to hospital more frequently for ambulant conditions. The aim of this study is to describe the psychopathology and related characteristics of a sample of adolescents with intellectual disability who presented to general hospital services. We investigated a cohort of adolescents with intellectual disability in South East Queensland, Australia between January 2006 and June 2010. Demographic and clinical data were obtained via mailed questionnaires and from general practice notes. Psychopathology was measured with the Short Form of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. Of 98 individuals presenting to hospital, 71 (72.5%) had significant levels of psychopathology. Unknown aetiology for the intellectual disability was associated with presence of problem behaviours. Adolescents with more severe intellectual disability were more likely to have major problem behaviours. Co-morbid physical health issues were not associated with psychopathology. Only 12 (12.1%) adolescents had undergone specialized mental health intervention. The general hospital environment may offer opportunities for liaison psychiatry services to screen and provide management expertise for adolescent individuals with intellectual disability presenting for physical health issues.

  18. Perceived family functioning, adolescent psychopathology and quality of life in the general population: a 6-month follow-up study.

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    Jozefiak, Thomas; Wallander, Jan L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether perceived family functioning of adolescent is moderating or mediating the longitudinal association of adolescent internalizing and externalizing psychopathology with quality of life (QoL) after 6 months in the general population. Using a cluster sampling technique in one Norwegian county 1331, 10- to 16-year-old students were included in the study (51 % girls). Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist for the assessment of adolescent psychopathology at Time 1. The students completed the General Functioning Scale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device and the Inventory of Life Quality in Children and Adolescents at time 2 6 months later. Psychopathology, family functioning and QoL were treated as latent variables in a structural equation model adjusted for sex, age and parent education. The regression coefficients for paths from psychopathology decreased (β = .199 for the internalizing and β = .102 for the externalizing model) in each case when including the indirect path via family functioning compared with the direct path from psychopathology to QoL. The sum of indirect effects on QoL via family functioning was significant for internalizing β = 0.093 (95 % CI 0.054-0.133) and externalizing β = 0.119 (95 % CI 0.076-0.162) psychopathology. Family functioning significantly mediated the longitudinal association between psychopathology and QoL. Because the family remains an important social domain for adolescents, it must be an important consideration when attempting to reduce or alleviate psychopathology in youth and improve the quality of their life experience throughout this period.

  19. Adolescent depression, family psychopathology and parent/child relations: a case control study.

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    Séguin, Monique; Manion, Ian; Cloutier, Paula; McEvoy, Lisa; Cappelli, Mario

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate family psychopathology and relationships between family members. Three groups of adolescents were interviewed: 1) currently depressed adolescents who have at least one parent who had/or is still experiencing a mood disorder, 2) currently depressed adolescents whose parents were never diagnosed with a mood disorder, 3) never-depressed control adolescents. Personal interview data was obtained from the proband, their parent(s) and one sibling. Findings suggest that parental psychopathology, parent-child relations and life events are all relevant factors in adolescent depression and should be considered in combination for assessment, prevention and intervention efforts.

  20. Psychopathology among a sample of hearing impaired adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaku, Kolawole; Akinpelu, Victoria; Ogunniyi, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Hearing impairment is a recognized cause of emotional and psychological disturbances worldwide, however little is known about this condition in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of psychopathology between hearing impaired adolescents and healthy adolescents. Students attending two special schools for the hearing impaired were assessed for psychopathology with the help of a trained signer and their teacher, using the International Classification of Diseases Diagnostic Criteria (ICD 10). Fifty two hearing impaired students and 52 age and sex matched controls from the same school were also interviewed using the same instrument. The mean age of the hearing impaired students was 16 (sd=3.8), while for the controls the mean age was 16 (sd=2.5). Psychopathology was present in 10 (19%) of the hearing impaired adolescents compared to 2 (4%) among the control group, this difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=4.62 p=0.03). The most common diagnosis was generalized anxiety disorder 4 (8%), followed by depression 2 (4%). Years spent in school (t=4.81, p=0.001), primary guardian (χ(2)=18.3, p=0.001) and mean income of guardian (t=7.10, p=0.001) were all significantly different between the two groups. Psychopathology is relatively common in this population. Proper assessment and treatment should be made available for this population group. A limitation to this study is communication difficulty which made only a third party assessment possible; this may affect the generalizability of the findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Emotional Psychopathology and Increased Adiposity: Follow-Up Study in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Voltas, Nuria; Hernandez-Martinez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, we assess the effect, according to gender, of emotional psychopathology in preadolescence on anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescence (N = 229). Psychopathology was assessed using the "Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Children's…

  2. Psychopathological symptoms, social skills, and personality traits: a study with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landazabal, Maite Garaigordobil

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (a) to study the concomitant relationships between psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and other personality traits; and (b) to identify the predictive variables of psychopathological symptoms. The sample consists of 322 adolescents aged 14 to 17 years old. This study uses correlational methodology. In order to assess psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and personality traits, the following scales are used: the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R; Derogatis, 1983), the Cooperativeness Scale (CS; Rigby, Cox, and Black, 1997), the MESSY social skills scale (Matson, Rotatori, and Helsel, 1983), and the TPT Personality Test (Corral, Pamos, Pereña, and& Seisdedos, 2002). Pearson coefficients suggest that adolescents with many psychopathological symptoms have low levels of cooperative behaviors and social skills. They also score high in inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, overconfidence, and jealousy-withdrawal and have low levels of emotional stability, sociability, and responsibility. Through multiple regression analyses, the following variables were identified as predictors of psychopathological symptoms: jealousy-withdrawal, low social integration, impulsiveness, and low self-concept. The role played by intervention programs promoting socio-emotional development to prevent psychopathological symptoms and enhance mental health is discussed.

  3. Psychopathology of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Adolescents Living in the Mountainous Region of Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Yen

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents who live in the same mountainous region of southern Taiwan, and to test the hypothesis by controlling other individual and environmental factors. In this study, a total of 251 aboriginal and 79 non-aboriginal Taiwanese adolescents were enrolled. Their psychopathology was measured by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale; demographic and family characteristics, and their affinity with their peer group and with their school were also assessed. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents, and indicated that females and adolescents perceiving higher levels of family conflict and lower family support were more likely to experience more severe psychopathology than those perceiving the contrary. Those who devise strategies to improve the mental health of adolescents living in impoverished regions must take into consideration their ethnicity, gender, and family context when devising such treatment strategies.

  4. Psychopathological traits of adolescents with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea: a comparison with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, Monica; Corbetta, Fabiola; Bonini, Luisa; Gambera, Alessandro; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Neri, Francesca; Nacinovich, Renata

    2014-03-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is a form of anovulation, due to the suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, not related to identifiable organic causes. Like adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN), subjects with FHA show dysfunctional attitudes, low self-esteem, depressive mood, anxiety and inability to cope with daily stress. The aim of the study is to examine similarities and differences between FHA and AN in terms of clinical profiles and psychological variables. 21 adolescents with FHA, 21 adolescents with anorexia nervosa, and 21 healthy adolescents were included in the study. All the teenagers completed a battery of self-administered psychological tests for the detection of behaviors and symptoms attributable to the presence of an eating disorder (EDI-2), depression (CDI), and alexithymia (TAS-20). Different from healthy controls, subjects with FHA and with AN shared common psychopathological aspects, such as maturity issues, social insecurity and introversion, a tendency to depression, excessive concerns with dieting, and fear of gaining weight. Nevertheless, adolescents with AN presented a more profound psychopathological disorder as observed at test comparisons with subjects with FHA. Results show a clinical spectrum that includes AN and FHA and suggest the necessity to treat FHA with a multidisciplinary approach for both organic and psychological aspects.

  5. Childhood maltreatment, psychopathology, and the development of hippocampal subregions during adolescence.

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    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Hendriksma, Sylke; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Byrne, Michelle L; Dennison, Meg; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-02-01

    It is well established that childhood maltreatment has a detrimental impact on the brain, particularly the hippocampus. However, the hippocampus is a functionally and structurally heterogeneous region, and little is known about how maltreatment might affect hippocampal subregion development throughout important periods of plasticity. This study investigated whether childhood maltreatment was associated with the development of hippocampal subregion volumes from early to late adolescence. It also investigated associations between onset of psychiatric disorder and hippocampal subregion volume development. One hundred and sixty-six (85 male) adolescents took part in three magnetic resonance imaging assessments during adolescence (mean age at each assessment: 12.79 [ SD 0.43] years, 16.70 [ SD 0.52] years, and 19.08 [ SD 0.46] years), provided a self-report of childhood maltreatment, and were assessed for Axis I psychopathology. Childhood maltreatment was associated with the development of right total and left cornu ammonis 4 (CA4-DG) volumes from early to late adolescence. Early and late onset psychopathology was associated with the development of right presubiculum and right cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) volumes, respectively. Maltreatment findings appeared to be specific to males, whereas psychopathology findings appeared to be specific to females. These findings provide evidence for possible deleterious effects of childhood maltreatment and early onset psychiatric disorder on the development of different subregions of the hippocampus. Altered development of the right CA1, on the other hand, might precede the development of late-adolescent onset psychopathology. Our results highlight the importance of considering development in research examining associations between stress, mental illness, and hippocampal morphology.

  6. Parental rearing and psychopathology in mothers of adolescents with and without borderline personality symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppert, H Marieke; Albers, Casper J; Minderaa, Ruud B; Emmelkamp, Paul Mg; Nauta, Maaike H

    2012-08-27

    A combination of multiple factors, including a strong genetic predisposition and environmental factors, are considered to contribute to the developmental pathways to borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, these factors have mostly been investigated retrospectively, and hardly in adolescents. The current study focuses on maternal factors in BPD features in adolescence. Actual parenting was investigated in a group of referred adolescents with BPD features (N = 101) and a healthy control group (N = 44). Self-reports of perceived concurrent parenting were completed by the adolescents. Questionnaires on parental psychopathology (both Axis I and Axis II disorders) were completed by their mothers. Adolescents reported significantly less emotional warmth, more rejection and more overprotection from their mothers in the BPD-group than in the control group. Mothers in the BPD group reported significantly more parenting stress compared to mothers in the control group. Also, these mothers showed significantly more general psychopathology and clusters C personality traits than mothers in the control group. Contrary to expectations, mothers of adolescents with BPD features reported the same level of cluster B personality traits, compared to mothers in the control group. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that parental rearing styles (less emotional warmth, and more overprotection) and general psychopathology of the mother were the strongest factors differentiating between controls and adolescents with BPD symptoms. Adolescents with BPD features experience less emotional warmth and more overprotection from their mothers, while the mothers themselves report more symptoms of anxiety and depression. Addition of family interventions to treatment programs for adolescents might increase the effectiveness of such early interventions, and prevent the adverse outcome that is often seen in adult BPD patients.

  7. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD without Mental Retardation

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    Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…

  8. Cardiovascular reactivity as a mechanism linking child trauma to adolescent psychopathology

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    Heleniak, Charlotte; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriette

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in physiological reactivity to stress are argued to be central mechanisms linking adverse childhood environmental experiences to internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Childhood trauma exposure may influence physiological reactivity to stress in distinct ways from other forms of childhood adversity. This study applied a novel theoretical model to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on cardiovascular stress reactivity – the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat. This model suggests that inefficient cardiovascular responses to stress – a threat as opposed to challenge profile – are characterized by blunted cardiac output (CO) reactivity and increased vascular resistance. We examined whether childhood trauma exposure predicted an indicator of the threat profile of cardiovascular reactivity and whether such a pattern was associated with adolescent psychopathology in a population-representative sample of 488 adolescents (M = 16.17 years old, 49.2% boys) in the TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Exposure to trauma was associated with both internalizing and externalizing symptoms and a pattern of cardiovascular reactivity consistent with the threat profile, including blunted CO reactivity during a social stress task. Blunted CO reactivity, in turn, was positively associated with externalizing, but not internalizing symptoms and mediated the link between trauma and externalizing psychopathology. None of these associations varied by gender. The biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat provides a novel theoretical framework for understanding disruptions in physiological reactivity to stress following childhood trauma exposure, revealing a potential pathway linking such exposure with externalizing problems in adolescents. PMID:27568327

  9. Chronic Stress in Adolescents and Its Neurobiological and Psychopathological Consequences: An RDoC Perspective.

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    Sheth, Chandni; McGlade, Erin; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative provides a strategy for classifying psychopathology based on behavioral dimensions and neurobiological measures. Neurodevelopment is an orthogonal dimension in the current RDoC framework; however, it has not yet been fully incorporated into the RDoC approach. A combination of both a neurodevelopmental and RDoC approach offers a multidimensional perspective for understanding the emergence of psychopathology during development. Environmental influence (e.g., stress) has a profound impact on the risk for development of psychiatric illnesses. It has been shown that chronic stress interacts with the developing brain, producing significant changes in neural circuits that eventually increase the susceptibility for development of psychiatric disorders. This review highlights effects of chronic stress on the adolescent brain, as adolescence is a period characterized by a combination of significant brain alterations, high levels of stress, and emergence of psychopathology. The literature synthesized in this review suggests that chronic stress-induced changes in neurobiology and behavioral constructs underlie the shared vulnerability across a number of disorders in adolescence. The review particularly focuses on depression and substance use disorders; however, a similar argument can also be made for other psychopathologies, including anxiety disorders. The summarized findings underscore the need for a framework to integrate neurobiological findings from disparate psychiatric disorders and to target transdiagnostic mechanisms across disorders.

  10. Data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Witt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology of 358 children and adolescents (4–17 years. Data on maltreatment profiles has been categorized into six major maltreatment types: physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, sexual abuse with penetration, exposure to intimate partner violence and neglect. The data on history of maltreatment is based on the interview version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ. Additionally data on psychopathology in general as well as specific disorders according to DSM-IV based on K-SADS-PL is presented. The data was used to examine patterns of co-occurrences of maltreatment and associated clinical outcome variables using latent class analysis (LCA, “Experience by children and adolescents of more than one type of maltreatment: association of different classes of maltreatment profiles with clinical outcome variables” (Witt et al., [1]. Keywords: Child maltreatment, Latent class analysis, Child abuse and neglect, Psychopathology

  11. Are children and adolescents with food allergies at increased risk for psychopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Lilly; Zucker, Nancy; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Living with food allergy is a unique and potentially life-threatening stressor that requires constant vigilance to food-related stimuli, but little is known about whether adolescents with food allergies are at increased risk for psychopathology-concurrently and over time. Data came from the prospective-longitudinal Great Smoky Mountains Study. Adolescents (N=1420) were recruited from the community, and interviewed up to six times between ages 10 and 16 for the purpose of the present analyses. At each assessment, adolescents and one parent were interviewed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment, resulting in N=5165 pairs of interviews. Cross-sectionally, food allergies were associated with more symptoms of separation and generalized anxiety, disorder, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and anorexia nervosa. Longitudinally, adolescents with food allergy experienced increases in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and depression from one assessment to the next. Food allergies were not, however, associated with a higher likelihood of meeting diagnostic criteria for a psychiatric disorder. The unique constellation of adolescents' increased symptoms of psychopathology in the context of food allergy likely reflects an adaptive increase in vigilance rather than cohesive syndromes of psychopathology. Support and guidance from health care providers is needed to help adolescents with food allergies and their caregivers achieve an optimal balance between necessary vigilance and hypervigilance and unnecessary restriction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Parental rearing and psychopathology in mothers of adolescents with and without borderline personality symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuppert H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A combination of multiple factors, including a strong genetic predisposition and environmental factors, are considered to contribute to the developmental pathways to borderline personality disorder (BPD. However, these factors have mostly been investigated retrospectively, and hardly in adolescents. The current study focuses on maternal factors in BPD features in adolescence. Methods Actual parenting was investigated in a group of referred adolescents with BPD features (N = 101 and a healthy control group (N = 44. Self-reports of perceived concurrent parenting were completed by the adolescents. Questionnaires on parental psychopathology (both Axis I and Axis II disorders were completed by their mothers. Results Adolescents reported significantly less emotional warmth, more rejection and more overprotection from their mothers in the BPD-group than in the control group. Mothers in the BPD group reported significantly more parenting stress compared to mothers in the control group. Also, these mothers showed significantly more general psychopathology and clusters C personality traits than mothers in the control group. Contrary to expectations, mothers of adolescents with BPD features reported the same level of cluster B personality traits, compared to mothers in the control group. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that parental rearing styles (less emotional warmth, and more overprotection and general psychopathology of the mother were the strongest factors differentiating between controls and adolescents with BPD symptoms. Conclusions Adolescents with BPD features experience less emotional warmth and more overprotection from their mothers, while the mothers themselves report more symptoms of anxiety and depression. Addition of family interventions to treatment programs for adolescents might increase the effectiveness of such early interventions, and prevent the adverse outcome that is often seen in adult BPD

  13. The role of parental psychopathology and personality in adolescent non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromatsky, Molly A; Waszczuk, Monika A; Perlman, Greg; Salis, Katie Lee; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman

    2017-02-01

    Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), a significant risk factor for suicidal behavior, is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and personality traits, particularly those characterized by poor self-regulation. Some parental psychopathology and personality traits have also been identified as risk factors for adolescent NSSI, but specific parental characteristics and mechanisms involved in this association have not been systematically examined. The current study comprehensively investigated the contribution of parental psychopathology and personality to adolescent NSSI using data from the baseline wave of the Adolescent Development of Emotion and Personality Traits (ADEPT) study of 550 adolescent girls (mean age = 14.39 years, SD = 0.63) and their biological parents. We first investigated whether parental lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, and personality and clinical (rumination, self-criticism, emotional reliance) traits were associated with adolescent NSSI. We also tested whether adolescent history of psychiatric illness, personality, and clinical traits mediated the associations between parental characteristics and adolescent NSSI. Parental substance use disorder, adult-ADHD symptoms, self-criticism, and lower agreeableness and conscientiousness were associated with offspring's NSSI. These associations were mediated through adolescent characteristics. In contrast, parental mood and anxiety disorders and neuroticism were unrelated to adolescent NSSI. The results suggest that parental traits and disorders characterized by self-regulatory difficulties and lack of support constitute risk factors for self-injury in adolescent girls, acting via adolescent traits. This demonstrates that parental influences play a significant role in the etiology of adolescent NSSI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gender Differences and Psychopathological Features Associated With Addictive Behaviors in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Di Nicola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aims of the study were to assess prevalence and gender differences of addictive behaviors (substance- and non-substance-related in an adolescent population, and their association with psychopathological features and academic performance.Material and methodsA sample of high school Italian students (n = 996; M = 240, F = 756 was examined using a self-report survey concerning sociodemographic characteristics, cigarette smoking, alcohol and substance use, perceived academic performance, activities, and behaviors (Internet use, gambling, and physical exercising. The Internet Addiction Test, the South Oaks Gambling Screen-revised Adolescent, and the Exercise Addiction Inventory-Short Form were administered to identify problematic behaviors. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale for Adolescent, the Snaith–Hamilton Pleasure Scale, the Dissociative Experience Scale for Adolescent, and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale were used to investigate psychopathological dimensions.ResultsFrequent alcohol intake and lifetime substances consumption were more common among males. The occurrence of other addictive behaviors was 22.1% for problematic Internet use (M = F, 9.7% for at-risk/problematic gambling (M > F, and 6.2% for maladaptive physical exercise (M = F. We also found an association between substance-/non-substance-related addictive behaviors and psychopathological dimensions. Addictive behaviors were more frequent among students reporting poor school performance.ConclusionOur study showed a relevant prevalence of addictive behaviors in a sample of Italian high school students, with specific gender differences. We underlined the cooccurrence of substance and non-substance-related addictive behaviors, and their association with worse school performance. Dissociative proneness, anhedonia, alexithymia, and impulsivity were associated with addictive behaviors in adolescents and might represent vulnerability factors for the

  15. Improvements of adolescent psychopathology after insomnia treatment : Results from a randomized controlled trial over 1 year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.J.; Bögels, S.M.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    Adolescent insomnia can be treated effectively with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBTI). However, little is known about effects of CBTI on psychopathology in adolescents. This study aimed to investigate whether (a) CBTI improves psychopathology in Internet- (IT) and face-to-face group

  16. Improvements of adolescent psychopathology after insomnia treatment: results from a randomized controlled trial over 1 year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Eduard J.; Bögels, Susan M.; Oort, Frans J.; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent insomnia can be treated effectively with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBTI). However, little is known about effects of CBTI on psychopathology in adolescents. This study aimed to investigate whether (a) CBTI improves psychopathology in Internet- (IT) and face-to-face group

  17. Real and virtual worlds alike: Adolescents' psychopathology is reflected in their videogame virtual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Aviv; Gabay-Weschler, Hila; Naar, Yossi; Maoz, Hagai; Bloch, Yuval

    2017-01-01

    Current research refers to videogames as a constant variable. However, games today are designed to be highly interactive and versatile: two players may be using the same videogame, but as a result of different using patterns, the game will not necessarily encompass the same content and gameplay. The current study examined the possible relationship between psychopathology and in-game playing patterns. We hypothesized that adolescents would play videogames differently, in a manner that would reflect their particular psychopathologies. We examined 47 male adolescents from three diagnostic groups: those suffering from externalizing psychopathologies, internalizing psychopathologies and controls. We performed a high-resolution examination of their gameplay, using in-game quantitative statistics mechanisms of two fundamentally different games, a structured racing game and an unstructured adventure game. While there was no difference in the groups' using patterns of the structured game, there was a high variability between the groups' using patterns when they were using a non-structured game. These findings suggest that virtual behavior in unstructured games is reflective of adolescent-players psychopathology, and might shed light on an unexplored facet of videogames research. Possible implications are discussed.

  18. Eating Disorder Psychopathology as a Marker of Psychosocial Distress and Suicide Risk in Female and Male Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine psychosocial correlates of specific aspects of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology (i.e., dietary restriction, body dissatisfaction, binge eating, and self-induced vomiting) in psychiatrically-hospitalized adolescent girls and boys. Method Four hundred and ninety-two psychiatric inpatients (286 girls and 206 boys), aged 12 to 19 years, completed self-report measures of psychosocial and behavioral functioning including measures of suicide risk and ED psychopathology. Associations between ED psychopathology and psychosocial functioning were examined separately by sex and after controlling for depressive/negative affect using Beck Depression Inventory scores. Results Among boys and girls, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was significantly associated with anxiety, low self-esteem, and current distress regarding childhood abuse. Among girls, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was significantly related to hopelessness and suicidality. Among boys, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was positively related to self-reported history of sexual abuse and various externalizing problems (drug abuse, violence, and impulsivity). Conclusion In psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents, ED psychopathology may be an important marker of broad psychosocial distress and behavioral problems among girls and boys although the nature of the specific associations differs by sex. PMID:20152294

  19. Effects of Music Therapy for Children and Adolescents with Psychopathology: A Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Christian; Voracek, Martin; Wigram, Tony

    2004-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this review were to examine the overall efficacy of music therapy for children and adolescents with psychopathology, and to examine how the size of the effect of music therapy is influenced by the type of pathology, client's age, music therapy approach, and type of outcome. Method: Eleven studies were included for…

  20. Latent Personality Profiles and the Relations with Psychopathology and Psychopathic Traits in Detained Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Mieke; Colins, Olivier F.; De Clercq, Barbara; Vermeiren, Robert; Broekaert, Eric; Bijttebier, Patricia; Roose, Annelore; De Fruyt, Filip

    2013-01-01

    The present study constructed empirically derived subtypes of adolescent offenders based on general traits and examined their associations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits. The sample included 342 detained minors (172 boys and 170 girls; mean age 15.85 years, SD = 1.07) recruited in various Youth Detention Centers across the Flemish…

  1. Attachment styles and psychopathology among adolescent children of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Mustafa; Gencoglan, Salih; Akguc, Leyla; Ozatalay, Esin; Fettahoglu, Emine Cigil

    2015-04-16

    The aim of this study was to compare attachment styles and psychopathology in adolescent children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) with a healthy control group. We studied 25 adolescents who had at least 1 parent with BD (BD group) and 28 adolescents who had no parents with BD (control group). The adolescent participants were between the ages of 12 and 17 years. We used the Adolescent Relationship Scales Questionnaire (A-RSQ) for the adolescents in the BD vs. control groups, and we used the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children - present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Clinician Version for each parent of adolescents in the BD and control groups to rule out psychopathologies. Attachment styles of participants were assessed according to A-RSQ, dismissing attachment style scores of adolescents in BD group were found significantly higher compared to the healthy control group (padolescents (48%) out of 25 in the BD group and 5 adolescents (18%) out of 28 in the control group were given DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis, which is a statistically significant result (padolescent children of parents with BD have increased risk of developing mental illnesses, and that these adolescents adopt dismissing attachment styles.

  2. Adolescent depression, family psychopathology and parent/child relations: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Séguin, Monique; Manion, Ian; Cloutier, Paula; McEvoy, Lisa; Cappelli, Mario

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate family psychopathology and relationships between family members. Three groups of adolescents were interviewed: 1) currently depressed adolescents who have at least one parent who had/or is still experiencing a mood disorder, 2) currently depressed adolescents whose parents were never diagnosed with a mood disorder, 3) never-depressed control adolescents. Personal interview data was obtained from the proband, their parent(s) and one sibling. Findi...

  3. Adult Consequences of Child Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Reef (Joni)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChild and adolescent psychopathology is a great burden to individuals, their families, and to society at large. Children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems suffer from impairments in several domains of functioning, including difficulties with friendship, self-esteem

  4. Low Vagal Tone Magnifies the Association Between Psychosocial Stress Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Dirks, Melanie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Vagal tone is a measure of cardiovascular function that facilitates adaptive responses to environmental challenge. Low vagal tone is associated with poor emotional and attentional regulation in children and has been conceptualized as a marker of sensitivity to stress. We investigated whether the associations of a wide range of psychosocial stressors with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were magnified in adolescents with low vagal tone. Resting heart period data were collected from a diverse community sample of adolescents (ages 13–17; N =168). Adolescents completed measures assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and exposure to stressors occurring in family, peer, and community contexts. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the interbeat interval time series. We estimated interactions between RSA and stress exposure in predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms and evaluated whether interactions differed by gender. Exposure to psychosocial stressors was associated strongly with psychopathology. RSA was unrelated to internalizing or externalizing problems. Significant interactions were observed between RSA and child abuse, community violence, peer victimization, and traumatic events in predicting internalizing but not externalizing symptoms. Stressors were positively associated with internalizing symptoms in adolescents with low RSA but not in those with high RSA. Similar patterns were observed for anxiety and depression. These interactions were more consistently observed for male than female individuals. Low vagal tone is associated with internalizing psychopathology in adolescents exposed to high levels of stressors. Measurement of vagal tone in clinical settings might provide useful information about sensitivity to stress in child and adolescent clients. PMID:24156380

  5. [Psychopathology and achievement motivation in adolescents with pathological internet use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartberg, Lutz; Sack, Peter-Michael; Petersen, Kay-Uwe; Thomasius, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    In Germany, the internet is used by 69.4% of the population or 49 million people, and 100% of adolescents (between 14 to 19 years of age) spend time in the internet at least occasionally. An excessive use of the internet may lead to negative psychosocial consequences and changes in behaviour. This phenomenon is named "pathological internet use". Until now, there are only few studies published that investigate mental well being in German adolescents with pathological internet use. 16 participants of an outpatient treatment program for pathological internet use and 16 healthy adolescents were compared on self-reported levels of psychopathology (SPS-J), achievement motivation (FLM 7-13) and personal experience of attention deficit (FEDA). There were no differences in age, gender, intelligence or education between the two groups. Pathological internet users exhibited significantly elevated scores on self-esteem problems and the summary score of the SPS-J and significantly lower scores on FLM 7-13-dimensions "achievement ambition" and "perseverance/diligence" compared to controls. The results revealed that adolescents with pathological internet use report a higher level of psychopathology and lower levels of achievement motivation and drive. These findings should be taken into account when conceptualizing treatments for pathological internet users.

  6. Culture beats gender? The importance of controlling for identity- and parenting-related risk factors in adolescent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Persike, Malte; Besevegis, Elias; Chau, Cecilia; Karaman, Neslihan Güney; Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Lubiewska, Katharzyna; Rohail, Iffat

    2018-02-01

    This study analyzed the unique effects of gender and culture on psychopathology in adolescents from seven countries after controlling for factors which might have contributed to variations in psychopathology. In a sample 2259 adolescents (M = 15 years; 54% female) from France, Germany, Turkey, Greece, Peru, Pakistan, and Poland identity stress, coping with identity stress, maternal parenting (support, psychological control, anxious rearing) and psychopathology (internalizing, externalizing and total symptomatology) were assessed. Due to variations in stress perception, coping style and maternal behavior, these covariates were partialed out before the psychopathology scores were subjected to analyses of variance with gender and country as factors. These analyses leveled out the main effect of country and revealed country-specific gender effects. In four countries, males reported higher internalizing and total symptomatology than females. Partialing out the covariates resulted in a clearer picture of culture-specific and gender-dependent effects on psychopathology, which is helpful in designing interventions. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tracking Effects of Problematic Social Networking on Adolescent Psychopathology: The Mediating Role of Sleep Disruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Lynette; Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L

    2017-01-01

    Concerns are growing about adolescents' problematic social networking and possible links to depressed mood and externalizing behavior. Yet there remains little understanding of underlying processes that may account for these associations, including the mediating role of sleep disruption. This study tests this putative mediating process and examines change in problematic social networking investment and disrupted sleep, in relation to change in depressed mood and externalizing behavior. A sample of 874 students (41% male; 57.2% Caucasian; baseline M age = 14.4 years) from 27 high schools were surveyed. Participants' problematic social networking, sleep disruption, and psychopathology (depressed mood, externalizing behaviors) were measured annually over 3 years. Longitudinal mediation was tested using latent trajectories of problematic social networking use, sleep disruption, and psychopathology. Both problematic social networking and sleep disruption underwent positive linear growth over time. Adolescents who increasingly invested in social networking reported increased depressed mood, with around 53% of this association explained by the indirect effect of increased sleep disruptions. Further, adolescents who increasingly invested in social networking also reported increased externalizing behavior; some of this relation was explained (13%) via increased sleep disruptions. However an alternative model in which increased externalizing was associated with increased social networking, mediated by sleep disruptions, indicated a reciprocal relation of similar magnitude. It is important for parents, teachers, and psychologists to minimize the negative effects of social networking on adolescents' psychopathology. Interventions should potentially target promoting healthy sleep habits through reductions in social networking investment and rescheduling usage away from bedtime.

  8. Adolescents', mothers', and fathers' gendered coping strategies during conflict: Youth and parent influences on conflict resolution and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Schreiber, Jane E; Hastings, Paul; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-11-01

    We observed gendered coping strategies and conflict resolution outcomes used by adolescents and parents during a conflict discussion task to evaluate associations with current and later adolescent psychopathology. We studied 137 middle- to upper-middle-class, predominantly Caucasian families of adolescents (aged 11-16 years, 65 males) who represented a range of psychological functioning, including normative, subclinical, and clinical levels of problems. Adolescent coping strategies played key roles both in the extent to which parent-adolescent dyads resolved conflict and in the trajectory of psychopathology symptom severity over a 2-year period. Gender-prototypic adaptive coping strategies were observed in parents but not youth, (i.e., more problem solving by fathers than mothers and more regulated emotion-focused coping by mothers than fathers). Youth-mother dyads more often achieved full resolution of conflict than youth-father dyads. There were generally not bidirectional effects among youth and parents' coping across the discussion except boys' initial use of angry/hostile coping predicted fathers' angry/hostile coping. The child was more influential than the parent on conflict resolution. This extended to exacerbation/alleviation of psychopathology over 2 years: higher conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents' use of problem-focused coping with decreases in symptom severity over time. Lower conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents' use of angry/hostile emotion coping with increases in symptom severity over time. Implications of findings are considered within a broadened context of the nature of coping and conflict resolution in youth-parent interactions, as well as on how these processes impact youth well-being and dysfunction over time.

  9. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  10. The structure of psychopathology in adolescence and its common personality and cognitive correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Brière, Frederic N; O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Juergen; Garavan, Hugh; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Robbins, Trevor W; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Conrod, Patricia

    2016-11-01

    The traditional view that mental disorders are distinct, categorical disorders has been challenged by evidence that disorders are highly comorbid and exist on a continuum (e.g., Caspi et al., 2014; Tackett et al., 2013). The first objective of this study was to use structural equation modeling to model the structure of psychopathology in an adolescent community-based sample (N = 2,144) including conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, substance use, anxiety, depression, phobias, and other emotional symptoms, assessed at 16 years. The second objective was to identify common personality and cognitive correlates of psychopathology, assessed at 14 years. Results showed that psychopathology at 16 years fit 2 bifactor models equally well: (a) a bifactor model, reflecting a general psychopathology factor, as well as specific externalizing (representing mainly substance misuse and low ADHD) and internalizing factors; and (b) a bifactor model with a general psychopathology factor and 3 specific externalizing (representing mainly ADHD and ODD), substance use and internalizing factors. The general psychopathology factor was related to high disinhibition/impulsivity, low agreeableness, high neuroticism and hopelessness, high delay-discounting, poor response inhibition and low performance IQ. Substance use was specifically related to high novelty-seeking, sensation-seeking, extraversion, high verbal IQ, and risk-taking. Internalizing psychopathology was specifically related to high neuroticism, hopelessness and anxiety-sensitivity, low novelty-seeking and extraversion, and an attentional bias toward negatively valenced verbal stimuli. Findings reveal several nonspecific or transdiagnostic personality and cognitive factors that may be targeted in new interventions to potentially prevent the development of multiple psychopathologies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016

  11. Child maltreatment and mediating influences of childhood personality types on the development of adolescent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children (N = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on California Child Q-Set items representative of ego resiliency and ego control personality dimensions (Block & Block, 1969/1980 ) was derived at Wave 1 (age range = 10-12). The typology, composed of Resilient, Overcontrolled, and Undercontrolled profiles, was evaluated for associations with previous child maltreatment, and for its utility in predicting adolescent psychopathology (age range = 15-18). Maltreated children were significantly more likely than nonmaltreated children to be classified into the overcontrolled (Odds Ratio = 1.847) and undercontrolled profiles (Odds Ratio = 2.101), compared to the Resilient profile. The undercontrolled profile reported higher cannabis symptoms and externalizing problems in adolescence than the other two profiles. The overcontrolled group showed the highest levels of internalizing and lowest levels of alcohol problems compared to the other profiles. Person-centered mediation analyses showed that the overcontrolled and the undercontrolled profiles significantly and differentially mediated the link between number of child maltreatment subtypes and the development of adolescent psychopathology. Child maltreatment is a potent environmental stressor that potentiates compromised personality development, eventuating in heightened psychopathology in adolescence. These findings have important implications for prevention and intervention of psychopathology and substance abuse among low income and maltreated youth.

  12. Quality of life among adolescents living in residential youth care: do domain-specific self-esteem and psychopathology contribute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefiak, Thomas; Kayed, Nanna S; Ranøyen, Ingunn; Greger, Hanne K; Wallander, Jan L; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-10-01

    Many adolescents living in residential youth care (RYC) institutions perceive their quality of life (QoL) to be low. Enhancing QoL is thus important, but little is known about the potential contributors to their QoL. Early interpersonal trauma and subsequent removal from home and repeated relocations to new placements are expected to affect mental health and self-esteem. We therefore investigated if domain-specific self-esteem contributed to QoL among adolescents living in RYC institutions over and beyond their levels of psychopathology. All youth in Norwegian RYC institutions between the ages 12-23 years were invited to participate. Of a total of 98 RYC institutions, 86 participated, and 400 of 601 eligible youths were examined. The participants' primary contact completed the Child Behavior Checklist to assess psychopathology. The adolescents completed a revised version of the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents and the questionnaire for measuring health-related quality of life in children and adolescents (KINDL-R). After adjusting for psychopathology, age, and gender, self-esteem domains uniquely explained 42% of the variance in Qol, where social acceptance (β = 0.57) and physical appearance (β = 0.25) domains significantly predicted concurrent QoL. The self-esteem domains, social acceptance and physical appearance, add substantially to the explained variance in QoL among adolescents living in RYC institutions, over and beyond the levels of psychopathology. These self-esteem domains may be targets of intervention to improve QoL, in addition to treating their psychopathology.

  13. Assessment of Psychopathological Problems in the School Context: The Psychometric Properties of a Portuguese Version of the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale--Short Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Ida Timoteo; Faisca, Luis Madeira; Valadas, Sandra Teodosio

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a Portuguese version of the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale-Short Form (APS-SF) were studied in a sample of 656 Portuguese adolescents, aged 12 to 19 years, assessed in school context. Also, the aim of the study was to gather data concerning age- and gender-related differences in the expression of psychopathological…

  14. Severity of borderline personality symptoms in adolescence: relationship with maternal parenting stress, maternal psychopathology, and rearing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppert, H Marieke; Albers, Casper J; Minderaa, Ruud B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Nauta, Maaike H

    2015-06-01

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress has not been examined in this group. The current study examined 101 adolescents (14-19 years old) with BPD symptoms and their mothers. Assessments were made on severity of BPD symptoms, youth-perceived maternal rearing styles, and psychopathology and parenting stress in mothers. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine potential predictors of borderline severity. No correlation was found between severity of BPD symptoms in adolescents and parenting stress. Only youth-perceived maternal overprotection was significantly related to BPD severity. The combination of perceived maternal rejection with cluster B traits in mothers was significantly related to BPD severity in adolescents. This study provides a contribution to the disentanglement of the developmental pathways that lead to BPD.

  15. Psychopathology and behavior problems in children and adolescents with Williams syndrome: Distinctive relationships with cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Ana A C; Rossi, Natália F; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Sampaio, Adriana; Giacheti, Célia M

    2017-08-01

    Several studies have documented the high prevalence of psychopathology and behavior problems in Williams syndrome (WS). However, the links between cognitive development and such symptoms need further clarification. Our study aims to expand current knowledge on levels of behavior problems and its links to cognition in a sample of Brazilian individuals with WS. A total of 25 children and adolescents with WS and their parents participated in this study. The participants' IQs were assessed with the Wechsler Scales of Intelligence (for children or adults) and parental reports of psychopathology/behavior problems were collected using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The presence of clinically significant attention problems was a main feature in our sample of children and adolescents with WS. In the children, higher IQ scores were found to be significantly associated with less externalizing problems, while in the adolescents cognitive abilities were found to be associated with less internalizing symptoms. These results provide further insight into the links between psychopathology and behavior problems and cognitive abilities in WS, and suggest the need to take age into consideration when analyzing such relationships.

  16. The Role of Peer Stress and Pubertal Timing on Symptoms of Psychopathology during Early Adolescence

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    Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Clemans, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is known to amplify the link between pubertal timing and psychopathology. However, few studies have examined the role of peer stress as a context for this link. The present study examined the interaction between perceived pubertal timing and peer stress on symptoms of psychopathology in early adolescence. The sample consisted of 264…

  17. Severity of borderline personality symptoms in adolescence: relationship with maternal parenting stress, maternal psychopathology, and rearing styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H.M.; Albers, C.J.; Minderaa, R.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Nauta, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress

  18. Severity of Borderline Personality Symptoms in Adolescence : Relationship With Maternal Parenting Stress, Maternal Psychopathology, and Rearing Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H. Marieke; Albers, Casper J.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paulus; Nauta, Maaike H.

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress

  19. Self-concept, self-esteem, personality traits and psychopathological symptoms in adolescents with and without visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Bernarás, Elena

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze self-concept, self-esteem, and other personality traits and psychopathological symptoms in subjects with and without visual impairment. The sample was made up of 90 participants aged 12 to 17: 61 with no impairment and 29 with visual impairment. The ANOVA showed that there were no significant differences in self-concept and self-esteem in the samples, but the visually impaired adolescents scored significantly higher in various psychopathological symptoms as well as in their capacity for kind behavior. The ANOVA revealed no gender differences in any variables in adolescents without visual impairment. However, women with visual impairment scored lower in self-esteem and higher in various psychopathological symptoms. Pearson coefficients revealed negative relations between self-concept/self-esteem and all the psychopathological symptoms, and neuroticism, as well as a positive relation with extraversion. Low psychoticism, high extraversion, and low hostility were identified as predictors of high self-concept.

  20. Profiles of adolescent religiousness using latent profile analysis: Implications for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Gregory S; Bray, Bethany C; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2017-03-01

    Prior research has documented robust associations between adolescent religiousness/spirituality (R/S) and psychopathology outcomes including externalizing and internalizing symptomatology, yet no previous studies have examined these associations with adolescent R/S profiles using a person-centred approach. We examined whether there are identifiable subgroups characterized by unique multidimensional patterns of R/S experiences and how these experiences may be related to externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. The sample consisted of 220 Appalachian adolescents between 12 and 18 years old who were primarily White and primarily Christian. Latent profile analysis revealed three profiles of adolescent R/S: high religiousness (28.4%), introjectors (47.6%), and low religiousness (24.0%). These profiles were differentially related to internalizing and externalizing symptomatology such that the high religiousness group was significantly lower than the introjectors with respect to internalizing and externalizing symptomatology and lower than the low religiousness group in externalizing symptomatology. Implications and suggestions for future research using person-centred approaches to better understand differential developmental trajectories of religious development are provided. Statement of contribution What is already known Prior research has demonstrated a negative relationship between adolescent religiousness and spirituality (R/S) and psychopathology. Numerous studies document the differential relationships between aspects of R/S and psychopathology; however, few have done so from a person-centred perspective. There are several theories that outline how R/S to study R/S when paying specific attention to culture. Saroglou's Big Four dimensions of religion (believing, bonding, behaving, and belonging) posits that these four dimensions (1) are able to delimit religion from proximal constructs; (2) translate major distinct dimensions of religiousness; (3) can be

  1. Early childhood behavioral inhibition, adult psychopathology and the buffering effects of adolescent social networks: a twenty-year prospective study.

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    Frenkel, Tahl I; Fox, Nathan A; Pine, Daniel S; Walker, Olga L; Degnan, Kathryn A; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We examined whether the temperament of behavioral inhibition is a significant marker for psychopathology in early adulthood and whether such risk is buffered by peer social networks. Participants (N = 165) were from a prospective study spanning the first two decades of life. Temperament was characterized during infancy and early childhood. Extent of involvement in peer social networks was measured during adolescence, and psychopathology was assessed in early adulthood. Latent Class Analyses generated comprehensive variables at each of three study time-points. Regressions assessed (a) the direct effect of early behavioral inhibition on adult psychopathology (b) the moderating effect of adolescent involvement in social peer networks on the link between temperamental risk and adult psychopathology. Stable behavioral inhibition in early childhood was negatively associated with adult mental health (R(2 ) = .07, p = .005, β = -.26), specifically increasing risk for adult anxiety disorders (R(2) = .04, p = .037, β = .19). These temperament-pathology relations were significantly moderated by adolescent peer group social involvement and network size (Total R(2) = .13, p = .027, β = -.22). Temperament predicted heightened risk for adult anxiety when adolescent social involvement was low (p = .002, β = .43), but not when adolescent social involvement was high. Stable behavioral inhibition throughout early childhood is a risk factor for adult anxiety disorders and interacts with adolescent social involvement to moderate risk. This is the first study to demonstrate the critical role of adolescent involvement in socially active networks in moderating long-lasting temperamental risk over the course of two decades, thus informing prevention/intervention approaches. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Family profiles in eating disorders: family functioning and psychopathology

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    Cerniglia L

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Luca Cerniglia,1 Silvia Cimino,2 Mimma Tafà,2 Eleonora Marzilli,2 Giulia Ballarotto,2 Fabrizia Bracaglia2 1Faculty of Psychology, International Telematic University UNINETTUNO, 2Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy Abstract: Research has studied family functioning in families of patients suffering from eating disorders (EDs, particularly investigating the associations between mothers’ and daughters’ psychopathological symptoms, but limited studies have examined whether there are specific maladaptive psychological profiles characterizing the family as a whole when it includes adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN, and binge eating disorder (BED. Through the collaboration of a network of public and private consultants, we recruited n=181 adolescents diagnosed for EDs (n=61 with AN, n=60 with BN, and n=60 with BEDs and their parents. Mothers, fathers, and youths were assessed through a self-report measure evaluating family functioning, and adolescents completed a self-report questionnaire assessing psychopathological symptoms. Results showed specific family functioning and psychopathological profiles based on adolescents’ diagnosis. Regression analyses also showed that family functioning characterized by rigidity predicted higher psychopathological symptoms. Our study underlines the importance of involving all members of the family in assessment and intervention programs when adolescent offspring suffer from EDs. Keywords: family functioning, eating disorders, adolescents, psychopathological risk

  3. Dimensions of Adversity, Physiological Reactivity, and Externalizing Psychopathology in Adolescence: Deprivation and Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Daniel S; McLaughlin, Katie A; Sheridan, Margaret A

    Dysregulation of autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function is a putative intermediate phenotype linking childhood adversity (CA) with later psychopathology. However, associations of CAs with autonomic nervous system and HPA-axis function vary widely across studies. Here, we test a novel conceptual model discriminating between distinct forms of CA (deprivation and threat) and examine their independent associations with physiological reactivity and psychopathology. Adolescents (N = 169; mean [SD] age, 14.9 [1.4] years) with a range of interpersonal violence (e.g., maltreatment, community violence) and poverty exposure participated in the Trier Social Stress test (TSST). During the TSST, electrocardiogram, impedance cardiograph, salivary cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate data were collected. We compared the associations of poverty (an indicator of deprivation) and interpersonal violence (an indicator of threat) on sympathetic, parasympathetic, and HPA-axis reactivity to the TSST, and assessed whether these differences mediated the association of adversity with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Exposure to poverty and interpersonal violence was associated with psychopathology. Interpersonal violence, adjusting for poverty, was associated with blunted sympathetic (b = 1.44, p = .050) and HPA-axis reactivity (b = -.09; p = .021). Blunted cortisol reactivity mediated the association of interpersonal violence with externalizing, but not internalizing, psychopathology. In contrast, poverty was not associated with physiological reactivity after adjusting for interpersonal violence. We provide evidence for distinct neurobiological mechanisms through which adversity related to poverty and interpersonal violence is associated with psychopathology in adolescence. Distinguishing distinct pathways through which adversity influences mental health has implications for preventive interventions targeting youths exposed to

  4. What develops during emotional development? A component process approach to identifying sources of psychopathology risk in adolescence.

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    McLaughlin, Katie A; Garrad, Megan C; Somerville, Leah H

    2015-12-01

    Adolescence is a phase of the lifespan associated with widespread changes in emotional behavior thought to reflect both changing environments and stressors, and psychological and neurobiological development. However, emotions themselves are complex phenomena that are composed of multiple subprocesses. In this paper, we argue that examining emotional development from a process-level perspective facilitates important insights into the mechanisms that underlie adolescents' shifting emotions and intensified risk for psychopathology. Contrasting the developmental progressions for the antecedents to emotion, physiological reactivity to emotion, emotional regulation capacity, and motivation to experience particular affective states reveals complex trajectories that intersect in a unique way during adolescence. We consider the implications of these intersecting trajectories for negative outcomes such as psychopathology, as well as positive outcomes for adolescent social bonds.

  5. Coping with Social Stress: Implications for Psychopathology in Young Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Warren, Michelle P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of social stress on symptoms of psychopathology at the entry into adolescence (111 girls, Mage = 11.84, SD = 0.77). We examined whether peer stress and pubertal timing were associated with internalizing distress and aggression, and whether responses to stress and cortisol reactivity mediated or moderated these…

  6. What develops during emotional development? A component process approach to identifying sources of psychopathology risk in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Garrad, Megan C.; Somerville, Leah H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a phase of the lifespan associated with widespread changes in emotional behavior thought to reflect both changing environments and stressors, and psychological and neurobiological development. However, emotions themselves are complex phenomena that are composed of multiple subprocesses. In this paper, we argue that examining emotional development from a process-level perspective facilitates important insights into the mechanisms that underlie adolescents' shifting emotions and intensified risk for psychopathology. Contrasting the developmental progressions for the antecedents to emotion, physiological reactivity to emotion, emotional regulation capacity, and motivation to experience particular affective states reveals complex trajectories that intersect in a unique way during adolescence. We consider the implications of these intersecting trajectories for negative outcomes such as psychopathology, as well as positive outcomes for adolescent social bonds. PMID:26869841

  7. Including subjectivity in the teaching of Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Domont de Serpa Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Current psychopathology studies have often been presented in their descriptive dimension. This perspective is important for teaching because it helps the students to recognize and identify the symptomatology of each psychopathology case. However, subjectivity, the experience of suffering and interpersonal aspects are all lost in this perspective. Coming from another psychopathology tradition - existential anthropology - this paper presents practical psychopathology teaching experience which considers such dimensions as being relevant to the understanding of mental suffering. The features and limitations of such traditions are briefly reviewed to support this teaching experience. Two new modalities of practical teaching, used in the discipline of "Special Psychopathology I" offered by the Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine at the medical school of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro for students of psychology, will be presented according to descriptive case study methodology. With these activities we also expect to change the practice of teaching. Traditionally, interviewing of in-patients by a large group of students who observe passively what is happening is the center of this kind of education. We intend to develop a model of teaching which is closer to the proposal of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform which views mental illness as a complex phenomenon, always involving the relationship that the subject establishes with the world.

  8. Predicting later problematic cannabis use from psychopathological symptoms during childhood and adolescence: Results of a 25-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohsel, Katrin; Baldus, Christiane; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Thomasius, Rainer; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal substance among adolescents and young adults. Problematic cannabis use is often associated with comorbid psychopathological problems. The purpose of the current study was to elucidate the underlying developmental processes connecting externalizing and internalizing psychopathology in childhood and adolescence with problematic cannabis use in young adulthood. Data were drawn from the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk, an ongoing epidemiological cohort study from birth to adulthood. For n=307 participants, symptom scores of conduct/oppositional defiant disorder, attention problems, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and internalizing disorders were available for the periods of childhood (4.5-11 years) and adolescence (15 years). At age 25 years, problematic cannabis use was assessed via clinical interview and a self-rating questionnaire. At age 25 years, problematic cannabis use was identified in n=28 participants (9.1%). Childhood conduct/oppositional behavior problems were predictive of problematic cannabis use during young adulthood when comorbid symptoms were controlled for. No such effect was found for childhood attention, hyperactivity/impulsivity or internalizing problems. With respect to psychopathological symptoms during adolescence, only attention problems were significantly related to later problematic cannabis use when controlling for comorbidity. The current study highlights the role of conduct/oppositional behavior problems during childhood and attention problems during adolescence in later problematic cannabis use. It sheds more light on the developmental sequence of childhood and adolescence psychopathology and young adult cannabis use, which is a prerequisite for effective prevention approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychopathological symptoms in two generations of the same family: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essau, Cecilia A; Ishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko; Otsui, Kanako; Sato, Hiroshi; Okajima, Isa; Georgiou, George A; O'Callaghan, Jean; Bray, Diane

    2013-12-01

    The main aims of the present study were to compare the frequency and correlates of psychopathological symptoms in two generations of the same family in Japan and in England. The sample included 689 adolescents and one of their parents/guardians. All participants completed a set of questionnaires to measure psychopathological symptoms, self-construals, and perceived social support. In both parent and adolescent data, the Japanese sample reported significantly lower psychopathological symptoms than the English sample. The relationship between parental and adolescent psychopathology was significant in England, but not in Japan. In both countries, perceived social support and independent self-construal were generally associated with less psychopathological symptoms, and interdependent self-construal was associated with more symptoms. Additionally, in England, a significant interaction effect was found between social support and the self-construals. Participants with low independent and high interdependent self-construal had elevated levels of psychopathological symptoms when perceived social support was low. The present study illustrates the importance of culture in the transmission of psychopathological symptoms across different generations in the same family.

  10. Correlations between psychopathology and self-reported quality of life among adolescents in youth correctional facilities in Lagos, Nigeria: A short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka; Ola, Bolanle; Abiri, Gbonjubola; Adewuya, Abiodun O

    2018-02-01

    The relationship between psychopathology and quality of life (QoL) and well-being among young incarcerated offenders has hardly been explored. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that higher self-rated psychopathology would be associated with lower QoL among adolescents resident within youth correctional facilities in Lagos. Psychopathology was assessed using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ), while QoL was measured by using the Paediatric Quality of Life. One hundred and sixty-five adolescents completed the study, mostly boys (n = 124; 75%) with a mean age of 14.3 ± 2.1 years. Nearly, a fifth (30, 18%) of respondents had abnormal total SDQ scores (≥17), suggestive of definite psychiatric disorder, while another 44 (27%) had highly probable psychopathology (total SDQ scores 15-16). There was strong negative correlation (r = -0.51, p psychopathology and QoL among these adolescents, it is plausible to suppose that treatment of mental health problems could have a positive impact on rehabilitation and reintegration. Given the rate of likely psychopathology, mental health screening within young offender institutions should be routine, and followed, as necessary with full assessment and resultant treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Common Genetic Influences on Negative Emotionality and a General Psychopathology Factor in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Hulle, Carol Van; Waldman, Irwin; Krueger, Robert F.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research using confirmatory factor analysis to model psychopathology comorbidity supported the hypothesis of a broad general factor (i.e., a “bifactor”; Holzinger & Swineford, 1937) of psychopathology in children, adolescents, and adults, with more specific higher-order internalizing and externalizing factors reflecting additional shared variance in symptoms (Lahey et al., 2012; Lahey, Van Hulle, Singh, Waldman, & Rathouz, 2011). The psychological nature of this general factor has not been explored, however. The current study tests a prediction derived from the spectrum hypothesis of personality and psychopathology, that variance in a general psychopathology bifactor overlaps substantially—at both phenotypic and genetic levels—with the dispositional trait of negative emotionality. Data on psychopathology symptoms and dispositional traits were collected from both parents and youth in a representative sample of 1,569 twin pairs (ages 9–17) from Tennessee. Predictions based on the spectrum hypothesis were supported, with variance in negative emotionality and the general factor overlapping substantially at both phenotypic and etiologic levels. Furthermore, stronger correlations were found between negative emotionality and the general psychopathology factor than among other dispositions and other psychopathology factors. PMID:24364617

  12. Disorganized Behavior in Adolescent-Parent Interaction: Relations to Attachment State of Mind, Partner Abuse, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obsuth, Ingrid; Hennighausen, Katherine; Brumariu, Laura E.; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2014-01-01

    Disoriented, punitive, and caregiving/role-confused attachment behaviors are associated with psychopathology in childhood, but have not been assessed in adolescence. A total of 120 low-income late adolescents (aged 18-23 years) and parents were assessed in a conflict-resolution paradigm. Their interactions were coded with the Goal-Corrected…

  13. Energy Drink and Coffee Consumption and Psychopathology Symptoms Among Early Adolescents: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2016-06-01

    Background: Little is known about possible links between energy drink use and psychopathology among youth. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy drink consumption and psychopathology among early adolescents. In addition, associations between psychopathology and coffee consumption were examined to assess whether findings were specific to energy drinks or also applied to another commonly used caffeinated beverage. Methods: One hundred forty-four youth who participated in the Camden Youth Development Study (72 males; mean age 11.9 at wave 1; 65% Hispanic, 30% African American) were assessed using self-report measures of frequency of energy drink and coffee consumption and depression, anxiety, conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, and teacher reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Youth (92%) were reassessed 16 months later. Results: Concurrently, energy drink and coffee consumption were associated with similar psychopathology symptoms; when the other beverage was adjusted for, energy drinks remained associated with CD and coffee remained associated with panic anxiety. Initial energy drink consumption predicted increasing ADHD and CD over time, though the association with CD dropped to a trend level of significance when coffee was adjusted for. Initial levels of hyperactive ADHD predicted increasing coffee consumption over time; this association remained when energy drinks were controlled. Social anxiety was associated with less increase in energy drink consumption over time, controlling for coffee. Conclusion: Energy drink and coffee consumption among early adolescents are concurrently associated with similar psychopathology symptoms. Longitudinally, the associations between these beverages and psychopathology differ, indicating that these substances have differing implications for development over time.

  14. Suicidal Adolescents' Social Support from Family and Peers: Gender-Specific Associations with Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; Preuss, Lesli J.; King, Cheryl A.

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of social support from family, non-family adults, and peers were examined in relation to the psychopathology reported by 220 suicidal adolescents (152 females) during a psychiatric hospitalization. Results of regression analyses showed that, among females, family support was negatively related to hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and…

  15. How low is low? Low self-esteem as an indicator of internalizing psychopathology in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomaa, Rasmus; Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Fröjd, Sari; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri

    2013-08-01

    Schools are among the most important setting for preventive interventions among adolescents. There are evidence-based intervention programs for adolescents at risk for and with early signs of mental health problems but one demanding task is to detect the ones who are in need of an intervention. The aim of the present study was to analyze associations between self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety in order to determine clinically relevant cut-points for male and female adolescents' self-esteem as measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). The participants of the present prospective study, started in 2002-2003, were 2070 adolescents aged 15 years (1,167 girls and 903 boys) at two study sites in Finland who participated at both baseline and 2-year follow-up. Self-esteem was related to depressive symptoms and social anxiety, and the RSES was able to discriminate between cases of depression and social phobia. The present study suggests a cutoff of 25 points to classify low self-esteem in both girls and boys. Low self-esteem may function as an indicator of various forms of internalizing psychopathology. The RSES is worth further examination as a potential screening tool for adolescents in risk of psychopathology.

  16. Psychopathology and prosocial behavior in adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged families: the role of proximal and distal adverse life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2008-12-01

    The study investigated if proximal contextual risk (number of adverse life events experienced in the last year) or distal contextual risk (number of adverse life events experienced before the last year) is a better predictor of adolescent psychopathology and prosocial behavior. It also tested for the specificity, accumulation and gradient of contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior, and for the interaction between proximal and distal contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior. The sample was 199 11-18 year old children from a socio-economically disadvantaged area in North-East London. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which measures four difficulties (hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and peer problems) and prosocial behavior, was used. Confounders were age, gender, and maternal educational qualifications. To model the relationship between the five SDQ scales and contextual risk multivariate response regression models and multivariate response logistic regression models that allow the error terms of the scale specific models to be correlated were fitted. This study highlighted the importance of proximal contextual risk in predicting both broad and externalizing psychopathology, and the importance of considering risk accumulation rather than specificity in predicting psychopathology. By showing that the number of proximal adverse life events experienced had a steady, additive effect on broad and externalizing psychopathology, it also highlighted the need to protect adolescents experiencing current risk from further risk exposure. By showing that the number of distal adverse life events experienced did not affect the proximal risk's impact on either broad or externalizing psychopathology, it highlighted the need to protect all adolescents, irrespective of experience of early life adversities, from risk.

  17. Psychopathology from adolescence into young adulthood: an 8-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, R F; Verhulst, F C

    1995-11-01

    This study investigated the stability of behavioral and emotional problems from adolescence into young adulthood. Subjects from the general population (N = 459), aged 13-16 years, were evaluated initially with the Child Behavior Checklist (completed by parents) and 8 years later with the Young Adult Self-Report. The scoring format and factor structure of the two assessment instruments are similar; syndromes constructed from the two instruments are based on parents', teachers', and self-report information derived from large clinical samples. Signs of maladjustment also were assessed at follow-up through interviews. Of the individuals with total problem scores in the deviant range on the Child Behavior Checklist, 27.3% had total problem scores in the deviant range on the Young Adult Self-Report at follow-up. The probability of having a total problem score in the deviant range at follow-up was raised 7.4-fold by having deviant-range scores on the Child Behavior Checklist somatic complaints and anxious/depressed syndromes (simultaneously) at the initial assessment. Referral to mental health services was predicted by deviant-range scores on the anxious/depressed syndrome, while suicide attempts were predicted by deviance on the withdrawn syndrome. Adolescent problems tended to persist into young adulthood to a moderate degree. High rates of withdrawal from social contacts, anxiety or depression, somatic complaints without known medical origin, social problems, attention problems, delinquent behavior, and aggressive behavior during adolescence were risk factors for specific types of psychopathology and maladjustment at 8-year follow-up. The presence of psychopathology in adolescence should not be regarded as normative.

  18. Current Psychopathological Symptoms in Children and Adolescents Who Suffered Different Forms of Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate the current psychopathological problems of different forms associated with maltreatment on children’s and adolescents’ mental health. Ninety-five females and ninety males with a mean age of 8.8 years who have suffered in the last six months different forms of abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional and neglect were included in the study. The current reaction to trauma as directly observed by clinical instruments was examined. Differences in gender, age at the time of medical examination, familial psychiatric disorders, neuropsychiatric status, and type of maltreatment were also taken into account. Results documented that 95.1% of abused children and adolescents developed a psychiatric disorder or a subclinical form of a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Moreover, our data demonstrate a role for gender, age, and familial psychiatric comorbidity in the current psychopathological problems associated with maltreatment. Overall, our findings can help clinicians make a diagnosis and provide efficient treatment and prevention strategies for child maltreatment and abuse.

  19. Alexithymia, impulsiveness, and psychopathology in nonsuicidal self-injured adolescents

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    Gatta M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Michela Gatta,1 Francesco Dal Santo,1 Alessio Rago,1 Andrea Spoto,2 Pier Antonio Battistella1 1Childhood Adolescence Family Unit, Ulss 16 – Padua University, 2Department of General Psychology, Padua University, Padova, Italy Introduction: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI is a multifaceted phenomenon and a major health issue among adolescents. A better understanding of self-injury comorbidities is crucial to improve our ability to assess, treat, and prevent NSSI.Purpose: This study aimed at analyzing some of the psychobehavioral correlates of NSSI: psychological problems, alexithymia, impulsiveness, and sociorelational aspects.Patients and methods: This was a case–control study. The clinical sample (n=33 included adolescents attending our unit for NSSI and other issues; the controls (n=79 were high-school students. Data were collected using six questionnaires: Youth Self-Report, Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Children’s Depression Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90-R, and Child Behavior Checklist.Results: Cases scored significantly higher in all questionnaires. Habitual self-injurers scored higher on impulsiveness and alexithymia. The gesture’s repetition seems relevant to the global clinical picture: habitual self-injurers appear more likely to seek help from the sociosanitary services. We found a difference between the self-injurers’ and their parents’ awareness of the disorder.Conclusion: Habitual self-injurers show signs of having difficulty with assessing the consequences of their actions (nonplanning impulsiveness and the inability to manage their feelings. Given the significantly higher scores found for cases than for controls on all the psychopathological scales, NSSI can be seen as a cross-category psychiatric disorder, supporting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders decision to include it as a pathological entity in its own right. Keywords: NSSI, self-cutting, psychiatric

  20. Adverse Life Events and Psychopathology and Prosocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: Testing the Timing, Specificity, Accumulation, Gradient, and Moderation of Contextual Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Kallis, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    A study examines the role of contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior in adolescents. The results show that risk accumulation matters instead of specificity and that the number of adverse life events is nonmultiplicative with psychopathology.

  1. Future Directions in Sleep and Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J

    2017-01-01

    It is critical for psychologists to gain a better understanding about the intersection between sleep and developmental psychopathology. However, while many strive to answer the question of whether sleep causes developmental psychopathology, or vice versa, ultimately the relationship between sleep and developmental psychopathology is complex and dynamic. This article considers future directions in the field of clinical child and adolescent psychology that go beyond this mechanistic question, highlighting areas important to address for clinicians and researchers who strive to better understand how best to serve children and adolescents with developmental psychopathology. Questions are presented about what is normal in terms of sleep across development, the role of individual variability in terms of sleep needs and vulnerability to sleep loss, and how sleep may serve as a risk or resilience factor for developmental psychopathology, concluding with considerations for interventions.

  2. A newly identified group of adolescents at "invisible" risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group ("invisible" risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the "invisible" risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the "invisible" group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The "invisible" group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2014 World Psychiatric Association.

  3. Convergence in Reports of Adolescents' Psychopathology: A Focus on Disorganized Attachment and Reflective Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L; Palmer, Alexandra; Vanwoerden, Salome; Sharp, Carla

    2017-12-13

    Although convergence in parent-youth reports of adolescent psychopathology is critical for treatment planning, research documents a pervasive lack of agreement in ratings of adolescents' symptoms. Attachment insecurity (particularly disorganized attachment) and impoverished reflective functioning (RF) are 2 theoretically implicated predictors of low convergence that have not been examined in the literature. In a cross-sectional investigation of adolescents receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment, we examined whether disorganized attachment and low (adolescent and parent) RF were associated with patterns of convergence in adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Compared with organized adolescents, disorganized adolescents had lower parent-youth convergence in reports of their internalizing symptoms and higher convergence in reports of their externalizing symptoms; low adolescent self-focused RF was associated with low convergence in parent-adolescent reports of internalizing symptoms, whereas low adolescent global RF was associated with high convergence in parent-adolescent reports of externalizing symptoms. Among adolescents receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment, disorganized attachment and lower RF were associated with weaker internalizing symptom convergence and greater externalizing symptom convergence, which if replicated, could inform assessment strategies and treatment planning in this setting.

  4. A Study on the prevalence of Internet addiction and its association with psychopathological symptoms and obesity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Huseyin Cam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: There has been an explosive growth of internet usage worldwide and this is expected to continue with its use becoming an integral part of everyday life. The internet provides tremendous educational benefits; however, excessive internet use can lead to negative outcomes such as psychopathological symptoms and obesity. The aim of the study was to study association with the prevalence of internet addiction and psychopathological symptoms and obesity in adolescent age group. Methods: A total of 1175 high school students from three high schools in Giresun City were surveyed using Internet Addiction Test, Dukes Health Profile. The Data was collected using a structured questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Of the 1,175 adolescents who took part in the study, 588 (50.0% were female and 587 (50.0% were males. The mean age of adolescents was 15.72 +/- 1.14 years. The prevalence rate of problematic internet use was 7.1% among adolescent internet users. Those with excessive use internet had high scores on anxiety, depression, and anxiety depression. A relationship between problematic internet use and obesity was not found. Conclusions: Problematic internet use is becoming a significant public health issue that requires urgent attention. Effective measures are needed to prevent the spread of this problem and interventions to prevent the effects of problematic internet use on psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction should be conducted as early as possible. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 181-188

  5. Development of the Mealtime Emotions Measure for adolescents (MEM-A): gender differences in emotional responses to family mealtimes and eating psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Hannah J; Haycraft, Emma; Wallis, Deborah J; Arcelus, Jon; Leung, Newman; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Mealtime Emotions Measure for adolescents (MEM-A), a novel measure of emotional responses experienced during family mealtimes. Additionally, it examined gender differences in mealtime emotions and also the relationships between mealtime emotions and levels of eating psychopathology, when controlling for anxiety or depression. Adolescent participants (N = 527; 282 girls, 245 boys) with a mean age of 15.9 years completed the new mealtime measure for adolescents (MEM-A), in addition to questions about family mealtime atmosphere, and measures assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and eating psychopathology. Factor analysis produced a three factor solution for the MEM-A with two subscales relating to different types of negative mealtime emotions (Anxiety-related mealtime emotions and Anger-related mealtime emotions) and one subscale relating to Positive mealtime emotions. Generally, girls reported experiencing more Anxiety-related mealtime emotions compared to boys. Having conducted separate analyses controlling for levels of either anxiety or depression, there were several significant associations for both girls and boys between mealtime emotions, particularly Anxiety-related emotions, and eating psychopathology. The findings suggest that some mealtime emotions are associated with increased eating psychopathology. Replication and detailed examination of these emotional responses is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Psychopathological Symptoms in Adolescents Who Experienced Sexual Violence as a Victim and/or as a Perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlert, Jeannine; Seidler, Corinna; Rau, Thea; Fegert, Jörg; Allroggen, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Research on sexual violence victims and perpetrators indicates that victims in general are found to report higher levels of psychopathological symptoms, especially internalizing behavior, whereas perpetrators often show externalizing behavior. Little is known, however, about the psychopathology of perpetrators of sexual violence who have also experienced sexual victimization (victim-perpetrators). Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine this group within a sample of adolescents living in residential care or federal boarding schools. Participants reported their lifetime experience with sexual violence (both as victim and perpetrator) and completed the Youth Self Report. Results indicate that all three groups of adolescents with sexual violence experience report higher total problem scores than adolescents without this experience. Victim-perpetrators show results more similar to those of perpetrators only than those of victims only. The discussion deals with the implications of our findings for the treatment of victims of sexual violence.

  7. Genetic questions for environmental studies. Differential parenting and psychopathology in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, D; Hetherington, E M; Plomin, R; Howe, G W; Simmens, S J; Henderson, S H; O'Connor, T J; Bussell, D A; Anderson, E R; Law, T

    1995-11-01

    Recent genetic evidence suggests that the most important environmental influences on normal and pathologic development are those that are not shared by siblings in the same family. We sought to determine the relationship between differences in parenting styles and depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior in adolescence, and to compare the influence of these nonshared experiences with genetic influences. We studied 708 families with at least two same-sexed adolescent siblings who were monozygotic twins (93 families), dizygotic twins (99 families), ordinary siblings (95 families), full siblings in step families (181 families), half siblings in step families (110 families), and genetically unrelated siblings in step families (130 families). Data on parenting style were collected by questionnaire and by video recording of interaction between parents and children. Almost 60% of variance in adolescent antisocial behavior and 37% of variance in depressive symptoms could be accounted for by conflictual and negative parental behavior directed specifically at the adolescent. In contrast, when a parent directed harsh, aggressive, explosive, and inconsistent parenting toward the sibling, we found less psychopathologic outcome in the adolescent. Parenting behavior directed specifically at each child in the family is a major correlate of symptoms in adolescents. Furthermore, harsh parental behavior directed at a sibling may have protective effects for adolescents, a phenomenon we call the "siblin barricade."

  8. Substance use or abuse, internet use, psychopathology and suicidal ideation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousoño Serrano, Matilde; Al-Halabí, Susana; Burón, Patricia; Garrido, Marlen; Díaz-Mesa, Eva María; Galván, Gonzalo; García-Álvarez, Leticia; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta; Bousoño, Manuel; García-Portilla, María Paz; Iglesias, Celso; Sáiz, Pilar Alejandra; Bobes, Julio

    2017-01-12

    Substance and Internet use or abuse, psychopathology and suicidal ideation appear to be related. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between use of psychotropic substances, inadequate Internet use, suicidal ideation and other psychopathological symptoms within the adolescent population. The present study was carried out as part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project, funded by the European Union. The sample is composed of 1026 adolescents aged between 14 and 16 years from 12 state schools in Asturias (530 men and 496 women). This study adds to the possibility of knowing whether the SEYLE data is confirmed in a relatively isolated and recession hit province of Spain. In the present study the following consumption rates were obtained: a) alcohol 11.89% in males and 7.86% in females; b) tobacco: 4.15% and 5.44 % in males and females respectively; c) other drugs: 6.98% in males and 4.44% in females; d) maladaptive or pathological Internet use: 14.53% and 20.77% in males and females respectively. The variables that predict suicide ideation in the logistic regression model were: previous suicide attempts, depression, maladaptive or pathological Internet use, peer problems and alcohol consumption.

  9. A newly identified group of adolescents at “invisible” risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group (“invisible” risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the “invisible” risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the “invisible” group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The “invisible” group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. PMID:24497256

  10. The Association between Perceived Maternal and Paternal Psychopathology and Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasing, S.P.A.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We

  11. Assessment of Psychopathology, Quality of Life, and Parental Attitudes in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Nilfer; Öztop, Didem Behice; Yilmaz, Savaş; Altun, Hatice

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify psychopathology, parental attitudes, perceptions of quality of life, and relationships between these factors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). Fifty adolescents (12-18 years old) with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 50 healthy adolescents and their parents were recruited for the study. Clinical interviews with the diabetic adolescents were performed using "Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL)." Both groups completed the "Depression Scale for Children," "State-Trait Anxiety Inventory," and "Health Related Quality of Life Scale for Children," while their parents completed the "Parental Attitude Research Instrument," "The Coping Strategy Indicator," and "Health Related Quality of Life Scale for Children-Parent Form." The psychological disorder ratio in diabetic adolescents was 68%. No significant difference was found regarding perceptions of quality of life between the diabetic group and control group. However, diabetic adolescents with psychological disorder had reduced perception of quality of life than those without psychological disorder. Among parental attitudes, an authoritarian attitude was found to be more common in the diabetic group. It was found that among coping strategies, parents in the diabetic group use avoidance more commonly. In the present study, a high rate of psychopathology was detected among adolescents with type 1 DM. In addition, no clear impairment in quality of life was reported in patients with type 1 DM; however, there was worsening in the perception of quality of life in the presence of psychiatric disorders accompanying diabetes. It was found that parents of diabetic children use inappropriate coping strategies and negative parental attitudes more often than those of healthy controls.

  12. Health related quality of life and psychopathological distress in risk taking and self-harming adolescents with full-syndrome, subthreshold and without borderline personality disorder: rethinking the clinical cut-off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, Michael; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Koenig, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic standards do not acknowledge developmental specifics and differences in the clinical presentation of adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD). BPD is associated with severe impairments in health related quality of life (HRQoL) and increased psychopathological distress. Previously no study addressed differences in HRQoL and psychopathology in adolescents with subthreshold and full-syndrome BPD as well as adolescents at-risk for the development but no current BPD. Drawing on data from a consecutive sample of N  = 264 adolescents (12-17 years) presenting with risk-taking and self-harming behavior at a specialized outpatient clinic, we investigated differences in HRQoL (KIDSCREEN-52) and psychopathological distress (SCL-90-R) comparing adolescents with no BPD (less than 3 criteria fulfilled), to those with subthreshold (3-4 BPD criteria) and full-syndrome BPD (5 or more BPD criteria). Group differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance with Sidak corrected contrasts or Chi-Square test for categorical variables. Adolescents with subthreshold and full-syndrome BPD presented one year later at our clinic and were more likely female. Adolescents with subthreshold and full-syndrome BPD showed greater Axis-I and Axis-II comorbidity compared to adolescents with no BPD, and reported greater risk-taking behaviour, self-injury and suicidality. Compared to those without BPD, adolescents with subthreshold and full-syndrome BPD reported significantly reduced HRQoL. Adolescents with sub-threshold BPD and those with full-syndrome BPD did not differ on any HRQoL dimension, with the exception of Self-Perception . Similar, groups with sub-threshold and full-syndrome BPD showed no significant differences on any dimension of self-reported psychopathological distress, with the exception of Hostility . Findings highlight that subthreshold BPD in adolescents is associated with impairments in HRQoL and psychopathological distress comparable to full

  13. Emotion socialization in the context of risk and psychopathology: Mother and father socialization of anger and sadness in adolescents with depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Allen, Nicholas; Leve, Craig; Davis, Betsy; Sheeber, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This study examined parental emotion socialization processes associated with adolescent unipolar depressive disorder. Adolescent participants (N=107; 42 boys) were selected either to meet criteria for current unipolar depressive disorder or to be psychologically healthy as defined by no lifetime history of psychopathology or mental health treatment and low levels of current depressive symptomatology. A multisource/method measurement strategy was used to assess mothers' and fathers' responses to adolescent sad and angry emotion. Each parent and the adolescents completed questionnaire measures of parental emotion socialization behavior, and participated in meta-emotion interviews and parent-adolescent interactions. As hypothesized, parents of adolescents with depressive disorder engaged in fewer supportive responses and more unsupportive responses overall relative to parents of nondepressed adolescents. Between group differences were more pronounced for families of boys, and for fathers relative to mothers. The findings indicate that parent emotion socialization is associated with adolescent depression and highlight the importance of including fathers in studies of emotion socialization, especially as it relates to depression.

  14. Relation of Early Menarche to Depression, Eating Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Comorbid Psychopathology among Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2001-01-01

    Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…

  15. Why are Religiousness and Spirituality Associated with Externalizing Psychopathology? A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christopher; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2016-03-01

    This review explores the relation of religiousness and spirituality with externalizing psychopathology in adolescence given the heightened externalizing psychopathology during this developmental period. Utilizing a developmental psychopathology framework, previous literature is reviewed focusing on the diversity of pathways from religiousness and spirituality to externalizing psychopathology at multiple levels of analysis. Moreover, the pathways considered include both intraindividual factors (e.g., self-control, monitoring, delay discounting and time orientation, and neurobiological regulatory systems) and ecological factors (e.g., intergenerational transmission, parent-child relationships, and community relationships). These pathways are explored in light of theoretical viewpoints including social control theory, divine interaction theory, and the religious ecology model. Limitations of extant work are examined, including measurement and design issues, exploration of potential negative effects of religiousness and spirituality, and bias toward Western religions. Finally, future directions of research and clinical implications are discussed.

  16. The role of total body fat mass and trunk fat mass, combined with other endocrine factors, in menstrual recovery and psychopathology of adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karountzos, Vasileios; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Tsitsika, Artemis; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios

    2017-10-01

    To determine the threshold of total body and trunk fat mass required for menstrual recovery and to assess the impact of body composition in psychopathology of adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Prospective study of 60 adolescents presented with secondary amenorrhea and diagnosed with AN. Anthropometrics, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, hormonal studies and responses to mental health screens (EAT-26), were obtained at the beginning and at complete weight restoration, in all adolescents, independently of menstrual recovery (Group A) or not (Group B). At weight restoration, Group A total body fat mass, trunk fat mass, and trunk/extremities fat ratio were significantly higher (p psychopathology of adolescents with AN.

  17. The contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to the personality-psychopathology hierarchical structure in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskaya, Helena R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to the hierarchical structure of child personality and common psychopathology in community samples of parent reports of children aged 2-18 (N = 968) and self-reports of adolescents aged 10-18 (N = 1,543) using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences-Short version (ICID-S), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). A joint higher-order factor analysis of the ICID-S and SDQ scales suggested a 4-factor solution; congruence coefficients indicated replicability of the factors across the 2 samples at all levels of the personality-psychopathology hierarchy. The canonical correlation analyses indicated that reinforcement sensitivity and personality-psychopathology dimensions shared much of their variance. The main contribution of reinforcement sensitivity was through opposing effects of reward and punishment sensitivities. The superordinate factors Beta and Internalizing were best predicted by reinforcement sensitivity, followed by the Externalizing and Positive personality factors. These findings provide evidence for consistency of the hierarchical structure of personality and common psychopathology across informants and highlight the role of reinforcement systems in the development of normal and abnormal patterns of behavior and affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Research review: the shared environment as a key source of variability in child and adolescent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S Alexandra

    2014-04-01

    Behavioral genetic research has historically concluded that the more important environmental influences were nonshared or result in differences between siblings, whereas environmental influences that create similarities between siblings (referred to as shared environmental influences) were indistinguishable from zero. Recent theoretical and meta-analytic work {Burt. Psychological Bulletin [135 (2009) 608]} has challenged this conclusion as it relates to child and adolescent psychopathology, however, arguing that the shared environment is a moderate, persistent, and identifiable source of individual differences in such outcomes prior to adulthood. The current review seeks to bolster research on the shared environment by highlighting both the logistic advantages inherent in studies of the shared environment, as well as the use of nontraditional but still genetically informed research designs to study shared environmental influences. Although often moderate in magnitude prior to adulthood and free of unsystematic measurement error, shared environmental influences are nevertheless likely to have been underestimated in prior research. Moreover, the shared environment is likely to include proximal effects of the family, as well as the effects of more distal environmental contexts such as neighborhood and school. These risk and protective factors could influence the child either as main effects or as moderators of genetic influence (i.e. gene-environment interactions). Finally, because the absence of genetic relatedness in an otherwise nonindependent dataset also qualifies as 'genetically informed', studies of the shared environment are amenable to the use of novel and non-traditional designs (with appropriate controls for selection). The shared environment makes important contributions to most forms of child and adolescent psychopathology. Empirical examinations of the shared environment would thus be of real and critical value for understanding the development and

  19. Interoception and psychopathology: A developmental neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer; Brewer, Rebecca; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2017-02-01

    Interoception refers to the perception of the physiological condition of the body, including hunger, temperature, and heart rate. There is a growing appreciation that interoception is integral to higher-order cognition. Indeed, existing research indicates an association between low interoceptive sensitivity and alexithymia (a difficulty identifying one's own emotion), underscoring the link between bodily and emotional awareness. Despite this appreciation, the developmental trajectory of interoception across the lifespan remains under-researched, with clear gaps in our understanding. This qualitative review and opinion paper provides a brief overview of interoception, discussing its relevance for developmental psychopathology, and highlighting measurement issues, before surveying the available work on interoception across four stages of development: infancy, childhood, adolescence and late adulthood. Where gaps in the literature addressing the development of interoception exist, we draw upon the association between alexithymia and interoception, using alexithymia as a possible marker of atypical interoception. Evidence indicates that interoceptive ability varies across development, and that this variance correlates with established age-related changes in cognition and with risk periods for the development of psychopathology. We suggest a theory within which atypical interoception underlies the onset of psychopathology and risky behaviour in adolescence, and the decreased socio-emotional competence observed in late adulthood. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Interoception and psychopathology: A developmental neuroscience perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Murphy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Interoception refers to the perception of the physiological condition of the body, including hunger, temperature, and heart rate. There is a growing appreciation that interoception is integral to higher-order cognition. Indeed, existing research indicates an association between low interoceptive sensitivity and alexithymia (a difficulty identifying one’s own emotion, underscoring the link between bodily and emotional awareness. Despite this appreciation, the developmental trajectory of interoception across the lifespan remains under-researched, with clear gaps in our understanding. This qualitative review and opinion paper provides a brief overview of interoception, discussing its relevance for developmental psychopathology, and highlighting measurement issues, before surveying the available work on interoception across four stages of development: infancy, childhood, adolescence and late adulthood. Where gaps in the literature addressing the development of interoception exist, we draw upon the association between alexithymia and interoception, using alexithymia as a possible marker of atypical interoception. Evidence indicates that interoceptive ability varies across development, and that this variance correlates with established age-related changes in cognition and with risk periods for the development of psychopathology. We suggest a theory within which atypical interoception underlies the onset of psychopathology and risky behaviour in adolescence, and the decreased socio-emotional competence observed in late adulthood.

  1. [Family characteristics, organic risk factors, psychopathological picture and premorbid adjustment of hospitalized adolescent patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małkiewicz-Borkowska, M; Namysłowska, I; Siewierska, A; Puzyńska, E; Sredniawa, H; Zechowski, C; Iwanek, A; Ruszkowska, E

    1996-01-01

    The relation of some family characteristics such as cohesion and adaptability with organic risk factors, developmental psychopathology, clinical picture and premorbid adjustment was assessed in the group of 100 hospitalized adolescent patients and families. We found correlation between: some of organic risk factors (pathology of neonatal period, pathology of early childhood), some of indicators of developmental psychopathology (eating disorders, conduct disorders), some of clinical signs (mannerism, grandiosity, hostility, suspciousness, disturbances of content of thinking), premorbid adjustment, and variables related to families, described before. We think that biological variables characterizing child (pathology of neonatal period, pathology of early childhood) have an influence on some family characteristics as independent variable. General system theory and circular thinking support these conclusions. In order to verify them, it is necessary to undertake further investigations, based on other methodology, using this results as preliminary findings.

  2. Real and virtual worlds alike: Adolescents' psychopathology is reflected in their videogame virtual behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Segev, Aviv; Gabay-Weschler, Hila; Naar, Yossi; Maoz, Hagai; Bloch, Yuval

    2017-01-01

    Current research refers to videogames as a constant variable. However, games today are designed to be highly interactive and versatile: two players may be using the same videogame, but as a result of different using patterns, the game will not necessarily encompass the same content and gameplay. The current study examined the possible relationship between psychopathology and in-game playing patterns. We hypothesized that adolescents would play videogames differently, in a manner that would re...

  3. Educational styles, parenting stressors and psychopathological symptoms in parents of adolescents with high-risk behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Ituráin, Sonia; López-Goñi, José Javier; Arteaga Olleta, Alfonso; Deusto, Corina; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The main goal of this study was to determine the characteristics of parents who sought help from two prevention programmes due to having an adolescent child who presents highrisk behaviours. Methods: The sample was composed of 374 parents (169 fathers and 205 mothers). Information on socio-demographic characteristics, psychopathological symptoms, emotional states, educational styles and maladjustment to everyday life was collected. Findings: The results show statistically...

  4. Neurocognitive bases of emotion regulation development in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saz P. Ahmed

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotion regulation is the ability to recruit processes to influence emotion generation. In recent years there has been mounting interest in how emotions are regulated at behavioural and neural levels, as well as in the relevance of emotional dysregulation to psychopathology. During adolescence, brain regions involved in affect generation and regulation, including the limbic system and prefrontal cortex, undergo protracted structural and functional development. Adolescence is also a time of increasing vulnerability to internalising and externalising psychopathologies associated with poor emotion regulation, including depression, anxiety and antisocial behaviour. It is therefore of particular interest to understand how emotion regulation develops over this time, and how this relates to ongoing brain development. However, to date relatively little research has addressed these questions directly. This review will discuss existing research in these areas in both typical adolescence and in adolescent psychopathology, and will highlight opportunities for future research. In particular, it is important to consider the social context in which adolescent emotion regulation develops. It is possible that while adolescence may be a time of vulnerability to emotional dysregulation, scaffolding the development of emotion regulation during this time may be a fruitful preventative target for psychopathology.

  5. Caffeine Use: Association with Nicotine Use, Aggression, and Other Psychopathology in Psychiatric and Pediatric Outpatient Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between caffeine use, other drug use, and psychopathology in adolescents, using self-report measures. The study group consisted of 132 adolescents (average age 14.01 ± 2.06 years, 52% female, 19% African American, 5% other categories, 76% Caucasian. Most (47% were recruited from a child psychiatry clinic with emphasis on youth with disruptive disorders, with 35% from an adolescent pediatric clinic with emphasis on prevention of risk-taking behavior and 18% from a pediatric clinic for families with limited resources. Subjects were consecutively recruited before or after regular clinic visits. Consent was obtained from parents and assent from the youth. High caffeine consumption was associated with daily cigarette use; aggressive behavior; conduct, attention deficit/hyperactivity, and social problems; and increased somatic complaints in adolescents.

  6. Psychopathology, family functioning, and cognitive style in urban adolescents with suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerville, M B; Kaslow, N J; Abbate, M F; Cronan, S

    1994-04-01

    This study examined psychopathology, family functioning, and cognitive style in 121 African-American adolescents who attempted suicide. Group means suggested that these youths, when taken together, were not reporting significant psychological distress. However, after classifying the youths into three groups by level of depressive symptoms interesting findings emerged. Youth self-reports of depressive symptoms on the Children's Depression Inventory were associated with the presence of internalizing and externalizing disorders on the Youth Self-Report and Child Behavior Checklist, and with a maladaptive attributional style. Sixty-seven percent of participants classified their family types as maladaptive in terms of levels of cohesion and/or adaptability. In fact, the majority of adolescents and parents reported their families as disengaged. These findings are discussed from a culturally and developmentally sensitive framework which considers key demographic variables (race, socioeconomic status, age). Clinical implications are offered for individual and family interventions.

  7. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Common Psychopathologies of Childhood and Adolescence: A Study of Twins and Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehringer, Marissa A.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Young, Susan; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John K.

    2006-01-01

    We report findings based on analyses of self-reports of six common adolescent psychopathologies (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; conduct disorder, CD; oppositional defiant disorder, ODD; generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; separation anxiety disorder, SAD; and major depressive disorder, MDD) in a sample of 1,162 male and female…

  8. Lack of guilt, guilt, and shame: a multi-informant study on the relations between self-conscious emotions and psychopathology in clinically referred children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Heijmans, Jolina; van Hulten, Sandra; Kaanen, Linsy; Oerlemans, Birgit; Stikkelbroeck, Tessa; Tielemans, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the relationships between dysregulations in self-conscious emotions and psychopathology in clinically referred children and adolescents. For this purpose, parent-, teacher-, and self-report Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment data of 1000 youth aged 4-18 years was analyzed as this instrument not only provides information on the intensity levels of lack of guilt, guilt, and shame, but also on the severity of various types of psychopathology. The results first of all indicated that dysregulations of self-conscious emotions were more common in this clinical sample than in the general population. Further, a consistent pattern was found with regard to the relationships between self-conscious emotions and childhood psychopathology. That is, lack of guilt was predominantly associated with oppositional defiant and conduct (i.e., externalizing) problems, while guilt and shame were primarily linked with affective and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) problems. By and large, these findings confirm what has been found in non-clinical youth, and suggest that self-conscious emotions play a small but significant role in the psychopathology of children and adolescents.

  9. Relations between Parent Psychopathology, Family Functioning, and Adolescent Problems in Substance-Abusing Families: Disaggregating the Effects of Parent Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent

    2012-01-01

    The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent…

  10. Physical child abuse potential in adolescent girls: associations with psychopathology, maltreatment, and attitudes toward child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen A; Gardner, William; Lourie, Andrea; Chang, Chien-Ni; Wang, Wei; Currie, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent mothers are at increased risk of mistreating their children. Intervening before they become pregnant would be an ideal primary prevention strategy. Our goal was to determine whether psychopathology, exposure to maltreatment, preparedness for child-bearing, substance use disorders (SUDs), IQ, race, and socioeconomic status were associated with the potential for child abuse in nonpregnant adolescent girls. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) was administered to 195 nonpregnant girls (aged 15 to 16 years; 54% African American) recruited from the community. Psychiatric diagnoses from a structured interview were used to form 4 groups: conduct disorder (CD), internalizing disorders (INTs; that is, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, or both), CD + INTs, or no disorder. Exposure to maltreatment was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Childbearing Attitudes Questionnaire measured maternal readiness. CAPI scores were positively correlated with all types of psychopathology, previous exposure to maltreatment, and negative attitudes toward child-bearing. IQ, SUDs, and demographic factors were not associated. Factors associated with child abuse potential interacted in complex ways, but the abuse potential of CD girls was high, regardless of other potentially protective factors. Our study demonstrates that adolescent girls who have CD or INT are at higher risk of perpetrating physical child abuse when they have children. However, the core features of CD may put this group at a particularly high risk, even in the context of possible protective factors. Treatment providers should consider pre-pregnant counselling about healthy mothering behaviours to girls with CD.

  11. Characteristics of Suicidality among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzler, Scott; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of suicidality and psychopathology (including depression, aggression, impulsivity, and stressful life events) among four groups of depressed adolescent outpatients. The nonsuicidal group was differentiated from the three suicidal groups on the basis of suicidality and psychopathology. The three suicidal groups were…

  12. Cross-Cultural Findings on Community Violence Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology: Comparing Adolescents in the United States, Russia, and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab-Stone, M.; Koposov, R.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Ruchkin, V.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate cross-cultural differences in the relation between community violence and psychopathology. A self-report survey was conducted in a representative sample of 3,309 14-17 year old adolescents from urban communities in the US (N = 1,343), Belgium (N = 946) and Russia (N =

  13. Resilience to adult psychopathology following childhood maltreatment: evidence from a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collishaw, Stephan; Pickles, Andrew; Messer, Julie; Rutter, Michael; Shearer, Christina; Maughan, Barbara

    2007-03-01

    Child abuse is an important risk for adult psychiatric morbidity. However, not all maltreated children experience mental health problems as adults. The aims of the present study were to address the extent of resilience to adult psychopathology in a representative community sample, and to explore predictors of a good prognosis. Data are drawn from a follow-up of the Isle of Wight study, an epidemiological sample assessed in adolescence and at midlife. Ratings of psychiatric disorder, peer relationships and family functioning were made in adolescence; adult assessments included a lifetime psychiatric history, personality and social functioning assessments, and retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse. Ten percent of individuals reported repeated or severe physical or sexual abuse in childhood. Prospective measures revealed increased rates of adolescent psychiatric disorders in this group. Rates of adult psychopathology were also high. A substantial minority of abused individuals reported no mental health problems in adult life. Resilience of this kind was related to perceived parental care, adolescent peer relationships, the quality of adult love relationships, and personality style. Good quality relationships across childhood, adolescence and adulthood appear especially important for adult psychological well being in the context of childhood abuse.

  14. Development of the Mealtime Emotions Measure for adolescents (MEM-A): Gender differences in emotional responses to family mealtimes and eating psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    White, Hannah J.; Haycraft, Emma; Wallis, D. J.; Arcelus, Jon; Leung, Newman

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Mealtime Emotions Measure for adolescents (MEMA), a novel measure of emotional responses experienced during family mealtimes. Additionally, it examined gender differences in mealtime emotions and also the relationships between mealtime emotions and levels of eating psychopathology, when controlling for anxiety or depression. Adolescent participants (N = 527; 282 girls, 245 boys) with a mean age of 15.9 years completed the new...

  15. Internet Addiction and Its Association with Psychopathology: A Study in School Children from Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Payal Sharma; Anup Bharati; Avinash De Sousa; Nilesh Shah

    2016-01-01

    "Background: Internet addiction is a common emerging problem amongst adolescents and students worldwide. The present research aimed at determining the prevalence of internet addiction and its correlation to psychopathology in school going adolescents in Mumbai. Methods: 603 adolescents studying in 8th-10th standard were administered a semi structured preformed, Young's Internet Addiction Test and Depression Anxiety Stress scale. 555 questionnaires were included in the final analysis using...

  16. Prediction of incidence and stability of alcohol use disorders by latent internalizing psychopathology risk profiles in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Silke; Bühringer, Gerhard; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2017-10-01

    Comorbid internalizing mental disorders in alcohol use disorders (AUD) can be understood as putative independent risk factors for AUD or as expressions of underlying shared psychopathology vulnerabilities. However, it remains unclear whether: 1) specific latent internalizing psychopathology risk-profiles predict AUD-incidence and 2) specific latent internalizing comorbidity-profiles in AUD predict AUD-stability. To investigate baseline latent internalizing psychopathology risk profiles as predictors of subsequent AUD-incidence and -stability in adolescents and young adults. Data from the prospective-longitudinal EDSP study (baseline age 14-24 years) were used. The study-design included up to three follow-up assessments in up to ten years. DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the DIA-X/M-CIDI. To investigate risk-profiles and their associations with AUD-outcomes, latent class analysis with auxiliary outcome variables was applied. AUD-incidence: a 4-class model (N=1683) was identified (classes: normative-male [45.9%], normative-female [44.2%], internalizing [5.3%], nicotine dependence [4.5%]). Compared to the normative-female class, all other classes were associated with a higher risk of subsequent incident alcohol dependence (p<0.05). AUD-stability: a 3-class model (N=1940) was identified with only one class (11.6%) with high probabilities for baseline AUD. This class was further characterized by elevated substance use disorder (SUD) probabilities and predicted any subsequent AUD (OR 8.5, 95% CI 5.4-13.3). An internalizing vulnerability may constitute a pathway to AUD incidence in adolescence and young adulthood. In contrast, no indication for a role of internalizing comorbidity profiles in AUD-stability was found, which may indicate a limited importance of such profiles - in contrast to SUD-related profiles - in AUD stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychopathology and Academic Performance, Social Well-Being, and Social Preference at School : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J. J.; Verboom, C. E.; Penninx, Brenda; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.

    Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and

  18. The structure of psychopathology in adolescence : Replication of a general psychopathology factor in the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, O.M.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Ormel, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to replicate a study by Caspi and colleagues, which proposed that the structure of psychopathology is characterized by a general psychopathology factor, in addition to smaller internalizing and externalizing factors. Our study expanded the approach of the original by using

  19. Annual Research Review: Phenotypic and Causal Structure of Conduct Disorder in the Broader Context of Prevalent Forms of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry.…

  20. Adverse life events, area socio-economic disadvantage, and adolescent psychopathology: The role of closeness to grandparents in moderating the effect of contextual stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann; Tan, Jo-Pei; Griggs, Julia; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2010-09-01

    The study, using data from 801 11-16-year-olds clustered in 68 schools across England and Wales, tested whether closeness to grandparents moderates the association between contextual stress and adolescent psychopathology and prosocial behavior, measured with the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). Contextual stress was measured at both school area level (assessed with the index of multiple deprivation) and child level (assessed, as life stress, with the number of proximal and distal adverse life events experienced). At baseline, area stress (multiple deprivation) was unrelated to psychopathology (SDQ), and although both proximal (during the last 12 months) and distal (before the last 12 months) life stress was associated with broad and specific child psychopathology, the association with proximal life stress was stronger. Closeness to the most significant grandparent moderated both the effect of proximal life stress on hyperactivity and broad psychopathology, and the effect of the interaction between distal and proximal life stress on broad and externalizing psychopathology. These findings suggest that the role of grandparents deserves further attention in future investigations of the development of resilience in youth.

  1. Parent and child psychopathology and suicide attempts among children of parents with alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Kenneth R; Bossarte, Robert M; Lu, Naiji; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Chan, Grace; Wyman, Peter; Tu, Xin M; Goldston, David B; Houston, Rebecca J; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Hesselbrock, Victor M

    2014-01-01

    Parents with psychopathology such as alcohol use disorder (AUD) that confers risk for suicide attempt (SA) may have children who are more likely to develop such psychopathology and to attempt suicide, suggesting that risk may be "transmitted" from parents to children. We examined this phenomenon during the transition from childhood to adolescence, when risk for SA increases dramatically. A cohort of 418 children were examined at average age 9.4 (range 7-14) years at enrollment (Time 1, childhood) and approximately 5 years later, prior to reaching age 18 (Time 2, adolescence). One or both biological parents, oversampled for AUD, were also interviewed. Structural equation models (SEM) examined father-child, mother-child, and either/both parent-child associations. The primary outcome was SA over follow-up among offspring, assessed at Time 2. As hypothesized, parental antisocial personality disorder predicted conduct disorder symptoms in offspring both during childhood and adolescence (parent-child model, father-child model) and maternal AUD predicted conduct disorder symptoms during childhood (mother-child model). However, we did not find evidence to support transmission of depression from parents to offspring either during childhood or adolescence, and parent psychopathology did not show statistically significant associations with SA during adolescence. In conclusion, we conducted a rare study of parent-to-child "transmission" of risk for SA that used a prospective research design, included diagnostic interviews with both parents and offspring, and examined the transition from childhood to adolescence, and the first such study in children of parents with AUD. Results provided mixed support for hypothesized parent-child associations.

  2. Development of the mealtime emotions measure for adolescents (MEM-A) : gender differences in emotional responses to family mealtimes and eating psychopathology\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    White, Hannah J.; Haycraft, Emma; Wallis, Deborah J.; Arcelus, Jon; Leung, Newman; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Mealtime Emotions Measure for adolescents (MEM-A), a novel measure of emotional responses experienced during family mealtimes. Additionally, it examined gender differences in mealtime emotions and also the\\ud relationships between mealtime emotions and levels of eating psychopathology, when controlling for anxiety or depression. Adolescent participants (N = 527; 282 girls, 245 boys) with a mean age of 15.9 years completed the new mealtim...

  3. Commentary: role of temperament in developmental models of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B

    2004-03-01

    The articles in this special section provide exciting and useful perspectives on the role of temperament in the development of child and adolescent psychopathology. These articles are valuable both in summarizing what is known and in highlighting issues that must be addressed before further progress can be made. In the future, it will be essential to distinguish between the constructs of temperament and psychopathology in ways that are both scientifically valid and useful to the study of developmental psychopathology. In particular, because existing measures of temperament were not designed to study relations between temperament and psychopathology, new measures are needed that focus on relevant aspects of temperament and are not confounded by the inclusion of items that are close synonyms and antonyms of psychopathology. If circular and mentalistic thinking can be avoided, important advances can be expected from studies of temperament and psychopathology in the context of development.

  4. Intimate partner violence perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting: criminal history, psychopathology, and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Jens; Bogaerts, Stefan; Sijtsema, Jelle; Klerx-van Mierlo, Fanny

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and victimological factors between IPV perpetrators (n = 61, 51.3%) and non-intimate violence (NIV) perpetrators (n = 58, 48.7%) were examined. All data, including information on demographics, criminal history, history of psychological, sexual, and physical victimization during childhood or adolescence, family history of psychopathology, history of psychopathology in childhood and adolescence, and mental disorders, were derived from archival electronic medical records. Mental disorders were measured using structured psychiatric interviews and final consensus diagnoses were established during weekly case consultations. Both IPV and NIV perpetrators displayed high rates of criminal history, psychopathology, and previous victimization, but the two groups did not differ in these factors with two exceptions. IPV perpetrators were significantly more likely to have higher rates of previous physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder than NIV perpetrators. The current study suggests that a history of physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder are specific characteristics of IPV perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting. Future research should focus on mechanisms explaining the association of childhood victimization and IPV and increase our understanding of the role of intermittent explosive disorder in IPV. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Effects of music therapy for children and adolescents with psychopathology: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Christian; Voracek, Martin; Wigram, Tony

    2004-09-01

    The objectives of this review were to examine the overall efficacy of music therapy for children and adolescents with psychopathology, and to examine how the size of the effect of music therapy is influenced by the type of pathology, client's age, music therapy approach, and type of outcome. Eleven studies were included for analysis, which resulted in a total of 188 subjects for the meta-analysis. Effect sizes from these studies were combined, with weighting for sample size, and their distribution was examined. After exclusion of an extreme positive outlying value, the analysis revealed that music therapy has a medium to large positive effect (ES =.61) on clinically relevant outcomes that was statistically highly significant (p <.001) and statistically homogeneous. No evidence of a publication bias was identified. Effects tended to be greater for behavioural and developmental disorders than for emotional disorders; greater for eclectic, psychodynamic, and humanistic approaches than for behavioural models; and greater for behavioural and developmental outcomes than for social skills and self-concept. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.

  6. Childhood maltreatment, psychopathology and well-being: The mediator role of global self-esteem, attachment difficulties and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, Hanne K; Myhre, Arne K; Klöckner, Christian A; Jozefiak, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment is known to be associated with a broad variety of psychopathology and deteriorated well-being in adolescent populations. In the present nationwide study, we aimed to explore global self-esteem, attachment difficulties and substance use as possible mediators of these associations in a high-risk adolescent population. We included 400 adolescents (aged 12-20 years) living in residential youth care in Norway (response rate 67%). The participants completed a semistructured psychiatric interview (Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA)), a study-specific questionnaire, a revised version of the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA) and the Questionnaire for Measuring Health-related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents (KINDL-R). Information was also provided by the adolescent's primary contact at the institution. Two models were tested using structural equation modelling; one assessed the association between childhood maltreatment and psychopathology, and one assessed the association between childhood maltreatment and well-being. Childhood maltreatment, psychopathology, well-being, global self-esteem and attachment difficulties were treated as latent variables, and substance use was added as an observed variable. The results of this study showed that global self-esteem was a mediator of paths in both models, whereas attachment difficulties and substance use were not. Preventing decline in health and well-being in high-risk adolescents is a main goal, and this study suggests that improving self-esteem, in addition to providing psychiatric health services, could be an important tool for achieving this goal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dissociation and the Development of Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    This paper reviews the research on dissociation and the development of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Definitions and dimensions of dissociation are addressed, noting its range from normative daydreaming to the extremes found in individuals with multiple personality disorder. Memory dysfunctions, disturbances of identity, passive…

  8. Eating habits and psychopathology: translation, adaptation, reliability of the Nutrition Behavior Inventory to Portuguese and relation to psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Roberta Benko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Nutrition-Behavior Inventory (NBI is a self-administered instrument that allows eating habits to be correlated with psychopathological symptoms. The objective was to translate and adapt the NBI to Portuguese, and test the Portuguese NBI’s reliability. The second aim was to verify its sensitivity for identification of risk factors in terms of behavior/eating habits in children and adolescents. Methods: The NBI was translated, adapted, and back-translated. The Portuguese version of the NBI was then applied (N = 96; 9-12 years. In order to verify the internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha was used. The psychopathological indicators of the participants were accessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. The mean CBCL scores were analyzed in relation to the NBI data (cutoff point: ≥ 30 with indicators, and 30 on the following: anxiety and depression (p = 0.041, social difficulties (p = 0.028, attention problems (p = 0.001, aggressive behavior (p = 0.015; ADHD (p < 0.001, and conduct problems (p = 0.032. Conclusion: The present results indicate that the NBI is a reliable instrument. The NBI can be useful for evaluating psychopathological symptoms related to the eating habits and behaviors of children and adolescents.

  9. Maternal depression and co-occurring antisocial behaviour: testing maternal hostility and warmth as mediators of risk for offspring psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Ruth; Harold, Gordon T; Elam, Kit; Rhoades, Kimberly A; Potter, Robert; Mars, Becky; Craddock, Nick; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Disruption in the parent-child relationship is a commonly hypothesized risk factor through which maternal depression may increase risk for offspring psychopathology. However, maternal depression is commonly accompanied by other psychopathology, including antisocial behaviour. Few studies have examined the role of co-occurring psychopathology in depressed mothers. Using a longitudinal study of offspring of mothers with recurrent depression, we aimed to test whether maternal warmth/hostility mediated links between maternal depression severity and child outcomes, and how far direct and indirect pathways were robust to controls for co-occurring maternal antisocial behaviour. Mothers with a history of recurrent major depressive disorder and their adolescent offspring (9-17 years at baseline) were assessed three times between 2007 and 2010. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their own depression severity and antisocial behaviour at Time 1 (T1). The parent-child relationship was assessed using parent-rated questionnaire and interviewer-rated 5-min speech sample at Time 2 (T2). Offspring symptoms of depression and disruptive behaviours were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment at Time 3 (T3). Maternal hostility and warmth, respectively, mediated the association between maternal depression severity and risk for offspring psychopathology. However, the effects were attenuated when maternal antisocial behaviour was included in the analysis. In tests of the full theoretical model, maternal antisocial behaviour predicted both maternal hostility and low warmth, maternal hostility predicted offspring disruptive behaviour disorder symptoms, but not depression, and maternal warmth was not associated with either child outcome. Parenting interventions aimed at reducing hostility may be beneficial for preventing or reducing adolescent disruptive behaviours in offspring of depressed mothers, especially when depressed mothers report co

  10. Unique Associations between Childhood Temperament Characteristics and Subsequent Psychopathology Symptom Trajectories from Childhood to Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Miriam K; Rapee, Ronald M; Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A

    2017-08-01

    Existing research suggests that temperamental traits that emerge early in childhood may have utility for early detection and intervention for common mental disorders. The present study examined the unique relationships between the temperament characteristics of reactivity, approach-sociability, and persistence in early childhood and subsequent symptom trajectories of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; ADHD) from childhood to early adolescence. Data were from the first five waves of the older cohort from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n = 4983; 51.2% male), which spanned ages 4-5 to 12-13. Multivariate ordinal and logistic regressions examined whether parent-reported child temperament characteristics at age 4-5 predicted the study child's subsequent symptom trajectories for each domain of psychopathology (derived using latent class growth analyses), after controlling for other presenting symptoms. Temperament characteristics differentially predicted the symptom trajectories for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and ADHD: Higher levels of reactivity uniquely predicted higher symptom trajectories for all 4 domains; higher levels of approach-sociability predicted higher trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD, but lower trajectories of anxiety; and higher levels of persistence were related to lower trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD. These findings suggest that temperament is an early identifiable risk factor for the development of psychopathology, and that identification and timely interventions for children with highly reactive temperaments in particular could prevent later mental health problems.

  11. The Cognitive Psychopathology of Internet Gaming Disorder in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2016-11-01

    Adolescents are known to be an at-risk population for developing Internet gaming disorder (IGD). A recent clinical model has proposed that adolescents with IGD may endorse a unique set of maladaptive beliefs that underlie persistent and excessive involvement in Internet gaming activities. These include (a) beliefs about game reward value and tangibility, (b) maladaptive and inflexible rules about gaming behaviour, (c) over-reliance on gaming to meet self-esteem needs, and (d) gaming as a method of gaining social acceptance. A sample of 824 adolescents (402 male and 422 female) were recruited from multiple secondary schools and administered a survey that included measures of IGD symptomatology, problematic Internet gaming cognition, and psychological distress. The results showed that adolescents with IGD report significantly more maladaptive gaming beliefs than adolescents without IGD, including those who play Internet games for more than 30 h per week. The size of observed effects were large. The strong association between gaming cognitions and IGD symptoms still held after controlling for measures of gaming activity and psychological distress. These findings indicate that adolescents with IGD have distinct problematic thoughts about gaming, and highlight the importance of addressing these cognitions in therapeutic interventions for the disorder.

  12. [Parental Stress and psychopathological traits in children and adolescents. A controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Michela; Balottin, Laura; Mannarini, Stefania; Birocchi, Valentina; Del Col, Lara; Battistella, Pier Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Since parental stress and family empowerment were shown to influence children's and adolescents' outcome, especially in the case of psychotherapeutic treatments, the present study aims to deeply explore factors that are likely to impact on stress and empowerment in parents of children with a psychiatric diagnosis. Parenting stress and empowerment have been compared between 45 parents of children with a psychiatric disorder and 96 parents of children without psychiatric disorders. Parenting stress appeared to be higher in patients' parents and it varied according to disorder severity, while socio-demographic variables seemed to influence the stress levels only to a slight extent. Moreover parental stress and empowerment influenced each other within the parental couple. Developing interventions aimed to support parenting and to involve fathers in the parent-child relationship, focused on increasing parents empowerment and self-efficacy, could contribute to decrease stress and positively influence children's psychopathology.

  13. Network analysis: A new way of understanding psychopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo

    Current taxonomic systems are based on a descriptive and categorical approach where psychopathological symptoms and signs are caused by a hypothetical underlying mental disorder. In order to circumvent the limitations of classification systems, it is necessary to incorporate new conceptual and psychometric models that allow to understand, analyze and intervene in psychopathological phenomena from another perspective. The main goal was to present a new approach called network analysis for its application in the field of psychopathology. First of all, a brief introduction where psychopathological disorders are conceived as complex dynamic systems was carried out. Key concepts, as well as the different types of networks and the procedures for their estimation, are discussed. Following this, centrality measures, important for the understanding of the network as well as to examine the relevance of the variables within the network were addressed. These factors were then exemplified by estimating a network of self-reported psychopathological symptoms in a representative sample of adolescents. Finally, a brief recapitulation is made and future lines of research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of temperamental effortful control mediates the relationship between maturation of the prefrontal cortex and psychopathology during adolescence: A 4-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Vijayakumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between the development of effortful control (EC, a temperamental measure of self-regulation, and concurrent development of three regions of the prefrontal cortex (anterior cingulate cortex, ACC; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dlPFC; ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, vlPFC between early- and mid-adolescence. It also examined whether development of EC mediated the relationship between cortical maturation and emotional and behavioral symptoms. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline assessments when they were approximately 12 years old and follow-up assessments approximately 4 years later. At each assessment, participants had MRI scans and completed the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, as well as measures of depressive and anxious symptoms, and aggressive and risk taking behavior. Cortical thicknesses of the ACC, dlPFC and vlPFC, estimated using the FreeSurfer software, were found to decrease over time. EC also decreased over time in females. Greater thinning of the left ACC was associated with less reduction in EC. Furthermore, change in effortful control mediated the relationship between greater thinning of the left ACC and improvements in socioemotional functioning, including reductions in psychopathological symptoms. These findings highlight the dynamic association between EC and the maturation of the anterior cingulate cortex, and the importance of this relationship for socioemotional functioning during adolescence.

  15. The prevalence of psychopathology in siblings of children with mental health problems: a 20-year systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nylanda; Roberts, Rachel; Winefield, Helen; Furber, Gareth

    2015-02-01

    While the importance of looking at the entire family system in the context of child and adolescent mental health is well recognised, siblings of children with mental health problems (MHPs) are often overlooked. The existing literature on the mental health of these siblings needs to be reviewed. A systematic search located publications from 1990 to 2011 in four electronic databases. Thirty-nine relevant studies reported data on the prevalence of psychopathology in siblings of target children with MHPs. Siblings of target children had higher rates of at least one type of psychopathology than comparison children. Risk of psychopathology varied across the type of MHP in the target child. Other covariates included sibling age and gender and parental psychopathology. Significant variations and limitations in methodology were found in the existing literature. Methodological guidelines for future studies are outlined. Implications for clinicians, parents, and for future research are discussed.

  16. Connectome hubs at resting state in children and adolescents: Reproducibility and psychopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Sato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional brain hubs are key integrative regions in brain networks. Recently, brain hubs identified through resting-state fMRI have emerged as interesting targets to increase understanding of the relationships between large-scale functional networks and psychopathology. However, few studies have directly addressed the replicability and consistency of the hub regions identified and their association with symptoms. Here, we used the eigenvector centrality (EVC measure obtained from graph analysis of two large, independent population-based samples of children and adolescents (7–15 years old; total N = 652; 341 subjects for site 1 and 311 for site 2 to evaluate the replicability of hub identification. Subsequently, we tested the association between replicable hub regions and psychiatric symptoms. We identified a set of hubs consisting of the anterior medial prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule/intraparietal sulcus (IPL/IPS. Moreover, lower EVC values in the right IPS were associated with psychiatric symptoms in both samples. Thus, low centrality of the IPS was a replicable sign of potential vulnerability to mental disorders in children. The identification of critical and replicable hubs in functional cortical networks in children and adolescents can foster understanding of the mechanisms underlying mental disorders.

  17. Adolescent identity development and distress in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Rachel E; Berman, Steven L

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of identity development and identity distress to psychological adjustment within adolescents affected by psychological problems. Participants included 88 adolescents (43.2% female) ranging from 11 to 20 years of age who were receiving services from a community mental health center. A high proportion of the participants (22.7%) met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision criteria for Identity Problem. Regression analyses found psychopathology symptom score was associated with identity distress, identity exploration, and identity commitment, while identity distress was only related to psychopathology symptom score and not the other two identity variables. Adolescents with a clinical diagnosis may report significant levels of identity distress. Given that the relationship between psychopathology and identity distress may be reciprocal, assessing for identity issues might be prudent when conducting clinical diagnostic interviews and useful in treatment planning. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Psychopathology in difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  19. Adolescents’, Mothers’, and Fathers’ Gendered Coping Strategies during Conflict: Youth and Parent Influences on Conflict Resolution and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Schreiber, Jane E; Hastings, Paul; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    We observed gendered coping strategies and conflict resolution outcomes used by adolescents and parents during a conflict discussion task to evaluate associations with current and later adolescent psychopathology. We studied 137 middle-to-upper-middle class predominantly Caucasian families of adolescents (aged 11–16 years, 65 males) who represented a range of psychological functioning including normative (~1/3) sub-clinical (~1/3) and clinical (~1/3) levels of problems. Adolescent coping strategies played key roles both in the extent to which parent-adolescent dyads resolved conflict and in the trajectory of psychopathology symptom severity over a two-year period. Gender-prototypic adaptive coping strategies were observed in parents but not youth, i.e. more problem-solving by fathers than mothers and more regulated emotion-focused coping by mothers than fathers. Youth-mother dyads more often achieved full resolution of conflict than youth-father dyads. There were generally not bidirectional effects among youth and parents’ coping across the discussion except boys’ initial use of angry/hostile coping predicted fathers’ angry/hostile coping. The child was more influential than the parent on conflict resolution. This extended to exacerbation/alleviation of psychopathology over two years: higher conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents’ use of problem-focused coping with decreases in symptom severity over time. Lower conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents’ use of angry/hostile emotion coping with increases in symptom severity over time. Implications of findings are considered within a broadened context of the nature of coping and conflict resolution in youth-parent interactions, as well as how these processes impact on youth well-being and dysfunction over time. PMID:26439060

  20. Psychopathology in Young People With Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Piccinin, Andrea M.; Mackinnon, Andrew; Hofer, Scott M.; Taffe, John; Gray, Kylie M.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Hoffman, Lesa R.; Parmenter, Trevor; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2008-01-01

    Context Comorbid severe mental health problems complicating intellectual disability are a common and costly public health problem. Although these problems are known to begin in early childhood, little is known of how they evolve over time or whether they continue into adulthood. Objective To study the course of psychopathology in a representative population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. Design, Setting, and Participants The participants of the Australian Child to Adult Development Study, an epidemiological cohort of 578 children and adolescents recruited in 1991 from health, education, and family agencies that provided services to children with intellectual disability aged 5 to 19.5 years in 6 rural and urban census regions in Australia, were followed up for 14 years with 4 time waves of data collection. Data were obtained from 507 participants, with 84% of wave 1 (1991-1992) participants being followed up at wave 4 (2002-2003). Main Outcome Measures The Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC), a validated measure of psychopathology in young people with intellectual disability, completed by parents or other caregivers. Changes over time in the Total Behaviour Problem Score and 5 subscale scores of the DBC scores were modeled using growth curve analysis. Results High initial levels of behavioral and emotional disturbance decreased only slowly over time, remaining high into young adulthood, declining by 1.05 per year on the DBC Total Behaviour Problem Score. Overall severity of psychopathology was similar across mild to severe ranges of intellectual disability (with mean Total Behaviour Problem Scores of approximately 44). Psychopathology decreased more in boys than girls over time (boys starting with scores 2.61 points higher at baseline and ending with scores 2.57 points lower at wave 4), and more so in participants with mild intellectual disability compared with those with severe or profound intellectual disability who diverged from

  1. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  2. Discrepancies between parent and adolescent beliefs about daily life topics and performance on an emotion recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Lerner, Matthew D; Thomas, Sarah A; Daruwala, Samantha; Goepel, Katherine

    2013-08-01

    Parents and children and adolescents commonly disagree in their perceptions of a variety of behaviors, including the family relationship and environment, and child and adolescent psychopathology. To this end, numerous studies have examined to what extent increased discrepant perceptions-particularly with regard to perceptions of the family relationship and environment-predict increased child and adolescent psychopathology. Parents' and children and adolescents' abilities to decode and identify others' emotions (i.e., emotion recognition) may play a role in the link between discrepant perceptions and child and adolescent psychopathology. We examined parents' and adolescents' emotion recognition abilities in relation to discrepancies between parent and adolescent perceptions of daily life topics. In a sample of 50 parents and adolescents ages 14-to-17 years (M = 15.4 years, 20 males, 54 % African-American), parents and adolescents were each administered a widely used performance-based measure of emotion recognition. Parents and adolescents were also administered a structured interview designed to directly assess each of their perceptions of the extent to which discrepancies existed in their beliefs about daily life topics (e.g., whether adolescents should complete their homework and carry out household chores). Interestingly, lower parent and adolescent emotion recognition performance significantly related to greater parent and adolescent perceived discrepant beliefs about daily life topics. We observed this relation whilst accounting for adolescent age and gender and levels of parent-adolescent conflict. These findings have important implications for understanding and using informant discrepancies in both basic developmental psychopathology research and applied research in clinic settings (e.g., discrepant views on therapeutic goals).

  3. The Relationship Between Perceived Family Climate and Glycemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Adolescent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eray, Şafak; Uçar, Halit Necmi; Çetinkaya, Fatma; Eren, Erdal; Vural, Pınar

    2017-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disease which ranks third in children under age 16 years. Expressed emotion (EE) is a term that indicates a specific family climate including lack of emotional support (LES), irritability, and emotional over-involvement. It is known that the family environment is highly important for glycemic control in diabetic adolescents. In this study, the relationship between perceived EE and glycemic control in adolescents diagnosed with T1DM not accompanied by psychopathology were investigated. The study included 49 adolescents with T1DM and 50 adolescents as a control group. Adolescents with psychopathology and intellectual disability were excluded from the study. Perceived EE was measured by the Shortened Level of Expressed Emotion Scale (SLEES) and blood sugar regulation was assessed by HbA1c levels. The adolescents with T1DM showed a significant difference in perceived EE (p=0.020) and LES (p=0.014) when compared with the control group. When diabetic adolescents were compared among themselves, the diabetic adolescents with poor glycemic control perceived greater EE (p=0.033) and less emotional support (p=0.049). In regression analyses, the predictive power of mother's educational level, the employment status of mothers and the subscale "LES" of SLEES combined to explain HbA1c level was determined to be 37.8%. The strong relationship between perceived EE and glycemic control showed us that perceived EE can hinder treatment compliance without causing psychopathology. For this reason, it is recommended that not only patients with psychopathology, but all diabetic adolescents receive psychosocial support and family interventions.

  4. Psychosocial adversity, delinquent pathway and internalizing psychopathology in juvenile male offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Ida; Faísca, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of a set of risk factors relating to childhood life events and other psychosocial factors that may be associated with criminal indicators and with the prevalence of internalizing psychopathology in a sample of adolescent offenders. Fifty male adolescents in the custody of the Portuguese Juvenile Justice System participated in the study (M=15.8 years of age). The Adolescent Psychopathology Scale - Short Form (APS-SF) was administered in a structured interview format, and the sociodemographic, family and criminal data questionnaire was filled in by the justice professional after consulting the adolescent's file. Forty-six percent of all subjects had previous delinquent behavior. About 32% of the boys had committed violent offenses and 88% acted with peers. Also, the persistence of the delinquent behavior (50% of the offenders), coupled with the increase in the severity of the crimes committed (38% of the sample), suggests that these adolescents were at risk for serious and chronic delinquency at the time of the intervention. About 32% of the participants reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 20% had suicide ideation, and a lower percentage reported other internalizing problems. Institutionalization, maltreatment and conduct problems in childhood, and family risk factors (parental conflict, absence of a father figure, lack of parental control and family substance addiction) were related with the report of internalizing problems. Moreover, the increase in the severity of criminal offenses and living in a correctional facility were associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress, interpersonal problems, anxiety and depression. This study draws attention to the importance of assessing indicators of psychopathology and of psychosocial risk in intervention programs with young offenders, but also to the need of family focused interventions in order to help prevent recidivism. Copyright

  5. Annual research review: phenotypic and causal structure of conduct disorder in the broader context of prevalent forms of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Waldman, Irwin D

    2012-05-01

    A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry. Review of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of the place of CD in the phenotypic and causal structure of prevalent psychopathology, with an emphasis on similarities and differences between CD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Papers were located using Web of Science by topic searches with no restriction on year of publication. Although some important nosologic questions remain unanswered, the dimensional phenotype of CD is well defined. CD differs from other disorders in its correlates, associated impairment, and course. Nonetheless, it is robustly correlated with many other prevalent dimensions of psychopathology both concurrently and predictively, including both other 'externalizing' disorders and some 'internalizing' disorders. Based on emerging evidence, we hypothesize that these concurrent and predictive correlations result primarily from widespread genetic pleiotropy, with some genetic factors nonspecifically influencing risk for multiple correlated dimensions of psychopathology. In contrast, environmental influences mostly act to differentiate dimensions of psychopathology from one another both concurrently and over time. CD and ODD share half of their genetic influences, but their genetic etiologies are distinct in other ways. Unlike most other dimensions of psychopathology, half of the genetic influences on CD appear to be unique to CD. In contrast, ODD broadly shares nearly all of its genetic influences with other disorders and has little unique genetic variance. Conduct disorder is a relatively distinct syndrome at both phenotypic and etiologic levels, but much is revealed by studying CD in the context of

  6. Psychopathological profile adolescents with serious behavioral problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Orrego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was mainly at analysing which the different psychopathological features as well as the behavioural and emotional problems were in a sample of "highly disruptive" students who are considered by the school authorities from Principado de Asturias, Spain, as the group with more difficulties for ordinary educational intervention. To do this, a representative sample of 43 students with these characteristics, 41 male, with an average age of 13.35 years (SD = 1.06 was selected, and compared their profile with a normal control group of students. The results showed that the disruptive students had higher average scores in most of the scales of the “Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent” than in the Control Group. Moreover, disruptive students showed higher average scores on general syndromes of the “Youth self report” in comparison to the aforementioned Control Group. These results allow identifying and describing a psychopathological profile characteristic of this type of educative group, in order to establish and improve strategies and intervention programs. Future lines should conduct follow up longitudinal studies and analyze other risk markers, such as endophenotypes.

  7. Interparental conflicts and the development of psychopathology in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Melo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study was to analyze to what extent inter parental conflicts and divorce act as predictors of psychopathological development in young people from intact and divorced families. The participants were 827 Portuguese young people between 13 and 25 years of age. A sociodemographic questionnaire, the Children’s Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale and the Brief Symptom Inventory were used. Significant difference in the psychopathology were found with regard to gender, age and family structure. As verified, the intensity and lack of solution of the inter parental conflicts positively predict the development of psychopathology. In conclusion, the children whose parents are separated or divorced perceive the frequency and intensity of inter parental conflicts more highly, but present a higher solution level of the inter parental conflicts and higher psychopathology levels. Nevertheless, the family structure has no moderating effect on the interaction between the inter parental conflicts and the development of pyschopathology.

  8. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  9. Psihopatološke specifičnosti adolescenata sa samoozljeđujućim ponašanjem [Psychopathological features of adolescents who self-harm

    OpenAIRE

    Tomac, Aran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Self-harming behavior is prevalent both in community and in clinical population of adolescents. Potential negative outcomes of such behavior range from low quality of life, academic failure, development of mental health problems in later life to risk of suicide attempts and completition. Broadening and deepening of understanding of psychopathological and enviromental background and function of self-harming behavior is needed. Main goal of this study was identification of psyc...

  10. Psychopathology, Temperament and Unintentional Injury: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Richard; Simonoff, Emily; Silberg, Judy L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Growing evidence indicates a link between unintentional injury and both disruptive and emotional psychopathology. We present further evidence of these associations and address the underlying mechanisms. We also examine the genetic contribution to unintentional injury. Methods: The Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral…

  11. Differentiating Adolescent Self-Injury from Adolescent Depression: Possible Implications for Borderline Personality Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hsiao, Ray C.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Yaptangco, Mona; Linehan, Marsha M.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Self-inflicted injury (SII) in adolescence marks heightened risk for suicide attempts, completed suicide, and adult psychopathology. Although several studies have revealed elevated rates of depression among adolescents who self injure, no one has compared adolescent self injury with adolescent depression on biological, self-, and informant-report…

  12. Prevalence, clinical correlates and maternal psychopathology of deliberate self-harm in children and early adolescents: results from a large community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R. Simioni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of deliberate self-harm (DSH in children from low- and middle-income countries. We investigated the prevalence of DSH and its clinical and maternal psychopathological associations in Brazilian children (n=2,508, ages 6-14y in a community-based study. Methods: Participants of the High Risk Cohort Study for the Development of Childhood Psychiatric Disorders (HRC and their mothers were assessed in structured interviews. Current (last month and lifetime DSH were estimated, including analysis stratified by age groups. Logistic regressions were performed to investigate the role of the children’s clinical diagnoses and maternal psychopathology on DSH prevalence estimates, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results: The prevalence of current DSH was 0.8% (children 0.6%, adolescents 1% and lifetime DSH was 1.6% (1.8% and 1.5%, respectively. Current and lifetime DSH were more frequent in children with depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD, even in multiple models accounting for demographic variables and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Maternal anxiety disorder was strongly associated with current and lifetime DSH in offspring; whereas current DSH, specifically in young children, was associated with maternal mood disorder. Conclusion: Diagnoses of depression, ADHD and ODD were consistently associated with DSH, as was having a mother with anxiety disorder.

  13. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia eChronaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalising behaviour (i.e. ADHD, CD, ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalising behaviour, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention.

  14. Tourette syndrome in a longitudinal perspective. Clinical course of tics and comorbidities, coexisting psychopathologies, phenotypes and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Camilla

    2018-04-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by motor and vocal tics and frequent associated comorbidities. The developmental trajectory of tic shows tic-onset in the age of 4-6, peak in the age of 10-12 and decline during adolescence, although only few and small longitudinal studies form the basis of this evidence. Recent studies suggest that comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and coexisting psychopathologies tend to persist and become more dominant in adolescence. This large prospective follow-up study want to examine the clinical course of TS: tic and comorbidities during adolescence, the prevalence of coexisting psychopathologies, the tic-related impairment, development in phenotype expression and find predictors for the expected course of TS. 
Method: This study is examining a large clinical cohort recruited at the Danish National Tourette Clinic during the period 2005-2007 and 2011-2013. At baseline, 314 participants aged 5-19 years were included and at follow-up 6 years later 227 participated, aged 11-26. All participants were uniformly clinically examined at basis and follow-up with a clinical interview and validated measurements to assess comorbidities. The Yale Global Tic Severity Scale was used to asses tic severity and tic-related impairment. At follow-up a cross-sectional diagnostic evaluation was made with the Development and Well-Being Assessment to assess coexisting psychopathologies.
 Results: A significant decline in tic and the most frequent comorbidities OCD and ADHD was found although some variation existed and some subclinical and partial remissions persisted. Tic-related impairment was not reflected in the tic-decline as expected but influenced by several parameters. The phenotype expression was found to be dynamic but overall changed toward TS without comorbidities. Several predictors were found to predict the clinical course of TS in

  15. Electroconvulsive therapy use in adolescents: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Considered as a moment of psychological vulnerability, adolescence is remarkably a risky period for the development of psychopathologies, when the choice of the correct therapeutic approach is crucial for achieving remission. One of the researched therapies in this case is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The present study reviews the recent and classical aspects regarding ECT use in adolescents. Methods Systematic review, performed in November 2012, conformed to the PRISMA statement. Results From the 212 retrieved articles, only 39 were included in the final sample. The reviewed studies bring indications of ECT use in adolescents, evaluate the efficiency of this therapy regarding remission, and explore the potential risks and complications of the procedure. Conclusions ECT use in adolescents is considered a highly efficient option for treating several psychiatric disorders, achieving high remission rates, and presenting few and relatively benign adverse effects. Risks can be mitigated by the correct use of the technique and are considered minimal when compared to the efficiency of ECT in treating psychopathologies. PMID:23718899

  16. Psychopathology in difficult asthma : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.J.; van Son, M.A.C.; van Keimpema, A.R.J.; van Ranst, D.; Antonissen-Pommer, A.M.; Meijer, J.W.G.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  17. Sexual Orientation and Borderline Personality Disorder Features in a Community Sample of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Tyson R; Sharp, Carla; Kalpakci, Allison H; Choi, Hye J; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-10-01

    Empirical literature demonstrates that sexual minorities are at an increased risk of developing psychopathology, including borderline personality disorder (BPD). The specific link between sexual orientation and BPD has received significantly less attention in youth, and it remains unclear what drives this relation. Given that there are higher rates of psychopathology in both sexual minorities and individuals with BPD, the present study aimed to determine if sexual orientation uniquely contributes to borderline personality pathology, controlling for other psychopathology. An ethnically diverse sample of 835 adolescents completed self-report measures of borderline features, depression, anxiety, and sexual orientation. Sexual minorities scored higher on borderline features compared to heterosexual adolescents. When controlling for depression and anxiety, sexual orientation remained significantly associated with borderline features. The relation between sexual orientation and BPD cannot fully be explained by other psychopathology. Future research is necessary to understand potential mechanisms underlying this relation.

  18. Adolescent psychosocial development: A review of longitudinal models and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Wim

    2016-12-01

    This review used 4 types of longitudinal models (descriptive models, prediction models, developmental sequence models and longitudinal mediation models) to identify regular patterns of psychosocial development in adolescence. Eight patterns of adolescent development were observed across countries: (1) adolescent maturation in multiple developmental domains; (2) heterogeneous continuity of personal relationships; (3) good goes together with good, and bad with bad, across time in adolescence; (4) parents transmit values and behaviors to their adolescent children over time; (5) adolescent psychopathology leads to erosion of personal relationships with parents and peers; (6) adolescent psychopathology prevents adolescent independence from parents; (7) parental interference in personal issues of adolescents has counterproductive effects over time; (8) mood variability and (social and personal) uncertainty are mechanisms that maintain psychopathology in adolescence. Principles of life span developmental psychology are used to discuss adolescent maturation, and a developmental contextual perspective is used to discuss links between the various developmental patterns. Strengths and limitations of the various longitudinal models, and links between longitudinal and experimental research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Psychopathological and nutritional correlates of plasma homovanillic acid in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Deulofeu, Ramón; Baeza, Immaculada; Casulà, Vanessa; Saura, Begoña; Lázaro, Luisa; Puig, Josefina; Toro, Josep; Bernardo, Miquel

    2008-02-01

    Dopaminergic abnormalities have been described in anorexia nervosa but studies about plasma level of homovanillic acid (pHVA) have yielded conflicting results probably due to the small number and the heterogeneity of patients. Plasma HVA, nutritional and hormonal parameters and several scales - the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Leyton Obsessional Inventory-child version (LOI-C) and the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) - were assessed in 44 adolescent anorexia nervosa patients (mean age 14.7 years, SD 1.7) consecutively admitted to an Eating Disorder Unit. They were evaluated at admission, at discharge and, in 34 cases, after 9 months of follow-up. pHVA was also assessed in 16 control adolescents. Patients had significantly higher pHVA than controls (p = .002). About 31% of patients had a very high level of pHVA, a significantly higher (p = .006) mean score in the BDI and a non significantly higher mean score in the EAT. After weight recovery some laboratory parameters improved as well as the EAT (p = .019), the BDI (p = 001) and the Interference score of the LOI-C (p = .004). Moreover, pHVA decreased significantly (p=.036). At follow-up, patients with normal weight had lower (p = .037) pHVA than patients with low weight. The conclusion would be that there is a dopaminergic dysfunction in anorexic patients, specially in a subgroup with high depressive and anorexic symptomatology. With weight recovery and psychopathological improvement, pHVA tends to normalization.

  20. Associations between psychotic-like experiences and mental health status and other psychopathologies among Japanese early teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Atsushi; Tanii, Hisashi; Nishimura, Yukika; Kajiki, Naomi; Inoue, Ken; Okada, Motohiro; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Okazaki, Yuji

    2008-02-01

    Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are considered predictive of mental health problems later in life. However, little has been known about the mental health status and psychopathological distress in adolescents with PLEs in the general population. To investigate the associations between PLEs and mental health status or psychopathologies in a community sample of adolescents in a school-based cross-sectional fashion, PLEs were studied using a self-rating questionnaire in 5073 Japanese junior-high school students aged 12-15 years. Mental health status was evaluated using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Psychopathologies, lifestyle, victimization, and interpersonal and help-seeking attitudes were also studied using a self-rating questionnaire. Fifteen percent of the students reported definitely having experienced at least one PLE. A dose-response relationship between the severity of PLEs and the prevalence of poor mental health status was observed. PLEs were also significantly associated with psychopathologies (strong anxiety in the classroom: OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.6; suicidal ideation: OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.8-2.4; self-harm behaviors: OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9; difficulty falling asleep due to hypersensitivity to environmental noise: OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.0; difficulty concentrating due to hypersensitivity to environmental noise: OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8; physically assaulting others: OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.5; bullying others, OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5; irritability when exchanging e-mails: OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6). Adolescents with PLEs in the community suffer from a wide range of psychopathological problems during crucial developmental periods [corrected

  1. Comorbid forms of psychopathology: key patterns and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Sagdeo, Aditi; Galea, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to systematically appraise the peer-reviewed literature about clustered forms of psychopathology and to present a framework that can be useful for studying comorbid psychiatric disorders. The review focuses on four of the most prevalent types of mental health problems: anxiety, depression, conduct disorder, and substance abuse. The authors summarize existing empirical research on the distribution of concurrent and sequential comorbidity in children and adolescents and in adults, and they review existing knowledge about exogenous risk factors that influence comorbidity. The authors include articles that used a longitudinal study design and used psychiatric definitions of the disorders. A total of 58 articles met the inclusion criteria and were assessed. Current evidence demonstrates a reciprocal, sequential relation between most comorbid pairs, although the mechanisms that mediate such links remain to be explained. Methodological concerns include the inconsistency of measurement of the disorders across studies, small sample sizes, and restricted follow-up times. Given the significant mental health burden placed by comorbid disorders, and their high prevalence across populations, research on the key risk factors for clustering of psychopathology is needed.

  2. The relationship between attachment styles and internalizing or externalizing symptoms in clinical and nonclinical adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lacasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding the relationship between attachment and psychopathology during adolescence have been performed separately for clinical and nonclinical adolescents and have used different assessment measures, which together might produce a methodological bias that increases the association between attachment and psychopathology. With the aim of avoiding this bias, the present study used identical measures to explore the relationship between attachment styles and internalizing or externalizing symptoms in clinical and nonclinical samples of adolescents. The sample consisted of 258 adolescents, 129 clinical and 129 nonclinical, aged between 14 and 18 years. The adolescents in each sample were matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Attachment was assessed using the CaMir Q-sort, and psychopathological symptoms were assessed by means of the Youth Self Report (YSR. The relationships between attachment and psychopathology were similar for clinical and nonclinical adolescents. A preoccupied attachment style predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms, somatic complaints, anxious-fearful behavior, verbal aggression, attention-seeking behavior, and thinking problems. Compared to previous studies, this research has made it possible to identify broader, stronger, and more specific associations between preoccupied attachment style and psychopathological symptoms in adolescents.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of psychopathology in children and adolescents evaluated with the strengths and difficulties questionnaire dysregulation profile in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Juan José; Serrano-Drozdowskyj, Elena; García Nieto, Rebeca; Díaz de Neira-Hernando, Mónica; Pérez-Fominaya, Margarita; Molina-Pizarro, Cristian Antonio; De León-Martínez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of children and adolescents referred to mental health services is frequently complicated by comorbid and severe affective and behavioral dysregulation. This dysregulation phenotype seems to be an indicator of overall psychopathology, symptom severity and functional impairment. Currently, this phenotype is assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist. However, the widely used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been recently validated to screen the Dysregulation Profile (SDQ-DP) in clinical settings. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and demographic, psychosocial and clinical correlates of the SDQ-DP phenotype in a Spanish clinical sample. In a clinical sample of 623 consecutively referred children and adolescents (4-17 years old), we compared clinical and sociodemographic correlates between subjects who met the SDQ-DP criteria (DP) and those who did not (NO_DP). Sociodemographic data, parent-rated SDQ, Children's Global Assessment Scale, Clinical Global Impression, family Apgar scale and clinical diagnoses were collected by experienced child and adolescent psychiatrists. Overall in our sample, 175 subjects (28.1%) met the SDQ-DP criteria (DP group). Compared with the NO_DP group, the DP subjects had significantly higher scores on internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, problems with peers and overall problems as well as significantly lower scores on prosocial behavior. Clinical diagnoses assigned revealed that DP subjects showed significantly greater psychiatric comorbidity. DP subjects also showed significantly worse family functioning and increased symptom severity and significantly lower scores on psychosocial functioning. A high prevalence of children and adolescents with the dysregulated profile, assessed by the SDQ-DP, was found in our clinical setting. The SDQ-DP may serve as an index of overall psychological severity and functional impairment. In addition, it may indicate family

  4. Trajectories of psychopathology in extremely low birth weight survivors from early adolescence to adulthood: a 20-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Ferro, Mark A; Schmidt, Louis A; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M; Mathewson, Karen J

    2018-04-18

    Individuals born extremely preterm are exposed to significant perinatal stresses that are associated with an increased risk of psychopathology. However, a paucity of longitudinal studies has prevented the empirical examination of long-term, dynamic effects of perinatal adversity on mental health. Here, internalizing and externalizing problems from adolescence through adulthood were compared in individuals born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; 2,500 g). Internalizing and externalizing data were collected over 20 years in three waves, during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood. Growth models were used to compare longitudinal trajectories in a geographically based sample of 151 ELBW survivors and 137 NBW control participants born between 1977 and 1982 matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status at age 8. After adjusting for sex, socioeconomic and immigrant status, and family functioning, ELBW survivors failed to show the normative, age-related decline in internalizing problems over time relative to their NBW peers (β = .21; p Self-esteem (but not physical health, IQ, or maternal mood) partially mediated the association between ELBW status and internalizing problems. Extremely low birth weight survivors experienced a blunting of the expected improvement in depression and anxiety from adolescence to adulthood. These findings suggest that altered physiological regulatory systems supporting emotional and cognitive processing may contribute to the maintenance of internalizing problems in this population. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. Phenotypic and Causal Structure of Conduct Disorder in the Broader Context of Prevalent Forms of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2011-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice-versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry. Methods Review of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of the place of CD in the phenotypic and causal structure of prevalent psychopathology, with an emphasis on similarities and differences between CD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Papers were located using Web of Science by topic searches with no restriction on year of publication. Results Although some important nosologic questions remain unanswered, the dimensional phenotype of CD is well defined. CD differs from other disorders in its correlates, associated impairment, and course. Nonetheless, it is robustly correlated with many other prevalent dimensions of psychopathology both concurrently and predictively, including both other “externalizing” disorders and some “internalizing” disorders. Based on emerging evidence, we hypothesize that these concurrent and predictive correlations result primarily from widespread genetic pleiotropy, with some genetic factors nonspecifically influencing risk for multiple correlated dimensions of psychopathology. In contrast, environmental influences mostly act to differentiate dimensions of psychopathology from one another both concurrently and over time. CD and ODD share half of their genetic influences, but their genetic etiologies are distinct in other ways. Unlike most other dimensions of psychopathology, half of the genetic influences on CD appear to be unique to CD. In contrast, ODD broadly shares nearly all of its genetic influences with other disorders and has little unique genetic variance. Conclusions CD is a relatively distinct syndrome at both phenotypic and etiologic levels, but much is revealed

  6. Irritability, Externalizing, and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescence: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations and Moderation by Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Schouboe, Sophie N F; Kircanski, Katharina; Leibenluft, Ellen; Stringaris, Argyris; Gotlib, Ian H

    2018-04-18

    Irritability is a common feature of many psychiatric disorders, including both externalizing and internalizing disorders. There is little research, however, examining associations between irritability and these symptom domains, particularly during the important developmental period of adolescence, characterized by sex differences in the prevalence of disorders. We examined the cross-sectional associations between irritability, measured with the Affective Reactivity Index, and symptoms of externalizing and internalizing domains of psychopathology, measured with the Youth Self Report, in a volunteer community sample (N = 183) of 9- to 13-year-old (M = 11.39, SD = 1.07) boys and girls (37% White/Caucasian, 8% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 8% African American, 2% Native American, 2% Pacific Islander, 28% Other, and 3% not reported). A subset of the sample (n = 112) provided data at a 2-year follow-up, used to extend these associations. There were no sex differences in levels of irritability; however, the associations between irritability and symptom domains were moderated by sex. Specifically, in girls, irritability was associated equally with externalizing and internalizing symptoms. In contrast, in boys, irritability was associated more strongly with externalizing symptoms than with internalizing symptoms. Thus, across both sexes, irritability was moderately associated with externalizing symptoms, but the association between irritability and internalizing symptoms was stronger in girls than in boys. At follow-up, sex moderated the association between baseline irritability and later externalizing and internalizing symptoms. These findings indicate that irritability is associated with both externalizing and internalizing symptoms in early adolescence and that irritability is associated with internalizing symptoms more strongly in girls than in boys.

  7. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  8. Cultural neuroscience and psychopathology: prospects for cultural psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Suparna; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2009-01-01

    There is a long tradition that seeks to understand the impact of culture on the causes, form, treatment, and outcome of psychiatric disorders. An early, colonialist literature attributed cultural characteristics and variations in psychopathology and behavior to deficiencies in the brains of colonized peoples. Contemporary research in social and cultural neuroscience holds the promise of moving beyond these invidious comparisons to a more sophisticated understanding of cultural variations in brain function relevant to psychiatry. To achieve this, however, we need better models of the nature of psychopathology and of culture itself. Culture is not simply a set of traits or characteristics shared by people with a common geographic, historical, or ethnic background. Current anthropology understands culture as fluid, flexible systems of discourse, institutions, and practices, which individuals actively use for self-fashioning and social positioning. Globalization introduces new cultural dynamics and demands that we rethink culture in relation to a wider domain of evolving identities, knowledge, and practice. Psychopathology is not reducible to brain dysfunction in either its causes, mechanisms, or expression. In addition to neuropsychiatric disorders, the problems that people bring to psychiatrists may result from disorders in cognition, the personal and social meanings of experience, and the dynamics of interpersonal interactions or social systems and institutions. The shifting meanings of culture and psychopathology have implications for efforts to apply cultural neuroscience to psychiatry. We consider how cultural neuroscience can refine use of culture and its role in psychopathology using the example of adolescent aggression as a symptom of conduct disorder.

  9. Gender Performance Stress and Risk for Psychopathology: Looking beyond Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oost, Kathryn M.; Livingston, Nicholas A.; Gleason, Hillary A.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2016-01-01

    The authors review research on the risk factors for, and prevalence of, psychological disorders as they relate to gender nonconformity in adolescence and adulthood. Findings from existing literature suggest gender nonconforming individuals are more likely to experience a variety of risk factors associated with psychopathology when compared with…

  10. Emotional face recognition in adolescent suicide attempters and adolescents engaging in non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Karen E; Jones, Richard N; Cushman, Grace K; Galvan, Thania; Puzia, Megan E; Kim, Kerri L; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying and differentiating suicide attempts from non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents. Adolescents who attempt suicide or engage in NSSI often report significant interpersonal and social difficulties. Emotional face recognition ability is a fundamental skill required for successful social interactions, and deficits in this ability may provide insight into the unique brain-behavior interactions underlying suicide attempts versus NSSI in adolescents. Therefore, we examined emotional face recognition ability among three mutually exclusive groups: (1) inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide (SA, n = 30); (2) inpatient adolescents engaged in NSSI (NSSI, n = 30); and (3) typically developing controls (TDC, n = 30) without psychiatric illness. Participants included adolescents aged 13-17 years, matched on age, gender and full-scale IQ. Emotional face recognition was evaluated using the diagnostic assessment of nonverbal accuracy (DANVA-2). Compared to TDC youth, adolescents with NSSI made more errors on child fearful and adult sad face recognition while controlling for psychopathology and medication status (ps face recognition between NSSI and SA groups. Secondary analyses showed that compared to inpatients without major depression, those with major depression made fewer errors on adult sad face recognition even when controlling for group status (p recognition errors on adult happy faces even when controlling for group status (p face recognition than TDC, but not inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide. Further results suggest the importance of psychopathology in emotional face recognition. Replication of these preliminary results and examination of the role of context-dependent emotional processing are needed moving forward.

  11. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Heterotypic Comorbidity in Externalizing Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Colin L.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Shannon, Katherine E.; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents with externalizing behavior disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) often present with symptoms of comorbid internalizing psychopathology. However, few studies have examined central nervous system correlates of such comorbidity. We evaluated interactions between…

  12. Is sensitivity to daily stress predictive of onset or persistence of psychopathology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen, T.; van Nierop, M.; Decoster, J.; Delespaul, P.; Derom, C.; de Hert, M.; Jacobs, N.; Menne-Lothmann, C.; Rutten, B.; Thiery, E.; van Os, J.; van Winkel, R.; Wichers, M.; Myin-Germeys, I.

    Purpose: The aim of the current study was to replicate findings in adults indicating that higher sensitivity to stressful events is predictive of both onset and persistence of psychopathological symptoms in a sample of adolescents and young adults. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that

  13. Mother and adolescent expressed emotion and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptom development : A six-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hale, William W.; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    In expressed emotion (EE) theory, it is held that high EE household environments enhance adolescent psychopathological distress. However, no longitudinal study has been conducted to examine if either the mother's EE or the adolescent's perception of EE predicts adolescent internalizing and

  14. Psychopathology trajectories of children with autism spectrum disorder: the role of family poverty and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midouhas, Emily; Yogaratnam, Amy; Flouri, Eirini; Charman, Tony

    2013-10-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are reported to have high rates of co-occurring psychopathology. Little is known about risk factors that might contribute to this psychopathology. This study modeled the effect of family poverty on psychopathology trajectories in young children with ASD, and examined whether home organization and maternal warmth and involvement could buffer the effect of poverty on children's psychopathology. The sample comprised 209 children with ASD who participated in the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, a population birth cohort study. Individual trajectories of psychopathology at ages 3, 5, and 7 years were analyzed using growth curve models. Psychopathology was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children with ASD exhibited increasingly high rates of psychopathology over time. Family poverty was associated with broad and specific (emotional and conduct problems) psychopathology, but not with changes in psychopathology over time. Warmth, involvement, and home organization did not buffer the association of family poverty with psychopathology. However, low warmth explained the relationship between poverty and broad psychopathology, and predicted annual changes in broad psychopathology. Warmth was associated with fewer conduct problems and less hyperactivity, and with an annual decrease in peer and conduct problems. Household chaos was a risk factor for conduct problems, as was maternal involvement for peer problems. Family poverty, low maternal warmth, and household chaos are risk factors for externalizing problems in children with ASD. Maternal warmth may be a key target for intervention, particularly in poorer families of children with ASD. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Developmental psychopathology: a paradigm shift or just a relabeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Developmental psychopathology is described as a conceptual approach that involves a set of research methods that capitalize on developmental and psychopathological variations to ask questions about mechanisms and processes. Achievements are described in relation to attachment and attachment disorders, autism, schizophrenia, childhood antecedents of adult psychopathology, testing for environmental mediation of risk effects, gene-environment interplay, intellectual and language functioning, effects of mentally ill parents on the children, stress and vulnerability to depression, ethnicity and schizophrenia, and drug response. Continuities and discontinuities over the course of development are discussed in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, antisocial behavior, eating disorders, substance abuse and dependency, pharmacological and behavioral addictions, and a range of other disorders. Research challenges are considered in relation to spectrum concepts, the adolescent development of a female preponderance for depression, the mechanisms involved in age differences in response to drugs and to lateralized brain injury, the processing of experiences, the biological embedding of experiences, individual differences in response to environmental hazards, nature-nurture integration, and brain plasticity.

  16. Male and Female Pathways to Psychopathology: Findings from a Preventive Intervention Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Vuijk (Patricia)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the present study was to extent the knowledge on the pathways to male and female psychopathology from childhood into early adolescence. In Chapter 1, the background of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) study was presented. The GBG study is a randomized controlled

  17. An analysis of challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Fragile X Syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Newman, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    The present study sought to investigate the relationship between challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD\\/HD) in Fragile X Syndrome (FRAX). Additionally, this study sought to examine how such disorders are predicted by gender, presence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and presence of intellectual disability (ID). A total of 47 children and adolescents with FRAX were assessed. Results revealed high levels of challenging behavior and AD\\/HD symptoms within the sample, with some participants exhibiting symptoms of comorbid psychopathology. Further analysis revealed that challenging behavior and comorbid psychopathology were positively correlated, with stereotypy correlating most strongly with comorbid psychopathology. In addition, ASD was found to predict challenging behavior, and gender was found to predict AD\\/HD symptoms. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Do Overgeneral Autobiographical Memories Predict Increased Psychopathological Symptoms in Community Youth? A 3-Year Longitudinal Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenbrunner, Charlotte; Salmon, Karen; Jose, Paul E

    2018-02-01

    Research suggests that an overgeneral autobiographical memory style (i.e., retrieval of general memories when instructed to retrieve a specific episodic memory) represents a vulnerability marker for depression. Although adolescence is a period of high risk for the emergence of depression, little research has investigated the associations among overgeneral memory, psychopathology, and risk factors longitudinally in a community sample in this age group. We, therefore, investigated overgeneral memory, psychopathology (depression and anxiety), and rumination (an established risk factor for psychopathology) longitudinally in 269 typically-developing youth (125 females, 144 males) across 3 annual assessment points. We sought to determine whether 1) overgeneral memory would predict psychopathology across the entire sample, and 2) whether associations would vary as a function of longitudinal rumination growth. Across the entire sample, overgeneral memory did not predict psychopathology. For youth who reported elevated, and increasing, patterns of rumination over time, transient relationships between overgeneral memory and subsequent increases in anxiety were found. We conclude that overgeneral memory may represent a vulnerability marker for adverse psychological outcomes only for youth at risk for psychopathology.

  19. Degree of Exposure to Domestic Violence, Psychopathology, and Functional Impairment in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Eduard Bayarri; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria; Domenech, Josep Maria

    2011-01-01

    There are discrepancies about whether children who witness and suffer domestic violence (DV) have similar outcomes in terms of psychopathology. This work examines the relationship between different types of exposure to DV and child psychopathology and functional impairment. One hundred and forty-four Spanish children aged from 4 to 17 years and…

  20. Examining Whether Offspring Psychopathology Influences Illness Course in Mothers With Recurrent Depression Using a High-Risk Longitudinal Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Depression is known to be influenced by psychosocial stressors. For mothers with recurrent depressive illness, the presence of psychopathology in their children may have important effects on their own mental health. Although the impact of maternal depression on child mental health is well-established, no study to date, as far as we are aware, has examined the extent to which offspring psychopathology influences the course of depression in mothers with a history of recurrent depressive illness, what types of child psychopathology impact maternal mental health, or whether risks vary by child gender. Aims were to (a) Use a longitudinal design to examine whether adolescent psychopathology (depression, disruptive behavior disorder; DBD) predicts recurrence of a depressive episode and depression symptom course in women with a history of recurrent depression; and (b) To test if observed effects vary by child gender. 299 mothers with recurrent major depressive disorder and their adolescent offspring were assessed on 2 occasions, 29 months apart. Maternal depression and offspring psychopathology were assessed using semistructured interview measures. Cross-generational links across time were assessed using structural equation modeling. Analyses were adjusted for past severity of maternal depression. Offspring depression symptoms but not DBD symptoms at baseline predicted future episode recurrence in mothers. Depression symptoms in daughters (β = .16, p = .039) but not sons (β = −.07, p = .461), predicted an increase in maternal depression symptoms across time. Psychopathology in daughters is associated with long-term depressive symptoms in women (mothers) with a history of recurrent depression. Findings highlight the importance of careful assessment and management of mental health problems in adolescents for more effective management of maternal depression. This study suggests that offspring symptoms of depression may be important for the recurrence of maternal

  1. Examining whether offspring psychopathology influences illness course in mothers with recurrent depression using a high-risk longitudinal sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Ruth; Hammerton, Gemma; Harold, Gordon T; Mahedy, Liam; Potter, Robert; Langley, Kate; Thapar, Ajay; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2016-02-01

    Depression is known to be influenced by psychosocial stressors. For mothers with recurrent depressive illness, the presence of psychopathology in their children may have important effects on their own mental health. Although the impact of maternal depression on child mental health is well-established, no study to date, as far as we are aware, has examined the extent to which offspring psychopathology influences the course of depression in mothers with a history of recurrent depressive illness, what types of child psychopathology impact maternal mental health, or whether risks vary by child gender. Aims were to (a) Use a longitudinal design to examine whether adolescent psychopathology (depression, disruptive behavior disorder; DBD) predicts recurrence of a depressive episode and depression symptom course in women with a history of recurrent depression; and (b) To test if observed effects vary by child gender. 299 mothers with recurrent major depressive disorder and their adolescent offspring were assessed on 2 occasions, 29 months apart. Maternal depression and offspring psychopathology were assessed using semistructured interview measures. Cross-generational links across time were assessed using structural equation modeling. Analyses were adjusted for past severity of maternal depression. Offspring depression symptoms but not DBD symptoms at baseline predicted future episode recurrence in mothers. Depression symptoms in daughters (β = .16, p = .039) but not sons (β = -.07, p = .461), predicted an increase in maternal depression symptoms across time. Psychopathology in daughters is associated with long-term depressive symptoms in women (mothers) with a history of recurrent depression. Findings highlight the importance of careful assessment and management of mental health problems in adolescents for more effective management of maternal depression. This study suggests that offspring symptoms of depression may be important for the recurrence of maternal depression

  2. [Issues in psychiatric evaluation of children and adolescents with visual impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisky, Yaniv; Hasid, Soli; Ebert, Tanya; Kosov, Irene

    2014-02-01

    Approximately 8% from those who are defined as blind in Israel are children and adolescents. Visual impairment is correlated with a high rate of psychopathology. However, some of these children and adolescents do not receive appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Often, the clinicians and those who treat the children/adolescents lack the proper professional knowledge related to the unique diagnosis and treatment of children/ adolescents who are visually impaired. Visual impairment might influence different aspects of the psychiatric diagnosis. These aspects include the influence of the impairment on different developmental axes; the reciprocal relationship between the child and his/her environment; the clinical presentation of different psychopathologies; and the different treatment modalities. In this review we discuss these issues. Moreover, we raise the question as to whether there is a need to adapt the psychiatric evaluation and the treatment specifically to the visually impaired child. The review is based on the existing literature in addition to our clinical experience, which stems from our work with children and adolescents who are at the "Jewish Institute for the Blind", an institute for children and adolescents with visual impairment in Israel.

  3. Dimensions of Adolescent Psychopathology and Relationships to Suicide Risk Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide represents an area of important public and mental health concern. Although diagnostic correlates (e.g., depression) of suicidality have been identified, very few studies of youth have analyzed relationships between empirically-derived dimensions of psychopathology, representing broader dimensions of risk, and different suicidality…

  4. Exploring the association between well-being and psychopathology in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, M.; Cacioppo, J.T.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2013-01-01

    Promotion of mental well-being and prevention of emotional and behavioral problems are suggested to go hand in hand. The present study examined the association between subjective well-being (SWB) and psychopathology and investigated the etiology of this association in a large population-based cohort

  5. An Introduction to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent-Restructured Form (MMPI-A-RF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Richard W

    2016-12-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent-Restructured Form (MMPI-A-RF; Archer, Handel, Ben-Porath, & Tellegen, 2016) is a new broadband measure of adolescent psychopathology and personality. The MMPI-A-RF is the adolescent counterpart of the MMPI-2-RF (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011). The goal of the MMPI-2-RF development project was to capture the clinically significant substance of the MMPI-2 item pool with a psychometrically sound measure linked to contemporary models of personality and psychopathology (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011). Using the MMPI-2-RF scales and development methods as models, Archer et al. (2016) developed a 241-item adolescent self-report inventory-in contrast to the 478-items of the MMPI-A-that includes 48 new and revised scales. In this manuscript, I provide an overview of the rationale for the development of the MMPI-A-RF, an abbreviated review of its development process, brief descriptions of its 48 scales, and a subset of analyses bearing on reliability and validity. As with the MMPI-2-RF, one of our primary goals was to develop scales with improved discriminant validity relative to the heterogeneous Clinical Scales of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A. The MMPI-A-RF development process employed a large sample of 15,128 adolescents (9,286 boys and 5,842 girls) drawn from a variety of settings. In addition to the development sample, subsequent validation analyses were conducted in multiple independent samples including numerous external criterion measures. The MMPI-A-RF is designed to provide a comprehensive assessment of adolescent psychopathology and personality in a wide array of clinical and forensic settings.

  6. A clinical profile of compulsive exercise in adolescent inpatients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noetel, Melissa; Miskovic-Wheatley, Jane; Crosby, Ross D; Hay, Phillipa; Madden, Sloane; Touyz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to contribute to the development of a clinical profile of compulsive exercise in adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), by examining associations between compulsive exercise and eating and general psychopathology. A sample of 60 female adolescent inpatients with AN completed a self-report measure of compulsive exercise and a series of standardized self-report questionnaires assessing eating and general psychopathology. Higher levels of compulsive exercise were associated with increased levels of eating disorder psychopathology and anxiety. Specifically, the avoidance aspect (negatively reinforced) of compulsive exercise was associated with elevated scores on measures of eating disorder, anxiety, depression, and obsessive compulsiveness psychopathology, as well as lower self-esteem scores. The mood improvement value (positively reinforced) of compulsive exercise, however, did not reflect such trends. Compulsive exercise driven by avoidance of negative affect is associated with more severe psychological features in adolescent inpatients with AN. The current findings emphasize the need for research and clinical efforts in the development of treatments addressing avoidance of negative affect and compulsive exercise in adolescents with AN.

  7. Testing Models of Psychopathology in Preschool-aged Children Using a Structured Interview-based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have found that broadband internalizing and externalizing factors provide a parsimonious framework for understanding the structure of psychopathology across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. However, few of these studies have examined psychopathology in young children, and several recent studies have found support for alternative models, including a bi-factor model with common and specific factors. The present study used parents’ (typically mothers’) reports on a diagnostic interview in a community sample of 3-year old children (n=541; 53.9 % male) to compare the internalizing-externalizing latent factor model with a bi-factor model. The bi-factor model provided a better fit to the data. To test the concurrent validity of this solution, we examined associations between this model and paternal reports and laboratory observations of child temperament. The internalizing factor was associated with low levels of surgency and high levels of fear; the externalizing factor was associated with high levels of surgency and disinhibition and low levels of effortful control; and the common factor was associated with high levels of surgency and negative affect and low levels of effortful control. These results suggest that psychopathology in preschool-aged children may be explained by a single, common factor influencing nearly all disorders and unique internalizing and externalizing factors. These findings indicate that shared variance across internalizing and externalizing domains is substantial and are consistent with recent suggestions that emotion regulation difficulties may be a common vulnerability for a wide array of psychopathology. PMID:24652485

  8. Moderators of Informant Agreement in the Assessment of Adolescent Psychopathology: Extension to a Forensic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R.; Skilling, Tracey A.

    2012-01-01

    A well-documented finding in developmental psychopathology research is that different informants often provide discrepant ratings of a youth's internalizing and externalizing problems. The current study examines youth- and parent-based moderators (i.e., youth age, gender, and IQ; type of psychopathology; offense category; psychopathic traits;…

  9. Future in psychopathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckers, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    Psychopathology research has focused either on the analysis of the mental state in the here and now or on the synthesis of mental status abnormalities with biological markers and outcome data. These two schools of psychopathology, the analytic and the synthetic, make contrasting assumptions, take different approaches, and pursue divergent goals. Analytic psychopathology favors the individual person and unique biography, whereas synthetic psychopathology abstracts from the single case and generalizes to the population level. The dimension of time, especially the prediction of future outcomes, is viewed differently by these two schools. Here I outline how Carpenter's proposal of strong inference and theory testing in psychopathology research can be used to test the value of analytic and synthetic psychopathology. The emerging field of personalized psychiatry can clarify the relevance of psychopathology for contemporary research in psychiatry.

  10. Ability of the Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile and the Youth Self Report-Dysregulation Profile to identify serious psychopathology and association with correlated problems in high-risk children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölitzsch, Claudia; Kölch, Michael; Fegert, Jörg M; Schmeck, Klaus; Schmid, Marc

    2016-11-15

    The current analyses examined whether the dysregulation profile (DP) 1) could be used to identify children and adolescents at high risk for complex and serious psychopathology and 2) was correlated to other emotional and behavioral problems (such as delinquent behavior or suicide ideation). DP was assessed using both the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Youth Self Report (YSR) in a residential care sample. Children and adolescents (N=374) aged 10-18 years living in residential care in Switzerland completed the YSR, and their professional caregivers completed the CBCL. Participants meeting criteria for DP (T-score ≥67 on the anxious/‌depressed, attention problems, and aggressive behavior scales of the YSR/CBCL) were compared against those who did not for the presence of complex psychopathology (defined as the presence of both emotional and behavioral disorders), and also for the prevalence of several psychiatric diagnoses, suicidal ideation, traumatic experiences, delinquent behaviors, and problems related to quality of life. The diagnostic criteria for CBCL-DP and YSR-DP were met by just 44 (11.8%) and 25 (6.7%) of participants. Only eight participants (2.1%) met the criteria on both instruments. Further analyses were conducted separately for the CBCL-DP and YSR-DP groups. DP was associated with complex psychopathology in only 34.4% of cases according to CBCL and in 60% of cases according to YSR. YSR-DP was somewhat more likely to be associated with psychiatric disorders and associated problems than was the CBCL-DP. Because of the relatively small overlap between the CBCL-DP and YSR-DP, analyses were conducted largely with different samples, likely contributing to the different results. Despite a high rate of psychopathology in the population studied, both the YSR-DP and the CBCL-DP were able to detect only a small proportion of those with complex psychiatric disorders. This result questions the validity of YSR-DP and the CBCL-DP in detecting subjects

  11. Does forgiveness mediate the impact of school bullying on adolescent mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rensburg, Estie Janse; Raubenheimer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The link between both bullying and victimisation and psychopathology has been well established. Forgiveness has been associated with better mental health. However, few studies have examined the relationship between adolescent forgiveness, psychopathology and bullying/victimisation. This study investigated forgiveness as a mediator of the adverse mental health problems experienced by bullies and victims of bullying. Participants were 355 Year 10 or Year 11 pupils (age = 14.9 years) from two British secondary schools in 2007, who completed self-administered measures on bullying and victimisation, mental health, forgiveness of self and others, and forgivingness. The mediating influence of forgiveness on the impact of bullying/victimisation on mental health was tested with a structural equation model. Data from 55.6% of the 639 eligible pupils were analysed. Results confirmed an association between bullying/victimisation, forgiveness and psychopathology. Forgiveness scores were found to play a mediating role between bullying/victimisation and psychopathology. Victimised adolescents who were better able to forgive themselves were more likely to report lower levels of psychopathology, while bullying adolescents who were unable to forgive others were more likely to report higher levels of psychopathology. This suggests a greater role for forgiveness within future research, intervention and policy on bullying. Forgiveness can form a valuable part of preventative and educational anti-bullying programmes.

  12. A double-edged sword: advantages and disadvantages to the current emphasis on biogenetic causes of child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S Alexandra

    2015-02-01

    Research on child psychopathology is a largely biogenetic endeavor these days, at least according to current funding priorities at the National Institutes of Health in the US. This heavy focus on genetic contributions to child psychopathology has some real advantages. Available research has conclusively indicated that child and adolescent mental health problems are partially genetic in origin and, moreover, are related to neural structure and function (as an example, see Plomin et al.). Moreover, these genetic effects may be responsible for some previously reported 'environmental' effects, such that, what appear to be direct environmental risk factors may in fact reflect genetic/familial risks. As one example, Sengupta et al. (this issue) found that maternal smoking during pregnancy was in fact a marker of maternal and paternal psychopathology. Put another way, the association between ADHD and maternal smoking during pregnancy may index a genetic/familial risk for a more severe form of ADHD, rather than a direct effect of uterine exposure to cigarettes. A final, more subtle reason for the current trend towards biogenetic research is that it has the rarely-discussed but all-too-important 'allure of the unknown'. We have only just recently been able to directly explore the biological underpinnings of psychopathology; and as technology advances, so too will the insights gained (presumably). This offers both funding agencies and individual scientists the very real possibility of making a major new discovery - a siren's call for most of us. In sharp contrast, decades of research have explored putatively environmental contributions to child and adolescent psychopathology. New paradigm-shifting discoveries are thus likely to be fewer in number and farther between (if we continue using traditional study designs that omit joint consideration of biology, that is). In short, biogenetic research just feels more cutting edge at the moment. The clear merits of such work

  13. Parental Reports of Prodromal Psychopathology in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Mariely; Marangoni, Ciro; Grant, Marie C; Estrada, Jezelle; Faedda, Gianni L

    2017-04-01

    Early psychopathology in children diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder (BD) remains poorly characterized. Parental retrospective reports provide helpful details on the earliest manifestations and their evolution over time. These symptoms occur early in the course of BD, often before a formal diagnosis is made and/or treatment is implemented, and are of great importance to early recognition and prevention. Parents of pre-pubertal children and adolescents with DSM-IV diagnoses of BD attending an outpatient mood disorders clinic provided retrospective ratings of 37 symptoms of child psychopathology. Stability and comorbidity of diagnoses were evaluated, and severity of symptoms for each subject was assessed by identifying the earliest occurrence of the reported symptoms causing impairment. Severe mood instability, temper tantrums, anxiety symptoms, sleep disturbances and aggression were among the most common signs of psychopathology reported in children diagnosed with BD before puberty. Symptoms were already apparent in the first three years in 28%, and formal diagnoses were made before the age of 8 y in the majority of cases. Retrospective parental reports of early symptoms of psychopathology in pre-pubertal children with BD revealed a very early occurrence of affective precursors (irritability and mood dysregulation) and clinical risk factors like impulsive aggression and anxiety that can precede the syndromal onset of mania by several years. These findings support previous reports suggesting a progression of symptoms from abnormal, non-specific presentations to sub-threshold and finally syndromal BD. The importance of early identification and intervention is discussed.

  14. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  15. Polyvagal Theory and developmental psychopathology: emotion dysregulation and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K

    2007-02-01

    In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed.

  16. Youths with ADHD with and without Tic Disorders: Comorbid Psychopathology, Executive Function and Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorders (TD) commonly co-occur. Clarifying the psychiatric comorbidities, executive functions and social adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents of ADHD with and without TD is informative to understand the developmental psychopathology and to identify their specific clinical…

  17. A developmental approach to dimensional expression of psychopathology in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón-Nozaleda, María Goretti; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Rodríguez-Toscano, Elisa; Arango, Celso; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; de la Serna, Elena; Espliego, Ana; Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Romero, Soledad; Baeza, Immaculada; Sugranyes, Gisela; Moreno, Carmen; Moreno, Dolores

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this is to describe psychopathology, functioning and symptom dimensions accounting for subthreshold manifestations and developmental status in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder ("high-risk offspring"). The study population comprised 90 high-risk offspring (HR-offspring) and 107 offspring of community control parents (CC-offspring). Direct clinical observations and parental and offspring reports based on selected standardized clinical scales were used to assess offspring threshold and subthreshold diagnoses, symptoms and functioning. All outcomes were compared between the whole HR-offspring and CC-offspring samples and then by developmental status. After controlling for potential confounders, HR-offspring showed significantly poorer adjustment for childhood (r = 0.18, p = 0.014) and adolescence (r = 0.21, p = 0.048) than CC-offspring, as well as more emotional problems (r = 0.24, p = 0.001) and higher depression scores (r = 0.16, p = 0.021). As for differences in lifetime categorical diagnoses (threshold and subthreshold) between HR-offspring and CC-offspring, the prevalence of disruptive disorders was higher in pre-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 12.78 [1.45-112.42]), while prevalence of mood disorders was higher in post-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 3.39 [1.14-10.06]). Post-pubertal HR-offspring presented more prodromal (r = 0.40, p = 0.001), negative (r = 0.38, p = 0.002), manic (r = 0.22, p = 0.035) and depressive (r = 0.23, p = 0.015) symptoms than pre-pubertal HR-offspring, as well as more peer relationship problems (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), poorer childhood adjustment (r = 0.22, p = 0.044) and worse current psychosocial functioning (r = 0.27, p = 0.04). Externalizing psychopathology is more prevalent in pre-pubertal HR-offspring, while depressive and prodromal symptoms leading to functional impairment are more prominent in post-pubertal HR-offspring. Developmental approaches and

  18. Problematic video game use scale: initial psychometric properties with psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topor, David R; Swenson, Lance P; Liguori, Gina M; Spirito, Anthony; Lowenhaupt, Elizabeth A; Hunt, Jeffrey I

    2011-12-01

    Excessive video game use among youth has been a growing concern in the United States and elsewhere. The aims of this study are to establish validity of a video game measure in a large adolescent inpatient sample, identify clinical factors underlying problem video game use, and identify associations with measures of psychopathology. Three hundred eighty participants admitted to an adolescent inpatient psychiatric unit between November 2007 and March 2009 were administered a battery of self-report measures, including a questionnaire developed for this study that assessed reinforcers and consequences of past-year video game use (ie, Problematic Video Game Use Scale). Factor analysis was used to identify the underlying structure of behaviors associated with problem video game use. A factor analysis of the Problematic Video Game Use Scale indicated 2 primary factors. One was associated with engaging in problem behaviors that impaired the adolescent's functioning as a result of playing video games and one reflected the reinforcing effects of playing video games. Both factors were associated with measures of psychopathology, although associations were generally stronger for impairment in functioning than for reinforcing effects. Both factors were significantly correlated with self-reported daily video game use (P video game playing: impairment in functioning and reinforcing effects. Initial evidence of the content validity of the video game measure was established. Findings highlight the importance of assessing video game use among an adolescent population, the factors associated with video game use, and associations with symptoms of psychopathology. Limitations include a common reporter for multiple measures and cross-sectional data that do not allow for causal links to be made. © Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. Polyvagal Theory and Developmental Psychopathology: Emotion Dysregulation and Conduct Problems from Preschool to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K.

    2007-01-01

    In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed. PMID:17045726

  20. A clinical profile of compulsive exercise in adolescent inpatients with anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Noetel, Melissa; Miskovic-Wheatley, Jane; Crosby, Ross D.; Hay, Phillipa; Madden, Sloane; Touyz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to contribute to the development of a clinical profile of compulsive exercise in adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), by examining associations between compulsive exercise and eating and general psychopathology. Method A sample of 60 female adolescent inpatients with AN completed a self-report measure of compulsive exercise and a series of standardized self-report questionnaires assessing eating and general psychopathology. Results Higher levels ...

  1. An examination of psychopathology and daily impairment in adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C; Bunnell, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16) and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14). Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches for this group.

  2. Considering the cultural context in psychopathology formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Hassim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mental health research appears to be continually transforming. Recent literature reflects a greater appreciation for the ways in which pathoplastic features of culture modulate emotional regulation. This article introduces those aspects of the literature which explore the (reconsideration of culture as a dynamic and essential construct in the clinical formulation of psychopathology. Objectives. The study aims to review literature that focuses on the dynamic influence of culture in psychopathology. Furthermore, the researchers aim to present a view on the ways in which culture appeared to shape the topography of psychopathology nosology. Method. A literature review of 31 sources. Results. The review indicated that 29 literature sources were conceptual in design, suggesting a great need for more empirical research. This section also explored themes identified during the literature review. The literature was tabulated according to features and emerging themes. Three major themes were identified and included: the cultural context; the evolving definitions of culture; and culture and psychopathology. Conclusion/discussion. An analysis of the themes was offered. The authors concluded by highlighting the significance of the literature at present. Areas of particular interest suggested that health and behaviour are dependent, at least in part, on culture; psychopathology may also be appreciated as a social construct; culture influences psychopathology regardless of the aetiology; diagnostic classes do not adequately consider operational definitions; and a greater focus on hermeneutic perceptivity in appreciating cultural dynamics in psychopathology will benefit clinical assessment.

  3. Can we really use available scales for child and adolescent psychopathology across cultures? A systematic review of cross-cultural measurement invariance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Dejan; Jafari, Peyman; Knez, Rajna; Franic, Tomislav; Atilola, Olayinka; Davidovic, Nikolina; Bagheri, Zahra; Lakic, Aneta

    2017-02-01

    In this systematic review, we assessed available evidence for cross-cultural measurement invariance of assessment scales for child and adolescent psychopathology as an indicator of cross-cultural validity. A literature search was conducted using the Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. Cross-cultural measurement invariance data was available for 26 scales. Based on the aggregation of the evidence from the studies under review, none of the evaluated scales have strong evidence for cross-cultural validity and suitability for cross-cultural comparison. A few of the studies showed a moderate level of measurement invariance for some scales (such as the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale), which may make them suitable in cross-cultural comparative studies. The remainder of the scales either showed weak or outright lack of measurement invariance. This review showed only limited testing for measurement invariance across cultural groups of scales for pediatric psychopathology, with evidence of cross-cultural validity for only a few scales. This study also revealed a need to improve practices of statistical analysis reporting in testing measurement invariance. Implications for future research are discussed.

  4. Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD symptomatology and psychiatric comorbidity among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Walker

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Given the paucity of research on adolescent ADHD, this study aimed to establish the prevalence of DSM-IV ADHD in a cohort of South African adolescents who had been diagnosed with the disorder in childhood. It also aimed to establish the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities and adjustment difficulties in this sample. Method: Data regarding age of diagnosis, current ADHD status, current ADHD-related pharmacological management, current psychopathology and current adjustment were gathered from 64 adolescents and their guardians via self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated with regard to current ADHD status, comorbid psychopathology and adjustment difficulties, as well as current ADHD-related medication. Results: According to parent reports, 59.38% of the sample met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD Inattentive subtype, while 37.50% met the criteria for ADHD Hyperactive/Impulsive subtype. Approximately sixty-four percent (64.06% of the adolescents were still using stimulant medication. Based on the adolescent self-report, 43.75% of the sample reported clinically significant symptoms of psychopathology or maladjustment. Furthermore, 39.28% of the adolescents met the diagnostic criteria for at least one psychiatric comorbidity. Conclusion: ADHD did persist into adolescence in the current sample. A significant psychopathological and maladjustment load appears evident amongst adolescents previously diagnosed with ADHD despite continuous pharmacological management of the condition.

  5. Spatiotemporal Psychopathology II: How does a psychopathology of the brain's resting state look like? Spatiotemporal approach and the history of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Psychopathology as the investigation and classification of experience, behavior and symptoms in psychiatric patients is an old discipline that ranges back to the end of the 19th century. Since then different approaches to psychopathology have been suggested. Recent investigations showing abnormalities in the brain on different levels raise the question how the gap between brain and psyche, between neural abnormalities and alteration in experience and behavior can be bridged. Historical approaches like descriptive (Jaspers) and structural (Minkoswki) psychopathology as well as the more current phenomenological psychopathology (Paarnas, Fuchs, Sass, Stanghellini) remain on the side of the psyche giving detailed description of the phenomenal level of experience while leaving open the link to the brain. In contrast, the recently introduced Research Domain Classification (RDoC) aims at explicitly linking brain and psyche by starting from so-called 'neuro-behavioral constructs'. How does Spatiotemporal Psychopathology, as demonstrated in the first paper on depression, stand in relation to these approaches? In a nutshell, Spatiotemporal Psychopathology aims to bridge the gap between brain and psyche. Specifically, as demonstrated in depression in the first paper, the focus is on the spatiotemporal features of the brain's intrinsic activity and how they are transformed into corresponding spatiotemporal features in experience on the phenomenal level and behavioral changes, which can well account for the symptoms in these patients. This second paper focuses on some of the theoretical background assumptions in Spatiotemporal Psychopathology by directly comparing it to descriptive, structural, and phenomenological psychopathology as well as to RDoC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An examination of psychopathology and daily impairment in adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Mesa

    Full Text Available Although social anxiety disorder (SAD is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16 and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14. Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches

  7. The Self-Image of Physically Abused Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Craig W.; Ostrov, Eric

    1982-01-01

    Physically abused and nonabused adolescents from similar backgrounds were compared via the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. Abused adolescents were shown to feel worse in family relations, emotional stability, psychopathology, impulse control, coping skills, and overall self-image. Implications for the professional's treatment of abused children…

  8. A Review of Eating Disorders and Suicide Risk in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ida F. Dancyger; Victor M. Fornari

    2005-01-01

    This review examines the literature during the past 10 years about suicide risk and suicide during adolescence and young adulthood of individuals with eating disorders. Epidemiological surveys are summarized, including suicide rates, parasuicidal behaviors, associated risk factors, and comorbid psychopathology. Critical implications for the comprehensive assessment and treatment planning, including safety considerations, are discussed. Two clinical cases of women with long-standing eating dis...

  9. Cortisol and DHEA in development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Hayley S; Kertes, Darlene A

    2017-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol are the most abundant hormones of the human fetal and adult adrenals released as end products of a tightly coordinated endocrine response to stress. Together, they mediate short- and long-term stress responses and enable physiological and behavioral adjustments necessary for maintaining homeostasis. Detrimental effects of chronic or repeated elevations in cortisol on behavioral and emotional health are well documented. Evidence for actions of DHEA that offset or oppose those of cortisol has stimulated interest in examining their levels as a ratio, as an alternate index of adrenocortical activity and the net effects of cortisol. Such research necessitates a thorough understanding of the co-actions of these hormones on physiological functioning and in association with developmental outcomes. This review addresses the state of the science in understanding the role of DHEA, cortisol, and their ratio in typical development and developmental psychopathology. A rationale for studying DHEA and cortisol in concert is supported by physiological data on the coordinated synthesis and release of these hormones in the adrenal and by their opposing physiological actions. We then present evidence that researching cortisol and DHEA necessitates a developmental perspective. Age-related changes in DHEA and cortisol are described from the perinatal period through adolescence, along with observed associations of these hormones with developmental psychopathology. Along the way, we identify several major knowledge gaps in the role of DHEA in modulating cortisol in typical development and developmental psychopathology with implications for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Major Depression and Conduct Disorder in Youth: Associations with Parental Psychopathology and Parent-Child Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.; Iacono, William G.

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study examined conduct disorder (CD) and major depression (MDD) in adolescents in relationship to parent-child conflict and psychopathology in their parents. Method: Participants were drawn from a population-based sample of twins and their families. Affected participants had lifetime diagnoses of CD and/or MDD; controls had no…

  11. Father's and mother's perceptions of parenting styles as mediators of the effects of parental psychopathology on antisocial behavior in outpatient children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2012-06-01

    The aim was to examine the potential mediating role of father's and mother's parenting styles in the association between parental psychopathology and antisocial behavior in children, and whether this pathway was moderated by child's sex. Participants included both parents and 338 Spanish outpatient children between 8 and 17 years (56.5% boys). Parenting style had a mediating effect on the studied relationships. Maternal psychopathology was positively associated with antisocial behavior in children, either directly or partially by parenting style, while paternal psychopathology was positively associated with offspring antisocial behavior only through the mediator role of parenting style. Child's sex did not moderate these relationships. Parenting style could be a target for prevention and intervention of antisocial behavior in the offspring of parents with mental health problems.

  12. [Psychopathology and film: a valuable interaction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duppen, Z; Summa, M; Fuchs, T

    2015-01-01

    Film or film fragments are often used in psychopathology education. However, so far there have been very few articles that have discussed the benefits and limitations of using films to explain or illustrate psychopathology. Although numerous films involves psychopathology in varying degrees, it is not clear how we can use films for psychopathology education. To examine the advantages, limitations and possible methods of using film as a means of increasing our knowledge and understanding of psychiatric illnesses. We discuss five examples that illustrate the interaction of film and psychopathology. On the one hand we explain how the psychopathological concepts are used in each film and on the other hand we explain which aspects of each film are valuable aids for teaching psychopathology. The use of film makes it possible to introduce the following topics in psychopathological teaching programme: holistic psychiatric reasoning, phenomenology and the subjective experience, the recognition of psychopathological prototypes and the importance of context. There is undoubtedly an analogy between the method we have chosen for teaching psychopathology with the help of films and the holistic approach of the psychiatrist and his or her team. We believe psychopathology education can benefit from films and we would recommend our colleagues to use it in this way.

  13. The Interplay between Peer Rejection and Acceptance in Preadolescence and Early Adolescence, Serotonin Transporter Gene, and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelius; Veenstra, Rene´

    2014-01-01

    Gene-environment studies on adolescents' peer contexts are important for understanding the interplay between biological and social antecedents of adolescent psychopathology. To this end, this study examined the roles of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and preadolescent and early adolescent peer rejection and acceptance, as well as the interaction…

  14. Cannabis use in children and adolescents with first episode psychosis: influence on psychopathology and short-term outcome (CAFEPS study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Immaculada; Graell, Montserrat; Moreno, Dolores; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Parellada, Mara; González-Pinto, Ana; Payá, Beatriz; Soutullo, César; de la Serna, Elena; Arango, Celso

    2009-09-01

    To know the prevalence of substance use and its relationship with psychopathology at onset and after six months in children and adolescents with first episode psychosis (FEP). 110 FEP patients, aged 9-17, were assessed for substance use, and with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and other psychopathological and general functioning scales at baseline and after a six-month follow-up. Patients' substance use at baseline was: tobacco (30.9%), cannabis (29.1%), alcohol (21.8%), cocaine (8.2%), amphetamines (2.7%), LSD (1.8%) and opiates (0.90%). Six months later, there was a decrease in patients' use of cannabis (p=0.004) and other drugs, except tobacco. Patients were divided, according to their baseline cannabis use, into 32 cannabis users (CU) and 78 non-cannabis users (NCU). CU were older (p=0.002) and had higher PANSS positive scores (p=0.002) and lower PANSS negative (p<0.001), PANSS general (p=0.002) and PANSS total (p=0.007) scores than NCU. At six months, CU had significantly lower PANSS positive (p=0.010), negative (p=0.0001), general (p=0.002) and total (p=0.002) scores than NCU. When we divided CU at six months into previous CU (n=16) and current CU (n=15), previous CU had the best outcome, NCU the worst and current CU had an intermediate profile. Cannabis use may be related to higher positive symptom scores for FEP patients, with greater improvement after six months for those who cease using cannabis.

  15. Study of internet addiction: Prevalence, pattern, and psychopathology among health professional undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin R Gedam; Santanu Ghosh; Lipsy Modi; Arvind Goyal; Himanshu Mansharamani

    2017-01-01

    Background: Internet has become an essential part of our daily life, especially among adolescents and youth. It is mainly used for education, entertainment, social networking, and information sharing. Its excessive use among health care providers is becoming a major concern. Aims: The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, understand the pattern, and to determine the association between psychopathology and internet addiction among health profession undergraduates. Materials and Meth...

  16. [Gender dysphoria in children and adolescents - treatment guidelines and follow-up study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyenburg, Bernd; Kröger, Anne; Neugebauer, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Treatment guidelines for transidentity in children and adolescents are presently under discussion. We present an overview of the various treatment modalities. Further, follow-up data on children and adolescents referred for gender-identity problems are presented. Of the 84 patients seen for the first time more than 3 years before follow-up, 37 mailed in the completed questionnaires. In addition, 33 patients agreed to answer some short follow-up questions. We assessed steps of treatment, gender role, psychopathology, and psychotherapy. We compared differences in psychopathology in patients with vs. without gender role change and in patients with intense vs. less intense psychotherapy. A total of 22 patients had completely changed gender role, and some had started hormonal treatment und sex reassignment surgery. Most patients were satisfied with the treatment results. All patients showed less psychopathology on follow-up, independent of role change or intensity of psychotherapy. In general, the patients reported little psychopathology. Our follow-up results support the present treatment approach. In patients with little psychopathology, low-frequency supportive treatment appears sufficient to obtain safe judgement on hormonal of surgical treatment.

  17. Trauma Exposure and Externalizing Disorders in Adolescents: Results From the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carliner, Hannah; Gary, Dahsan; McLaughlin, Katie A; Keyes, Katherine M

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to violence and other forms of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) are common among youths with externalizing psychopathology. These associations likely reflect both heightened risk for the onset of externalizing problems in youth exposed to PTEs and elevated risk for experiencing PTEs among youth with externalizing disorders. In this study, we disaggregate the associations between exposure to PTEs and externalizing disorder onset in a population-representative sample of adolescents. We analyzed data from 13- to 18-year-old participants in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) (N = 6,379). Weighted survival models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for onset of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and substance use disorders (SUDs) associated with PTEs, and for exposure to PTEs associated with prior-onset externalizing disorders. Multiplicative interaction terms tested for effect modification by sex, race/ethnicity, and household income. All types of PTEs were associated with higher risk for SUD (HRs = 1.29-2.21), whereas only interpersonal violence (HR = 2.49) was associated with onset of CD and only among females. No associations were observed for ODD. Conversely, ODD and CD were associated with elevated risk for later exposure to interpersonal violence and other/nondisclosed events (HRs = 1.45-1.75). Externalizing disorders that typically begin in adolescence, including SUDs and CD, are more likely to emerge in adolescents with prior trauma. ODD onset, in contrast, is unrelated to trauma exposure but is associated with elevated risk of experiencing trauma later in development. CD and interpersonal violence exposure exhibit reciprocal associations. These findings have implications for interventions targeting externalizing and trauma-related psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [The psychopathology of bilingual children in a sample of a Community Mental Health Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, J; Christodoulou, A; Paleologou, M; Vlassopoulos, M; Lazaratou, H; Anagnostopoulos, Dc; Ploumpidis, D N

    2009-07-01

    economic immigrants, including thus a random number of children speaking different languages. Without doubt, immigration affects the immigrating person as much as it affects the new group. Also, immigration adjustment and formation depends on the pre-existing characteristics of the immigrants as much as it does on the characteristics of the welcoming society. Research dealing with the issues of economic immigrants in Greece are limited and mainly come from schools. The focus of interest is aimed firstly on the psychopathology that can be linked to the phenomenon of immigration and secondly on the social consequences of the phenomenon. The formation of psychopathology is associated with immigration and the importance of psychological trauma and its consequences. However, the association between the creation of psychopathology, which is formulated in childhood/adolescence, and the bilingual environment together with identity formation, is not yet clear. The aim of this paper was to study the effect of the dual language environment on psychopathology formation among children and adolescents as it appears in everyday clinical practice and as it has been recorded at the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Unit of the Community Mental Health Centre of Byron and Kaissariani, Psychiatric Hospital, Athens University. Data deriving from the database of the Community Mental Health Centre were extracted from the files of 62 bilingual children, aged 0 to 18 years, who had visited the CMHC of Byron and Kaissariani in the period 2000 to 2005. The data selected concerned the sex, age, maternal language, diagnosis and the existence of economic immigration. Means deriving from the sample of bilingual children were compared to the means of the rest of the sample. (Pearson chi,2 Fishers exact test) Based on the results, four fifths of the sample was composed of children belonging to families of economic immigrants. The occurrence of Pervasive Developmental Disorders was triple among the sample

  19. The psychopathological and psychosocial outcome of early-onset schizophrenia: Preliminary data of a 13-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehler-Wex Claudia

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little is known about the long-term psychopathological and psychosocial outcome of early-onset schizophrenia. The existing literature describes more severe courses of illness in these patients compared with adult-onset schizophrenia. This article reports preliminary data of a study exploring the outcome of early-onset schizophrenia 13.4 years (mean after first admission. Predictors for interindividual outcomes were investigated. Methods We retrospectively assessed 27 former patients (mean age at first admission 15.5 years, SD = 2.0 that were consecutively admitted to the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the University of Wuerzburg between 1990 and 2000. A multidimensional approach was chosen to assess the outcome consisting of a mail survey including different questions about psychopathological symptoms, psychosocial parameters, and standardized self-reports (ESI and ADS. Results Concerning the psychopathological outcome, 22.2% reported having acute schizophrenic symptoms. Almost one third (30.8% described symptoms of depression and 37.0% reported having tried to commit suicide or seriously thought about it. 77.8% of the former patients were still in outpatient treatment. Compared to the general population, the number of patients without a school graduation was relatively high (18.5%. Almost half of participants still live with their parents (48.1% or in assisted or semi-assisted living conditions (33.3%. Only 18.5% were working in the open market. Conclusion Schizophrenia with an early onset has an unfavourable prognosis. Our retrospective study of the psychopathological and psychosocial outcome concludes with a generally poor rating.

  20. Genetic and Attachment Influences on Adolescents' Regulation of Autonomy and Aggressiveness

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    Zimmermann, Peter; Mohr, Cornelia; Spangler, Gottfried

    2009-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a time when intense emotions are elicited within the parent-adolescent relationship, often when autonomy subjectively is endangered. As emotion dysregulation is one of the risk processes for the development of psychopathology, adolescence may be perceived as a highly sensitive period for maladjustment. Inter-individual…

  1. Evidence that the presence of psychosis in non-psychotic disorder is environment-dependent and mediated by severity of non-psychotic psychopathology.

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    Guloksuz, S; van Nierop, M; Lieb, R; van Winkel, R; Wittchen, H-U; van Os, J

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that in affective, non-psychotic disorders: (i) environmental exposures increase risk of subthreshold psychotic experiences (PEs) and strengthen connectivity between domains of affective and subthreshold psychotic psychopathology; and (ii) PEs are a marker of illness severity. In 3021 adolescents from the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology cohort, we tested whether the association between PEs and presence of DSM-IV mood disorder (MD)/obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) would be moderated by risk factors for psychosis (cannabis use, childhood trauma and urbanicity), using the interaction contrast ratio (ICR) method. Furthermore, we analysed whether the interaction between environment and PEs was mediated by non-psychotic psychopathology. The association between PEs and MD/OCD was moderated by urbanicity (ICR = 2.46, p = 0.005), cannabis use (ICR = 3.76, p = 0.010) and, suggestively, trauma (ICR = 1.91, p = 0.063). Exposure to more than one environmental risk factor increased the likelihood of co-expression of PEs in a dose-response fashion. Moderating effects of environmental exposures were largely mediated by the severity of general non-psychotic psychopathology (percentage explained 56-68%, all p psychopathology. The findings are compatible with a relational model of psychopathology in which more severe clinical states are the result of environment-induced disturbances spreading through a psychopathology network.

  2. Intellectual Giftedness and Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

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    Francis, Rosanna; Hawes, David J.; Abbott, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Using a systematic search strategy in which intellectual giftedness was operationalized in terms of IQ score, the authors examined evidence from studies reporting on associations between this aspect of giftedness and psychopathology. A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria: compared gifted (IQ = 125) and nongifted (IQ = 90-110) peers or…

  3. Suicidality in adolescents and adults with binge-eating disorder: Results from the national comorbidity survey replication and adolescent supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Lauren N; Zuromski, Kelly L; Dodd, Dorian R; Smith, April R

    2017-01-01

    The relation between binge-eating disorder (BED) and suicidality (i.e., suicide ideation, plan, and/or attempt) has not been studied extensively, and it is unknown whether BED is uniquely associated with suicidality when adjusting for comorbid psychopathology. Moreover, the course of suicidality in BED has not been determined and it is unknown whether BED precedes suicidality or vice versa. A total of 10,123 adolescents and 2,980 adults from two nationally representative surveys were administered diagnostic interviews assessing psychopathology and suicidality, as well the retrospectively reported ages of onset. Among adults and adolescents, BED was associated with elevated odds of suicide ideation, plan, and attempt at a univariate level, but BED was not associated with elevated odds of suicidality when adjusting for comorbid psychopathology. Kaplan-Meier estimates of temporal patterns displayed that most adolescents experienced suicidality onset following BED onset, whereas most adults experienced suicidality onset prior to BED onset. BED, comorbid disorders, and suicidality share common factors and interrelations, and individuals with BED and comorbid disorders may be at particularly high risk for suicidal outcomes. The presence of BED in adolescence may serve as a marker for more severe symptomatology that precedes the occurrence of suicidality. Research is needed to understand how eating disorder symptoms, comorbid symptoms, and suicidality affect one another over time. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:40-49). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ayahuasca in adolescence: a preliminary psychiatric assessment.

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    Da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Lopez, Enrique; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Doering-Silveira, Evelyn

    2005-06-01

    Ayahuasca is believed to be harmless for those (including adolescents) drinking it within a religious setting. Nevertheless controlled studies on the mental/ psychiatric status of ritual hallucinogenic ayahuasca concoction consumers are still lacking. In this study, 40 adolescents from a Brazilian ayahuasca sect were compared with 40 controls matched on sex, age, and educational background for psychiatric symptomatology. Screening scales for depression, anxiety, alcohol consumption patterns (abuse), attentional problems, and body dysmorphic disorders were used. It was found that, compared to controls, considerable lower frequencies of positive scoring for anxiety, body dismorphism, and attentional problems were detected among ayahuasca-using adolescents despite overall similar psychopathological profiles displayed by both study groups. Low frequencies of psychiatric symptoms detected among adolescents consuming ayahuasca within a religious context may reflect a protective effect due to their religious affiliation. However further studies on the possible interference of other variables in the outcome are necessary.

  5. Small or big in the eyes of the other: on the developmental psychopathology of self-conscious emotions as shame, guilt, and pride.

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    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor

    2014-03-01

    The self-conscious emotions of guilt, shame, and pride typically occur when people evaluate their own self through the eyes of another person. This article will first of all discuss the nature and function of self-conscious emotions, and describe their developmental course in children and adolescents. Then, a number of variables are discussed that are thought to increase young people's proneness to experience self-conscious emotions. Following this, the empirical evidence on the relationships between guilt, shame, and pride and various types of psychopathology in children and adolescents will be summarized. A model is presented to explain why these self-conscious emotions are associated with a diversity of psychopathological outcomes. Finally, recommendations for clinical practice are made in terms of assessment and interventions targeting the origins and sequelae of self-conscious emotions.

  6. Sex differences in adolescent depression: do sex hormones determine vulnerability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naninck, E.F.G.; Lucassen, P.J.; Bakker, J.

    2011-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common, costly and severe psychopathologies worldwide. Its incidence, however, differs significantly between the sexes, and depression rates in women are twice those of men. Interestingly, this sex difference emerges during adolescence. Although the adolescent period is

  7. Effects of Child Psychopathology on Maternal Depression: The Mediating Role of Child-Related Acute and Chronic Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth B.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    In light of recent research highlighting the potential effects of children's behavior on mothers' mental health, the current study examined 679 mothers and their adolescent children from a community-based sample to determine the effects of youth psychopathology on maternal depression and levels of child-related stress in mothers' lives. It was…

  8. Comorbidities and continuities as ontogenic processes: Toward a developmental spectrum model of externalizing psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; McNulty, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    Research on child and adolescent mental health problems has burgeoned since the inaugural issue of Development and Psychopathology was published in 1989. In the quarter century since, static models of psychopathology have been abandoned in favor of transactional models, following the agenda set by editor Dante Cicchetti and other proponents of the discipline. The transactional approach, which has been applied to autism, depression, self-injury, and delinquency, (a) specifies vulnerabilities and risk factors across multiple levels of analysis spanning genes to cultures, (b) identifies multifinal and equifinal pathways to psychopathology, and (c) transcends traditional disciplinary boundaries. However, as noted by Rutter and Sroufe (2000), specific mechanisms of continuity, discontinuity, and comorbidity of psychopathology must be identified if we wish to understand etiology fully. In this article, we present a model of early-onset externalizing behavior in which comorbidities and continuities are viewed as ontogenic processes: products of complex longitudinal transactions between interdependent individual-level vulnerabilities (e.g., genetic, epigenetic, allostatic) and equally interdependent contextual risk factors (e.g., coercive parenting, deviant peer group affiliations, neighborhood criminality). Through interactions across levels of analysis, some individuals traverse along the externalizing spectrum, beginning with heritable trait impulsivity in preschool and ending in antisociality in adulthood. In describing our model, we note that (a) the approach outlined in the DSM to subtyping externalizing disorders continues to obscure developmental pathways to antisociality, (b) molecular genetics studies will likely not identify meaningful subtypes of externalizing disorder, and (c) ontogenic trait approaches to psychopathology are much more likely to advance the discipline in upcoming years. PMID:24342853

  9. Adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD study: Overview of substance use assessment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista M. Lisdahl

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD Study (https://abcdstudy.org/ is to establish a national longitudinal cohort of 9 and 10 year olds that will be followed for 10 years in order to prospectively study the risk and protective factors influencing substance use and its consequences, examine the impact of substance use on neurocognitive, health and psychosocial outcomes, and to understand the relationship between substance use and psychopathology. This article provides an overview of the ABCD Study Substance Use Workgroup, provides the goals for the workgroup, rationale for the substance use battery, and includes details on the substance use module methods and measurement tools used during baseline, 6-month and 1-year follow-up assessment time-points. Prospective, longitudinal assessment of these substance use domains over a period of ten years in a nationwide sample of youth presents an unprecedented opportunity to further understand the timing and interactive relationships between substance use and neurocognitive, health, and psychopathology outcomes in youth living in the United States. Keywords: Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, Adolescent, Child, Substance use, Alcohol, Cannabis, Marijuana, Nicotine, Longitudinal, Methods, Assessment, Drug use, Prescription drug use, Inhalants

  10. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to

  11. A hermeneutic framework for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    After briefly reviewing the scope and limitations of descriptive and clinical psychopathology, this paper focuses on the method and intention of structural psychopathology. Structural psychopathology goes beyond the description of isolated symptoms and the use of some of those symptoms to establish a diagnosis. It aims to understand the meaning of a given world of experiences and actions grasping the underlying characteristic modification that keeps the symptoms meaningfully interconnected. Building on and expanding some basic phenomenological and hermeneutical principles, and applying them to the study of abnormal human subjectivity, this paper suggests the methodological guidelines for a structurally informed psychopathological interview. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A three-year longitudinal study of affective temperaments and risk for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGeorge, Daniella P; Walsh, Molly A; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2014-08-01

    Affective temperaments are presumed to underlie bipolar psychopathology. The TEMPS-A has been widely used to assess affective temperaments in clinical and non-clinical samples. Cross-sectional research supports the association of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology; however, longitudinal research examining risk for the development of bipolar disorders is lacking. The present study examined the predictive validity of affective temperaments, using the TEMPS-A, at a three-year follow-up assessment. The study interviewed 112 participants (77% of the original sample) at a three-year follow-up of 145 non-clinically ascertained young adults psychometrically at-risk for bipolar disorders, who previously took part in a cross-sectional examination of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology. At the reassessment, 29 participants (26%) met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorders, including 13 participants who transitioned into disorders during the follow-up period (14% of the originally undiagnosed sample). Cyclothymic/irritable and hyperthymic temperaments predicted both total cases and new cases of bipolar spectrum disorders at the follow-up. Cyclothymic/irritable temperament was associated with more severe outcomes, including DSM-IV-TR bipolar disorders, bipolar spectrum psychopathology, major depressive episodes, and substance use disorders. Hyperthymic temperament was associated with bipolar spectrum psychopathology and hypomania, whereas dysthymic temperament was generally unassociated with psychopathology and impairment. The present sample of young adults is still young relative to the age of onset of mood psychopathology. These results provide the first evidence of the predictive validity of affective temperaments regarding risk for the development of bipolar psychopathology. Affective temperaments provide a useful construct for understanding bipolar psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Adolescents, pregnancy, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Rebecca S; Brandon, Anna R

    2014-06-01

    Pregnancy during adolescence is a risk factor for adverse medical and psychosocial outcomes, including psychiatric illness. Psychiatric illness is linked with obstetric complications along with impaired maternal functioning in the postpartum period. This article provides a comprehensive review of the research examining the intersection of psychopathology and adolescent pregnancy and the postpartum period. A literature search was conducted using PubMed (Medline), PsycINFO, and CINAHL for articles published between 1990 and 2013 that examined depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and psychosis during pregnancy and the postpartum period in adolescents age 21 years or younger. Articles were selected that covered the following topics: Prevalence or incidence, comorbidity, psychosocial correlates, birth outcomes, parenting, child outcomes, and psychosocial treatment. Forty articles were found and reviewed. There is a substantial research base examining self-reported depressive symptoms in adolescents during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Existing research suggests that pregnant and parenting adolescents are at greater risk for experiencing depressive symptoms than pregnant and postpartum adult women. Depression in the perinatal period is also a risk factor for substance and alcohol abuse and a harsher parenting style in adolescents. Areas for future research in this population include investigating the prevalence, psychosocial correlates, and outcomes of clinically diagnosed Major Depressive Disorder, developing and empirically validating psychotherapeutic treatments, and focusing upon other psychiatric diagnoses such as bipolar disorder, anxiety, and psychosis. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and O max (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and O max , and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Influence of Parental Psychopathology on Offspring Suicidal Behavior across the Lifespan.

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    Geilson Lima Santana

    Full Text Available Suicide tends to occur in families, and parental psychopathology has been linked to offspring suicidal behaviors. This study explores the influence of parental mental disorders across the lifespan. Data are from the Sao Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional household study with a representative sample of the adult population living in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil (N=2,942. Survival models examined bivariate and multivariate associations between a range of parental disorders and offspring suicidality. After controlling for comorbidity, number of mental disorders and offspring psychopathology, we found that parental psychopathology influences suicidal behaviors throughout most part of the life cycle, from childhood until young adult years. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and antisocial personality were associated with offspring suicidal ideation (OR 1.8 and 1.9, respectively, panic and GAD predicted suicidal attempts (OR 2.3 and 2.7, respectively, and panic was related to the transition from ideation to attempts (OR 2.7. Although noticed in many different stages of the lifespan, this influence is most evident during adolescence. In this period, depression and antisocial personality increased the odds of suicidal ideation (OR 5.1 and 3.2, respectively, and depression, panic disorder, GAD and substance abuse predicted suicidal attempts (OR varying from 1.7 to 3.8. In short, parental disorders characterized by impulsive-aggression and anxiety-agitation were the main predictors of offspring suicidality across the lifespan. This clinically relevant intergenerational transmission of suicide risk was independent of offspring mental disorders, and this underscores the need for a family approach to psychopathology.

  16. Assessing resilience in adolescence: the Spanish adaptation of the Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilera, Georgina; Pereda, Noemí; Paños, Ana; Abad, Judit

    2015-07-11

    The concept and assessment of resilience have attracted considerable attention in recent years, but none of the instruments developed to measure resilience in adolescents have been adapted to the Spanish context. The Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire (ARQ) provides a comprehensive and multidimensional assessment of the resources associated with resilience in adolescents. This study analyzes the psychometric properties of the ARQ. Participants included a community sample of 1101 Spanish adolescents (53.5 % boys) aged 12-17 years (M = 14.51; SD = 1.755). Results confirm the factor structure based on 12 scales. Internal consistency was generally adequate (between .60 and .84), although the unacceptable coefficient for the Empathy/Tolerance scale (α = .38) means that this scale needs to be revised for the Spanish context. Relationships between ARQ scales and psychopathology were in the expected direction and magnitude. Some gender differences were observed, with higher scores for boys on Confidence and Negative cognition. The Spanish version of the ARQ can help to identify personal characteristics associated with resilience and signs of positive engagement with family, peers, school, and the community. It can identify those adolescents most likely to show resilience in response to adversity, as well as those who may be vulnerable under situations of stress.

  17. Neuropsychological characteristics of child and adolescent offspring of patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Serna, Elena; Vila, Monserrat; Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Moreno, Dolores; Romero, Soledad; Sugranyes, Gisela; Baeza, Immaculada; Llorente, Cloe; Rodriguez-Toscano, Elisa; Sánchez-Gutierrez, Teresa; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2016-02-04

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe mental disorder with a strong genetic component. The assessment of child and adolescent offspring of patients diagnosed with BD (BDoff) provides an opportunity to investigate vulnerability factors and the first abnormalities associated with the disorder. Previous literature in child and adolescent BDoff is scarce and controversial. However, some studies concur in identifying significant impairment in executive functions, memory and attention. The present study aims to compare global neuropsychological characteristics of child and adolescent offspring of patients with bipolar disorder with a group of offspring of parentswith no history of psychotic disorder, and to assess the influence of psychopathology on neuropsychological performance. This research was part of The Bipolar and Schizophrenia Young Offspring Study (BASYS). A group of BDoff (N= 90) and a group of offspring of parents with no history of psychotic disorder (CC) (N = 107) were assessed with a complete neuropsychological battery. Intellectual quotient, working memory, processing speed, verbal memory and learning, visual memory, attention and executive functions were included in the cognitive assessment. BDoff showed significantly worse performance in processing speed and immediate recall of visual memory relative to CC. When the presence of any lifetime psychopathology was analysed, the results showed that belonging to the BDoff group was the main explicative factor for the scores obtained in both processing speed and visual memory immediate recall, regardless of the presence of psychopathology. These findings suggest that processing speed and visualmemory should be taken into consideration in future research on vulnerability markers of BD.

  18. A review of overgeneral memory in child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Caitlin; Nixon, Reginald D V; Weber, Nathan

    2014-06-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) refers to the impaired retrieval of specific events from autobiographical memory. This review examined OGM in children and adolescents to answer three main questions. First, do children demonstrate OGM? Second, how does the experience of OGM relate to childhood trauma and associated psychopathology? Third, is the CaR-FA-X model (Williams et al., 2007) able to explain OGM in child psychopathology once developmental issues have been considered? Articles were identified in PsycINFO and PubMed searches using the terms overgeneral memory AND children, autobiographical memory specificity AND children, and autobiographical memory AND children. The authors reviewed 21 articles that examined OGM in young people aged 7–18 years. Effect sizes were calculated for each study. The review demonstrated consistent support for a relationship with trauma exposure and depression symptoms in childhood. Furthermore, OGM was found to predict depression symptoms. Limited support was provided for the efficacy of the CaR-FA-X model in young people. Future research will need to examine the influence of trauma characteristics on OGM development, along with the relationship of OGM to depression prognosis. Further investigation of the CaR-FA-X model is required and developmental aspects will need to be taken into account.

  19. Immediate and Long-Term Mental Health Outcomes in Adolescent Female Rape Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshodi, Yewande; Macharia, Muiruri; Lachman, Anusha; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-12-01

    Rape is considered a stressful trauma and often has long-lasting health consequences. Compared with adult females, limited data exist on the psychological impact of rape in adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of emotional distress in a cohort of adolescent rape survivors in Cape Town. Participants in this prospective longitudinal study were 31 adolescent female rape survivors recruited from a rape clinic in Cape Town and assessed within 2 weeks of the assault. Assessment measures included a sociodemographic questionnaire and initial screening with the Child and Adolescent Trauma Survey (CATS), the patient-rated Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), and the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). The CATS, CDI, and MASC were repeated at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post enrollment. Psychiatric diagnoses were made with the clinician-administered Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Child and Adolescent version (MINI-Kid). At baseline, on the MINI-Kid, a definitive diagnosis of major depressive episode was endorsed in 22.6% of the participants. Stress-related disorders were found in 12.9%, whereas 16.1% had anxiety disorders. There was no diminution of symptoms on self-reported psychopathology measures at follow-up assessment over the five follow-up time points, suggesting persistent psychopathology over a 1-year period despite repeated clinical assessments and supportive counseling. Symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder in this sample of adolescent female rape survivors were high at enrollment and found to be persistent, underlining the need for long-term support, screening, and evidence-based follow-up care.

  20. Juvenile firesetting in Italy: relationship to aggression, psychopathology, personality, self-efficacy, and school functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bove, Giannetta; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Pastorelli, Concetta; Paciello, Marinella

    2008-06-01

    Despite the fact that juvenile fire involvement is associated with significant injuries and is highly correlated with diverse maladjustment characteristics, firesetting has never been empirically evaluated in Italy. Participants included 567 youth between 11 and 18 years of age. This investigation attempted to address four gaps in the literature. The first objective was to examine how common firesetting behavior is among Italian youth. The second goal was to explore whether in Italy firesetting is associated with other types of psychopathology and later maladjustment. Thirdly, this study sought to extend our knowledge of the personal characteristics of firesetters. Finally, the relationship between firesetting and aggression remains an empirical question. Results suggested that almost one in three Italian youth reported engaging in fire involvement. Moreover, firesetting in Italian youth is associated with significant levels of antisocial behavior and psychopathology. In fact, firesetters-only demonstrated higher levels of most measures of maladjustment than did aggressive-only youth. Finally, the findings of this study suggest that aggressive firesetters are not at higher risk than nonaggressive firesetters. Instead, fire involvement appears to be the most important variable when predicting serious behavioral difficulties and anti-sociality. This highlights the importance of fire involvement in both the assessment and prediction of antisocial behavior and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence.

  1. Assessment of Psychopathology and Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents With Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztop, Didem Behice; Taşdelen, Bedia İnce; PoyrazoğLu, Hatıce Gamze; Ozsoy, Saliha; Yilmaz, Rabia; Şahın, Nilfer; Per, Hüseyin; Bozkurt, Selma

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate comorbid psychiatric disorders and to identify anxiety and depression levels and quality of life in children and adolescents with migraine; and to assess their relationship with migraine. 35 patients aged 9-16 years were followed in our neurology clinic and their parents were included into the study. 35 age- and sex-matched patients were employed as the control group. In the subjects included, psychiatric disorders were assessed by using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version. All children and adolescents were assessed by using the Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. In addition, the Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment Tool and visual analog scale were used to identify the degree of disability and pain severity in patients with migraine. In the psychiatric assessment of children and adolescents with migraine, it was found that a psychiatric diagnosis was made in 40% of patients; and depression scale scores were significantly higher than those of controls. Quality of life was found to be poorer in patients with migraine compared to controls. It was found that quality of life was negatively correlated with pain severity and degree of disability; while it was positively correlated with depression scores. In children and adolescents with migraine, treatment of psychiatric disorders in addition to migraine therapy can facilitate migraine management and may decrease the need for prophylactic therapy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. The mediational significance of negative/depressive affect in the relationship of childhood maltreatment and eating disorder features in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, C J; Ansell, E B; Fehon, D C; Grilo, C M

    2011-03-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for eating disorder and negative/depressive affect appears to mediate this relation. However, the specific elements of eating- and body-related psychopathology that are influenced by various forms of childhood maltreatment remain unclear, and investigations among adolescents and men/boys have been limited. This study investigated the mediating role of negative affect/depression across multiple types of childhood maltreatment and eating disorder features in hospitalized adolescent boys and girls. Participants were 148 adolescent psychiatric inpatients who completed an assessment battery including measures of specific forms of childhood maltreatment (sexual, emotional, and physical abuse), negative/depressive affect, and eating disorder features (dietary restriction, binge eating, and body dissatisfaction). Findings suggest that for girls, negative/depressive affect significantly mediates the relationships between childhood maltreatment and eating disorder psychopathology, although effects varied somewhat across types of maltreatment and eating disorder features. Generalization of mediation effects to boys was limited.

  3. Extraversion and psychopathology: A facet-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David; Stasik, Sara M; Ellickson-Larew, Stephanie; Stanton, Kasey

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to explicate how the lower order facets of extraversion are related to psychopathology. We used a "bottom-up" approach in which specific extraversion scales from 3 comprehensive personality inventories were used to model these facets as latent factors. We collected both self-report and interview measures of a broad range of psychopathology from a large community sample. Replicating previous findings using a similar approach (Naragon-Gainey & Watson, 2014; Naragon-Gainey, Watson, & Markon, 2009), structural analyses yielded four factors: Positive Emotionality, Sociability, Assertiveness, and Experience Seeking. Scores on these latent dimensions were related to psychopathology in correlational analyses and in two sets of regressions (the first series used the four facets as predictors; the second included composite scores on the other Big Five domains as additional predictors). These results revealed a striking level of specificity. As predicted, Positive Emotionality displayed especially strong negative links to depressive symptoms and diagnoses. Sociability also was negatively related to psychopathology, showing particularly strong associations with indicators of social dysfunction and the negative symptoms of schizotypy (i.e., social anxiety, social aloofness, and restricted affectivity). Assertiveness generally had weak associations at the bivariate level but was negatively related to social anxiety and was positively correlated with some forms of externalizing. Finally, Experience Seeking had substantial positive associations with a broad range of indicators related to externalizing and bipolar disorder; it also displayed negative links to agoraphobia. These differential correlates demonstrate the importance of examining personality-psychopathology relations at the specific facet level. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Shame and Guilt-Proneness in Adolescents: Gene-Environment Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora; Chiș, Adina; Vulturar, Romana; Dobrean, Anca; Cândea, Diana Mirela; Miu, Andrei C

    2015-01-01

    Rooted in people's preoccupation with how they are perceived and evaluated, shame and guilt are self-conscious emotions that play adaptive roles in social behavior, but can also contribute to psychopathology when dysregulated. Shame and guilt-proneness develop during childhood and adolescence, and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors that are little known to date. This study investigated the effects of early traumatic events and functional polymorphisms in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene and the serotonin transporter gene promoter (5-HTTLPR) on shame and guilt in adolescents. A sample of N = 271 healthy adolescents between 14 and 17 years of age filled in measures of early traumatic events and proneness to shame and guilt, and were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms. Results of moderator analyses indicated that trauma intensity was positively associated with guilt-proneness only in carriers of the low-expressing Met allele of BDNF Val66Met. This is the first study that identifies a gene-environment interaction that significantly contributes to guilt proneness in adolescents, with potential implications for developmental psychopathology.

  5. [From nosology to functionality: the current discussion of psychopathology in the psychotherapy of adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Franz; Parzer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the question whether the psychopathology in psychotherapy has relevance, different aspects of symptoms are described: the causal model views symptoms as a necessary consequence of specific preconditions. The functional model views symptoms as behaviors aiming at the achievement of internal motives and desires. An application of the cybernetic control model on psychological processes is formulated as a theory of the control of perception. Often the goals of behavior are represented by verbal rules. Such inner verbalizations are described in detail. An attempt of a functional symptom analysis is made, according to the theory of the control of perception in a clinical context. The psychotherapeutic attempt to modify dysfunctional goals in patients aims to decouple the emotional experiences from verbalized inner rules. Functional psychopathology may be useful for treatment failure after conventional therapies, as well as in multimodal interventions (combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy).

  6. Facial expressions of emotion and psychopathology in adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, D; Moffitt, T E; Stouthamer-Loeber, M

    1995-11-01

    On the basis of the widespread belief that emotions underpin psychological adjustment, the authors tested 3 predicted relations between externalizing problems and anger, internalizing problems and fear and sadness, and the absence of externalizing problems and social-moral emotion (embarrassment). Seventy adolescent boys were classified into 1 of 4 comparison groups on the basis of teacher reports using a behavior problem checklist: internalizers, externalizers, mixed (both internalizers and externalizers), and nondisordered boys. The authors coded the facial expressions of emotion shown by the boys during a structured social interaction. Results supported the 3 hypotheses: (a) Externalizing adolescents showed increased facial expressions of anger, (b) on 1 measure internalizing adolescents showed increased facial expressions of fear, and (c) the absence of externalizing problems (or nondisordered classification) was related to increased displays of embarrassment. Discussion focused on the relations of these findings to hypotheses concerning the role of impulse control in antisocial behavior.

  7. [Adolescents with diabetes type 1 in adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity, family and biographical risk factors, and individual motivational aspects influence the therapeutic adherence and treatment motivation in Diabetes Type 1. The article provides basis diabetological knowledge for adolescent psychotherapists and describes practical out- and inpatient experiences and deliberations with especially problematic comorbid patients. In psychiatrically comorbid patients family conflicts and individual psychopathology is often reflected and manifested in selfharming diabetes management.

  8. Psychiatric Disorders and Sexual Risk among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and…

  9. Preventive strategies in child and adolescent psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Sagar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood and adolescence are periods of growth and development that are critical to the formation of adult personality and psychopathology. Moreover, childhood psychopathology may differ significantly in presentation and risk factors from those seen among adults and may require different preventive strategies. Service-related characteristics such as the shortage of trained child and adolescent mental health professionals also demand that the focus should shift from resource-intensive treatment interventions, toward preventive measures that can be delivered at lower cost in terms of workforce, money, and time; and can lead to improved outcomes for a wide variety of conditions. Preventive strategies that have been implemented in this population have mostly included both preventive measures (aiming at reducing the prevalence of risk factors and promotive components (aimed at increasing resilience and positive mental health characteristics, usually in combination. Interventions have been shown to be most effective when they are targeted at underlying latent structures that predict risk; they are also more effective when delivered over a prolonged period. Interventions must also be formulated such that they are developmentally appropriate, and with clearly stated outcome parameters for evaluation. A few example interventions that have made use of these strategies are discussed in the course of this article.

  10. Hostile parenting, parental psychopathology, and depressive symptoms in the offspring: a 32-year follow-up in the Young Finns study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluschkoff, Kia; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Jokela, Markus; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli; Hintsanen, Mirka

    2017-01-15

    Both hostile parenting and parental psychopathology have been shown to predict depression in the offspring. However, whether and how they interact in predicting the longitudinal course of depression from adolescence to adulthood remains unclear. Participants were from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study, aged 3-18 years at baseline in 1980. We used multilevel modeling for repeated measurements to examine the associations of hostile parenting (i.e., parental intolerance and emotional distance) and parental history of psychopathology with trajectories of depressive symptoms across five study phases from 1992 to 2012. On average, depressive symptoms decreased in a curvilinear pattern with age. A relatively steep decreasing trend was also observed among offspring of parents with a history of psychopathology but low intolerance. By contrast, among the offspring of parents with a history of psychopathology and high intolerance there was a rising trend in depressive symptoms starting from young adulthood. There was no similar interaction between parental history of psychopathology, emotional distance, and age. Non-standardized, parental self-report scales were used to measure hostile parenting. The observed effects were small, and the depressive symptoms scale applied in the study may not be used for measuring clinical depression. Parental psychopathology might render individuals sensitive to the unfavorable characteristics of the caregiving environment. Intolerance towards the child can exacerbate the effects of parental psychopathology and have a long-term significance on the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms over the life-course. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reliability and Validity of Prototype Diagnosis for Adolescent Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Greg; Zodan, Jennifer; Mehra, Ashwin; Zubair, Ayyan; Ghosh, Krishnendu; Siefert, Caleb J; Sinclair, Samuel J; DeFife, Jared

    2016-04-01

    The current study investigated the interrater reliability and validity of prototype ratings of 5 common adolescent psychiatric disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. One hundred fifty-seven adolescent inpatient participants consented to participate in this study. We compared ratings from 2 inpatient clinicians, blinded to each other's ratings and patient measures, after their separate initial diagnostic interview to assess interrater reliability. Prototype ratings completed by clinicians after their initial diagnostic interview with adolescent inpatients and outpatients were compared with patient-reported behavior problems and parents' report of their child's behavioral problems. Prototype ratings demonstrated good interrater reliability. Clinicians' prototype ratings showed predicted relationships with patient-reported behavior problems and parent-reported behavior problems. Prototype matching seems to be a possible alternative for psychiatric diagnosis. Prototype ratings showed good interrater reliability based on clinicians unique experiences with the patient (as opposed to video-/audio-recorded material) with no training.

  12. Fathers' behaviors and children's psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2010-04-01

    The psychological literature on how fathers' behaviors may be related to children's psychopathology has grown substantially in the last three decades. This growth is the result of research asking the following three overarching questions: (1) what is the association between family structure, and particularly biological fathers' non-residence, and children's psychopathology, (2) what is the association between fathers' parenting and children's psychopathology, and (3) what is the association between fathers' psychopathology and children's psychopathology. The three broad theoretical perspectives relevant to this literature are the standard family environment model, the passive genetic model, and the child effects model. The evidence from studies comparing the first two models seems to suggest that the origin of the association between parental divorce and children's emotional and behavioral problems is largely shared environmental in origin, as is the association between resident fathers' parenting and children's emotional and behavioral problems, according to studies comparing the standard family environment model with the child effects model. However, research needs to compare appropriately all theoretical perspectives. The paper discusses this, and also points to the importance of considering theory-driven specificity in modeling effects. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Maternal and Child Internalizing Symptoms Predicting Early Adolescent Emotional Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Timothy D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2017-05-01

    To examine maternal and child internalizing symptoms as predictors of early adolescent emotional eating in a longitudinal framework spanning three critical developmental periods (preschool, elementary school, and early adolescence). Participants were 170 children recruited at preschool age for a longitudinal study. When children were 5.25 years, their mothers completed ratings of their own internalizing symptoms. During the spring of 4th grade, children completed measures of internalizing symptoms. In early adolescence, youth completed a measure of emotional eating. Maternal and child internalizing symptoms predicted adolescent emotional eating. The results indicated that child psychopathology moderated the association between maternal psychopathology (except for maternal anxiety) and early adolescent emotional eating. There was no evidence of mediation. Pediatric psychologists are encouraged to provide early screening of, and interventions for, maternal and child internalizing symptoms to prevent children's emotional eating. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. The p Factor: One General Psychopathology Factor in the Structure of Psychiatric Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate M.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra J.; Harrington, HonaLee; Israel, Salomon; Meier, Madeline H.; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Shalev, Idan; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders traditionally have been viewed as distinct, episodic, and categorical conditions. This view has been challenged by evidence that many disorders are sequentially comorbid, recurrent/chronic, and exist on a continuum. Using the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, we examined the structure of psychopathology, taking into account dimensionality, persistence, co-occurrence, and sequential comorbidity of mental disorders across 20 years, from adolescence to midlife. Psychiatric disorders were initially explained by three higher-order factors (Internalizing, Externalizing, and Thought Disorder) but explained even better with one General Psychopathology dimension. We have called this dimension the p factor because it conceptually parallels a familiar dimension in psychological science: the g factor of general intelligence. Higher p scores are associated with more life impairment, greater familiality, worse developmental histories, and more compromised early-life brain function. The p factor explains why it is challenging to find causes, consequences, biomarkers, and treatments with specificity to individual mental disorders. Transdiagnostic approaches may improve research. PMID:25360393

  15. Culture and Youth Psychopathology: Testing the Syndromal Sensitivity Model in Thai and American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, John R.; Weiss, Bahr; Suwanlert, Somsong; Chaiyasit, Wanchai

    2006-01-01

    Current widespread use of the same youth assessment measures and scales across different nations assumes that youth psychopathology syndromes do not differ meaningfully across nations. By contrast, the authors' syndromal sensitivity model posits 3 processes through which cultural differences can lead to cross-national differences in…

  16. Confirming the Etiology of Adolescent Acting-out Behaviors: An Examination of Observer-Ratings in a Sample of Adoptive and Biological Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Klahr, Ashlea M.; Rueter, Martha A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A recent meta-analysis revealed moderate shared environmental influences (C) on most forms of child and adolescent psychopathology (Burt, 2009), including antisocial behavior. Critically, however, the research analyzed in this meta-analysis relied largely on specific informant-reports (and particularly parent and child reports), each…

  17. Stress response and the adolescent transition: performance versus peer rejection stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Laura R; Foster, Elizabeth; Papandonatos, George D; Handwerger, Kathryn; Granger, Douglas A; Kivlighan, Katie T; Niaura, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about normative variation in stress response over the adolescent transition. This study examined neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses to performance and peer rejection stressors over the adolescent transition in a normative sample. Participants were 82 healthy children (ages 7-12 years, n = 39, 22 females) and adolescents (ages 13-17, n = 43, 20 females) recruited through community postings. Following a habituation session, participants completed a performance (public speaking, mental arithmetic, mirror tracing) or peer rejection (exclusion challenges) stress session. Salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase (sAA), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and heart rate were measured throughout. Adolescents showed significantly greater cortisol, sAA, SBP, and DBP stress response relative to children. Developmental differences were most pronounced in the performance stress session for cortisol and DBP and in the peer rejection session for sAA and SBP. Heightened physiological stress responses in typical adolescents may facilitate adaptation to new challenges of adolescence and adulthood. In high-risk adolescents, this normative shift may tip the balance toward stress response dysregulation associated with depression and other psychopathology. Specificity of physiological response by stressor type highlights the importance of a multisystem approach to the psychobiology of stress and may also have implications for understanding trajectories to psychopathology.

  18. Commentary: the multifaceted nature of maternal depression as a risk factor for child psychopathology--reflections on Sellers et al. (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Sherryl

    2014-01-01

    While much has been learned about depression in mothers as a risk for the development of psychopathology in offspring, many questions about how the risk is transmitted remain unanswered. Moreover, maternal depression is too often considered to be a unitary construct, ignoring the likely diversity among mothers with depression, which could play essential roles in understanding not only mechanisms of risk but also moderators of risk, i.e. for whom the association between maternal depression and adverse offspring outcomes may be stronger. Sellers et al. address both mechanisms and moderators, thereby contributing to the understanding of risk to offspring of depressed mothers in these two important ways. There is much to learn from this work, on many levels and for different audiences, including both researchers and practitioners. A key take-home message of this study for all readers is that understanding the role of maternal depression in associations with child psychopathology requires a nuanced view of the nature of risk to children from depression in mothers. The often co-occurring disorders and highly correlated additional aspects of the context in which depression occurs play important roles in the development of psychopathology in the offspring of depressed mothers. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Two years of gender identity service for minors: overrepresentation of natal girls with severe problems in adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Sumia, Maria; Työläjärvi, Marja; Lindberg, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adolescents present in adolescent gender identity services, desiring sex reassignment (SR). The aim of this study is to describe the adolescent applicants for legal and medical sex reassignment during the first two years of adolescent gender identity team in Finland, in terms of sociodemographic, psychiatric and gender identity related factors and adolescent development. Structured quantitative retrospective chart review and qualitative analysis of case files of all adolescent SR applicants who entered the assessment by the end of 2013. The number of referrals exceeded expectations in light of epidemiological knowledge. Natal girls were markedly overrepresented among applicants. Severe psychopathology preceding onset of gender dysphoria was common. Autism spectrum problems were very common. The findings do not fit the commonly accepted image of a gender dysphoric minor. Treatment guidelines need to consider gender dysphoria in minors in the context of severe psychopathology and developmental difficulties.

  20. Social defeat stress induces depression-like behavior and alters spine morphology in the hippocampus of adolescent male C57BL/6 mice

    OpenAIRE

    I?iguez, Sergio D.; Aubry, Antonio; Riggs, Lace M.; Alipio, Jason B.; Zanca, Roseanna M.; Flores-Ramirez, Francisco J.; Hernandez, Mirella A.; Nieto, Steven J.; Musheyev, David; Serrano, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Social stress, including bullying during adolescence, is a risk factor for common psychopathologies such as depression. To investigate the neural mechanisms associated with juvenile social stress-induced mood-related endophenotypes, we examined the behavioral, morphological, and biochemical effects of the social defeat stress model of depression on hippocampal dendritic spines within the CA1 stratum radiatum. Adolescent (postnatal day 35) male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to defeat episodes fo...

  1. Creativity and Psychopathology: Sex Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Brufau, Ramón; Corbalán, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The association between creativity and psychopathology has, for decades, been a focus of heated debate fuelled by contradictory findings. Nevertheless, the findings suggest complex associations between creativity and psychopathology. Other studies have investigated the association between creativity and sex, with inconsistent results. The aim of…

  2. Further Evidence of a Specific Psychopathology of Addiction. Differentiation from Other Psychiatric Psychopathological Dimensions (Such as Obesity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maremmani, Angelo G I; Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia; Bacciardi, Silvia; Rovai, Luca; Pallucchini, Alessandro; Spera, Vincenza; Perugi, Giulio; Maremmani, Icro

    2017-08-21

    Introduction : In this study, we used a symptomatology checklist (SCL-90) to substantiate the hypothesis that Substance Use Disorder (SUD) has its own five-dimensional psychopathology. The aim of the present study was to test whether this psychopathology can be differentiated from other psychiatric psychopathological dimensions (such as obesity). Methods: The severity and frequency of each of the five dimensions were investigated, at univariate and multivariate levels, by comparing 972 Heroin Use Disorder (HUD) patients (83.5% male, mean age 30.12 ± 6.6, range: 16-59) and 106 obese individuals (50.0% male, mean age 37.59 ± 7.6, range: 24-52). The correlations between the Body Mass Index (BMI) of obese individuals with these psychopathological dimensions were also studied. Results: Obese individuals showed higher SCL-90 total scores, global severity index scores, number of items rated positively, and positive symptoms distress index scores than HUD patients. The severity of all psychopathological dimensions was significantly higher in obese individuals. Discriminant analysis showed that Panic-Anxiety and Violence-Suicide severity were more frequent in obese patients, sufficiently so to allow differentiation between HUD (lower severity) and obese individuals (greater severity). At the reclassification level, 70.8% of obese individuals in the sample were reclassified as HUD patients. Psychopathological subtypes characterized by Panic-Anxiety and Violence-Suicide typology were more frequent in obese patients and sufficiently so as to discriminate between groups. Of obese patients, 47.2% were reclassified as HUD patients. The severity of the Worthlessness-Being Trapped dimension was sufficient to predict the BMI of obese individuals. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the five-factor psychopathology found in HUD can discriminate between HUD and obese patients, but that there is an area of overlap between the forms of psychopathology found in SUD and those found in

  3. Life events, locus of control, and behavioral problems among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Kurita, H; Uchiyama, M; Okawa, M; Liu, L; Ma, D

    2000-12-01

    This study examined associations of life events and locus of control with behavioral problems among 1,365 Chinese adolescents by using the Youth Self-Report (YSR), Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist (ASLEC), and the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale for Children. Results indicated that the overall prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems was 10.7% (95% CI = 9.9-11.5%). Logistic-regression analyses showed that a total of 13 negative life events mainly coming from academic domain and interpersonal relationships, high life-stress score, and high external locus score significantly increased the risk for behavioral problems. Life stress and locus of control significantly interacted with behavioral problems. These findings support the linkage between stressful life events and psychopathology in a general population of adolescents from mainland China, and demonstrate the stress-moderating effects of locus of control on psychopathology as well.

  4. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-relat...

  5. Gender differences in the effects of childhood psychopathology and maternal distress on mental health in adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

    2011-07-01

    To investigate gender differences in how emotional and behavioural problems (hyperactivity, emotional problems, and conduct problems) and maternal psychological distress, all measured at three time points in childhood (ages 5, 10, and 16), predict psychological distress in adult life (age 30). Longitudinal data from 10,444 cohort members of the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) were used. Emotional problems in adolescence tended to be more strongly associated with adult psychological distress in men than in women. No gender differences in the association of adult psychological distress with maternal psychological distress in adolescence were found. In childhood and adolescence boys' externalizing behaviour problems tended to show more homotypic continuity than girls', but all heterotypic continuity (although very little) of behaviour problems was seen in girls. Maternal psychological distress in childhood tended to have a stronger effect on girls' than boys' emotional problems in adolescence. In general there was little evidence for gender differences either in the association of adult psychological distress with adolescent psychopathology or in the association of adult psychological distress with maternal psychological distress in adolescence. The continuity of emotional problems from childhood to adolescence to adult life was strong and similar for both sexes.

  6. Empathic skills and theory of mind in female adolescents with conduct disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Arango Tobón, Olber E.; Olivera-La Rosa, Antonio; Restrepo Tamayo, Viviana; Puerta Lopera, Isabel C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Most studies on conduct disorder (CD) have focused on male adolescents, disregarding analysis of this psychopathology in women. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in empathy and theory of mind (ToM) in a group of adolescent women with CD and a control group. Method: Thirty-six adolescent women were selected from an initial sample of 239 adolescents (CD group = 18, control group = 18). Empathy and ToM were evaluated through objective instruments. Mean comparisons...

  7. Annual research review: Rare genotypes and childhood psychopathology--uncovering diverse developmental mechanisms of ADHD risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerif, Gaia; Baker, Kate

    2015-03-01

    Through the increased availability and sophistication of genetic testing, it is now possible to identify causal diagnoses in a growing proportion of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. In addition to developmental delay and intellectual disability, many genetic disorders are associated with high risks of psychopathology, which curtail the wellbeing of affected individuals and their families. Beyond the identification of significant clinical needs, understanding the diverse pathways from rare genetic mutations to cognitive dysfunction and emotional-behavioural disturbance has theoretical and practical utility. We overview (based on a strategic search of the literature) the state-of-the-art on causal mechanisms leading to one of the most common childhood behavioural diagnoses - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - in the context of specific genetic disorders. We focus on new insights emerging from the mapping of causal pathways from identified genetic differences to neuronal biology, brain abnormalities, cognitive processing differences and ultimately behavioural symptoms of ADHD. First, ADHD research in the context of rare genotypes highlights the complexity of multilevel mechanisms contributing to psychopathology risk. Second, comparisons between genetic disorders associated with similar psychopathology risks can elucidate convergent or distinct mechanisms at each level of analysis, which may inform therapeutic interventions and prognosis. Third, genetic disorders provide an unparalleled opportunity to observe dynamic developmental interactions between neurocognitive risk and behavioural symptoms. Fourth, variation in expression of psychopathology risk within each genetic disorder points to putative moderating and protective factors within the genome and the environment. A common imperative emerging within psychopathology research is the need to investigate mechanistically how developmental trajectories converge or diverge between and within

  8. Childhood trauma and eating psychopathology: a mediating role for dissociation and emotion dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Stuart J; Newman, Emily; Power, Kevin; Swanson, Vivien; Day, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood trauma and eating psychopathology using a multiple mediation model that included emotion dysregulation and dissociation as hypothesised mediators. 142 female undergraduate psychology students studying at two British Universities participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed measures of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect), eating psychopathology, dissociation and emotion dysregulation. Multiple mediation analysis was conducted to investigate the study's proposed model. Results revealed that the multiple mediation model significantly predicted eating psychopathology. Additionally, both emotion dysregulation and dissociation were found to be significant mediators between childhood trauma and eating psychopathology. A specific indirect effect was observed between childhood emotional abuse and eating psychopathology through emotion dysregulation. Findings support previous research linking childhood trauma to eating psychopathology. They indicate that multiple forms of childhood trauma should be assessed for individuals with eating disorders. The possible maintaining role of emotion regulation processes should also be considered in the treatment of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Considering the cultural context in psychopathology formulations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-02

    Mar 2, 2013 ... need to explore cultural conceptualisations of psychopathology is ... The review indicated that 29 literature sources were conceptual in design, suggesting a great need for more empirical research. This .... logy; universalism, relativism, abso ..... as philosophical systems include moral and political concerns.

  10. Effectiveness of a multimodal inpatient treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa in comparison with adults: an analysis of a specialized inpatient setting : treatment of adolescent and adult anorexics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naab, Silke; Schlegl, Sandra; Korte, Alexander; Heuser, Joerg; Fumi, Markus; Fichter, Manfred; Cuntz, Ulrich; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2013-06-01

    There is evidence for an increased prevalence and an earlier onset of anorexia nervosa (AN) in adolescents. Early specialized treatment may improve prognosis and decrease the risk of a chronic course. The current study evaluates the effectiveness of a multimodal inpatient treatment for adolescent AN patients treated in a highly specialized eating disorder unit for adults. 177 adolescents and 1,064 adult patients were included. The evaluation focused on eating behavior, depressive symptoms and general psychopathology. All measured variables decreased significantly in both groups during inpatient treatment. No differences were found concerning weight gain, improvement of global eating disorder symptomatology as well as depressive symptoms. However, adults showed a higher psychological distress and in this regard also a greater improvement. Results indicate that treating adolescent AN patients in a highly specialized eating disorder unit for adults can be an effective treatment setting for these patients.

  11. Pathways to suicide-related behavior in offspring of mothers with depression: the role of offspring psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, Gemma; Zammit, Stanley; Mahedy, Liam; Pearson, Rebecca M; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2015-05-01

    Offspring of mothers with depression are a high-risk group for the development of suicide-related behavior. These offspring are therefore a priority for preventive interventions; however, pathways contributing to risk, including specific aspects of offspring psychopathology, remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether offspring symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and alcohol abuse independently mediate the association between maternal depression and offspring suicide-related behavior. Data were used from a population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Three distinct classes of depression symptoms across the mothers' first 11 years of their child's life were identified (minimal, moderate, chronic-severe). Offspring psychopathology was assessed at age 15 years and suicide-related behavior at age 16 years. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. There was evidence for increased risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms in comparison to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% CI = 2.19, 4.21). This association was independently mediated by offspring MDD, GAD, and DBD symptoms. The same mechanisms were found for offspring of mothers with moderate depression symptoms over time. Results were similar for offspring suicide attempt except for additional evidence of an indirect effect through offspring ADHD symptoms. Findings highlight that suicide prevention efforts in offspring of mothers with depression should not only be targeted at offspring with MDD; it is also important to consider offspring with other forms of psychopathology. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Visual attentional bias for food in adolescents with binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ricarda; Lüthold, Patrick; Kittel, Rebekka; Tetzlaff, Anne; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that adults with binge-eating disorder (BED) are prone of having their attention interfered by food cues, and that food-related attentional biases are associated with calorie intake and eating disorder psychopathology. For adolescents with BED experimental evidence on attentional processing of food cues is lacking. Using eye-tracking and a visual search task, the present study examined visual orienting and disengagement processes of food in youth with BED. Eye-movement data and reaction times were recorded in 25 adolescents (12-20 years) with BED and 25 controls (CG) individually matched for sex, age, body mass index, and socio-economic status. During a free exploration paradigm, the BED group showed a greater gaze duration bias for food images than the CG. Groups did not differ in gaze direction biases. In a visual search task, the BED group showed a greater detection bias for food targets than the CG. Group differences were more pronounced for personally attractive than unattractive food images. Regarding clinical associations, only in the BED group the gaze duration bias for food was associated with increased hunger and lower body mass index, and the detection bias for food targets was associated with greater reward sensitivity. The study provided first evidence of an attentional bias to food in adolescents with BED. However, more research is needed for further specifying disengagement and orienting processes in adolescent BED, including overt and covert attention, and their prospective associations with binge-eating behaviors and associated psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Relations among Maternal Depression, Maternal Criticism, and Adolescents' Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Alice A.; Garber, Judy

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations between maternal criticism and externalizing and internalizing symptoms in adolescents who varied in their risk for psychopathology. Both maternal-effects and child-effects models were examined. The sample consisted of 194 adolescents (mean age = 11.8 years) and their mothers: 146 mothers had a history of…

  14. Familial and Clinical Correlates in Depressed Adolescents with Borderline Personality Disorder Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marc Guile

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chart review is a low-cost, but highly informative, method to describe symptoms, treatment and risk factors associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD and to adapt screening and intervention to clinical reality. Previous chart review studies report more aggressiveness/anger and psychotic features in youths with BPD. They show that adverse family environment and parental psychopathology constitute important factors for BPD pathology. Objectives: To examine clinical characteristics of depressed BPD adolescents (12-17 years old outpatients according to gender and to explore variables which are associated with BPD traits. Methods: A retrospective chart review using the Child and Adolescent Version of the Retrospective Diagnostic Instrument for Borderlines was conducted on 30 depressed BPD adolescents with BPD traits and 28 non-BPD depressed patients without BPD traits. Participants who reached the C-DIB threshold for BPD were included in the BPD traits group. The Child and Adolescent Version of the Retrospective Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines was used to determine the presence of BPD. Comparisons analyses were performed using Pearson’s Chi-square test. Associated factors were determined using regression analyses. Results: BPD traits participants outpatients were characterised by higher family problems (parental psychopathology, parent disagreement/argument, parent-child relational problem, more aggressive symptoms, and higher rates of family intervention and hospitalisation. A number of familial factors (parental history of delinquency, substance use, or personality disorders, having siblings, parental disagreement/argument in boys were associated with BPD symptomatologytraits. Attention seeking and problematic functioning (does not adapt well to group activities were also associated with BPD traits. Discussion: Our study stresses the need to assess BPD traits in adolescent psychiatric evaluation, especially in

  15. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity

  16. Trajectories of psychopathology and risky behaviors associated with childhood abuse and neglect in low-income urban African American girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W; Samuelson, Sarah L; Staudenmeyer, Anna H; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined patterns of psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, and sexual behavior associated with childhood abuse and neglect in a high-risk sample of low-income African American girls seeking mental health treatment. Participants (N=177) were African American girls recruited from mental health clinics serving low-income communities in Chicago, IL and followed over six waves of data collection (T1-T6) reflecting early (mean age 14) to late (mean age 17) adolescence. Child abuse and neglect history was determined from adolescent and caregiver reports. Latent curve modeling examined patterns of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, sexual experience, and risky sexual behavior reported by girls and associations with reported child abuse and neglect. Overall, these trajectories indicated a decrease in internalizing and externalizing symptoms, stability of drug and alcohol use, and an increase in sexual experience and risky sexual behaviors over time. Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased internalizing symptoms and sexual experience at baseline and with externalizing symptoms and risky sexual behavior both at baseline and the final point. Child abuse and neglect was not significantly associated with alcohol or drug use. This study adds to the literature on the long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect by demonstrating patterns of psychopathology and risky behavior that persist over time in a high-risk group of girls with self or parent reported histories of abuse and neglect. Interventions that address externalizing problems and health risk behaviors may be of particular importance for this population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A theoretical framework for the associations between identity and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimstra, Theo A; Denissen, Jaap J A

    2017-11-01

    Identity research largely emerged from clinical observations. Decades of empirical work advanced the field in refining existing approaches and adding new approaches. Furthermore, the existence of linkages of identity with psychopathology is now well established. Unfortunately, both the directionality of effects between identity aspects and psychopathology symptoms, and the mechanisms underlying associations are unclear. In the present paper, we present a new framework to inspire hypothesis-driven empirical research to overcome this limitation. The framework has a basic resemblance to theoretical models for the study of personality and psychopathology, so we provide examples of how these might apply to the study of identity. Next, we explain that unique features of identity may come into play in individuals suffering from psychopathology that are mostly related to the content of one's identity. These include pros and cons of identifying with one's diagnostic label. Finally, inspired by Hermans' dialogical self theory and principles derived from Piaget's, Swann's and Kelly's work, we delineate a framework with identity at the core of an individual multidimensional space. In this space, psychopathology symptoms have a known distance (representing relevance) to one's identity, and individual multidimensional spaces are connected to those of other individuals in one's social network. We discuss methodological (quantitative and qualitative, idiographic and nomothetic) and statistical procedures (multilevel models and network models) to test the framework. Resulting evidence can boost the field of identity research in demonstrating its high practical relevance for the emergence and conservation of psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The RDoC initiative and the structure of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Robert F; DeYoung, Colin G

    2016-03-01

    The NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project represents a welcome effort to circumvent the limitations of psychiatric categories as phenotypes for psychopathology research. Here, we describe the hierarchical and dimensional structure of phenotypic psychopathology and illustrate how this structure provides phenotypes suitable for RDoC research on neural correlates of psychopathology. A hierarchical and dimensional approach to psychopathology phenotypes holds great promise for delineating connections between neuroscience constructs and the patterns of affect, cognition, and behavior that constitute manifest psychopathology. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Perceived Expressed Emotion, Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Self Esteem in Obese Adolescents: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolpan, Merve; Eray, Şafak; Eren, Erdal; Vural, Ayşe Pınar

    2018-05-23

    Obesity is a chronic disease which causes medical and psychiatric complications. Family climate is also a critical factor in the presence and treatment of obesity and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In our study, perceived expressed emotion (EE), psychopathology, self-esteem and emotional and behavioural problems among obese adolescents will be investigated by comparison with their non-obese peers. This study was carried out with 49 obese adolescents and 47 non-obese adolescents as a control group. All participants were requested to fill out the Socio-demographic Data Form, Shortened Level of Expressed Emotion Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire-Adolescent Form. In our study, obese adolescents showed a significant difference in perceived EE (pself-esteem (pself esteem. A higher rate of perceived EE, psychopathology and low self-esteem among obese adolescents showed that obesity prevention and treatment are also crucial for mental health in adolescents. With the help of our study results, we aimed to emphasize the role of the family in obese adolescent's mental health and their treatment. By the help of our results we try to identifying risk factors in childhood that promote obesity in order to help develop targeted intervention and prevention programs.

  20. Father's and Mother's Perceptions of Parenting Styles as Mediators of the Effects of Parental Psychopathology on Antisocial Behavior in Outpatient Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to examine the potential mediating role of father's and mother's parenting styles in the association between parental psychopathology and antisocial behavior in children, and whether this pathway was moderated by child's sex. Participants included both parents and 338 Spanish outpatient children between 8 and 17 years (56.5% boys).…

  1. Sex Differences in the Adolescent Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased divergence between males and females in physical characteristics, behavior, and risk for psychopathology. Here we will review data regarding sex differences in brain structure and function during this period of the lifespan. The most consistent sex difference in brain morphometry is the 9-12% larger brain size…

  2. Contribution to postnonclassical psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintino-Aires J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Any psychological paradigm needs a psychopathological system that helps professionals to describe and explain the behavioral expressions that deviate from “normal” (whether this term is used with the semantic property of statistical or ideal adaptations. In this work, I seek to present the system that I have been developing since 1998 among the psychologists at the Instituto Vegotsky de Lisboa (Vygotsky Institute of Lisbon, Portugal, to understand psychopathology with regard to the vygotskian approach. It was conceived and designed according to the work of Rita Mendes Leal and her contribution to socioemotional development theory, AR Luria’s systemic and dynamic theory of the human brain, the theory of Activity (dyatel’nost of AN Leont’ev, and the psychopathological German school of E Kraepelin, presented and disseminated in Portugal in the early twentieth century by Professor Sobral Cid. It is intended to be a proposal to colleagues who are interested in postnonclassical psychology and a request for arguments.

  3. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia: A Transdiagnostic Biomarker of Emotion Dysregulation and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)—an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS)-mediated cardiac control—has emerged as a reliable peripheral biomarker of emotion regulation (ER). Reduced RSA and excessive RSA reactivity (i.e., withdrawal) to emotional challenge are observed consistently among individuals with poor ER capabilities, including those with various forms of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, and those with specific psychopathological syndromes, including anxiety, phobias, attention problems, autism, callousness, conduct disorder, depression, non-suicidal self-injury, panic disorder, and trait hostility. Emerging evidence suggests that low RSA and excessive RSA reactivity index poor ER because they are downstream peripheral markers of prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction. Poorly modulated inhibitory efferent pathways from the medial PFC to the PNS result in reduced RSA and excessive RSA reactivity. According to this perspective, RSA is a non-invasive proxy for poor executive control over behavior, which characterizes most forms of psychopathology. PMID:25866835

  4. Developmental trajectories of anxiety symptoms in early adolescence: the influence of anxiety sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Capron, Daniel W; Lejuez, Carl W; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-05-01

    Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of anxiety psychopathology. This study prospectively examined the development of anxiety symptoms in a sample of 277 adolescents (M age = 11.52; 44 % female, 56 % male) over a 3 year period including the influence of anxiety sensitivity on this development. Further, this study investigated whether there were distinct classes of adolescents based on their anxiety symptom trajectories and including anxiety sensitivity as a predictor. Consistent with other reports, findings indicated an overall decline in anxiety symptoms over time in the sample. However, three classes of adolescents were found with distinct anxiety symptom trajectories and anxiety sensitivity was an important predictor of class membership. Adolescents with elevated anxiety sensitivity scores were more likely to be classified as having high and increasing anxiety symptoms over time versus having moderate to low and decreasing anxiety symptoms over time. There are important implications for identification of adolescents and children who are at risk for the development of an anxiety disorder.

  5. Adolescent Internet Abuse: A Study on the Role of Attachment to Parents and Peers in a Large Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarotto, Giulia; Volpi, Barbara; Marzilli, Eleonora; Tambelli, Renata

    2018-01-01

    Adolescents are the main users of new technologies and their main purpose of use is social interaction. Although new technologies are useful to teenagers, in addressing their developmental tasks, recent studies have shown that they may be an obstacle in their growth. Research shows that teenagers with Internet addiction experience lower quality in their relationships with parents and more individual difficulties. However, limited research is available on the role played by adolescents' attachment to parents and peers, considering their psychological profiles. We evaluated in a large community sample of adolescents ( N = 1105) the Internet use/abuse, the adolescents' attachment to parents and peers, and their psychological profiles. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to verify the influence of parental and peer attachment on Internet use/abuse, considering the moderating effect of adolescents' psychopathological risk. Results showed that adolescents' attachment to parents had a significant effect on Internet use. Adolescents' psychopathological risk had a moderating effect on the relationship between attachment to mothers and Internet use. Our study shows that further research is needed, taking into account both individual and family variables.

  6. Long-term consequences of adolescent cannabinoid exposure in adult psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine eRenard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug among adolescents and young adults. Unique cognitive, emotional, and social changes occur during this critical period of development from childhood into adulthood. The adolescent brain is in a state of transition and differs from the adult brain with respect to both anatomy (e.g., neuronal connections and morphology and neurochemistry (e.g., dopamine, GABA, and glutamate. These changes are thought to support the emergence of adult cerebral processes and behaviors. The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in development by acting on synaptic plasticity, neuronal cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Delta-9-tetrahydrocanabinol (THC, the principal psychoactive component in marijuana, acts as an agonist of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R. Thus, over-activation of the endocannabinoid system by chronic exposure to CB1R agonists (e.g. THC, CP-55,940, and WIN55,212-2 during adolescence can dramatically alter brain maturation and cause long-lasting neurobiological changes that ultimately affect the function and behavior of the adult brain. Indeed, emerging evidence from both human and animal studies demonstrates that early-onset marijuana use has long-lasting consequences on cognition; moreover, in humans, this use is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of developing a psychotic disorder. Here, we review the relationship between cannabinoid exposure during adolescence and the increased risk of neuropsychiatric disorders, focusing on both clinical and animal studies.

  7. Motivation to change and perceptions of the admission process with respect to outcome in adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Simona; Dempfle, Astrid; Seitz, Jochen; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Bühren, Katharina

    2015-07-02

    In patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), there is evidence that readiness to change is an important predictor of outcome with respect to weight gain and improvement in eating disorder psychopathology. In particular, young patients are characterized by a low level of motivation for recovery and perceive more coercion at hospitalization. Thus, a better understanding of the variables that influence readiness to change and perception of the admission process in adolescent AN may help to support patients in initiating change and staying motivated for treatment. In 40 adolescent patients diagnosed with AN according to DSM-IV criteria, we assessed in a prospective clinical cohort study the motivation to change using the Anorexia Nervosa Stages of Change Questionnaire (ANSOCQ) at admission to inpatient treatment, in week 9 after admission and at discharge. Additional variables were assessed, including depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), eating disorder-specific psychopathology (Eating Disorder Inventory, EDI-2), body mass index (BMI) and the percentage of expected body weight (%EBW). The patients' perceptions of the admission process and their perceived need for hospitalization were assessed using a self-report scale developed by Guarda et al. (2007). Younger patients perceived more coercion than older patients did. Low %EBW and more severe eating disorder-specific psychopathology were associated with a greater perceived need for hospitalization. Moreover, low %EBW at admission and a longer duration of illness were accompanied by a greater motivation to change at admission, whereas more severe eating disorder psychopathology was associated with a low motivation to change. The motivation to change increased significantly between admission and discharge. Patients with a greater motivation to change at admission exhibited a higher weekly weight gain during treatment but did not show better outcome in eating disorder-specific psychopathology and depression

  8. The role of experiential avoidance, psychopathology, and borderline personality features in experiencing positive emotions: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Gitta A; Ower, Nicole; Buchholz, Angela

    2013-03-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is an important factor in maintaining different forms of psychopathology including borderline personality pathology (BPD). So far little is known about the functions of EA, BPD features and general psychopathology for positive emotions. In this study we investigated three different anticipated pathways of their influence on positive emotions. A total of 334 subjects varying in general psychopathology &/or BPD features completed an online survey including self-ratings of BPD features, psychopathology, negative and positive emotions, and EA. Measures of positive emotions included both a general self-rating (PANAS) and emotional changes induced by two positive movie clips. Data were analyzed by means of path analysis. In comparing the three path models, one model was found clearly superior: In this model, EA acts as a mediator of the influence of psychopathology, BPD features, and negative emotions in the prediction of both measures of positive emotions. EA plays a central role in maintaining lack of positive emotions. Therapeutic implications and study limitations are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predominant typologies of psychopathology in the United States: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gabalawy, Renée; Tsai, Jack; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Hoff, Rani; Sareen, Jitender; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) offers a parsimonious way of classifying common typologies of psychiatric comorbidity. We used LCA to identify the nature and correlates of predominant typologies of Axis I and II disorders in a large and comprehensive population-based sample of U.S. adults. We analyzed data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005; n = 34,653), a population-based sample of U.S. adults. We derived latent classes based on all assessed Axis I and II disorders and examined the relationship between the identified Axis I classes and lifetime psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts, and physical and mental health-related quality of life. A four-class solution was optimal in characterizing predominant typologies of both Axis I and II disorders. For Axis I disorders, these included low psychopathology (n = 28,935, 84.0%), internalizing (n = 3693, 9.9%), externalizing (n = 1426, 4.5%), and high psychopathology (n = 599, 1.6%) classes. For Axis II disorders, these included no/low personality disorders (n = 31,265, 90.9%), obsessive/paranoid (n = 1635, 4.6%), borderline/dysregulated (n = 1319, 3.4%), and highly comorbid (n = 434, 1.1%) classes. Compared to the low psychopathology class, all other Axis I classes had significantly increased odds of mental disorders, elevated Axis II classes, suicide attempts and poorer quality of life, with the high psychopathology class having the overall highest rates of these correlates, with the exception of substance use disorders. Compared to the low psychopathology class, the internalizing and externalizing classes had increased rates of mood and anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders, respectively. Axis I and II psychopathology among U.S. adults may be best represented by four predominant typologies. Characterizing co-occurring patterns of psychopathology using person-based typologies represents a higher-order classification system that may be useful in clinical

  10. Gender differences in psychiatric disorders and clusters of self-esteem among detained adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Lore; Colins, Olivier F; Vanderplasschen, Wouter

    2014-12-30

    Detained minors display substantial mental health needs. This study focused on two features (psychopathology and self-esteem) that have received considerable attention in the literature and clinical work, but have rarely been studied simultaneously in detained youths. The aims of this study were to examine gender differences in psychiatric disorders and clusters of self-esteem, and to test the hypothesis that the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem have higher rates of psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was assessed in 440 Belgian, detained adolescents using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV. Self-esteem was assessed using the Self-perception Profile for Adolescents. Model-based cluster analyses were performed to identify youths with lower and/or higher levels of self-esteem across several domains. Girls have higher rates for most psychiatric disorders and lower levels of self-esteem than boys. A higher number of clusters was identified in boys (four) than girls (three). Generally, the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem had a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders. These results suggest that the detection of low levels of self-esteem in adolescents, especially girls, might help clinicians to identify a subgroup of detained adolescents with the highest prevalence of psychopathology.

  11. Creativity and psychopathology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Erik; Sabbe, Bernard; De Hert, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The possible link between creativity and psychopathology has been a long-time focus of research up to the present day. However, the research results in this field are heterogeneous and contradictory. Links between creativity and specific psychiatric disorders have been confirmed and refuted in different studies. This disparity is partly explained by the methodological challenges peculiar to this field. In this systematic review of the literature from 1950, research articles in the field of creativity and psychopathology are presented, focusing on the methodology and results of the collected studies. This review confirms the methodological problems and the heterogeneity of the study designs and results. The assessment of psychopathology, but more so of creativity, remains a fundamental challenge. On the whole, study results cautiously confirm an association between creativity and both bipolar disorder and schizotypy. The research on creativity and psychopathology is hampered by serious methodological problems. Study results are to be interpreted with caution and future research needs more methodological rigor. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Effectiveness of depression and anxiety prevention in adolescents with high familial risk: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasing, Sanne P.A.; Creemers, Daan H.M.; Janssens, Jan M A M; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depression and anxiety disorders during adolescence can have detrimental consequences. Both disorders are related to negative outcome in various areas during adolescence and are also predictive of depression and anxiety disorders later in life. Especially parental psychopathology and

  13. Does oppositional defiant disorder have temperament and psychopathological profiles independent of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Won; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Yeo, Jin-Young

    2010-01-01

    Most studies on temperamental and behavioral/emotional characteristics of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) did not rule out the effect of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The main objective of this study was to identify the temperamental and psychopathological patterns of ODD independent of comorbid ADHD. We also aimed to compare the patterns of temperament and psychopathology between ODD with and without ADHD. Parents of 2673 students, randomly selected from 19 representative schools in Seoul, Korea, completed the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV. Among 118 children and adolescents with ODD diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV, the parents of 94 subjects (mean age, 10.4 +/- 3.0 years) and the parents of a random sample of 94 age- and gender-matched non-ODD/non-ADHD children and adolescents completed the parent's version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory. Subjects with ODD showed temperament and character profiles of high Novelty Seeking, low Self-directedness, and low Cooperativeness, a distinct pattern on the CBCL, and were at increased risk for anxiety and mood disorders compared to the controls after controlling for the effect of comorbid ADHD. The children and adolescents with both ODD and ADHD showed decreased levels of Persistence and Self-directedness and higher scores on 4 subscales of the CBCL (Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, Delinquent Behaviors, and Aggressive Behaviors) compared to those with ODD only. Oppositional defiant disorder is associated with specific temperamental and behavioral/emotional characteristics, independent of ADHD. Moreover, the results of this study support that co-occurring ADHD and ODD have differentially higher levels of behavioral and emotional difficulties. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical Presentation and Course of Depression in Youth: Does Onset in Childhood Differ from Onset in Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmaher, Boris; Williamson, Douglas E.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Axelson, David A.; Kaufman, Joan; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ryan, Neal D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To simultaneously and prospectively compare the clinical presentation, course, and parental psychiatric history between children and adolescents with major depressive disorder. Method: A group of prepubertal children (n = 46) and postpubertal adolescents (n = 22) were assessed with structured interviews for psychopathology and parental…

  15. Etiology of Teen Dating Violence among Adolescent Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jennifer A; Eiden, Rina D; Lessard, Jared; Casey, Meghan; Henrie, James; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2018-03-01

    Family processes in early life have been implicated in adolescent involvement in teen dating violence, yet the developmental pathways through which this occurs are not well understood. In this study, etiological pathways from parental psychopathology and marital conflict in infancy to involvement in dating violence in late adolescence were examined in a sample of children at high-risk due to parental alcohol problems. Families (N = 227) recruited when the child was 12 months of age were assessed at 12-, 24-, 36-months, kindergarten, 6th, 8th, and 12th grades. Slightly more than half of the children were female (51%) and the majority were of European American descent (91%). Parental psychopathology in infancy was indirectly associated with teen dating violence in late adolescence via low maternal warmth and self-regulation in early childhood, externalizing behavior from kindergarten to early adolescence, and sibling problems in middle childhood. Marital conflict was also indirectly associated with teen dating violence via child externalizing behavior. Maternal warmth and sensitivity in early childhood emerged as an important protective factor and was associated with reduced marital conflict and increased child self-regulation in the preschool years as well as increased parental monitoring in middle childhood and early adolescence. Family processes occurring in the preschool years and in middle childhood appear to be critical periods for creating conditions that contribute to dating violence risk in late adolescence. These findings underscore the need for early intervention and prevention with at-risk families.

  16. [Adolescent pathological gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A; Karila, L; Lejoyeux, M

    2015-05-01

    Although experts have long thought that the problems of gambling involved only adults, recent studies tend to show that teenagers are also affected. The objective of this paper is to show the characteristics of pathological gambling in adolescents. This review focuses on the clinical features, prevalence, psychopathology, prevention and treatment of this disorder. A review of the medical literature was conducted, using PubMed, using the following keywords alone or combined: pathological gambling, dependence, addiction and adolescents. We selected 12 English articles from 1997 to 2014. Recent work estimate that between 4 and 8% of adolescents suffer from problem gambling, and the prevalence of pathological gambling is 2-4 times higher in adolescents than in adults. The term adolescent pathological gambler starts early around the age of 10-12 years, with a quick change of status from casual to that of problem gambler and player. Complications appear quickly and comorbidities are common. There is no curative pharmacological treatment approved by health authorities. Pathological gambling among adolescents has grown significantly in recent years and should be promptly taken care of. Further studies must be performed to improve our understanding of this problem among adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Suicidality, psychopathology, and the internet: Online time vs. online behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Keith M; Starcevic, Vladan; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Aboujaoude, Elias

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated whether several psychopathology variables, including suicidality, could predict the time people spend using the internet (hours online). Next, we examined a specific at-risk population (suicidal individuals) by their online behaviors, comparing suicidal individuals who went online for suicide-related purposes with suicidal individuals who did not go online for suicide-related purposes. An anonymous online sample of 713 (aged 18-71) reported hours online, psychiatric histories, and completed several standardized scales. After accounting for age and education, hierarchical regression modeling showed that the assessed psychopathology variables, including suicidality, did not explain significant variance in hours online. Hours online were better predicted by younger age, greater willingness to develop online relationships, higher perceived social support, higher curiosity, and lower extraversion. Suicidal participants, who did or did not go online for suicide-related purposes, did not differ on hours online. Multiple regression modeling showed that those who went online for suicide-related purposes were likely to be younger, more suicidal, and more willing to seek help from online mental health professionals. These findings revealed that hours online are not a valid indicator of psychopathology. However, studying online behaviors of specific at-risk groups could be informative and useful, including for suicide prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among inpatient adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD male war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide.

  19. [Refuge in Digital Worlds - the Association of Critical Life Events with Pathological Internet Use in Adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Julian; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Brunner, Romuald; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Refuge in Digital Worlds - the Association of Critical Life Events with Pathological Internet Use in Adolescence The present study sought to clarify the potential relationship between critical life events and pathological internet use in adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted within the framework of a European school-based study (SEYLE) which included a representative sample of 1,444 students from the Rhein-Neckar catchment area. The Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ) was used to assess pathological internet use, whereas a combination of the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) and Life Events Checklist (LCE) was administered to assess critical life events over the period of the last six months. Statistical models were adjusted for the presence of psychopathological distress using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). 4.8 % of the participating students reported pathological internet use, 14.5 % met criteria for risky Internet use. Overall, adolescents with risky or pathological internet use recalled more critical life events, particularly within the context of interpersonal relationships and academic performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables and psychopathological distress, results showed that an unexpected decrease in academic performance as well as the termination of a romantic relationship, both were significantly associated with pathological internet use. Adolescents with pathological internet use reported significantly more frequent interpersonal problems and an unexpected decrease of academic performance. Based on the cross-sectional nature of the investigation, causality of the association cannot be established. However, results point towards potential risk factors (academic performance, termination of relationships) which may guide the identification of adolescents with risky or pathological internet use in child- and adolescent psychiatry.

  20. Neuroticism : a non-informative marker of vulnerability to psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Rosmalen, Judith; Farmer, Ann

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroticism measures are very popular in psychopathological research, but it is unclear how useful neuroticism is in studies of the aetiology of psychopathology. METHOD: A conceptual examination was made of the literature on the association of neuroticism and psychopathology, the

  1. Detection of overreported psychopathology with the MMPI-2-RF [corrected] validity scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R Michael

    2010-12-01

    We examined the utility of the validity scales on the recently released Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2 RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) to detect overreported psychopathology. This set of validity scales includes a newly developed scale and revised versions of the original MMPI-2 validity scales. We used an analogue, experimental simulation in which MMPI-2 RF responses (derived from archived MMPI-2 protocols) of undergraduate students instructed to overreport psychopathology (in either a coached or noncoached condition) were compared with those of psychiatric inpatients who completed the MMPI-2 under standardized instructions. The MMPI-2 RF validity scale Infrequent Psychopathology Responses best differentiated the simulation groups from the sample of patients, regardless of experimental condition. No other validity scale added consistent incremental predictive utility to Infrequent Psychopathology Responses in distinguishing the simulation groups from the sample of patients. Classification accuracy statistics confirmed the recommended cut scores in the MMPI-2 RF manual (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008).

  2. Non-linear Heart Rate Variability as a Discriminator of Internalizing Psychopathology and Negative Affect in Children With Internalizing Problems and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Fiskum

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internalizing psychopathology and dysregulated negative affect are characterized by dysregulation in the autonomic nervous system and reduced heart rate variability (HRV due to increases in sympathetic activity alongside reduced vagal tone. The neurovisceral system is however, a complex nonlinear system, and nonlinear indices related to psychopathology are so far less studied in children. Essential nonlinear properties of a system can be found in two main domains: the informational domain and the invariant domain. sample entropy (SampEn is a much-used method from the informational domain, while detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA represents a widely-used method from the invariant domain. To see if nonlinear HRV can provide information beyond linear indices of autonomic activation, this study investigated SampEn and DFA as discriminators of internalizing psychopathology and negative affect alongside measures of vagally-mediated HRV and sympathetic activation.Material and Methods: Thirty-Two children with internalizing difficulties and 25 healthy controls (aged 9–13 were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist and the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire, Revised, giving an estimate of internalizing psychopathology, negative affect and effortful control, a protective factor against psychopathology. Five minute electrocardiogram and impedance cardiography recordings were collected during a resting baseline, giving estimates of SampEn, DFA short-term scaling exponent α1, root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD, and pre-ejection period (PEP. Between-group differences and correlations were assessed with parametric and non-parametric tests, and the relationships between cardiac variables, psychopathology and negative affect were assessed using generalized linear modeling.Results: SampEn and DFA were not significantly different between the groups. SampEn was weakly negatively related to heart rate (HR in the controls

  3. EXCESSIVE INTERNET USE AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: THE ROLE OF COPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria J. Kuss

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association included Internet Gaming Disorder in the diagnostic manual as a condition which requires further research, indicating the scientific and clinical community are aware of potential health concerns as a consequence of excessive Internet use. From a clinical point of view, it appears that excessive/addictive Internet use is often comorbid with further psychopathologies and assessing comorbidity is relevant in clinical practice, treatment outcome and prevention as the probability to become addicted to using the Internet accelerates with additional (subclinical symptoms. Moreover, research indicates individuals play computer games excessively to cope with everyday stressors and to regulate their emotions by applying media-focused coping strategies, suggesting pathological computer game players play in order to relieve stress and to avoid daily hassles. The aims of this research were to replicate and extend previous findings and explanations of the complexities of the relationships between excessive Internet use and Internet addiction, psychopathology and dysfunctional coping strategies. Method: Participants included 681 Polish university students sampled using an online battery of validated psychometric instruments. Results: Results of structural equation models revealed dysfunctional coping strategies (i.e., distraction, denial, self-blame, substance use, venting, media use, and behavioural disengagement significantly predict excessive Internet use, and the data fit the theoretical model well. A second SEM showed media-focused coping and substance use coping significantly mediate the relationship between psychopathology (operationalised via the Global Severity Index and excessive Internet use. Conclusions: The findings lend support to the self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders, and suggest psychopathology and dysfunctional coping have additive effects on excessive Internet use.

  4. Pathological Internet use and psychopathology among European adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Durkee, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Background: Internet use and accessibility has grown exponentially across the globe. The highest rates are noted in adolescents and youth. The swift development of technological improvements combined with interactive and enticing online activities has demonstrated to be unprecedented. As a result, the endless possibilities of the Internet become exceptionally appealing, whereby the risk of excessive use becomes elevated. Excessive use of the Internet is a strong precursor for s...

  5. Adolescent transformations of behavioral and neural processes as potential targets for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldreth, Dana; Hardin, Michael G; Pavletic, Nevia; Ernst, Monique

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period in development that is marked by a distinct, typical behavioral profile of high rates of exploration, novelty-seeking, and emotional lability. While these behaviors generally assist the adolescent transition to independence, they can also confer vulnerability for excessive risk-taking and psychopathology, particularly in the context of specific environmental or genetic influences. As prevention research depends on the identification of targets of vulnerability, the following review will discuss the interplay among motivational systems including reward-related, avoidance-related, and regulatory processes in typical and atypical adolescent development. Each set of processes will be discussed in relation to their underlying neural correlates and distinct developmental trajectories. Evidence suggests that typical adolescent behavior and the risk for atypical development are mediated by heightened adolescent responsiveness of reward-related and avoidance-related systems under specific conditions, concurrent with poor modulation by immature regulatory processes. Finally, we will propose strategies to exploit heightened reward processing to reinforce inhibitory control, which is an essential component of regulatory processes in prevention interventions.

  6. Psychopathology in children with epilepsy: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Stams, G.J.; Meijer, A.M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Dekovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the types and severity of psychopathology in children with epilepsy. Methods A series of meta-analyses were conducted to review 46 studies, including 2,434 children with epilepsy. Results Effect sizes were medium to large for comparisons with children from the general

  7. Emotion regulation and psychopathology: the role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This review addresses three questions regarding the relationships among gender, emotion regulation, and psychopathology: (a) are there gender differences in emotion regulation strategies, (b) are emotion regulation strategies similarly related to psychopathology in men and women, and (c) do gender differences in emotion regulation strategies account for gender differences in psychopathology? Women report using most emotion regulation strategies more than men do, and emotion regulation strategies are similarly related to psychopathology in women and men. More rumination in women compared to men partially accounts for greater depression and anxiety in women compared to men, while a greater tendency to use alcohol to cope partially accounts for more alcohol misuse in men compared to women. The literature on emotion regulation is likely missing vital information on how men regulate their emotions. I discuss lessons learned and questions raised about the relationships between gender differences in emotion regulation and gender differences in psychopathology.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of body dysmorphic disorder in a community sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sophie C; Turner, Cynthia M; Mond, Jonathan; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2017-06-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder typically begins in adolescence, yet little is known about the prevalence and correlates of the disorder in this age group. The current study aimed to explore the presenting features of adolescents meeting probable criteria for body dysmorphic disorder in a large community sample, and compare levels of comorbid psychopathology, quality of life and mental health service use between adolescents with probable body dysmorphic disorder and those without. Questionnaires were completed at school by 3149 adolescents: 63% male, aged 12-18 years ( M = 14.58). These assessed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) body dysmorphic disorder criteria, past mental health service use and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders. In male participants, additional measures assessed quality of life, muscularity concerns, emotional symptoms, peer problems, conduct problems and hyperactivity. The prevalence of probable body dysmorphic disorder was 1.7%; there was no sex difference in prevalence, but older adolescents reported higher prevalence than younger adolescents. Probable body dysmorphic disorder participants reported substantially elevated levels of psychopathology, quality of life impairment and mental health service use compared to non-body dysmorphic disorder participants. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in adolescents is similar to adult samples, and probable body dysmorphic disorder is associated with comorbidity, distress and functional impairment in a community sample. Further research is required to better understand the presentation of body dysmorphic disorder in adolescents, and to improve diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Sexual selection and sex differences in the prevalence of childhood externalizing and adolescent internalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Despite the well-established sex difference in prevalence of many childhood and adolescent psychopathological conditions, no integrative metatheory of sex differences in psychopathology exists. This review attempts to provide a metatheoretical framework to guide empirical examination of sex differences in prevalence of childhood-onset "externalizing" and adolescent-onset "internalizing" disorders, based on sexual selection evolutionary theory. Sexual selection theory suggests important between-sex differences in markers, mechanisms, etiology, and developmental timing of risk and resilience relevant to psychopathology. Namely, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that disinhibition and sensation-seeking may be important proximate risk markers for childhood-onset externalizing disorders in males. The theory suggests that these male-biased markers may be a product of their higher exposure to prenatal testosterone, which makes them more susceptible to prenatal stressors with downstream effects on dopaminergic neurotransmission, especially for those with genetic alleles associated with lower dopaminergic function. In contrast, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that negative emotionality, empathy, and cognitive rumination may be important proximate risk markers for adolescent-onset internalizing disorders in females. The theory suggests that these markers are propagated by rapidly rising levels of estradiol at puberty that interact with cortisol and oxytocin. These hormones exert downstream effects on the serotonergic system in such a way as to increase females' sensitivity to interpersonal stressors particularly at puberty and especially for those with lower functional serotonergic activity. Such a metatheory can help integrate prior ideas about sex differences and can also generate new predictions of sex differences in markers, etiology, mechanisms, and developmental timing of common forms of psychopathology. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  10. The role of parent psychopathology in the development of preschool children with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined associations between early parental self-reported psychopathology symptoms and the later behavioral, emotional, and social functioning of preschool children with behavior problems. Mothers and fathers of preschoolers with behavior problems (N = 132; 55 girls, 77 boys) completed parent psychopathology questionnaires when children were 3 years old and completed measures of children's externalizing, internalizing, and social problems annually from age 3 to age 6. The sample included 61% European American, 16% Latino (predominantly Puerto Rican), 10% African American, and 13% multiethnic children. Every dimension of mothers' and fathers' psychopathology symptoms when children were 3 years old was associated with their own reports of children's externalizing and internalizing problems 3 years later. Several dimensions of maternal psychopathology symptoms at age 3 were associated with mother-reported social skills 3 years later. However, the relation between many dimensions of psychopathology symptoms and child outcome appears to be accounted for by co-occurring psychopathology symptoms. Only maternal attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Cluster A symptoms, and paternal ADHD and depression/anxiety symptoms emerged as unique predictors of child functioning. These findings suggest that most types of mothers' and fathers' self-reported psychopathology symptoms may play a role in the prognosis of behavioral, social, and emotional outcomes of preschoolers with behavior problems, but that co-occurring symptoms need to be considered.

  11. Annual Research Review: The neurobehavioral development of multiple memory systems: implications for childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jarid; Marsh, Rachel; Peterson, Bradley S.; Packard, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that mammalian memory is organized into multiple brains systems, including a “cognitive” memory system that depends upon the hippocampus and a stimulus-response “habit” memory system that depends upon the dorsolateral striatum. Dorsal striatal-dependent habit memory may in part influence the development and expression of some human psychopathologies, particularly those characterized by strong habit-like behavioral features. The present review considers this hypothesis as it pertains to psychopathologies that typically emerge during childhood and adolescence. These disorders include Tourette syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and autism spectrum disorders. Human and nonhuman animal research shows that the typical development of memory systems comprises the early maturation of striatal-dependent habit memory and the relatively late maturation of hippocampal-dependent cognitive memory. We speculate that the differing rates of development of these memory systems may in part contribute to the early emergence of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence. In addition, abnormalities in hippocampal and striatal brain regions have been observed consistently in youth with these disorders, suggesting that the aberrant development of memory systems may also contribute to the emergence of habit-like symptoms as core pathological features of these illnesses. Considering these disorders within the context of multiple memory systems may help elucidate the pathogenesis of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence, and lead to novel treatments that lessen the habit-like behavioral features of these disorders. PMID:24286520

  12. Testing the dimensional structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in a nonclinical trauma-exposed adolescent sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyong; Wang, Li; Cao, Chengqi; Qing, Yulan; Armour, Cherie

    2016-02-01

    The current study investigated the underlying dimensionality of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a trauma-exposed Chinese adolescent sample using a confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) alternative model approach. The sample consisted of 559 students (242 females and 314 males) ranging in age from 12 to 18 years (M = 15.8, SD = 1.3). Participants completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, the Major Depression Disorder and Panic Disorder subscales of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Aggressive Behavior subscale of the Youth Self-Report. Confirmatory factor analytic results indicated that a seven-factor model comprised of intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behavior, anxious arousal, and dysphoric arousal factors emerged as the best-fitting model. Further analyses showed that the external measures of psychopathological variables including major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and aggressive behavior were differentially associated with the resultant factors. These findings support and extend previous findings for the newly refined seven-factor hybrid model, and carry clinical and research implications for trauma-related psychopathology. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. The Role of Parent Psychopathology in Emotion Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between parent psychopathology symptoms and emotion socialization practices in a sample of mothers and fathers of preschool-aged children with behavior problems (N = 109, M age = 44.60 months, 50 % male). Each parent completed a self-report rating scale of their psychopathology symptoms and audio-recorded naturalistic interactions with their children, which were coded for reactions to child negative affect. Results supported a spillover hypothesis for mothers. Specifically, mothers who reported greater overall psychopathology symptoms, anxiety symptoms, substance use, and borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to exhibit non-supportive reactions. Additionally, mothers who reported greater anxiety and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to not respond to child negative affect. Compensatory and crossover hypotheses were also supported. Partners of mothers who reported high levels of anxiety were more likely to use supportive reactions to child negative affect. In contrast, partners of mothers who reported high levels of borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms and overall psychopathology symptoms were more likely to show non-supportive reactions. With the exception of borderline personality symptoms, fathers’ psychopathology was unrelated to parental responses to child negative affect. Results highlight the importance of maternal psychopathology in parental emotion socialization practices. PMID:26267238

  14. Polymorphism of Kynurenine Pathway-Related Genes, Kynurenic Acid, and Psychopathological Symptoms in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douet, Vanessa; Tanizaki, Naomi; Franke, Adrian; Li, Xingnan; Chang, Linda

    2016-09-01

    HIV-infection is associated with neuroinflammation and greater psychopathological symptoms, which may be mediated by imbalances in the kynurenic pathway (KP). Two key KP enzymes that catabolize kynurenine include kynurenine-aminotransferase II (KATII), which yields antioxidative kynurenine acid [KYNA] in astrocytes, and kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO), which produces neurotoxic metabolites in microglia. The relationships between polymorphisms in KMO and KATII, psychopathological symptoms, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [KYNA] were evaluated in subjects with and without HIV-infection. Seventy-two HIV-positive and 72-seronegative (SN) participants were genotyped for KATII-rs1480544 and KMO-rs1053230. Although our participants were not currently diagnosed with depression or anxiety, they were assessed for psychopathological distress with Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. CSF-[KYNA] was also measured in 100 subjects (49 HIV/51 SN). HIV-participants had more psychopathological distress than SN, especially for anxiety. KATII-by-HIV interactions were found on anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity and obsessive compulsivity; KATII-C-carriers had lower scores than TT-carriers in SN but not in HIV. In contrast, the KMO-polymorphism had no influence on psychopathological symptoms in both groups. Overall, CSF-[KYNA] increased with age independently of HIV-serostatus, except KATII-TT-carriers tended to show no age-dependent variations. Therefore, the C-allele in KATII-rs1480544 appears to be protective against psychopathological distress in SN but not in HIV individuals, who had more psychopathological symptoms and likely greater neuroinflammation. The age-dependent increase in CSF-[KYNA] may reflect a compensatory response to age-related inflammation, which may be deficient in KATII-TT-carriers. Targeted treatments that decrease neuroinflammation and increase KYNA in at risk KATII-TT-carriers may reduce psychopathological symptoms

  15. Urinary cortisol and psychopathology in obese binge eating subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Luca; Amianto, Federico; Parasiliti Caprino, Mirko; Maccario, Mauro; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghigo, Ezio; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2014-12-01

    Investigations on the relationship between obesity, binge eating and the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have led to inconsistent results. General psychopathology affects HPA axis function. The present study aims to examine correlations between binge eating, general psychopathology and HPA axis function in obese binge eaters. Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol (UFC/24 h) was measured in 71 obese binge eating women. The patients were administered psychometric tests investigating binge eating, psychopathology and clinical variables. The relationship between binge eating, psychopathology and urinary cortisol was investigated, controlling for age and BMI. We found an inverse correlation between UFC/24 h and binge eating, depression, obsessive-compusive symptoms, somatization and sensitivity. In a regression model a significant inverse correlation between urinary cortisol and psychopathology was confirmed. Urinary cortisol levels in obese patients with binge eating disorder show an inverse correlation with several dimensions of psychopathology which are considered to be typical of a cluster of psychiatric disorders characterized by low HPA axis function, and are very common in obese binge eating patients. If these results are confirmed, UFC/24 h might be considered a biomarker of psychopathology in obese binge eaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Disability as a risk factor? Development of psychopathology in children with disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2013-01-01

    and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone......Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualise the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...

  17. An Examination of Psychopathology and Daily Impairment in Adolescents with Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C.; Bunnell, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adoles...

  18. Irritable bowel syndrome: The incidence of concurrent psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Margie H Wilson; Anita D Stuart; H Gertie Pretorius

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this study was to improve understanding of the association between physiology and psychology in Functional Gastrointestinal disorders by considering the co-morbidity of lrritable Bowel Syndrome and psychopathology in a sector of the South African population. A comparison was made between the incidence of concurrent psychopathology in a sample of 48 white female patients, aged 25 to 55 years and diagnosed with lrritable Bowel Syndrome and the incidence of psychopathology in a contr...

  19. Public speaking fears and their correlates among 17,615 Japanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Toshi A; Watanabe, Norio; Kinoshita, Yoshihiro; Kinoshita, Kuni; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Nishida, Atsushi; Okazaki, Yuji; Shimodera, Shinji

    2014-03-01

    Public speaking fears (PSF) are highly prevalent in the general population. They are also among the most common symptoms of social anxiety disorder, which typically has an adolescent onset and has recently been increasingly recognized as a persistent and impairing disorder across various cultures in the world. This study examined PSF and their associated factors among 17,615 adolescents, aged 12-18, in a large-scale school-based community survey in Japan. PSF was noted in 7.3% of the students. The prevalence was higher among girls than among boys, and it had a tendency to decrease with age. Across the gender and age groups, PSF was associated with psychopathology, including depression and anxiety, suicidal thoughts, deliberate self-harm, violence towards objects and people, and increased difficulties at school. We should no longer make light of public speaking fears among adolescents as transient, common-sense phenomena. Copyright © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. A network view on psychiatric disorders: network clusters of symptoms as elementary syndromes of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goekoop, Rutger; Goekoop, Jaap G

    2014-01-01

    The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD) to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS). An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS) was optimized using a previously published technique. In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "Depression", "Mania", "Anxiety", "Psychosis", "Retardation", and "Behavioral Disorganization". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a 'Psychopathology Web'. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology.

  1. The relationship between personality, defense styles, internet addiction disorder, and psychopathology in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floros, Georgios; Siomos, Konstantinos; Stogiannidou, Ariadni; Giouzepas, Ioannis; Garyfallos, Georgios

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess any underlying links between personality, defense styles, Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and psychopathology in a college student sample. This is a cross-sectional study of fourth-year Greek Medical students who responded in a comprehensive test battery, which included validated questionnaires on IAD, personality traits, patterns of psychological defense styles, and psychopathology symptoms. A path model that was tested using Partial Least Squares (PLS) methodology showed that the defense styles employed by the students and certain personality traits (Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, Neuroticism/Anxiety, and Aggression-Hostility) contributed to the prediction of variability in IAD, with IAD in turn predicting variability in overt psychopathology.

  2. Development of Structural Covariance From Childhood to Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study in 22q11.2DS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Sandini

    2018-05-01

    results suggest that SC maturation may underlie critical cognitive development occurring during late-childhood in healthy controls. Aberrant trajectories of SC maturation may reflect core developmental features of 22q11DS, including disturbed cognitive maturation during childhood and predisposition to internalizing psychopathology and psychosis during adolescence.

  3. Experimental psychopathology paradigms for alcohol use disorders: Applications for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, Spencer; Ray, Lara A

    2016-11-01

    In spite of high prevalence and disease burden, scientific consensus on the etiology and treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) has yet to be reached. The development and utilization of experimental psychopathology paradigms in the human laboratory represents a cornerstone of AUD research. In this review, we describe and critically evaluate the major experimental psychopathology paradigms developed for AUD, with an emphasis on their implications, strengths, weaknesses, and methodological considerations. Specifically we review alcohol administration, self-administration, cue-reactivity, and stress-reactivity paradigms. We also provide an introduction to the application of experimental psychopathology methods to translational research including genetics, neuroimaging, pharmacological and behavioral treatment development, and translational science. Through refining and manipulating key phenotypes of interest, these experimental paradigms have the potential to elucidate AUD etiological factors, improve the efficiency of treatment developments, and refine treatment targets thus advancing precision medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Early intervention for adolescents at high risk for the development of bipolar disorder: pilot study of Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Tina R; Fersch-Podrat, Rachael; Axelson, David A; Gilbert, Alison; Hlastala, Stefanie A; Birmaher, Boris; Frank, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT) delays bipolar disorder (BP) recurrence in adults by stabilizing daily routines and sleep/wake cycles. Because adolescence is a key developmental stage for illness onset and altered social and sleep patterns, this period may prove optimal for intervention with adolescents at-risk for BP. We describe a treatment development trial of IPSRT for adolescents at-risk for BP by virtue of a positive family history. Adolescents with a first-degree relative with BP were evaluated for Axis I psychopathology via semistructured interview, and relatives' BP diagnoses were confirmed via record review. IPSRT consisted of 12 sessions delivered over 6 months. Outcome variables including sleep, mood symptoms, and functioning were assessed via clinician interview and self-/parent-report at pretreatment, 3 months, and posttreatment (6 months). Thirteen adolescents attended at least one IPSRT session. Half of the sample denied Axis I psychopathology at intake; the remainder met criteria for a range of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Families reported high satisfaction with IPSRT, yet, on average, participants attended about half of scheduled sessions. Missed sessions were primarily associated with parental BP illness severity. Data indicate significant change in select sleep/circadian patterns (i.e., less weekend sleeping in and oversleeping) with treatment. Preliminary data suggest the IPSRT focus on stabilizing daily rhythms and interpersonal relationships may be beneficial for adolescents at-risk for BP. Controlled trials with longitudinal follow-up are needed to examine whether early intervention for at-risk youth helps prevent or delay disorder. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Families, Science, and Values: Alternative Views of Parenting Effects and Adolescent Pregnancy.

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    Miller, Brent C.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses professional biases, personal values, and family issues, using parents' effects on children and adolescent pregnancy as examples. Presents evidence about biological bases of intelligence, sexual behavior/orientation, personality, and psychopathology. Encourages family professionals to broaden environmental interpretations and to…

  6. Personality and Psychopathology of Patients with Grandmal and Complex Partial Seizures

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    Najafi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epileptic patients have special mental profile and experience emotional and psychopathological problems. Some studies have reported that epilepsy and psychopathology occur together. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental profile of Complex partial seizure (CPS and Grandmal seizure (GMS patients and compare them with the control group. Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was carried out in 2008 at the neurological clinics of Isfahan and included 40 Patients with CPS and GMS epilepsy selected conveniently and control group included relatives of the patients. Psychological and personality profile was measured with MMPI inventory. The obtained data was analyzed with SPSS software, mainly through the analysis of Chi Square and ANOVA. Results: The findings of this research showed that although the scores of clinical scales in MMPI are higher than control group, this psychopathology isn’t abnormal. Epileptic patients in hypochondria, depression and hysteria had more elevated levels in comparison with the control group, but this difference was significant only in CPS patients. Conclusion: The results showed that epileptic patients tend to have more psychological disorders than normal people. These findings emphasize the necessity for psychological treatment along with drug therapy.

  7. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for binge eating disorder in adolescents: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hilbert, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Background Binge eating disorder is a prevalent adolescent disorder, associated with increased eating disorder and general psychopathology as well as an increased risk for overweight and obesity. As opposed to binge eating disorder in adults, there is a lack of validated psychological treatments for this condition in adolescents. The goal of this research project is therefore to determine the efficacy of age-adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescents with binge eating disorder ? the ...

  8. Neuropsychological and psychopathological differentiation of delirium

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    ICD-10 and DSM-IV differ in their definitions of delirium. The DSM-IV definition centers around a disorder of attention and cognitive functions, whereas ICD-10 describes delirium as a broader neuropsychological and psychopathological syndrome, e.g. hallucinations, emotional and psychomotor disorder. When neuropsychological and psychopathological symptoms of delirium are assessed simultaneously, our question was, if there are core symptoms of delirium, i.e. neuropsychological and psychopat...

  9. Psychopathological Symptoms under Smog: The Role of Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuquan; Kong, Jiayang; Yu, Feng; Peng, Kaiping

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, major cities in China have suffered from severe air pollution, which is also known as smog. Despite lay considerations that smog might pose risks for psychopathology, it remains unknown whether it is only linked to affective psychopathology or to a broader range of symptomologies. Moreover, whether individual differences in emotion regulation, a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology, would influence the magnitude of pollution-induced symptoms is not well understood. Using a longitudinal design, the current study measured trait emotion regulation and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of university students at Time 1 (without smog, N = 120) and then reassessed for psychopathology at Time 2 (after acute exposure to smog for 1 week, N = 102). The results showed that participants had higher levels of positive symptom distress, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, and psychoticism at Time 2. Moreover, reappraisal is negatively associated with smog-induced elevations in psychopathological symptoms only when participants rely heavily on suppression. We discuss the implications of this investigation for both intervention efforts and future work on the contextual factors surrounding the deployment of emotion regulation strategies.

  10. Psychopathological Symptoms under Smog: The Role of Emotion Regulation

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    Shuquan Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, major cities in China have suffered from severe air pollution, which is also known as smog. Despite lay considerations that smog might pose risks for psychopathology, it remains unknown whether it is only linked to affective psychopathology or to a broader range of symptomologies. Moreover, whether individual differences in emotion regulation, a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology, would influence the magnitude of pollution-induced symptoms is not well understood. Using a longitudinal design, the current study measured trait emotion regulation and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of university students at Time 1 (without smog, N = 120 and then reassessed for psychopathology at Time 2 (after acute exposure to smog for 1 week, N = 102. The results showed that participants had higher levels of positive symptom distress, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, and psychoticism at Time 2. Moreover, reappraisal is negatively associated with smog-induced elevations in psychopathological symptoms only when participants rely heavily on suppression. We discuss the implications of this investigation for both intervention efforts and future work on the contextual factors surrounding the deployment of emotion regulation strategies.

  11. School Attendance Problems and Youth Psychopathology: Structural Cross-Lagged Regression Models in Three Longitudinal Data Sets

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    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Langer, David A.; Wood, Patricia A.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Eddy, J. Mark; Ialongo, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This study tests a model of reciprocal influences between absenteeism and youth psychopathology using 3 longitudinal datasets (Ns = 20,745, 2,311, and 671). Participants in 1st through 12th grades were interviewed annually or biannually. Measures of psychopathology include self-, parent-, and teacher-report questionnaires. Structural cross-lagged…

  12. Aggression in adolescents: characteristics and treatment.

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    Ristić-Dimitrijević, Radmila; Lazić, Dijana; Nenadović, Milutin; Djokić-Pjescić, Katarina; Klidonas, Nikolaos; Stefanović, Vesna

    2011-12-01

    Vulnerability of young people and frustration of their basic biological, emotional, cognitive and social needs can induce a series of psycho-pathological manifestations, including aggression. Aim of this study is to examine the manifestations of aggressiveness in young people and to establish the difference between aggressive responses of two age groups; adolescents aged 16-19 years and older adolescents aged 20-26 years. The sample consists of 100 young people aged 16-19 years (46 adolescents) and 20-26 years (54 adolescents). For the purposes of this study, we have constructed a questionnaire in which we entered the data obtained on the basis of a standard psychiatric examination, auto- and hetero-anamnesis data, and data obtained using the standard battery of psychological tests. Statistically significant association was found between verbal aggression and physical aggression (p = 0.002), verbal aggression and suicide attempts (p = 0.02), verbal aggression and substance abuse (p = 0.009), verbal aggression and low frustration tolerance (LFT) (p = 0.007), suicide attempt and LFT (p = 0.052). The younger group was significantly more verbally aggressive compared to the older group (p = 0.01). Verbal aggression, which was significantly associated with physical aggression, suicide attempts, substance abuse and LFT, indicates the need for timely interventions for the prevention of more serious and malignant forms of aggression.

  13. Harm avoidance and persistence are associated with somatoform disorder psychopathology: A study in Taiwan.

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    Huang, Wei-Lieh; Chen, Tzu-Ting; Chen, I-Ming; Chang, Li-Ren; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-05-15

    Whether personality features affect the development of somatoform disorders and their psychopathologies is an important issue. Aim of this study was to resolve this issue by comparing indicators of psychopathology and personality features in subjects with somatoform disorders and healthy controls. This study recruited 148 subjects with somatoform disorders and 146 healthy controls. The severity of psychopathology was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), Health Anxiety Questionnaire (HAQ), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) was used to assess personality features. Demographic data, psychopathology indicators, and TPQ scores were compared between groups. Correlation and multivariate linear regression analysis were used to identify the personality dimensions or demographic variables associated with psychopathology. The somatoform group had lower novelty seeking (NS) and reward dependence (RD) and higher harm avoidance (HA) and severity of psychopathologies. Multiple regression analysis revealed that fatigability, persistence, gender, and education level were predictive of PHQ-15; HA, educational level, persistence, and dependence were predictive of HAQ; HA, persistence, education level, and NS were predictive of BDII-II; and fatigability, education level, persistence, and anticipatory worry were predictive of BAI. The development of somatoform disorders was associated with fatigability, age, residence location, education level, and attachment. The limitations include heterogeneity of the diagnosis, the high proportion of undifferentiated somatoform disorder, and the cross-sectional study design. HA/fatigability, persistence, and education level are associated with each type of psychopathology. Fatigability is a powerful predictor of somatoform disorder development. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Investigation of maternal psychopathological symptoms, dream anxiety and insomnia in preeclampsia.

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    Cetin, Orkun; Guzel Ozdemir, Pınar; Kurdoglu, Zehra; Sahin, Hanım Guler

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the psychopathological symptoms, psycho-emotional state, dream anxiety, and insomnia in healthy, mild and severe preeclamptic postpartum women and their relation to the severity of preeclampsia (PE). This observational study included 45 healthy, 41 mild preeclamptic and 44 severe preeclamptic postpartum women. The 90-item Symptom Checklist Revised, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, and Van Dream Anxiety Scale (VDAS) were used to evaluate the psychopathological symptoms, psycho-emotional state, insomnia, and dream anxiety of the participants after delivery. Severe preeclamptic women had higher VDAS scores than mild preeclamptic and healthy postpartum women (p: 0.001). The psychopathological symptoms were more frequent in preeclamptic women than in healthy controls (p: 0.001). Severe preeclamptic women had the highest scores in Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale and Insomnia Severity Index (p: 0.001, p: 0.001, respectively). Preeclampsia negatively affects the psycho-emotional state, psychopathological symptoms and sleep patterns. Further, disturbed dreaming was more frequent in PE and also, all of these conditions became worse with the severity of PE. We speculated that the obstetricians should offer their preeclamptic patients an appropriate mental health care at bedside and postpartum period as needed.

  15. Adverse Life Events and Mental Health in Middle Adolescence

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    Flouri, Eirini; Kallis, Constantinos

    2011-01-01

    This study's aim was to search for the appropriate functional form of the effect of proximal cumulative contextual risk (PCCR), measured with number of adverse life events experienced in the last 6 months, on adolescent psychopathology and prosocial behavior, measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The study sample was 171 year…

  16. Changing self-esteem in children and adolescents: A roadmap for future interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Arjan; Muris, Peter; Mulkens, S.; Schaalma, Herman

    2006-01-01

    textabstractSelf-esteem is an important construct that is related to academic achievement, social functioning and psychopathology in children and adolescents. Therefore, it is not surprising that many interventions have tried to change levels of self-esteem in this population. In this article a theoretical overview of self-esteem in children and adolescents is presented, in which recent research on different aspects of self-esteem will be discussed. Subsequently, research on treatment and pri...

  17. Child Maltreatment and Risk for Psychopathology in Childhood and Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R

    2017-05-08

    Although rates of child maltreatment are declining, more than 600,000 children in the United States are substantiated victims of abuse or neglect. The focus of this review is on the relationship between maltreatment and mental health problems in childhood and adulthood. Children and adults who are exposed to abuse or neglect in childhood are at risk for a range of poor mental health outcomes, including internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychotic symptoms, and personality disorders. I review three potential mechanisms by which maltreatment may increase risk for various forms of psychopathology, (a) hypervigilance to threat, (b) deficits in emotion recognition and understanding, and (c) low responsivity to reward. I also review genetic and psychosocial factors that moderate the relationship between maltreatment and risk for psychopathology. Finally, I discuss methodological limitations of the literature on maltreatment, with an emphasis on the challenges associated with establishing a causal role for maltreatment (and moderators or mediators of maltreatment) in the development of mental health problems and the reliance of many studies on retrospective self-reports.

  18. Cortical organization of inhibition-related functions and modulation by psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Stacie L; Crocker, Laura D; Spielberg, Jeffery M; Engels, Anna S; Banich, Marie T; Sutton, Bradley P; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences in inhibition-related functions have been implicated as risk factors for a broad range of psychopathology, including anxiety and depression. Delineating neural mechanisms of distinct inhibition-related functions may clarify their role in the development and maintenance of psychopathology. The present study tested the hypothesis that activity in common and distinct brain regions would be associated with an ecologically sensitive, self-report measure of inhibition and a laboratory performance measure of prepotent response inhibition. Results indicated that sub-regions of DLPFC distinguished measures of inhibition, whereas left inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral inferior parietal cortex were associated with both types of inhibition. Additionally, co-occurring anxiety and depression modulated neural activity in select brain regions associated with response inhibition. Results imply that specific combinations of anxiety and depression dimensions are associated with failure to implement top-down attentional control as reflected in inefficient recruitment of posterior DLPFC and increased activation in regions associated with threat (MTG) and worry (BA10). Present findings elucidate possible neural mechanisms of interference that could help explain executive control deficits in psychopathology.

  19. Cortical organization of inhibition-related functions and modulation by psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie L. Warren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in inhibition-related functions have been implicated as risk factors for a broad range of psychopathology, including anxiety and depression. Delineating neural mechanisms of distinct inhibition-related functions may clarify their role in the development and maintenance of psychopathology. The present study tested the hypothesis that activity in common and distinct brain regions would be associated with an ecologically sensitive, self-report measure of inhibition and a laboratory performance measure of prepotent response inhibition. Results indicated that sub-regions of DLPFC distinguished measures of inhibition, whereas left inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral inferior parietal cortex were associated with both types of inhibition. Additionally, co-occurring anxiety and depression modulated neural activity in select brain regions associated with response inhibition. Results imply that specific combinations of anxiety and depression dimensions are associated with failure to implement top-down attentional control as reflected in inefficient recruitment of posterior DLPFC and increased activation in regions associated with threat (MTG and worry (BA10. Present findings elucidate possible neural mechanisms of interference that could help explain executive control deficits in psychopathology.

  20. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for binge eating disorder in adolescents: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja

    2013-09-25

    Binge eating disorder is a prevalent adolescent disorder, associated with increased eating disorder and general psychopathology as well as an increased risk for overweight and obesity. As opposed to binge eating disorder in adults, there is a lack of validated psychological treatments for this condition in adolescents. The goal of this research project is therefore to determine the efficacy of age-adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescents with binge eating disorder - the gold standard treatment for adults with binge eating disorder. In a single-center efficacy trial, 60 12- to 20-year-old adolescents meeting diagnostic criteria of binge eating disorder (full-syndrome or subthreshold) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th or 5th Edition, will be centrally randomized to 4 months of cognitive-behavioral therapy (n = 30) or a waiting-list control condition (n = 30). Using an observer-blind design, patients are assessed at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups after the end of treatment. In 20 individual outpatient sessions, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescents focuses on eating behavior, body image, and stress; parents receive psychoeducation on these topics. Primary endpoint is the number of episodes with binge eating over the previous 28 days at post-treatment using a state-of-the art clinical interview. Secondary outcome measures address the specific eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, mental comorbidity, self-esteem, quality of life, and body weight. This trial will allow us to determine the short- and long-term efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescent binge eating disorder, to determine cost-effectiveness, and to identify predictors of treatment outcome. Evidence will be gathered regarding whether this treatment will help to prevent excessive weight gain. If efficacy can be demonstrated, the results from this trial will enhance

  1. Eating psychopathology amongst athletes: links to current attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vaithehy; Jowett, Sophia; Meyer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were two-fold; first to determine the associations between current attachment styles, and eating psychopathology amongst athletes, and second to simultaneously assess the mediating effects of self-esteem, perfectionism, and depression in this association. Four hundred and eleven British athletes completed self-report instruments pertaining to eating psychopathology, attachment styles, self-esteem, depression, and perfectionism. Athletes who scored highly on both avoidant and anxious attachment styles, reported elevated eating psychopathology scores. However, such associations were indirect and mediated via athletes' levels of self-esteem, self-critical perfectionism, and depression, with self-esteem and depression identified as more salient mediators than self-critical perfectionism. The current findings provide evidence to suggest that insecure attachment styles influence athletes' eating psychopathology via their impact on self-esteem, depression, and self-critical perfectionism. Moreover, self-esteem and depression may play more significant role in transferring the impact of insecure attachment styles on elevated eating psychopathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A network view on psychiatric disorders: network clusters of symptoms as elementary syndromes of psychopathology.

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    Rutger Goekoop

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. AIM: To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. METHODS: 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS. An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS was optimized using a previously published technique. RESULTS: In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "Depression", "Mania", "Anxiety", "Psychosis", "Retardation", and "Behavioral Disorganization". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. CONCLUSION: We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a 'Psychopathology Web'. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology.

  3. Brittle diabetes: Psychopathology and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Pupo, Simona

    The term "brittle" is used to describe an uncommon subgroup of patients with type I diabetes whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle diabetes. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological and personological assessment of patients with brittle diabetes in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes, using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality disorders following the multi-axial format of the current DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders - IV Edition - Text Revised) diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Patients comprised 42 subjects with brittle diabetes and a case-control group of 42 subjects with stable diabetes, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Structured Clinical Interview for axis II personality Disorders (SCID-II). The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters revealed no differences in all primary symptom dimensions and in the three global distress indices between the two groups. However, patients with brittle diabetes showed higher percentages in borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorder. In this study, patients with brittle diabetes show no differences in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and specific symptoms of axis I DSM-IV-TR psychiatric diagnoses in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes. Differently, individuals with brittle diabetes are more frequently affected by specific DSM-IV-TR cluster B personality disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Romantic relationships and psychological distress among adolescents: Moderating role of friendship closeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Chong Man; Ruhl, Holly; Buhrmester, Duane

    2015-11-01

    The formation of romantic relationships and friendships in adolescence is a defining milestone in the progression toward social maturity. Thus, examining adolescents' friendship and romantic experiences serves a vital role in understanding their psychological adjustment. The main purposes of the current study were to examine (a) whether romantic involvement, romantic security, and friendship closeness were independently predictive of late adolescents' depression and loneliness, and (b) whether friendship closeness would moderate the negative effects of adolescents' lower degrees of romantic involvement and romantic security on depression and loneliness. Data came from 12th grade adolescents (N = 110, 53 females) as well as their parents and a same-sex best friend. Adolescents reported on their romantic involvement, romantic security, and psychological distress. Parent reports of adolescents' depressive symptoms and friend reports of friendship closeness were also included. Higher degrees of romantic involvement and friendship closeness were related to lower degrees of loneliness. Higher degrees of romantic security were related to lower degrees of depression and loneliness. The effect of romantic involvement on depression and loneliness was moderated by friendship closeness. Also, the effect of romantic security on loneliness was moderated by friendship closeness. Future research should focus on the interactive roles that friendships and romantic relationships play in the emergence of psychopathology during adolescence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Parental guided self-help family based treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, James; Darcy, Alison; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Vierhile, Molly; Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri

    2017-09-01

    Family-based treatment (FBT) is an evidence-based treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN), but many families cannot access it. This study evaluated feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary treatment effects of a parental guided self-help (GSH) version of FBT for adolescent AN. This was a case-series design. Parents of medically stable adolescents (11-18 years) with DSM-5 AN were recruited over 12 months. Parents received online training in parental GSH FBT and 12 20-30 min GSH sessions by phone or online over 6 months. Recruitment, dropout, changes in weight, and eating-related psychopathology were assessed. Analyses used mixed modeling that included all data for all participants. Of the 19 families that participated, most were white (94%) and from intact families (88%). Baseline median BMI (mBMI) percent was 85.01% (SD = 4.31). Participants' mBMI percent increased to 97.31% (SD ± 7.48) at the end of treatment (EOT) (ES = 2.06; CI= 0.13-3.99). Eating-related psychopathology improved by EOT (ES = 0.58; CI=.04-1.21). Dropout rate was 21% during treatment and 33% during follow-up. Parental GSH-FBT is feasible and acceptable to families willing to undertake online treatment. Follow-up data was only available for nine families (47%); thus further systematic evaluation is required before reaching conclusions about the efficacy of this approach. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Executive functions in adolescents with binge-eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Rebekka; Schmidt, Ricarda; Hilbert, Anja

    2017-08-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) in adults is associated with alterations in executive functions (EF) and obesity. Much less is known about these relationships in adolescents, including whether poor EF are associated with eating disorder psychopathology and/or elevated body mass index. This study examined EF in response to neutral stimuli in youth with BED. Adolescents with BED and obesity (n = 22), individually matched adolescents with obesity (n = 22), and normal weight (n = 22) completed neuropsychological tests targeting inhibition (Color-Word Interference Test), sustained attention (D2 Concentration Endurance Test), cognitive flexibility (Comprehensive Trail Making Test), and decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task). Adolescents with BED and obesity displayed significantly poorer inhibitory control compared to normal-weight adolescents. This effect persisted after controlling for the level of secondary education. However, initial differences between adolescents with obesity and normal-weight controls regarding inhibitory control and sustained attention vanished after controlling for education. The three groups did not differ regarding cognitive flexibility and decision-making. Moreover, adolescents with BED and obesity did not perform worse than adolescents with obesity on any of the neuropsychological tests. Overall, our results indicate that adolescent BED is associated with only a few alterations in general EF, specifically inhibitory control, and underline BED and educational level as confounding factors in neuropsychological research on obesity. To further delineate EF profiles of adolescents with BED, future research should focus on EF in response to disorder-related stimuli and experimental settings with high ecological validity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Psychopathology, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and risk factors in juvenile offenders

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    Margari F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Margari,1 Francesco Craig,2 Lucia Margari,2 Emilia Matera,2 Anna Linda Lamanna,2 Paola Alessandra Lecce,2 Donatella La Tegola,3 Felice Carabellese3 1Psychiatry Unit, 2Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs of the Aldo Moro University of Bari, 3Section of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry, Department of Internal Medicine and Public Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, Italy Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potential environmental and psychopathological risk factors, with special focus on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, in a sample of adolescent offenders in relation to the type of crime committed.Methods: The assessment included data collection and administration of clinical standardized scales such as the Youth Self-Report and Conners’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale. A total of 135 juvenile offenders participated in the study. In relation to the type of crime committed, we identified three groups matched for age and sex (crimes against people, property crimes, and alcohol-drug-related crimes.Results: Fifty-two percent of juvenile offenders reported educational achievement problems and 34% reported a family history of psychiatric disorders. We detected a statistically significant difference between the three groups with regard to ADHD (P=0.01 and conduct problems (P=0.034. Juvenile offenders who had committed crimes against people showed more ADHD symptoms (18% and conduct problems (20% than adolescents who had committed property crimes and alcohol-drug-related crimes. Sixty percent of the juvenile offenders who had committed property crimes and 54% of those who had committed alcohol-drug-related crimes showed problems in academic achievement.Conclusion: These findings suggest the need to implement specific interventions for prevention and treatment of specific criminal behavior. Keywords: juvenile offenders

  8. Biosensor approach to psychopathology classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha Koshelev

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We used a multi-round, two-party exchange game in which a healthy subject played a subject diagnosed with a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistics Manual-IV disorder, and applied a Bayesian clustering approach to the behavior exhibited by the healthy subject. The goal was to characterize quantitatively the style of play elicited in the healthy subject (the proposer by their DSM-diagnosed partner (the responder. The approach exploits the dynamics of the behavior elicited in the healthy proposer as a biosensor for cognitive features that characterize the psychopathology group at the other side of the interaction. Using a large cohort of subjects (n = 574, we found statistically significant clustering of proposers' behavior overlapping with a range of DSM-IV disorders including autism spectrum disorder, borderline personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and major depressive disorder. To further validate these results, we developed a computer agent to replace the human subject in the proposer role (the biosensor and show that it can also detect these same four DSM-defined disorders. These results suggest that the highly developed social sensitivities that humans bring to a two-party social exchange can be exploited and automated to detect important psychopathologies, using an interpersonal behavioral probe not directly related to the defining diagnostic criteria.

  9. Annual research review: Current limitations and future directions in MRI studies of child- and adult-onset developmental psychopathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horga, Guillermo; Kaur, Tejal; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-06-01

    and more powerful causal inferences. Those study designs include epidemiological, longitudinal, high-risk, clinical trials, and multimodal imaging studies. We highlight several studies that have yoked brain imaging technologies to these stronger designs to illustrate how doing so can aid our understanding of disease mechanisms and in the foreseeable future can improve clinical diagnosis, prevention, and treatment planning for developmental psychopathologies. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  10. Age associations with neural processing of reward anticipation in adolescents with bipolar disorders

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    Snežana Urošević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development.

  11. Age associations with neural processing of reward anticipation in adolescents with bipolar disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urošević, Snežana; Luciana, Monica; Jensen, Jonathan B.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD) and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age) associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus), suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development. PMID:27114896

  12. Relations between Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior in Adolescence: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salome Grandclerc

    Full Text Available Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11-25 years expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care.

  13. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology-and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity-remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children's development.

  14. Mad Genius Revisited : Vulnerability to Psychopathology, Biobehavioral Approach-Avoidance, and Creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Boot, Nathalie C.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be

  15. ADOLESCENTS WITH BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS: PERSONALITY, QUALITY OF LIFE AND SOCIAL HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ya. Volgina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deviant behavior of adolescents is a serious social problem in today's society because of the significant prevalence of this phenomenon. Authors present the results of the study of adolescents with behavioral problems. Aim: optimization of medical and social care for adolescents with behavioral problems. Patients and methods: the authors studied the incidence of this condition among children aged from 15 to 17 years using the software package «SOC/PEDIATRIA-2». The features of the personality structure of adolescents with deviant behavior were revealed using the adopted Russian short version of MMPI-MINI-MULT. Demographic and social characteristics of the families of adolescents were assessed. SF-36 questionnaire was applied for the quality of life assessment of the studied category. Results: increasing morbidity among adolescents was revealed due to various reasons: economic, medical and social. The study allowed to develop personal characteristics of the criteria in order to timely identify adolescents with accentuated and psychopathological features. The characteristics of quality of life were used as criteria of health care for adolescents with behavioral problems. The measures for the prevention and correction of deviant behavior among adolescents were proposed, including intersectoral integration and active participation of family in the process of rehabilitation. Conclusions: it is necessary to identify adolescents with deviant behavior timely, followed by a set of measures to provide them with health and social care to protect their health.

  16. Changing self-esteem in children and adolescents: A roadmap for future interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.R. Bos (Arjan); P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); S. Mulkens; H.P. Schaalma (Herman)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractSelf-esteem is an important construct that is related to academic achievement, social functioning and psychopathology in children and adolescents. Therefore, it is not surprising that many interventions have tried to change levels of self-esteem in this population. In this article a

  17. A Hierarchical Causal Taxonomy of Psychopathology across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Krueger, Robert F.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Zald, David H.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a taxonomy of psychopathology based on patterns of shared causal influences identified in a review of multivariate behavior genetic studies that distinguish genetic and environmental influences that are either common to multiple dimensions of psychopathology or unique to each dimension. At the phenotypic level, first-order dimensions are defined by correlations among symptoms; correlations among first-order dimensions similarly define higher-order domains (e.g., internalizing or externalizing psychopathology). We hypothesize that the robust phenotypic correlations among first-order dimensions reflect a hierarchy of increasingly specific etiologic influences. Some nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk for all first-order dimensions of psychopathology to varying degrees through a general factor of psychopathology. Other nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk only for all first-order dimensions within a more specific higher-order domain. Furthermore, each first-order dimension has its own unique causal influences. Genetic and environmental influences common to family members tend to be nonspecific, whereas environmental influences unique to each individual are more dimension-specific. We posit that these causal influences on psychopathology are moderated by sex and developmental processes. This causal taxonomy also provides a novel framework for understanding the heterogeneity of each first-order dimension: Different persons exhibiting similar symptoms may be influenced by different combinations of etiologic influences from each of the three levels of the etiologic hierarchy. Furthermore, we relate the proposed causal taxonomy to transdimensional psychobiological processes, which also impact the heterogeneity of each psychopathology dimension. This causal taxonomy implies the need for changes in strategies for studying the etiology, psychobiology, prevention, and treatment of psychopathology. PMID:28004947

  18. History of weight control attempts among adolescent girls with loss of control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Anna; Shomaker, Lauren B; Field, Sara E; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James C; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2014-05-01

    Loss of control (LOC) eating and a weight control attempt (WCA) history during adolescence are important behavioral risk factors for eating disorders and obesity. The current study investigated the significance of the presence of a WCA history among adolescent girls with LOC eating. Participants were 114 obesity-prevention-seeking 12-17-year-old (M = 14.5, SD = 1.7 years) girls who were between the 75th and 97th body mass index (BMI) percentile (BMI-z: M = 1.5, SD = 0.3) and reported LOC eating episodes during the previous month (M = 4.0, SD = 4.9 episodes; Median = 2.0). Measures included the Eating Disorder Examination to assess LOC eating, eating pathology, and WCA history, and self-report questionnaires for symptoms of general psychopathology. Eating behavior was observed during a laboratory meal designed to capture a LOC eating episode. 67.5% reported a WCA history. As compared to girls without a WCA history (no-WCA), those with a WCA history (WCA) had greater disordered eating attitudes and depressive symptoms (ps frequency (ps > .10). During the laboratory meal, WCA consumed less energy from snack-type foods than no-WCA (M = 245.0, SD = 156.1 vs. M = 341.6, SD = 192.3 kcal; p = .01). Reported WCAs are highly prevalent and are associated with greater psychopathology symptoms among adolescent girls with LOC eating. Prospective data are needed to determine whether these overlapping risk behaviors confer differential vulnerability for developing eating disorders and obesity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Psychopathological manifestations of multiple meningiomas in the right hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lukshina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the data available in the literature on meningiomas and their psychopathological manifestations that occupy a central position in the clinical picture in almost every 5 patients with these tumors. The authors provide a clinical and psychopathological analysis of a female patient with multiple meningiomas in the right hemisphere: a giant meningioma in the posterior third of the falx, a large meningioma in the temporal region, and three small meningiomas in the frontal and parietal regions. The disease started as headache; however, psychopathological symptoms remained missed by physicians, such as emotional lability; personality changes leading to family dissension; lower criticism; spatial orientation problems; hypomnesia; left-sided visual inattention,occurred in parallel. Surgical treatment was performed by stages: the two largest meningiomas were removed at an 11-day interval, which presented a means of observing psychopathological changes after each operation. It is concluded that greater attention should be given to the psychopathological manifestations of the disease, which is important to make a primary diagnosis and to define further treatment policy.

  20. Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

  1. Duration of Absence from Work Is Related to Psychopathology, Personality, and Sociodemographic Variables in a Longitudinal Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Gamma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo examine, in a non-clinical sample, the association of psychopathology, personality, sociodemographic information, and psychosocial indicators of non-occupational functioning with the duration of absence from work in the past 12 months.MethodA longitudinal community cohort of 591 adults from Switzerland was analyzed using multilevel ordered logistic regression, with several alternative models as robustness checks. Psychopathology was assessed using the total score (Global Severity Index of the Symptom Check List-90 Revised.ResultsThe highest psychopathology levels were associated with absences of 3 or more week duration, largely independently of age. Extraversion and being divorced, widowed or separated also corresponded with longer absences from work in some analyses. No effect of sex was found. Most effects tested were not statistically significant and estimates showed large uncertainty.ConclusionAlthough tentative, our results suggest a possible influence of psychopathology on work participation. It may thus be desirable in insurance-medical appraisals of work ability to include instruments for measuring psychopathology.

  2. Are child and adolescent responses to placebo higher in major depression than in anxiety disorders? A systematic review of placebo-controlled trials.

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    David Cohen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a previous report, we hypothesized that responses to placebo were high in child and adolescent depression because of specific psychopathological factors associated with youth major depression. The purpose of this study was to compare the placebo response rates in pharmacological trials for major depressive disorder (MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and other anxiety disorders (AD-non-OCD. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reviewed the literature relevant to the use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents with internalized disorders, restricting our review to double-blind studies including a placebo arm. Placebo response rates were pooled and compared according to diagnosis (MDD vs. OCD vs. AD-non-OCD, age (adolescent vs. child, and date of publication. From 1972 to 2007, we found 23 trials that evaluated the efficacy of psychotropic medication (mainly non-tricyclic antidepressants involving youth with MDD, 7 pertaining to youth with OCD, and 10 pertaining to youth with other anxiety disorders (N = 2533 patients in placebo arms. As hypothesized, the placebo response rate was significantly higher in studies on MDD, than in those examining OCD and AD-non-OCD (49.6% [range: 17-90%] vs. 31% [range: 4-41%] vs. 39.6% [range: 9-53], respectively, ANOVA F = 7.1, p = 0.002. Children showed a higher stable placebo response within all three diagnoses than adolescents, though this difference was not significant. Finally, no significant effects were found with respect to the year of publication. CONCLUSION: MDD in children and adolescents appears to be more responsive to placebo than other internalized conditions, which highlights differential psychopathology.

  3. Video game addiction in gambling disorder: clinical, psychopathological, and personality correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Chóliz, Mariano; La Verde, Melania; Aguglia, Eugenio; Signorelli, Maria S; Sá, Gustavo M; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Fagundo, Ana B; Sauchelli, Sarah; Fernández-Formoso, José A; Menchón, José M

    2014-01-01

    We studied the prevalences of video game use (VGU) and addiction (VGA) in gambling disorder (GD) patients and compared them with subjects with non-video game use (non-VGU) in relation to their gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality characteristics. A sample of 193 GD patients (121 non-VGU, 43 VGU, and 29 VGA) consecutively admitted to our pathological gambling unit participated in the study. Assessment. Measures included the video game dependency test (VDT), symptom checklist-90-revised, and the temperament and character inventory-revised, as well as a number of other GD indices. In GD, the observed prevalence of VG (use or addiction) was 37.3% (95% CI :30.7% ÷ 44.3),VGU 22.3% (95% CI :17.0% ÷ 28.7), and VGA 15% (95% CI :10.7% ÷ 20.7). Orthogonal polynomial contrast into logistic regression showed positive linear trends for VG level and GD severity and other measures of general psychopathology. After structural equation modeling, higher VG total scores were associated with younger age, general psychopathology, and specific personality traits, but not with GD severity. Patients' sex and age were involved in the mediational pathways between personality traits and VG impairment. GD patients with VG are younger and present more dysfunctional personality traits, and more general psychopathology. The presence of VG did not affect the severity of GD.

  4. ADHD, ODD, and CD: Do They Belong to a Common Psychopathological Spectrum? A Case Series

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    Sayanti Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of Research. Numerous studies have reported comorbidities, overlapping symptoms, and shared risk factors among cases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD. We present three adolescent males aged 13–16 years with conduct disorder having past history of ADHD and ODD. Principal Result. The symptom profile especially in domains of aggression, hostility, and emotionality as well as the manner of progression from ADHD to ODD and CD in the above cases shows a similar pattern. Conclusion. These common developmental pathways and overlapping symptoms suggest the possibility of a common psychopathological spectrum encompassing the three externalizing disorders.

  5. Differences in Emotion Regulation Difficulties Across Types of Eating Disorders During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbach, Noam; Sher, Helene; Bohon, Cara

    2017-11-04

    Emotion regulation appears to play a key role in eating disorders. However, prior attempts to associate specific emotion regulation abilities with specific types of eating disorders resulted in inconsistent findings. Moreover, far less is known about emotion regulation in eating disorders during adolescence, a critical period of emotional development. The current study addresses this gap, comparing emotion regulation characteristics between adolescents with restrictive types of eating disorders and those with binge eating or purging types of eating disorders. Ninety-eight adolescents with eating disorders (49 with restrictive and 49 with binge eating/purging eating disorders) completed a set of questionnaires including the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). The results revealed that binge eating/purging types of eating disorders were associated with greater difficulties in a variety of emotion regulation dimensions including impulse control, goal-directed behavior and access to effective emotion regulation strategies. Awareness and clarity of emotions were also worse in the binge eating/purging types of eating disorders, but this difference did not remain when comorbid psychopathology measures were controlled for. Moreover, the emotion regulation profile of adolescents with anorexia nervosa-binging/purging type was more similar to that of adolescents with bulimia nervosa than to that of adolescents with anorexia nervosa-restrictive type. While both restrictive and binge eating/purging eating disorders have been associated with emotion regulation difficulties, the current study shows that the presence of binge eating or purging episodes is linked with greater severity of emotion regulation deficits among adolescents with eating disorders.

  6. Predictors of change in music therapy with children and adolescents: The role of therapeutic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gold, Christian; Wigram, Tony; Voracek, Martin

    2006-01-01

    and burdens on their social environment showed greater improvement when music therapy was limited to discipline-specific music therapy techniques and did not include other media such as play therapy elements. The findings indicate the importance of being aware about a therapy method's specific strengths......  Music therapy has been shown to be efficacious in experimental studies. However, there is little empirical research knowledge about what elements of music therapy influence its effectiveness in clinical practice. Children and adolescents with psychopathology (N = 75) were assessed before...

  7. Spherical Model Integrating Academic Competence with Social Adjustment and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Earl S.; And Others

    This study replicates and elaborates a three-dimensional, spherical model that integrates research findings concerning social and emotional behavior, psychopathology, and academic competence. Kindergarten teachers completed an extensive set of rating scales on 100 children, including the Classroom Behavior Inventory and the Child Adaptive Behavior…

  8. Adolescent Victimization and Early-Adult Psychopathology: Approaching Causal Inference Using a Longitudinal Twin Study to Rule Out Noncausal Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jonathan D.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise; Danese, Andrea; Fisher, Helen L.; Houts, Renate; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Wertz, Jasmin; Caspi, Avshalom

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is the peak age for both victimization and mental disorder onset. Previous research has reported associations between victimization exposure and many psychiatric conditions. However, causality remains controversial. Within the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, we tested whether seven types of adolescent victimization increased risk of multiple psychiatric conditions and approached causal inference by systematically ruling out noncausal explanations. Longitudinal within-individual analyses showed that victimization was followed by increased mental health problems over a childhood baseline of emotional/behavioral problems. Discordant-twin analyses showed that victimization increased risk of mental health problems independent of family background and genetic risk. Both childhood and adolescent victimization made unique contributions to risk. Victimization predicted heightened generalized liability (the “p factor”) to multiple psychiatric spectra, including internalizing, externalizing, and thought disorders. Results recommend violence reduction and identification and treatment of adolescent victims to reduce psychiatric burden. PMID:29805917

  9. [Consumption of cannabis in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, O; Obradovic, I; Har, A

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the consumption of cannabis among adolescents has dramatically increased. Today, adolescent cannabis use is a major public health problem. Two forms of cannabis are commonly smoked: herb (marijuana) and resin. These forms have a high concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active molecule of cannabis. Recent research has helped understand how the cannabinoid system works. This system combines specific receptors and specific molecules: the endocannabinoids. The effects of cannabis use are now well documented. Some adolescents report subjective positive effects. They use it not only on a recreational basis, but also to deal with their emotions. Over the long term, cannabis increases the risk of depression and schizophrenia for those adolescents who are at risk. Use, misuse, and dependence are frequently associated with heavy psychopathologic problems such as vulnerability and depression. Many cannabis dependence psychotherapies have shown their efficacy and efficiency. Motivational interviews, cognitive behavioral therapy, multidimensional family therapy (MDFT), and residential treatment have proved highly effective. MDFT seems very effective, especially in cases of heavy use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Preschool externalizing behavior predicts gender-specific variation in adolescent neural structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Z K Caldwell

    Full Text Available Dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus is believed to underlie the development of much psychopathology. However, to date only limited longitudinal data relate early behavior with neural structure later in life. Our objective was to examine the relationship of early life externalizing behavior with adolescent brain structure. We report here the first longitudinal study linking externalizing behavior during preschool to brain structure during adolescence. We examined the relationship of preschool externalizing behavior with amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex volumes at age 15 years in a community sample of 76 adolescents followed longitudinally since their mothers' pregnancy. A significant gender by externalizing behavior interaction revealed that males-but not females-with greater early childhood externalizing behavior had smaller amygdala volumes at adolescence (t = 2.33, p = .023. No significant results were found for the hippocampus or the prefrontal cortex. Greater early externalizing behavior also related to smaller volume of a cluster including the angular gyrus and tempoparietal junction across genders. Results were not attributable to the impact of preschool anxiety, preschool maternal stress, school-age internalizing or externalizing behaviors, or adolescent substance use. These findings demonstrate a novel, gender-specific relationship between early-childhood externalizing behavior and adolescent amygdala volume, as well as a cross-gender result for the angular gyrus and tempoparietal junction.

  11. A Place for Sexual Dysfunctions in an Empirical Taxonomy of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Miriam K.; Baillie, Andrew J.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2017-01-01

    Sexual dysfunctions commonly co-occur with various depressive and anxiety disorders. An emerging framework for understanding the classification of mental disorders suggests that such comorbidity is a manifestation of underlying dimensions of psychopathology (or “spectra”). In this review, we synthesize the evidence that sexual dysfunctions should be included in the empirical taxonomy of psychopathology as part of the internalizing spectrum, which accounts for comorbidity among the depressive and anxiety disorders. The review has four parts. Part 1 summarizes the empirical basis and utility of the empirical taxonomy of psychopathology. Part 2 reviews the prima facie evidence for the hypothesis that sexual dysfunctions are part of the internalizing spectrum (i.e., high rates of comorbidity; shared cognitive, affective, and temperament characteristics; common neural substrates and biomarkers; shared course and treatment response; and the lack of causal relationships between them). Part 3 critically analyzes and integrates the results of the eight studies that have addressed this hypothesis. Finally, Part 4 examines the implications of reconceptualizing sexual dysfunctions as part of the internalizing spectrum, and explores avenues for future research. PMID:28121167

  12. Is technology assisted guided self-help successful in treating female adolescents with bulimia nervosa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gudrun; Wagner, Gudrun; Penelo, Eva; Nobis, Gerald; Mayerhofer, Anna; Schau, Johanna; Spitzer, Marion; Imgart, Hartmut; Karwautz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the long-term outcome of new technology assisted guided self-help in adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN). One hundred and twenty-six patients with BN (29 adolescents and 97 adults) were randomly allocated to a cognitive behavioural therapy-based self-help program delivered by the Internet or bibliotherapy, both accompanied by e-mail guidance. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, month 4, 7 and 18 including remission rates and eating disorder associated psychopathology. In all, 44% of adolescents vs. 38.7% of adults were in remission at month 7, and 55% of adolescents vs. 62.5% of adults were in remission at follow-up. Objective binge eating and compensatory behaviour improved significantly over time in both groups, with the highest decrease during the first 4 months. A significant decrease over time and no group differences have been found in almost all EDI-2 subscales. E-mail guided self-help (delivered via the Internet or bibliotherapy) is equally effective for adolescents as for adults with BN, and can be recommended as an initial step of treatment for this younger age group.

  13. Social inequalities in adolescent depression: the role of parental social support and optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piko, Bettina F; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M

    2013-08-01

    Interpersonal theory suggests relationships between socio-economic status (SES) and adolescent psychopathology mediated by negative parenting. This study examines the role of perceived parental social support and optimism in understanding adolescents' depression and self-rated health among a sample of Hungarian youth. Using a self-administered questionnaire, data (N = 881) were collected from high-school students (14-20 years old) in Szeged, Hungary (a regional centre in the southeastern region, near to the Serbian border, with a population of 170,000 inhabitants). To analyse the overall structure of the relationship between objective/subjective SES, parental support, optimism and health outcomes (depression, self-perceived health), structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed. Findings suggest the following: (1) SES variables generate social inequalities in adolescent depression through parental social support, particularly maternal support; and (2) parents provide youths with different levels of social support that in turn may strengthen or weaken optimism during the socialization process. In addressing depression prevention and treatment, we may want to take into account socio-economic differences in social networks and levels of optimism, which may influence youths' psychosocial adjustment and development of psychopathology.

  14. The Association of Parent Mindfulness with Parenting and Youth Psychopathology Across Three Developmental Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Justin; McKee, Laura G; N Rough, Jennifer; Forehand, Rex

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of the current study was to test a model examining the process by which parent dispositional mindfulness relates to youth psychopathology through mindful parenting and parenting practices. The universality of the model across youth at three developmental stages was examined: young childhood (3-7 years; n = 210), middle childhood (8-12 years; n = 200), and adolescence (13-17 years; n = 205). Overall, participants were 615 parents (55% female) and one of their 3-to-17 year old children (45% female). Parents reported on their dispositional mindfulness, mindful parenting, positive and negative parenting practices and their child's or adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems. Consistent findings across all three developmental stages indicated that higher levels of parent dispositional mindfulness were indirectly related to lower levels of youth internalizing and externalizing problems through higher levels of mindful parenting and lower levels of negative parenting practices. Replication of these findings across families with children at different developmental stages lends support to the generalizability of the model.

  15. Pregnancy and Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Tjitte

    2016-01-01

    For a lot of people, because of the joy and happiness of a new life, pregnancy means being on cloud nine. The general population may not be aware that this does not apply to every woman. Psychopathology during and after pregnancy should not be underrated. For as much as 10-20% of all pregnant women,

  16. Psychopathology, biopsychosocial factors, crime characteristics, and classification of 25 homicidal youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W C; Scott, K; Burgess, A W; Burgess, A G

    1995-11-01

    This study investigates diagnostic, behavioral, offense, and classification characteristics of juvenile murderers. Twenty-five homicidal children and adolescents were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents, clinical interviews, record review, and all available collateral data. DSM-III-R psychopathology was found in 96% of these youths, and one half of them had experienced suicidal ideation at some point in their lives. Nevertheless, only 17% had ever received mental health treatment. Family and school dysfunction were present in virtually all subjects. Histories of abuse, prior violence, arrests, and promiscuous sexual behavior were typical. Motives were equally divided between crime-based and conflict-based causes. A weapon was used in 96% of cases. Significant differences were found between crime classification groups and victim age, physical abuse, IQ, and victim relationship. In addition, those who committed sexual homicide were significantly more likely to have engaged in overkill, used a knife, and been armed beforehand. Ten profile characteristics present in at least 70% of these juveniles were identified. All murders were readily classified according to the FBI Crime Classification Manual (CCM). These findings support juvenile murderers as being an inadequately treated, emotionally and behaviorally disturbed population with profound social problems. The CCM proved to be a useful instrument for the classification of this sample.

  17. The relationship between the FFM personality traits, state psychopathology, and sexual compulsivity in a sample of male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Joana; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2013-07-01

    Several studies have advocated a relationship between psychopathological features and sexual compulsivity. Such relationship is often found among individuals seeking help for out of control sexual behavior, suggesting that the association between psychological adjustment and sexual compulsivity may have a significant clinical value. However, a more complete approach to the topic of sexual compulsivity would also include the analysis of nonclinical samples as healthy individuals may be at risk of developing some features of hypersexuality in the future. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between stable traits of personality, state psychopathology, and sexual compulsivity in a sample of male college students. Furthermore, the potential mediating role of state psychopathology in the relationship between personality traits and sexual compulsivity was tested. Participants completed the following measures: the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory-22. The sample included 152 male college students recruited in a Portuguese university using nonrandom methods. The measures were completed individually and anonymously. Findings on state psychopathology suggested that psychoticism may be one of the key dimensions associated with sexual compulsivity in male students. The personality traits of Neuroticism and Agreeableness were also significant predictors of sexual compulsivity. Findings on the mediating effects suggested that state psychopathology mediated the relationship between Neuroticism and sexual compulsivity but not between Agreeableness and sexual compulsivity. A psychopathological path (encompassing Neuroticism and state psychopathology) and a behavioral path (encompassing Agreeableness features) may be involved in sexual compulsivity as reported by a nonclinical sample of male students. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Differences in temperament and character dimensions in adolescents with various conduct disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukanac Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Adolescence is characterized both by a large developmental potential and by an increased risk for emergence of different forms of psychopathology. International classifications of mental disorders recognize the psychopathology of adolescence at the age of 15−18 through the categories of conduct disorders and some forms of addiction: chemical and non-chemical. The aim of this research was to analyse the personality structure among four groups of adolescents manifesting different types of conduct disorder based on Cloninger’s Psychobiological theory of personality. Methods. The research sample consisted of 140 respondents at the age of 16−18, divided into five groups: 30 respondents manifesting socialized conduct disorder, 20 adolescents in conflict with the law, 30 respondents manifesting abuse of psychoactive substances, 30 respondents with the problem of the Internet addiction and 30 from general population. The Belgrade Adolescent Personality Inventory (BAPI questionnaire was used for the purpose of assessment of personality. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA, followed by univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to examine differences between the given groups of adolescents. Results. The results of MANOVA show differences in the personality structure among the groups, both in the dimensions of temperament, F (20,418.84 = 2.71, p < 0.001, Wilks’s lambda 0.67, and in the dimensions of character, F (12,344.24 = 3.27, p < 0.001, Wilks’s lambda is 0.75. Socialized conduct disorder is characterized by low selfdirectedness and average cooperativeness. Adolescents in conflict with the law have the lowest persistence, together with low self-directedness and cooperativeness. Adolescents abusing psychoactive substances have low harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Adolescents with Internet addiction are characterized by high novelty seeking (impulsivity and curiosity, low self-directedness and the lowest

  19. Autonomy-connectedness and internalizing-externalizing personality psychopathology, among outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachrach, N.; Bekker, M.H.J.; Croon, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this research were to investigate gender differences in levels of autonomy-connectedness, Axis I Psychopathology, and higher order factors of internalizing and externalizing personality psychopathology and, second, to investigate the association between these variables. Design

  20. Adolescent Delinquency and Psychopathology: Is Maysi-2 a Valid Instrument to Assess Psychopathology Risk among Turkish Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Demirbaş-Çakır

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this study it was aimed to study validity and reliability of Turkish form of Massachusetts outh Screening Instrument-Second Version (MAYSI-2.Method and materials: Totally 387 adolescents, 333 boys and 54 girls participated to the study. Calculation of each subscale’s Cronbach’s alpha and inter subscales correlation coefficiency has been performed to assess reliability of Turkish form of MAYSI-2. Explanatory factor analysis and Turkish form of Youth Self Report (YSR have been used to assess validity of the scale.Results: Cronbach’s alpha coefficiency values were 0.84 for Alcohol/Drug Use, 0.78 for Anger/Irritability, 0.66 for Depression/Anxiety, 0.58 for Somatic Complaints, 0.84 for Suicidal Ideation, 0,15 for Thought Disturbance, 0.55 for Traumatic Experiences for boys and 0.66 for Traumatic Experiences for girls. Turkish form of MAYSI-2 consisted of seven factor structure as the original one in explanatory factor analysis. Statistically significant correlation coefficiencies which range between 0.27 and 0.69 were found in between all the subscales of both Turkish form of MAYSI-2 and Turkish YSR.Conclusion: Results of this study showed that Turkish form of MAYSI-2 is valid and reliable to perform risk assessment with regard to psychiatric disorders among Turkish youth population who entered to the juvenile justice system. 

  1. Psychopathology and the Ability to Do Otherwise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    When philosophers want an example of a person who lacks the ability to do otherwise, they turn to psychopathology. Addicts, agoraphobics, kleptomaniacs, neurotics, obsessives, and even psychopathic serial murderers, are all purportedly subject to irresistible desires that compel the person to act: no alternative possibility is supposed to exist. I argue that this conception of psychopathology is false and offer an empirically and clinically informed understanding of disorders of agency which preserves the ability to do otherwise. First, I appeal to standard clinical treatment for disorders of agency and argue that it undermines this conception of psychopathology. Second, I offer a detailed discussion of addiction, where our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the disorder is relatively advanced. I argue that neurobiology notwithstanding, addiction is not a form of compulsion and I explain how addiction can impair behavioural control without extinguishing it. Third, I step back from addiction, and briefly sketch what the philosophical landscape more generally looks like without psychopathological compulsion: we lose our standard purported real-world example of psychologically determined action. I conclude by reflecting on the centrality of choice and free will to our concept of action, and their potency within clinical treatment for disorders of agency. PMID:25929318

  2. Evaluation of the Environmental Supports Scale with a Community Sample of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco, Cristina M; Collado, Anahi D; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Lejuez, Carl W; MacPherson, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Environmental sources of psychosocial support have been found to modulate or protect against the development of psychopathology and risk behavior among adolescents. Capturing sources of environmental support across multiple developmental contexts requires the availability of well-validated, concise assessments-of which there are few in the existing literature. In order to address this need, the current study explored the factor structure, concurrent and convergent validity of the Environmental Supports Scale (ESS; Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 117; 395-417, 1991) with a community sample of adolescents. An unconstrained exploratory factor analysis revealed a separate factor for home, school, and neighborhood settings. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated for each factor. Concurrent and predictive validity analyses revealed that the ESS was associated in the expected directions across a range of constructs relevant to adolescent development including internalizing symptoms, well-being, external influences, and engagement in risk behavior. Convergent validity for the neighborhood context was established with an assessment of neighborhood environmental adversity. A brief assessment of perceived environmental support across key developmental contexts provides an important tool for research on resilience processes during adolescence and may help illuminate key protective factors and inform intervention and prevention efforts.

  3. Personality development and psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Fruyt, Filip; De Clercq, Barbara; De Caluwé, E.A.L.; Verbeke, Lize; Specht, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter reviews the state of knowledge concerning personality development and psychopathology, as well as their mutual influence. Although these separate constructs are currently well documented, the research area concerning their interconnection is complex and is in need of more sophisticated

  4. Predicting Time to Recovery Among Depressed Adolescents Treated in Two Psychosocial Group Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Kaufman, Noah K.; Clarke, Gregory N.; Stice, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Aims were to identify the demographic, psychopathology, and psychosocial factors predicting time to major depressive disorder (MDD) recovery and moderators of treatment among 114 depressed adolescents recruited from a juvenile justice center and randomized to a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) condition or a life skills-tutoring control…

  5. Understanding comorbidity among internalizing problems: Integrating latent structural models of psychopathology and risk mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Snyder, Hannah R.; Gulley, Lauren D.; Schweizer, Tina H.; Bijttebier, Patricia; Nelis, Sabine; Toh, Gim; Vasey, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that comorbidity is the rule, not the exception, for categorically defined psychiatric disorders, and this is also the case for internalizing disorders of depression and anxiety. This theoretical review paper addresses the ubiquity of comorbidity among internalizing disorders. Our central thesis is that progress in understanding this co-occurrence can be made by employing latent dimensional structural models that organize both psychopathology as well as vulnerabilities and risk mechanisms and by connecting the multiple levels of risk and psychopathology outcomes together. Different vulnerabilities and risk mechanisms are hypothesized to predict different levels of the structural model of psychopathology. We review the present state of knowledge based on concurrent and developmental sequential comorbidity patterns among common discrete psychiatric disorders in youth, and then we advocate for the use of more recent bifactor dimensional models of psychopathology (e.g., p factor, Caspi et al., 2014) that can help to explain the co-occurrence among internalizing symptoms. In support of this relatively novel conceptual perspective, we review six exemplar vulnerabilities and risk mechanisms, including executive function, information processing biases, cognitive vulnerabilities, positive and negative affectivity aspects of temperament, and autonomic dysregulation, along with the developmental occurrence of stressors in different domains, to show how these vulnerabilities can predict the general latent psychopathology factor, a unique latent internalizing dimension, as well as specific symptom syndrome manifestations. PMID:27739389

  6. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  7. Video Game Addiction in Gambling Disorder: Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Jiménez-Murcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We studied the prevalences of video game use (VGU and addiction (VGA in gambling disorder (GD patients and compared them with subjects with non-video game use (non-VGU in relation to their gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality characteristics. Method. A sample of 193 GD patients (121 non-VGU, 43 VGU, and 29 VGA consecutively admitted to our pathological gambling unit participated in the study. Assessment. Measures included the video game dependency test (VDT, symptom checklist-90-revised, and the temperament and character inventory-revised, as well as a number of other GD indices. Results. In GD, the observed prevalence of VG (use or addiction was 37.3% (95% CI :30.7%÷44.3,VGU 22.3% (95% CI :17.0%÷28.7, and VGA 15% (95% CI :10.7%÷20.7. Orthogonal polynomial contrast into logistic regression showed positive linear trends for VG level and GD severity and other measures of general psychopathology. After structural equation modeling, higher VG total scores were associated with younger age, general psychopathology, and specific personality traits, but not with GD severity. Patients’ sex and age were involved in the mediational pathways between personality traits and VG impairment. Conclusions. GD patients with VG are younger and present more dysfunctional personality traits, and more general psychopathology. The presence of VG did not affect the severity of GD.

  8. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Methods Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2 years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2 kg/m2; mean education 15.1±2.2 years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Results Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, peating disorder psychopathology (B=.47±.09, peating disorder psychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. Conclusion These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. PMID:26741258

  9. Exposure to Childhood Poverty and Mental Health Symptomatology in Adolescence: A Role of Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Neuendorf, Cynthia; Bianco, Hannah; Evans, Gary W

    2016-12-01

    Childhood poverty is associated with stress dysregulation which contributes to psychological illness in later ages. The adverse effects of childhood poverty on stress regulation may be mediated in part by the use of disengaging strategies to cope with stress. However, the relations among childhood poverty, coping strategies and psychopathology throughout childhood to adolescence have not been explored. This prospective, longitudinal study included 185 low- and middle-income adolescents at age 17. Chronic exposure to poverty from birth to early adolescence (age 13) was prospectively associated with increases in the use of disengagement versus engagement coping four years later. Increased use of disengagement coping between the ages of 13 and 17 explained the indirect link between poverty exposure since birth and both externalizing and internalizing symptoms at age 17. The findings provide evidence for a coping pathway underlying the link between prolonged exposure to childhood poverty and mental health sequelae. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Psychological and psychopathological variables associated with eating disorders (ED

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    Antonio Fernández-Delgado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare some psychological and psychopathological variables usually associated with different types of patients with eating disorders (ED. A total of 22 variables (psychological, psychopathological and specifically related to TCA were analyzed in three groups of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS. Method: The sample consisted of 76 patients diagnosed with ED (mean age 20.13 ± 6.28 years; 69 women and 7 men. The following questionnaires were administered: Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2 and Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP. Results: Generally no significant differences between groups, except for the variables related to the BSQ and EDI-2 questionnaires, were found. The study of the correlations among the different variables specifically related to eating disorders and others, showed differences between groups. Conclusions: The present study shows few differences with respect to psychopathological symptoms among the different types of ED. Bearing in mind future studies, it would be interesting to use a bigger sample size, to include more men, and to distinguish between restricted/purging types of ED.

  11. Education in Psychopathology in Europe: Results from a Survey in 32 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Andrea; Sampogna, Gaia; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Luciano, Mario; Ambrosini, Alessandra; Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present paper is to assess the current status of training on psychopathology in Europe and to identify the unmet needs of training on psychopathology. An online survey was carried out during the period July-December 2013. Forty-one representatives of early career psychiatrists of their national associations were invited to participate. Each respondent was asked to provide the collective feedback of the association rather than that of any of its individual officer or member. Thirty-two associations returned the questionnaire out of the 41 contacted (response rate, 78%). All respondents recognized psychopathology as a core component of training in psychiatry. According to respondents, the primary aims of psychopathology are (a) to assess psychiatric symptoms (47%), (b) to understand patients' abnormal experiences (33%), and (c) to make nosographical diagnosis (20%). A formal training course in psychopathology is available in 29 out of the 32 surveyed countries. In most countries, (a) there is not a defined number of hours dedicated to psychopathology, (b) teaching is mainly theoretical, and (c) a structured training on psychometric tools is missing. At the end of the training, about half of trainees is not satisfied with received training in psychopathology. According to European early career psychiatrists, there is the need to rethink training in psychopathology, which should be at the heart of training in psychiatry and the key element of psychiatric practice. Education in psychopathology is affected by several unmet needs, such as lack of appropriate training in the use of psychometric instruments, lack of supervision, and lack of practical skills.

  12. Study of internet addiction: Prevalence, pattern, and psychopathology among health professional undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin R Gedam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet has become an essential part of our daily life, especially among adolescents and youth. It is mainly used for education, entertainment, social networking, and information sharing. Its excessive use among health care providers is becoming a major concern. Aims: The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, understand the pattern, and to determine the association between psychopathology and internet addiction among health profession undergraduates. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 846 students of various faculties from Deemed University. Students were assessed with semi-structured data, Internet Addiction Test and Mental Health Inventory, after giving them brief instructions. Students were classified into normal students and addicted students for comparison. Results: The total prevalence of internet addiction was 19.85%, with moderate and severe addiction being 19.5% and 0.4%, respectively. Internet addiction was associated with gender, computer ownership, preferred time of internet use, login status, and mode of internet access (P < 0.05. It was also associated with anxiety, depression, loss of emotional/behavioral control, emotional ties, life satisfaction, psychological distress, and lower psychological well-being (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Significant association was found between psychopathology and internet addiction. Male gender, login status, emotional ties, and psychological distress were found to be important predictors of internet addiction among students. Hence, these parameters should be taken into consideration while promoting awareness of problematic internet use and educating students regarding healthy internet use.

  13. PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ANOREXIA NERVOSA

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    A. E. Bobrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of anorexia nervosa among women is 0,5%, whereas mortality related to this disorder amounts to 5–17%. Psychopathological structure of anorexia nervosa implies abnormalities of behavior as well as those of motivation and volition, thinking, perception and appreciation. In addition, mental abnormalities typical for this disorder are evident in regulation of emotions, specific personality traits and self-consciousness. The key psychopathological feature of patients with anorexia nervosa is a lack of cognitive and personal differentiation that calls forth impairments of self-concept and self-image. Anorexia nervosa should be differentiated from depression and schizophrenic spectrum disorders. Its etiology and pathogenesis are related both to hereditary and psychosocial factors. Of great importance are psychoendocrine abnormalities, however their role is still insufficiently elucidated.

  14. Research Review: The effectiveness of multidimensional family therapy in treating adolescents with multiple behavior problems : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, T.M.; Hoeve, M.; Noom, M.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van Domburgh, L.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    Background: Multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) is a well-established treatment for adolescents showing both substance abuse and/or antisocial behavior. Method: The effectiveness of MDFT in reducing adolescents’ substance abuse, delinquency, externalizing and internalizing psychopathology, and

  15. Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-03-01

    With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as "static understanding," ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, "genetic understanding" based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method.

  16. The illusion of parental celibacy. A necessary stage in adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shopper, Moisy

    2002-01-01

    The paper begins by reviewing Freud's case history of Dora and emphasizing her involvement in and overstimulation by her parents' sexual behavior. This markedly interfered with her ability to desexualize her relationship with them. As a result she was unable to develop the illusion of parental celibacy, which I postulate is an important and necessary defensive stage in normal adolescence. This illusion facilitates the desexualization of the adolescent's relationship to the parents and so contributes to separation from them and the seeking of non-incestuous sexual outlets. The disruption of this illusion of parental celibacy by parental sex education, or by the complications of parental divorce may contribute significantly to the development of adolescent psychopathology. Clinical vignettes are presented.

  17. Problematic smartphone use: A conceptual overview and systematic review of relations with anxiety and depression psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhai, Jon D; Dvorak, Robert D; Levine, Jason C; Hall, Brian J

    2017-01-01

    Research literature on problematic smartphone use, or smartphone addiction, has proliferated. However, relationships with existing categories of psychopathology are not well defined. We discuss the concept of problematic smartphone use, including possible causal pathways to such use. We conducted a systematic review of the relationship between problematic use with psychopathology. Using scholarly bibliographic databases, we screened 117 total citations, resulting in 23 peer-reviewer papers examining statistical relations between standardized measures of problematic smartphone use/use severity and the severity of psychopathology. Most papers examined problematic use in relation to depression, anxiety, chronic stress and/or low self-esteem. Across this literature, without statistically adjusting for other relevant variables, depression severity was consistently related to problematic smartphone use, demonstrating at least medium effect sizes. Anxiety was also consistently related to problem use, but with small effect sizes. Stress was somewhat consistently related, with small to medium effects. Self-esteem was inconsistently related, with small to medium effects when found. Statistically adjusting for other relevant variables yielded similar but somewhat smaller effects. We only included correlational studies in our systematic review, but address the few relevant experimental studies also. We discuss causal explanations for relationships between problem smartphone use and psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for the DSM-5 of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Female Adolescents: Diagnostic and Clinical Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina In-Albon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI is included as conditions for further study in the DSM-5. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the proposed diagnostic criteria and the diagnostic and clinical correlates for the validity of a diagnostic entity. The authors investigated the characteristics of NSSI disorder and the proposed diagnostic criteria. A sample of 73 female inpatient adolescents and 37 nonclinical adolescents (aged 13 to 19 years was recruited. Patients were classified into 4 groups (adolescents with NSSI disorder, adolescents with NSSI without impairment/distress, clinical controls without NSSI, and nonclinical controls. Adolescents were compared on self-reported psychopathology and diagnostic cooccurrences. Results indicate that adolescents with NSSI disorder have a higher level of impairment than adolescents with other mental disorders without NSSI. Most common comorbid diagnoses were major depression, social phobia, and PTSD. There was some overlap of adolescents with NSSI disorder and suicidal behaviour and borderline personality disorder, but there were also important differences. Results further suggest that the proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for NSSI are useful and necessary. In conclusion, NSSI is a highly impairing disorder characterized by high comorbidity with various disorders, providing further evidence that NSSI should be a distinct diagnostic entity.

  19. [Delayed identity development, family relationships and psychopathology: Links between healthy and clinically disturbed youth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Escher, Fabian J

    2018-05-01

    This study compared three groups of various age and health status (total N = 732) with respect to their identity status, stress level, and parental behavior. As expected, patients were characterized by delayed identity development, particularly ruminative exploration. Further, patients experienced high identity stress and described high levels of anxious paternal rearing and intrusive maternal psychological control. The patients‘ levels of both internalizing and externalizing symptomatology were high, and the impact of externalizing symptoms on identity arrest was strong. Identity status was delayed, albeit age adequate in both groups of healthy youths, with comparably high levels of anxious parental monitoring. Compared to adolescents, young adults were particularly active in their identity development, showing a high level of identity stress but no increase in psychopathology.

  20. Intimate Relationships and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…

  1. White matter microstructural changes in adolescent anorexia nervosa including an exploratory longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Katja; Timmers, Inge; Kumar, Vinod; Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Bastiani, Matteo; Roebroek, Alard; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Goebel, Rainer; Seitz, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) often begins in adolescence, however, the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology at this developmentally important age is scarce, impeding early interventions. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate microstructural white matter (WM) brain changes including an experimental longitudinal follow-up. Methods We acquired whole brain diffusion-weighted brain scans of 22 adolescent female hospitalized patients with AN at admission and nine patients longitudinally at discharge after weight rehabilitation. Patients (10–18 years) were compared to 21 typically developing controls (TD). Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were applied to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) across groups and time points. Associations between average FA values of the global WM skeleton and weight as well as illness duration parameters were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results We observed increased FA in bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal areas in AN patients at admission compared to TD. Higher FA of the global WM skeleton at admission was associated with faster weight loss prior to admission. Exploratory longitudinal analysis showed this FA increase to be partially normalized after weight rehabilitation. Conclusions Our findings reveal a markedly different pattern of WM microstructural changes in adolescent AN compared to most previous results in adult AN. This could signify a different susceptibility and reaction to semi-starvation in the still developing brain of adolescents or a time-dependent pathomechanism differing with extend of chronicity. Higher FA at admission in adolescents with AN could point to WM fibers being packed together more closely. PMID:27182488

  2. Predictors and Moderators of Outcome in Family-Based Treatment for Adolescent Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, Daniel; Crosby, Ross D.; Lock, James

    2008-01-01

    The predictors and moderators of treatment outcome for adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN) are explored among those who participated in family based treatment or individual supportive psychotherapy. It is concluded that family-based treatment of BN may be most effective in those cases with low levels of eating disorder psychopathology.

  3. Stability of genetic and environmental influences on P300 amplitude: A longitudinal study in adolescent twins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijsterveldt, C.E.; van Baal, G.C.; Molenaar, P.C.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Geus, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the stability of genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in P300 amplitude during adolescence. The P300 component is an event-related brain potential (ERP) that has attracted much attention as a biological marker for disturbed cognitive processing in psychopathology.

  4. Relations of Parenting to Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Distress Moderated by Perception of Neighborhood Danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Jonathan S; Quimby, Dakari; Richards, Maryse H; Zakaryan, Arie; Miller, Steve; Dickson, Daniel; Chilson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Parental monitoring and warmth have traditionally been studied in the context of White, middle-class families. This article explores optimal levels of these parenting behaviors in preventing adolescent psychopathology in impoverished, urban high-crime areas while accounting for child perceptions of neighborhood danger. In this study, data were collected longitudinally at 2 time points 1 year apart from a sample of 254 African American young adolescents (T1: M age = 12.6 years, 41% male) and their parents. Parental monitoring and warmth, child perception of neighborhood danger, and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors were measured using questionnaires. Child internalizing behaviors were also measured using a time sampling technique capturing in vivo accounts of daily distress. Findings indicated associations between parental monitoring and children's externalizing behaviors along with linear and quadratic associations between parental monitoring and internalizing behaviors. Monitoring and warmth were differentially related to symptoms depending on neighborhood danger level. When children perceived less danger, more monitoring related to less externalizing. When children perceived more danger, more warmth related to less internalizing. In addition, adolescents' perceptions of neighborhood danger emerged as equally strong as monitoring and warmth in predicting symptoms. This study underscores the influence of carefully considering parenting approaches and which techniques optimally prevent adolescents' externalizing, as well as prevent internalizing difficulties. It also highlights how context affects mental health, specifically how perceptions of danger negatively influence adolescents' psychopathology, emphasizing the importance of initiatives to reduce violence in communities.

  5. Psychopathology among senior secondary school students in Ilesa, south western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoye, F O; Morakinyo, O

    2003-09-01

    The prevalence rate of psychopathology and the relationship between psychopathology and some socio-demographic variables and consolidated current drug use were studied in 600 randomly selected senior secondary school students in Ilesa, south-western Nigeria. The 30-item version of the General Health Questionnaire and the WHO student drug use questionnaire were administered for the study. The findings revealed that the prevalence of psychopathology among the study population was 39.5%. There were significant positive associations between psychopathology and belonging to low socio-economic status, coming from a polygamous family and self-rated poor academic performance. The results also showed that although psychopathology was commoner amongst respondents who were engaged in current use of psychoactive substances than those who were not, the difference was not significant. The implications of these findings within the context of the limitations of the study and the importance of effective preventive and therapeutic student mental health services are discussed.

  6. Correction of distortions in distressed mothers' ratings of their preschool children's psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jörg M; Furniss, Tilman

    2013-11-30

    The often-reported low informant agreement about child psychopathology between multiple informants has lead to various suggestions about how to address discrepant ratings. Among the factors that may lower agreement that have been discussed is informant credibility, reliability, or psychopathology, which is of interest in this paper. We tested three different models, namely, the accuracy, the distortion, and an integrated so-called combined model, that conceptualize parental ratings to assess child psychopathology. The data comprise ratings of child psychopathology from multiple informants (mother, therapist and kindergarten teacher) and ratings of maternal psychopathology. The children were patients in a preschool psychiatry unit (N=247). The results from structural equation modeling show that maternal ratings of child psychopathology were biased by maternal psychopathology (distortion model). Based on this statistical background, we suggest a method to adjust biased maternal ratings. We illustrate the maternal bias by comparing the ratings of mother to expert ratings (combined kindergarten teacher and therapist ratings) and show that the correction equation increases the agreement between maternal and expert ratings. We conclude that this approach may help to reduce misclassification of preschool children as 'clinical' on the basis of biased maternal ratings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Core psychopathology in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: A network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Lauren N; Jones, Payton J; Ortiz, Shelby N; Smith, April R

    2018-04-25

    The cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders (EDs) proposes that shape and weight overvaluation are the core ED psychopathology. Core symptoms can be statistically identified using network analysis. Existing ED network studies support that shape and weight overvaluation are the core ED psychopathology, yet no studies have estimated AN core psychopathology and concerns exist about the replicability of network analysis findings. The current study estimated ED symptom networks among people with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) and among a combined group of people with AN and BN. Participants were girls and women with AN (n = 604) and BN (n = 477) seeking residential ED treatment. ED symptoms were assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q); 27 of the EDE-Q items were included as nodes in symptom networks. Core symptoms were determined by expected influence and strength values. In all networks, desiring weight loss, restraint, shape and weight preoccupation, and shape overvaluation emerged as the most important symptoms. In addition, in the AN and combined networks, fearing weight gain emerged as an important symptom. In the BN network, weight overvaluation emerged as another important symptom. Findings support the cognitive-behavioral premise that shape and weight overvaluation are at the core of AN psychopathology. Our BN and combined network findings provide a high degree of replication of previous findings. Clinically, findings highlight the importance of considering shape and weight overvaluation as a severity specifier and primary treatment target for people with EDs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Toward the Identification of a Specific Psychopathology of Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo G. I. Maremmani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is a mental illness in which psychiatric conditions imply a prominent burden. Psychopathological symptoms in substance use disorder (SUD patients are usually viewed as being assignable to the sphere of a personality trait or of comorbidity, leaving doubts about the presence of a specific psychopathology that could only be related to the toxicomanic process. Our research group at the University of Pisa has shed light on the possible definition of a specific psychopathological dimension in SUDs. In heroin use disorder patients, performing an exploratory principal component factor analysis (PCA on all the 90 items included in the SCL-90 questionnaire led to a five-factor solution. The first factor accounted for a depressive “worthlessness and being trapped” dimension; the second factor picked out a “somatic symptoms” dimension; the third identified a “sensitivity–psychoticism” dimension; the fourth a “panic–anxiety” dimension; and the fifth a “violence–suicide” dimension. These same results were replicated by applying the PCA to another Italian sample of 1,195 heroin addicts entering a Therapeutic Community Treatment. Further analyses confirmed the clusters of symptoms, independently of demographic and clinical characteristics, active heroin use, lifetime psychiatric problems, kind of treatment received, and, especially, other substances used by the patient such as alcohol or cocaine. Moreover, these clusters were able to discriminate patients affected by addiction from those affected by psychiatric diseases such as major depressive disorder. Our studies seem to suggest the trait-dependent, rather than the state-dependent, nature of the introduced psychopathology dimensions of SUDs.

  9. [Spanish adaptation of the Thought-Action Fusion Questionnaire for Adolescents (TAFQ-A)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llebrés, Rosa; Godoy, Antonio; Gavino, Aurora

    2010-08-01

    This study deals with the psychometric properties of the Thought-Action Fusion Questionnaire for Adolescents (TAFQ-A), which assesses the belief that harmful thoughts and actions are equivalent. The TAFQ-A comprises two scales: TAF-Moral and TAF-Likelihood. A total of 1726 children and adolescents completed 5 tests in order to establish the relationships of TAFQ-A with measures of psychopathology and with cognitive variables related to the ethiology of obsessive-compulsive problems. Results show that factorial structure, reliability and criterion validity of TAFQ-A are appropriate.

  10. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Affiliation with Deviant Peers during Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C.; Garcia, Sarah E.; South, Susan; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youths exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence has suggested that…

  11. Heart period variability and psychopathology in urban boys at risk for delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, D S; Wasserman, G A; Miller, L; Coplan, J D; Bagiella, E; Kovelenku, P; Myers, M M; Sloan, R P

    1998-09-01

    To examine associations between heart period variability (HPV) and psychopathology in young urban boys at risk for delinquency, a series of 697-11-year-old younger brothers of adjudicated delinquents received a standardized psychiatric evaluation and an assessment of heart period variability (HPV). Psychiatric symptoms were rated in two domains: externalizing and internalizing psychopathology. Continuous measures of both externalizing and internalizing psychopathology were associated with reductions in HPV components related to parasympathetic activity. These associations could not be explained by a number of potentially confounding variables, such as age, ethnicity, social class, body size, or family history of hypertension. Although familial hypertension predicted reduced HPV and externalizing psychopathology, associations between externalizing psychopathology and HPV were independent of familial hypertension. Psychiatric symptoms are associated with reduced HPV in young urban boys at risk for delinquency.

  12. The Relationship Between the Genetic and Environmental Influences on Common Externalizing Psychopathology and Mental Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Myers, John M.; Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing, we examined detailed measures of emotional, social and psychological wellbeing, and a history of alcohol-related problems and smoking behavior in the last year in 1,386 individual twins from same-sex pairs from the MIDUS national US sample assessed in 1995. Cholesky decomposition analyses were performed with the Mx program. The best fit model contained one highly heritable common externalizing psychopathology factor for both substance use/abuse measures, and one strongly heritable common factor for the three wellbeing measures. Genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology were both negatively associated with levels of mental wellbeing and accounted for, respectively, 7% and 21% of its genetic and environmental influences. Adding internalizing psychopathology assessed in the last year to the model, genetic risk factors unique for externalizing psychopathology were now positively related to levels of mental wellbeing, although accounting for only 5% of the genetic variance. Environmental risk factors unique to externalizing psychopathology continued to be negatively associated with mental wellbeing, accounting for 26% of the environmental variance. When both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology are associated with mental wellbeing, the strongest risk factors for low mental wellbeing are genetic factors that impact on both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology, and environmental factors unique to externalizing psychopathology. In this model, genetic risk factors for externalizing psychopathology predict, albeit weakly, higher levels of mental wellbeing. PMID:22506307

  13. Structure of comorbid psychopathological disorders in patients with type 2nd diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chugunov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to identify and explore the structure of comorbid psychopathological disorders in patients with type 2nd diabetes mellitus (DM. Materials and methods: 543 patients with type 2nd DM were included into the study. The average age of patients was (56.2 ± 0.65 years. The patients were divided into three groups according to the severity of DM. The first clinical group (CG-1 included 57 patients with type 2nd DM of mild severity, who was treated in outpatient department; the average age in the group was (51.8 ± 1.28 years. The second clinical group (CG-2 made up of 312 patients with type 2nd DM, moderate severity, they were in inpatient department; the median age of the group was (55.1 ± 1.12 years. The third clinical group (CG-3 included 174 patients with type 2nd DM, severe degrees of severity, they undergone inpatient treatment too; average age in the group was (61.8 ± 0.85 years. Research methods: clinical-anamnesis, clinical- psychopathological, statistical. Research results. The study established the incidence of non-psychotic mental disorders of varying severity in patients with type 2nd DM at the level of 94.11 %, among them, for 91.16 % – of psychogenic origin. Proportional correlation between the severity of type 2nd DM and the absence of comorbid psychopathological manifestations was detected (rs = -0.3416, p < 0.01. It is revealed that the dominant psychopathological syndromes among all patients with type 2nd DM were psychoorganic (62.43 %, dyssomnia (60.86 %, asthenic (55.58 % and anxiety (43.05 % syndromes. Structure of the dominant psychopathological syndromes was established depending on severity of type 2nd DM: in CG-1 dominated dyssomnia (36.84 %, anxiety (31.58 %, psychoorganic (21.05 % syndromes; in CG-2 – psychoorganic (65.38 %, asthenic (40.38 %, dyssomnia (38.46 %, anxiety (37, and 82 % syndromes; in CG-3 – dyssomnia (97.70 %, asthenic (89.08 %, organic mental (70.69 %, anxious 48.28 % syndromes. Significant

  14. The dimensional structure of psychopathology in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niarchou, Maria; Moore, Tyler M; Tang, Sunny X; Calkins, Monica E; McDonald-McGuinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine H; Emanuel, Beverly S; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E

    2017-09-01

    22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the strongest known genetic risk factors for developing schizophrenia. Individuals with 22q11.2DS have high rates of neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood, while in adulthood ∼25% develop schizophrenia. Similar to the general population, high rates of comorbidity are common in 22q11.2DS. Employing a dimensional approach where psychopathology is examined at the symptom-level as complementary to diagnostic categories in a population at such high genetic risk for schizophrenia can help gain a better understanding of how psychopathology is structured as well as its genetic underpinnings. This is the first study to examine the dimensional structure of a wide spectrum of psychopathology in the context of a homogeneous genetic etiology like 22q11.2DS. We evaluated 331 individuals with 22q11.2DS, mean age (SD) = 16.9(8.7); 51% males, who underwent prospective comprehensive phenotyping. We sought to replicate previous findings by examining a bi-factor model that derives a general factor of psychopathology in addition to more specific dimensions of psychopathology (i.e., internalizing, externalizing and thought disorder). Psychopathology in 22q11.2DS was divided into one 'general psychopathology' factor and four specific dimensions (i.e., 'anxiety', 'mood', 'ADHD' and 'psychosis'). The 'psychosis' symptoms loaded strongly on the 'general psychopathology' factor. The similarity of the symptom structure of psychopathology between 22q11.2DS and community and clinical populations without the deletion indicate that 22q11.2DS can provide a model to explore alternative approaches to our current nosology. Our findings add to a growing literature indicating the need to reorganize current diagnostic classification systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Introduction to the Special Section: Toward a Dimensionally Based Taxonomy of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Robert F.; Watson, David; Barlow, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Much current psychopathology research is framed by categorical constructs. Limitations of categorical constructs have been articulated, and dimensional constructs are often proposed as viable alternatives to categories of psychopathology. The purpose of this Special Section is to articulate and discuss diverse issues that arise in contemplating dimensional constructs as targets for psychopathology research. PMID:16351372

  16. Mad genius revisited: Vulnerability to psychopathology, biobehavioral approach-avoidance, and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A; Boot, Nathalie C; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2016-06-01

    Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be linked to basic motivational approach and avoidance systems, and that approach and avoidance motivation differentially influences creativity. Based on this reasoning, we predict that propensity for approach-based psychopathologies (e.g., positive schizotypy and risk of bipolar disorder) associates with increased creativity, whereas propensity for avoidance-based psychopathologies (e.g., anxiety, negative schizotypy, and depressive mood) associates with reduced creativity. Previous meta-analyses resonate with this proposition and showed small positive relations between positive schizotypy and creativity and small negative relations between negative schizotypy and creativity and between anxiety and creativity. To this we add new meta-analytic findings showing that risk of bipolar disorder (e.g., hypomania, mania) positively associates with creativity (k = 28, r = .224), whereas depressive mood negatively associates (albeit weakly) with creativity (k = 39, r = -.064). Our theoretical framework, along with the meta-analytic results, indicates when and why specific psychopathologies, and their inclinations, associate with increased or, instead, reduced creativity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Teasing as a risk factor for abnormal eating behaviours: A prospective study in an adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumed, Javier; Gimeno, Natalia; Barberá, María; Ruiz, Elías; Conesa, Llanos; Rojo-Bofill, Luis Miguel; Livianos, Lorenzo; Rojo, Luis

    2017-08-14

    There are discrepancies in the literature about the role of teasing in the onset of eating pathology. This article aims to establish the influence of teasing in abnormal eating behaviors and attitudes in the adolescent population. This is a two-year prospective study conducted in 7,167 adolescents between 13 and 15 years of age. In a first assessment, teasing about weight and teasing about abilities were measured by means of the POTS.questionnaire. Its association with eating psychopathology after two years was analyzed controlling nutritional status (BMI), body dissatisfaction, drive to thinness, perfectionism (EDI), emotional symptoms and hyperactivity (SDQ) which had also been measured in the first assessment. The analysis was carried out independently for both genders. The multivariant analysis found no significant or independent effect of teasing about weight or teasing about abilities in the onset of later eating psychopathology. The obtained models were similar for both genders although in girls, but not in boys, controlling BMI was enough to make any effect of teasing disappear. Teasing about weight or abilities has no direct effect, neither in boys nor in girls of 13 to 15 years old, in the development of eating psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Are assisted reproduction technologies associated with categorical or dimensional aspects of psychopathology in childhood, adolescence or early adulthood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Tove; Juul Hansen, Katrine; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of children are conceived using assisted reproduction technologies (ART), but little is known about the long-term risk in terms of mental health outcomes. All twin and singleton children conceived via ART and born in 1995 were sampled from the Danish in vitro fertilization...... at the age of 14 years, using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The study included 858 ART children and 3436 SC children. ART and SC children were not clinically distinguishable on either the categorical measures of psychopathology at the age of 3, 7, 14 and 18 years, or on CBCL scale scores at the age...... of 14 years. The findings remained nonsignificant after controlling for sample differences. This large, prospective, nationwide cohort study provides evidence to support that ART exposure does not increase the risk of adverse mental health outcomes considered as a whole, while power was limited...

  19. Neuroimaging of developmental psychopathologies: the importance of self-regulatory and neuroplastic processes in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessot, Alexandra L; Plessen, Kerstin J; Peterson, Bradley S

    2004-06-01

    Normal brain maturational and developmental processes, together with plastic reorganization of the brain in response to experiential demands, contribute to the acquisition of improved capacities for self-regulation and impulse control during adolescence. The frontal lobe is a main focus for these developmental and plastic processes during the transition from adolescence into adulthood. Tourette syndrome (TS), defined as the chronic presence of motor and vocal tics, has been increasingly conceptualized as a disorder of impaired self-regulatory control. This disordered control is thought to give rise to semicompulsory urges to perform the movements that constitute simple tics, complex tics, or compulsions. Neuroimaging studies suggest that the expression of the genetic diathesis to TS is influenced by genetic and nongenetic factors affecting activity-dependent reorganization of neuroregulatory systems, thereby influencing the phenotype, illness severity, and adult outcome of tic disorders. Similar developmental processes during adolescence likely determine the phenotype and natural history of a broad range of other complex neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood onset, and they likely contribute to the acquisition of improved self-regulatory capacities that characterize normal adolescent development.

  20. The relationship of seizure focus with depression, anxiety, and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraegle, William A; Titus, Jeffrey B

    2017-03-01

    For youth with epilepsy, comorbid psychiatric conditions, such as depression and anxiety, require further examination as they carry increased risk for reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The current study assessed whether rates of depression, anxiety, and withdrawal behaviors differed based on seizure location. Data included parental ratings on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC-2) and the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) questionnaire for 132 children and adolescents (mean age=11.34, SD=3.95) with generalized or partial (i.e., frontal [FLE] or temporal lobe epilepsy [TLE]) epilepsy. Our results identified clinically significant internalizing psychopathology in nearly half of our sample (41%). Although rates of internalizing behavior were similar between generalized and partial groups, children and adolescents with TLE demonstrated higher rates of depression compared to youth with FLE. No effects of laterality on internalizing behaviors were identified between TLE and FLE groups. Finally, for youth with TLE, parental depression ratings along with current number of antiepileptic medications (AEDs) were found to be significant barriers to HRQOL above and beyond anxiety, withdrawal, and epilepsy-specific variables. Temporal lobe epilepsy was associated with a two-fold risk of clinically significant depression ratings. These findings highlight the high prevalence of internalizing psychopathology features in pediatric epilepsy and offer further support for the relationship between depression and TLE in children and adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatiotemporal psychopathology I: No rest for the brain's resting state activity in depression? Spatiotemporal psychopathology of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Despite intense neurobiological investigation in psychiatric disorders like major depressive disorder (MDD), the basic disturbance that underlies the psychopathological symptoms of MDD remains, nevertheless, unclear. Neuroimaging has focused mainly on the brain's extrinsic activity, specifically task-evoked or stimulus-induced activity, as related to the various sensorimotor, affective, cognitive, and social functions. Recently, the focus has shifted to the brain's intrinsic activity, otherwise known as its resting state activity. While various abnormalities have been observed during this activity, their meaning and significance for depression, along with its various psychopathological symptoms, are yet to be defined. Based on findings in healthy brain resting state activity and its particular spatial and temporal structure - defined in a functional and physiological sense rather than anatomical and structural - I claim that the various depressive symptoms are spatiotemporal disturbances of the resting state activity and its spatiotemporal structure. This is supported by recent findings that link ruminations and increased self-focus in depression to abnormal spatial organization of resting state activity. Analogously, affective and cognitive symptoms like anhedonia, suicidal ideation, and thought disorder can be traced to an increased focus on the past, increased past-focus as basic temporal disturbance o the resting state. Based on these findings, I conclude that the various depressive symptoms must be conceived as spatiotemporal disturbances of the brain's resting state's activity and its spatiotemporal structure. Importantly, this entails a new form of psychopathology, "Spatiotemporal Psychopathology" that directly links the brain and psyche, therefore having major diagnostic and therapeutic implications for clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reciprocity Between Parental Psychopathology and Oppositional Symptoms From Preschool to Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Zayra; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2018-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a common disorder in preschool children. Evidence indicates that maternal and paternal psychopathology, particularly aggressive behavior and anxious and depressed symptoms, contributes to the development of this disorder. The latest research also suggests that ODD symptoms may exacerbate the mental health problems of parents. Our aim was to establish the existence of a reciprocal association between paternal and maternal psychopathology (aggression, depression, and anxiety) and child ODD at ages 3 and 8, using a longitudinal design in a community sample of preschoolers. The sample included 331 children evaluated at ages 3 and 8 through questionnaires and a semistructured diagnostic interview with parents. Parents also informed about their own psychopathology. At 3 years of age, higher levels of ODD symptoms in girls were concurrently associated with maternal anxious and depressed symptoms and paternal aggressive behavior, and higher levels of ODD symptoms in boys were concurrently associated with maternal aggressive behavior. Longitudinally, for boys, higher levels of maternal anxious and depressed symptoms at child age 3 predicted increases in ODD symptoms from 3 to 8 years of age. In addition, higher levels of ODD symptoms in boys aged 3-8 years predicted increases in fathers' anxious and depressive symptoms. Children with ODD should be evaluated and treated promptly, but efforts should be extended to their parents. Mothers' and fathers' mental health must be explored because the psychopathologies of children and parents reciprocally affect each other. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Understanding the role of psychopathology in bariatric surgery outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, R J; Ben-Porath, Y S; Heinberg, L J

    2016-02-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity; however, a subset of patients who undergo this procedure regain weight or achieve suboptimal weight loss results. A large number of studies have examined whether psychological variables play a role in weight loss surgery outcome. Although presurgical psychopathology has been found to be associated with suboptimal results in some studies, this literature is equivocal. These inconsistent findings are reviewed and considered in the context of contemporary models of psychopathology. More specifically, the review focuses on the limitations of atheoretical, descriptive diagnostic systems and examines whether comorbidity within the mood/anxiety disorders, impulse control/substance use disorders and thought disorders can account for the inconsistent findings reported to date. Contemporary models of psychopathology are highlighted and linked to the Research Domain Criteria, which have been advanced by the National Institute of Health. Means for assessing psychological constructs congruent with these models are reviewed. Recommendations are made for standardizing approaches to investigating how psychopathology contributes to suboptimal bariatric surgery outcomes. © 2015 World Obesity.

  4. Cannabis; Epidemiological, Neurobiological and Psychopathological Issues: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Maria Antonietta; Di Chiara, Gaetano; Cadoni, Cristina; Lecca, Daniele; Orsolini, Laura; Papanti, Duccio; Corkery, John; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis is the illicit drug with both the largest current levels of consumption and the highest reported lifetime prevalence levels in the world. Across different countries, the prevalence of cannabis use varies according to the individual income, with the highest use being reported in North America, Australia and Europe. Despite its 'soft drug' reputation, cannabis misuse may be associated with several acute and chronic adverse effects. The present article aims at reviewing several papers on epidemiological, neurobiological and psychopathological aspects of the use of cannabis. The PubMed database was here examined in order to collect and discuss a range of identified papers. Cannabis intake usually starts during late adolescence/early adulthood (15-24 years) and drastically decreases in adulthood with the acquisition of working, familiar and social responsibilities. Clinical evidence supports the current socio-epidemiological alarm concerning the increased consumption among youngsters and the risks related to the onset of psychotic disorders. The mechanism of action of cannabis presents some analogies with other abused drugs, e.g. opiates. Furthermore, it has been well demonstrated that cannabis intake in adolescence may facilitate the transition to the use and/or abuse of other psychotropic drugs, hence properly being considered a 'gateway drug'. Some considerations on synthetic cannabimimetics are provided here as well. In conclusion, the highest prevalence of cannabis use and the social perception of a relatively low associated risk are in contrast with current knowledge based on biological and clinical evidence. Indeed, there are concerns relating to cannabis intake association with detrimental effects on both cognitive impairment and mental health. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Explaining the adjustment of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: Role of diabetes-specific and psychosocial factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malik, J.A.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The aim of this study was to explain adjustment (diabetes-related quality of life, general well-being, and psychopathology) in adolescents with type 1 diabetes by testing the direct, mediating, and moderating effects of diabetes-specific and psychosocial factors, using an adapted version

  6. Cumulative Vulnerability: A Case Study on intrafamilial violence, Drug Addiction and Adolescent Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Passarini, Gislaine Martins Ricardo; Ferreira, Loraine Seixas; Paixão, Rui Alexandre Paquete; Tardivo, Leila Salomão de La Plata Cury; Barrientos, Dora Mariela Salcedo

    2014-12-01

    A pregnant adolescent's vulnerability increases when she is a victim of intrafamilial violence and drug addiction, which cause physical and biopsychosocial damage to the mother and her baby. Objective Present and analyze the case of an adolescent who is addicted to drugs, pregnant and the victim of lifelong intrafamilial violence. Method A case study based on a semi-structured interview conducted in the Obstetrics Emergency Unit at the Teaching Hospital of the University of São Paulo. The data were interpreted and analyzed using Content Analysis. Results intrafamilial violence experienced at the beginning of the adolescent's early relationships seriously affected her emotional maturity, triggering the development of psychopathologies and leaving her more susceptible to the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent is repeating her history with her daughter, reproducing the cycle of violence. Conclusion Adolescent pregnancy combined with intrafamilial violence and drug addiction and multiplies the adolescent's psychosocial vulnerability increased the adolescent's vulnerability.

  7. Cognitive therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for reducing psychopathology among disaster-bereaved individuals : Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, Lonneke; Piersma, Eline; de Keijser, Jos; Smid, Geert E.; Boelen, P.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Confrontation with a traumatic (e.g. disaster-related) loss is a risk factor for the development of psychopathology, including symptoms of prolonged grief (PG), posttraumatic stress (PTS), and depression. Although interventions have been developed for reducing post-loss psychopathology,

  8. A roadmap for the integration of culture into developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causadias, José M

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, I propose a roadmap for the integration of culture in developmental psychopathology. This integration is pressing because culture continues to be somewhat disconnected from theory, research, training, and interventions in developmental psychopathology, thus limiting our understanding of the epigenesis of mental health. I argue that in order to successfully integrate culture into developmental psychopathology, it is crucial to (a) study cultural development, (b) consider both individual-level and social-level cultural processes, (c) examine the interplay between culture and biology, and (d) promote improved and direct cultural assessment. I provide evidence in support of each of these guidelines, present alternative conceptual frameworks, and suggest new lines of research. Hopefully, that these directions will contribute to the emerging field of cultural development and psychopathology, which focuses on the elucidation of the cultural processes that initiate, maintain, or derail trajectories of normal and abnormal behavior.

  9. Correlations between caregiver psychiatric symptoms and offspring psychopathology in a low-resource setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila T. Matsuzaka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Associations between parental/caregiver depression and adverse child outcomes are well established and have been described through one or more mechanisms: child psychopathology following exposure to a depressed caregiver, child psychopathology exacerbating a caregiver’s depression, and caregiver and offspring depression sharing the same etiology. Data from low and middle-income countries is scarce. We examined correlations between common symptoms of mental disorders in caregivers and their offspring’s psychopathology in a Brazilian sample. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, adult caregivers were screened for depression during routine home visits by community health workers as part of the Brazilian Family Health Strategy. Caregivers with suspected depression were assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Children’s symptoms were evaluated using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Results: The sample included 68 primary caregivers and 110 children aged 6 to 15 years. Higher caregiver scores on the SRQ-20 correlated significantly with psychiatric symptoms in offspring. Conclusion: These results substantiate our hypothesis that child psychopathology correlates with caregivers’ psychiatric symptoms. This paper adds to the growing literature on community mental health assessment and can help guide future strategies for reducing the burden of common mental disorders in caregivers and children alike in low and middle-income countries.

  10. Sex Differences in Trauma-Related Psychopathology: a Critical Review of Neuroimaging Literature (2014-2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpman, Liat; Zhu, Xi; Suarez-Jimenez, Benjamin; Lazarov, Amit; Monk, Catherine; Neria, Yuval

    2017-11-08

    Sex differences in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of trauma-related psychopathology have long been documented. Multiple underlying mechanisms have been examined, both psychosocial and biological. Among the most promising biological mechanisms are neural substrates of trauma-related psychopathology that have been uncovered in recent years. Neuroimaging studies of sex-related heterogeneity published over the past 3 years (2014-2017) demonstrate an interaction between sex and type, timing, and load of trauma exposure. These studies suggest that, for males, early trauma exposure may involve a loss of gray matter in the limbic system, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, and hippocampus, and an over-activity and increased connectivity of salience hubs, and particularly dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). For females, however, early trauma exposure may involve overactive and possibly an enlarged amygdala, as well as decreased connectivity of salience hubs such as the dACC. Underlying mechanisms may include interaction with several endocrine systems and result in differential neural response to naturally occurring and added endocrine ligands, as well as sex-specific genetic and epigenetic risk and resilience factors. This complex interaction between multiple biological systems may be associated with sex-specific behavioral patterns, in turn associated with trauma-related psychopathology. While substantial number of published studies present preliminary evidence for neural mechanisms of sex-specific posttraumatic responses, there is a paucity of research directly designed to examine sex as a biological factor in trauma-related psychopathology. Specific foci for future studies aiming to bridge current gaps in the literature are discussed.

  11. Gendered Pathways to Young Adult Symptomatology: The Impact of Managing Relationship Stress during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Persike, Malte

    2017-01-01

    The transition to adulthood is a critical juncture in the course of psychopathology. This study examined the ways in which earlier capacity to deal with relationship stress during adolescence contributed to an adaptive outcome in emerging adulthood. In a prospective study of 145 individuals, relationship stress, individual coping capacities, and…

  12. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  13. Close Friends’ Psychopathology as a Pathway from Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults’ close friends’ psychological symptoms, and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. Method A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants’ mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure prior to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20’s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about their own psychopathology at age 20. Results Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends’ psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms two to five years later. Conclusions Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood, and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity. PMID:24871609

  14. Psychosis Is Mutable over Time: A Longitudinal Psychopathology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigand, Moritz E; Lang, Fabian U; Müller-Stierlin, Annabel S; Reichhardt, Lea; Trif, Silvana; Schulze, Thomas G; Strik, Werner; Becker, Thomas; Jäger, Markus

    2018-03-14

    A neurobiologically informed, system-specific psychopathological approach has been suggested for use in schizophrenia. However, to our knowledge, such an approach has not been used to prospectively describe the course of schizophrenia. We assessed psychopathology in a well-described sample of 100 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder with the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) at 6-month intervals for up to 18 months. The BPS groups symptoms into the 3 domains language, affectivity and motor behaviour; each domain is rated as being normal, inhibited or disinhibited. In addition, we collected qualitative psychopathological data in the form of case reports. Forty-eight patients completed at least 2 assessments over the course of at least 1 year. Of these, 16 patients (33.3%) showed a bipolar course pattern (i.e., a switch from inhibited to disinhibited or vice versa) in 1 domain and 6 patients (12.5%) in more than 1 domain. Shifts from 1 dominant domain to another were seen frequently (n = 20, 41.7%), but shifts between 1 dominant domain and a combination of dominant domains were more common (n = 33, 68.8%). The course of schizophrenia is heterogeneous and shows frequent changes in psychopathology. This should be taken into account in the communication with patients and in the research on underlying illness mechanisms and treatment. A major limitation of this study is the small sample size. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Maternal personality and psychopathology as determinants of parenting behavior: a quantitative integration of two parenting literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Jennifer E

    2014-05-01

    A substantial literature has examined the association between parenting behavior and maternal psychological characteristics (i.e., personality and psychopathology). Although research has provided evidence indicating that personality and psychopathology are not independent of one another, parenting research has mainly focused on these characteristics separately. In the present study, I quantitatively integrated these literatures through meta-analytic path analysis. First, meta-analyses were conducted on articles, book chapters, and dissertations that examined associations between personality or psychopathology and warmth or control in mothers of children age 12 months or older. Using mixed-effects regression, meta-analyses revealed significant, small effect sizes suggesting that low levels of neuroticism and psychopathology and high levels of agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness were associated with adaptive parenting. Moderator analyses indicated that variability among individual studies was partially explained by report method, study design, and conceptualizations of parenting behavior. Meta-analytic path analyses showed that the observed associations between maternal personality/psychopathology and parenting behaviors as reported in the literature may be explained by variance shared among these psychological characteristics. Furthermore, some maternal psychological characteristics explained a significantly larger portion of variance in parenting behavior than others. Findings supported the proposal that maternal personality and psychopathology are not independent in the associations they demonstrate with parenting behaviors and that these areas of research can be integrated. The present study is limited by including only mothers, excluding infants, and using cross-sectional analyses. However, results have implications for future conceptualizations of maternal psychological characteristics as determinants of parenting behaviors and for the refinement

  16. Insightful hallucination: psychopathology or paranormal phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadit, Amin A Muhammad

    2011-03-15

    This report describes a 26-year-old man who was so emotionally attached to his mother that the mere thought of separating from her caused immense anxiety. The death of his mother after a brief illness resulted in prolonged bereavement. However, the patient started seeing and talking to his mother after her death, which led to huge improvement in his mood and social functioning. His wife brought him in for consultation but no obvious psychopathology was detected. This gave rise to the dilemma of whether to consider this a real psychopathology and treat it, or to disregard this reported hallucination. No active treatment is being given to this patient at the moment.

  17. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own…

  18. Child is father of the man: child abuse and development of future psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecic-Tosevski, D; Draganic-Gajic, S; Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Popovic-Deusic, S; Christodoulou, N; Botbol, M

    2014-01-01

    Available epidemiological data indicate that the abuse of children within families is a very common phenomenon, and is still on the rise. Among others, abuse includes direct physical and emotional violence to the child, as well as the indirect emotional trauma of witnessing interparental violence. These early trauma experienced within the context of the family can influence the development of the child's personality as well as predispose towards the development of mental disorders in adulthood. There are some important factors influencing the occurrence of abuse, or the conditions predisposing it: certain parental personality traits appear to be instrumental, and the presence of individual psychopathology of parents is also connected with different forms of family dysfunction as a system, representing a variable which is interpolated in the quality of parenthood as the most important factor that determines long-term consequences on children and possible future psychopathology. The complex but tangible effects of parents' personality traits on the psychological development of children may contribute to the transgenerational transmission of abuse and violence. The phenomenon of domestic violence and abuse can be described from the perspective of the psychological and systemic theoretical postulates. According to systemic theory and practice, dysfunctional communication in the family is a significant predictor for domestic violence. Characteristics of dysfunctional communication include low levels of verbal expressiveness and emotional responsiveness, low tolerance to criticism and its interpretation as a threat or intimidation, and consequently increased anxiety and subsequent escalation of an argument into violence. Overall it seems that there may be a complex connection between parental personality and family interaction patterns, leading to dysfunctional communication which further amplifies the detrimental characteristics of family dynamics, and eventually

  19. Natural language processing in psychiatry. Artificial intelligence technology and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, D A; Rapp, C; Evens, M

    1992-04-01

    The potential benefit of artificial intelligence (AI) technology as a tool of psychiatry has not been well defined. In this essay, the technology of natural language processing and its position with regard to the two main schools of AI is clearly outlined. Past experiments utilizing AI techniques in understanding psychopathology are reviewed. Natural language processing can automate the analysis of transcripts and can be used in modeling theories of language comprehension. In these ways, it can serve as a tool in testing psychological theories of psychopathology and can be used as an effective tool in empirical research on verbal behavior in psychopathology.

  20. Personality and Psychopathology: A Stagnant Field in Need of Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, C. Emily; Hicks, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    A dominant paradigm in psychopathology research proposes that individual differences in personality are centrally involved in the origins and manifestations of psychopathology, and structural models of personality and psychopathology have been extremely useful in helping to organize associations among many traits and disorders. However, these models merely describe patterns of covariation; they do not explain the processes by which these patterns emerge. We argue that the field is stagnated, as it is overly focused on the demonstration of concurrent associations and on confirming a spectrum model that proposes traits and disorders are manifestations of the same underlying constructs. We contend that if the field is to move toward an understanding of causal processes, it must integrate knowledge and principles of personality development and developmental psychopathology. To begin this integration, we review (1) normative trends in personality change, (2) age-related changes in the prevalence of disorders, and (3) the impact of onset and chronicity on the severity of disorders. We propose several developmental processes that may contribute to the co-development of personality and psychopathology. We then present novel empirical findings to illustrate how a developmental perspective on traits and disorders can inform new hypotheses, and propose principles and hypotheses that should guide future research. PMID:25544802

  1. Psychopathology and psychosocial adjustment in patients with HIV-associated lipodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Barata

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study whether patients with HIV-1 associated lipodystrophy (LD on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART have more psychopathology and worse psychosocial adjustment than a similar group without this syndrome. METHODS: In a cross-sectional, observational study we compared 47 HIV-1 infected patients with LD (LD group with 39 HIV-1 infected patients without LD (non-LD group. All participants were on HAART. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and the Goldberg Health Questionnaire (GHQ-60 were administered. Levels of familial, work and social adjustment and adjustment to stressful events were evaluated in a semi-structured interview. Clinical information was extracted from the clinical records. RESULTS: In the univariate analysis patients with LD showed higher state anxiety scores (p = 0.009 and worse work adjustment (p = 0.019 than those without LD. A total of 45.3% of LD patients scored above the cut-off point on the trait anxiety scale, and over 33.3% scored above the cut-off point on the BDI, GHQ and state anxiety scales. However, in multivariate analyses LD was not independently associated with psychopathology or with worse adjustment in the studied areas. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that LD was not a predictor of greater psychopathology or worse psychosocial adjustment in HIV-1 infected patients, despite the high scores found, suggests that factors not taken into account in this study, such as LD severity and self-perception should have been included in the analysis. Further studies including a greater number of variables and a larger sample size will advance our understanding of this complex condition.

  2. Attachment and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type of attachment defined in the early stages of life and thought to be continuous, is a phenomenon that shapes the pattern of how a person makes contact with others. The clinical appearance of every type of attachment is different and each one has prospective and retrospective phenomenological reflections. In all stages of life and in close relationships, it can be observed if a person gets in close contact with someone else and if this relation bears supportive and protective qualities. According to attachment theorists, once it is defined as safe or unsafe during nursing period, it shows little change. Starting from Bowlby’s work, unsafe attachment type is considered as the determining factor of psychopathology in the later periods of life, while safe attachment is considered as in relation with healthy processes. The nature’s original model is safe attachment. Anxious/indecisive attachment, an unsafe attachment type, is associated with anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, while avoidant attachment is associated with behavior disorder and other extroverted pathologies. Disorganized/disoriented attachment is considered to be together with dissociative disorder. The aim of this paper is to review attachment theory and the relation between attachment and psychopathology.

  3. [Nightmares and psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmigiani, Giovanna; Gentili, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Nightmares are long frightening dreams, quite common in psychiatric and general population; they may cause psychological distress and social or occupational dysfunction and are the most common form of parasomnia. They can be divided into post-traumatic nightmares, which are part of post-traumatic stress reaction, idiopathic and stress-induced. This article is a review of studies evaluating the relationship between nightmares and psychopathology, especially in regard to their intensity and content. For example, prepsychotic patients often report nightmares, particularly of body fragmentation and death of the dreamer. Nightmares have been repeatedly associated with the general level of psychopathology and with the personality factor "neuroticism". Nightmare distress, the impact on daily functioning caused by nightmares, may function as a mediating variable. Several studies in the last years have shown that nightmares can be treated with several cognitive-behavioral techniques. Have been also reported promising effects of pharmacological agents, especially prazosin, but they need to be evaluated in larger placebo-controlled trials. In summary, many findings on nightmares are preliminary and this field needs to be further investigated. Nevertheless psychiatry and general medicine need to pay more attention to nightmares; they are not merely a nightly symptom of anxiety, but a separate sleep disorder that should receive specific treatment.

  4. Mental health trajectories from adolescence to adulthood: Language disorder and other childhood and adolescent risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lin; Brownlie, E B; Beitchman, Joseph H

    2016-05-01

    Longitudinal research on mental health development beyond adolescence among nonclinical populations is lacking. This study reports on psychiatric disorder trajectories from late adolescence to young adulthood in relation to childhood and adolescent risk factors. Participants were recruited for a prospective longitudinal study tracing a community sample of 5-year-old children with communication disorders and a matched control cohort to age 31. Psychiatric disorders were measured at ages 19, 25, and 31. Known predictors of psychopathology and two school-related factors specifically associated with language disorder (LD) were measured by self-reports and semistructured interviews. The LD cohort was uniquely characterized by a significantly decreasing disorder trajectory in early adulthood. Special education was associated with differential disorder trajectories between LD and control cohorts, whereas maltreatment history, specific learning disorder, family structure, and maternal psychological distress were associated with consistent trajectories between cohorts. From late adolescence to young adulthood, childhood LD was characterized by a developmentally limited course of psychiatric disorder; maltreatment was consistently characterized by an elevated risk of psychiatric disorder regardless of LD history, whereas special education was associated with significantly decreasing risk of psychiatric disorder only in the presence of LD.

  5. Are Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents Less Impairing Than ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorders? Associations with Child Quality of Life and Parental Stress and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telman, Liesbeth G E; van Steensel, Francisca J A; Maric, Marija; Bögels, Susan M

    2017-12-01

    We compared clinically referred children with anxiety disorders (AD; n = 63) to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 39), ADHD Combined (ADHD-C; n = 62), ADHD Predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-I; n = 64), and typically developing children (n = 42) on child quality of life (QOL), paternal and maternal psychopathology and parental stress. Diagnoses were based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Multilevel analyses showed that QOL in AD was higher on school and social functioning, compared to respectively ADHD and ASD, and lower compared to normal controls on all five domains. Fathers reported their AD children higher QOL than mothers. Also, AD appeared to be associated with less parental stress and parental psychopathology than other child psychopathology. Therefore, parental factors may need to be considered more in treatment of children with ADHD/ASD than AD.

  6. Sleep paralysis and psychopathology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    work accidents, etc. have been found to be at a high risk of psychopathology. ... patient has multiple bodily symptoms, but they are not accounted for by a general ... between sleep paralysis and adverse psychosocial situations,6,9-11 but to our ... treatment for co-morbid physical conditions or were too weak to participate ...

  7. Relationship between perceived parenting style with anxiety levels and loneliness in visually impaired children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mualla Hamurcu

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders in the affected children and adolescents, but there are only a limited number of studies concerning the mental health characteristics of visually impaired children and adolescents. Objective The aim of this study was to determine levels of loneliness and anxiety in visually impaired children and adolescents, to analyze parenting style perceived by visually impaired children and adolescents, to compare those with typically controls. Methods The study included 40 children and adolescents with visually impairment and 34 control group without visual impairment. Sociodemographic data form, the UCLA loneliness scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used in both groups. The parenting Style Scale was used to determine perceived parental attitudes. Results This study found more loneliness and trait anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents compared to the control group. Authoritative parenting style was the most frequent type of parental attitude in the visually impaired group. In visual impairment group, loneliness level was higher in subgroups of authoritative and permissive-indulgent parenting style. However, level of trait anxiety was higher in authoritative parenting style subgroup compared to the control group. Discussion The results of this study showed higher loneliness and anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents. Further studies are needed to determine psychopathological risks in this population.

  8. Trait attentional control influences the relationship between repetitive negative thinking and psychopathology symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Adam C; Grant, DeMond M; Judah, Matt R; White, Evan J; Taylor, Danielle L; Frosio, Kristen E

    2016-04-30

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) has been implicated in several disorders (e.g., Clark (2005)). However, little research has examined how RNT influences other risk factors of psychopathology, such as attentional control. This study used prospective methodology to determine if relationships among various RNT styles and symptoms of psychological disorders are indirectly influenced by facets of attentional control. The sample included 376 participants who completed measures of RNT (worry, rumination, anticipatory processing, obsessions, intrusive thoughts and panic cognitions), psychopathology (generalized anxiety disorder, depression, social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and panic disorder), and attentional control at two time points. Several relationships between RNT forms and symptom levels were indirectly predicted by the focusing subscale of attentional control; however, the patterns of these relationships differed based on the disorder. The shifting subscale did not indirectly predict any relationship. Therefore, it appears that low focusing may be a particular risk factor for the development of later RNT and/or psychopathology symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Continuity, psychosocial correlates, and outcome of problematic substance use from adolescence to young adulthood in a community sample

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhausen, H C; Eschmann, S; Winkler Metzke, C

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The study of the continuity, psychosocial correlates, and prediction of problematic substance use (PSU) across time from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Substance use was studied in a cohort of N = 593 subjects who had been assessed at three times between adolescence and young adulthood within the Zurich Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS). Based on the frequency of tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis consumption, groups with PSU were defined at each of the thr...

  10. Categorical and dimensional psychopathology in Dutch and US offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: A preliminary cross-national comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Esther; Birmaher, Boris B; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Goldstein, Tina; Derks, Eske M; Vleeschouwer, Marloes; Hickey, Mary Beth; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Sakolsky, Dara J; Reichart, Catrien G; Wals, Marjolein; Verhulst, Frank C; Nolen, Willem A; Hillegers, Manon H J

    2016-11-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests cross-national differences in adults with bipolar disorder (BD), but also in the susceptibility of their offspring (bipolar offspring). This study aims to explore and clarify cross-national variation in the prevalence of categorical and dimensional psychopathology between bipolar offspring in the US and The Netherlands. We compared levels of psychopathology in offspring of the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (n=224) and the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study (n=136) (age 10-18). Categorical psychopathology was ascertained through interviews using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children (K-SADS-PL), dimensional psychopathology by parental reports using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Higher rates of categorical psychopathology were observed in the US versus the Dutch samples (66% versus 44%). We found no differences in the overall prevalence of mood disorders, including BD-I or -II, but more comorbidity in mood disorders in US versus Dutch offspring (80% versus 34%). The strongest predictors of categorical psychopathology were maternal BD (OR: 1.72, ppsychopathology based on CBCL reports. Preliminary measure of inter-site reliability. We found cross-national differences in prevalence of categorical diagnoses of non-mood disorders in bipolar offspring, but not in mood disorder diagnoses nor in parent-reported dimensional psychopathology. Cross-national variation was only partially explained by between-sample differences. Cultural and methodological explanations for these findings warrant further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Categorical and dimensional psychopathology in Dutch and US offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: A preliminary cross-national comparison✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Esther; Birmaher, Boris B.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Goldstein, Tina; Derks, Eske M.; Vleeschouwer, Marloes; Hickey, Mary Beth; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Sakolsky, Dara J.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Verhulst, Frank C.; Nolen, Willem A.; Hillegers, Manon H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Accumulating evidence suggests cross-national differences in adults with bipolar disorder (BD), but also in the susceptibility of their offspring (bipolar offspring). This study aims to explore and clarify cross-national variation in the prevalence of categorical and dimensional psychopathology between bipolar offspring in the US and The Netherlands. Methods We compared levels of psychopathology in offspring of the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (n=224) and the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study (n=136) (age 10–18). Categorical psychopathology was ascertained through interviews using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children (K-SADS-PL), dimensional psychopathology by parental reports using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results Higher rates of categorical psychopathology were observed in the US versus the Dutch samples (66% versus 44%). We found no differences in the overall prevalence of mood disorders, including BD-I or -II, but more comorbidity in mood disorders in US versus Dutch offspring (80% versus 34%). The strongest predictors of categorical psychopathology were maternal BD (OR: 1.72, ppsychopathology based on CBCL reports. Limitations Preliminary measure of inter-site reliability. Conclusions We found cross-national differences in prevalence of categorical diagnoses of non-mood disorders in bipolar offspring, but not in mood disorder diagnoses nor in parent-reported dimensional psychopathology. Cross-national variation was only partially explained by between-sample differences. Cultural and methodological explanations for these findings warrant further study. PMID:27423424

  12. Mental State Decoding in Adolescent Boys with Major Depressive Disorder versus Sex-Matched Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, William; Sharp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Several adult depression studies have investigated mental state decoding, the basis for theory of mind, using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Findings have been mixed, but a comprehensive study found a greater severity of depression to be associated with poorer mental state decoding. Importantly, there has yet to be a similar study of adolescent depression. Converging evidence suggests that atypical mental state decoding may have particularly profound effects for psychosocial functioning among depressed adolescent boys. Adolescent boys with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 33) and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 84) completed structured clinical interviews, self-report measures of psychopathology and the Child Eyes Test (CET). The MDD group performed significantly better than HCs on the CET overall (p = 0.002), underscored by greater accuracy for negatively valenced items (p = 0.003). Group differences on items depicting positive (p = 0.129) and neutral mental states (p = 0.081) were nonsignificant. Enhanced mental state decoding among depressed adolescent boys may play a role in the maintenance of and vulnerability to adolescent depression. Findings and implications are discussed. Limitations of this study include a reliance on self-report data for HC boys, as well as a lack of 'pure' depression among the boys with MDD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Psychopathology, Personal and Relationship Problems in Men Who Enact Family Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Mohammadkhani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at determing psychopathology and personal and relationship problems in violent husband. Materials & Methods: In this cross – sectional study 230 male were selected through a multi clustral sampling from four different regions of Tehran. Then they completed Conflict Tactics Scales-2, personal and relationship Profile and Symptoms Check list-90-Revised. Based on their response to Conflict Tactics Scales-2, they were devided in to two groups. Then the psychopathological profile and personal and Relationship problems were compaired. Results: Psychopathology, personal and relationshoip Profile were drawn. It showed that violence is associated with Psychopathology and excessive personal and relationship problems in violent husband (P&le0/05. Conclusion: Violent husband in compare with nonviolent husband have more severe psychological symptomathology and more personal and relationship problems.

  14. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescence predicts onset of major depressive disorder through early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Michael C; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Seeley, John R; Gau, Jeff M; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waxmonsky, James G

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed in mid-adolescence and the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) through early adulthood in a large school-based sample. A secondary aim was to examine whether this relationship was robust after accounting for comorbid psychopathology and psychosocial impairment. One thousand five hundred seven participants from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project completed rating scales in adolescence and structured diagnostic interviews up to four times from adolescence to age 30. Adolescents with a lifetime history of ADHD were at significantly higher risk of MDD through early adulthood relative to those with no history of ADHD. ADHD remained a significant predictor of MDD after controlling for gender, lifetime history of other psychiatric disorders in adolescence, social and academic impairment in adolescence, stress and coping in adolescence, and new onset of other psychiatric disorders through early adulthood (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.04, 3.06). Additional significant, robust predictors of MDD included female gender, a lifetime history of an anxiety disorder, and poor coping skills in mid-adolescence, as well as the onset of anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, and substance-use disorder after mid-adolescence. A history of ADHD in adolescence was associated with elevated risk of MDD through early adulthood and this relationship remained significant after controlling for psychosocial impairment in adolescence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Additional work is needed to identify the mechanisms of risk and to inform depression prevention programs for adolescents with ADHD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Does self-complexity moderate the effects of exposure to political violence for adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Roziner, Ilan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the moderating role of self-complexity (SC) on well-being (WB) and psychopathology among Israeli adolescents exposed to the Second Lebanon War (2006). Adolescents (N=584, mean age 16.41) completed a SC measure, Political and Negative Life Events (NLE) scales, Brief Symptom Inventory and Satisfaction with Life Scale. The theoretical model analyzed the function of SC as a moderator of exposure effects to political life events (PLE), while controlling for general NLE. Results corroborated the model with SC moderating the effects of the war-related PLE. Adolescents with low SC are at risk for damaged WB and psychiatric consequences from political violence exposure. This opens a diagnostic avenue for identification of at-risk adolescents in this socio-political context toward whom clinical programs should be directed.

  16. Family Functioning and Child Psychopathology: Individual Versus Composite Family Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Jolanda J. J. P.; Koot, Hans M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; De Bruyn, Eric E. J.; Oud, Johan H. L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of individual family members' perceptions and family mean and discrepancy scores of cohesion and adaptability with child psychopathology in a sample of 138 families. Results indicate that family mean scores, contrary to family discrepancy scores, explain more of the variance in parent-reported child psychopathology than…

  17. Beyond comorbidity: Toward a dimensional and hierarchal approach to understanding psychopathology across the lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Miriam K.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we propose a novel developmentally informed framework to push research beyond a focus on comorbidity between discrete diagnostic categories, and to move towards research based on the well-validated dimensional and hierarchical structure of psychopathology. For example, a large body of research speaks to the validity and utility of the Internalizing and Externalizing (IE) spectra as organizing constructs for research on common forms of psychopathology. The IE spectra act as powerful explanatory variables that channel the psychopathological effects of genetic and environmental risk factors, predict adaptive functioning, and account for the likelihood of disorder-level manifestations of psychopathology. As such, our proposed theoretical framework uses the IE spectra as central constructs to guide future psychopathology research across the lifespan. The framework is particularly flexible, as any of the facets or factors from the dimensional and hierarchical structure of psychopathology can form the focus of research. We describe the utility and strengths of this framework for developmental psychopathology in particular, and explore avenues for future research. PMID:27739384

  18. Multigenerational effects of adolescent morphine exposure on dopamine D2 receptor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, John J; Johnson, Nicole L; Carini, Lindsay M; Byrnes, Elizabeth M

    2013-05-01

    The use and misuse of prescription opiates in adolescent populations, and in particular, adolescent female populations, has increased dramatically in the past two decades. Given the significant role that opioids play in neuroendocrine function, exposure to opiates during this critical developmental period could have significant consequences for the female, as well as her offspring. In the current set of studies, we utilized the female rat to model the transgenerational impact of adolescent opiate exposure. We examined locomotor sensitization in response to the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist quinpirole in the adult male progeny (F1 and F2 generations) of females exposed to morphine during adolescence. All females were drug-free for at least 3 weeks prior to conception, eliminating the possibility of direct fetal exposure to morphine. Both F1 and F2 progeny of morphine-exposed females demonstrated attenuated locomotor sensitization following repeated quinpirole administration. These behavioral effects were coupled with increased quinpirole-induced corticosterone secretion and upregulated kappa opioid receptor and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) gene expression within the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest significant modifications in response to repeated D2R activation in the progeny of females exposed to opiates during adolescence. Given the significant role that the D2R plays in psychopathology, adolescent opiate exposure could shift the vulnerability of future offspring to psychological disorders, including addiction. Moreover, that effects are also observed in the F2 generation suggests that adolescent opiate exposure can trigger transgenerational epigenetic modifications impacting systems critical for motivated behavior.

  19. Mechanisms Underlying Motivational Deficits in Psychopathology: Similarities and Differences in Depression and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barch, Deanna M; Pagliaccio, David; Luking, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Motivational and hedonic impairments are core aspects of a variety of types of psychopathology. These impairments cut across diagnostic categories and may be critical to understanding major aspects of the functional impairments accompanying psychopathology. Given the centrality of motivational and hedonic systems to psychopathology, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative includes a "positive valence" systems domain that outlines a number of constructs that may be key to understanding the nature and mechanisms of motivational and hedonic impairments in psychopathology. These component constructs include initial responsiveness to reward, reward anticipation or expectancy, incentive or reinforcement learning, effort valuation, and action selection. Here, we review behavioral and neuroimaging studies providing evidence for impairments in these constructs in individuals with psychosis versus in individuals with depressive pathology. There are important differences in the nature of reward-related and hedonic deficits associated with psychosis versus depression that have major implications for our understanding of etiology and treatment development. In particular, the literature strongly suggests the presence of impairments in in-the-moment hedonics or "liking" in individuals with depressive pathology, particularly among those who experience anhedonia. Such deficits may propagate forward and contribute to impairments in other constructs that are dependent on hedonic responses, such as anticipation, learning, effort, and action selection. Such hedonic impairments could reflect alterations in dopamine and/or opioid signaling in the striatum related to depression or specifically to anhedonia in depressed populations. In contrast, the literature points to relatively intact in-the-moment hedonic processing in psychosis, but provides much evidence for impairments in other components involved in translating reward to action selection. Particularly, individuals with

  20. Multiple mediators of the relationships among maternal childhood abuse, intimate partner violence, and offspring psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jenniffer K; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether maternal depression, mothers' and fathers' parenting, child physical punishment and negative life events (NLE) mediate the effect of maternal childhood abuse (CA), intimate partner violence (IPV) and cumulative violence (both CA and IPV) on Spanish children's and adolescents' psychopathology. Furthermore, multiple mediator models examine whether IPV mediates the effect of CA on the contextual and family factors mentioned above. Three hundred and eighteen Spanish outpatients aged 7 to 18 and their parents were assessed using a structured interview and other instruments for measuring the study variables. Structural equation models (SEMs) showed multiple pathways explaining psychopathological problems among offspring of mothers who suffered CA, IPV and both of these violent experiences. In particular, mothers' depression mediated the link between maternal CA, IPV, cumulative violence and children's externalizing, and total behavior problems. Child NLE was an important pathway between maternal CA and total behavior problems, as well as between cumulative violence and both externalizing and total problems. IPV contributed to explaining the link between maternal CA and contextual and family factors, such as child physical punishment and NLE, which were in turn, associated with children's behavior problems. Findings show the complex interconnections between different types of violence and their harmful effects on the mental health of women and their offspring, as well as the need to extend our knowledge on this subject.

  1. Sociodemographic and psychopathological predictors of criminal behavior in women with gambling disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Talón-Navarro, María Teresa; Cuquerella, Àngel; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Mena-Moreno, Teresa; Vintró-Alcaraz, Cristina; Baño, Marta; Moragas, Laura; Magaña, Pablo; Menchón, José Manuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2018-05-01

    Women have been underrepresented in the empirical research of gambling disorder (GD), a psychiatric condition included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM-5). More specifically, no studies to date have been carried out exploring the clinical phenotype of women with GD who have committed gambling-related illegal acts. In this study, we sought to delineate the clinical, personality and psychopathological differences between treatment-seeking women with GD, with and without a criminal record. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the variables that best predict the presence of illegal acts in this clinical group. Data corresponded to n=273 treatment-seeking women who met criteria for GD. Two groups were compared: women with a history of criminal behavior (n=61, 22.34%) to those who did not (n=212, 77.66%) taking psychopathology, clinical and personality data into account. Women who engaged in criminal acts were younger and endorsed higher psychopathology, GD severity, and novelty seeking levels than the other clinical group. Regarding the predictive model, women with higher levels of novelty seeking and lower levels of reward dependence were at higher risk of having a criminal record. DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE AND/OR POLICY: Our findings uphold that women with GD and a history of illegal acts are especially vulnerable in terms of comorbid psychopathology and dysfunctional personality traits. Therefore, this population could potentially benefit from public policies that target their mental health needs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Structure of Psychopathology in a Community Sample of Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Jennifer; Keller, Jennifer; Lavigne, John V.; Gouze, Karen; Hopkins, Joyce; LeBailly, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the development of alternative diagnostic classification systems for psychopathology in young children, little is known about the adequacy of the DSM symptom structure for describing psychopathology in this population. This paper examines the fit of the DSM-IV emotional (ED) and disruptive behavior disorder (DD) symptom…

  3. Age-related differences in internalizing psychopathology amongst the Australian general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Batterham, Philip; Buchan, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Two methodological criticisms have limited the reliability and validity of findings from previous studies that seek to examine change across the life span in levels of internalizing psychopathology using general population surveys. The first criticism involves the potential influence of cohort effects that confound true age-related changes whereas the second criticism involves the use of a single form of assessment to measure and compare levels of internalizing psychopathology. This study seeks to address these criticisms by modeling age-related change using multiple measures and multiple surveys. Data from 2 epidemiological surveys conducted 10 years apart in the Australian general population were combined and used for the current study. The latent construct of internalizing psychopathology was modeled using a combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) depression and anxiety diagnoses as well as items from the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10; Kessler et al., 2002). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a single internalizing dimension provided good model fit to the data. Multigroup CFA indicated that strict measurement invariance of the model can be assumed across survey administrations and age bands, justifying comparisons of mean differences in latent trait levels. Significant changes in mean levels of latent internalizing psychopathology were evident between respondents aged 30-39 years old in 1997 and respondents aged 40-49 years old in 2007, suggesting a minor but significant increase in psychopathology across middle age. By contrast, a minor but significant decrease in psychopathology was noted when transitioning from late middle age (50-59 years old) to old age (60-69 years old). The majority of individuals in the general population will experience constant levels of internalizing psychopathology as they age, suggesting that the construct is relatively

  4. PERSONALITY PREDISPOSITIONS IN CHINESE ADOLESCENTS: THE RELATION BETWEEN SELF-CRITICISM, DEPENDENCY, AND PROSPECTIVE INTERNALIZING SYMPTOMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joseph R.; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiong Zhao; Abela, John R.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the prospective relation between two personality predispositions, self-criticism and dependency, and internalizing symptoms. Specifically, it was examined whether self-criticism and dependency predicted symptoms of depression and social anxiety, and if a moderation (e.g. diathesis-stress) or mediation model best explained the relation between the personality predispositions and emotional distress in Chinese adolescents. Participants included 1,150 adolescents (597 females and 553 males) from mainland China. Participants completed self-report measures of self-criticism, dependency, and neuroticism at baseline, and self-report measures of negative events, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety symptoms once a month for six months. Findings showed that self-criticism predicted depressive symptoms, while dependency predicted social anxiety symptoms. In addition, support was found for a mediation model, as opposed to a moderation model, with achievement stressors mediating the relation between self-criticism and depressive symptoms. Overall, these findings highlight new developmental pathways for the development of depression and social anxiety symptoms in mainland Chinese adolescents. Implications for cross-cultural developmental psychopathology research are discussed. PMID:25798026

  5. Contextual risk and child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2008-10-01

    In developmental psychopathology it almost goes without saying that contextual risk factors do not occur in isolation and that it is the combination of various risk factors that portends numerous negative child outcomes. Despite this, the body of literature that examines the relation between multiple risk exposure and child psychopathology using a cumulative risk approach is still relatively small. Even when studies use a cumulative risk approach they rarely test properly whether the relation between cumulative risk and child psychopathology is linear or nonlinear, with consequences for both theory development and intervention design: if cumulative risk impacts problem behavior in a positively accelerated exponential manner, for instance, it means that exposure to multiple risk is especially difficult to manage as problem behavior accelerates at a critical level of risk. Furthermore, few studies have actually examined factors that protect from negative outcomes in those exposed to cumulative risk and even fewer have explored cumulative protection in relation to cumulative risk. On the other hand, there is the view that a cumulative risk approach at least implicitly assumes that risk factors are, in essence, interchangeable. According to this view, the importance of testing for specificity should not be underestimated. Finally, the renewed interest in the role of neighborhood risk in child development has initiated a lively debate as to whether contextual risk should be operationalized at the family or the area level. In this letter I discuss these issues, and offer some suggestions as to how future research can address them.

  6. Socio-Emotional Development Following Very Preterm Birth: Pathways to Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Anita; Nosarti, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Very preterm birth (VPT; develop cognitive and socio-emotional problems, as well as with increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, both with childhood and adult onset. Socio-emotional impairments that have been described in VPT individuals include diminished social competence and self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity. However, the etiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies. Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological, and psychosocial factors.

  7. Does maternal psychopathology increase the risk of pre-schooler obesity? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Pree M; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tobacco demand, delay discounting, and smoking topography among smokers with and without psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Abrantes, Ana M; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    Tobacco demand (i.e., relative value attributed to a given reinforcer) and delay discounting (i.e., relative preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards) are two behavioral economic processes that are linked to the progression of problematic substance use. These processes have not been studied among those with psychopathology, a vulnerable group of smokers. The current study examined differences in tobacco demand and delay discounting, and their association with smoking topography among smokers with (n=43) and without (n=64) past-year psychopathology. Adult daily smokers (n=107,M age =43.5; SD=9.7) participated in a study on "smoking behavior." Past-year psychological disorders were assessed via a clinician-administered diagnostic assessment. All subjects participated in an ad libitum smoking trial and then completed an assessment of delay discounting (Monetary Choice Questionnaire) and tobacco demand (Cigarette Purchase Task) approximately 45-60min post-smoking. Smokers with psychopathology, compared to those without, had significantly higher demand intensity and maximum expenditure on tobacco (O max ), but did not differ on other demand indices or delay discounting. Smokers with psychopathology had shorter average inter-puff intervals and shorter time to cigarette completion than smokers without psychopathology. Tobacco demand and delay discounting measures were significantly intercorrelated among smokers with psychopathology, but not those without. Both behavioral economic measures were associated with specific aspects of smoking topography in smokers with psychopathology. The association between tobacco demand and delay discounting is evident among smokers with psychopathology and both measures were most consistently related to smoking behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. N-Acetylcysteine for Nonsuicidal Self-Injurious Behavior in Adolescents: An Open-Label Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kathryn R; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Westlund Schreiner, Melinda; Carstedt, Patricia; Marka, Nicholas; Nelson, Katharine; Miller, Michael J; Reigstad, Kristina; Westervelt, Ana; Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith; Eberly, Lynn E

    2018-03-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is common in adolescents and young adults, and few evidence-based treatments are available for this significant problem. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a widely available nutritional supplement that has been studied in some psychiatric disorders relevant to NSSI including mood and addictive disorders. This pilot study tested the use of NAC as a potential treatment for NSSI in youth. Thirty-five female adolescents and young adults with NSSI aged 13-21 years were enrolled in this study that had an open-label, single-arm study design. All participants were given oral NAC as follows: 600 mg twice daily (weeks 1-2), 1200 mg twice daily (weeks 3-4), and 1800 mg twice daily (weeks 5-8). Patients were seen every 2 weeks throughout the trial, at which time youth reported the frequency of NSSI episodes. Levels of depression, impulsivity, and global psychopathology were measured at baseline and at the end of the trial using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90). About two-thirds of the enrolled female youth completed the trial (24/35). NAC was generally well tolerated in this sample. NAC treatment was associated with a significant decrease in NSSI frequency at visit 6 and visit 8 compared to baseline. We also found that depression scores and global psychopathology scores (but not impulsivity scores) decreased after NAC treatment. Decrease in NSSI was not correlated with decrease in BDI-II or SCL-90 scores, suggesting these might be independent effects. We provide preliminary evidence that NAC may have promise as a potential treatment option for adolescents with NSSI. The current results require follow-up with a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to confirm efficacy.

  10. Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa: An alternative to family therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Doll, Helen A.; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    A specific form of family therapy (family-based treatment) is the leading treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. As this treatment has certain limitations, alternative approaches are needed. “Enhanced” cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) is a potential candidate given its utility as a treatment for adults with eating disorder psychopathology. The aim of the present study was to establish, in a representative cohort of patients with marked anorexia nervosa, the immediate and longer term outcome following CBT-E. Forty-nine adolescent patients were recruited from consecutive referrals to a community-based eating disorder clinic. Each was offered 40 sessions of CBT-E over 40 weeks from a single therapist. Two-thirds completed the full treatment with no additional input. In these patients there was a substantial increase in weight together with a marked decrease in eating disorder psychopathology. Over the 60-week post-treatment follow-up period there was little change despite minimal subsequent treatment. These findings suggest that CBT-E may prove to be a cost-effective alternative to family-based treatment. PMID:23123081

  11. Impulsivity and clinical symptoms among adolescents with non-suicidal self-injury with or without attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Donald M; Mathias, Charles W; Marsh-Richard, Dawn M; Prevette, Kristen N; Dawes, Michael A; Hatzis, Erin S; Palmes, Guy; Nouvion, Sylvain O

    2009-08-30

    This study examined clinical characteristics and laboratory-measured impulsive behavior of adolescents engaging in either non-suicidal self-injury with (NSSI+SA; n=25) or without (NSSI-Only; n=31) suicide attempts. We hypothesized that adolescent with NSSI+SI would exhibit more severe clinical symptoms and higher levels of behavioral impulsivity compared to adolescents with NSSI-Only. Adolescents were recruited from an inpatient psychiatric hospital unit and the two groups were compared on demographic characteristics, psychopathology, self-reported clinical ratings, methods of non-suicidal self-injury, and two laboratory impulsivity measures. Primary evaluations were conducted during psychiatric hospitalization, and a subset of those tested during hospitalization was retested 4-6 weeks after discharge. During hospitalization, NSSI+SA patients reported worse depression, hopelessness, and impulsivity on standard clinical measures, and demonstrated elevated impulsivity on a reward-directed laboratory measure compared to NSSI-Only patients. In the follow-up analyses, depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and laboratory impulsivity were improved for both groups, but the NSSI+SA group still exhibited significantly more depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and impulsivity than the NSSI-Only group. Risk assessments for adolescents with NSSI+SA should include consideration not only of the severity of clinical symptoms but of the current level impulsivity as well.

  12. A Review of Eating Disorders and Suicide Risk in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida F. Dancyger

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the literature during the past 10 years about suicide risk and suicide during adolescence and young adulthood of individuals with eating disorders. Epidemiological surveys are summarized, including suicide rates, parasuicidal behaviors, associated risk factors, and comorbid psychopathology. Critical implications for the comprehensive assessment and treatment planning, including safety considerations, are discussed. Two clinical cases of women with long-standing eating disorders are described to highlight both the pragmatic considerations and the complex clinical challenges of working with patients with eating disorders who become suicidal. The potentially life-threatening issues of safety have not received sufficient attention, neither in the medical literature nor by the treating clinicians. All health care professionals who are treating patients with an eating disorder must be keenly aware of the serious risks of suicidal behavior and of suicide in this population.

  13. Expressed Emotion, Family Functioning, and Treatment Outcome for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienecke, Renee D; Accurso, Erin C; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between parental expressed emotion (EE) and treatment outcome among adolescents participating in a treatment study for adolescent anorexia nervosa, as well as its impact on family functioning. One hundred and twenty-one families were assigned to family-based treatment or adolescent-focused therapy. Paternal criticism predicted lesser improvement in eating disorder psychopathology at end of treatment. There was also a significant interaction between maternal hostility and treatment, indicating that adolescents whose mothers displayed hostility had greater increases in percent of expected body weight in adolescent-focused therapy than family-based treatment. In addition, maternal hostility predicted less improvement in general family functioning and family communication at the end of treatment. Findings suggest that maternal and paternal EE may differentially impact treatment outcome and should be directly attended to in clinical settings. Future research is needed to further explore ways in which parental EE can be effectively modified in treatment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. [Dialectical-behavioral outpatient therapy for adolescents with impulsive and self-harming behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffezzoni, Marco; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2017-11-01

    A slightly modified version of the Dialectical-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A) for impulsive and self-injurious adolescents has been implemented in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Service in Zurich, Switzerland, since 2005. This DBT-A comprises individual therapy, skills training, and a single parent meeting over a 6-month period. This article reports on the translation of this approach into clinical practice and presents an evaluation based on the clinical quality of control assessments. Participants of the treatment program were 43 female adolescents aged 14 to 19 living in the Zurich area and showing impulsive and self-injurious behavior and problems regulating their emotions and relationships. Each skill group contained 4-6 adolescents. Our mostly positive experiences with this approach were supplemented by evaluation data from a quality control group based on self- and parent-report of a total of 19 participants. There is convincing evidence that DBT-A leads to reductions in both general and specific psychopathology.

  15. Borderline organization of personality in adulthood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available About the middle of the 1950 it was proposed the definition of borderline disorder to classify some of the clinical manifestations that they are not explained by neurosis and psychosis theory. The structural approach of Otto Kernberg has been particular relief to understand the borderline disorder. O. Kernberg has been suggested theborderline organization of personality, to outline a typical permanent pathological functioning underlying string of psychopathologic syndromes associated by a standard and specific structural pathology of Ego that it is based on mechanism of split. Recently there is a build-up the theory about adolescence disorders, where its diagnosis is complicated by lack structural identity and about symptoms that they show the effects of typical change of adolescence.

  16. DNA Methylation at the DAT Promoter and Risk for Psychopathology: Intergenerational Transmission between School-Age Youths and Their Parents in a Community Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cimino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe effect of gene polymorphisms and promoter methylation, associated with maladaptive developmental outcomes, vary depending on environmental factors (e.g., parental psychopathology. Most studies have focused on 0- to 5-year-old children, adolescents, or adults, whereas there is dearth of research on school-age youths and pre-adolescents.MethodsIn a sample of 21 families recruited at schools, we addressed parents’ psychopathological symptoms (through SCL-90-R; offspring emotional–behavioral functioning (through CBCL-6–18; dopamine transporter gene (DAT1 for epigenetic status of the 5′-untranslated region (UTR and for genotype, i.e., variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism at the 3′-UTR. Possible associations were explored between bio-genetic and psychological characteristics within the same individual and between triplets of children, mothers, and fathers.ResultsDAT methylation of CpG at positions M1, M6, and M7 in mothers was correlated with maternal (phobic anxiety, whereas in fathers’ position M6 was related to paternal depression, anxiety, hostility, psychoticism, and higher Global Severity Index (GSI. No significant correlations were found between maternal and offspring DAT methylation. Significant correlations were found between fathers’ methylation at CpG M1 and children’s methylation at CpG M6. Linear regressions showed that mothers and fathers’ GSI predicted children’s methylation at CpG sites M2, M3, and M6, whereas fathers’ GSI predicted children’s methylation at CpG sites, particularly M1, M2, and M6. Moreover, offspring methylation of DAT at CpG M2 predicted somatic complaint, internalizing and attention problems; methylation of DAT at CpG M6 predicted withdraw.ConclusionThis study may have important clinical implication for the prevention and treatment of emotional–behavioral difficulties in children, as it adds to previous knowledge about the role of genetic and environmental factors in

  17. Eating psychopathology and psychosocial impairment in patients treated at a Singapore eating disorders treatment programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kah Wee; Kuek, Angeline; Lee, Huei Yen

    2018-01-01

    There is limited data on the psychopathology of eating disorders in Singapore. This study: (a) described levels of eating psychopathology and psychosocial impairment among individuals diagnosed with eating disorders at our hospital; and (b) compared the related psychopathology of these patients. Between 1 August 2010 and 31 July 2012, 257 individuals who met the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Clinical Impairment Assessment questionnaire (CIA). A majority of participants were women and of Chinese ethnicity. Diagnoses included anorexia nervosa (AN; 41.6%), bulimia nervosa (BN; 29.6%) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; 28.8%). Mean age at presentation was 20.52 ± 7.14 years and mean body mass index was 17.84 ± 4.18 kg/m 2 . Individuals with AN were significantly younger at presentation and had shorter duration of untreated illness compared to those with BN and EDNOS. There were no significant differences in the CIA scores of the diagnostic groups. Participants with BN scored higher in all subscales of the EDE-Q than those with AN and EDNOS. Our sample scored lower in most subscales of EDE-Q when compared to treatment centres in Sweden, Australia and the United States. Our clinical sample reported lower scores of psychopathology compared to overseas centres. This could be attributed to the higher percentages of BN and EDNOS diagnosed in overseas populations. Individuals with AN showed higher levels of psychopathology in our study compared to patients from the United States. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  18. Identification and Characterization of Prodromal Risk Syndromes in Young Adolescents in the Community: A Population-Based Clinical Interview Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    While a great deal of research has been conducted on prodromal risk syndromes in relation to help-seeking individuals who present to the clinic, there is a lack of research on prodromal risk syndromes in the general population. The current study aimed first to establish whether prodromal risk syndromes could be detected in non-help-seeking community-based adolescents and secondly to characterize this group in terms of Axis-1 psychopathology and general functioning. We conducted in-depth clinical interviews with a population sample of 212 school-going adolescents in order to assess for prodromal risk syndromes, Axis-1 psychopathology, and global (social\\/occupational) functioning. Between 0.9% and 8% of the community sample met criteria for a risk syndrome, depending on varying disability criteria. The risk syndrome group had a higher prevalence of co-occurring nonpsychotic Axis-1 psychiatric disorders (OR = 4.77, 95% CI = 1.81-12.52; P < .01) and poorer global functioning (F = 24.5, df = 1, P < .0001) compared with controls. Individuals in the community who fulfill criteria for prodromal risk syndromes demonstrate strong similarities with clinically presenting risk syndrome patients not just in terms of psychotic symptom criteria but also in terms of co-occurring psychopathology and global functioning.

  19. Detection of Overreported Psychopathology with the MMPI-2 RF Form Validity Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael

    2010-01-01

    We examined the utility of the validity scales on the recently released Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2 RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) to detect overreported psychopathology. This set of validity scales includes a newly developed scale and revised versions of the original MMPI-2 validity scales. We…

  20. Adolescent Subthreshold-Depression and Anxiety: Psychopathology, Functional Impairment and Increased Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Judit; Miklosi, Monika; Kereszteny, Agnes; Hoven, Christina W.; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Apter, Alan; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Cosman, Doina; Cotter, Padraig; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Marusic, Dragan; Postuvan, Vita; Resch, Franz; Saiz, Pilar A.; Sisask, Merike; Snir, Avigal; Tubiana, Alexandra; Varnik, Airi; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Subthreshold-depression and anxiety have been associated with significant impairments in adults. This study investigates the characteristics of adolescent subthreshold-depression and anxiety with a focus on suicidality, using both categorical and dimensional diagnostic models. Methods: Data were drawn from the Saving and Empowering…

  1. How Low Is Low? Low Self-Esteem as an Indicator of Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomaa, Rasmus; Vaananen, Juha-Matti; Frojd, Sari; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri

    2013-01-01

    Schools are among the most important setting for preventive interventions among adolescents. There are evidence-based intervention programs for adolescents at risk for and with early signs of mental health problems but one demanding task is to detect the ones who are in need of an intervention. The aim of the present study was to analyze…

  2. Age and puberty differences in stress responses during a public speaking task: do adolescents grow more sensitive to social evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumter, S.R.; Bokhorst, C.L.; Miers, A.C.; van Pelt, J.; Westerberg, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    During adolescence