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Sample records for adolescent population prevalence

  1. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in South Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, H.; Pavithra, U. S.; Abraham, R

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To record prevalence of malocclusion among 2,400 adolescents in Karnataka state, India and to define difference in malocclusion status in urban and rural population. Design: Randomized cross-sectional study. Setting: School students of Karnataka state, 24 August 2011 to 30 March 2012. Participants: School students in the age group of 13-17 years. Materials and Methods: Each individual was assessed for occlusal traits - sagittal occlusion, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diaste...

  2. Prevalence of different forms of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Chang, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Fetzer, Susan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2015-04-01

    Reported cases of child maltreatment are increasing in Taiwan. Yet, comprehensive epidemiological characteristics of adolescents' exposure over the wide spectrum of violence are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and magnitude of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents. A population-based study was conducted with 5,276 adolescents aged 12-18 from 35 schools in 17 cities and townships to determine the prevalence of five forms of child maltreatment in Taiwan. A total of 5,236 adolescents completed anonymous, self-report, structured questionnaires. Most adolescents (91%, n=4,788) experienced at least one form of maltreatment with 83% (n=4,347) exposed during the previous year. Violence exposure was the most common type of child maltreatment experienced, followed by psychological abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse. Adolescents reported an average of 7.4 (SD=5.87) victimizations over their lifetime and 4.8 (SD=4.82) victimizations during the past year. Females reported a higher rate of neglect, while males reported a higher rate of sexual abuse. Most of the sexual abuse perpetrators were known by their victims. Adolescents' victimization and polyvictimization from child maltreatment in Taiwan deserves a review and modification of national control and prevention policies.

  3. Prevalence of psychotic symptoms in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, I

    2012-09-01

    Psychotic symptoms occur more frequently in the general population than psychotic disorder and index risk for psychopathology. Multiple studies have reported on the prevalence of these symptoms using self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews but there is a lack of consensus about the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among children and adolescents.

  4. Prevalence, comorbidity and heritability of hoarding symptoms in adolescence: a population based twin study in 15-year olds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volen Z Ivanov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hoarding Disorder (HD is often assumed to be an 'old age' problem, but many individuals diagnosed with HD retrospectively report first experiencing symptoms in childhood or adolescence. We examined the prevalence, comorbidity and etiology of hoarding symptoms in adolescence. METHODS: To determine the presence of clinically significant hoarding symptoms, a population-based sample of 15-year old twins (N = 3,974 completed the Hoarding Rating Scale-Self Report. Co-occurring Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD were estimated from parental report. Model-fitting analyses divided hoarding symptom scores into additive genetic, shared, and non-shared environmental effects. RESULTS: The prevalence of clinically significant hoarding symptoms was 2% (95% CI 1.6-2.5%, with a significantly higher prevalence in girls than boys. Exclusion of the clutter criterion (as adolescents do not have control over their environment increased the prevalence rate to 3.7% (95% CI 3.1-4.3%. Excessive acquisition was reported by 30-40% among those with clinically significant hoarding symptoms. The prevalence of co-occurring OCD (2.9%, ASD (2.9% and ADHD (10.0% was comparable in hoarding and non-hoarding teenagers. Model-fitting analyses suggested that, in boys, additive genetic (32%; 95% CI 13-44% and non-shared environmental effects accounted for most of the variance. In contrast, among girls, shared and non-shared environmental effects explained most of the variance, while additive genetic factors played a negligible role. CONCLUSIONS: Hoarding symptoms are relatively prevalent in adolescents, particularly in girls, and cause distress and/or impairment. Hoarding was rarely associated with other common neurodevelopmental disorders, supporting its DSM-5 status as an independent diagnosis. The relative importance of genetic and shared environmental factors for hoarding differed

  5. Acne scars in 18-year-old male adolescents: a population-based study of prevalence and associated factors*

    OpenAIRE

    Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar

    2016-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional stud...

  6. Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them with the rates among adolescents in the general…

  7. Acne scars in 18-year-old male adolescents: a population-based study of prevalence and associated factors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar

    2016-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken during presentation for military service, which is compulsory for all 18-year-old males. A questionnaire was applied, covering topics like diet, smoking habits, ethnicity, family structure, socio-economic level, as well as specific questions about active acne and resulting scars. Dermatologists conducted the clinical examination. Results A total of 2,201 male adolescents were interviewed and examined. The overall prevalence of acne scarring was 22%. The malar region was the most frequently involved, present in 80% of affected individuals, followed by the frontal region (31.5%), back (17%), anterior chest (8.2%) and mentonian region (6.4%). Correlation between the intensity of clinical acne and the presence of scars was found, but no association was observed with educational level, smoking, ethnicity, obesity or socio-economic status. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of acne scars among this population. This is the first study to ascertain a correlation between acne scarring and factors such as socio-economic status and educational level. The direct relation between acne severity and scarring indicates that prompt and effective treatment is the best way to reduce scarring. PMID:27438194

  8. High prevalence of daily and multi-site pain -- a cross-sectional population-based study among 3000 Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Roos, Ewa M.; Olesen, Jens Lykkegaard

    2013-01-01

    Daily pain and multi-site pain are both associated with reduction in work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adults. However, no population-based studies have yet investigated the prevalence of daily and multi-site pain among adolescents and how these are associated with res......Daily pain and multi-site pain are both associated with reduction in work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adults. However, no population-based studies have yet investigated the prevalence of daily and multi-site pain among adolescents and how these are associated...

  9. Thoracic spine pain in the general population: Prevalence, incidence and associated factors in children, adolescents and adults. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straker Leon M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thoracic spine pain (TSP is experienced across the lifespan by healthy individuals and is a common presentation in primary healthcare clinical practice. However, the epidemiological characteristics of TSP are not well documented compared to neck and low back pain. A rigorous evaluation of the prevalence, incidence, correlates and risk factors needs to be undertaken in order for epidemiologic data to be meaningfully used to develop evidence-based prevention and treatment recommendations for TSP. Methods A systematic review method was followed to report the evidence describing prevalence, incidence, associated factors and risk factors for TSP among the general population. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched to identify studies that reported either prevalence, incidence, associated factors (cross-sectional study or risk factors (prospective study for TSP in healthy children, adolescents or adults. Studies were evaluated for level of evidence and method quality. Results Of the 1389 studies identified in the literature, 33 met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The mean (SD quality score (out of 15 for the included studies was 10.5 (2.0. TSP prevalence data ranged from 4.0–72.0% (point, 0.5–51.4% (7-day, 1.4–34.8% (1-month, 4.8–7.0% (3-month, 3.5–34.8% (1-year and 15.6–19.5% (lifetime. TSP prevalence varied according to the operational definition of TSP. Prevalence for any TSP ranged from 0.5–23.0%, 15.8–34.8%, 15.0–27.5% and 12.0–31.2% for 7-day, 1-month, 1-year and lifetime periods, respectively. TSP associated with backpack use varied from 6.0–72.0% and 22.9–51.4% for point and 7-day periods, respectively. TSP interfering with school or leisure ranged from 3.5–9.7% for 1-year prevalence. Generally, studies reported a higher prevalence for TSP in child and adolescent populations, and particularly for females. The 1 month, 6 month, 1 year and 25 year incidences were 0

  10. DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 eating disorders in adolescents: prevalence, stability, and psychosocial correlates in a population-based sample of male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Oddy, Wendy H; Crosby, Ross D

    2013-08-01

    The current study aimed to compare the prevalence, stability, and psychosocial correlates of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 eating disorders, in a population-based sample of male and female adolescents followed prospectively from 14 to 20 years of age. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective, population-based cohort study that has followed participants from prebirth to young adulthood. Detailed self-report questionnaires were used to assess eating disorder symptoms when participants were aged 14, 17, and 20 years. Comparisons between DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 were conducted using McNemar chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests. Changes in eating disorder prevalence over time were considered using generalized estimating equations. Eating disorder prevalence rates were significantly greater when using DSM-5 than DSM-IV-TR criteria, at all time points for females and at age 17 only for males. "Unspecified"/"other" eating disorder diagnoses were significantly less common when applying DSM-5 than DSM-IV-TR criteria, but still formed 15% to 30% of the DSM-5 cases. Diagnostic stability was low for all disorders, and DSM-5 binge eating disorder or purging disorder in early adolescence predicted DSM-5 bulimia nervosa in later adolescence. Cross-over from binge eating disorder to bulimia nervosa was particularly high. Regardless of the diagnostic classification system used, all eating disorder diagnoses were associated with depressive symptoms and poor mental health quality of life. These results provide further support for the clinical utility of DSM-5 eating disorder criteria, and for the significance of binge eating disorder and purging disorder.

  11. Adolescent Gambling Behaviour and Attitudes: A Prevalence Study and Correlates in an Australian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alun C.; Dowling, Nicki; Thomas, Shane A.; Bond, Lyndal; Patton, George

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that a range of risk factors are associated with adolescent problem gambling. Using a representative sample of 2,788 eighth grade students in Victoria, Australia, the primary aim of this study was to examine the degree to which these risk factors are associated with different levels of adolescent gambling…

  12. Prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them wi

  13. Back pain prevalence and associated factors in children and adolescents: an epidemiological population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Noll

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of back pain among Brazilian school children and the factors associated with this pain. METHODS All 1,720 schoolchildren from the fifth to the eight grade attending schools from the city of Teutonia, RS, Southern Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. From these, 1,597 children participated. We applied the Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument. The dependent variable was back pain, while the independent one were demographic, socioeconomic, behavior and heredity data. The prevalence ratio was estimated by multivariate analysis using the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05. RESULTS The prevalence of back pain in the last three months was 55.7% (n = 802. The multivariate analysis showed that back pain is associated with the variables: sex, parents with back pain, weekly frequency of physical activity, daily time spent watching television, studying in bed, sitting posture to write and use the computer, and way of carrying the backpack. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of back pain in schoolchildren is high and it is associated with demographic, behavior and heredity aspects.

  14. Back pain prevalence and associated factors in children and adolescents: an epidemiological population study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Matias; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; da Rosa, Bruna Nichele; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of back pain among Brazilian school children and the factors associated with this pain. METHODS All 1,720 schoolchildren from the fifth to the eight grade attending schools from the city of Teutonia, RS, Southern Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. From these, 1,597 children participated. We applied the Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument. The dependent variable was back pain, while the independent one were demographic, socioeconomic, behavior and heredity data. The prevalence ratio was estimated by multivariate analysis using the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). RESULTS The prevalence of back pain in the last three months was 55.7% (n = 802). The multivariate analysis showed that back pain is associated with the variables: sex, parents with back pain, weekly frequency of physical activity, daily time spent watching television, studying in bed, sitting posture to write and use the computer, and way of carrying the backpack. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of back pain in schoolchildren is high and it is associated with demographic, behavior and heredity aspects. PMID:27305406

  15. Prevalence of malocclusion among Latino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R G; Kang, D S

    2001-03-01

    Although numerous studies have documented malocclusion in various ethnic groups in the United States, the prevalence of malocclusion in the Latino population is not well known. The Latino population may be the largest minority group in the United States by the year 2004. This study analyzes the occlusion of 507 Latino adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years. More than 93% of the subjects demonstrated some form of malocclusion. The distribution of malocclusion patterns is presented and contrasted with data published for other ethnic groups. Information about the prevalence and types of malocclusion in the Latino population should be of interest to general dental practitioners and specialists.

  16. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease, Thalassemia, Sickle-Cell Anemia, and Iron-Deficiency Anemia among the UAE Adolescent Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Barakat-Haddad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of high blood pressure, heart disease, and medical diagnoses in relation to blood disorders, among 6,329 adolescent students (age 15 to 18 years who reside in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Findings indicated that the overall prevalence of high blood pressure and heart disease was 1.8% and 1.3%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence for thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia was 0.9%, 1.6%, and 5%, respectively. Bivariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the prevalence of high blood pressure among the local and expatriate adolescent population in the Emirate of Sharjah. Similarly, statistically significant differences in the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia were observed among the local and expatriate population in Abu Dhabi city, the western region of Abu Dhabi, and Al-Ain. Multivariate analysis revealed the following significant predictors of high blood pressure: residing in proximity to industry, nonconventional substance abuse, and age when smoking or exposure to smoking began. Ethnicity was a significant predictor of heart disease, thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia. In addition, predictors of thalassemia included gender (female and participating in physical activity. Participants diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia and iron-deficiency anemia were more likely to experience different physical activities.

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Elizabeth Moreira Mascarenhas; Márcia Sacramento Cunha Machado; Bruno Fernando Borges da Costa e Silva; Rodrigo Fernandes Weyll Pimentel; Tatiana Teixeira Ferreira; Fernanda Maria Silva Leoni; Maria Fernanda Rios Grassi

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolesc...

  18. Prevalence and co-occurrence of psychiatric symptom clusters in the U.S. adolescent population using DISC predictive scales

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    Vega William A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To estimate 12-month prevalence and co-occurrence of symptoms of specific mental problems among US adolescents (12–17 years by age, sex and racial/ethnic subgroups. Method Data from the 2000 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse (NHSDA adolescent sample are used to estimate prevalence and co-occurrence rates using the DISC predictive scales. Multiple logistic regressions were used to derive significant correlates of each domain of DPS-derived symptom cluster indicators of psychiatric problems and of severe comorbidity, with control of demographics and environmental factors. Setting The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA, a national household probability sample, includes a nationally representative sample of 12–17 year-old adolescents (N = 19,430, through in-home surveys. Results Three out of five adolescents screened positive for at least one DPS symptom cluster with estimates for specific symptom cluster ranging over 9.7% (substance use disorder, 13.4% (affective, 36.3% (disruptive-behavior, and 40.1% (anxiety. Co-occurrence was high with almost one-third of any DPS symptom cluster reporting multiple positive screens of four or more clusters. Blacks and younger females were most likely to report mental health problems and co-occurrence. Conclusion Mental health problems among U.S. youth may be far more common than previously believed, although these symptoms have not yet reached the point of clinical impairment. The data speak to important patterns of age, gender and racial/ethnic differences in mental health problems deserving of further study.

  19. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had adolescents from rural than urban areas (P adolescents in our population.

  20. Prevalence of malocclusions in Hungarian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábris, Katalin; Márton, Sándor; Madléna, Melinda

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this epidemiological study was to assess the prevalence of malocclusion, associated caries experience, and level of oral hygiene in the Hungarian population using the World Health Organisation (WHO) questionnaire designed to assess dentofacial anomalies. A total of 483 adolescents (289 girls, 194 boys), aged 16-18 years, were assessed. Orthodontic anomalies were detected in 70.4 per cent of the sample. Crowding and spacing were observed in 14.3 and 17 per cent, respectively, with the latter being more prevalent in the maxilla than in the mandible (10.4 and 2.9 per cent, respectively). A Class I occlusion was found in 52.8 per cent of the subjects. A half cusp anomaly in the antero-posterior molar relationship was more prevalent than a full cusp anomaly (26.9 and 20.3 per cent, respectively). The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), the decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS), and the visible plaque indices scores (VPI) of the 340 adolescents with malocclusion were significantly higher (P adolescents who displayed no anomalies. The prevalence of malocclusion in the Hungarian population seems to be comparable with other European communities.

  1. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  2. Prevalence of smoking, alcohol and substance use among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Denmark compared with the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders G.; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk of alcohol and substance abuse in adulthood. An unequivocal reason for this association has not yet been identified but it has been shown that pharmacological treatment...... is likely to reduce this risk. Aims: To test whether adolescents with ADHD in pharmacological treatment have a higher prevalence of smoking and use of alcohol and drugs than a matched control group from the general population. The study will also analyse associations between smoking, alcohol and drug use......, drugs and alcohol and the self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results: 21% of ADHD probands vs. 16% controls were daily smokers (P = 0.326). Among alcohol users, 52% of ADHD probands vs. 70% controls confirmed monthly alcohol intake (P = 0.014); 4% of cases...

  3. Prevalence of child abuse in child and adolescent clinical population referred to psychiatric facilities in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Gholamreza Nourazar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was ‎designed to evaluate the prevalence of child abuse in a child and adolescent psychiatric clinical population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a clinical population of children and adolescents aged 8-18 years. 80 out-patients and 94 in-patients were selected according to probability proportional to size sampling. Kiddie schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia questionnaire, a demographic questionnaire, and child abuse self-report scale were filled for each subject. Data were analyzed by using Stata software. Results: Among the out-patient subjects, 50 were male (62.5% and 30 were female (37.5%; for in-patient these subjects numbers were 76 (80.9% and 18 (19.1%, respectively. The mean age of subjects was 15.2 years in the in-patient group and 11.7 years in the out-patient group. In 66.1% of abuse cases the perpetrators were parents, 5.2% siblings, and 28.7% someone else. Among in-patient subjects, summed up prevalence rates of severe and very severe psychological abuse, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse were 11.7, 33.0, 2.1, and 0.0%, respectively; for out-patient subjects these values were 3.8, 11.2, 3.8, and 0.0%, respectively. Moreover, among in-patient subjects, prevalence rates of moderate psychological abuse, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse were 27.7, 27.7, 24.5, and 4.3%, respectively; and for out-patient subjects these values were 30.0, 27.5, 11.2, and 0.0%, respectively. Subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD suffered a higher rate of physical abuse, whereas, subjects with bipolar mood disorder (BMD suffered a higher rate of sexual abuse. Conclusion: The prevalence of child abuse is highly prevalent in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders. It is recommended that this population be screened routinely for child abuse.

  4. [Prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age: a population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Jansen, Karen; Godoy, Russélia Vanila; Souza, Luciano Dias Mattos; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2009-12-01

    This cross-sectional, population-based study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age (n = 960) in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Ninety of the city's 448 census tracts were selected, and 86 houses in each tract were visited. The statistical analysis used Poisson regression. Prevalence rates in the sample were 22.8% for involvement in fights with physical aggression and 9.6% for weapons possession in the previous 12 months. The study concluded that young males that use alcohol and/or illegal drugs and present minor psychiatric disorders show a higher probability of weapons possession and involvement in physical fights.

  5. The association between use of electronic media and prevalence of headache in adolescents: results from a population-based cross-sectional study

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    Straube Andreas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of electronic media, i.e. mobile phones, computers, television, game consoles or listening to music, is very common, especially amongst adolescents. There is currently a debate about whether frequent use of these media might have adverse effects on health, especially on headaches, which are among the most-reported health complaints in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between frequent use of electronic media and the prevalence of different types of headache in adolescents. Methods Data were derived from a population-based sample (n = 1,025, ages 13-17 years. Type of headache (i.e. migraine, tension-type headache, unclassifiable headache was ascertained by standardized questionnaires for subjects reporting headache episodes at least once per month during the last six months. Duration of electronic media use was assessed during personal interviews. Associations were estimated with logistic regression models adjusted for age group, sex, family condition and socio-economic status. Results Most of the adolescents used computers (85%, watched television (90% or listened to music (90% daily, otherwise only 23% of the participants used their mobile phones and only 25% played with game consoles on a daily basis. A statistically significant association between listening to music and any headache (odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.1 for 30 minutes per day, 2.1; 1.2-3.7 for 1 to 2 hours per day; 2.0; 1.2-3.5 for 3 hours and longer listening to music per day was observed. When stratifying for type of headache, no statistically significant association was seen. Conclusions Apart from an association between listening to music on a daily basis and overall headache, no consistent associations between the use of electronic media and different types of headache were observed.

  6. Musculoskeletal pain in Arctic indigenous and non-indigenous adolescents, prevalence and associations with psychosocial factors: A population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Eckhoff, Christian; Kvernmo, Siv

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain is common in otherwise healthy adolescents. In recent years widespread musculoskeletal pain, in contrast to single site pain, and associating factors has been emphasized. Musculoskeletal pain has not been examined in Arctic indigenous adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of widespread musculoskeletal pain and its association with psychosocial factors, with emphasis on gender- and ethnic differences (Sami vs. non-Sami), and the influence of pain rela...

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for bacterial vaginosis and other vulvovaginitis in a population of sexually active adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth Moreira; Machado, Márcia Sacramento Cunha; Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando Borges da; Pimentel, Rodrigo Fernandes Weyll; Ferreira, Tatiana Teixeira; Leoni, Fernanda Maria Silva; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12-28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14-30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide.

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Elizabeth Moreira Mascarenhas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6±1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28 and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30. Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P=0.02 and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P=0.01. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide.

  9. Musculoskeletal symptoms in an adolescent athlete population: a comparative study

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    Legault, Élise P; Descarreaux, Martin; Cantin, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain, symptoms or injuries are prevalent in the adolescent athlete population as well as in the general adolescent population, and often have significant consequences on their future musculoskeletal health. However, differences between these two populations in regards to their musculoskeletal health are not known and have not yet been explored. Therefore, the main objectives of this study are to 1) compare the 6-month prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and their...

  10. Psychotropic medication in the French child and adolescent population: prevalence estimation from health insurance data and national self-report survey data

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    Legleye Stéphane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work is to estimate the French frequencies of dispensed psychotropic prescriptions in children and adolescents. Prevalence estimations of dispensed prescriptions are compared to the frequencies of use of psychotropic reported by 17 year-old adolescents. Methods Prescription data is derived from national health insurance databases. Frequencies of dispensed prescriptions are extrapolated to estimate a range for the 2004 national rates. Self-report data is derived from the 2003 and 2005 ESCAPAD study, an epidemiological study based on a questionnaire focused on health and drug consumption. Results The prevalence estimation shows that the prevalence of prescription of a psychotropic medication to young persons between 3 and 18 years is about 2.2%. In 2005, the self-report study (ESCAPAD shows that 14.9% of 17 year-old adolescents took medication for "nerves" or "to sleep" during the previous 12 months. The same study in 2003 also shows that 62.3% of adolescents aged 17 and 18 reporting psychotropic use, took the medication for anxiety and 56.8% to sleep. Only 49.7% of these medications are suggested by a doctor. Conclusion This study underlines a similar range of prevalence of psychotropic prescriptions in France to that observed in other European countries. Nevertheless, the proportion of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines seems to be higher, whereas the proportion of methylphenidate is lower. Secondly, a disparity between the prevalence of dispensed prescriptions and the self-report of actual use of psychotropics has been highlighted by the ESCAPAD study which shows that these treatments are widely used as "self-medication".

  11. High Prevalence of Obesity in Ambulatory Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…

  12. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

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    Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4 had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2 smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8 smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use

  13. ERICA: prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adolescents.

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    Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Schaan, Beatriz; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício T L; de Moraes, Ana Júlia Pantoja; Borges, Ana Luíza; de Oliveira, Ana Mayra Andrade; Tavares, Bruno Mendes; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; Giannini, Denise Tavares; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; Santos, Eduardo Lima; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Azevedo, George Dantas; Brunken, Gisela Soares; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; de Carvalho, Kenia Mara B; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Monteiro, Maria Inês; Santos, Marize M; Muniz, Pascoal Torres; Jardim, Paulo César B Veiga; Ferreira, Pedro Antônio Muniz; Montenegro, Renan Magalhães; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary; Martins, Stella Maris Seixas; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated 37,504 adolescents who were participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, school-based, national study. The adolescents, aged from 12 to 17 years, lived in cities with populations greater than 100,000 inhabitants. The sample was stratified and clustered into schools and classes. The criteria set out by the International Diabetes Federation were used to define metabolic syndrome. Prevalences of metabolic syndrome were estimated according to sex, age group, school type and nutritional status. RESULTS Of the 37,504 adolescents who were evaluated: 50.2% were female; 54.3% were aged from 15 to 17 years, and 73.3% were from public schools. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% (95%CI 2.3-2.9), slightly higher in males and in those aged from 15 to 17 years in most macro-regions. The prevalence was the highest in residents from the South macro-region, in the younger female adolescents and in the older male adolescents. The prevalence was higher in public schools (2.8% [95%CI 2.4-3.2]), when compared with private schools (1.9% [95%CI 1.4-2.4]) and higher in obese adolescents when compared with nonobese ones. The most common combinations of components, referring to 3/4 of combinations, were: enlarged waist circumference (WC), low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) and high blood pressure; followed by enlarged WC, low HDL-c and high triglycerides; and enlarged WC, low HDL-c, high triglycerides and blood pressure. Low HDL was the second most frequent component, but the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (26.8%) was observed in the presence of high triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS ERICA is the first Brazilian nation-wide study to present the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and describe the role of its components. Despite the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome being low, the high prevalences of some components

  14. "Prevalence and Correlates of Snoring in Adolescents "

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    Katayoon Bidad

    2006-09-01

    These results suggest that snoring is associated with multiple factors in adolescents. We conclude that the prevalence of snoring is relatively high in children of this region. This highlights the need for awareness among physicians about the problem of sleep-disordered breathing, especially in children with asthma and obesity, and also the need for further studies to measure the prevalence of sleep breathing disorders among Iranians.

  15. ERICA: prevalences of hypertension and obesity in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Szklo, Moyses; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; Schaan, Beatriz; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension and obesity and the population attributable fraction of hypertension that is due to obesity in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from participants in the Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which was the first national school-based, cross-section study performed in Brazil were evaluated. The sample was divided into 32 geographical strata and clusters from 32 schools and classes, with regional and national representation. Obesity was classified using the body mass index according to age and sex. Arterial hypertension was defined when the average systolic or diastolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the reference curve. Prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of arterial hypertension and obesity, both on a national basis and in the macro-regions of Brazil, were estimated by sex and age group, as were the fractions of hypertension attributable to obesity in the population. RESULTS We evaluated 73,399 students, 55.4% female, with an average age of 14.7 years (SD = 1.6). The prevalence of hypertension was 9.6% (95%CI 9.0-10.3); with the lowest being in the North, 8.4% (95%CI 7.7-9.2) and Northeast regions, 8.4% (95%CI 7.6-9.2), and the highest being in the South, 12.5% (95%CI 11.0-14.2). The prevalence of obesity was 8.4% (95%CI 7.9-8.9), which was lower in the North region and higher in the South region. The prevalences of arterial hypertension and obesity were higher in males. Obese adolescents presented a higher prevalence of hypertension, 28.4% (95%CI 25.5-31.2), than overweight adolescents, 15.4% (95%CI 17.0-13.8), or eutrophic adolescents, 6.3% (95%CI 5.6-7.0). The fraction of hypertension attributable to obesity was 17.8%. CONCLUSIONS ERICA was the first nationally representative Brazilian study providing prevalence estimates of hypertension in adolescents. Regional and sex differences were observed. The study indicates

  16. Prevalence and consequences of insomnia in pediatric population.

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    Magda Kaczor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia presents an increasing and significant health issue in paediatric population. As the problem had grown over past decade, it became recognised by the specialists dealing with children and adolescents. In a recent study American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry members were asked about their experience with patients complaining about sleep disturbances. Doctors reported that sleep was a problem for 1/3 of their patients out of which 1/4 required pharmacotherapy [1]. Multiple studies concerning adults confirmed significance of healthy sleep in optimal cognitive, emotional, social and biological functioning. Adequate sleep is important in prophylaxis of many chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke [2]. Due to increasing prevalence of insomnia in children and adolescents growing attention is paid to its short and long term consequences in this group. This review summarises available data on chronic insomnia prevalence and its consequences in population under 18 years old.

  17. ERICA: prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria Neto, José Rocha; Bento, Vivian Freitas Rezende; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Olandoski, Marcia; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the distribution of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in Brazilian adolescents, as well as the prevalence of altered levels of such parameters. METHODS Data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) were used. This is a country-wide, school-based cross-sectional study that evaluated 12 to 17-year old adolescents living in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants. The average and distribution of plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were evaluated. Dyslipidemia was determined by levels of total cholesterol ≥ 170 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol < 45 mg/dL, or triglycerides ≥ 130 mg/dl. The data were analyzed by gender, age, and regions in Brazil. RESULTS We evaluated 38,069 adolescents - 59.9% of females, and 54.2% between 15 and 17 years. The average values found were: total cholesterol = 148.1 mg/dl (95%CI 147.1-149.1), HDL cholesterol = 47.3 mg/dl (95%CI 46.7-47.9), LDL cholesterol = 85.3 mg/dl (95%CI 84.5-86.1), and triglycerides = 77.8 mg/dl (95%CI 76.5-79.2). The female adolescents had higher average levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, without differences in the levels of triglycerides. We did not observe any significant differences between the average values among 12 to 14 and 15- to 17-year old adolescents. The most prevalent lipid alterations were low HDL cholesterol (46.8% [95%CI 44.8-48.9]), hypercholesterolemia (20.1% [95%CI 19.0-21.3]), and hypertriglyceridemia (7.8% [95%CI 7.1-8.6]). High LDL cholesterol was found in 3.5% (95%CI 3.2-4.0) of the adolescents. Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol was higher in Brazil's North and Northeast regions. CONCLUSIONS A significant proportion of Brazilian adolescents has alterations in their plasma lipids. The high prevalence of low HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Brazil's North and Northeast regions, must be

  18. Geographic latitude and prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivas, Theodoros B; Vasiliadis, Elias; Savvidou, Olga; Mouzakis, Vasilios; Koufopoulos, Georgios

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) prevalence has been reported to be different in various geographic latitudes and demonstrates higher values in northern countries. A study on epidemiological reports from the literature was conducted to record the prevalence of AIS among the general population of boys and girls, aged 10-16 years old, in different geographic latitudes, in order to test the hypothesis that the prevalence of AIS among boys and girls is different in various geographic latitudes and to examine if there is a possible association between them. Seventeen peer-reviewed published papers reporting AIS prevalence in the general population of boys and girls from most geographic areas of the northern hemisphere were retrieved from the literature. The geographic latitude of each centre where a particular study was originated was documented. The statistical analysis included a linear regression forward modeling procedure of the AIS prevalence by latitude, weighted by sample size. According to the modelling of the data, a significant positive association between prevalence of AIS and latitude was found for girls (p<0.001), following a rather curvilinear trend, but not a significant positive association was found for boys (p<0.111). A positive association between prevalence of AIS and geographic latitude is reported only for girls in the present study. Prevalence of AIS in boys is not associated significantly with geographic latitude. This differing significant association implicates the possible role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis of AIS that may act in a different way between boys and girls.

  19. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  20. The Prevalence, Lethality and Intent of Suicide Attempts among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Judy A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    Although suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in the United States, little is known about the prevalence or characteristics of suicide attempts among adolescents. Data from 1,710 adolescents attending 9 high schools in 5 communities were examined to determine the prevalence of suicide attempts and the lethality and intent…

  1. Prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction in children and adolescents

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    Marina Fernandes de Sena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD in children and adolescents, verifying the methodological variations. DATA SOURCES: Research conducted in Medline, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO databases, including manuscripts (except reviews and case reports published from 1990 to 2012. The descriptors were "temporomandibular joint syndrome", "temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome", "temporomandibular joint disorders", "prevalence studies", and "cross-sectional studies"; the words "dysfunction", "disorder", "temporomandibular", "children", "adolescents", "prevalence", "frequency", and "transversal" were used. DATA SYNTHESIS: Seventeen articles were selected, and the TMD frequency varied from 16 to 68%. Regarding the methodological criteria, only three articles (18% reported sample size determination, three (18% clearly described the sample selection process by stratified selection technique, and nine studies (53% carried out the calibration of the examiners. The diagnostic criteria used in the studies were: Helkimo index (n=2; 12%, Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD (n=4; 24%, the jaw index (n=1; 6%, clinical protocols (n=10; 59%, and anamnestic questionnaires (n=6; 35%. CONCLUSIONS: The TMD prevalence in children and adolescents varies in the literature. Appropriate and standardized methods are needed to identify, with greater validity, the presence of TMD in this population, allowing a better understanding of the pathological aspects in order to address more effective preventive and therapeutic procedures.

  2. Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Gibson, Will

    2014-02-01

    The problematic use of mobile phones among adolescents has not been widely studied. There are very few instruments for assessing potential technological addiction to mobile phones, or for categorizing different types of users or uses. The most widely used scale is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS), which is used to study adult populations, and has been applied in various forms in international contexts. The aims of this study were to adapt the Spanish version of this scale (MPPUSA) to British adolescents, and then to estimate the prevalence of possible problematic users. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1,529 secondary school pupils aged between 11 and 18 years, with 1,026 completed questionnaires being collected. The analysis showed that the factor and construct validity and reliability were comparable to those obtained in previous studies. The prevalence of problematic users among the students was 10%, and the typical problematic user tended to be an adolescent between 11 and 14 years old, studying in a public school, who considered themselves to be an expert user of this technology, who made extensive use of his/her mobile phone, and who attributed the same problem of use among their peers. These users presented notable scores in all the symptoms covered by the scale used to assess problematic use. In conclusion, the adaptation of the MPPUSA as a screening scale for British adolescents presents good sensitivity and specificity for detecting the main addictive symptoms proposed in this validated version.

  3. Prevalence of insulin resistance in obese adolescents

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    Aman B. Pulungan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Childhood obesity is a global health problem, with the prevalence is differed in each country and affected by many factors, such as lifestyle and physical activity. Insulin resistance (IR as a basic mechanism of several metabolic diseases in obesity, is related with metabolic syndrome (MetS along with its long term complications, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Several factors are known to be associated with IR, and the presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN has an important meaning in predicting IR.Objectives To assess the prevalence of IR, MetS in obese adolescents and its potentially associated factors, such as gender, signs of AN, and family history of metabolic diseases.Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in obese adolescents, aged 12-15 years, over a two-month period. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, and lipid profiles were measured. Oobesity was defined using body mass index (BMI. Insulin resistance was quantified by the homeostasis model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF 2007 criteria.Results Of 92 obese adolescents, IR was found in 38% of subjects, with females predominating (57.2%. Signs of AN were seen in 71.4% of subjects and a positive family history of metabolic diseases was found in 82.8% of subjects, including family history of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and hypertension. Less than 10% of subjects were considered to be in a prediabetic state, and none had T2DM. No statistical significance was found between gender, family history, or signs of AN and IR (P>0.05. Metabolic syndromes was found in 19.6% of subjects, with the following prevalences for each component: 34.8% for hypertension, 78.3% for central obesity, 8.7% for impaired fasting glucose (IFG, 22.8% for low levels of HDL, and 21.7% for high triglyceride levels. A strong correlation was found between IR and IFG with OR=5.69 (95%CI 1.079 – 29.993, P=0

  4. Prevalence of insulin resistance in obese adolescents

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    Aman B. Pulungan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Childhood obesity is a global health problem, with the prevalence is differed in each country and affected by many factors, such as lifestyle and physical activity. Insulin resistance (IR as a basic mechanism of several metabolic diseases in obesity, is related with metabolic syndrome (MetS along with its long term complications, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Several factors are known to be associated with IR, and the presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN has an important meaning in predicting IR. Objectives To assess the prevalence of IR, MetS in obese adolescents and its potentially associated factors, such as gender, signs of AN, and family history of metabolic diseases. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in obese adolescents, aged 12-15 years, over a two-month period. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, and lipid profiles were measured. Oobesity was defined using body mass index (BMI. Insulin resistance was quantified by the homeostasis model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF 2007 criteria. Results Of 92 obese adolescents, IR was found in 38% of subjects, with females predominating (57.2%. Signs of AN were seen in 71.4% of subjects and a positive family history of metabolic diseases was found in 82.8% of subjects, including family history of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and hypertension. Less than 10% of subjects were considered to be in a prediabetic state, and none had T2DM. No statistical significance was found between gender, family history, or signs of AN and IR (P>0.05. Metabolic syndromes was found in 19.6% of subjects, with the following prevalences for each component: 34.8% for hypertension, 78.3% for central obesity, 8.7% for impaired fasting glucose (IFG, 22.8% for low levels of HDL, and 21.7% for high triglyceride levels. A strong correlation was found between IR and IFG with OR=5.69 (95%CI 1.079 – 29.993, P=0

  5. Prevalence of Violence Tendency in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem HASKAN AVCI; Yildirim, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the extensiveness of violence tendency to depending on individual and family factors in adolescents. For this purpose, information has been collected from 899 high school students educated in state schools located in Adana province. Violence Tendency Scale (VTS) developed by Haskan and Yıldırım (2012) has been used in order to determine the violence tendency levels of the students. The prevalence of students’ tendency has been tested with chi-square. When a...

  6. Prevalência e fatores associados ao transtorno da conduta entre adolescentes: um estudo de base populacional Prevalence and factors associated with behavioral disorders in adolescents: a population-based study

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    Ana Laura Sica Cruzeiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procurou estimar a prevalência e os fatores associados ao transtorno da conduta em adolescentes com idade entre 11 e 15 anos. Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 1.145 adolescentes na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os adolescentes responderam a um questionário auto-aplicado. O transtorno da conduta foi avaliado através do Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Foi investigada a associação desta psicopatologia com sexo, idade, nível sócio-econômico, escolaridade do adolescente, reprovação na escola, religião, sedentarismo, consumo de álcool, tabagismo, uso de drogas, depressão e sofrer bullying. A regressão ordinal foi usada para a análise estatística. Estima-se que, entre os entrevistados, 29,2% tenham transtorno da conduta. Na análise multivariada, a chance de um adolescente apresentar um ponto a mais na escala que avalia transtorno da conduta foi 2,04 (IC95%: 1,53-2,71 vezes maior no sexo masculino. O consumo de bebida alcoólica, o uso de drogas e sofrer bullying estiveram associados com maior pontuação na escala de transtornos de conduta. Os resultados também mostraram que os fatores associados ao transtorno da conduta apontam para a forte interrelação entre comportamentos de saúde na adolescência.This study proposed to estimate the prevalence of behavioral disorders and associated factors in adolescents (11-15 years, using a cross-sectional design (n = 1,145. Subjects answered a self-administered questionnaire. Behavioral disorder was assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. The study analyzed disorders in relation to gender, age, socioeconomic status, schooling, failure in school, religion, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol consumption, drug use, depression, and bullying (as victim. Ordinal regression was used for the statistical analysis, with a hierarchical model for the outcome. An estimated 29.2% of the sample presented behavioral

  7. Prevalence of Internet addiction in Latino adolescents with psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Katia A; Rosario, Katyna; Colón-De Martí, Luz N; Martínez, Karen G

    2011-06-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is particularly relevant in the adolescent population. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of IA in a clinical sample of Latino adolescents receiving ambulatory psychiatric treatment. The correlation between their pattern of Internet use and their respective psychiatric diagnosis was also studied. Adolescent patients from the Psychiatric Ambulatory Clinic at the Pediatric University Hospital (N=71) completed the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a questionnaire about Internet use. Information regarding demographic and diagnostic data was retrieved from their clinical records. None of the subjects presented severe IA. A total of 71.8% (n=51) of the adolescents obtained scores reflecting no problem related to IA. Only 11.6% (n=5) of subjects have discussed Internet use with their therapist. Mood disorders showed a statistically significant (p=0.044) correlation with a higher score on the IAT. Mental health care practitioners must consider questions on Internet use as an essential part of the patients' evaluation given its significant correlation with diagnosis of a mood disorder.

  8. Prevalence of juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome in an urban population of Turkish adolescents: impact on depressive symptoms, quality of life and school performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunus Durmaz; Gamze Alayli; Sevgi Canbaz; Yeliz Zahiroglu; Ayhan Bilgici; Ilker Ilhanl(ι); Omer Kuru

    2013-01-01

    Background Juvenile Fibromyalgia Syndrome (JFMS) is a chronic health condition characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and multiple tender points (TP).The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of JFMS in the urban population of Samsun and to determine the impact of JFMS on depression symptoms,school performance and quality of life (QOL).Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1109 children (mean age (14.8±2.0) years old).A questionnaire was applied to the children and a medical examination including TP was performed.Yunus and Masi's criteria were used for diagnosis of JFMS.The children with JFMS were compared with an age and sex matched non-JFMS group.Depression was assessed with Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and QOL was evaluated with Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL4.0).Results Sixty-one (5.5%) (13 boys and 48 girls) of 1109 children met the diagnostic criteria of JFMS.While PedsQL scores of children with JFMS were lower than the non-JFMS group for physical,emotional,social,school functioning and total score (P=0.001),CDI total score was higher in the JFMS group than in the non-JFMS group (P=0.001).The JFMS group reported more school absences (P=0.001) and the average school grade was lower in the JFMS group than in the non-JFMS group (P=0.03).Conclusion The prevalence of JFMS is high in school age children.Since JFMS is a common problem of childhood,early diagnosis and identification of the disorder and more comprehensive and successful treatment approaches with appropriate psychological assistance may prevent more complex and severe problems in adulthood.

  9. The Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Female Adolescents of Yazd

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    N Esnaashari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Body dysmorphic disorder is one of the common disorders in which adolescents give excessive attention to their appearances. In fact, it may causes disruptions in adolescents' individual and social life. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in female adolescents of Yazd. Method: In this cross-sectional study, the population consisted of all high school female students of Yazd (N= 10737 in 2012-2013, among which 371 students were selected as the study sample by using Cochran formula and cluster sampling method. Moreover, the participants completed a series of demographic questions as well as the questionnaire of Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Y-BOCS-BDD. Results: The findings revealed that 41% of sample were reported to have unusual concern about appearance and body shape in range of low to very severe. As a matter of fact, most of them experienced moderate severity and 7.1% showed severe body dysmorphic disorder that required immediate psychological intervention. The prevalence in female adolescents was estimated as 7.1% and most prevalent age of suffering was 17. Conclusion: In this research, it was endeavored to provide a more realistic image of body dysmorphic disorder in Yazd adolescents by utilizing a precise methodology. Considering the high prevalence of this disorder in female adolescents and its adverse consequences, some programs are recommended to be applied for diagnosis and early treatment of body dysmorphic disorder to promote adolescents mental health.

  10. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Augusta Barufaldi; Gabriela de Azevedo Abreu; Juliana Souza Oliveira; Debora França dos Santos; Elizabeth Fujimori; Sandra Mary Lima Vasconcelos; Francisco de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos; Bruno Mendes Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects ...

  11. Bullying Among Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Prevalence and Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roekel, G.H. van; Scholte, R.H.J.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined: (a) the prevalence of bullying and victimization among adolescents with ASD, (b) whether they correctly perceived bullying and victimization, and (c) whether Theory of Mind (ToM) and bullying involvement were related to this perception. Data were collected among 230 adolescents

  12. Epidemiological survey for the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity in Greek adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzotzas, Themistoklis; Kapantais, Efthymios; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Ioannidis, Ioannis; Mortoglou, Anastasios; Bakatselos, Spiridon; Kaklamanou, Myrto; Lanaras, Leonidas; Kaklamanos, Ioannis

    2008-07-01

    This study was designed to provide estimates of overweight (OW), obesity (OB), and abdominal OB (AO) in a representative sample of adolescents throughout the whole of Greece. A total of 14,456 adolescents aged 13-19 years (6,677 boys and 7,779 girls) had direct measurements (height, weight, waist circumference (WC)) taken at school during 2003. The overall prevalence of OW including OB in the population studied was 29.4% in boys and 16.7% in girls. OB prevalence was also higher in boys than in girls (6.1% vs. 2.7%), whereas prevalence of AO was higher in girls than in boys (21.7% vs. 13.5%). Rates of OW, OB, and AO were significantly more prevalent in the Greek than in the foreign male population (immigrants). OW% in adolescent girls was independently associated with smoking and alcohol consumption. The prevalence of OW and OB in Greek adolescents is high, particularly in boys, comparable with that reported for most Mediterranean European countries. AO, mainly in adolescent girls, also appears high. Preventive and treatment strategies are urgently needed to combat this OB epidemic in Greece.

  13. Prevalence of Violence Tendency in Adolescents

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    Özlem HASKAN AVCI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the extensiveness of violence tendency to depending on individual and family factors in adolescents. For this purpose, information has been collected from 899 high school students educated in state schools located in Adana province. Violence Tendency Scale (VTS developed by Haskan and Yıldırım (2012 has been used in order to determine the violence tendency levels of the students. The prevalence of students’ tendency has been tested with chi-square. When analyzed in terms of individual characteristics, violence tendency has been found more extensive in boys rather than girls, and more extensive in the students watching violence and heroic movies. When it is analyzed in terms of family factors, violence tendency has been found to be more spread with the students experiencing violence at home, and having families using alcohol compared to the ones experiencing neither violence nor alcohol cases. Moreover, students whose fathers work and earn money display more tendency to violence than the ones whose fathers doesn’t make money by working. Besides, students having family members in prison have been understood to be more tend to violence.

  14. Prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Fernandes de Sena; Késsia Suênia F. de Mesquita; Santos,Fernanda Regina R.; Silva, Francisco Wanderley G. P.; Kranya Victoria D. Serrano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in children and adolescents, verifying the methodological variations. DATA SOURCES: Research conducted in Medline, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO databases, including manuscripts (except reviews and case reports) published from 1990 to 2012. The descriptors were "temporomandibular joint syndrome", "temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome", "temporomandibular joint disorders", "prevalence studies", and "cross-sectional ...

  15. Prevalence, 20-month incidence and outcome of unipolar depressive disorders in a community sample of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, AJ; Wittchen, HU; Schuster, P

    1999-01-01

    Background. This article presents prospective longitudinal findings on prevalence, incidence, patterns of change and stability of depressive disorders in a community sample of 1228 adolescents. Methods. Data were collected at baseline and follow-up (20 months later) in a representative population sa

  16. Prevalence of hyperuricemia in Bangkok population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uaratanawong, Somchai; Suraamornkul, S; Angkeaw, S; Uaratanawong, R

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of hyperuricemia in general Thai population and to evaluate its association with metabolic syndrome. A total of 1,945 subjects who sought for routine annual health checkup in our hospital from 1 October 2009 to 31 March 2010 were enrolled into the study. Inclusion criteria were healthy individuals, aged ≥35 years old, and lived in Bangkok for over 10 years. Data of general health status, age, gender, history of alcoholic consumption, body weight, height, and waist circumference were obtained by an interview-structured questionnaire. Fasting blood sample was collected from each subject early in the morning for uric acid, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels. The prevalence of hyperuricemia in our study population was 24.4%, being significantly more common in men than women (59% vs. 11%, p Bangkok population in our study. This disorder is frequently associated with metabolic syndrome.

  17. Prevalence of excessive screen time and associated factors in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucena, Joana Marcela Sales; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Cavalcante, Thaísa Leite Mafaldo; da Silva, Vanessa Araújo; de Farias, José Cazuza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of excessive screen time and to analyze associated factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study with 2874 high school adolescents with age 14-19 years (57.8% female) from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Northeast Brazil. Excessive screen time was defined as watching television and playing video games or using the computer for more than 2 h/day. The associated factors analyzed were: sociodemographic (gender, age, economic class, and skin color), physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents. Results: The prevalence of excessive screen time was 79.5% (95%CI 78.1-81.1) and it was higher in males (84.3%) compared to females (76.1%; p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, adolescent males, those aged 14-15 year old and the highest economic class had higher chances of exposure to excessive screen time. The level of physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents were not associated with excessive screen time. Conclusions: The prevalence of excessive screen time was high and varied according to sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents. It is necessary to develop interventions to reduce the excessive screen time among adolescents, particularly in subgroups with higher exposure. PMID:26298661

  18. Prevalence of excessive screen time and associated factors in adolescents

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    Joana Marcela Sales de Lucena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of excessive screen time and to analyze associated factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study with 2874 high school adolescents with age 14-19 years (57.8% female from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Northeast Brazil. Excessive screen time was defined as watching television and playing video games or using the computer for more than 2 h/day. The associated factors analyzed were: sociodemographic (gender, age, economic class, and skin color, physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents. Results: The prevalence of excessive screen time was 79.5% (95%CI 78.1-81.1 and it was higher in males (84.3% compared to females (76.1%; p<0.001. In multivariate analysis, adolescent males, those aged 14-15 year old and the highest economic class had higher chances of exposure to excessive screen time. The level of physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents were not associated with excessive screen time. Conclusions: The prevalence of excessive screen time was high and varied according to sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents. It is necessary to develop interventions to reduce the excessive screen time among adolescents, particularly in subgroups with higher exposure.

  19. Cribra orbitalia: Prevalence in contemporary populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Maryna; Voeller, Sarah; Botha, Deona; Ross, Ann H

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of cribra orbitalia (CO) is often used as an indicator of the general health status of past populations. Although debates as to its exact etiology are still ongoing, cribra is generally accepted to be the result of an anemic condition. Cribra has been reported to be declining in modern populations or even to be absent. The aim of this study was to compare modern, historic, and prehistoric prevalences of CO to assess whether it has changed through time and if it still occurs in contemporary populations. CO in skeletons (n = 844) from two widely different regions, the northeastern US and the central Gauteng area of South Africa, were compared in order to evaluate temporal trends. The sample comprised 245 prehistoric, 381 historic, and 218 modern skeletons. In adult skeletons the prevalence was found to be lower in historic South Africans (2.23%) than in historic North Americans (6.25%). It was lower in modern North Americans than in modern South Africans (12.35 and 16.8%, respectively). Its prevalence in prehistoric North Americans (11.86%) was also not much different from that of modern North Americans (12.35%). The frequency of CO in historic South African juveniles was higher (10.71%) than in historic North American juveniles (1.35%). Modern South African children had a lower frequency (25.14%) than modern American juveniles (40%), although the sample in the North American group was small. It seems that CO is still present in modern populations, and that health may indeed have declined for some groups in recent times. Clin. Anat. 29:823-830, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Jeppe; Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the current prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Denmark from 1995 to 2000—2002. Methods: Cross-sectional national dietary surveys were conducted in 1995 and 2000—2002. The analysis was based on two random population samples from the Danish...... civil registration system. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and weight for 1,026 and 1,152 children and adolescents (4—18 years), who participated in 1995 and 2000—2002, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was defined according to the international age...... and gender-specific child BMI cut-off points. In the statistical analysis, overweight and obesity were included in the prevalence of overweight. Results: Mean BMI increased significantly between 1995 and 2000—2002 for all combinations of age groups (4—6, 7—10, 11—14 and 15—18 years) and genders. Prevalence...

  1. Prevalence of malocclusions in a young Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grando, G; Young, A A A; Vedovello Filho, M; Vedovello, S A S; Ramirez-Yañez, G O

    2008-01-01

    Malocclusions are generally treated in adolescents and adults, but they are established at an early age. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of malocclusions in a young Brazilian population. The sample included 926 children, 8 to 12 years old, attending 5 public schools in the state of Goias, Brazil The type of occlusion was visually determined during the oral exam and statistical analysis, Chi-square test, was performed to correlate the prevalence of malocclusion with gender and with age. 819 patients out of the 926 patients had some type of malocclusion. From those, 513 patients had a class I malocclusion, 201 patients were classified as class II malocclusion, and 105 patients were class III malocclusion. Vertically, 62 patients showed a deep bite and 61 patients had an open bite. Transversely, 40 patients presented a bilateral posterior crossbite, 54 patients had a posterior crossbite on the left side, and 39 patients had a posterior crossbite on the right side. No significant correlation between gender and malocclusions was found and the number of patients with malocclusions between boys and girls were similar. Considering the three spatial planes, there is a high prevalence of malocclusions among the young Brazilian population. Therefore, the dental community must improve health policies and treat malocclusions earlier.

  2. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders amongst Adolescents in Tehran

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    Zahra Shahrivar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among 12 to 17 years old adolescents in urban areas of Tehran. "nMethod: In this study, 1105 adolescents (12 -17 years old were selected from 250 clusters of the entire 22 municipality areas of Tehran using a multistage sampling method. After responding to the Farsi version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report version, the Farsi version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL was administered to 273 adolescents and their families. The prevalence of adolescent psychiatric disorders was determined using the results of K-SADS-PL. "nResults: There were not any statistically significant differences between the sexes in the frequency of psychiatric disorders except for ADHD which was observed more frequently in boys. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, depressive disorders and separation anxiety disorder. "nConclusion: The frequency of psychiatric disorders among the adolescents in Tehran's urban areas was comparable to the reports from other countries. However, using methods to deal with missing data makes these prevalence rates somehow higher.

  3. Age-specific Prevalence of Antibodies to Hepatitis A in Children and Adolescents from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1978 and 1995: Relationship of Prevalence to Environmental Factors

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    Claudia L Vitral

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The age-specific prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV was determined in two different population groups with low socio-economic status from Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, whose serum samples were collected 17 years apart (Population 1, 1978; Population 2, 1995. In Population 2, analysis of the anti-HAV prevalence was also carried out with respect to environmental factors. Population 1 was composed of 520 stored sera collected from the umbilical cord of term neonates and children aged 1 month to 6 years. In population 2, 720 serum samples were collected from children and adolescents with ages ranging from 1 to 23 years. The overall prevalence rate of anti-HAV in Population 1 and Population 2 was 65.6% and 32.1%, respectively. In Population 1, the anti-HAV prevalence reached 88% at the age of 3, while in Population 2, it increased from 4.5% in children under the age of 3 to 66% in the group of adolescents over the age of 14. The low exposure to HAV infection in younger children from Population 2 could be a result of improved environmental hygiene and sanitation, as demonstrated by the presence of piped water, waste and sewage disposal systems in most houses from this population group. These findings indicate a possible change in the prevalence of hepatitis A in Rio de Janeiro

  4. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents aged 10-18 years in Jammu, J and K

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    Narinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adolescents attending school in the Jammu region, India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between November 2009 and December 2010, among a total of 1160 school-going adolescents of both sexes aged 10-18 years. Relevant metabolic and anthropometric variables were analyzed and criteria suggested by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel Third (NCEP-ATP III modified for age was used to define metabolic syndrome. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6%. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in males (3.84% than in females (1.6% and slightly higher in urban area (2.80% than in rural area (2.52%, whereas prevalence of metabolic syndrome among centrally obese subjects was as high as 33.33%. High density lipoprotein cholesterol was the most common and high blood pressure was the least common constituent of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was most prevalent in 16-18 years age group (4.79%. Conclusion : This study demonstrates that metabolic syndrome phenotype exists in substantial number (up to 3% of adolescent population in the Jammu region, India, and particularly 33% of obese adolescents are at risk to develop metabolic syndrome. These findings pose a serious threat to the current and future health of these young people.

  5. Period Prevalence of Dizziness and Vertigo in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Thyra Langhagen; Lucia Albers; Florian Heinen; Andreas Straube; Filipp Filippopulos; Landgraf, Mirjam N; Lucia Gerstl; Klaus Jahn; Rüdiger von Kries

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the period prevalence and severity of dizziness and vertigo in adolescents. Methods In 1661 students in 8th-10th grade in twelve grammar schools in Munich, Germany information on vertigo/dizziness was assessed by a questionnaire in the class room setting. Three month prevalence of dizziness/vertigo was estimated; symptoms were categorized as orthostatic dizziness, spinning vertigo, swaying vertigo or unspecified dizziness. Duration of symptoms and impact on daily life act...

  6. Prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity among 2, 162 Brazilian school adolescents

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    Clarice Siqueira Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The nutritional profile of the Brazilian population has changed in recent years. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of nutritional status among Brazilian school adolescents during the period from January 2014 to December 2014.Methods: This study employed an observational design with a cohort of school adolescents. Anthropometric measurement was assessed by nutritionists in government schools. The cut-off points for body mass index according to Brazilian criteria for adolescents of both sexes between 10 years and 19 years old were underweight (≤17.5 kg/m2, overweigh (≥25.0 kg/m2, and obesity (≥30.0 kg/m2. Results: The number of students included in the analysis was 2162, of which 71.0% were males and 29% were females (P = 0.00001. The mean age (years was 13.14 ± 2.17 for boys and 12.66 ± 1.85 for girls (P = 0.0001. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity observed in our population of school adolescents according to the Brazilian criteria was 2.8%, 8.1%, and 2.4% for males, respectively, and 23.0%, 10.7%, and 3.6% for females, respectively. For both sexes, there was no statistically significant difference between overweight (P = 0.5469 and obesity (P = 0.7863, but there was for underweight (P = 0.001. Conclusions: The occurrence of excess weight among Brazilian school adolescents is similar to the international prevalence, but the prevalence of underweight was very high among girls. The nutritional status of adolescents must be considered a public health problem in Brazil.

  7. Prevalence and comorbidity of mental disorders among adolescents living in residential youth care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefiak, Thomas; Kayed, Nanna Sønnichsen; Rimehaug, Tormod; Wormdal, Anne Kristine; Brubakk, Ann Mari; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Most adolescents are placed in residential youth care (RYC) because of severe psychosocial strains and child maltreatment, which represent risk factors for developing mental disorders. To plan RYC units and ensure that residents receive evidence-based psychiatric interventions, it is necessary to obtain reliable and valid prevalence estimates of mental disorders in this population. However, there is a lacuna of research on diagnoses derived from standardized clinical interviews. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and comorbidity of mental disorders applying diagnostic interviews in an entire population of adolescents living in RYC in Norway. All young people in RYC were invited to participate in the study. Eighty-six RYC institutions with 601 eligible adolescents were included and 400 adolescents, 12-20 years old, participated in the study, yielding a response rate of 67 %. Anonymous Child Behaviour Checklist scores for 141 (70 %) of the declining residents were also available, allowing diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) for 541 youths to be estimated. Diagnoses were assessed by trained interviewers with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment interview (CAPA). Seventy-six point two per cent (71.5-80.8 CI 95 %) of adolescents received at least one 3-month DSM-IV diagnosis. Prevalence rates for internalizing psychiatric disorders were higher than for behavioural disorders. Comorbidity was high between these two groups. Mental disorders were prevalent among children and youth in RYC. Our results create major concerns and challenge the existing organization of the RYC system.

  8. Prevalence of Problematic Video Gaming among Ontario Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nigel E.; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Ballon, Bruce; Cheung, Joyce T. W.; Adlaf, Edward M.; Henderson, Joanna; Chan, Vincy; Rehm, Jurgen; Hamilton, Hayley; Mann, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Video game playing has become a very popular activity among adolescents. Its impact on the mental health and well-being of players is just beginning to be explored. This paper reports on the prevalence of problematic gaming in a representative sample of 2,832 Ontario students in grades 7 to 12. The survey included questions about the school grade,…

  9. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Chinese adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Yang, X.; Zhai, F.; Kok, F.J.; Piao, J.; Zhang, J.; Ma, G.

    2008-01-01

    Since national figures on the occurrence of metabolic syndrome among Chinese adolescents are lacking, this study aims to estimate its prevalence and distribution among Chinese youngsters. The 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey is a nationally representative cross-sectional study. Applyi

  10. Prevalence of Sleepwalking in an Adult Population

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    Mume CO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may besimple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking isa disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. In children, episodes of sleepwalking are rarely violent; inadults, however, sleepwalking might include violence, which could endanger the patient or others and might precipitate legalissues. There is inadequate information on the prevalence and demographic correlates of sleepwalking in Nigeria.Objectives: One objective of this study was to determine the lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking in an adult populationin Ile-Ife, in Southwestern Nigeria. Another objective was to determine the age and sex distribution of sleepwalking amongthose who have experienced it at least once in their lifetime. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 228 healthyindividuals aged 18 – 60 years was obtained and the members were asked to fill out a survey form about lifetime prevalencerate of sleepwalking. Results: The overall lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking was 7% (16 of 228 participants. It was10.4% in males and 3.5% in females, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This studyhas shown that sleepwalking is common in the population. In view of the psychological effects of sleepwalking and thepotential physical and legal problems associated with it, adequate efforts should be made for early detection and promptmanagement of the condition.

  11. Smoking Stages in an Iranian Adolescent Population

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    Akbar Fotouhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is determining the prevalence of smoking stages in adolescents of Tabriz city (northwest of Iran and identifying the personal, environmental, and psychological factors relating to cigarette smoking. Fifty-seven high schools were randomly selected, and 4903 students were completed a self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking and the related risk factors. The association of independent variables with cigarette smoking was evaluated using the ordinal logistic regression model. In total, 17.3% of the participants were experimenters (95% CI: 15.8-18.9 and 5.0% were regular smokers (95% CI: 3.7-6.2. The results showed that the male gender (OR=2.92; CI: 1.94-4.77, age (OR=1.27; CI: 1.02-1.64, having general risk taking behavior (OR=1.50; CI: 1.02-2.21, presence of a cigarette smoker in the family (OR=1.78; CI: 1.23-2.54, friendship with close cigarette smoker friends (OR=2.52; CI: 1.65-3.86, substance abuse experience (OR=8.27; CI: 2.61-25.61, attitude toward cigarette smoking (OR=1.22; CI: 1.10-1.27 and positive thinking about cigarette smoking (OR=1.05; CI: 1.01-1.14 are associated to cigarette smoking in adolescents. The cigarette smoking prevalence is minimal in Tabriz city adolescents, especially in girls; but the experimenter prevalence is considerable. Findings of this study justifies adopting more serious measures in the pre-adolescence and adolescence period.

  12. Increasing adolescent HIV prevalence in Eastern Zimbabwe--evidence of long-term survivors of mother-to-child transmission?

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    Jeffrey W Eaton

    Full Text Available Recent data from the Manicaland HIV/STD Prevention Project, a general-population open HIV cohort study, suggested that between 2004 and 2007 HIV prevalence amongst males aged 15-17 years in eastern Zimbabwe increased from 1.20% to 2.23%, and in females remained unchanged at 2.23% to 2.39%, while prevalence continued to decline in the rest of the adult population. We assess whether the more likely source of the increase in adolescent HIV prevalence is recent sexual HIV acquisition, or the aging of long-term survivors of perinatal HIV acquisition that occurred during the early growth of the epidemic. Using data collected between August 2006 and November 2008, we investigated associations between adolescent HIV and (1 maternal orphanhood and maternal HIV status, (2 reported sexual behaviour, and (3 reporting recurring sickness or chronic illness, suggesting infected adolescents might be in a late stage of HIV infection. HIV-infected adolescent males were more likely to be maternal orphans (RR = 2.97, p<0.001 and both HIV-infected adolescent males and females were more likely to be maternal orphans or have an HIV-infected mother (male RR = 1.83, p<0.001; female RR = 16.6, p<0.001. None of 22 HIV-infected adolescent males and only three of 23 HIV-infected females reported ever having had sex. HIV-infected adolescents were 60% more likely to report illness than HIV-infected young adults. Taken together, all three hypotheses suggest that recent increases in adolescent HIV prevalence in eastern Zimbabwe are more likely attributable to long-term survival of mother-to-child transmission rather than increases in risky sexual behaviour. HIV prevalence in adolescents and young adults cannot be used as a surrogate for recent HIV incidence, and health systems should prepare for increasing numbers of long-term infected adolescents.

  13. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AMONG ADOLESCENT SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN GUNTUR

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    Phanindra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia is a nutritional problem worldwide and its prevalence is higher in developing countries when compared to the developed countries. Anaemia, a manifestation of under-nutrition and poor dietary intake of iron is a public health problem, not only among pregnant women, infants and young children, but also among adolescents. Recent studies on the prevalence of anaemia have been conducted on preschool children only, so there is a need for more studies related to anaemia among school children. The present study was done to estimate the prevalence of anaemia among school children aged 10-15 years from Guntur, Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 school children aged 10 to 15 years. Purposive sampling was used to include 250 boys and 250 girls. Haemoglobin estimation was done by cyanmethaemoglobin method. The severity of anaemia was classified on the basis of WHO criteria into Mild, Moderate and Severe. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 21. RESULTS The overall prevalence of anaemia was 27.4% in the present study. A higher prevalence of anaemia was observed among girls (42.4% than boys (12.4%. The prevalence of mild anaemia was 34.4% and 9.6% among girls and boys respectively. CONCLUSION The prevalence of anaemia is high among school going adolescents. Special emphasis should be given on nutritional supplementation with iron and health education for this age group.

  14. Anemia prevalence in children and adolescents from educational centers in the outskirts of Londrina, PR, Brazil

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    MIGLIORANZA Lúcia Helena da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is the world most prevalent nutritional problem. To investigate anemia prevalence and its relation to nutritional status, 526 children and adolescents, 284 males and 242 females, aged 7 to 14 years old, were evaluated. The studied subjects take part in a program of the Social Action Department of the city of Londrina, state of Paraná, and attend Public Educational Centers which provides them three daily meals and pedagogic assistance. These individuals belong to deprived areas in the city outskirts, where the per capita income is lower than US$500 a year. The hemoglobin dosage was determined by digital puncture and read by Hemocue portable photometer. Anemia prevalence was verified in 41.3% of the assessed population, with no significant statistical differences between males and females (p=0.412. No association between anemia and malnutrition was found. In conclusion, high prevalence of anemia was observed in this population.

  15. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; dos Santos, Debora França; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Tavares, Bruno Mendes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students). Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old) who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits.

  16. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents

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    Laura Augusta Barufaldi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students. Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6. Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits.

  17. Prevalence of excessive screen time and associated factors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of excessive screen time and to analyze associated factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study with 2874 high school adolescents with age 14-19 years (57.8% female) from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Northeast Brazil. Excessive screen time was defined as watching television and playing video games or using the computer for more than 2 h/day. The associated factors analyze...

  18. Prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian adolescents: a systematic review

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    Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian adolescents and identify higher-risk subgroups. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Searches were performed using four databases (LILACS, MEDLINE /PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, specialized websites and the references cited in retrieved articles. The search was done in English and Portuguese and there was no limit on the year of publication (up to June 2011. From the search, 59 studies met all the inclusion criteria: to involve Brazilian adolescents aged 10-19 years; to assess the prevalence of alcohol and/or tobacco use; to use questionnaires or structured interviews to measure the variables of interest; and to be a school or population-based study that used methodological procedures to ensure representativeness of the target population (i.e. random sampling. RESULTS: The prevalence of current alcohol use (at the time of the investigation or in the previous month ranged from 23.0% to 67.7%. The mean prevalence was 34.9% (reflecting the central trend of the estimates found in the studies. The prevalence of current tobacco use ranged from 2.4% to 22.0%, and the mean prevalence was 9.3%. A large proportion of the studies estimated prevalences of frequent alcohol use (66.7% and heavy alcohol use (36.8% of more than 10%. However, most studies found prevalences of frequent and heavy tobacco use of less than 10%. The Brazilian literature has highlighted that environmental factors (religiosity, working conditions, and substance use among family and friends and psychosocial factors (such as conflicts with parents and feelings of negativeness and loneliness are associated with the tobacco and alcohol use among adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that consumption of alcohol and tobacco among adolescents has reached alarming prevalences in various localities in Brazil. Since unhealthy behavior tends to continue from adolescence into adulthood

  19. Prevalência e fatores de risco para tabagismo em adolescentes Prevalence and risk factors for smoking among adolescents

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    Maura C Malcon

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O tabagismo é uma das principais causas de enfermidades evitáveis e incapacidades prematuras. Nesse sentido, realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de medir a prevalência e estudar fatores de risco associados ao tabagismo nos adolescentes. MÉTODOS: A partir de um delineamento transversal de base populacional, estudou-se uma amostra representativa de 1.187 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos, da zona urbana de Pelotas, sul do Brasil. Todos os adolescentes da amostra, de cada domicílio, foram entrevistados por meio de questionário pré-codificado, individual e confidencial. Utilizou-se o teste de Kaplan-Meier para análise da curva de sobrevida. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de tabagismo na amostra foi de 12,1% (IC95% 10,3%-14%. As prevalências foram similares para os sexos femininos e masculinos. Os fatores de risco para tabagismo na análise multivariada, por regressão logística, foram: maior idade, odds ratio (OR de 28,7 (11,5-71,4, irmãos mais velhos fumantes, OR de 2,4 (1,5-3,8, três ou mais amigos fumantes, OR de 17,5 (8,8-34,8 e baixa escolaridade OR de 3,5 (1,5-8,0. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de tabagismo na adolescência mostrou-se alta, na cidade de Pelotas. Campanhas antitabágicas devem ser direcionadas à comunidade e à família tendo o adolescente como alvo. Medidas legais adotadas pelo governo são importantes para impedir o acesso dos adolescentes ao cigarro.OBJECTIVE: Tobacco smoking is one of the main causes of preventable disease and premature disability. Th estudy was aimed at measuring smoking prevalence and related risk factors among adolescents. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative sample of 1,187 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years living in the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. All adolescents were interviewed separately using a confidential coded questionnaire. Kaplan-Meier test was performed for survival curve analysis. RESULTS: The overall smoking prevalence

  20. The Prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Emma L Anderson

    Full Text Available Narrative reviews of paediatric NAFLD quote prevalences in the general population that range from 9% to 37%; however, no systematic review of the prevalence of NAFLD in children/adolescents has been conducted. We aimed to estimate prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in young people and to determine whether this varies by BMI category, gender, age, diagnostic method, geographical region and study sample size.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies reporting a prevalence of NAFLD based on any diagnostic method in participants 1-19 years old, regardless of whether assessing NAFLD prevalence was the main aim of the study.The pooled mean prevalence of NAFLD in children from general population studies was 7.6% (95%CI: 5.5% to 10.3% and 34.2% (95% CI: 27.8% to 41.2% in studies based on child obesity clinics. In both populations there was marked heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 98%. There was evidence that prevalence was generally higher in males compared with females and increased incrementally with greater BMI. There was evidence for differences between regions in clinical population studies, with estimated prevalence being highest in Asia. There was no evidence that prevalence changed over time. Prevalence estimates in studies of children/adolescents attending obesity clinics and in obese children/adolescents from the general population were substantially lower when elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT was used to assess NAFLD compared with biopsies, ultrasound scan (USS or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Our review suggests the prevalence of NAFLD in young people is high, particularly in those who are obese and in males.

  1. Prevalence of low back pain in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis

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    Calvo-Muñoz Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is common in children and adolescents, and it is becoming a public health concern. In recent years there has been a considerable increase in research studies that examine the prevalence of LBP in this population, but studies exhibit great variability in the prevalence rates reported. The purpose of this research was to examine, by means of a meta-analytic investigation, the prevalence rates of LBP in children and adolescents. Methods Studies were located from computerized databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, MedLine, PEDro, IME, LILACS, and CINAHL and other sources. The search period extended to April 2011. To be included in the meta-analysis, studies had to report a prevalence rate (whether point, period or lifetime prevalence of LBP in children and/or adolescents (≤ 18 years old. Two independent researchers coded the moderator variables of the studies, and extracted the prevalence rates. Separate meta-analyses were carried out for the different types of prevalence in order to avoid dependence problems. In each meta-analysis, a random-effects model was assumed to carry out the statistical analyses. Results A total of 59 articles fulfilled the selection criteria. The mean point prevalence obtained from 10 studies was 0.120 (95% CI: 0.09 and 0.159. The mean period prevalence at 12 months obtained from 13 studies was 0.336 (95% CI: 0.269 and 0.410, whereas the mean period prevalence at one week obtained from six studies was 0.177 (95% CI: 0.124 and 0.247. The mean lifetime prevalence obtained from 30 studies was 0.399 (95% CI: 0.342 and 0.459. Lifetime prevalence exhibited a positive, statistically significant relationship with the mean age of the participants in the samples and with the publication year of the studies. Conclusions The most recent studies showed higher prevalence rates than the oldest ones, and studies with a better methodology exhibited higher lifetime prevalence rates than studies that were

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Dating Violence in a National Sample of Adolescents

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    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Resnick, Heidi S.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the prevalence of serious forms of dating violence in adolescents from a nationally representative sample of adolescents. The results conclude that serious dating violence is highly prevalent among adolescents and a major health problem that needs to be tackled by early detection, prevention and intervention.

  3. The prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in adolescents.

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    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in 16-18 year old adolescents.In this cross sectional - descriptive study, 422 high school students (211 boys, 211 girls aged 16-18 were selected by cluster random sampling and simple random sampling in 2011-2012. The participants were assessed using the revised diagnostic interview for borderline questionnaire (DIB-R and demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman correlation coefficient.Of the participants, 0/9% (0/22 % of the 16 year olds, 0.45 % of the 17 year olds and 0/22% of the 18 year olds were diagnosed with borderline personality symptoms. Also, the prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in boys was 0/45 % of the total sample and it was 0/45 % of the total sample in girls. With respect to the relationship between demographic variables (age, sex, location, parents' occupation, parents' kinship, parents' education and birth order and borderline personality symptoms, only parents' kinship showed a weak correlation with borderline personality symptoms.In the view of the prevalence of 0.9% of the borderline personality symptoms in adolescents, attention should be paid to the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. Furthermore, works need to be done to improve the mental health and quality of life of adolescents.

  4. Caries prevalence of children and adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina

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    Nina Markovic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to present epidemiological parameters of caries prevalence in children and adolescents in index age groups on a national and regional level in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH. Materials and methods. The study was conducted during 2004 year for children aged 6 and 12, and during 2007 for adolescents aged 15. An oral health survey was performed on a total number of 1,240 children and adolescents in line with World Health Organization methodology and criteria. Results for caries prevalence and treatment needs were presented and discussed in this paper. Results. Mean dmft (decay, missing, filled teeth for primary dentition for children aged six was 6.7 (SD±3.9 in that the decayed teeth constituted the major part of the index (88.8%, followed by extracted teeth (8.9% and a small percentage of filled teeth (2.3%. In 12-year-olds DMFT (Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth for permanent dentition was 4.2 (SD±2.9, Significant Caries index (SiC was 7.7 (SD±2.9, the decayed teeth constituted the major part of the index (45.4%, followed by 42.1% of FT and 12.5% of extracted teeth. Among 15-year-olds the DMFT was 7.6 (SD±4.1, SiC was 9.2 (SD±1.2, and filled teeth constituted the major part of the index. Conclusion. The present study provides some evidence of relatively high caries prevalence and severity in comparison with Western European countries. It is necessary to devote more attention to the oral health of children and adolescents. Community based oral health promotion, preventive programs and preventive oriented public dental health care services should be made available and accessible to all children in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  5. The Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Unwanted Sexual Contact among Boys and Girls Living in Victoria, Australia

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    Moore, Elya E.; Romaniuk, Helena; Olsson, Craig A.; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Carlin, John B.; Patton, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with both short- and long-term adverse mental and physical health consequences, yet there remains considerable controversy about the prevalence of CSA in the general population. There is also little prospective data on unwanted sexual contact (USC) collected during adolescence. Methods: Data…

  6. Period Prevalence of Dizziness and Vertigo in Adolescents.

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    Thyra Langhagen

    Full Text Available To assess the period prevalence and severity of dizziness and vertigo in adolescents.In 1661 students in 8th-10th grade in twelve grammar schools in Munich, Germany information on vertigo/dizziness was assessed by a questionnaire in the class room setting. Three month prevalence of dizziness/vertigo was estimated; symptoms were categorized as orthostatic dizziness, spinning vertigo, swaying vertigo or unspecified dizziness. Duration of symptoms and impact on daily life activities were assessed.72.0% (95%-CI = [69.8-74.2]; N = 1196 of the students (mean age 14.5±1.1 reported to suffer from at least one episode of dizziness or vertigo in the last three months. Most adolescents ticked to have symptoms of orthostatic dizziness (52.0%, 95%-CI = [49.5-54.4], N = 863. The period prevalence for the other types of vertigo were spinning vertigo: 11.6%, 95%-CI = [10.1-13.3], N = 193; swaying vertigo: 12.2%, 95%-CI = [10.6-13.8], N = 202; and unspecified dizziness: 15.2%, 95%-CI = [13.5-17.1], N = 253. About 50% of students with spinning vertigo and swaying vertigo also report to have orthostatic dizziness. Most vertigo/dizziness types were confined to less than one minute on average. The proportion of students with any dizziness/vertigo accounting for failure attending school, leisure activities or obliging them to stay in bed were more pronounced for spinning or swaying vertigo.Dizziness and vertigo in grammar school students appear to be as common as in adults. In face of the high period prevalence and clinical relevance of dizziness/vertigo in adolescents there is a need for prevention strategies. Risk factors for dizziness/vertigo need to be assessed to allow for conception of an intervention programme.

  7. The prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among inpatient adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD male war veterans.

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    Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide.

  8. Why Do Adolescents Overestimate Their Peers' Smoking Prevalence? Correlates of Prevalence Estimates among California 8th-Grade Students.

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    Unger, Jennifer B.; Rohrbach, Louise Ann

    2002-01-01

    Used data from a statewide sample of 5,870 eighth graders in California to examine the correlates of smoking prevalence estimates. Best friends' smoking accounted for the largest proportion of the variance in prevalence estimates. Smoking by peers may give adolescents the impression that smoking is more normative and prevalent than it actually is.…

  9. Prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescents in Malaysia.

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    Kaur, Jasvindar; Cheong, Siew Man; Mahadir Naidu, Balkish; Kaur, Gurpreet; Manickam, Mala A; Mat Noor, Malisa; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Depression among adolescents has been recognized as a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the Malaysia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 were analyzed with additional data from the validated DASS21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress) questionnaire. The study revealed that 17.7% of respondents had depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis further showed that feeling lonely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.99; 95% CI = 2.57-3.47), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.63-2.44), using drugs (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.21-2.82), and being bullied (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.60-1.99) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Lack of parental supervision, alcohol use, and tobacco use were also significant risk factors. Addressing depressive symptoms among adolescents may have implications for managing their risks of being bullied and substance use. This study also highlights the need to further investigate depressive symptoms among adolescents of Indian ethnicity.

  10. Prevalence of Hypertension and its Risk Factors Among School Going Adolescents of Patna, India

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    Kumar, Pragya; Ranjan, Alok; Singh, Chandra Mani; Pandey, Sanjay; Agarwal, Neeraj

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hypertension (HT) has its origin in childhood and adolescent period but it goes undetected due to absence of sign and symptoms, unless specifically looked for during this period. It has been seen that one with raised blood pressure level in this period will also have raised Blood Pressure (BP) level in their adulthood and elderly period. Aim The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of HT and its risk factor among apparently healthy school going adolescents of Patna district. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study among 2913 school going adolescents of eighth to 10th standard was conducted from April 2014 to August 2015 by adopting a two stage cluster sampling technique. The questions pertaining to risk behavior in relation to cardiovascular diseases from WHO’s Global School based Student Health Survey were used for this study. Results The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure of study population was 107.4 mm of Hg (95% C.I. 106.93-107.77) and 67.4 mm of Hg (95% C.I. 67.26-67.54), respectively. Prevalence of pre-HT and HT was 10.9% and 4.6% in school going adolescents while prevalence of overweight/obesity was 1.5%. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures had positive and significant correlation with age, height and body mass index. The proportion of children who had ever taken tobacco was 5.3%, cigarette smoking 4.3%, alcohol consumption 2.1%, and excess salt intake 22.3%. Only 49.1% children were doing physical activity at least one hour a day in past seven days for maintenance of good health. Conclusion The present study recommends that regular screening of blood pressure level must be initiated in adolescents so that remedial measure can be initiated as early as possible.

  11. Prevalence of cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis requiring surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Limin; Xiu, Peng; Li, Qian; Song, Yueming; Chen, Rigao; Zhou, Chunguang

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of cardiac abnormalities in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in an Asian population has not been reported. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of cardiac abnormalities in these patients. From January 2007 to April 2009, echocardiography and pulmonary function tests were performed in 80 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients who required surgical intervention. A thorough analysis of cardiopulmonary functions and cardiac structures was performed. The risk factors, types of cardiac abnormalities, and associations between severity of scoliosis or pulmonary function and cardiac abnormalities were assessed. Cardiac abnormalities were detected by echocardiogram in 25 patients, including 14 with structural abnormalities and 11 with functional abnormalities. The most common functional abnormality was tricuspid regurgitation (9 of 80; 11.3%), whereas atrial septal defect was the most common structural abnormality (7 of 80). Altered hemodynamics occurred in 5 patients, including 3 with ventricular septal defect and 2 with mitral valve dysplasia. Abnormal electrocardiographic findings presented in only 9 of the 25 patients with cardiac abnormalities. No significant associations were found between severity of scoliosis or pulmonary function and cardiac abnormalities. A high incidence of cardiac abnormality exists in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in this region. Although most patients tolerated surgery, some patients were at risk of decompensation postoperatively. Electrocardiography is of limited value for detecting cardiac problems in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, we recommend echocardiography as a routine modality in the preoperative evaluation of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

  12. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with a population based sample.

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    Mangerud, Wenche Langfjord; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use by diagnostic category in 566 adolescent psychiatric patients, comparing this sample with 8173 adolescents from the general population in Norway who completed the Young-HUNT 3 survey. Frequencies of current alcohol use were high in both samples but were lower among psychiatric patients. Compared with adolescents in the general population, adolescents in the clinical sample had a higher prevalence of current smoking and over four times higher odds of having tried illicit drugs. In the clinical sample, those with mood disorders reported the highest frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use, whereas those with autism spectrum disorders reported the lowest frequencies. Our results show an increased prevalence of risky health behaviors among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with the general population. The awareness of disorder-specific patterns of smoking and substance use may guide preventive measures.

  13. Epidemiological determinants of obesity in adolescent population Maharashtra, India.

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    Sanjeev Chincholikar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For establishing effective intervention, it is important to identify major determinants in an early stage of life. Effective prevention of adult obesity will require prevention and management of childhood obesity. Aims & Objectives: To study the epidemiological determinants of obesity in adolescent girls. Material & Methods: All adolescent school going boys and girls in the age group between 10 to 19 years were included as per definition of adolescent. 585 students were selected by systematic sample i.e. every 3rd student was included in the study sample. A pretested standardized questionnaire which consisted of questions related to sociodemographic data was used to screen the population for obesity. Results: When body mass index was correlated with various socioeconomic variables, it was found that prevalence of obesity was more in   males (overweight- 20.84%;obese-5.43% as compared to females (overweight- 16.92%; obese-3.14%,more  in the upper socioeconomic status (27.27% as compared to lower socioeconomic status(15%,more in  subjects with more frequency of junk food(30.97% as compared to having occasional junk food (20.93,more in  subjects with more frequency of eating sweets ( 25.73% as compared to occasional sweet eaters(13.59%. Conclusion: The dietary habits like more frequency of junk food, more sweet consumption, and socioeconomic status had a major impact on body mass index of children.

  14. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey

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    Daniela de Assumpção

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.

  15. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents living in Mthatha, South Africa

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    Sekokotla, Morongwe Annah; Goswami, Nandu; Sewani-Rusike, Constance Rufaro; Iputo, Jehu Erapu; Nkeh-Chungag, Benedicta Ngwenchi

    2017-01-01

    Objective Metabolic syndrome (MetS), defined as the clustering of three of five risk factors (hypertension, obesity, triglyceridemia, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia), is being increasingly mentioned among children and adolescents despite there being no consensus on how it should be defined in this set of population. Furthermore, very few studies have focused on MetS in children and adolescents in sub-Saharan populations. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the prevalence of the MetS and contributing risk in adolescents living in Mthatha, South Africa. Research design and methods Four hundred and ten adolescents (age range: 13–18 years, both sexes) were recruited into this cross-sectional study. In addition to a lifestyle questionnaire being administered, anthropometric measurements (weight, height and waist circumferences) were carried out for each participant. Fasting venous blood was collected for lipid profile and blood glucose assessments. Blood pressure was also measured. MetS was assessed using appropriate diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents. Results Complete data sets were collected from 371 participants. Females showed an elevation in the risk factors for MetS. Of the 371 participants, 40.2% were overweight/obese (47.5% females; 22.5% males). MetS was diagnosed in 3.1% female participants compared with 6.0% in male participants. Conclusions More risk factors for the MetS are seen among the overweight/obese as compared to lean adolescents. Given the fact that childhood overweight/obesity often continues into adulthood, it is important to address the causes of increased risk for MetS earlier in life to prevent the development of disease in adult life.

  16. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors

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    Rodrigo Bozza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. Objective: To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. Methods: A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. Results: The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6. Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR, 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28 had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Conclusion: Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.

  17. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56, overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37, stress (AOR = 2.56, and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85. The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15, instant noodles (AOR = 1.17, and confections (AOR = 1.17 and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22 and vegetables (AOR = 1.19 were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis.

  18. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56), overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37), stress (AOR = 2.56), and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85). The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15), instant noodles (AOR = 1.17), and confections (AOR = 1.17) and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22) and vegetables (AOR = 1.19) were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis.

  19. Female Overweight and Obesity in Adolescence: Developmental Trends and Ethnic Differences in Prevalence, Incidence, and Remission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using…

  20. Prevalence, etiology, and types of dental trauma in children and adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Pournaghi Azar, Fatemeh; Rezapour, Aziz; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Moosavi, Ahmad; Ghertasi Oskouei, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental traumas are common among children and adolescents in many societies posing health and social problems. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on prevalence, etiology, types, and other epidemiologic aspects of dental trauma in children and adolescents (0-18 years old). Methods: In this systematic meta-analytical review, data were collected searching for key words including traumatic dental injuries, dental trauma, dental injury, dental trauma, tooth injuries, tooth trauma, traumatized teeth, dentoalveolar trauma, oral trauma, epidemiology, etiology, prevalence, incidence, occurrence, child*, and adolescence in the following databases: Scopus, CINAHL, Science Direct, PubMed and Google scholar. Results: From the total of 3197 articles, 44 completely relevant papers were included in the study. The prevalence of dental trauma was variable based on geographical area and was estimated 17.5% in the population, with higher prevalence in boys. Falling was the major cause for dental trauma, and the most frequent location was home. The most frequent type of trauma was enamel fracture. Conclusion: A relatively high prevalence was detected for dental trauma, which calls for effective planning and intervention to prevent the occurrence in children and adolescents. These may include special care for children, eliminating fall-prone areas, installing safety measures at homes, using protective appliances in sports, education, and raising the knowledge and availability of services to address enamel fracture. Region-specific criteria should be taken into account in programs and interventions. PMID:26793672

  1. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marise Fagundes Silveira; Rafael Silveira Freire; Marcela Oliveira Nepomuceno; Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima Martins; Luiz Francisco Marcopito

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761) was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2), and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopte...

  2. Subclinical depression in Urban Indian adolescents: Prevalence, felt needs, and correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Meghna; Manjula, M.; Vijay Sagar, K. John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subclinical depression in adolescents constitutes a risk factor for future clinical depression and hence warrants examination. However, there is a paucity of research that documents subclinical depression among adolescents in India. Objectives: (a) To investigate the prevalence of subclinical depression in urban school-going adolescents; (b) to investigate the problems and felt needs of these adolescents; (c) to examine depression-related variables; and (d) to examine the relation...

  3. Prevalence of valvular regurgitation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Jia-Lin; Li, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Sixty-seven adolescent scoliosis patients with thoracic curve (Lenke type 1, 3, and 6) and 16 nonthoracic curve patients (Lenke type 5) were evaluated with color Doppler echocardiography to identify and compare the prevalence and frequency of valvular regurgitation. Regurgitation of one or more valves was detected in 36 thoracic curve patients (53.73%) and seven nonthoracic curve patients (43.75%). Regurgitation with tricuspid valve involvement was statistically significant in patients with thoracic curve (P=0.0216). Frequency of tricuspid valve involvement was statistically significant (28.57 vs. 83.33%, P=0.0076) in patients with thoracic curve. Those without cardiac disease had a higher incidence of valvular regurgitation.

  4. Malnutrition Prevalence in Lasa Xizang Children and Adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Xiao Jian; JI Cheng Ye

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of malnutrition among children and adolescents in Xizang (Tibet). Methods We analyzed data from the Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health for the years 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 pertaining to Tibetan children and adolescents in Lase (Lhasa), aged 7-18 years old. Numbers of survey subjects for these years were:2 393, 2 754, 2 397, and 2 643, respectively. Results Our results indicated that the rate of occurrence of stunting in Tibet has evidenced a gradual decline:for boys, from 26.8%in 2000 to 9.3%in 2010;and for girls, from 25.8%in 2000 to 10.8%in 2010. In general, the wasting rate for both boys and girls in Tibet has gradually decreased over time:for boys, from 17.7%in 1995 to 4.6%in 2005;and for girls from 12.5%in 1995 to 2.3%in 2005. The stunting rates of boys aged 7-13 years old and of girls aged 7-11 years old were 67.5%and 53.1%, respectively, while these rates for boys aged 14-18 years old and girls aged 12-18 years old were 32.5%and 46.9%, respectively. Conclusion Stunting and wasting rates of Tibetan children and adolescents indicate a gradual declining trend over time. The stunting rates of both boys and girls during early puberty were significantly higher than those during late puberty.

  5. Binge drinking among adolescents: prevalence, risk practices and related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpe, Sandra; Isorna, Manuel; Barreiro, Carmen; Braña, Teresa; Rial, Antonio

    2017-01-12

    According to the last Survey on Drug Use among Secondary School Students (ESTUDES 2014-2015), consumption levels of alcohol and other substances have decreased in the last years in Spain. However, available data on binge drinking remain worrying, given the negative consequences related with this pattern. The aim of this paper is to analyse binge drinking among adolescents, providing updated data on prevalence in addition to information about the consequences and some predictive factors of binge drinking. A correlational method was used for this purpose, comprised of administering a survey to Compulsory Secondary School, High School and Vocational Training students. Based on a sample of 3,419 Galician adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.57; SD = 1.76), the results show that binge drinking is a common and global practice, with few socio-demographic differences but related with a wide range of risk practices. Furthermore, variables such as consumption expectancies, consumption by family and friends, as well as curfew time and allowance money have been identified as interesting predictive factors that should be taken into account at the preventive level.

  6. The Prevalence of Tooth Wear in the Dutch Adult Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetselaar, Peter; Vermaire, Jan H; Visscher, Corine M; Lobbezoo, Frank; Schuller, Annemarie A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of tooth wear in different age groups of the Dutch adult population and to determine this tooth wear distribution by gender, socioeconomic class, and type of teeth. Results were compared with the outcomes of a previous study in a comparable population. As pa

  7. PREVALENCE OF IMPAIRED GLUCOSE REGULATION IN THE POPULATION OF TIANJIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-yue Zhi; Jian-hua Wang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) in the population of Tianjin.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tianjin from June to September in 2005.The multi-phasic stratified cluster sampling method was adopted.Totally,21454 people were selected as survey sample.Information on risk factors was collected through face-to-face questionnaire interview.Fasting capillary whole blood glucose level and other clinical indexes were tested.Results The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in the population was 5.61% (5.32% in male,5.89% in female).The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was 2.91% (2.59% in male,3.20% in female) in whole population,and the prevalence of female was significantly higher than that of male (P=0.04).The prevalences of IFG and IGT increased with the increasing of age.And the prevalences were also influenced by the profession,educational level,and income level.Conclusion The prevalences oflGT and IFG in Tianjin are similar to those in the other big cities of China.

  8. Clusters of Factors Identify A High Prevalence of Pregnancy Involvement Among US Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, May; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2015-08-01

    The study purpose was to use recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) to identify factors that, when clustered, are associated with a high prevalence of pregnancy involvement among US adolescent males. The National Survey of Family Growth is a nationally representative survey of individuals 15-44 years old. RPA was done for the 2002 and 2006-2010 cycles to identify factors which, when combined, identify adolescent males with the highest prevalence of pregnancy involvement. Pregnancy-involvement prevalence among adolescent males was 6 %. Two clusters of adolescent males have the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence, at 84-87 %. In RPA, the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence (87 %) was seen in adolescent males who ever HIV tested, had >4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment of 4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment ≥11th grade, were >17 years old, and had their first contraceptive education ≥10th grade, had a pregnancy-involvement prevalence of 84 %. Pregnancy-prevention efforts among adolescent males who have been involved in a pregnancy may need to target risk factors identified in clusters with the highest pregnancy prevalence to prevent subsequent pregnancies in these adolescent males and improve their future outcomes.

  9. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeaso, Chukwudi Ochi

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malocclusion among predominantly Yoruba adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria, and to compare the results with those of other authors. The sample for this epidemiological survey comprised 636 secondary school students, (334 [52.5%] boys and 302 [47.5%] girls), aged 12-17 years (mean age, 14.72 +/- 1.16 SD). The subjects were randomly selected, and none had received previous orthodontic treatment. Occlusal anteroposterior relationships were assessed based on the Angle classification. Other variables examined were overjet, overbite, crowding, and midline diastema. The results showed that about 24% of the subjects had normal occlusions, 50% had Class I malocclusions, 14% had Class II malocclusions, and 12% had Class III malocclusions. Over 66% had normal overbites, and 14% and 9% had increased and reduced values, respectively. Overjet relationship was normal in 66%, increased in 16%, and decreased in 8%. Crowding was observed in 20% of the subjects and midline diastema in 37%. No statistically significant differences were observed for any occlusal variables (P > .05). Class I malocclusion is the most prevalent occlusal pattern among these Nigerian students. Different patterns of Class II and Class III might be present for the dominant ethnic groups in the country. Therefore, a survey of the occlusal pattern in southeastern Nigerians (Ibo ethnic group) would appear to be worthwhile.

  10. Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders in children and adolescents with mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bildt, A; Sytema, S; Kraijer, D; Minderaa, R

    2005-01-01

    Background: Insight into the prevalence of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) in children and adolescents with mental retardation (MR) is known to be of clinical importance. However, estimating this prevalence is complicated. The literature reports prevalence rates ranging from 3% through 50%. T

  11. Cyberbullying Prevalence among United States Middle and High School Aged Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Fales, Jessica L.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying has established links to physical and mental health problems including depression, suicidality, substance use, and somatic symptoms. Quality reporting of cyberbullying prevalence is essential to guide evidence-based policy and prevention priorities. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate study quality and reported prevalence among cyberbullying research studies conducted in populations of US adolescents of middle and high school age. Methods Searches of peer-reviewed literature published through June 2015 for “cyberbullying” and related terms were conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science. Included manuscripts reported cyberbullying prevalence in general populations of U.S. adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19. Using a review tool based on the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement, reviewers independently scored study quality on study methods, results reporting, and reported prevalence. Results Search results yielded 1,447 manuscripts; 81 manuscripts representing 58 unique studies were identified as meeting inclusion criteria. Quality scores ranged between 12 and 37 total points out of a possible 42 points (M = 26.7, SD = 4.6). Prevalence rates of cyberbullying ranged as follows: perpetration, 1% to 41%; victimization, 3% to 72%; and overlapping perpetration and victimization, 2.3% to 16.7%. Conclusions Literature on cyberbullying in US middle and high school aged students is robust in quantity but inconsistent in quality and reported prevalence. Consistent definitions and evidence-based measurement tools are needed. PMID:26576821

  12. Prevalence of atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and hand and contact dermatitis in adolescents. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, J M; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases are common in children and adolescents. However, epidemiological knowledge is sparse for hand eczema and allergic contact dermatitis in this age group. Furthermore, no population-based studies have evaluated the prevalence of atopic diseases and hand and contact...... or past allergic contact dermatitis was found in 7.2% (girls 11.3% vs. boys 2.5%). Contact allergy was most common to nickel (8.6%) and fragrance mix (1.8%). CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence figures were found for atopic diseases, hand eczema and allergic contact dermatitis, and the diseases were closely...

  13. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents living in Mthatha, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekokotla MA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Morongwe Annah Sekokotla,1 Nandu Goswami,2 Constance Rufaro Sewani-Rusike,1 Jehu Erapu Iputo,3 Benedicta Ngwenchi Nkeh-Chungag4 1Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa; 2Gravitational Physiology and Medicine Research Unit, Institute of Physiology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria; 3Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, 4Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa Objective: Metabolic syndrome (MetS, defined as the clustering of three of five risk factors (hypertension, obesity, triglyceridemia, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, is being increasingly mentioned among children and adolescents despite there being no consensus on how it should be defined in this set of population. Furthermore, very few studies have focused on MetS in children and adolescents in sub-Saharan populations. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the prevalence of the MetS and contributing risk in adolescents living in Mthatha, South Africa.Research design and methods: Four hundred and ten adolescents (age range: 13–18 years, both sexes were recruited into this cross-sectional study. In addition to a lifestyle questionnaire being administered, anthropometric measurements (weight, height and waist circumferences were carried out for each participant. Fasting venous blood was collected for lipid profile and blood glucose assessments. Blood pressure was also measured. MetS was assessed using appropriate diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents.Results: Complete data sets were collected from 371 participants. Females showed an elevation in the risk factors for MetS. Of the 371 participants, 40.2% were overweight/obese (47.5% females; 22.5% males. MetS was diagnosed in 3.1% female participants compared with 6.0% in male participants.Conclusions: More risk

  14. Non-specific neck pain in preadolescent to adolescent populations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Neck pain is a common health problem globally. In addition to individual suffering, it causes a huge burden on societies. Some evidence suggests that neck pain in adolescence predicts frequent neck symptoms also in adulthood. A steady increase in prevalence of frequent and persistent neck pain among Finnish adolescents was observed in the 1990s, which might predict an increasing amount of adults with chronic neck pain in the near future. Thus, better understanding neck pain in children and ad...

  15. Psychosocial Correlates of Insomnia in an Adolescent Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomos, Konstantinos E.; Avagianou, Penelope-Alexia; Floros, Georgios D.; Skenteris, Nikolaos; Mouzas, Odysseas D.; Theodorou, Kyriaki; Angelopoulos, Nikiforos V.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the nature of the relationship between psychosocial factors and insomnia complaints in an adolescent non-clinical population. It is a cross-sectional study of a stratified sample of 2,195 Greek adolescent high-school students. Subjects were given the Athens insomnia scale, the Symptom Checklist scale (SCL-90-R) and a…

  16. Changing patterns of hepatitis A prevalence within the Saudi population over the last 18 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faleh AI Faleh; Suliman AI Shehri; Saleh AI Ansari; Mohammed AI Jeffri; Yaqoub AI Mazrou; Ahmad Shaffi; Ayman A Abdo

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To determine the seroprevalence of Hepatitis A (HAV) amongst Saudi children and compare it with previously reported prevalence data from the same population.METHODS:A total of 1357 students were randomly selected between the ages of 16 and 18 years (689 males and 668 females) from three different regions of Saudi Arabia (Madinah,Al-Qaseem,and Aseer) and tested for anti-HAV-IgG.RESULTS:The overall prevalence of anti-HAV-IgG among the study population was 18.6%.There was no difference between males and females but there was a significant difference in the seroprevalence (P=0.0001) between the three different regions,with Madinah region showing the highest prevalence (27.4%).When classified according to socioeconomic status,lower class students had a prevalence of 36.6%,lower middle class 16.6%,upper middle class 9.6%,and upper class 5.9% (P=0.0001).Comparing the current study results with those of previous studies in 1989 and 1997 involving the same population,there was a marked reduction in the overall prevalence of HAV from 52% in 1989,to 25% in 1997,to 18.6% in 2008 (P<0.0001).CONCLUSION:Over the last 18 years,there has been a marked decline in the prevalence of HAV in Saudi children and adolescents.The current low prevalence rates call for strict adherence to vaccination policies in high-risk patients and raises the question of a universal HAV vaccination program.

  17. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in Iranian children and adolescents: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hovsepian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is considered as an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD. The link between childhood dyslipidemia and occurrence of atherosclerosis and its sequels in adulthood are well-documented. This study aimed to systematically review the prevalence of dyslipidemia among Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: An electronic search was conducted on studies published from January 1990 to January 2014. The main international electronic data sources were PubMed and the NLM Gateway (for MEDLINE, Institute of Scientific Information (ISI, and SCOPUS. For Persian databases, we used domestic databases with systematic search capability including IranMedex, Irandoc, and Scientific Information Database (SID. We included all available population-based studies and national surveys conducted in the pediatric age group (aged <21 years. Results: In this review, 1772 articles were identified (PubMed: 1464; Scopus: 11; ISI: 58; SID: 90; IranMedex: 149; Irandoc: 57. During three refine steps and after removing of duplicates, 182 articles related to the study domain were selected. After quality assessment, 46 studies were selected for text appraisal, of which 26 qualified articles were evaluated at the final step. The prevalence range of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C were 3-48%, 3-50%, 5-20% and 5-88%, respectively. Low HDL-C and hypertriglyceridemia were the most prevalent lipid disorders in this group of population. Conclusion: Dyslipidemia is a common health problem among Iranian children and adolescents. Few data were available in preschool children. This finding provides useful information for health policy makers to implement action-oriented interventions for prevention and early control of this important CVD risk factor.

  18. Prevalence, age at onset, and risk factors of self-reported asthma among Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, L M; Irewall, T; Lindberg, Anne; Stenfors, Nikolai

    2017-03-17

    The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and age at asthma onset between Swedish adolescent elite skiers and a reference group and to assess risk factors associated with asthma. Postal questionnaires were sent to 253 pupils at the Swedish National Elite Sport Schools for cross-country skiing, biathlon, and ski-orienteering ("skiers") and a random sample of 500 adolescents aged 16-20, matched for sport school municipalities ("reference"). The response rate was 96% among the skiers and 48% in the reference group. The proportion of participants with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma was higher among skiers than in the reference group (27 vs. 19%, p = 0.046). Female skiers reported a higher prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma compared to male skiers (34 vs. 20%, p = 0.021). The median age at asthma onset was higher among skiers (12.0 vs. 8.0 years; p < 0.001). Female sex, family history of asthma, nasal allergy, and being a skier were risk factors associated with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers have a higher asthma prevalence and later age at asthma onset compared to a reference population. Being an adolescent elite skier is an independent risk factor associated with asthma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescent Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    As with school age children, it is difficult to make conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments for adolescents because of the differences in instruments, research designs, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  20. Population-based incidence and prevalence of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnts, Hisse; van der Maarel, Silvère M.; Padberg, George W.; Verschuuren, Jan J.G.M.; Bakker, Egbert; Weinreich, Stephanie S.; Verbeek, André L.M.; van Engelen, Baziel G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence and prevalence of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) in the Netherlands. Methods: Using 3-source capture-recapture methodology, we estimated the total yearly number of newly found symptomatic individuals with FSHD, including those not registered in any of the 3 sources. To this end, symptomatic individuals with FSHD were available from 3 large population-based registries in the Netherlands if diagnosed within a 10-year period (January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2010). Multiplication of the incidence and disease duration delivered the prevalence estimate. Results: On average, 52 people are newly diagnosed with FSHD every year. This results in an incidence rate of 0.3/100,000 person-years in the Netherlands. The prevalence rate was 12/100,000, equivalent to 2,000 affected individuals. Conclusions: We present population-based incidence and prevalence estimates regarding symptomatic individuals with FSHD, including an estimation of the number of symptomatic individuals not present in any of the 3 used registries. This study shows that the total number of symptomatic persons with FSHD in the population may well be underestimated and a considerable number of affected individuals remain undiagnosed. This suggests that FSHD is one of the most prevalent neuromuscular disorders. PMID:25122204

  1. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in adolescents and its association with the use of electronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Saueressig,Ingrid Becker; Oliveira,Valéria Mayaly Alves de; Xavier,Michelle Katherine Andrade; Santos,Luan Ricardo Alves dos; Silva,Kelvin Mikael Araújo; Araújo,Rodrigo Cappato de

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The use of electronic devices has reconfigured the daily life of adolescents; however, their excessive use may be associated to health problems. This study aimed at observing the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among adolescents and its association with the use of computers and videogames. METHODS: Sample was made up of 265 adolescents of both genders (14 to 19 years old), students of a public school, who have answered a questionnaire about the use of el...

  2. Prevalence of Malocclusion in 13-15 Year-old Adolescents in Tabriz

    OpenAIRE

    Ahangar Atashi, Mohammad Hossein

    2007-01-01

    Background and aims Malocclusion with its great hazardous effects seems to have become more prevalent in recent decades; therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence of different malocclusions among 13-15 year-old adolescents in Tabriz. Materials and methods The subjects in the present study consisted of 398 adolescents aged 13-15, who were randomly selected from 5 different districts of the city. Students who had previous orthodontic treatment or extraction of any pe...

  3. Association between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche in different geographic latitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Mihas Constantinos; Mouzakis Vasilios; Vasiliadis Elias; Grivas Theodoros B; Koufopoulos Georgios

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Age at menarche is considered a reliable prognostic factor for idiopathic scoliosis and varies in different geographic latitudes. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence has also been reported to be different in various latitudes and demonstrates higher values in northern countries. A study on epidemiological reports from the literature was conducted to investigate a possible association between prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche among nor...

  4. Prevalence and Determinants of Suicide Ideation among Lebanese Adolescents: Results of the GSHS Lebanon 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoud, Ziyad R.; Afifi, Rema A.; Haddad, Pascale H.; DeJong, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined prevalence and risk factors for suicide ideation in 5038 Lebanese adolescents using Global School Health Survey data. Around 16% of Lebanese adolescents thought of suicide. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that risk factors for suicide ideation included poor mental health (felt lonely, felt worried, felt…

  5. Ethnicity and Adolescent Depression: Prevalence, Access to Services, and Promising Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Amanda E.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is more common among adolescents of ethnic minority backgrounds, who also are less likely to receive professional help. This article presents information about prevalence of depression and service use across ethnic groups, and then outlines several promising intervention programs that are designed for adolescents suffering from…

  6. Prevalence of Internet Addiction and Correlations with Family Factors among South Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths…

  7. A systematic review on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Iranian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS, a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, is one of the most common metabolic disorders, which lead to many chronic diseases. The link between childhood MetS and occurrence of atherosclerosis and its sequels in adulthood is well documented. This study aims to systematically review the prevalence of MetS among Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: An electronic search was conducted on studies published from January 1990 to January 2015. The main international electronic data sources were PubMed and the NLM Gateway (for MEDLINE, Institute of Scientific Information (ISI, and SCOPUS. For Persian databases, we used domestic databases. We included all available population-based studies and national surveys conducted in the pediatric age group aged 3–21-year-old. Results: In this review, 2138 articles were identified (PubMed: 265; SCOPUS: 368; ISI: 465; Scientific Information Database: 189; IranMedex: 851; Irandoc: 46. After quality assessment, 13 qualified articles were evaluated. The number of total population and points of data were 24,772 and 125, respectively. Regarding the geographical distribution, we found 2 national, 6 provincial, and 5 district level points of data. The prevalence range of MetS among children was 1–22% using different definitions. Reported range of pediatric MetS defined by different criteria was as follows: National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III; 3–16%, International Diabetes Federation; 0–8%, American Heart Association; 4–9.5%, The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III; 1–18%, de Ferranti; 0–22%. Conclusion: MetS is a common metabolic disorder among Iranian children and adolescents, with increasing trends during the last decades. This finding provides baseline useful information for health policy makers to implement evidence based-health promotion for appropriate controlling of this growing health problem for the

  8. Polycystic ovarian syndrome: Prevalence and its correlates among adolescent girls

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    Nagaraja Bhuvanashree

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is the most frequent endocrinological disorder affecting young women of reproductive age having wide spread morbidity. Though, several factors have been identified attributing to its cause, yet it demands further investigations. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 253 adolescent females (age: 10-19 years to elicit the associations between PCOS and the cesarean mode of delivery, eruption of wisdom tooth and other factors through a binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean age was 18.57 ΁ 0.19 (standard error of mean years. The prevalence of PCOS in Nellore district is 15.4% (95% confidence interval: 10.97-19.83. Higher risk of PCOS was associated with the cesarean mode of delivery (odds ratio [OR] = 4.91, P < 0.0001, eruption of at least 1 wisdom tooth (OR = 2.61, P = 0.025 and the presence of central obesity (OR = 2.57, P = 0.05. Discussion: An attempt has been taken to hypothesize causal association of associated factors with PCOS from the available literature, which in turn may pave the path for newer approaches for prevention and management.

  9. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Marise Fagundes Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761 was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2, and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopted. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the intraoral examinations and interviews in households. The dependent variable (severity of malocclusion was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI. The independent variables were grouped into five blocks: demographic characteristics, socioeconomic condition, use of dental services, health-related behavior and oral health subjective conditions. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion. RESULTS We interviewed and examined 736 adolescents (91.5% response rate, 69.9% of whom showed no abnormalities or slight malocclusion. Defined malocclusion was observed in 17.8% of the adolescents, being severe or very severe in 12.6%, with pressing or essential need of orthodontic treatment. The probabilities of greater severity of malocclusion were higher among adolescents who self-reported as black, indigenous, pardo or yellow, with lower per capita income, having harmful oral habits, negative perception of their appearance and perception of social relationship affected by oral health. CONCLUSIONS Severe or very severe malocclusion was more prevalent among socially disadvantaged adolescents, with reported harmful habits and perception of compromised esthetics and social relationships. Given that malocclusion can interfere with the self-esteem of adolescents, it is essential to improve public policy for the inclusion of orthodontic treatment among

  10. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Nepomuceno, Marcela Oliveira; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761) was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2), and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopted. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the intraoral examinations and interviews in households. The dependent variable (severity of malocclusion) was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). The independent variables were grouped into five blocks: demographic characteristics, socioeconomic condition, use of dental services, health-related behavior and oral health subjective conditions. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion. RESULTS We interviewed and examined 736 adolescents (91.5% response rate), 69.9% of whom showed no abnormalities or slight malocclusion. Defined malocclusion was observed in 17.8% of the adolescents, being severe or very severe in 12.6%, with pressing or essential need of orthodontic treatment. The probabilities of greater severity of malocclusion were higher among adolescents who self-reported as black, indigenous, pardo or yellow, with lower per capita income, having harmful oral habits, negative perception of their appearance and perception of social relationship affected by oral health. CONCLUSIONS Severe or very severe malocclusion was more prevalent among socially disadvantaged adolescents, with reported harmful habits and perception of compromised esthetics and social relationships. Given that malocclusion can interfere with the self-esteem of adolescents, it is essential to improve public policy for the inclusion of orthodontic treatment among health care

  11. Malocclusion prevalence and orthodontic treatment need in central Anatolian adolescents compared to European and other nations' adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fundagul Bilgic; Ibrahim Erhan Gelgor; Ahmet Arif Celebi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in a large sample of Central Anatolian adolescents and compare them with European-other nations' adolescents. Methods: The sample included 1125 boys and 1204 girls aged between 12 and 16 years with no previous orthodontic treatment history. Occlusal variables examined were molar relationship, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, posterior crossbite, and scissors bite. The dental health ...

  12. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in children and adolescents: prevalence, risk factors and diagnostics of TMD in children and adolescents.

    OpenAIRE

    Sørli, Ida Kathrine Birkelund; Torsdatter, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of our study is to systematically review the literature concerning prevalence, risk factors and diagnostics of TMD in children and adolescents in order to find methods for early detection. Through our study we hope to direct dentists to an evidence-based approach concerning children and adolescents by making a screening guideline. Material and methods: Systematic search of the dental literature was performed via Pubmed and using Google search engine. Unsystematic search w...

  13. A Systematic Review on the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity, in Iranian Children and Adolescents

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    Shirin Djalalinia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Obesity has now become a common health problem worldwide. To gain insight into the epidemiology of the problem in Iran, we systematically reviewed all available studies on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Iranian pediatric population. Evidence Acquisition We systematically searched PubMed, ISI, SCOPUS, as well as Iranmedex, Irandoc, and Scientific Information Database (SID databases.All studies on mean and standard deviation or percentile categories of BMI, WC, WHR, or WHtR or prevalence of obesity/overweight in Iranian child and adolescence, were performed from January 1990 to the end of December 2013. Refining processes were conducted by two independent reviewers. Quality assessment and data extraction followed based on validated form. As, these data were heterogeneous, meta-analysis was not performed. Results From 3253 records, through three refining steps, 129 articles were found related to our study. In Iran, national studies are limited and nearly there is no comprehensive study for sub-national trends. Different age and sex groups had large variations in the prevalence of obesity and overweight (from 1% up to 16.1% and from 4.4% up to 42.3% respectively for obesity and overweight. Conclusions Related data are very scattered or limited to some specific subgroups in some living areas. For comparing, aggregating, and imputing the information we need more modern practical statistical methods.

  14. Prevalence of overweight and malnutrition among ethnic minority children and adolescents in China, 1991-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sifan; Zhao, Chunhua; Ma, Qinghua; Sun, Hong-Peng; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-11-24

    This study aimed to determine the trends in prevalence of childhood overweight and malnutrition in a large Chinese ethnic minority population from 1991 to 2010. In the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health from 1991 to 2010, multistage stratified sampling was conducted in the series of cross-sectional studies. Participants were 7-18-year-old students randomly selected by sex and region, and included Han and 26 ethnic minorities. During the survey period, the overall prevalence of overweight increased from 5.8% to 13.5%, and malnutrition trend increased from 3.6% to 4.1% in ethnic minority children and adolescents. Moreover, Korean and Mongol children were more likely than Han children to be obese (Korean: RR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.48-1.56; Mongol: RR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.20-1.28). Among these minorities, the Dongxiang and Li children were more likely to be malnourished (Li: RR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.37-1.57; Dongxiang: RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.34-1.58). Shui, Khalkhas, Lisu, and Monguor children were less likely to be overweight and malnourished compared with the Hans. The prevalence of overweight among ethnicities increased yearly while that for malnutrition has fluctuated over the past few decades.

  15. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study

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    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in seven Arab countries using similar reference standard. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in seven cities in Arab countries, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and United Arab Emirates. A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used. The total sample included was 4698 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years (2240 males, 2458 females. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF reference standard was used to classify the adolescents as nonobese, overweight, and obese. Results. Among males, overweight was highest among Kuwaiti adolescents (25.6%, followed by Jordanian (21.6%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. Among females, the highest prevalence of overweight was reported in Libyan adolescents (26.6%, followed by Kuwaiti (20.8%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. As for obesity, Kuwaiti adolescents showed the highest prevalence of obesity for both males (34.8% and females (20.6%. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to establish a plan of action to combat obesity in schoolchildren in these countries.

  16. Prática de atividade física na adolescência e prevalência de osteoporose na idade adulta Physical activity practice in adolescence and prevalence of osteoporosis in adulthood

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    Fernando Vinholes Siqueira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a associação entre prática de atividade física na adolescência e osteoporose na vida adulta. Realizou-se um estudo de base populacional incluindo uma amostra aleatória de 1.016 indivíduos de 50 anos ou mais. Atividade física no lazer foi avaliada utilizando o Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física - IPAQ. Os indivíduos foram definidos como ativos se estiveram engajados em atividade física durante a sua adolescência (10-19 anos pelo menos por seis meses consecutivos. Os indivíduos ativos na adolescência demonstraram probabilidade 67% menor do que os inativos de apresentar osteoporose na vida adulta (p The aim of the present study was to assess the association between physical activity practice in adolescence and the prevalence of osteoporosis in adulthood. A population-based study with a randomly-selected sample of 1.016 individuals, aged 50 years or older was carried out. Leisure physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Individuals were defined as active in adolescence (10-19 years if had been engaged in physical activity for at least six consecutive months. Individuals classified as active in adolescence were 67% less likely to present osteoporosis in adulthood than inactive ones (p/ adolescence reduces the risk of osteoporosis in later life regardless of activity levels in adulthood. Thus, adolescence is a crucial period of life for improvement in bone health.

  17. The History and Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Special Reference to Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigh, Philip A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the history and prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) with special reference to children and adolescents. Presents historical examples and an account of the way PTSD has been represented in various models of classification. Discusses the prevalence of PTSD among youth exposed to war-related stressors, criminal and/or…

  18. [Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated factors in adolescents 10 to 12 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal, Pedro Curi; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Gonçalves, Helen; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2006-06-01

    Physical activity in adolescence is associated with several health benefits, including a direct influence on adolescent morbidity and an indirect effect on adult health mediated by physical activity levels in adulthood. This study assessed the prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated variables in 4,452 adolescents aged 10-12 years, belonging to the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, representing 87.5% of the original cohort. Sedentary lifestyle, defined as sedentary lifestyle was positively associated with female gender, socioeconomic status, maternal physical inactivity, and television viewing, but inversely correlated with time spent playing videogames. Adolescents with low socioeconomic status were more likely to walk or bicycle to and from school. Effective strategies against sedentary lifestyle in adolescence are needed because of its high prevalence and association with physical inactivity in adulthood.

  19. The prevalence of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury (NSSI in a representative sample of the German population

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    Paul L. Plener

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is a proposed new “condition for further study” in the DSM-5. To date no prevalence data has been available on this diagnostic entity from a representative sample of the general population. Methods A representative sample of the German population (N = 2509, mean age = 48.8 years, SD = 18.1, female 55.4 % completed the NSSI section of the German version of the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview (SITBI-G. Results A history of NSSI at least once during lifetime was reported by 3.1 % of all participants, with higher lifetime prevalence rates in younger age groups. DSM-5 NSSI disorder criteria were met by 0.3 %. The most common function of NSSI was automatic negative reinforcement (e.g. to alleviate negative feelings. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting rates for the proposed NSSI category in DSM-5 from a representative sample of the general population. In comparison to findings from community samples of adolescents, adults seem to have lower lifetime prevalence rates of NSSI, thus making it necessary to emphasize prevention and treatment efforts in younger age groups.

  20. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections in At-Risk Adolescent Females at a Comprehensive, Stand-Alone Adolescent Health Center in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorsky, Risa L.; Hollman, Dominic; Steever, John; Soghomonian, Christine; Diaz, Angela; Strickler, Howard; Schlecht, Nicolas; Burk, Robert D.; Ochner, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common among adolescents, and multiple STIs over one’s lifetime can increase health risks. Few studies have assessed lifetime STI prevalence. This study evaluates minority, underserved adolescents’ self-reported lifetime STI history and objective STI rates. Methods Lifetime STI rates of female patients at an urban adolescent health center were obtained from self-administered questionnaires. Additionally, STI test results were retrieved from electronic medical records. Results Patients reported a high lifetime prevalence of STIs. By comparing self-report and objective data, underreporting was identified for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and herpes. Conclusions STI rates in at-risk adolescent females are higher than in the general population and remain elevated over time. Lifetime STI reports could expand our understanding of sexual health and should be further studied. Underreporting, which may increase health risks and hinder health care delivery, requires further investigation. Improvements in STI screening and prevention targeting at-risk populations are warranted. PMID:24807980

  1. Allergy from infancy to adolescence. A population-based 18-year follow-up cohort

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    Aromaa Minna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxious parents have many concerns about the future health of their atopic infants. Paediatricians and primary care practitioners need to seek knowledge on long-term outcomes in order to cope with the increasing caseload of suspected allergy and the concerns of parents. The aim of the study was to assess suspected and diagnosed allergy in infancy as predictors of allergy and asthma in adolescence. Methods Families expecting their first baby and making their first visit to a maternity health care clinic in 1986 were selected as the study population in a random sample. There were 1278 eligible study families. The data were provided of the children at the ages of 9 and 18 months and 3, 5, 12, 15 and 18 years by health care professionals, parents, and adolescents (themselves. Results At the age of 9 months, the prevalence of allergy suspicions was distinctly higher than that of allergy diagnoses. At the age of five years suspected allergy approaches were nil, and the prevalence of diagnosed allergy was about 9%. During the adolescence, the prevalence of self-reported allergy increases steadily up to the age of 18 years, and that of asthma remains at approximately 5%. Suspected allergy at the age of 9 or 18 months and at the 5 years of age does not predict allergy at adolescence. Compared with non-allergic children, children with definite allergy at the age of 5 were over 8 times more likely to have allergy and nearly 7 times more likely to have asthma in adolescence. Conclusion An early ascertained diagnosis of allergy, but not suspicions of allergy, predicts prevailing allergy in adolescence. Efforts need to be focused on accurate diagnosis of early childhood allergies.

  2. Association between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche in different geographic latitudes

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    Mihas Constantinos

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age at menarche is considered a reliable prognostic factor for idiopathic scoliosis and varies in different geographic latitudes. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence has also been reported to be different in various latitudes and demonstrates higher values in northern countries. A study on epidemiological reports from the literature was conducted to investigate a possible association between prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche among normal girls in various geographic latitudes. An attempt is also made to implicate a possible role of melatonin in the above association. Material-methods 20 peer-reviewed published papers reporting adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and 33 peer-reviewed papers reporting age at menarche in normal girls from most geographic areas of the northern hemisphere were retrieved from the literature. The geographic latitude of each centre where a particular study was originated was documented. The statistical analysis included regression of the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche by latitude. Results The regression of prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche by latitude is statistically significant (p Conclusion Late age at menarche is parallel with higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Pubarche appears later in girls that live in northern latitudes and thus prolongs the period of spine vulnerability while other pre-existing or aetiological factors are contributing to the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A possible role of geography in the pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis is discussed, as it appears that latitude which differentiates the sunlight influences melatonin secretion and modifies age at menarche, which is associated to the prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of active traveling to school among adolescents in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucaides, Constantinos A; Jago, Russell; Theophanous, Maria

    2010-09-01

    More data regarding prevalence and correlates of active travel to school are needed from different parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence and correlates of active travel to school among adolescents in Cyprus. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1966 adolescents attending grade 6, grades 7-9, grades 10-12 and technical/vocational schools in Cyprus. Overall prevalence of active travel to school was 19.4%. Parental perceptions of safe route to school, other children walking to school from the child's neighborhood and school location (urban versus rural) were associated with active travel across different levels of education. Having enough time to walk to school in the moming was the most consistent correlate of active travel. Low prevalence estimates of active traveling to school among adolescents in Cyprus raise the need to promote this source of daily physical activity.

  4. Sleep patterns and insomnia among adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Pallesen, Ståle; Stormark, Kjell M; Lundervold, Astri J; Sivertsen, Børge

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine sleep patterns and rates of insomnia in a population-based study of adolescents aged 16-19 years. Gender differences in sleep patterns and insomnia, as well as a comparison of insomnia rates according to DSM-IV, DSM-V and quantitative criteria for insomnia (Behav. Res. Ther., 41, 2003, 427), were explored. We used a large population-based study in Hordaland county in Norway, conducted in 2012. The sample included 10,220 adolescents aged 16-18 years (54% girls). Self-reported sleep measurements included bedtime, rise time, time in bed, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, rate and frequency and duration of difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep and rate and frequency of tiredness and sleepiness. The adolescents reported short sleep duration on weekdays (mean 6:25 hours), resulting in a sleep deficiency of about 2 h. A majority of the adolescents (65%) reported sleep onset latency exceeding 30 min. Girls reported longer sleep onset latency and a higher rate of insomnia than boys, while boys reported later bedtimes and a larger weekday-weekend discrepancy on several sleep parameters. Insomnia prevalence rates ranged from a total prevalence of 23.8 (DSM-IV criteria), 18.5 (DSM-V criteria) and 13.6% (quantitative criteria for insomnia). We conclude that short sleep duration, long sleep onset latency and insomnia were prevalent in adolescents. This warrants attention as a public health concern in this age group.

  5. Fibromyalgia in the adult Danish population: I. A prevalence study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Kjøller, M; Jacobsen, S;

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of fibromyalgia have so far been based on rheumatologic and general practice settings, which are poor proxies for the underlying population. The study is based on a national health interview survey carried out by the Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology in 1990......%). Eight subjects, all female, met the 1990 American College of Rheumatism criteria for fibromyalgia. Dropouts were regarded as not having fibromyalgia. The prevalence of fibromyalgia in the Danish population between 18 and 79 years of age was found to be a minimum estimate of 0.66% (95% confidence limits...

  6. Psychopathology in adolescents and young adults : prediction, course and prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Ferdinand (Robert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis manuscript contains results of an epidemiological study of psychopathology in adolescents and young adults. The first aim of the study was to determine the development of psychopathology from adolescence into young adulthood. The second aim was to validate recently developed' proced

  7. Prevalence of Childhood and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity from 2003 to 2010 in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System

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    Scott Gee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An observational study of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC BMI coding distributions was conducted to ascertain the trends in overweight and obesity prevalence among KPNC members aged 2–19 between the periods of 2003–2005 and 2009-2010. A decrease in the prevalence of overweight (−11.1% change and obesity (−3.6% change and an increase in the prevalence of healthy weight (+2.7% change were demonstrated. Children aged 2–5 had the greatest improvement in obesity prevalence (−11.5% change. Adolescents aged 12–19 were the only age group to not show a decrease in obesity prevalence. Of the racial and ethnic groups, Hispanics/Latinos had the highest prevalence of obesity across all age groups. The KPNC prevalence of overweight and obesity compares favorably to external benchmarks, although differences in methodologies limit our ability to draw conclusions. Physician counseling as well as weight management programs and sociodemographic factors may have contributed to the overall improvements in BMI in the KPNC population. Physician training, practice tools, automated BMI reminders and performance feedback improved the frequency and quality of physician counseling. BMI screening and counseling at urgent visits, in addition to well-child care visits, increased the reach and dose of physician counseling.

  8. Prevalência e fatores associados ao sobrepeso e à obesidade em adolescentes Prevalence and factors associated to overweight and obesity in adolescents

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    Nicole Gomes Terres

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e os fatores associados ao sobrepeso e à obesidade em adolescentes de zona urbana. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional, realizado no município de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, de 2001 a 2002. Adolescentes entre 15 e 18 anos de idade foram medidos, pesados e responderam a questionário auto-aplicável. De 90 setores sorteados, foram visitados 86 domicílios em cada setor, totalizando 960 adolescentes. A prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade foi definida a partir do índice de massa corporal, mediante a utilização dos pontos de corte, ajustados à idade e ao sexo. Realizou-se análise multivariada com regressão de Poisson, considerando um modelo hierárquico das variáveis associadas ao sobrepeso e à obesidade. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sobrepeso e de obesidade foi 20,9% e 5%, respectivamente. A relação entre a obesidade e idade e escolaridade do adolescente foi inversa. Verificou-se associação de sobrepeso e obesidade com o relato de obesidade dos pais (p=0,03 e maturação sexual do adolescente (p=0,01. Os hábitos de fazer dieta e omitir refeições foram associados à obesidade, com riscos de 3,98 (IC 95%: 1,83-8,67 e 2,54 (IC 95%: 1,22-5,29, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade na região são preocupantes a despeito do comportamento dos adolescentes para prevenir a obesidade. É necessária a implantação de campanhas mais eficazes, direcionadas a orientar melhor os adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and factors associated to overweight and obesity in urban area adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in the municipality of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, between 2001 and 2002. Adolescents between 15 and 18 years old were weighed, measured and asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. Of 90 areas drawn, 86 dwellings were visited in each area, comprising a total of 960 adolescents

  9. Prevalence of hypertension in overweight and obese children from a large school-based population in Shanghai, China

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    Lu Xi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ongoing rise in the prevalence of hypertension in children and adolescents is considered to be accompanied with the epidemic of childhood overweight and obesity. In this study, we established a large scale cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China, which presented a new evidence for the correlation of hypertension prevalence with overweight and obesity stages in Chinese children and adolescents. Methods A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during February to December 2009 in Shanghai, China, including total 78,114 children and adolescents. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC and blood pressure (BP were measured. Overweight and obesity were defined according to sex- and age- specific Chinese reference data. Results Both SBP and DBP were very significantly increased in overweight (OW and obese (OB groups. With age and sex controlled, BMI and WC were independently positively correlated with SBP and DBP. The prevalence of high SBP, DBP and hypertension were markedly higher among OW and OB children than normal weight (NW group. Odds ratios (ORs for high SBP, high DBP and high BP were significantly greater in OW and OB children than NW group, and showed a trend increase correlating with obesity stages (all P Conclusions In this study on a large school-based population in Shanghai, China, BMI and WC are positively correlated with SBP and DBP. Being overweight or obese greatly increased the risk of hypertension in Chinese children and adolescents, in which WC is considered as a more sensitive indicator than BMI.

  10. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in a low socioeconomic status population

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    Pereira Carlos AB

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fibromyalgia, as well as to assess the major symptoms of this syndrome in an adult, low socioeconomic status population assisted by the primary health care system in a city in Brazil. Methods We cross-sectionally sampled individuals assisted by the public primary health care system (n = 768, 35–60 years old. Participants were interviewed by phone and screened about pain. They were then invited to be clinically assessed (304 accepted. Pain was estimated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Fibromyalgia was assessed using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, as well as screening for tender points using dolorimetry. Statistical analyses included Bayesian Statistics and the Kruskal-Wallis Anova test (significance level = 5%. Results From the phone-interview screening, we divided participants (n = 768 in three groups: No Pain (NP (n = 185; Regional Pain (RP (n = 388 and Widespread Pain (WP (n = 106. Among those participating in the clinical assessments, (304 subjects, the prevalence of fibromyalgia was 4.4% (95% confidence interval [2.6%; 6.3%]. Symptoms of pain (VAS and FIQ, feeling well, job ability, fatigue, morning tiredness, stiffness, anxiety and depression were statically different among the groups. In multivariate analyses we found that individuals with FM and WP had significantly higher impairment than those with RP and NP. FM and WP were similarly disabling. Similarly, RP was no significantly different than NP. Conclusion Fibromyalgia is prevalent in the low socioeconomic status population assisted by the public primary health care system. Prevalence was similar to other studies (4.4% in a more diverse socioeconomic population. Individuals with FM and WP have significant impact in their well being.

  11. Prevalência de asma em adolescentes na cidade de Fortaleza, CE Prevalence of asthma among adolescents in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil

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    Maria de Fátima Gomes de Luna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de asma em adolescentes (13-14 anos na cidade de Fortaleza, CE. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal utilizando o questionário do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood e envolvendo 3.015 adolescentes de escolas públicas e privadas entre 2006 e 2007. RESULTADOS: As prevalências de "sibilos alguma vez na vida", "sibilos nos últimos doze meses" (asma ativa e "asma alguma vez na vida" (asma diagnosticada foram, respectivamente, 44,1%, 22,6% e 11,6%. As prevalências de "sibilos alguma vez na vida" (p = 0,001, "1-3 crises de sibilos nos últimos 12 meses" (p = 0,001; asma ativa (p = 0,002; "sono interrompido por sibilos menos que uma vez por semana" (p OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of asthma among adolescents (13-14 years of age in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 3,015 adolescents at public and private schools between 2006 and 2007. The participants completed the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalences of "wheezing ever", "wheezing within the last 12 months" (active asthma and "asthma ever" (physician-diagnosed asthma were 44.1%, 22.6% and 11.6%, respectively. The prevalences of "wheezing ever" (p = 0.001, "1-3 wheezing attacks within the last 12 months" (p = 0.001, active asthma (p = 0.002, "sleep disturbed due to wheezing less than one night per week" (p < 0.001 and "dry cough at night" (p < 0.001 were higher among girls. Private school students presented higher prevalences of "wheezing ever", active asthma, "1-3 wheezing attacks within the last 12 months", "4-12 wheezing attacks within the last 12 months" and physician-diagnosed asthma (p < 0.001 for all, as well as of "exercise-induced wheezing" (p = 0.032. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of asthma and asthma-related symptoms in students aged 13-14 years in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil, was high, predominantly among girls and private

  12. Clinical and Histopathological Profiles of Pediatric and Adolescent Oral and Maxillofacial Biopsies in a Persian Population

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    Shirin Saravani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The frequency of pediatric and adolescent oral and maxillofacial lesions is various in different societies. The present study aimed at investigating the frequency of oral and maxillofacial pediatric and adolescent biopsies in Zahedan (southeast Iran, and compare the results with other epidemiologic studies.Methods and Materials This retrospective study reviewed oral and maxillofacial lesions in patients with 0-18 years old referring to the treatment centers of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences during 12-years period. Patients’ demographic information including age, gender and location of the lesion were collected and statistically analyzed.ResultsIn general, among 1112 oral and maxillofacial lesions, 154 (13.9% cases were related to children and adolescents younger than 18 years old. The average age of patients was 11.4 ± 4.9, 53.2% and 46.8% of them were boys and girls, respectively. The most frequent sites of lesions were the gingiva and lip. The most prevalent lesions included inflammatory/reactive, cystic and neoplastic lesions, respectively. Benign and malignant tumors comprised 12.3% and 4.5% of cases. Moreover, pyogenic granuloma and peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG were the most frequent lesions.ConclusionThe most prevalent oral and maxillofacial lesions in patients under 18 years old were inflammatory/reactive lesions in gingiva and in the 13-18 age range. Determining the characteristics of these lesions in the children and adolescents population provides a firm groundwork for proper diagnosis and treatment.

  13. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children and Adolescents in Dalmatia: A Hospital Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, Lukrecija; Unić, Ivana; Škrabić, Veselin

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) are one of the biggest public health issues in child and adolescent population. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this hospital based study is the first report on the prevalence of MS in obese children and adolescents in Dalmatia, the Mediterranean part of Croatia. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of individual cardiovascular risk factors and MS. Between January 2009 and June 2014, 201 obese subjects aged 6 to 18 were analyzed retrospectively from our Pediatric Endocrine Unit database. The subjects were then classified in two groups of obesity; subjects with BMI z score 2.0–3.0 were classified as moderately obese and subjects with BMI z score > 3.0 were classified as severely obese. The overall prevalence of MS using the modified IDF criteria was 30.3%. The most common component of MS in both groups was arterial hypertension, while impaired fasting glucose was the least common component of MS. Our finding of high prevalence of MS underlines the importance of early childhood obesity treatment.

  14. Pre-invasive cervical disease and uterine cervical cancer in Brazilian adolescents: prevalence and related factors

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Denise Leite Maia; Trajano, Alexandre José Baptista; Silva,Kátia Silveira da; Russomano, Fábio Bastos

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to describe the prevalence and factors associated with uterine cervical cancer (CA) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 702 sexually active adolescents treated at a general hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1993 to 2002. Screening was performed by cytopathology and colposcopy and confirmation by biopsy. Exposure variables were socio-demographic characteristics and those related to reproduc...

  15. Prevalence of exercise and non-exercise physical activity in Chinese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    McManus Alison M; Lo Wing-Sze; Ho Sai-Yin; Mak Kwok-Kei; Lam Tai-Hing

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) is an important part of energy expenditure. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of exercise and NEPA among adolescents. In the HKSOS project 2006-2007, the proportions of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 32,005) achieving 60-minute exercise and 60-minute NEPA per day were analyzed. Exercise was defined as structured and planned physical activities, and NEPA was defined as unstructured and unplanned physical activities including walki...

  16. Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students

    OpenAIRE

    Alaine Souza Lima; Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo; Gomes, Mayra Ruana de A.; Ludmila Remígio de Almeida; Souza, Gabriely Feitosa F. de; Samara Barreto Cunha; Pitangui, Ana Carolina R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL) in female adolescent students. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified acc...

  17. Prevalence of domestic violence in an inpatient female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, K C; Burns, R B; McCarthy, E P; Freund, K M

    1998-04-01

    Studies have evaluated the prevalence of domestic violence in populations of patients in emergency and primary care settings, but there are little data on patients admitted to hospitals. We undertook a study to evaluate the prevalence of domestic violence among female inpatients. Of 131 consecutive female patients between the ages of 18 and 60 admitted to a nontrauma urban teaching hospital asked to complete a self-administered survey about domestic violence, 101 completed the questionnaire. Twenty-six percent of the respondents reported being in an abusive relationship at one time. Two patients felt that domestic violence contributed to their current reason for admission. No respondents were asked about domestic violence by health care providers. Domestic violence is an uncommon but important precipitant to nontrauma hospital admissions. Physicians should query all female inpatients about domestic assault.

  18. Antipathetic relationships among adolescents : Exploring prevalence, gender differences, and stability in the United States and Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Christian; Rodkin, Philip C.; Dijkstra, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The present study approaches antipathetic relationships among adolescents in two distinct cultural contexts: Chile and United States. Antipathetic relationships have been shown to be common among adolescents; however, little is known about patterns of antipathy in this population, and its developmen

  19. Prevalence and correlates of physical activity among adolescents from Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dumith, Samuel C; Domingues, Marlos R; Gigante, Denise P.; Hallal, Pedro C; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Kohl, Harold W.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of physical activity among adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study nested within a cohort of 4,325 subjects from the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, aged 14-15 years in 2008. Physical activity was analyzed using three different approaches: (1) prevalence of any leisure-time physical activity; (2) prevalence of any active commuting to school; and (3) prevalence of engaging in at least 300 minutes per week of both (1) and (2) c...

  20. The prevalence of audiometric notches in adolescents in Germany: The Ohrkan-study

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    Dorothee Twardella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is concern about increasing hearing loss in adolescents caused by leisure noise exposure, prevalence data are scarce. In an US study, about 16-17% of adolescents were affected by audiometric notches. To estimate the prevalence of audiometric notches in adolescents in Germany, baseline data of the cohort study Ohrkan, recruitment during the school years 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 were analyzed. All students in grade 9 visiting any school in the city of Regensburg were eligible for participation. Data was collected via standardized questionnaires from students and their parents. In addition, students were asked to visit the University Clinics of Regensburg for ear examination including a tympanogram and the determination of hearing thresholds in air conduction audiometry. The prevalence of audiometric notches was determined in students with normal tympanogram in both ears and complete audiometry data. Audiometric notches were defined according to criteria used to analyse US data. Overall, 2149 students (1158 girls, 991 boys mainly aged 15-16 years of the 3846 eligible adolescents (56% participated. Among the 1843 adolescents with complete audiometry and tympanometry data, the prevalence of audiometric notches was 2.4% (95% confidence interval 1.7-3.1%. We could not confirm the high prevalence of audiometric notches as reported in National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys for adolescents in the US. Differences in prevalence might be at least partly due to methodical differences in audiometry. Even if empirical evidence is presently ambiguous, it is reasonable to educate young people about the potential risks of high leisure noise exposure.

  1. Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents in Northwest Ohio: Correlates of Prevalence and Age at Onset

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    James H. Price

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence and correlates of smoking initiation among adolescents. We have used data from adolescents (n=5,392 ages 10-18 who participated in the 2003 Tobacco Survey, a representative sample of adolescents in Northwest Ohio. A selfreport of cigarette smoking was obtained using a questionnaire administered in classrooms. Data were analyzed using weighted chi-square and multiple logistic regressions in SAS that accounted for the survey design. The prevalence rates for adolescents that ever tried smoking were 7.4% in elementary (grades 4-5; 17.7% in middle (grades 6-8, and 41.4% in high (grades 9-12 schools, respectively. The highest prevalence rate was among Hispanics. Having a close friend that smoked and a smoker at home correlated significantly with both initiation of smoking and smoking at an earlier age. Smoking was correlated with low academic achievement among adolescents in all grades. Students who reported smoking by parents or siblings were significantly more likely to start smoking at an earlier age, compared to other students living in a non-smoking home environment. Smoking prevention program should include components focused on adolescents’ home environment and should start as early as the 4th grade.

  2. Prevalence of periodontitis in rural and urban population

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    Vimal Kumar Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases are multifactorial in origin having different forms and progression. The incidence and prevalence rates of periodontitis may be different in different areas of the World & India. Aim & Objective: To estimate the prevalence of periodontal disease. Methods & Materials: The study population consisted of multistage stratified random sample of 1280 subjects from total population of district Ghaziabad. A cross-sectional study was conducted with multi stage stratified random sampling techniques to select the sample population. The subjects were divided into different age groups and the periodontal assessment was made on the basis of, oral hygene index – simplified (OHI-S,Index, CPITN index, ESI Index. The statistical analysis was done using the CHI-Square test to determine the p value. Results: Significantly more number of females were found to be having good oral hygiene status than males. Conclusions: Significant association was observed between males and females having different scores of OHI-S, CPITN and ESI index in different age groups.

  3. The prevalence of atopic diseases and the patterns of sensitization in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Fomsgaard Kjær, Henrik; Eller, Esben

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases are among the most common chronic diseases in adolescents, and it is uncertain whether the prevalence of atopic diseases has reached a plateau or is still increasing. The use of the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood) questionnaire has provided...... with rhinoconjunctivitis only, rhinoconjunctivitis with concomitant asthma or atopic dermatitis or both 62.5%, 81.5%, 70%, and 100%, respectively, were sensitized, whereas it was 7.7% and 33.3% of children with only asthma or atopic dermatitis. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis was high in adolescence...

  4. Prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in rural areas of District Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh

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    Vaibhav Jain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It is a phase of life marked by special attributes including rapid physical growth and development; physical, social and psychological maturity. Aims & Objectives: The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in a rural area of District Muzaffarnagar. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 210 adolescent girls and boys (10-19 years old selected using multistage random sampling technique. The subjects were interviewed & detailed information was collected on a structured and pre-tested questionnaire after taking consent from the subject/ parents. The clinical diagnosis was generated as per the criteria laid down in ICD-10. The data was entered in Epi Info statistical software package Version 3.4.3 and suitable statistical methods were applied. Results: The overall prevalence of psychosocial problems amongst adolescent was found to be 41.43%. Most of them had conduct disorder (40.51% males & 35.88% females followed by depression (30.38% males & 26.72% females. Conclusions: There are significant psychosocial problems amongst the adolescents. So, enough emphasis should be given to this component of adolescent health and thus it is recommended that a holistic approach to the underlying causes of psychosocial problems of adolescents should be undertaken.

  5. Contrasting adolescent female and male sexual aggression: A self-report study on prevalence and predictors of sexual aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotboom, A.-M.; Hendriks, J.; Verbruggen, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigated the prevalence of sexual aggression as reported by adolescent males and females in the Netherlands. Data were collected from a low-risk school-based sample (n=219; 119 adolescent females and 100 adolescent males), a medium-risk school-based sample (vocational training)

  6. Hepatitis E. virus is prevalent in the Danish pig population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; De Deus, N.;

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for major outbreaks of acute hepatitis in humans from developing countries, but evidence increases that also in industrialized countries locally acquired HEV infections acor. The disease usually affects young adults and has a relatively high mortality in inf...... with swine or ingestion of undercooked swine meat. The aim of this study was to clarify if HEV is prevalent in the Danish pig population. Presence of HEV was examined by detection of HEV by real time RT-PCR or serological screening for HEV antibodies....

  7. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  8. 12-Month and Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts among Black Adolescents in the National Survey of American Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Sean; Baser, Raymond S.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Jackson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    The data from the National Survey of American life on the suicidal behavior of 1,170 African American and Caribbean black adolescents aged 13 to 17 shows that black adolescents report having a lifetime prevalence of 7.5 percent for suicidal ideation and 2.7 percent for attempts. The 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation is 3.2 percent and…

  9. Prevalence and predictors of e-cigarette trial among adolescents in Argentina

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    Paola Morello

    2016-12-01

    In Argentina, illicit trial of e-cigarettes among early adolescents is low but appears to be rapidly increasing. Identifying students at risk could help identify policies and programs to prevent increasing use in this population.

  10. Prevalence of URAT1 allelic variants in the Roma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiburkova, Blanka; Gabrikova, Dana; Čepek, Pavel; Šimek, Pavel; Kristian, Pavol; Cordoba-Lanus, Elizabeth; Claverie-Martin, Felix

    2016-12-01

    The Roma represents a transnational ethnic group, with a current European population of 8-10 million. The evolutionary process that had the greatest impact on the gene pool of the Roma population is called the founder effect. Renal hypouricemia (RHUC) is a rare heterogenous inherited disorder characterized by impaired renal urate reabsorption. The affected individuals are predisposed to recurrent episodes of exercise-induced nonmyoglobinuric acute kidney injury and nephrolithiasis. To date, more than 150 patients with a loss-of-function mutation for the SLC22A12 (URAT1) gene have been found, most of whom are Asians. However, RHUC 1 patients have been described in a variety of ethnic groups (e.g., Arab Israelis, Iraqi Jews, Caucasians, and Roma) and in geographically noncontiguous countries. This study confirms our previous findings regarding the high frequency of SLC22A12 variants observed. Frequencies of the c.1245_1253del and c.1400C>T variants were found to be 1.92% and 5.56%, respectively, in a subgroup of the Roma population from five regions in three countries: Slovakia, Czech Republic, and Spain. Our findings suggested that the common dysfunction allelic variants of URAT1 exist in the general Roma population and thus renal hypouricemia should be kept in differential diagnostic algorithm on Roma patients with defect in renal tubular urate transport. This leads to confirm that the genetic drift in the Roma have increased the prevalence of hereditary disorders caused by very rare variants in major population.

  11. The Prevalence of Obesity in a Nigerian Military Population

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    Ezekiel Taiwo Adebayo Obashina Ayodele Ogunbiyi Ishiaku Baba Abdulkareem Nurudeen Ayoola Hussain

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Worldwide, obesity is increasing in prevalence, nearing epidemic proportions in the United States of America. Also, there are reports of rising prevalence in Africa. Obesity is an important aetiological factor for many non-communicable diseases. Recent anecdotal reports indicate that the prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and bronchial asthma is increasing among Nigerian military personnel; however, the rate of possible aetiological factors such as obesity is not known. Obesity can be evaluated using the body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and waist to height ratio (WHR. However, for epidemiological convenience and study within populations, the BMI is satisfactory. Methodology: A cross sectional study. Data of Nigerian military personnel�s annual medical examination conducted between January and March 2010 were retrieved to compute body mass index using World Health Organisation (WHO criteria. Results: 39.6% of personnel were overweight or obese. Most of these were aged between 30 and 39 years. While there were differences in the BMI of males and females, this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: To manage weight problems, focused health education, increased physical activity and nutritional advice are necessary. Modalities such as waist circumference should be added to annual medical examination of military personnel to improve the predictive value of the examination. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 313-318

  12. Study of prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases amongst under five population

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    Shailesh Sutariya, Nitiben Talsania, Chintul Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute diarrheal disease with its accompanying dehydration has remained a challenging problem to the medical profession and the community in the third world countries especially in the age below five years. The current study was conducted to study the prevalence of diarrheal diseases amongst under five population and the seasonal distribution of diarrheal diseases amongst under five population. It was a longitudinal study conducted among 2408 children under 5 yrs age group including 541 infants. Maximum cases of diarrhea (81.89% were in infants. 90.60% episodes of diarrhea were treated at home with ORS and/or home available fluids. About half of the diarrheal episodes 2798 (46.39% were occurred in monsoon season.

  13. Prevalence of habit of tobacco and its deleterious effects in general population of Jaipur District, Rajasthan

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    Vela Desai

    2012-01-01

    Materials and methods: A total of 552 patients who visited Outpatient Department of Jaipur Dental College, Jaipur, were studied. Complete information regarding presence of smoking and other forms of tobacco was recorded in case history proforma and any of tobacco-related oral lesions among these patients were examined. Results: In age group of 0.05 in 12.84% subjects, oral cancer was reported in 33 patients (p-value = 0.001 whereas smoker′s palate in 25 patients and OSMF being the most common. Awareness level about ill effects of tobacco was 51.10 %. Conclusion: High incidence of tobacco usage in smokeless form is seen in Jaipur population especially in adolescents. There were no significant findings found between males and females. Of all lesion examined, OSMF was found to be more prevalent. Therefore, it is important to take immediate steps to curb the habit.

  14. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe: population based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Greenlees, Ruth; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Dias, Carlos; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Lynch, Catherine; McDonnell, Robert; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O’Mahony, Mary T; Pierini, Anna; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; de Walle, Hermien E K; Wellesley, Diana; Wiesel, Awi; Dolk, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To provide contemporary estimates of the prevalence of microcephaly in Europe, determine if the diagnosis of microcephaly is consistent across Europe, and evaluate whether changes in prevalence would be detected using the current European surveillance performed by EUROCAT (the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies). Design Questionnaire and population based observational study. Setting 24 EUROCAT registries covering 570 000 births annually in 15 countries. Participants Cases of microcephaly not associated with a genetic condition among live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks’ gestation, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly at any gestation. Main outcome measures Prevalence of microcephaly (1 Jan 2003-31 Dec 2012) analysed with random effects Poisson regression models to account for heterogeneity across registries. Results 16 registries responded to the questionnaire, of which 44% (7/16) used the EUROCAT definition of microcephaly (a reduction in the size of the brain with a skull circumference more than 3 SD below the mean for sex, age, and ethnic origin), 19% (3/16) used a 2 SD cut off, 31% (5/16) were reliant on the criteria used by individual clinicians, and one changed criteria between 2003 and 2012. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe was 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.16 to 1.96) per 10 000 births, with registries varying from 0.4 (0.2 to 0.7) to 4.3 (3.6 to 5.0) per 10 000 (χ2=338, df=23, I2=93%). Registries with a 3 SD cut off reported a prevalence of 1.74 per 10 000 (0.86 to 2.93) compared with those with the less stringent 2 SD cut off of 1.21 per 10 000 (0.21 to 2.93). The prevalence of microcephaly would need to increase in one year by over 35% in Europe or by over 300% in a single registry to reach statistical significance (PZika virus of a similar magnitude to those observed in Brazil. Because of the rarity of microcephaly and discrepant diagnostic criteria, however, the smaller increases expected in

  15. Prevalence of Dental Caries in Kosovar Adult Population

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    Blerim Kamberi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in the Kosovar adult population. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in Kosovo was conducted examining 9387 patients, aged 18 upwards, between January 2010 and December 2011. Clinical evaluation was done using WHO criteria for evaluation of dental health status and data collection. Results. The prevalence of caries for the whole study was 72.80%. The mean DMFT index was 9.61 (±5.12 in the 18–34-year age group, 11.6 (±6.42 in the 35–44-year age group, 13.68 (±8.12 among the 45–64-year age group, 17.98 (±9.81 in the 65–74-year age group, and 23.19 (±9.41 in the age group of 75+ years, respectively. A significant difference of mean DMFT and its each component was observed between the ages (P<0.001. Conclusion. This study comes out with the significant levels of dental caries among young Kosovar population (18–34 years old.

  16. Prevalence of silent gastrointestinal complications in maintenance renal transplant population

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    Teplitsky Susan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the prevalence of silent GI complications within a stable renal transplant population and to investigate whether the conversion to enteric-coated myco-phenolate sodium (EC-MPS, Myfortic; would improve symptom scores. This was a single-center, open-label, non-randomized, prospective study. Patients without any history of GI com-plaints were evaluated by means of the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS, with subse-quent switch to EC-MPS in a group of patients. Silent complications were defined as patients who voiced no GI complaints at clinic visits despite a score of ≥ 2 on GSRS scale. A total of 236 stable patients participated in the trial. The prevalence of baseline scores ≥ 2 was relatively high with abdominal pain 29.66%, reflux 37.28%, indigestion 50%, constipation 58.47% and diarrhea 33.4%. Of 236 patients, 80 were converted to EC-MPS. There was statistically significant improvement on all scales in the subgroup of patients with GSRS score ≥ 2 (P< 0.05. In conclusion, the GSRS scale identified a high percentage of silent gastrointestinal complications in this renal transplant population. The converted patients with higher GSRS scores reported a sustained improvement.

  17. Prevalence of Eye Disorders in Elderly Population of Tehran, Iran

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    Afsun Nodehi- Moghadam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The decline of visual function with increasing age is a significant concern in elderly. Despite previous work on prevalence of specific ophthalmic pathologies, there has not been enough valid data about overall eye disorders in Tehran yet, and it is poorly defined and not underpinned by strong evidence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the common eye disorders in the elderly population of Tehran. Methods: A total of 392 elderly community residents aged 60 to 96 were enrolled. The 278 older adults referred to Tehran’s Polyclinic of 6th Region of municipality and 114 older adults referred to the health centers of 9th Region of municipality between 2013 and 2014 were examined. All participants underwent an extensive ophthalmologic screening examination including cataract, diabetic retinopathy of optic nerve, macular degeneration, and glaucoma. The prevalence of various eye disorders was calculated as percentages of the total study population and categorized by age and sex. Results: Of the 392 participants, 152 subjects (38.8% had no eye disease. Common visual impairments in elderly were cataract (39.3%, macular degeneration (11.5%, diabetic retinopathy of optic nerve (5.6% and glaucoma (4.8%. It has also showed cataract prevalence increased with age from (6.3% in the 60-64 age group to (47.6% for the patients 85years of age and older. Conclusion: Cataract is the most frequent eye disease in community dwelling older adults that should be considered at a younger age by health officials to provide preventive programs. Improving accessibility to surgery for the treatment of cataract among the old people will help diminish of untreated cataract that lead to visual impairment.

  18. International prevalence of adolescent non-suicidal self-injury and deliberate self-harm

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    Muehlenkamp Jennifer J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The behaviours of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI and deliberate self-harm (DSH are prevalent among adolescents, and an increase of rates in recent years has been postulated. There is a lack of studies to support this postulation, and comparing prevalence across studies and nations is complicated due to substantial differences in the methodology and nomenclature of existing research. Methods We conducted a systematic review of current (2005 - 2011 empirical studies reporting on the prevalence of NSSI and DSH in adolescent samples across the globe. Results Fifty-two studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were obtained for analysis. No statistically significant differences were found between NSSI (18.0% SD = 7.3 and DSH (16.1% SD = 11.6 studies. Assessment using single item questions led to lower prevalence rates than assessment with specific behaviour checklists. Mean prevalence rates have not increased in the past five years, suggesting stabilization. Conclusion NSSI and DSH have a comparable prevalence in studies with adolescents from different countries. The field would benefit from adopting a common approach to assessment to aide cross-cultural study and comparisons.

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents and Their Parents in Central Greece (FETA Project)

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Patsopoulou; Zoi Tsimtsiou; Antonios Katsioulis; George Rachiotis; Eleni Malissiova; Christos Hadjichristodoulou

    2015-01-01

    The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA) aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents’ and adolescents’ demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12–18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. Du...

  20. Prevalence of headache in adolescents and association with use of computer and videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Michelle Katherine Andrade; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Silva, Georgia Rodrigues Reis; Oliveira, Valéria Mayaly Alves de; Beltrão, Natália Barros; Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato de

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of headache in adolescents and its association with excessive use of electronic devices and games. The sample comprised 954 adolescents of both sexes (14 to 19 years) who answered a questionnaire about use of computers and electronic games, presence of headache and physical activity. The binary and multinomial logistic regression, with significance level of 5% was used for inferential analysis. The prevalence of headache was 80.6%. The excessive use of electronics devices proved to be a risk factor (OR = 1.21) for headache. Subjects aged between 14 and 16 years were less likely to report headache (OR = 0.64). Regarding classification, 17.9% of adolescents had tension-type headache, 19.3% had migraine and 43.4% other types of headache. The adolescents aged form 14 to 16 years had lower chance (OR ≤ 0.68) to report the tension-type headache and other types of headache. The excessive use of digital equipment, electronic games and attending the third year of high school proved to be risk factors for migraine-type development (OR ≥ 1.84). There was a high prevalence of headache in adolescents and high-time use of electronic devices. We observed an association between excessive use of electronic devices and the presence of headache, and this habit is considered a risk factor, especially for the development of migraine-type.

  1. Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students

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    Alaine Souza Lima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL in female adolescent students.METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05.RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001; interference in ADL (p<0.001; medication use (p<0.001; age (p=0.045 and seek for medical care (p<0.022.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance.

  2. The prevalence of self-reported deliberate self harm in Irish adolescents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morey, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self harm is major public health problem, in particular among young people. Although several studies have addressed the prevalence of deliberate self harm among young people in the community, little is known about the extent to which deliberate self harm comes to the attention of medical services, the self harm methods used and the underlying motives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the methods, motives and help seeking behaviour associated with this behaviour. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was administered in 39 schools in the Southern area of the Health Service Executive, Ireland. Of the 4,583 adolescents aged 15-17 years who were invited to participate in the survey, 3,881 adolescents took part (response: 85%). RESULTS: A lifetime history of DSH was reported by 9.1% (n = 333) of the adolescents. DSH was more common among females (13.9%) than males (4.3%). Self cutting (66.0%) and overdose (35.2%) were the most common DSH methods. A minority of participants accessed medical services after engaging in DSH (15.3%). CONCLUSION: DSH is a significant problem in Irish adolescents and the vast majority do not come to the attention of health services. Innovative solutions for prevention and intervention are required to tackle DSH in adolescents.

  3. The prevalence of self-reported deliberate self harm in Irish adolescents

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    Arensman Ella

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self harm is major public health problem, in particular among young people. Although several studies have addressed the prevalence of deliberate self harm among young people in the community, little is known about the extent to which deliberate self harm comes to the attention of medical services, the self harm methods used and the underlying motives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the methods, motives and help seeking behaviour associated with this behaviour. Methods A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was administered in 39 schools in the Southern area of the Health Service Executive, Ireland. Of the 4,583 adolescents aged 15–17 years who were invited to participate in the survey, 3,881 adolescents took part (response: 85%. Results A lifetime history of DSH was reported by 9.1% (n = 333 of the adolescents. DSH was more common among females (13.9% than males (4.3%. Self cutting (66.0% and overdose (35.2% were the most common DSH methods. A minority of participants accessed medical services after engaging in DSH (15.3%. Conclusion DSH is a significant problem in Irish adolescents and the vast majority do not come to the attention of health services. Innovative solutions for prevention and intervention are required to tackle DSH in adolescents.

  4. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and its predictors among school going adolescents of North India

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    Durgesh Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarettes smoking is a common mode of consuming tobacco in India. This habit usually starts in adolescence and tracks across the life course. Interventions like building decision making skills and resisting negative influences are effective in reducing the initiation and level of tobacco use. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of adolescent current cigarette smoking behavior and to investigate the individual and social factors, which influence them both to and not to smoke. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out among school going adolescents in Shimla town of North India. After obtaining their written informed consent, a questionnaire was administered. Results: The overall prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 11.8%. The binary logistic regression model revealed that parents′ and peers′ smoking behavior influence adolescent smoking behavior. Individual self-harm tendency also significantly predicted cigarette smoking behavior. Parental active participation in keeping a track of their children′s free time activities predicted to protect adolescents from taking this habit. Conclusion: Our research lends support to the need for intervention on restricting adolescents from taking up this habit and becoming another tobacco industries′ addicted customer. Parents who smoke should quit this habit, which will not only restore their own health, but also protect their children. All parents should be counseled to carefully observe their children′s free time activities.

  5. Prevalence and Predictors of PTSD and Depression among Adolescent Victims of the Spring 2011 Tornado Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zachary W.; Sumner, Jennifer A.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Grös, Kirstin; Paul, Lisa A.; Welsh, Kyleen E.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relatively few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episode (MDE) in disaster-affected adolescents. Fewer still have administered diagnostic measures or studied samples exposed to tornadoes, a common type of disaster. Further, methodologic problems limit the…

  6. Prevalence of Trauma, PTSD, and Dissociation in Court-Referred Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosky, Beverly A.; Lally, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dissociative symptoms in adolescents. The sample consisted of 76 females and 76 males, between the ages of 12 and 18, referred to the Child Guidance Clinic of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia for a psychological evaluation. Two sets of analyses…

  7. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Anemia in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chien, Wu-Chien; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Wu, Chia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Anemia is known to be a significant public health problem in many countries. Most of the available information is incomplete or limited to special groups such as people with intellectual disability. The present study aims to provide the information of anemia prevalence and associated risk factors of children and adolescents with intellectual…

  8. Comorbid Depression and Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: Prevalence and Implications for Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Elizabeth K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Comorbid conditions are common in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and can raise issues for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning. Methods: First, reported prevalence rates for depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with AN were reviewed. Diagnostic issues and current understanding of the temporal onset and…

  9. Behavior change stages related to physical activity in adolescents from Santa Catarina: prevalence and associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jaqueline Aragoni; da Silva, Kelly Samara; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Nahas, Markus Vinícius

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Verify the prevalence and sociodemographic and economic factors associated with behavior change stages for habitual physical activity practice in adolescents from Santa Catarina. Methods: Secondary analysis of a study on the Behavior of Adolescents from Santa Catarina (CompAC 2). Cross-sectional school-based study of 6,529 high-school students (males, n=2,903) from the state of Santa Catarina public education system in 2011, aged 15 to 19 years. Multinomial logistic regression (crude and adjusted) was used to measure the association. Results: The highest and lowest prevalence rates were found in the maintenance (43.9%) and precontemplation stages (7.0%), respectively. The stages of action, preparation and contemplation showed similar results: 16.2%; 17.0% and 15.6%; respectively. Male adolescents show higher prevalence in the maintenance stage in relation to females and these show a higher prevalence in preparation, contemplation and precontemplation. All the assessed variables (gender, age, area of residence, employment status, family income, maternal education and school grade), with the exception of school shift, were associated with at least one of the stages. Conclusions: A large proportion of adolescents are in the pre-adoption stages and most of these have the intention to start regular physical activity. With the exception of school shift, the assessed variables were associated with stages in different ways, showing different profiles in relation to sociodemographic and economic characteristics in each subgroup. PMID:27181341

  10. Social Phobia and Subtypes in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement: Prevalence, Correlates, and Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; He, Jian-Ping; Kattan, Gabriela; Albano, Anne Marie; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Social phobia typically develops during the adolescent years, yet no nationally representative studies in the United States have examined the rates and features of this condition among youth in this age range. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) present the lifetime prevalence, sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and…

  11. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among preparatory school adolescents in Urban Sharkia Governorate, Egypt

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    Mohamed A Talat

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: This study found a relatively high prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents aged 12–15 years in urban Sharkia Governorate. Risk factors of overweight and obesity were low level of parent education, faulty feeding habits and physical inactivity.

  12. Prevalence of Weak D Antigen In Western Indian Population

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    Tanvi Sadaria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discovery of Rh antigens in 1939 by Landsteiner and Weiner was the revolutionary stage in blood banking. Of these antigens, D, which decides Rh positivity or negativity, is the most antigenic. A problem is encountered when an individual has a weakened expression of D (Du, i.e., fewer numbers of D antigens on red cell membrane. Aims and Objectives: To know the prevalence of weak D in Indian population because incidence varies in different population. To determine the risk of alloimmunization among Rh D negative patients who receives the blood of weak D positive donors. Material and Methods: Rh grouping of 38,962 donors who came to The Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion of Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from 1st January 2013 to 30th September 2014 was done using the DIAGAST (Automated Grouping. The samples that tested negative for D antigen were further analysed for weak D (Du by indirect antiglobulin test using blend of Ig G and Ig M Anti D. This was done using Column agglutination method in ID card (gel card. Results: The total number of donors studied was 38,962. Out of these 3360(8.6% were tested Rh D negative. All Rh D negative donors were tested for weak D (Du. 22 (0.056% of total donors and 0.65% of Rh negative donors turned out to be weak D (Du positive. Conclusion: The prevalence of weak D (Du in Western Indian population is 0.056 %, So the risk of alloimmunization in our setting due to weak D (Du antigen is marginal. But, testing of weak D antigen is necessary in blood bank because weak D antigen is immunogenic and can produce alloimmunization if transfused to Rh D negative subjects.

  13. PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC CO-RELATES OF ADOLESCENT HYPERTENSION IN DISTRICT GHAZIABAD

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    Gajendra Kumar Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a chronic condition of concern due to its role in the causation of coronary heart disease, stroke and other  complications. It is one of the major risk factors for cardio-vascular mortality accounting for 20-50% of all deaths. Children with higher blood pressure tend to maintain those levels during adulthood also. Objectives:  Assess the prevalence of hypertension in adolescents (11-18 years, its risk factors and their socio-demographic co-relates. Material and Method:  Prevalence of adolescent hypertension in previous studies was 7% and the sample size accordingly came to be 1314 with a relative precision of 20%. Multistage sampling technique was used. Half each of the sample size was covered in urban and rural areas . Households in the selected colonies in the urban areas and villages were randomly selected and the adolescents interviewed and examined. Their responses were recorded on a pretested questionnaire and results drawn. Data were analysed using Epi-info and SPSS and chi-square test applied. Results:   Prevalence of adolescent hypertension was found to be 5.3% (72 out of 1340; significantly associated with type of family (P<0.001, educational status (P<0.001, occupation (P<0.001, BMI (P<0.01, and smoking habit (P<0.05. However, no relationship of hypertension was found with salt intake, type of diet, exercise, alcohol consumption, stress and family history of hypertension. Conclusion: Socio-demographic factors certainly influence the prevalence and probability of occurrence of adolescent hypertension but the effect of established risk factors (for adult hypertension needs to be further evaluated for adolescent hypertension and more studies are required in this area.

  14. Prevalence of Ocular Morbidity Among School Adolescents of Gandhinagar District, Gujarat

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    Prakash Prajapati,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of ocular morbidity (abnormal condition and various factors affecting it among school attending adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to study abnormal ocular conditions like refractive errors, vitamin A deficiency, conjunctivitis, trachoma, ocular trauma, blephritis, stye, color blindness and pterygium among school adolescents of 10-19 years age in rural and urban areas of Gandhinagar district from January to July, 2009. Systematic sampling was done to select 20 schools having 6th to 12th standard education including 12 schools from rural and 8 from urban areas. Six adolescents from each age year (10-19 were selected randomly to achieve sample size of 60 from each school. In total, 1206 adolescents including 691 boys and 515 girls were selected. Information was collected from selected adolescents by using proforma. Visual acuity was assessed using a Snellen’s chart and all participants underwent an ophthalmic examination carried out by a trained doctor. Results: Prevalence of ocular morbidity among school adolescents was reported 13% (7.8% in boys, 5.6% in girls; with 5.2% have moderate visual impairment. Refractive error was most common ocular morbidity (40% both among boys and girls. Almost 30% of boys and girls reported vitamin A deficiency in various forms of xerophthalmia. Prevalence of night blindness was 0.91% and of Bitot`s spot 1.74%. Various factors like, illiterate or lower parents’ education, lower socio-economic class and malnutrition were significantly associated with ocular morbidity. Conclusion: Ocular morbidity in adolescents is mainly due to refractive error, moderate visual impairment and xerophthalmia.

  15. The prevalence of substance use among adolescents and its correlation with social and demographic factors

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    Rakić Dušica B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround/Aim. Adolescence is the period of greatest risk of starting to use substances: cigarette smoking, alcohol and illicit drugs. In the first decade of this millennium substance use among adolescents has increased. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of substances use among adolescents and its correlation with social and demographic factors. Methods. The study was conducted among adolescents in Novi Sad during 2010-2011 and included 594 conveniently selected adolescents (275 male and 319 female, aged 15-19 years. A special questionnaire was used and statistical analysis performed in SPSS17. The correlation between parameters was evaluated by the Pearson correlation method and frequency differences were analysed using χ2 test and starting level was p < 0.05. Results. The prevalence of substance use was statistically higher in males. Cigarettes were smoked daily by 21.45% males and 15.67% females (p < 0.01, alcohol was consumed by 81.6% males and 69.11% females (p < 0.001 and illicit drugs were used by 13.65% males and 8.30% females (p < 0.05. There was a positive correlation between smoking cigarettes and alcohol consumption, but negative between smoking cigarettes and the use of illicit drugs (p < 0.01. The prevalence of substance use was statistically higher among adolescents with poor achievement in school (p < 0.01, who lived in a broken home (illicit drugs p < 0.01 and who had more pocket money (cigarette smoking p < 0.01, and alcohol consumption p < 0.5. Conclusion. Stable family, lower amount of pocket money weekly and good school performance are protective factors in prevention of substances use among adolescents.

  16. Prevalence of periodontitis among the adolescents aged 15-18 years in Mangalore City: An epidemiological and microbiological study

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    K Pallavi Nanaiah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is a group of inflammatory diseases affecting the supporting tissues of the tooth. Both aggressive periodontitis (AP and chronic periodontitis (CP have a multifactorial etiology, with dental plaque as the initiating factor. However, the initiation and progression of periodontitis are influenced by other factors including microbiologic, social and behavioral and systemic and genetic factors. The prevalence of periodontal diseases varies in different regions of the world according to the definition of periodontitis and the study population, and there are indications that they may be more prevalent in developing than in developed countries. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the adolescents of 15-18 years of age in Mangalore City. One thousand one hundred students aged 15-18 years were selected for the study from the schools and colleges in Mangalore City using a convenient sampling method. The prevalence of AP and CP were assessed in the study using a community periodontal index. Students who were diagnosed clinically and radiographically were subjected to microbiological examination to confirm AP. Results: A high prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis was found in students belonging to the lower socioeconomic status group compared with the higher socioeconomic groups, which were associated with poor oral hygiene habits. The prevalence of AP was found to be 0.36% and that of CP was found to be 1.5%. Conclusion: Oral diseases have a significant impact on the social and psychological aspects of an individual′s life. Exposure to risk factors, such as age, low socio-economic status, poor education, low dental care utilization, poor oral hygiene levels, smoking, psychosocial stress and genetic factors are significantly associated with an increased risk of periodontitis among adolescents. Although genetic factors play a major role in periodontitis, the treatment outcome will still be

  17. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension amongst school children and adolescents in North Karnataka: A cross sectional study

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    Ravikumar V Baradol

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Childhood obesity& hypertension are global health problems as they caused increase in morbidity & mortality. Objective: To find out the prevalence of obesity, overweight in school going children and adolescents of north Karnataka. Also to study obesity related morbidities like Prehypertension and Hypertension and associated risk factors for sustained hypertension. Materials and Methods: Total 2800 children in age group from 10-16 years from 3 schools of Urban and rural region of Bijapur district were screened. Weight, height, BMI and Blood pressure were recorded. These values were compared with WHO child growth standards. Children then classified as overweight (OW and obesity (OB. Blood pressure values were compared with reference charts given by American heart association guidelinesand grouped as prehypertensive (PHTN and Hypertension (HTN. Results: This study revealed that 3.6% rural school children were overweight (OW in age group of 13 years, 1.4% children were obese (OB in age group of 15 years. In urban school children, 3.3% OB in age group of 12 years and 11.1% OW in age group of 10 years. In Rural school children, prevalence of systolic HTN was 21% in OW children and 25% in OB children. Among urban schoolchildren prevalence of systolic PHTN was 5.1% among OW and in OB group it was 16.6%. Conclusions: This study revealed that prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in overweight and obese compared to children with Normal BMI. Also the prevalence of overweight and obesity is more in urban school children than rural children population. We need further large scale studies to study obesity and associated morbidities like hypertension school children and adolescents.

  18. Prevalence of voice quality deviations in the normal adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindle, B R; Morris, H L

    1979-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of voice quality deviations in a normal adult population. One-hundred twelve subjects, aged 17 to 80, read a short paragraph aloud into a high-fidelity tape recorder and completed a case history questionnaire. A group of 11 pretrained judges rated overall performance of each taped sample on a seven-point equal-appearing intervals scale, then designated those quality components which contributed toward deviant ratings. Eighty-two percent of the group received a mean severity rating lower than 1.99; 16% had a rating between 2.00 and 2.99; and 2% was assigned a mean rating higher than 3.00.

  19. Prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish populations: A reanalysis of dementia prevalence surveys, 1990-2008

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    Boix Raquel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish elderly. Methods We identified screening surveys, both published and unpublished, in Spanish populations, which fulfilled specific quality criteria and targeted prevalence of dementia in populations aged 70 years and above. Surveys covering 13 geographically different populations were selected (prevalence period: 1990-2008. Authors of original surveys provided methodological details of their studies through a systematic questionnaire and also raw age-specific data. Prevalence data were compared using direct adjustment and logistic regression. Results The reanalyzed study population (aged 70 year and above was composed of Central and North-Eastern Spanish sub-populations obtained from 9 surveys and totaled 12,232 persons and 1,194 cases of dementia (707 of Alzheimer's disease, 238 of vascular dementia. Results showed high variation in age- and sex-specific prevalence across studies. The reanalyzed prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in women; increased with age, particularly for Alzheimer's disease; and displayed a significant geographical variation among men. Prevalence was lowest in surveys reporting participation below 85%, studies referred to urban-mixed populations and populations diagnosed by psychiatrists. Conclusion Prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Central and North-Eastern Spain is higher in females, increases with age, and displays considerable geographic variation that may be method-related. People suffering from dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Spain may approach 600,000 and 400,000 respectively. However, existing studies may not be completely appropriate to infer prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in Spain until surveys in Southern Spain are conducted.

  20. Domestic violence against children and adolescents: prevalence of physical injuries in a southern Brazilian metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Leidielly Aline; Dalledone, Mariana; Pizzatto, Eduardo; Zaiter, Wellington; de Souza, Juliana Feltrin; Losso, Estela Maris

    2015-01-01

    Violence against children and adolescents is a public health issue worldwide that threatens physical and mental wellbeing and causes irreparable harm. Reports on this violence are an essential way to prevent it and to protect the children and adolescents. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of physical injuries that occur in domestic environments and reported to the Child and Adolescent Protection Network. This retrospective study was conducted at the Epidemiology Center of the Municipality of Curitiba. A total of 10,483 reports for the years 2010 (5,112) and 2011 (5,371) were analyzed and from them were selected reports of physical injuries that occurred in the family environment. The children and adolescents were 0-17 years old, comprising 322 cases of physical abuse within the family in 2010. Out of these, 57.1% were male and 42.9% were female, and 58% (187) presented head and neck injuries. There were 342 reports in 2011, 49% were male and 51% were female; head and neck injuries corresponded to 65% (222) of the reported cases. The prevalence of injuries increased by 6% and head and neck injury increased by 19% between 2010 and 2011. It may be concluded that physical abuse is associated with a high prevalence of head and neck injury, which is easily observed by the health and education professionals. Notification organs should be created in Brazilian hospitals and health centers, which is essential to conduct epidemiological surveillance and appropriate policies.

  1. Prevalence and Social Correlates of Sexual Intercourse among School-Going Adolescents in Thailand

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    Karl Peltzer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent sexuality is a relevant public health issue, as it affects risk to contract HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. The assessment of prevalence of sexual intercourse among adolescents may guide policies and programmes aimed at reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted infections among this age group. Using data from the Thailand Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS 2008, we assessed the prevalence of sexual intercourse in the last 12 months and its associated factors among adolescents (=2758. Overall the prevalence of sexual intercourse in the past 12 months was 11.0% (14.6% males and 7.6% females. Variables positively associated with the outcome in multivariable analysis were male gender (OR=1.66; 95% CI 1.14–242, older age, ≥15 years (OR=2.60, 1.80–3.74, current alcohol use (OR=2.22, 1.46–3.36, psychosocial distress (OR=2.11, 1.44–3.09 and among females current smoking (OR=5.47, 1.62–18.48, lifetime drug use (AOR=4.35, 1.04–18.3 and lack of parental or guardian bonding (AOR=0.51, 0.27–0.97. Efforts to control unhealthy lifestyles (substance use and psychosocial distress may impact on adolescents' sexual activity.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of the Perpetration of Cyber Dating Abuse among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Shegog, Ross; Temple, Jeff R; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Addy, Robert C; Hernandez, Belinda; Cuccaro, Paula; Gabay, Efrat K; Thiel, Melanie; Emery, Susan Tortolero

    2017-02-01

    Much is known about the prevalence and correlates of dating violence, especially the perpetration of physical dating violence, among older adolescents. However, relatively little is known about the prevalence and correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse, particularly among early adolescents. In this study, using a predominantly ethnic-minority sample of sixth graders who reported ever having had a boyfriend/girlfriend (n = 424, 44.2 % female), almost 15 % reported perpetrating cyber dating abuse at least once during their lifetime. Furthermore, using a cross-sectional design, across multiple levels of the socio-ecological model, the individual-level factors of (a) norms for violence for boys against girls, (b) having a current boyfriend/girlfriend, and (c) participation in bullying perpetration were correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse. Collectively, the findings suggest that dating violence interventions targeting these particular correlates in early adolescents are warranted. Future studies are needed to establish causation and to further investigate the relative importance of correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse among early adolescents that have been reported among older adolescents.

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Sexting Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Maziarz, Lauren; Ward, Britney

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexting among sixth through twelfth grade students and its correlations with other risk behaviors. The survey was conducted in 35 different schools in a midwestern state. Overall, 17% of students engaged in sexting, which varied significantly by age (3% of 12-year-olds to 32% of…

  4. Prevalence and tracking of back pain from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Per; Wedderkopp, Niels; Korsholm, Lars

    2011-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that back pain (BP) is a common condition already in childhood. However, the development until early adulthood is not well understood and, in particular, not the individual tracking pattern. The objectives of this paper are to show the prevalence estimates of BP, low ...

  5. A Scoping Review on Studies of Cyberbullying Prevalence Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochado, Sandra; Soares, Sara; Fraga, Sílvia

    2016-04-05

    This descriptive scoping aims to understand how the prevalence of cyberbullying has been estimated across studies. A systematic scoping review of cyberbullying empirical studies was conducted by using three bibliographic databases to search for papers published between January 2004 and August 2014. A protocol was defined to identify the relevant papers. Papers selected were included in a data sheet developed by the authors to record specific findings. In total, 159 studies were included in the scoping review. Most of the prevalence studies were conducted in the last 4 years, mainly in North America (n= 77) and in Europe (n= 65). High methodological heterogeneity was found among the studies, which may contribute to explain variability in prevalence estimates. Cyberbullying experiences were assessed through several different perspectives: focused only on victims, focused only on perpetrators, or focused on both victims and perpetrators (without differentiating between if they are victims or perpetrators). Most of the studies tend to assess cybervictimization experiences. However, even considering the same perspective, the same country, and the same recall period, a high variability in the estimates was observed. As a main conclusion, the way in which the prevalence of cyberbullying is estimated is influenced by methodological research options.

  6. Prevalence and Management of Back Pain in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients: A Retrospective Study

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    Jean Théroux

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Back pain (BP has often been associated with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, which is a three-dimensional deviation of the vertebral column. In adolescents, chronic pain appears to be a predictor of health care utilization and has a negative impact on physical, psychological and family well-being. In this population, BP tends to be persistent and may be a predictor of BP in adulthood.

  7. THE PREVALENCE OF DENTAL ANOMALIES IN A TURKISH POPULATION

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    Gamze Aren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies in a Turkish population according to the gender and age. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed using panoramic radiographs of 2025 patients (885 males and 1140 females ranging in age from 9 to 35 (mean age 25.61±10.04 years attending Department of Oral Radiology, University of Istanbul, Faculty of Dentistry. These patients were examined to determine the presence of developmental dental anomalies involving hypodontia, hyperdontia, microdontia, taurodontism and other root anomalies. The incidence of these anomalies were assessed according to the gender and age. Results: Among the 2025 subjects, a total of 96 individuals (42 males and 54 females showed at least one of the selected dental anomalies (4.74%. Tooth agenesis was the most common dental abnormality (1.77% followed by taurodontism (1.18%, hyperdontia (0.79%, microdontia (0.54% and root anomalies (0.44%, respectively. Conclusion: Tooth agenesis is the most common developmental dental anomaly in the studied Turkish population followed by taurodontism.

  8. Obsessive compulsive phenomenology in a sample of Egyptian adolescent population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rady

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Obsessive symptoms among children and adolescent age groups are increasing, an observation made by mental health professionals working with this age group. Our epidemiological study targeted secondary school students to estimate the prevalence of obsessive symptoms, obsessive compulsive disorder and their different obsessive compulsive contents. Methods: The study is cross sectional carried on 1299 secondary school students, the sample size was chosen based on an estimated Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD prevalence of 2% in literature. Equal samples were recruited from the 3 educative zones in Alexandria Governorate. Obsessive compulsive symptoms were assessed by the Arabic version of Lyeton obsessive inventory child version LOI-CV. Students scoring above 35 were subjected to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children MINI-KID Arabic. OCD patient students detected by MINI-KID were assessed by psychiatric interview to confirm fulfilling criteria of OCD according to DSM IV-TR criteria. Different obsessive compulsive symptoms were assessed by a standardized questionnaire. Results: Among the studied sample (n = 1299, 201 students scored > 35 on LOI-CV i.e. 15.5% of the total sample have OCS. The prevalence of OCD among studied sample was 2.2% as 29 students from the OCS students were fulfilling diagnostic criteria for OCD according to DSM-IV TR. Common obsessive symptoms were of excessive conscience 65.5%, blasphemous 55.2%, repeated words 51.7% and sexual obsessions 48.2%. Conclusions: The prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms is high among adolescent age group. Cultural impact should be considered to better understand obsessive phenomenology, raising the importance of OCD study from a transcultural perspective.

  9. Prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, J J; Rettig, P J; Kaplan, D W

    1983-03-01

    The prevalence of cervical infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae was examined in 125 girls receiving primary gynecologic care in a general adolescent clinic. C trachomatis was isolated in 8% of the patients using a microtiter tissue-culture method, and N gonorrhoeae was found in 12%. A significant association was found between the use of oral contraceptives and positive chlamydial cultures. Patients with Chlamydia-positive cultures were frequently asymptomatic and exhibited no positive findings on physical examination. Three of ten women with cervical chlamydial infection developed pelvic inflammatory disease. These results support the use of cervical screening for both of these pathogens in sexually active adolescents.

  10. High Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Markers in Romanian Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

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    Ruta Simona

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated the frequency of hepatitis coinfection in Romanian adolescents who were diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection prior to 1995. Methods One hundred sixty-one adolescents (13–18 years of age with symptomatic HIV infection, but without signs of hepatic dysfunction, and 356 age-matched, HIV-uninfected controls underwent laboratory testing for markers of parenterally acquired hepatitis virus infection. Results Seventy-eight percent of HIV-infected adolescents had markers of past or present hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, as compared with 32% of controls (P = .0001. The prevalence of HBV replicative markers was more than 5-fold higher in HIV-infected adolescents as compared with controls: 43.4% vs 7.9% (P = .0001, respectively, for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg; and 11.2% vs 2.2% (P = .0001, respectively, for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg. The prevalence of HBsAg chronic carriers and the presence of HBV replicative markers was significantly higher in patients with immunologically defined AIDS (CD4+ cell counts P = .02 for HBsAg and 22.8% vs 5.7%, (P = .002 for HBV DNA. After 1 year of follow-up, the proportion of those who cleared the HBeAg was considerably lower in severely immunosuppressed coinfected patients: 4.7% vs 37.1% (P = .003. Four additional HIV-infected adolescents became HBsAg-positive over the term of follow-up (incidence rate, 24.9/1000 person-years, despite a record of immunization against hepatitis B. Conclusion A substantial percentage of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Romanian adolescents have evidence of past or present HBV infection. In HIV-infected adolescents, the degree of immunosuppression is correlated with persistence of HBV replicative markers, even in the absence of clinical or biochemical signs of liver disease.

  11. Increase in self-reported migraine prevalence in the Danish adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Skytthe, Axel

    2012-01-01

    It is uncertain whether migraine prevalence has increased in modern society. The aim of this study was to assess any change in migraine prevalence over an 8-year period among the adult population in Denmark.......It is uncertain whether migraine prevalence has increased in modern society. The aim of this study was to assess any change in migraine prevalence over an 8-year period among the adult population in Denmark....

  12. Parent-Adolescent Conversations about Eating, Physical Activity and Weight: Prevalence across Sociodemographic Characteristics and Associations with Adolescent Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence of parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight across sociodemographic characteristics and to examine associations with adolescent BMI, dietary intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Data from two linked epidemiological studies were used for cross-sectional analysis. Parents (n=3,424; 62% females) and adolescents (n=2,182; 53.2% girls) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Fathers reported ...

  13. The problematic internet entertainment use scale for adolescents: prevalence of problem internet use in Spanish high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Honrubia-Serrano, Maria Luisa

    2013-02-01

    Many researchers and professionals have reported nonsubstance addiction to online entertainments in adolescents. However, very few scales have been designed to assess problem Internet use in this population, in spite of their high exposure and obvious vulnerability. The aim of this study was to review the currently available scales for assessing problematic Internet use and to validate a new scale of this kind for use, specifically in this age group, the Problematic Internet Entertainment Use Scale for Adolescents. The research was carried out in Spain in a gender-balanced sample of 1131 high school students aged between 12 and 18 years. Psychometric analyses showed the scale to be unidimensional, with excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.92), good construct validity, and positive associations with alternative measures of maladaptive Internet use. This self-administered scale can rapidly measure the presence of symptoms of behavioral addiction to online videogames and social networking sites, as well as their degree of severity. The results estimate the prevalence of this problematic behavior in Spanish adolescents to be around 5 percent.

  14. Adolescent sexuality in Asia: new focus for population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, B

    1989-09-01

    As the age at marriage continues to rise in East and Southeast Asia, the fertility behavior of unmarried teenagers is receiving more attention from population policymakers. In addition to fertility reduction through family planning, Asian societies today consider population planning strategies in relation to national needs and social goals, including such matters as the population's growth rate, age structure, educational quality and skills. The number of single youth in Asia is growing much more rapidly than the total youth population. By the year 2010, for example, India is projected to have nearly 70 million single teenagers, aged 15-19, 188% more than in 1980. In many developing countries today, such as the Philippines and Korea, the rising age at marriage has combined with rapid urbanization, improved status for women, and more educational opportunity to alter both the behavioral norms of young people and the traditional means of social control over youth. Studies of contemporary adolescent sexuality have been conducted in 4 Asian countries. In the Philippines an overt independent youth homosexual culture was found to exist in urban and to some extent rural areas. In Thailand research revealed little conservative resistance to family planning or to contraceptives for young unmarried people. Surveys in Taiwan indicate that behavior related to dating and choice of spouse has become more liberal, and a survey in Hong Kong revealed a higher level of premarital sex and use of prostitutes among Chinese men than expected. Population policy perspectives that need to be considered in these changing times include: 1) issues of access to family planning services by unmarried people below the legal age of maturity; 2) the development of social institutions, such as exist in Thailand and the Philippines, to guide adolescents' behavior; 3) more extensive study of adolescent sexuality; 4) establishment of the scope of family policy.

  15. Prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in children and adolescents with and without crossbites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecco, Simona; Festa, Felice

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in 1,134 orthodontically untreated children and adolescents (593 boys, 541 girls; age range 5 to 15 years) with and without crossbites. The sample with crossbites was further grouped according to the type (anterior, posterior, unilateral, or bilateral). The TMD symptoms bruxism (obvious active attrition/myalgia), joint sounds (clicking/crepitation), deviation during opening, reduced functional movements (maximum opening Temporomandibular Disorders) and compared among the various groups. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of myopain than boys (x(2)=3.882, P<.05). Furthermore, individuals with posterior unilateral crossbites showed a significantly higher prevalence of TMD symptoms (x(2)=33.877, P<.001) and reduced functional movements (x2 = 10.800, P<.05) than any other group. In conclusion, sex and type of crossbite play a role in the prevalence of TMD signs and symptoms.

  16. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

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    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. [SURPS French version validation in a Quebec adolescent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay-Jolin, Laura; Perrier-Ménard, Eveline; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Garel, Patricia; Séguin, Jean R; Conrod, Patricia J

    2013-09-01

    Objective: The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) has been developed to screen personality risk factors for substance misuse. This scale assesses 4 high-risk personality traits using a 23-item, self-report questionnaire. SURPS helps guiding targeted approaches to prevention of substance abuse and misuse. It has been validated in the United Kingdom, English Canada, Sri Lanka, and China. This study aims to validate this scale in a sample of French-speaking adolescents from Quebec as well as its sensitivity in a clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Two hundred two 15-year-old youths from a community sample completed a French version of SURPS as well as other measures of personality and substance use. This study reports the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the scale, as well as a factor analysis of items. Further, 40 youths (mean age 15.7 years) from a clinical population completed SURPS and their scores were compared with those of the community sample. Results: SURPS French translation has good internal consistency and demonstrated a 4-factor structure very similar to the original scale. The 4 subscales show good concurrent validity, and 3 of the subscales were found to correlate with measures of substance use. Finally, 95% of the clinical sample was identified at high risk for substance misuse according to SURPS cut-off scores. Conclusion: SURPS French translation seems to be a valid and sensitive scale that can be used in a French-speaking adolescent population from Quebec.

  18. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  19. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  20. A Study Of Prevalence Of Obesity In Adult Punjabi Population

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    Pooja Goyal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available  Pooja Goyal, R.K. Sachar, R.K. Soni Deptt. of Community medicine, DMC.& Hospital, Ludhiana  Introduction :Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally with more than 1 billion overweight, Atleast 300 million of them are clinically obese and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability (1. Long considered a buy product of modern life in rich, developed contries, obesity is spreading to developing contries as well. Two critical factors that have influenced this explosion are changes in dietary patterns and levels of physical activity. The latest list of morbidity associated with obesity includes about forty diseases. Though, prevalence of co-morbidities of obesity is quite high among adults in India yet there are relatively less reliable and representative data available. Hence, this study was carried out.Material & Methods :It was a community based, cross sectional study conducted in field practice areas at Rural Health Centre (RHC, Pohir and Urban Health Centre (UHC, Kirti Nagar attached to the department of Community Medicine, DMC & Hospital Ludhiana.Field practice area of RHC is composed of 10 villages serving a total population of 20,450. The Urban health Centre covers ten colonies having a total populaation of 20.645.

  1. Prevalence of obesity and its correlates in school going adolescents of Haldwani, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu Aggarwal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: With a rising trend of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs in the present world, overweight and obesity has gained importance as it is not only a disease in itself but also risk factor for majority of other NCDs. A dramatic increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescent has raised the concern of various public health physicians especially in developing country like India. Aims & Objective: To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity & its correlates among school going adolescents of Haldwani block. Material & Methods: School based cross sectional study was done among the adolescents of 8th to 12th standard. To calculate the maximum sample size prevalence of obesity was assumed to be 50%, taking absolute error of 5%, design effect of 2 and 10% non-response rate the sample was calculated to be 880, rounded off to 900. Samples were collected from 30 clusters/schools using simple random sampling. Data was collected using a pre-designed, semi-structured and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 13% (CI = 10.8 - 15.2%. Overweight and obesity was found to be significantly associated with urban area, private school, Socio-economic class I, non-vegetarian diet, physical inactivity and playing videogames, working on laptops and computer on univariate analysis. On applying binary logistic regression factors like private schools, socioeconomic class I, non-vegetarian diet and physical inactivity were again found to be significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Prevalence of obesity was found to be more in adolescents having modifiable risk factors. 

  2. Temporal trends in the prevalence of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis in adolescents

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    Fernanda Agapito Pássaro Wilmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the temporal trend of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis prevalences as well as their symptoms in adolescents. METHODS Two cross-sectional studies were conducted using the same methodology and questionnaire as was used for adolescents aged 12 to 14 years in the Brazilian city of Florianopolis, SC, Southern Brazil. Based on the international protocol of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC study, adolescents were evaluated in 2001 and 3,150 in 2012. The schools included in this study were the same as in the 2001 study. These schools were randomly selected after stratification by network (public and private and geographic location. The total average percentage variation was estimated for the prevalence of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis and their symptoms. RESULTS The prevalence of reported asthma was 10.9% in 2001 and 14.8% in 2012, with an average variation of 2.8% in the period. The highest average variation in the period was observed among female adolescents (4.1%. In parallel a significant increase occurred in reported physician-diagnosed asthma, 7.3% in 2001 and 11,1% in 2012, with an annual variation of 4.5%. The largest increases in reported physician-diagnosed asthma were seen in female (5.9% and male (4.5% public school pupils. In addition, a significant increase in reported rhinoconjunctivitis occurred, with the average variation in the period being 5.2%. Reports of severe asthma symptoms remained unchanged during the period, while the annual variation for reported current wheezing (-1.3% and wheezing during exercise (-1.2% decreased. CONCLUSIONS The results showed a significant increase in the annual average variation for asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence during the 2001 to 2012 period.

  3. Dentofacial abnormalities among adolescents: a study on the prevalence and severity

    OpenAIRE

    Shenoy, Rekha P.; Shenoy-Panchmal, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Background The objectives of this investigation were to assess prevalence and severity of dentofacial abnormalities and orthodontic treatment need among adolescents in Mangalore taluk. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1340 children from randomly selected high schools. A proforma was used to record demographic data and components of the Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI] for each subject. The Chi squared test was used for analysis with p-value of < 0.05 considered sta...

  4. A Meta-Analysis of Cigarette Smoking Prevalence among Adolescents in China: 1981–2010

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    Juan Han

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systematic data regarding adolescent smoking are needed at the national level to support evidence-based tobacco control in China. The goal of this study was to estimate smoking prevalence among Chinese adolescents using published data. Methods: Published studies were located electronically from the commonly used databases in Chinese and English, complemented by manual searching. Forty-five studies were selected of the 9771 retrieved from the databases. These studies targeted adolescents aged 12–17 or middle/high school students, were conducted during the 1981–2010, and had adequate data for meta-analysis. The 45 selected studies covered 52 sites in different parts of China. Smoking rates were estimated using the sample-weighted and random effect method. Results: The estimated prevalence rate of lifetime smoking (ever smoked varied within a narrow range (39.04%–46.03% for males and progressively increased from 2.47% in 1981–1985 to 19.72% in 2001–2005 for females. The prevalence rate of current (30-day smoking for males declined from 26.62% in 1981–1985 to 10.86% in 1996–2000 before increasing again. The prevalence of current smoking for females increased from 0.29% in 1981–1985 to 3.26% in 2006–2010. Conclusions: The high levels of male smoking and the rapid increase in female smoking indicate growing burdens from tobacco-related diseases, underscoring the urgent need to strengthen adolescent tobacco control in China.

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chong-Wen Wang; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Kwok-Kei Mak; Sai-Yin Ho; Wong, Paul W. C.; Ho, Rainbow T. H.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in ...

  6. Prevalence of Anxiety Disorders among Children and Adolescents in Iran: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Zarafshan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to conduct a review to investigate the prevalence of anxiety disorders among Iranian children and adolescents.We systematically reviewed the literature up to June 2014. We searched three Persian databases (Magiran, IranMedex and SID and three English databases: PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO. All original studies that investigated the current prevalence of anxiety in a sample of Iranian children and adolescents were entered into the study. All studies conducted on special samples or in special settings were excluded. By searching English databases, we obtained 124 original studies. After removing duplicate papers, 120 articles remained. In the next step, we screened the articles based on their title. In sum, 95 Persian and English articles had relevant titles. After screening based on the abstract and full text, 26 studies remained. After screening based on the full text, all selected studies were qualitatively assessed by two evaluators separately.Twenty five studies were eligible and reported different types of anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobias and panic disorder. The samples varied from 81 to 2996 among studies and their age range was 5 to 18 years. These studies were conducted in different cities of Iran. SCL-90 is a frequently used questionnaire. All anxiety disorders were mostly investigated with the prevalence rates ranging from 6.8% in Saravan to 85% in Bandar Abbas. OCD was the second common study with prevalence rates ranging from 1% in Tabriz to 11.9% in Gorgan.Our findings revealed considerable amount of anxiety disorder among Iranian children and adolescents. Given the fact that anxiety disorder has negative effects on the well-being and function of individuals and can lead to severe problems, this disorder should be considered in mental health programs designed for children and adolescents.

  7. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study

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    Samantha Caesar de Andrade, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital. Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents, 20 to 59 years old (adults and 60 years old or over (older adults. Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R. The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups.

  8. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION TO PREVALENCE OF SKIN DISEASES AMONG ADOLESCENTS

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    Toraub Kawshar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pattern of skin diseases in any community is influenced by genetic constitution, climate, socioeconomic status, occupation, education, hygienic standards, customs and quality of medical care. The burden of skin disease also has an impact on the Quality of Life of adolescents. This study aims to investigate the level of awareness and assess the prevalence of different types of skin diseases among adolescents in Mauritius. Material and Methods: 500 adolescents and young adults of both sexes and aged between 11-23 years were recruited. A questionnaire was used to elicit information and to assess the knowledge status of skin diseases and to determine possible risk factors. In addition, a validated questionnaire based on Quality of Life Index was used to determine the psychosocial effect of adolescents suffering from skin diseases. Data was analysed using IBM Statistics SPSS version 20 and Microsoft Excel 2007. Results: Incidence of skin diseases was 22.9% in males and 24.7% females respectively. Acne was the most common skin problems in both gender followed by fungal infection (2.9% in males and eczema (2.4% in females. Climatic conditions (e.g summer, consumption of oily and spicy foods, sports practice and familial history were correlated positively with prevalence of skin diseases. Conclusion: Acne, eczema and fungal infection were the most common skin diseases identified. The findings also indicate that more respondents between 15-19 years old were more prone to skin diseases.

  9. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in danish infants, children and adolescents--are we still on a plateau?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Morgen, Camilla; Rokholm, Benjamin; Sjöberg Brixval, Carina

    2013-01-01

    After the worldwide steep increase in child and adolescent overweight and obesity during the last decades, there is now evidence of a levelling off in the prevalence in many countries in the Western world.......After the worldwide steep increase in child and adolescent overweight and obesity during the last decades, there is now evidence of a levelling off in the prevalence in many countries in the Western world....

  10. Prevalence of Abdominal Obesity in Spanish Children and Adolescents. Do We Need Waist Circumference Measurements in Pediatric Practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Schröder; Lourdes Ribas; Corinna Koebnick; Anna Funtikova; Gomez, Santiago F; Montserat Fíto; Carmen Perez-Rodrigo; Lluis Serra-Majem

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among nor...

  11. Recognizing Internet Addiction: Prevalence and Relationship to Academic Achievement in Adolescents Enrolled in Urban and Rural Greek High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Alexandraki, Kiriaki; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2013-01-01

    This study aims: a) to estimate the prevalence of internet addiction among adolescents of urban and rural areas in Greece, b) to examine whether the Internet Addiction Test cut-off point is applicable to them and c) to investigate the phenomenon's association with academic achievement. Participants were 2090 adolescents (mean age 16, 1036 males,…

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with physical fighting among Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Hussin, Siti Fatimah; Abd Aziz, Nur Shahida; Hasim, Hazrin; Sahril, Norhafizah

    2014-09-01

    Physical fighting among adolescents is one manifestation of interpersonal violence that is an important issue globally, but attention to this problem in Malaysia has been limited. We analyzed data available from the Malaysia Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2012. Of the 25 507 respondents, 27.4% reported having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months. Being bullied (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.67-3.39) was significantly and highly associated with involvement in physical fighting. Smoking (aOR = 2.56; 95% CI = 2.20-2.97), males (aOR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.62-1.93), using drugs (aOR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.09-2.15), and drinking alcohol (aOR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.24-1.63) were other factors associated with physical fighting. Parental supervision showed no significant association with physical fighting. These findings indicate that more attention needs to be given to bullying at school by school authorities and parents.

  13. Prevalence of gingivitis and associated factors in 13-16-year-old adolescents in Greece

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    Nikolaos Andreas Chrysanthakopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of gingivitis and investigate possible associations among gingivitis and socioeconomic, demographic variables and oral hygiene habits in a sample of adolescents in Greece. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 812 adolescents, 384 boys and 428 girls aged 13-16 years. All participants were clinically examined and answered questions regarding socioeconomic, demographic variables and oral hygiene habits. Statistical analysis of the questionnaire items was carried out by using a multiple logistic regression analysis models. Results: Five hundred and ninety-one adolescents were diagnosed as having gingivitis giving a prevalence rate 72.8%. Male gender (P < 0.05, lower parental educational (P < 0.01 and income level (P = 0.001, no regular dental follow-up (P < 0.001, no daily tooth-brushing (P < 0.001, no dental floss use (P < 0.001, presence of dental plaque (P < 0.001, and smoking (P < 0.001 were the most important associated factors of gingivitis. Conclusion: The study showed that gingivitis was associated with male gender, lower educational and income parental level, inadequate oral hygiene, the presence of dental plaque and smoking while the prevalence of this condition in the study sample was 72.8%.

  14. Prevalence and predictors of severe hypoglycemia in Danish children and adolescents with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, A; Kanijo, B; Fredheim, S;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of severe hypoglycemia in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to pinpoint predictors of this acute complication in children on modern treatment modalities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study is based on data from DanDiabKids, a nat......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of severe hypoglycemia in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to pinpoint predictors of this acute complication in children on modern treatment modalities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study is based on data from Dan......DiabKids, a national diabetes register for children and adolescents. The register contains data on patients with type 1 diabetes with an ascertainment rate of 99%. Data from 3320 patients aged 0-18 yr was included in the study period from 1998 to 2009 and analyzed using a negative binomial model. RESULTS: One thousand...... had a 31% (95% CI: 17; 49) reduced risk of severe hypoglycemia compared to patients on fewer daily injections (p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Despite improvements in metabolic control over a decade the prevalence of severe hypoglycemic events remained unchanged. More intensive treatments such as insulin...

  15. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder in children and adolescents from public schools in Southern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Minghelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD in children and adolescents is in the range of 6-68% and can be triggered or aggravated by emotional stress. Aim: The study was to investigate the prevalence of TMD in Portuguese children and adolescents and its association with emotional stress. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 3,260 students aged 5-19 years. The questionnaire was used to assess the presence of TMD, and was applied in a single moment. Results: TMD was observed in 821 (25.2% students. The most common symptoms of TMD were: if considered tense or nervous (52%, have headaches (36.8%, and habit of clenching or grinding teeth (27.3%. The girls had a 1.36 higher probability of developing TMD than boys (95% CI: 1.14-1.63; p < 0.001; moreover, students from the older age group had a 2.31 higher probability of developing the disorder (95% CI: 1.85-2.89; p < 0.001. Students who considered themselves tense or nervous presented 8.74 higher probability (95% CI: 7.03-10.86; p < 0.001 of developing TMD. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of TMD in children and adolescents in southern Portugal, and revealed a significant association between this dysfunction and the levels of emotional stress. Female students, older students, and those considered tense or nervous have a higher probability of developing TMD.

  16. Community-level adult daily smoking prevalence moderates the association between adolescents' cigarette smoking and perceived smoking by friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents' smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents' smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13-18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents' past 12-month smoking from perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends' smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents' smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends' smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends' smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths' smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults.

  17. Population-based cohort study of anti-infective medication use before and after the onset of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C; van der Vorst, Marja M J; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; de Boer, Anthonius; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2014-01-01

    A population-based cohort study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO database to investigate prevalence and patterns of anti-infective medication use in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) before and after the onset of this disease. All patients <19 years with at least 2 insulin prescri

  18. Prevalence of Children’s Mental Health Problems and the Effectiveness of Population-Level Family Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Kato

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents is of growing importance. Intervening in children’s mental health early in life has been shown to be more effective than trying to resolve these problems when children are older. With respect to prevention activities in community settings, the prevalence of problems should be estimated, and the required level of services should be delivered. The prevalence of children’s mental health disorders has been reported for many countries. Preventive intervention has emphasized optimizing the environment. Because parents are the primary influence on their children’s development, considerable attention has been placed on the development of parent training to strengthen parenting skills. However, a public-health approach is necessary to confirm that the benefits of parent-training interventions lead to an impact at the societal level. This literature review clarifies that the prevalence of mental health problems is measured at the national level in many countries and that population-level parenting interventions can lower the prevalence of mental health problems among children in the community.

  19. Prevalence of latent TB infection and TB disease among adolescents in high TB burden countries in Africa: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyasi, Erick Wekesa; Schmidt, Bey-Marrie; Abdullahi, Leila Hussein; Mulenga, Humphrey; Tameris, Michele; Luabeya, Angelique; Shenje, Justin; Scriba, Thomas; Geldenhuys, Hennie; Wood, Robin; Hatherill, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Almost a third of the world population has latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI), ∼10 million of whom develop TB disease annually, despite existence of effective, but lengthy, preventive and curative drug regimens. Although adolescents appear to have a very high force of LTBI, their reported incidence of TB disease is less than that of their corresponding general population. The few available studies on adolescent TB infection and disease prevalence are not sufficient to address the apparent discordance between rates of infection and disease in high TB burden countries in Africa. Therefore, we aim to perform a systematic review to examine the relationship between adolescent LTBI and TB disease, benchmarked against national TB disease burden data. Methods and analysis A comprehensive literature search will be performed for cross-sectional studies and screening data in cohort studies to determine the prevalence of LTBI and TB disease among adolescents in high TB burden countries in Africa in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane library, Web of Science, Africa Wide, CINAHL and the Africa Index Medicus. This will be supplemented by a search of reference lists of selected articles for potentially relevant articles. We will restrict our search to articles published in the English language between 1990 and 2016 among adolescents in order to obtain estimates reflective of the mature HIV epidemic in most high TB burden countries in Africa that occurred over this critical period. Primary end points are: prevalence of LTBI and TB disease. We will use the random-effects or fixed-effects modelling for our meta-analysis based on heterogeneity estimates. Ethics and dissemination No ethics approval is required given that this is a systematic review. Findings will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Trial registration number CRD42015023495. PMID

  20. Motivos e prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal em adolescentes Reasons and prevalence of body image dissatisfaction in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edio Luiz Petroski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar os motivos e a prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal (IC em adolescentes. Métodos: Participaram do estudo 641 adolescentes de 11 a 17 anos. A imagem corporal foi autoavaliada através da escala de nove silhuetas corporais. Resultados: A prevalência de insatisfação com a IC foi de 60,4% (masculino = 54,5%, feminino = 65,7%; p OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of body image (BI dissatisfaction in adolescents. The study enrolled 641 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the town of Saudades, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of BI dissatisfaction was 60.4% (males = 54.5%, females = 65.7%; p < 0.05. Boys were more likely to wish to increase the size of their body silhouette (26.4% while girls wished to reduce theirs (52.4%. Adolescents from urban areas manifested greater prevalence of BI dissatisfaction and were more likely to want to reduce their body silhouette. The reasons given by these adolescents for why they were dissatisfied with their body images were similar for both sexes (p = 0.156. When analyzed by neighborhood the urban adolescents said that their dissatisfaction was esthetic, whereas the rural adolescents said it was based on self-esteem. An association was detected between perceived BI and the reasons for dissatisfaction. Conclusions: Esthetics, self-esteem and health were the most common reasons for BI dissatisfaction among these adolescents. More than half of them were dissatisfied with their body silhouettes. Therefore, there is a need for interventions by health services and professionals in this age range in order to avoid possible future problems with eating disorders (anorexia, bulimia and vigorexia.

  1. Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome in obese Kuwaiti adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boodai SA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shurooq A Boodai,1 Lynne M Cherry,2 Naveed A Sattar,2 John J Reilly3 1University of Glasgow School of Medicine, Yorkhill Hospitals, Glasgow, Scotland; 2Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland; 3University of Strathclyde Physical Activity for Health Group, School of Psychological Sciences and Health, Glasgow, Scotland Background: Childhood and adolescent obesity is associated with insulin resistance, abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation, liver disease, and compromised vascular function. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MetS in a sample of obese Kuwaiti adolescents, as prevalence data might be helpful in improving engagement with obesity treatment in future. Methods: Eighty obese Kuwaiti adolescents (40 males with a mean (standard deviation age of 12.3 years (1.1 years participated in the present study. All participants had a detailed clinical examination and anthropometry, blood pressure taken, and assessment of fasting levels of C-reactive protein, intracellular adhesion molecule, interleukin-6, fasting blood glucose, insulin, liver function tests (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lipid profile (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment, and adiponectin. MetS was assessed using two recognized criteria modified for use in younger individuals. Results: The cardiometabolic risk factors with highest prevalence of abnormal values included aspartate aminotransferase (88.7% of the sample and insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (67.5%, intracellular adhesion molecule (66.5%, fasting insulin (43.5%, C-reactive protein (42.5%, low

  2. Prevalence and predictors of cigarette smoking among Greek urban adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasia Liozidou

    2015-10-01

    Greek adolescents report lower smoking rates than previously reported, yet it is a population experimenting with tobacco products. Electronic cigarette emerged as the third most likely product of experimentation. The social origin of smoking behavior is confirmed, as well as the imperative need to encourage tobacco-free school policies and bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship.

  3. ESCAP holds expert group meeting on population issues facing adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes the activities at the ESCAP Population Division Expert Group Meeting on Adolescents that was held during September-October 1997 in Bangkok, Thailand. The meeting was a follow-up to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The meeting considered 1) the ICPD recommendations; 2) the recommendations contained in the Jakarta Plan of Action on Human Resource Development; and 3) the Proposals for Action on Human Resources Development for Youth in Asia and the Pacific. Participants included about 25 people from Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The conference relied on 8 invited experts, two resource persons, advisors from the UNFPA Country Support Team for East and Southeast Asia, and representatives of UNFPA, the Population Council, and the East-West Center. A concern was the declining age of menarche of girls in the ESCAP region and the increasing age of marriage. During the time of menarche and marriage, girls are migrating and moving away from their family and community in rural areas. Family structure and relationships are changing. Increases are observed in adolescent premarital sexual activity, the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, substance abuse, teenage pregnancy, and abortion. The mass media and information technologies have both a positive and a negative influence on adolescents. Parent-child communication exchanges and teacher-student exchanges are "less than ideal." Old traditions and practices change slower than people change. Boys and girls are affected differently by the sociocultural and economic environment. The societal norms set expectations for behavior that may conflict with individual beliefs and practices. Changes brought by globalization and rapid economic growth provide greater opportunity for young girls and women to obtain employment and autonomy.

  4. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe : population based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, Joan K.; Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Greenlees, Ruth; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bergman, Jorieke E. H.; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Dias, Carlos; Draper, Elizabeth S.; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.; Lynch, Catherine; McDonnell, Robert; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J.; O'Mahony, Mary T.; Pierini, Anna; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; de Walle, Hermien E. K.; Wellesley, Diana; Wiesel, Awi; Dolk, Helen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To provide contemporary estimates of the prevalence of microcephaly in Europe, determine if the diagnosis of microcephaly is consistent across Europe, and evaluate whether changes in prevalence would be detected using the current European surveillance performed by EUROCAT (the European Su

  5. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe : population based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, Joan K; Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Greenlees, Ruth; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Dias, Carlos; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Lynch, Catherine; McDonnell, Robert; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O'Mahony, Mary T; Pierini, Anna; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; de Walle, Hermien E K; Wellesley, Diana; Wiesel, Awi; Dolk, Helen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide contemporary estimates of the prevalence of microcephaly in Europe, determine if the diagnosis of microcephaly is consistent across Europe, and evaluate whether changes in prevalence would be detected using the current European surveillance performed by EUROCAT (the European S

  6. Social and dental status along the life course and oral health impacts in adolescents: a population-based birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Ana MB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful social conditions in early life might predispose individuals to dental status which in turn may impact on adolescents' quality of life. Aims To estimate the prevalence of oral health impacts among 12 yr-old Brazilian adolescents (n = 359 and its association with life course socioeconomic variables, dental status and dental services utilization in a population-based birth cohort in Southern Brazil. Methods Exploratory variables were collected at birth, at 6 and 12 yr of age. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (OIDP was collected in adolescence and it was analyzed as a ranked outcome (OIDP from 0 to 9. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance was performed guided by a theoretical determination model. Results The response rate was of 94.4% (n = 339. The prevalence of OIDP = 1 was 30.1% (CI95%25.2;35.0 and OIDP ≥ 2 was 28.0% (CI95%23.2;32.8. The most common daily activity affected was eating (44.8%, follow by cleaning the mouth and smiling (15.6%, and 15.0%, respectively. In the final model mother schooling and mother employment status in early cohort participant's life were associated with OIDP in adolescence. As higher untreated dental caries at age 6 and 12 years, and the presence of dental pain, gingival bleeding and incisal crowing in adolescence as higher the OIDP score. On the other hand, dental fluorosis was associated with low OIDP score. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of adolescent's early life social environmental as mother schooling and mother employment status and the early and later dental status on the adolescent's quality of life regardless family income and use of dental services.

  7. Determination of the obesity prevalence and affecting risk factors, of eating habits among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Aktas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and the affecting risk factors of obesity and the eating habits among adolescents. Methods: The study is a descriptive in design. The research was carried out between December 2013 and February 2014 at a private university in Ankara. This study was conducted with 260 students. The data were presented as frequencies, mean, standard deviations and were analyzed by test of chi-square, Pearson correlation analysis and logistic regression analysis. Data were collected using an Interview Questionnaire, the Eating Habits Index and anthropometric measurements were performed. Results: The mean age of students was 20.87+/-2.29. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among students were 23.1% and 6.5% respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was related with male gender (p<0.05, family history of obesity (95% CI: 2.22-2.43, fast eating habit (p<0.05, and healthy dietary habits (95% CI: 1.02-2.85. The percents of moderate grade and high grade risk groups of students according to Eating Habits Index were 56.5 and 30.8 respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in this study was determined to be high. The prevention and control of obesity is urgently needed. In this content, comprehensive strategies of intervention propose periodical monitoring, education on pattern of nutrition, and healthy dietary behaviors. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 406-412

  8. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents of Urban AND Rural Area of Surat, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Parekh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study in prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban & rural adolescents in Surat (Gujarat, India. Methods: The data were derived from cross-sectional sampling of children, 176 in rural and 213 in urban, aged 14–16 years doing study in government schools in year of 2009. Age, gender and body mass index (BMI were used to define overweight and obesity. Result: The prevalence of obesity increased significantly from 12.8% in rural to 14.6% in urban (p<0.01, whereas underweight decreased from 13.6% to 4.6% (p<0.001. There was a significantly higher risk of being overweight and obese in urban than rural, after adjusting for age, gender. Urban Males had significantly higher increase in prevalence and risk of being overweight and obese. Conclusion: This study showed an increasing in prevalence of overweight and obesity in urban adolescents especially with male gender, calling for an urgent need for immediate and targeted preventive measures. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 325-329

  9. BIRTH AND POPULATION PREVALENCE OF DUCHENNE MUSCULAR-DYSTROPHY IN THE NETHERLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANESSEN, AJ; BUSCH, HFM; TEMEERMAN, GJ; TENKATE, LP

    1992-01-01

    Mutations causing Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have a short survival. Therefore, birth and population prevalence are maintained by new mutations. The present inventory was made to estimate the birth and population prevalence rates of DMD in the Netherlands. Seven methods of case identification

  10. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in twins: a population-based survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel O; Thomsen, Karsten; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A questionnaire-based identification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients in a twin cohort. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to establish a scoliosis twin cohort to provide data on the heritability of AIS. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The etiology of AIS is still...... environmental factors. METHODS: All 46,418 twins registered in the Danish Twin Registry born from 1931 to 1982 were sent a questionnaire, which included questions about scoliosis. A total of 34,944 (75.3%) representing 23,204 pairs returned the questionnaire. RESULTS: A subgroup of 220 subjects considered...... to have AIS was identified, thus giving a prevalence of 1.05%. The concordant twin pairs were all monozygotic. Pairwise, the concordance rate was 0.13 for monozygotic and zero for dizygotic twin pairs; proband-wise concordance was 0.25 for monozygotic and zero for dizygotic pairs. The concordance...

  11. Prevalence of Internet addiction and its association with social support and other related factors among adolescents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Jing; Li, Yi-Feng; Bi, Linda; Qian, Zhen-Zhong; Lu, Shan-Shan; Feng, Fang; Hu, Cai-Yun; Gong, Feng-Feng; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2016-10-01

    A cross-sectional study design was applied amongst a random sample (n = 10158) of Chinese adolescents. Self-completed questionnaires, including demographic characteristics, Internet use situation, Youth Internet Addiction Test, Youth Social Support Rating Scale and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale were utilized to examine the study objectives. Among the study population, the prevalence rate of Internet addiction was 10.4%, with 1038 (10.2%) moderately and 21 (0.2%) severely addicted to the Internet. Results from the multivariate logistic regression analyses suggested that a variety of related factors have significant effects on Internet addiction (parental control, per capita annual household income, academic performance, the access to Internet, online activities). The correlation coefficients showed that Internet addiction was negatively correlated with social support and positively associated with depression. Social support had a significant negative predictive effect on Internet addiction. The mediating effect of depression between social support and Internet addiction was remarkable.

  12. Body weight/image perceptions and prevalence of obesity among adolescents-Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity can be seen as the first wave of a defined cluster of non communicable diseases called "New World Syndrome" creating an enormous socioeconomic and public health burden in poorer countries. The rising prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity cannot be addressed by a single etiology. Multiple factors plays role and among them perception on body weight and image plays vital role in adolescents. So the objective of this study was to know the perceptions of adolescents on their body weight and body image. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of high schools of Thiruvananthapuram city corporation, Kerala, India. The sample size of this study was 1718 and the technique adopted is multistage and stratified random sampling. Data was collected using pre designed and pretested semi-structured questionnaire which is self-administered. Body mass index was calculated based on physical measurements such as height and weight using standard methods. Results: This study revealed that 67.3% of study subjects underestimated their body weight and 15.5% over estimated their body weight. The prevalence of overweight/obesity is high among those who underestimated their body weight (18.7% compared to subjects who overestimated (6.7% but the prevalence of underweight is high among the subjects who overestimated their body weight (60.8% compared to subjects who underestimated (22%. Conclusion: Schools are probably the ideal medium of intervention as they are central to children′s lives and information can be relatively quickly dissipated through this channel and Helping adolescents to attain a realistic, positive perception of their body weight and image through health education.

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of depressive disorders in early adolescents in central Norway

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    Larsson Bo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of depressive disorders among adolescents has varied across studies. The present study aims to assess current and lifetime prevalence and characteristics of adolescent Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Dysthymia and Depression NOS among adolescents in Central Norway in addition to socio-demographics and use of mental health care. Method In the Youth and Mental Health Study a representative sample of 2432 junior high school students (mean age 14.9 years, SD = 0.6 from two counties in Central Norway were screened with the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ. A subset of 345 of these adolescents (72.5% girls, 220 high scorers (MFQ = > 26, 74 middle scorers (MFQ 7-25, and 50 low scorers (MFQ Results Almost one in four subjects (23% had life-time depression. Prevalences of current Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Dysthymia and "Double depression" were 2.6%, 1.0% and 0.6%, respectively, and for Depression NOS 6.3%. All depressive disorders were characterized by long duration of episodes with large variations, and for any depressive disorder onset before 12 years of age. In multivariate analyses MDD and Dysthymia were most strongly associated with gender and not living with both biological parents. There was no gender difference for Depression NOS. Although a considerable number of depressed subjects had received mental health care, the reason for contact with services was seldom due to affective symptoms. Less than 20% had been in contact with specialist mental health services. Conclusion High rates of Depression NOS, early onset of depressive episodes, long duration, and low use of specialized services point to the need for improved diagnostic assessment and treatment for young individuals.

  14. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in adolescents: association between sociodemographic factors and lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antônio Chula Castro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence of abdominal obesity and verify the association with sociodemographic factors (gender, school shift, ethnicity, age, maternal education and economic status and lifestyle (alcohol consumption, sleep, soft drink consumption, level of physical activity and sedentary behavior in adolescents in Southern Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 930 adolescents (490 girls aged 14–19 years, living in the city of São José, SC, Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and lifestyle data. Abdominal obesity was measured through the waist circumference and analyzed according to gender and age. Descriptive statistics (absolute and relative frequency, mean and standard deviation and binary logistic regression, expressed as Odds Ratios (OR and 95% confidence interval (95%CI were employed, with p<0.05 being considered statistically significant; the SPSS 17.0 software was used for the statistical analyses. Results: The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 10.6% for the total sample (10.5% male, 10.8% female. Adolescents that watched television daily for two or more hours (OR=2.11, 95%CI 1.08–4.13 had a higher chance of having abdominal obesity and adolescents whose mothers had fewer than eight years of schooling (OR=0.56; 95%CI from 0.35 to 0.91 had a lower chance of having abdominal obesity. Conclusions: Approximately one in 10 adolescents had abdominal obesity; the associated factors were maternal schooling (≥8 years and television screen time (≥2h/day.

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Anísio Luiz da Silva; Hardman, Carla Meneses; de Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with a sample of high school students from state public schools in Pernambuco, Brazil (n=4207, 14-19 years old). Data were obtained using a questionnaire. The co-occurrence of health risk behaviors was established based on the sum of five behavioral risk factors (low physical activity, sedentary behavior, low consumption of fruits/vegetables, alcohol consumption and tobacco use). The independent variables were gender, age group, time of day attending school, school size, maternal education, occupational status, skin color, geographic region and place of residence. Data were analyzed by ordinal logistic regression with proportional odds model. Results: Approximately 10% of adolescents were not exposed to health risk behaviors, while 58.5% reported being exposed to at least two health risk behaviors simultaneously. There was a higher likelihood of co-occurrence of health risk behaviors among adolescents in the older age group, with intermediate maternal education (9-11 years of schooling), and who reported living in the driest (semi-arid) region of the state of Pernambuco. Adolescents who reported having a job and living in rural areas had a lower likelihood of co-occurrence of risk behaviors. Conclusions: The findings suggest a high prevalence of co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in this group of adolescents, with a higher chance in five subgroups (older age, intermediate maternal education, the ones that reported not working, those living in urban areas and in the driest region of the state). PMID:26298656

  16. Malocclusion prevalence and orthodontic treatment need in central Anatolian adolescents compared to European and other nations' adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fundagul Bilgic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in a large sample of Central Anatolian adolescents and compare them with European-other nations' adolescents. Methods: The sample included 1125 boys and 1204 girls aged between 12 and 16 years with no previous orthodontic treatment history. Occlusal variables examined were molar relationship, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, posterior crossbite, and scissors bite. The dental health (DHC and aesthetic components (AC of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN were used as an assessment measure of the need for orthodontic treatment for the total sample. Results: The results indicated a high prevalence of Class I (34.9% and Class II, Division 1 malocclusions (40.0%. Moreover, increased (18% and reduced bites (14.%, and increased (25.1% and reversed overjet (10.% were present in the sample. Conclusion: Using the DHC of the IOTN, the proportion of subjects estimated to have great and very great treatment need (grades 4 and 5 was 28.%. However, only 16.7% of individuals were in need (grades 8-10 of orthodontic treatment according to the AC.

  17. [Arterial hypertension among adolescents in Rio de Janeiro: prevalence and association with physical activity and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa-Neto, Victor Gonçalves; Sperandei, Sandro; Silva, Luis Aureliano Imbiriba; Maranhão-Neto, Geraldo de Albuquerque; Palma, Alexandre

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this study was to identify the prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension among adolescent students (aged 17-19 years) in the third and final year of high school in state schools in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, and to investigate associations between systemic arterial hypertension and obesity and physical activity levels. Data on arterial pressure, body mass index and physical activity were gathered. The analysis included 854 individuals. Descriptive statistical analysis was applied to the sample, along with a Poisson regression model to determine the impact of the variables on the prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension. The prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension was 19.4%. Male sex, overweight and obesity presented significant positive associations with systemic arterial hypertension (p arterial hypertension (p > 0.05). The nature of these relationships should be interpreted in the light of reflection and not of passive labeling based on hegemonic concepts.

  18. Annual Research Review: A Meta-Analysis of the Worldwide Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Salum, Giovanni A.; Sugaya, Luisa S.; Caye, Arthur; Rohde, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature on the prevalence of mental disorders affecting children and adolescents has expanded significantly over the last three decades around the world. Despite the field having matured significantly, there has been no meta-analysis to calculate a worldwide-pooled prevalence and to empirically assess the sources of…

  19. Improving validated depression screen among adolescent population in primary care practice using electronic health records (EHR).

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent depression, has been identified as one of the important risk factors for adolescent safety. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends screening the adolescent population for depression with a validated screening tool at least once a year. Given the time constraints in primary care, many physicians tend to rely more on clinical questioning to screen depression.This has the potential to miss many adolescents who may have mild to moderate depression which may prove detriment...

  20. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  1. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance among obese children and adolescents

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    Robabeh Ghergherechi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Robabeh Ghergherechi1, Ali Tabrizi21Department of Pediatrics Endocrinology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Students’ Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranPurpose: Obesity is one of the most important nutritional disorders in the world which has an obvious relationship with the incidence of metabolic diseases. Obesity prevalence has increased among children and adolescents during recent decades, leading to a rise in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM II prevalence in these two age brackets. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, and gather metabolic findings in obese children and adolescents.Methods and materials: We studied 110 obese children and adolescents (body mass index > 95th percentile for age and gender 4–18 years of age referred to the endocrine clinic of the Children’s Hospital at Tabriz University in a descriptive cross-sectional study. ­Fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in all subjects were determined. Oral glucose tolerance test after eating 75 g/kg glucose was performed. Homeostatic model assessment was used to ­estimate insulin resistance.Results: Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance prevalence in 68 obese adolescents was 14.7% and 31.8%, respectively. Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was not seen in 23.8% of 42 obese children. No case of DM II was seen. There was a significant statistical difference in glucose (P = 0.003 and insulin (P < 0.001 level at minute 120 in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance compared to obese children and adolescents without impaired glucose tolerance. Rate of insulin resistance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance was greater and had a significant statistical difference (P = 0.03.Conclusion: Obesity has a close relationship with increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in children and adolescents. Oral glucose

  2. Prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in healthy children and adolescents in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Figueira-Silva Cecília M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and age distribution of Epstein-Barr virus infection varies in different populations and there is little information about the epidemiology of this infection in Brazil. We studied the prevalence of EBV antibodies in a sample of 283 children and adolescents between 1 and 21 years old. The sample was taken from two neighborhoods in Vitória (capital city of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The São Pedro (SP neighborhood represented an area with lower socioeconomic status and the Praias (P neighborhood represented an area with higher SES. Anti-VCA (Virus Capsid Antigen antibodies were detected by ELISA and anti-EBNA (Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen antibodies were detected by an anti-complement immunofluorescence method, both using commercial kits. The results showed an overall prevalence rates of anti-VCA and anti-EBNA of 71% and 54% respectively. The prevalence for both anti-EBV antibodies was higher and probably the infection occurred earlier in the SP neighborhood. Among the various socioeconomic factors studied only low family income and maternal education level were significantly correlated with a higher frequency of positive serology for anti-VCA. These results demonstrate that there is a high prevalence of EBV antibodies in children and adolescents living in Vitória, that occurs more frequently at a younger age in children from families with low socioeconomic status. In addition, the results demonstrate an intermediate age distribution pattern between those reported in developed and underdeveloped countries.

  3. Type D personality is a risk factor for psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescents: a cross-sectional study of a large population-based cohort of Swedish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Condén Emelie; Leppert Jerzy; Ekselius Lisa; Åslund Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Type D personality, or the “distressed personality”, is a psychosocial factor associated with negative health outcomes, although its impact in younger populations is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Type D personality and the associations between Type D personality and psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescences. Methods A population-based, self-reported cross-sectional study conducted in Västmanland, Sweden wit...

  4. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in adolescents and association with computer and videogame use

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    Georgia Rodrigues Reis Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This study investigated the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms in high school adolescents from public schools and its association with electronic device use. Methods: The sample consisted of 961 boys and girls aged 14–19 years who answered a questionnaire regarding the use of computers and electronic games, and questions about pain symptoms and physical activity. Furthermore, anthropometric assessments of all volunteers were performed. The chi-squared test and a multiple logistic regression model were used for the inferential analysis. Results: The presence of musculoskeletal pain symptoms was reported by 65.1% of the adolescents, being more prevalent in the thoracolumbar spine (46.9%, followed by pain in the upper limbs, representing 20% of complaints. The mean time of use for computers and electronic games was 1.720 and 583 minutes per week, respectively. The excessive use of electronic devices was demonstrated to be a risk factor for cervical and lumbar pain. Female gender was associated with the presence of pain in different body parts. Presence of a paid job was associated with cervical pain. Conclusion: A high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in adolescents, as well as an increased amount of time using digital devices was observed. However, it was only possible to observe an association between the increased use of these devices and the presence of cervical and low back pain.

  5. The prevalence of inhalant use and associated factors among adolescents in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

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    Fernando Silva-Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study was to establish the prevalence of inhalant use among adolescents and its association with marijuana use, alcohol consumption, socioeconomic status and gender. A cross-sectional study was performed with a representative sample of 891 adolescents from public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data were collected using two self-administered questionnaires: the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT C. The socioeconomic status was evaluated using the Social Vulnerability Index, mother's education level and type of school (public or private. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test (p < 0.05 and logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of inhalant use was 7.9%. No significant association was found between the use of inhalants and socioeconomic status after the logistic regression analysis. Inhalant use among adolescents was associated with marijuana use (OR: 4.61; 95% CI: 2.27 - 9.36 and with binge drinking (OR: 5.02; 95% CI: 2.57 - 9.81.

  6. Computer products usage and prevalence of computer related musculoskeletal discomfort among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Damian Chi Hong; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Griffiths, Sian Meryl

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern of computer related activities among Hong Kong adolescents and the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort by anatomic sites. This study used a questionnaire-based cross-sectional design. Students from Year 1 to 7 of six local high schools were invited to complete a Student Musculoskeletal Health Questionnaire and Computer Usage Questionnaire. Complete data for 3,191 questionnaires was obtained, giving an overall response rate of 95.5%. High prevalence (68.3%) of musculoskeletal discomfort related to using computer was reported among Hong Kong children and adolescents in the past 12 months. Shoulder (37.7%) and neck (35.0%) were the most frequently involved body parts for both genders, while female students reported higher rates of musculoskeletal discomfort in each of the specified anatomic site than male students. Students who reported musculoskeletal discomfort were significantly older and spent a longer time on computer related activities. The associations found in this cross-sectional study should be confirmed by subsequent longitudinal studies. An urgent need in healthy computing environment is demanded among Hong Kong adolescents.

  7. Prevalence, comorbidities, and cofactors associated with alcohol consumption among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Mala A; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta B; Abdul Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Bt; Kamaruddin, Rozanim Bt; Sabtu, Mohd Yusoff B

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol is deleterious to physical and mental health as well as social well-being. This study aims to examine the prevalence of alcohol consumption and factors associated with its use among school-going Malaysian adolescents. The Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 employed 2-stage clustering design to Malaysian secondary school respondents aged 12 to 17 years. The prevalence of current alcohol usage was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8-10.07) overall, 11.2% (95% CI: 9.80-12.80) among males, and 23.4 (95% CI: 21.40-25.50) among Chinese students. Multivariate logistic regression showed that adolescents who had used alcohol were more likely to have used substance (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.39; 95% CI: 2.33-4.99), experienced injury (aOR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.20-1.95), and engaged in sexual behaviors (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.12-1.79), and fights (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.08-1.41). The current national policies on alcohol should be strengthened to curb alcohol consumption among adolescents.

  8. Pain prevalence, intensity, assessment and management in a hospitalized pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lori J; Kost-Byerly, Sabine; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Thompson, Carol B; Vasquenza, Kelly J; Rothman, Sharon K; Billett, Carol; White, Elizabeth D; Yaster, Myron; Monitto, Constance L

    2014-03-01

    New research, regulatory guidelines, and practice initiatives have improved pain management in infants, children, and adolescents, but obstacles remain. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and demographics of pain, as well as pain management practice patterns in hospitalized children in a tertiary-care university hospital. We prospectively collected data including patient demographics, presence/absence and location of pain, pain intensity, pain assessment documentation, analgesic use, side effects of analgesic therapy, and patient/family satisfaction. Two hundred male (58%) and female, medical and surgical (61%) patients, averaging 9 ± 6.2 years were studied. Pain was common (86%) and often moderate to severe (40%). Surgical patients reported pain more frequently when enrolled than did medical patients (99% vs. 65%). Female gender, age ≥ 5 years, and Caucasian race were all associated with higher mean pain scores. Furthermore, females and Caucasian children consumed more opioids than males and non-Caucasians. Identified obstacles to optimal analgesic management include lack of documented physician pain assessment (patient/family dissatisfaction with pain management (2%-7%). The data demonstrated that despite a concentrated focus on improving pain management over the past decade, pain remains common in hospitalized children. Identification of patient populations and characteristics that predispose to increased pain (e.g., female, Caucasian, postoperative patient) as well as obstacles to analgesic management provide a focus for the development of targeted interventions and research to further improve care.

  9. Prevalência de hipertensão pulmonar avaliada por ecocardiografia Doppler em uma população de pacientes adolescentes e adultos com fibrose cística Prevalence of pulmonary hypertension evaluated by Doppler echocardiography in a population of adolescent and adult patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Maria Eidt Rovedder

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de hipertensão pulmonar (HP em pacientes com fibrose cística (FC, comparar características clínicas, escore radiológico, função pulmonar e parâmetros ecocardiográficos nos grupos com e sem HP e correlacionar achados ecocardiográficos com características clínicas, escore radiológico e função pulmonar. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal prospectivo em pacientes clinicamente estáveis (idade > 16 anos atendidos por um programa de adultos para FC. Os pacientes foram submetidos a avaliação clínica, ecocardiografia Doppler, testes de função pulmonar e exame radiológico do tórax. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se a velocidade de regurgitação tricúspide (VRT em 37 dos 40 pacientes estudados. A prevalência de HP foi de 49% com um ponte de corte da VRT de 2,5 m/s (18 pacientes e de 30% com um ponte de corte da VRT de 2,8 m/s (11 pacientes. Os valores de saturação periférica de oxigênio (SpO2 em repouso, escore clínico, volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 e capacidade vital forçada (CVF foram significativamente menores no grupo com HP. A VRT correlacionou-se significativamente com SpO2 em repouso (p OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, to compare clinical characteristics, radiographic scores, pulmonary function, and echocardiographic parameters in patients with and without PH, and to correlate echocardiographic findings with clinical characteristics, radiographic scores, and pulmonary function. METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study involving clinically stable patients (aged 16 or older enrolled in an adult CF program. The patients were submitted to clinical evaluation, Doppler echocardiography, pulmonary function tests, and chest X-rays. RESULTS: Tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV was obtained in 37 of the 40 patients studied. The prevalence of PH was 49% with a TRV cut-off of 2.5 m/s (18 patients

  10. Impact of Malocclusion on the Quality of Life of Brazilian Adolescents: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luciana Freitas Gomes E; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Freitas, Heloiza Viana; Pereira, Alex Luiz Pozzobon; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Alves, Cláudia Maria Coelho

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of malocclusion on the quality of life (QOL) of adolescents in Brazil. We carried out a cross-sectional study in a sample population of 1015 schoolchildren aged 12 to 15 years from São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. The explanatory variable was malocclusion, evaluated on the basis of the normative need or the adolescent's self-perceived need for dental treatment. Normative need for dental treatment was determined by professional diagnosis, made on the basis of Angle's classification, the Dental Aesthetic Index, and other morphological deviations (e.g., posterior crossbite, posterior open bite, and deep overbite). We analyzed the impact of malocclusion on the QOL using the Portuguese version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14. Associations were estimated by using the prevalence ratio (PR) in Poisson regression analysis, with hierarchized modeling. An alpha of 5% was adopted as the criterion for statistical significance. The QOL of adolescents was impacted by malocclusion, classified by a normative need for treatment according to the Dental Aesthetic Index (PR = 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.56) or by the self-perceived need for treatment (PR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.81-3.56). Certain sociodemographic variables, including the head of the family (PR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.02-2.23), greater educational level of the head of the family (PR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.17-0.61), and female sex (PR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.05-1.89), had negative associations with QOL. We conclude that malocclusion has a negative impact on the QOL of adolescents, associated with socioeconomic conditions and the cosmetic effects of malocclusion.

  11. Prevalence and predictors of suicidal ideations among school going adolescents in a hilly state of India

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    Durgesh Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent suicide is an important public health issue. Suicidal ideations are often the precursor of suicide and can be targeted by appropriate and timely interventions. Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence of suicide ideation and to study its predictive factors among school going adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in selected senior secondary schools in Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh, India. A pre-validated, self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using Epi info software for windows (CDC Atlanta software for windows. Results: A total of 218 study subjects (30.9%; confidence interval = 27.6–34.5% had suicide ideation. Discussing problems with parents (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.5, having good relations with school teachers (AOR = 0.6 and helpful classmates (AOR = 0.6 lowered the odds of having suicidal ideations. On the contrary, adolescents having worrying issues in family (AOR = 2.5, verbally or physically abused (AOR = 2.8 and body image conscious (AOR = 1.8 had increased odds of suicidal ideations. Conclusions: Suicidal ideation is a common experience among adolescents residing in Shimla district of North India. The supportive environment at home and in school decrease its vulnerability.

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Anemia Among Adolescents in Denizli, Turkey

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    İbrahim Ethem

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of anemia among adolescents in Denizli where Mediterranean cuisine (fresh fruit and vegetables is adopted.Methods: We accepted hemoglobin values below 12 g/dl for girls and 13 g/dl for boys as the criteria of anemia. We recorded a detailed history including nutritional habits, consumption of animal source foods especially red meat, consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, presence of parasitic infestation, psychosocial status, school success and any materials consumed except ordinary food.Findings: We investigated the prevalence of anemia in 1120 children (672 girls and 448 boys, aged 12 to 16 years. We found that the overall prevalence of anemia was 5.6%. 8.3% of the girls and 1.6% of the boys were anemic. We diagnosed iron deficiency anemia in 37(59% anemic patients and combined iron deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia in 26 (41% anemic patients. None of the patients had folic acid deficiency.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the socioeconomic status of the family, traditional eating habits of the region, the fear of gaining weight and irregular eating habits are of great importance in the development of adolescent anemia in Denizli.

  13. Prevalence of Thinness and Stunting and Associated Factors among Adolescent School Girls in Adwa Town, North Ethiopia

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    Tsgehana Gebregyorgis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the fact that adolescence is a window of opportunity to break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition, adolescents are the neglected age groups. Hence information regarding the nutritional status of adolescents is lacking making creating and implementing intervention programs difficult. Objective. To assess the prevalence of thinness, stunting, and associated factors among adolescent school girls in Adwa town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods. Data on 814 adolescent female students were collected from March to April 2015 using interviewer administered pretested semistructured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO Anthroplus software. Results. The prevalence of thinness and stunting was 21.4% and 12.2%, respectively. Age of adolescent [AOR = 2.15 (1.14,4.03], mother’s educational status [AOR = 2.34 (1.14,4.80], eating less than 3 meals per day [AOR = 1.66 (1.12,2.46], having family size >5 [AOR = 2.53 (1.66,3.86] were significantly associated with thinness among the adolescent girls. Family size >5 [AOR = 2.05 (1.31,3.23] and unimproved source of drinking water [AOR = 3.82 (2.20,6.62] were significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Thinness and stunting are prevalent problems in the study area. Strategies to improve the nutritional status of girls should be given much attention.

  14. Prevalence of Thinness and Stunting and Associated Factors among Adolescent School Girls in Adwa Town, North Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregyorgis, Tsgehana; Tadesse, Takele; Atenafu, Azeb

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Despite the fact that adolescence is a window of opportunity to break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition, adolescents are the neglected age groups. Hence information regarding the nutritional status of adolescents is lacking making creating and implementing intervention programs difficult. Objective. To assess the prevalence of thinness, stunting, and associated factors among adolescent school girls in Adwa town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods. Data on 814 adolescent female students were collected from March to April 2015 using interviewer administered pretested semistructured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO Anthroplus software. Results. The prevalence of thinness and stunting was 21.4% and 12.2%, respectively. Age of adolescent [AOR = 2.15 (1.14,4.03)], mother's educational status [AOR = 2.34 (1.14,4.80)], eating less than 3 meals per day [AOR = 1.66 (1.12,2.46)], having family size >5 [AOR = 2.53 (1.66,3.86)] were significantly associated with thinness among the adolescent girls. Family size >5 [AOR = 2.05 (1.31,3.23)] and unimproved source of drinking water [AOR = 3.82 (2.20,6.62)] were significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Thinness and stunting are prevalent problems in the study area. Strategies to improve the nutritional status of girls should be given much attention. PMID:27294107

  15. Prevalence of insulin resistance and its association with metabolic syndrome criteria among Bolivian children and adolescents with obesity

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    Rodriguez Susana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a one of the most common nutritional disorder worldwide, clearly associated with the metabolic syndrome, condition with implications for the development of many chronic diseases. In the poorest countries of Latin America, malnourishment is still the most prevalent nutritional problem, but obesity is emerging in alarming rates over the last 10 years without a predictable association with metabolic syndrome. The objective of our study was to determine the association between insulin-resistance and components of the metabolic syndrome in a group of Bolivian obese children and adolescents. The second objective was determining the relation of acanthosis nigricans and insulin-resistance. Methods We studied 61 obese children and adolescents aged between 5 and 18 years old. All children underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and fasting blood sample was also obtained to measure insulin, HDL, LDL and triglycerides serum level. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III criteria adapted for children. Results Metabolic syndrome was found in 36% of the children, with a higher rate among males (40% than females (32.2% (p = 0.599. The prevalence of each of the components was 8.2% in impaired glucose tolerance, 42.6% for high triglyceride level, 55.7% for low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and 24.5% for high blood pressure. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR > 3.5 was found in 39.4% of the children, with a higher rate in males (50% than females (29%. A strong correlation was found between insulin resistance and high blood pressure (p = 0.0148 and high triglycerides (p = 0.002. No statistical significance was found between the presence of acanthosis nigricans and insulin resistance. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome has a prevalence of 36% in children and adolescent population in the study. Insulin resistance was very common among

  16. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in danish infants, children and adolescents--are we still on a plateau?

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    Camilla Schmidt Morgen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After the worldwide steep increase in child and adolescent overweight and obesity during the last decades, there is now evidence of a levelling off in the prevalence in many countries in the Western world. AIM: To examine whether there still is a plateau in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Danish children and adolescents, or whether the prevalence is decreasing or rising again. METHODS: THE TRENDS IN THE PREVALENCE RATES WERE BASED ON THREE DATA SETS PROVIDING COMPARABLE REPEATED ESTIMATES: 1 the Danish Health Visitors Child Health Database (DHVCHD with measurements on infant and childhood height and weight from 2002 to 2011 (n up to 39,984, 2 the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC with maternal reports of measured infant and childhood height and weight from 1998 to 2010 (n up to 56,826 and 3 the Danish part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (HBSC with self-reported information on adolescent height and weight from the years 2002 to 2010 (n = 16,557. Overweight and obesity were categorized according to WHO growth standards. Trends were assessed by repeated point estimates and linear regression analyses providing regression coefficients for changes in per cent per year with 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity for infants, children and adolescents showed a mixed pattern of decline, stability and increase (ranging from -1.10 through 0.29 per cent per year with CI's from -3.10 through 2.37. Overall, there were no consistent statistically significant trends upwards or downwards, although some significant downward trends in childhood and adolescence were observed. CONCLUSION: This study, based on data from 1998 through 2011, showed that the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity among Danish infants, children and adolescents were largely still on a plateau with tendencies for a decline among children and adolescents.

  17. Lipid Profiles and Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Eastern Iranian Adolescents, Birjand, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Taheri; Tayebeh Chahkandi; Toba Kazemi; Bita Bijari; Mahmoud Zardast; Kokab Namakin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular risk factors begin in childhood and adolescence. This study aimed at assessing serum lipids and prevalence of Dyslipidemia in 11-18 year old students of Birjand. Methods: The present cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was done on 2,643 middle and high school students of Birjand aged 11-18 years (1,396 girls and 1,247 boys). Blood samples were collected for the measurement of blood lipids, including Cholesterol, Triglyceride, HDL, and LDL after a ...

  18. Population-based incidence and prevalence of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenen, J.C.W.; Arnts, H.; Maarel, S.M. van der; Padberg, G.W.A.M.; Verschuuren, J.J.; Bakker, E.; Weinreich, S.S.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and prevalence of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) in the Netherlands. METHODS: Using 3-source capture-recapture methodology, we estimated the total yearly number of newly found symptomatic individuals with FSHD, including those not registered in an

  19. Prevalence of odontogenic cysts and tumors among UAE population

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    Natheer Hashim Al-Rawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Odontogenic cysts and tumors are lesions that tend to arise from the tooth apparatus or its remnants. Odontogenic cysts and tumors constitute an important aspect of oral maxillofacial pathology as they can be diagnosed in general dental practice. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of odontogenic cysts and tumors diagnosed in the UAE and to compare the results with findings in the literature. Materials and Methods: Data of odontogenic cysts diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 were collected from the files of the Oral Pathology Laboratory and Oral Surgery Department of Tawam Hospital, UAE. Results: Most of the prevalent odontogenic cysts are radicular cysts (69.1% - followed by dentigerous cysts (7.9%. Among the odontogenic tumors, the most prevalent is odontoma (12.2% followed by ameloblastoma (2.9%. The middle and posterior mandible was the most common anatomic site for the formation of cysts and tumors. In fact, 93.4% of patients over 40 years presented with odontogenic cysts, whereas 6.3% presented with odontogenic tumor. Odontoma as odontogenic tumor was seen mostly in the first and second decades of life. Conclusion: The prevalence of odontogenic cysts was similar to that reported in the literature, with inflammatory cysts occurring most frequently.

  20. Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderstrom, Irina R.

    2007-01-01

    Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

  1. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

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    Lindfors Pirjo L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey. The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%; and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%. Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying

  2. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey). The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%); and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%). Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying exposure differed between

  3. Prevalence of Fracture in Healthy Iranian Children Aged 9–18 Years and Associated Risk Factors; A Population Based Study

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    Marjan Jeddi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of fractures and associated risk factors in healthy Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: In this cross sectional population based study, 478 healthy Iranian children and adolescents aged 9–18 years old participated. Baseline data and bone mineral content and density have been determined. One questionnaire was completed for all individuals including previous history of fracture, its location, and level of trauma. Albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and vitamin D levels were measured. Results: We found a prevalence of 12.9% for fracture. (34.5% for girls and 65.5% for boys; about 71% suffered long bone fracture with distal forearm as the most common site. Totally 58% of the boys and 54% of the girls had fracture with low-energy trauma. The fracture group had lower bone mineral apparent density in the lumbar spine (0.19±0.04 vs. 0.20±0.03, p=0.04, lower serum albumin (4.6±0.5 vs 4.8±0.4, p=0.02, and higher serum alkaline phosphatase level (446±174 vs. 361±188, p=0.02 compared with non-fracture subjects. By logistic regression analysis, we found a significant association for sex, and bone mineral content of the lumbar spine with fracture (p=0.003, p=0.039. Conclusion: Compared to other studies, our subjects had lower rate of fracture. We found an association between low bone density and fracture in children and adolescents. This finding has important implications for public health. Further research may contribute to recognition of preventive measures.

  4. Prevalence of thinness among the adolescent girls (age group 13yrs-18yrs of Garhkhal village of Himachal Pradesh, India.

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    Priyanka Rani Garg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition has now been redefined in terms of “under nutrition” and conceptualized in terms of thinness which is an important problem among children and adolescents in rural areas of developing countries like India. Therefore, present study was carried out to assess the prevalence of thinness among the adolescent girls (age group 13yrs-18yrs of Garhkhal Village of Himachal Pradesh, India. The study design was cross-sectional. Height and weight were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI was carried out. Identification of thinness was done according to the new International BMI-based classification cut offs as given by Cole et al., 2007. In general the mean BMI increased with increasing age. Overall age-combined prevalence was 79.5%. Present study indicated the poor health status of the adolescent girls of the selected area which indicates the high nutritional stress among them as evident from the thinness prevalent among them.

  5. Prevalence, etiology, and types of dental trauma in children and adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Pournaghi Azar, Fatemeh; Rezapour, Aziz; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Ahmad MOOSAVI; Ghertasi Oskouei, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental traumas are common among children and adolescents in many societies posing health and social problems. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on prevalence, etiology, types, and other epidemiologic aspects of dental trauma in children and adolescents (0-18 years old). Methods: In this systematic meta-analytical review, data were collected searching for key words including traumatic dental injuries, dental trauma, dental injury, dental tra...

  6. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of active commuting to school in a nationwide representative sample of German adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Reimers, Anne Kerstin; Jekauc, Darko; Peterhans, Eliane; Wagner, Matthias O.; Woll, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of walking and cycling to school in a nationwide representative cross-sectional sample of German adolescents.Methods. A sample of 1828 German adolescents aged 11–17 years were examined between 2003 and 2006. Mode of commuting to school was assessed using a reliable self-report measure. Socioeconomic status, migration background and residential area were assessed as socio-demographic variables using a parent-report questionna...

  7. Sexual identity and prevalence of alcohol and other drug use among Australians in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roxburgh, Amanda; Lea, Toby; de Wit, John; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International research assessing differences in the prevalence of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use among Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender (LGBTI) and heterosexual populations shows elevated prevalence rates of substance use among LGBTI people. To date no research has been published i

  8. Isolated systolic hypertension in an elderly Danish population. Prevalence and daytime ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talleruphuus, Ulrik; Bang, Lia Evi; Wiinberg, Niels;

    2006-01-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence in a representative population do not seem to be available. The prevalence of ISH and the white coat effect was thus studied in a cross-sectional survey of 2806 inhab...

  9. Frontotemporal dementia in The Netherlands: patient characteristics and prevalence estimates from a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Rosso (Sonia); L. Donker Kaat (Laura); T. Baks (Timo); M. Joosse (Marijke); I. de Koning (Inge); Y. Pijnenburg (Yolande); D. de Jong (Danielle); D. Dooijes (Dennis); W. Kamphorst (Wouter); R. Ravid (Rivka); M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus); F. Verheij (Fop); H.P. Kremer; P. Scheltens (Philip); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); P. Heutink (Peter); J.C. van Swieten (John)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractSince 1994, a population-based study of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in The Netherlands has aimed to ascertain all patients with FTD, and first prevalence estimates based on 74 patients were reported in 1998. Here, we present new prevalence estimates after expansion of our FTD populatio

  10. Prevalence of Rh, Duffy, Kell, Kidd & MNSs blood group antigens in the Indian blood donor population

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    R N Makroo

    2013-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: This study found the prevalence of the typed antigens among Indian blood donors to be statistically different to those in the Caucasian, Black and Chinese populations, but more similar to Caucasians than to the other racial groups.

  11. Prevalence of Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS): A Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Varun; Alikhan, Ali; Vazquez, Benjamin G.; Weaver, Amy L.; Davis, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a follicular occlusion disorder occurring in apocrine-rich regions of the skin. Estimates of the prevalence of this disorder have not been population-based. We sought to provide population-based information on the prevalence of HS in Olmsted County, Minnesota as of 1/1/2009. METHODS Rochester Epidemiology Project, a unique infrastructure that combines and makes accessible all medical records in Olmsted County since the 1960s, was used to collect population-based data on the prevalence of HS. RESULTS We identified 178 confirmed cases of HS that included 135 females and 43 males, and estimated the total sex- and age-adjusted prevalence in Olmsted County to be 127.8 per 100,000 or 0.13%. The total prevalence was significantly higher among women than men. CONCLUSION This study represents the first population-based investigation on the prevalence of HS. In this population-based cohort, HS was less prevalent than previous reports have suggested. PMID:25228133

  12. Prevalence of Diabetes and Associated Factors in the Uyghur and Han Population in Xinjiang, China

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    Haiying Gong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of diabetes and identify risk factors in the Uyghur and Han population in Xinjiang, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study in urban and rural areas in Xinjiang, including 2863 members of the Uyghur population and 3060 of the Han population aged 20 to 80 years, was conducted from June 2013 to August 2013. Data on fasting plasma glucose (FPG and personal history of diabetes were used to estimate the prevalence of diabetes. Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, and lipid profiles were collected to identify risks factors using the multivariate logistic regression model. Results: In urban areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 8.21%, and the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was higher in the Uyghur population (10.47% than in the Han population (7.36%. In rural areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 6.08%, and it did not differ significantly between the Uyghur population (5.71% and the Han population (6.59%. The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older age, obesity, high triglycerides (TG, and hypertension were all associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur and Han population. Urban residence and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C were associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur population. Being an ex-drinker was associated with an increased risk of diabetes and heavy physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of diabetes in the Han population. Conclusions: Our study indicates that diabetes is more prevalent in the Uyghur population compared with the Han population in urban areas. Strategies aimed at the prevention of diabetes require ethnic targeting.

  13. Is the Prevalence of Overactive Bladder Overestimated? A Population-Based Study in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In earlier studies, one in six adults had overactive bladder which may impair quality of life. However, earlier studies have either not been population-based or have suffered from methodological limitations. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of overactive bladder symptoms, based on a representative study population and using consistent definitions and exclusions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of the study was to assess the age-standardized prevalence of overactive bla...

  14. Prevalence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk factors among the general population and osteoarthritis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Yun, Jae Moon; Chang, Chong Bum; Piao, Heng; Yu, Su Jong; Shin, Dong Wook

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the prevalence of possible risk factors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) and their age-group specific trend among the general population and osteoarthritis patients. METHODS We utilized data from the National Health Insurance Service that included claims data and results of the national health check-up program. Comorbid conditions (peptic ulcer, diabetes, liver disease, chronic renal failure, and gastroesophageal reflux disease), concomitant drugs (aspirin, clopidogrel, cilostazol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid, anticoagulants, and SSRI), personal habits (smoking, and alcohol consumption) were considered as possible UGIB risk factors. We randomly imputed the prevalence of infection in the data considering the age-specific prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in Korea. The prevalence of various UGIB risk factors and the age-group specific trend of the prevalence were identified. Prevalence was compared between osteoarthritis patients and others. RESULTS A total of 801926 subjects (93855 osteoarthritis patients) aged 20 and above were included. The prevalence of individual and concurrent multiple risk factors became higher as the age increased. The prevalence of each comorbid condition and concomitant drug were higher in osteoarthritis patients. Thirty-five point zero two percent of the overall population and 68.50% of osteoarthritis patients had at least one or more risk factors of UGIB. The prevalence of individual and concurrent multiple risk factors in younger age groups were also substantial. Furthermore, when personal habits (smoking, and alcohol consumption) and H. pylori infection were included, the prevalence of concurrent multiple risk factors increased greatly even in younger age groups. CONCLUSION Prevalence of UGIB risk factors was high in elderly population, but was also considerable in younger population. Patient with osteoarthritis was at higher UGIB risk than those without osteoarthritis

  15. Effect of social and environmental determinants on overweight and obesity prevalence among adolescent school children

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    R K Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overweight and obesity among children and adolescents is a public health concern. Objective: To assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its association with social and environmental determinants among the adolescent school children of Tirupati town of Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Data was collected by interviewer-administered method from school children aged between 12 to 16 years. The sample consisted of 2258 subjects (1097 boys and 1161 girls. Overweight and obesity were defined by body mass index (BMI based on the current method recommended by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention 2000. Data on social and environmental determinants were collected by using a pre-tested and validated questionnaire. Results: In the present sample, 11.2 percent and 4.8 percent of boys and 10.3 percent and 4.8 percent of girls were overweight and obese. The literacy level of parents, family income and child sleep duration significantly associated with overweight. Parental level of education was a risk factor for overweight (Mother: 1.570; 95% CI: 1.048-2.354. Similarly increase in family income (OR = 1.529; 95% CI: 1.089-2.148 and child sleep duration <7 hrs per day (OR = 2.006; 95% CI: 1.194-3.371 raised children′s association in gaining weight. Conclusion: Our study reinforces the burgeoning prevalence of overweight and obesity among the adolescents. Interventional measures taken should consider family, school and physical environment to check the problem of overweight/obesity.

  16. The prevalence and risk factors for depression symptoms in a rural Chinese sample population.

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    Xinghu Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is essential to understand how we can prevent and treat the epidemic of depression. Several studies have reported the prevalence of depressive symptoms in the urban population in China, but there is a lack of information regarding the prevalence of depression in rural populations. OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence of depression in a rural Chinese population and to analyze the risk factors for depression. METHODS: This study used a cross-sectional approach. A total of 11,473 subjects were surveyed and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9 and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief scales. Living conditions, per capita income, marital status, and information about dietary health and chronic disease status were assessed. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms in the population was 5.9%. The prevalence in women (8.1% was higher compared with men (3.5% and also increased with age. The per capita income level, amount of sleep obtained per day, education level, weekly consumption of meat and beans or bean products, salt intake, and chronic disease status were associated with depressive symptoms. The quality of life of individuals with a score less than 10 points on the PHQ-9 was significantly better compared with individuals with a score greater than 10. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among rural population is higher than some southern cities in China. Dietary patterns may be an important risk factor linked to this disorder in the Chinese rural population.

  17. Lifetime Prevalence of Mental Disorders in U.S. Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikangas, Kathleen Ries; He, Jian-ping; Burstein, Marcy; Swanson, Sonja A.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Cui, Lihong; Benjet, Corina; Georgiades, Katholiki; Swendsen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To present estimates of the lifetime prevalence of "DSM-IV" mental disorders with and without severe impairment, their comorbidity across broad classes of disorder, and their sociodemographic correlates. Method: The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement NCS-A is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of…

  18. The role of national policies intended to regulate adolescent smoking in explaining the prevalence of daily smoking: a study of adolescents from 27 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Christina W; Kreiner, Svend; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: This study seeks to examine whether contextual factors influence adolescents' daily smoking. A focus was placed on three modifiable policies operating at a national level, non-smoking policy at educational facilities, price and minimum age for buying tobacco. DESIGN: This study is based...... in Europe, Israel and North America. Data were analysed with multi-level hierarchical regression models. FINDINGS: The study found large differences in the prevalence of daily smoking among adolescents, and also large differences between boys and girls within some countries. The study found that smoking...... bans in schools were associated with lower odds ratios of daily smoking, which was the one positive association in the study. The study found no association between cigarette prices and adolescent daily smoking prevalence, and also the somewhat unexpected finding that having an age limit for allowing...

  19. Nutritional and physical activity behaviours and habits in adolescent population of Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević-Nikić Marina; Dopsaj Milivoj; Vesković Ana

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Proper nutrition and regular physical activity are essential parts of a adolescent's overall health. The aim of this research was to evaluated eating and physical activity behaviours and habits, nutritional and food knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy related to diet and health of the adolescents of the city of Belgrade, Serbia. Methods. A dietary questionnaire previously constructed and tested in adolescent population from Italy was self-administrated. We evaluated eat...

  20. Social anxiety disorder in Saudi adolescent boys: Prevalence, subtypes, and parenting style as a risk factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazwani, Jaafar Y.; Khalil, Shamsun N.; Ahmed, Razia A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Available information on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents in Saudi Arabia is limited. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, severity, and subtypes of SAD, and parenting style risk factors associated with SAD in the adolescent. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools for boys in Abha, Saudi Arabia during the Academic year 2013. To collect the data, a questionnaire eliciting information on background characteristics and parenting style as well as the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Test (LSAS), for the evaluation of SAD, were used. Results: A total of 454 students participated in the study. The age of the participants ranged between 15 and 20 years with a mean of 17.4 years. The prevalence of SAD was 11.7%. Around 36% and 11.4% of the students respectively had severe and more severe forms of SAD. Parenting style such as parental anger, criticism particularly in front of others, exaggerated protection, maltreatment and family provocation emerged as a significant risk factor for SAD. The independent predictors of SAD were a parental provocation and physical or emotional maltreatment by the parent (odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90–8.31 and OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 3.17–5.19, respectively). Conclusion: The prevalence of SAD in secondary school students at Abha is high. Parenting style risk factors for SAD are modifiable. In this context, a national program to improve mental health in this age group is crucial. PMID:26929726

  1. Social anxiety disorder in Saudi adolescent boys: Prevalence, subtypes, and parenting style as a risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Y Ghazwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Available information on social anxiety disorder (SAD in adolescents in Saudi Arabia is limited. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, severity, and subtypes of SAD, and parenting style risk factors associated with SAD in the adolescent. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools for boys in Abha, Saudi Arabia during the Academic year 2013. To collect the data, a questionnaire eliciting information on background characteristics and parenting style as well as the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Test (LSAS, for the evaluation of SAD, were used. Results: A total of 454 students participated in the study. The age of the participants ranged between 15 and 20 years with a mean of 17.4 years. The prevalence of SAD was 11.7%. Around 36% and 11.4% of the students respectively had severe and more severe forms of SAD. Parenting style such as parental anger, criticism particularly in front of others, exaggerated protection, maltreatment and family provocation emerged as a significant risk factor for SAD. The independent predictors of SAD were a parental provocation and physical or emotional maltreatment by the parent (odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90-8.31 and OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 3.17-5.19, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of SAD in secondary school students at Abha is high. Parenting style risk factors for SAD are modifiable. In this context, a national program to improve mental health in this age group is crucial.

  2. Dementia in a tribal landlocked elderly population at high altitude: What explains the lower prevalence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies across the populations have suggested that dementia is differentially distributed with a lower prevalence in developing regions than the developed ones. A comparison in the prevalence of dementia across populations may provide an insight into its risk factors. Earlier, we reported on the prevalence of dementia in elderly population in migrant, urban, rural, and tribal populations. The present study was conducted with a view to estimating the prevalence of dementia in Tribal Landlocked Elderly Population at high altitude and therefore to draw some conclusions on the differential distribution of dementia across populations. Methods: A cross-sectional comprehensive two-phase survey of all residents aged 60 years and older was conducted. Phase 1 involved screening of all individuals aged 60 and above with the help of a cognitive screen specifically developed for the tribal population. Phase 2 involved clinical examination of individuals who were suspected of dementia as per the developed cognitive screening test. Results: The results revealed that six individuals out of a total of 481 studied above 60 years of age in the studied population scored between 17 and 23, thus qualifying as suffering from mild cognitive impairment. Importantly, none of the individuals above 60 years of age scored <17. Discussion: The current study is in conformity with our previous study conducted on urban, rural, and migrant areas of the state of Himachal Pradesh again emphasizing on dementia being rare in tribal populations and thereby pointing to the presence of some protective factors among tribal people.

  3. Physical Activity Level and Sport Participation in Relation to Musculoskeletal Pain in a Population-Based Study of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guddal, Maren Hjelle; Stensland, Synne Øien; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Johnsen, Marianne Bakke; Zwart, John-Anker; Storheim, Kjersti

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among adolescents is high, and pain in adolescence increases the risk of chronic pain in adulthood. Studies have shown conflicting evidence regarding associations between physical activity and musculoskeletal pain, and few have evaluated the potential impact of sport participation on musculoskeletal pain in adolescent population samples. Purpose: To examine the associations between physical activity level, sport participation, and musculoskeletal pain in the neck and shoulders, low back, and lower extremities in a population-based sample of adolescents. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence 4. Methods: Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (Young-HUNT3) were used. All 10,464 adolescents in the Nord-Trøndelag county of Norway were invited, of whom 74% participated. Participants were asked how often they had experienced pain, unrelated to any known disease or acute injury, in the neck and shoulders, low back, and lower extremities in the past 3 months. The associations between (1) physical activity level (low [reference], medium or high) or (2) sport participation (weekly compared with no/infrequent participation) and pain were evaluated using logistic regression analyses, stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, socioeconomic status, and psychological distress. Results: The analyses included 7596 adolescents (mean age, 15.8 years; SD, 1.7). Neck and shoulder pain was most prevalent (17%). A moderate level of physical activity was associated with reduced odds of neck and shoulder pain (OR = 0.79 [95% CI, 0.66-0.94]) and low back pain (OR = 0.75 [95% CI, 0.62-0.91]), whereas a high level of activity increased the odds of lower extremity pain (OR = 1.60 [95% CI, 1.29-1.99]). Participation in endurance sports was associated with lower odds of neck and shoulder pain (OR = 0.79 [95% CI, 0.68-0.92]) and low back pain (OR = 0.77 [95% CI, 0.65-0.92]), especially among girls. Participation in technical

  4. Prevalência de anemia e níveis séricos de hemoglobina em adolescentes segundo estágio de maturidade sexual Prevalence of anemia and hemoglobin serum levels in adolescents according to sexual maturation stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Brandão Mariath

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante a adolescência o crescimento acelerado promove um aumento nas necessidades nutricionais, inclusive de ferro, tornando os adolescentes um grupo de risco nutricional. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a prevalência de anemia e os níveis séricos de hemoglobina de acordo com o estágio de maturidade sexual em uma amostra representativa composta por 272 adolescentes matriculados em escolas da rede municipal de ensino de Balneário Camboriú-SC. A auto-avaliação da maturidade sexual foi realizada segundo os critérios de Tanner (1962. Os níveis sangüíneos de hemoglobina foram medidos através do sistema HemoCue® e o diagnóstico de deficiência de ferro foi baseado no critério proposto pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (2001. Foram consideradas significativas as diferenças ao nível de pAccelerated growth spurt during adolescence leads to increased nutritional requirements, including iron, therefore posing a nutritional risk to adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of anemia and hemoglobin serum levels according to the sexual maturation stage in a representative sample comprised of 272 adolescents enrolled in public schools in Balneário Camboriú, SC. Self-assessment of sexual maturation was carried out according to criteria defined by Tanner (1962. Hemoglobin serum levels were measured through the HemoCue® system and the diagnosis of iron deficiency was based on the cut off points proposed by the World Health Organization (2001. Differences were considered significant at the level of p<0.05. We found a prevalence of 31.2% of anemia without significant differences between genders. Hemoglobin serum levels were significantly higher in boys (p=0.044 than in girls. We did not find significant differences between mean hemoglobin levels of girls who had reached menarche and the ones who had not. There was no statistical association between the presence of anemia and sexual maturation stages of adolescents

  5. The epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of hand eczema in the general population. These studies are of high value as they tend to be less biased than studies using clinical populations and as they are important for healthcare decision makers when they allocate resources....... This study aimed to review the epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population. Literature was examined using Pubmed-Medline, Biosis, Science Citation Index, and dermatology text books. On the basis of studies performed between 1964 and 2007, the point prevalence of hand eczema was around 4%, the 1......-year prevalence nearly 10%, whereas the lifetime prevalence reached 15%. Based on seven studies, the median incidence rate of hand eczema was 5.5 cases/1000 person-years (women = 9.6 and men = 4.0). A high incidence rate was associated with female sex, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work...

  6. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence population provided with enhanced diagnosis of symptomatic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L Corbett

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Directly observed treatment short course (DOTS, the global control strategy aimed at controlling tuberculosis (TB transmission through prompt diagnosis of symptomatic smear-positive disease, has failed to prevent rising tuberculosis incidence rates in Africa brought about by the HIV epidemic. However, rising incidence does not necessarily imply failure to control tuberculosis transmission, which is primarily driven by prevalent infectious disease. We investigated the epidemiology of prevalent and incident TB in a high HIV prevalence population provided with enhanced primary health care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twenty-two businesses in Harare, Zimbabwe, were provided with free smear- and culture-based investigation of TB symptoms through occupational clinics. Anonymised HIV tests were requested from all employees. After 2 y of follow-up for incident TB, a culture-based survey for undiagnosed prevalent TB was conducted. A total of 6,440 of 7,478 eligible employees participated. HIV prevalence was 19%. For HIV-positive and -negative participants, the incidence of culture-positive tuberculosis was 25.3 and 1.3 per 1,000 person-years, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 18.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.3 to 34.5: population attributable fraction = 78%, and point prevalence after 2 y was 5.7 and 2.6 per 1,000 population (adjusted odds ratio = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.5 to 6.8: population attributable fraction = 14%. Most patients with prevalent culture-positive TB had subclinical disease when first detected. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies based on prompt investigation of TB symptoms, such as DOTS, may be an effective way of controlling prevalent TB in high HIV prevalence populations. This may translate into effective control of TB transmission despite high TB incidence rates and a period of subclinical infectiousness in some patients.

  7. Hepatitis E. virus is prevalent in the Danish pig population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; De Deus, N.

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for major outbreaks of acute hepatitis in humans from developing countries, but evidence increases that also in industrialized countries locally acquired HEV infections acor. The disease usually affects young adults and has a relatively high mortality...... in infected pregnant women. HEV sequences worldwide can be classified into four major genotypes. Genotypes 1 and 2 are causing the majority of HEV infections in humans in hyper-endemic areas. In contrast, HEV genotypes 3 and 4 identified in cases of human hepatitis with increasing prevalence in countries...... such as USA, Europe, Japan and China. There is increasing evidence for the zoonotic origin of infections with HEV genotypes 3 and 4. Swine HEV sequences closely related to human HEV sequences have been detected in many countries and in several cases the source of infection has been linked to contact...

  8. Population and antenatal-based HIV prevalence estimates in a high contracepting female population in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnighausen Till

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To present and compare population-based and antenatal-care (ANC sentinel surveillance HIV prevalence estimates among women in a rural South African population where both provision of ANC services and family planning is prevalent and fertility is declining. With a need, in such settings, to understand how to appropriately adjust ANC sentinel surveillance estimates to represent HIV prevalence in general populations, and with evidence of possible biases inherent to both surveillance systems, we explore differences between the two systems. There is particular emphasis on unrepresentative selection of ANC clinics and unrepresentative testing in the population. Methods HIV sero-prevalence amongst blood samples collected from women consenting to test during the 2005 annual longitudinal population-based serological survey was compared to anonymous unlinked HIV sero-prevalence amongst women attending antenatal care (ANC first visits in six clinics (January to May 2005. Both surveillance systems were conducted as part of the Africa Centre Demographic Information System. Results Population-based HIV prevalence estimates for all women (25.2% and pregnant women (23.7% were significantly lower than that for ANC attendees (37.7%. A large proportion of women attending urban or peri-urban clinics would be predicted to be resident within rural areas. Although overall estimates remained significantly different, presenting and standardising estimates by age and location (clinic for ANC-based estimates and individual-residence for population-based estimates made some group-specific estimates from the two surveillance systems more predictive of one another. Conclusion It is likely that where ANC coverage and contraceptive use is widespread and fertility is low, population-based surveillance under-estimates HIV prevalence due to unrepresentative testing by age, residence and also probably by HIV status, and that ANC sentinel surveillance over

  9. Parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight: prevalence across sociodemographic characteristics and associations with adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-02-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence of parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight across sociodemographic characteristics and to examine associations with adolescent body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Data from two linked epidemiological studies were used for cross-sectional analysis. Parents (n = 3,424; 62% females) and adolescents (n = 2,182; 53.2% girls) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Fathers reported more parent-adolescent conversations about healthful eating and physical activity with their sons and mothers reported more weight-focused conversations with their daughters. Parents of Hispanic/Latino and Asian/Hmong youth and parents from lower socioeconomic status categories engaged in more conversations about weight and size. Adolescents whose mothers or fathers had weight-focused conversations with them had higher BMI percentiles. Adolescents who had two parents engaging in weight-related conversations had higher BMI percentiles. Healthcare providers may want to talk about the types of weight-related conversations parents are having with their adolescents and emphasize avoiding conversations about weight specifically.

  10. Parent-Adolescent Conversations about Eating, Physical Activity and Weight: Prevalence across Sociodemographic Characteristics and Associations with Adolescent Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence of parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight across sociodemographic characteristics and to examine associations with adolescent BMI, dietary intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Data from two linked epidemiological studies were used for cross-sectional analysis. Parents (n=3,424; 62% females) and adolescents (n=2,182; 53.2% girls) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Fathers reported more parent-adolescent conversations about healthful eating and physical activity with their sons and mothers reported more weight-focused conversations with their daughters. Parents of Hispanic/Latino and Asian/Hmong youth and parents from lower SES categories engaged in more conversations about weight and size. Adolescents whose mothers or fathers had weight-focused conversations with them had higher BMI percentiles. Adolescents who had two parents engaging in weight-related conversations had higher BMI percentiles. Healthcare providers may want to talk about the types of weight-related conversations parents are having with their adolescents and emphasize avoiding conversations about weight specifically. PMID:24997555

  11. Prevalence of narcolepsy symptomatology and diagnosis in the European general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayon, MM; Priest, RG; Zulley, J; Smirne, S; Paiva, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of narcolepsy in the general population of five European countries (target population 205,890,882 inhabitants). Methods: Overall, 18,980 randomly selected subjects were interviewed (participation rate 80.4%). These subjects were representative of the general po

  12. Prevalence of Contact Allergy to p-Phenylenediamine in the European General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, Thomas L.; Naldi, Luigi; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Ofenloch, Robert; Svensson, Ake

    2016-01-01

    Population-based studies on contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of contact allergy to PPD and its risk factors in the general population of 5 European countries. A total of 10,425 subjects were interviewed, and a rand

  13. Prevalence of physical inactivity and associated factors among adolescents from public schools in Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gustavo Bergmann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the prevalence of physical inactivity and associated factors in adolescents, using a cross-sectional design with a sample of 1,455 adolescents (741 females. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic, perceptual, and behavioral variables. Physical activity was estimated with the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children and Adolescents. Prevalence of physical inactivity was 68% (95%CI: 65.6%-70.4%. The following variables remained associated with physical inactivity in the adjusted analysis (p < 0.05: living in an apartment, female gender, older adolescents, lower self-rated physical activity compared to peers, low perception of maternal physical activity, passive commuting to school, non-participation in physical education at school, non-enjoyment of physical education classes, and limited involvement in other types of physical exercise besides physical education at school. There were a high proportion of inactive adolescents. Strategies to prevent physical inactivity in adolescents should be elaborated with a central role for the school and family.

  14. Psychiatric disorders and MND in non-handicapped preterm children - Prevalence and stability from school age into adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoihorst, P. F.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.; van Engeland, H.

    2007-01-01

    In preterm children (N = 66) without major physical and/or mental handicaps the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and minor neurological dysfunction (MND) was assessed at school age (8-10 years). In adolescence (15-17 years) 43 children were reassessed. The study sample was drawn from a cohort of

  15. Prevalence and co-morbidity among anxiety disorders in a national cohort of psychiatrically referred children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hoeyer, Mette; Dyrborg, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides prevalence estimates of anxiety disorders as well as homotypic (e.g., other anxiety disorders) and heterotypic (e.g., mood, externalizing) co-morbidity in a national sample of children and adolescents referred to the psychiatric system in Denmark. Data were gathered from a data...

  16. Prevalence, risk surfaces and inter-municipality variations in caries experience in Danish children and adolescents in 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrisgaard, Pia Elisabeth; Qvist, Vibeke; Ekstrand, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the caries experience, prevalence and distribution related to tooth type and surfaces in the primary and permanent dentition in children and adolescents in Denmark in 2012. In addition, to examine if explanatory factors influence the inter-municipal...

  17. Friendships with Co-Participants in Organized Activities: Prevalence, Quality, Friends' Characteristics, and Associations with Adolescents' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Francois; Denault, Anne-Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide an in-depth examination of friendships within organized activities. The prevalence of friendships with co-participants, their quality and characteristics, and their associations with adjustment were investigated. A sample of 281 (60% girls) 8th grade adolescents reported their friendships, activities, and…

  18. Prevalence of Hypertension in a Tribal Land Locked Population at High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Extensive pubmed search reveals paucity of data on prevalence of hypertension in tribal population at high altitude. The data is all the more scarce from our part of India. Studies among tribal populations at high altitudes provide an interesting epidemiological window to study human evolution and adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia. Material and Methods. 401 participants above the age of 20 years were evaluated for blood pressure using a stratified simple random technique among villages located at high altitude. Results. Out of a total of 401 individuals studied 43 (males: 35; females: 8 were identified as hypertensive yielding a crude prevalence of 10.7%. The prevalence was higher in males (35/270; 12.9% as compared to females (8/131; 6%. Prevalence was the highest in the age group of 30–39 among males (16/35; 45.7% while it was the highest in the age group of 40–49 among females (7/8; 87%. Conclusions. Prevalence of 10.5% is noteworthy when interpreted in light of prevalence of hypertension in general population especially if hypobaric hypoxia is considered to have a protective effect on blood pressure in high altitude native populations.

  19. Prevalence of Hypertension in a Tribal Land Locked Population at High Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Sunil Kumar; Chander, Vishav; Prasher, Chaman Lal; Raina, Sujeet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Extensive pubmed search reveals paucity of data on prevalence of hypertension in tribal population at high altitude. The data is all the more scarce from our part of India. Studies among tribal populations at high altitudes provide an interesting epidemiological window to study human evolution and adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia. Material and Methods. 401 participants above the age of 20 years were evaluated for blood pressure using a stratified simple random technique among villages located at high altitude. Results. Out of a total of 401 individuals studied 43 (males: 35; females: 8) were identified as hypertensive yielding a crude prevalence of 10.7%. The prevalence was higher in males (35/270; 12.9%) as compared to females (8/131; 6%). Prevalence was the highest in the age group of 30–39 among males (16/35; 45.7%) while it was the highest in the age group of 40–49 among females (7/8; 87%). Conclusions. Prevalence of 10.5% is noteworthy when interpreted in light of prevalence of hypertension in general population especially if hypobaric hypoxia is considered to have a protective effect on blood pressure in high altitude native populations. PMID:26989560

  20. Cancer prevalence in Easter Island population - 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Eduardo Bravo; Armaroli, Pabla Yaikin; Contreras, Gustavo Saint-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In Easter Island, population is composed by original habitants, the Rapa Nui culture and introduced people, mainly from continental Chile, who have a different ethnic origin. The aim of this research was to describe cancer frequency in resident population in Easter Island, and secondarily compare the findings with other islands of Polynesia and continental Chile. We reviewed the statistics of patients treated in Hanga Roa Hospital during the period 2006-2010, finding a total of 49 patients with cancer during the study. The most frequent cancers in Easter Island's people were breast cancer (8 cases), skin (8 cases), cervical (8 cases), lung (5 cases) and gastric (4 cases). According to gender, in females the most frequent cancer was breast, followed by skin and cervical, while in men, lung, prostate and hematopoietic cancers were the most frequent. Most cases of cervical cancer occurred in women of Rapa Nui ethnicity, while most skin cancers were found in non-Rapa Nui people. In case of the most common cancer in Easter Island, education (e.g. Papanicolaou and mammography screening) and prevention in the community (e.g. use sun block, avoid cigarettes) should be useful tools to reduce incidence.

  1. Low prevalence of classical galactosemia in Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Beom Hee; Cheon, Chong Kun; Kim, Jae-Min; Kang, Minji; Kim, Joo Hyun; Yang, Song Hyun; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Choi, Jin-Ho; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2011-01-01

    This study described the clinical and molecular genetic features of classical galactosemia in Korean population to contribute to the insight in the spectrum of galactosemia in the world, as little is known about the spectrum and incidence of galactosemia in Asia. During the 11-year study period, only three Korean children were identified as having classical galactosemia on the basis of the enzymatic and molecular genetic analysis. Asians have been reported to have mutations distinct from those of Caucasians and African Americans, indicating that galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase mutations are ethnically diverse. Our three patients had a total of three mutations (c.252+1G > A, p.Q169H and p.E363K), two of which were novel (p.E363K and c.252+1G > A) mutations. Interestingly, c.252+1G > A, which leads to skipping of exon 2, was observed in all three patients (three of six alleles), indicating that this mutation may be common in Koreans with classical galactosemia. Screening for classical galactosemia in 158,126 Korean newborns identified no patient with classical galactosemia. In conclusion, our findings provide further evidence for the ethnic diversity of classical galactosemia, which may be as rare in Koreans as in other Asian populations.

  2. Prevalence, incidence, and natural course of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Michaela; Jacobi, Corinna; Paul, Martin; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence, incidence, age-of-onset and diagnostic stability of threshold and subthreshold anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) in the community. Data come from a prospective-longitudinal community study of 3021 subjects aged 14-24 at baseline, who were followed up at three assessment waves over 10 years. Eating disorder (ED) symptomatology was assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI at each wave. Diagnostic stability was defined as the proportion of individuals still affected with at least symptomatic eating disorders (EDs) at follow-ups. Baseline lifetime prevalence for any threshold ED were 2.9 % among females and 0.1 % among males. For any subthreshold ED lifetime prevalence were 2.2 % for females and 0.7 % for males. Symptomatic expressions of EDs (including core symptoms of the respective disorder) were most common with a lifetime prevalence of 11.5 % among females and 1.8 % among males. Symptomatic AN showed the earliest onset with a considerable proportion of cases emerging in childhood. 47 % of initial threshold AN cases and 42 % of initial threshold BN cases showed at least symptomatic expressions of any ED at any follow-up assessment. Stability for subthreshold EDs and symptomatic expressions was 14-36 %. While threshold EDs are rare, ED symptomatology is common particularly in female adolescents and young women. Especially threshold EDs are associated with a substantial risk for stability. A considerable degree of symptom fluctuation is characteristic especially for subthreshold EDs.

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Wen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94% reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6% identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of video and internet gaming addiction among Hong Kong adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W C; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.

  5. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related disorders in a large adult population in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yokusoglu Mehmet; Hasimi Adnan; Oktenli Cagatay; Sanisoglu S Yavuz; Ugurlu Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background There are few existing large population studies on the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome-related disorders of Turkey. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related disorders in the Turkish adult population, to address sex, age, educational and geographical differences, and to examine blood pressure, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and serum lipids in Turkey. Methods This study was executed under the population study "The Healt...

  6. Variations de maintien de l'équilibre dynamique entre une population d'adolescents atteints de scoliose idiopathique et une population d'adolescents non scioliotiques

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La scoliose idiopathique de l’adolescent (SIA) progresse durant la période de croissance. L’une des déficiences fréquemment observée chez les adolescents atteints de SIA est une perturbation du contrôle postural, qui influence le maintien de l’équilibre. Il n’existe, cependant, aucun consensus concernant ce sujet. L’objectif de ce travail consiste à déterminer quelles sont les variations de maintien de l’équilibre dynamique entre une population atteinte de SIA et une population d...

  7. The influence of asthma onset and severity on malocclusion prevalence in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Sekio Tanaka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The influence of asthma, its severity levels and onset time on malocclusion occurrence were investigated. METHODS: The sample was composed by 176 children/adolescents, of both genders, aged 3 to 15 years, that were divided in two groups. The asthma group (AG enrolled 88 children/adolescents that were seen at the Breathe Londrina Program. The asthma-free group (AFG enrolled 88 preschool and school children recruited in 2 public schools. Malocclusion diagnosis was made according to WHO criteria (OMS, 1999. RESULTS: A higher prevalence in malocclusions in asthmatic patients in mixed dentition was observed when compared to controls (p0.05 and permanent dentition (p>0.05. A significant association was seen between asthma onset time and marked maxillary overjet (p<0.05, and open bite (p<0.05 in the mixed dentition, being both conditions more common among those that have presented the symptoms of asthma prior to 12 months of age. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that the early manifestation of asthma at first year of life can cause dentofacial changes. Therefore, the prompt diagnostic of the illness, as well as the establishment of a proper therapy could improve the symptoms and chronic complications of asthma and also reduce its impact on craniofacial development.

  8. Low Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Virus Markers among Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Melo Villar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV among children and adolescents attending schools and daycare centres in Rio de Janeiro State, located in southern Brazil. Serum samples from 1,217 individuals aged 0 to 18 years were collected from 1999 to 2012 and tested for HBsAg, total anti-HBc, anti-HBs, and anti-HCV by ELISA. Reactive HBsAg and anti-HBc samples were tested for HBV DNA. Reactive anti-HCV samples were tested for HCV RNA and genotyped by RFLP. HBsAg was detected in 1.8% of individuals, and total anti-HBc was detected among 3.6% of individuals. Anti-HBs reactivity was found among 25.3% (322/1,217 of the individuals and increased from 6.28% in the years 1999-2000 to 76.2% in the years 2001–2012 (P<0.0001. HBV DNA was detected in 18 of 51 individuals who presented with HBsAg or isolated anti-HBc, and nine were considered occult hepatitis B cases. Three individuals were anti-HCV- and HCV RNA-positive: two of them were infected with genotype 1, and the other was infected with genotype 3. Low levels of HBV and HCV markers were observed in children and adolescents. HBV immunity increased during the period of study, indicating that childhood universal HBV vaccination has been effective for controlling HBV infection in Brazil.

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with vitamin A deficiency in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with vitamin A deficiency (VAD in children and adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 546 schoolchildren, aged between 7 and 14 years, of both genders, enrolled in public elementary schools. Blood was collected for measurement of serum retinol. The retinol concentration in the samples was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Data were collected on anthropometrics, dietary, demographic, and socioeconomic factors. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of interest. Results: Approximately 27.5% of the students had retinol values < 30 μg/dL. The multivariate analysis showed, after the appropriate adjustments, a positive and statistically significant association of moderate/severe VAD (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.17 to 4.10 and marginal VAD (OR = 2.34; 95% CI 1.47 to 3.73 with age < 10 years. There was also association of VAD moderate/severe (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.01 to 5.05 and borderline VAD (OR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.08 to 4.21 with the anthropometric status of underweight. Lower intake of retinol was detected among those with severe VAD. Conclusion: VAD is a health concern among children and adolescents. Lower weight and younger schoolchildren had greater vulnerability to VAD.

  10. The prevalence of baby bottle tooth decay among two native American populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M; Bruerd, B

    1987-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a disease characterized by severe dental caries in the primary dentition that may have significant short-term and long-term implications for the health of children. Its prevalence and various etiologic factors have not been addressed fully in the dental literature. In 1985, 514 Native American Head Start children in Alaska and Oklahoma were screened to establish the prevalence of BBTD in those populations. The prevalence of BBTD ranged between 17 and 85 percent, with a mean of 53 percent. BBTD is clearly a significant health problem for this population group. Concerted intervention efforts to lower the prevalence of this preventable condition should be instituted and their effectiveness evaluated for potential utility among other affected groups.

  11. Prevalence of seroreactivity among blood donors in rural population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonwane B

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The seroreactivity pattern amongst blood donors in rural population was studied at S.R.T. Rural Medical College and Hospital, Ambajogai (M. S.. The study period was from January 1996 to December 2001. A total number of 12,240 blood donors were screened. The voluntary donation was 36.98% and replacement donors were 63.02%. No professional donor is bled in our blood bank. The HIV seroreactivity among voluntary donors was 1.56% and 2.11% in replacement donors. The HBsAg seroreactivity was 2.78% in voluntary donors and 4.84% in replacement donors. VDRL seroreactivity is 1.12% in replacement donors. No malarial parasite and HCV seroreactive donor was found in our study period. We have found the magnitude of hepatitis to be far more than that of HIV. Hence testing for HCV routinely is mandatory, besides HBsAg.

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents and Their Parents in Central Greece (FETA Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsopoulou, Anna; Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Katsioulis, Antonios; Rachiotis, George; Malissiova, Eleni; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-12-26

    The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA) aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents' and adolescents' demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12-18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2) and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ). Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy), maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents' obesity.

  13. Prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension in the General Population: The Rotterdam Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Eduardo M.; Gall, Henning; Leening, Maarten J. G.; Lahousse, Lies; Loth, Daan W.; Krijthe, Bouwe P.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H.; Ghofrani, Hossein A.; Franco, Oscar H.; Felix, Janine F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure and carries an increased mortality. Population-based studies into pulmonary hypertension are scarce and little is known about its prevalence in the general population. We aimed to describe the distribution of echocardiographically-assessed pulmonary artery systolic pressure (ePASP) in the general population, to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, and to identify associated factors. Methods Participants (n = 3381, mean age 76.4 years, 59% women) from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort, underwent echocardiography. Echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was defined as ePASP>40 mmHg. Results Mean ePASP was 26.3 mmHg (SD 7.0). Prevalence of echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was 2.6% (95%CI: 2.0; 3.2). Prevalence was higher in older participants compared to younger ones (8.3% in those over 85 years versus 0.8% in those between 65 and 70), and in those with underlying disorders versus those without (5.9% in subjects with COPD versus 2.3%; 9.2% in those with left ventricular systolic dysfunction versus 2.3%; 23.1% in stages 3 or 4 left ventricular diastolic dysfunction versus 1.9% in normal or stage 1). Factors independently associated with higher ePASP were older age, higher BMI, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, COPD and systemic hypertension. Conclusion In this large population-based study, we show that pulmonary hypertension as measured by echocardiography has a low prevalence in the overall general population in the Netherlands, but estimates may be higher in specific subgroups, especially in those with underlying diseases. Increased pulmonary arterial pressure is likely to gain importance in the near future due to population aging and the accompanying prevalences of underlying disorders. PMID:26102085

  14. Prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension in the General Population: The Rotterdam Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo M Moreira

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure and carries an increased mortality. Population-based studies into pulmonary hypertension are scarce and little is known about its prevalence in the general population. We aimed to describe the distribution of echocardiographically-assessed pulmonary artery systolic pressure (ePASP in the general population, to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, and to identify associated factors.Participants (n = 3381, mean age 76.4 years, 59% women from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort, underwent echocardiography. Echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was defined as ePASP>40 mmHg.Mean ePASP was 26.3 mmHg (SD 7.0. Prevalence of echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was 2.6% (95%CI: 2.0; 3.2. Prevalence was higher in older participants compared to younger ones (8.3% in those over 85 years versus 0.8% in those between 65 and 70, and in those with underlying disorders versus those without (5.9% in subjects with COPD versus 2.3%; 9.2% in those with left ventricular systolic dysfunction versus 2.3%; 23.1% in stages 3 or 4 left ventricular diastolic dysfunction versus 1.9% in normal or stage 1. Factors independently associated with higher ePASP were older age, higher BMI, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, COPD and systemic hypertension.In this large population-based study, we show that pulmonary hypertension as measured by echocardiography has a low prevalence in the overall general population in the Netherlands, but estimates may be higher in specific subgroups, especially in those with underlying diseases. Increased pulmonary arterial pressure is likely to gain importance in the near future due to population aging and the accompanying prevalences of underlying disorders.

  15. Influence of behavioral determinants on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school going adolescents of Aligarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabassum Nawab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally and the prevention of adult obesity will require prevention and management of childhood obesity. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and behavioral determinants of overweight and obesity in school going adolescents. A total of 660 adolescents from affluent and nonaffluent schools were taken. Overweight and obesity was defined as per World Health Organization 2007 growth reference. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.8% and 4.8%, respectively. Prevalence of both overweight and obesity was higher among males. Statistically significant difference was found in prevalence of overweight and obesity among affluent schools (14.8% and 8.2% and nonaffluent schools (4.8% and 1.5%. Important determinants of overweight and obesity were increased consumption of fast food, low physical activity level and watching television for more than 2 h/day. The prevalence of obesity is high even in small cities. Dietary behavior and physical activity significantly affect weight of adolescent children.

  16. Prevalence of overweight and malnutrition among ethnic minority children and adolescents in China, 1991–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sifan Guo; Chunhua Zhao; Qinghua Ma; Hong-peng Sun; Chen-wei Pan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the trends in prevalence of childhood overweight and malnutrition in a large Chinese ethnic minority population from 1991 to 2010. In the Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health from 1991 to 2010, multistage stratified sampling was conducted in the series of cross-sectional studies. Participants were 7–18-year-old students randomly selected by sex and region, and included Han and 26 ethnic minorities. During the survey period, the overall pre...

  17. The epidemiology of contact allergy in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Linneberg, Allan; Menné, Torkil;

    2007-01-01

    in the general population. Published research mainly originates from North America and Western Europe. The median prevalence of contact allergy to at least 1 allergen was 21.2% (range 12.5-40.6%), and the weighted average prevalence was 19.5%, based on data collected on all age groups and all countries between...... in the surveillance of national and international contact allergy epidemics....

  18. Excesso de peso em crianças e adolescentes no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil: prevalência e determinantes Overweight in children and adolescents in Pernambuco State, Brazil: prevalence and determinants

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    Vanessa Sá Leal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou verificar a prevalência e os determinantes do excesso ponderal em crianças e adolescentes de Pernambuco, Brasil, no ano de 2006. Com delineamento transversal e de base populacional, a pesquisa incluiu 1.435 indivíduos de 5-19 anos. A análise de regressão múltipla hierarquizada com seleção hierarquizada foi utilizada para avaliar a associação de variáveis explanatórias sobre o excesso ponderal. A prevalência de excesso de peso foi de 13,3% (IC95%: 11,6-15,1, sendo 9,5% de sobrepeso e 3,8% de obesidade. As razões de prevalências ajustadas evidenciaram que maiores renda familiar e escolaridade materna, posse de bens de consumo, residência em área urbana e o excesso de peso materno estiveram entre os determinantes do excesso ponderal. A magnitude da prevalência do excesso ponderal em todo o Estado de Pernambuco demonstra a necessidade de ações de saúde pública voltadas à unidade familiar, independentemente do segmento social.This study aimed to determine the prevalence of overweight and associated risk factors in children and adolescents in Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 2006. The cross-sectional, population-based study included 1,435 individuals from 5 to 19 years of age. Poisson regression was used to evaluate the association between selected variables and overweight. Prevalence was 13.3% for overweight (95%CI: 11.6-15.1 and 3.8% for obesity. Adjusted prevalence ratios showed that higher family income, maternal schooling, possession of household consumer goods, living in urban areas, and maternal overweight were associated with overweight in children and adolescents. The high prevalence of overweight in Pernambuco emphasizes the need for public health measures targeting all families regardless of socioeconomic status.

  19. Parental Monitoring and Adolescent Alcohol Risk in a Clinic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Boyle, Jennifer R.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the association between parental monitoring and adolescent alcohol risk. Surveys of adolescents in a managed care setting examined alcohol involvement and forms of parent influence. Frequent monitoring related to less likelihood of being engaged in a variety of alcohol risk behaviors or other risk situations. Choosing to share alcohol…

  20. The prevalence of culture-confirmed toenail onychomycosis in at-risk patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Daigle, D; Foley, K A

    2015-06-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail and is the most common nail affliction in the general population. Certain patient populations are at greater risk of infection and the prevalence of onychomycosis reported in the literature has yet to be summarized across these at-risk groups. We performed a systematic review of the literature and calculated pooled prevalence estimates of onychomycosis in at-risk patient populations. The prevalence of dermatophyte toenail onychomycosis was as follows: general population 3.22% (3.07, 3.38), children 0.14% (0.11, 0.18), the elderly 10.28% (8.63, 12.18), diabetic patients 8.75% (7.48, 10.21), psoriatic patients 10.22% (8.61, 12.09), HIV positive patients 10.40% (8.02, 13.38), dialysis patients 11.93% (7.11, 19.35) and renal transplant patients 5.17% (1.77, 14.14). Dialysis patients had the highest prevalence of onychomycosis caused by dermatophytes, elderly individuals had the highest prevalence of onychomycosis caused by yeasts (6.07%; 95% CI = 3.58, 10.11) and psoriatic patients had the highest prevalence of onychomycosis caused by non-dermatophyte moulds (2.49%; 95% CI = 1.74, 3.55). An increased prevalence of onychomycosis in certain patient populations may be attributed to impaired immunity, reduced peripheral circulation and alterations to the nail plate which render these patients more susceptible to infection.

  1. Prevalence of Hypertension among Rural and Urban Population in Southern Rajasthan

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    Antima Galav, Rekha Bhatanagar, Suresh Chandra Meghwal, Manish Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Introduction: Hypertension (HTN is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases and an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Estimating the prevalence of hypertension in both the urban and rural populations is very crucial as this forms the basis for planning of primary and secondary prevention of hypertension. Objective of the study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of hypertension in urban and rural adult population. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out from March-2013 to August-2013 in Udaipur, Rajasthan to compare the prevalence of hypertension in urban and rural adult population. Hypertension was defined according to JNC VII criteria. Results: Hypertension was present in 32. 67% subjects in urban and 18. 67% in rural area. The prevalence was found to steadily increase with age. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension between males and females in both areas. Among urban hypertensives 87. 76% led a sedentary lifestyle, 45. 92% were overweight and 14. 28% were obese. Conclusion: Significantly higher prevalence of hypertension was found in urban area. Majority of hypertensive had a sedentary life-style in both rural and urban areas. Adopting a healthy lifestyle is critical for the prevention of hypertension and an indispensable part of managing it."

  2. Suicidal ideation in adolescents aged 11 to 15 years: prevalence and associated factors Ideação suicida em adolescentes de 11 a 15 anos: prevalência e fatores associados

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    Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence and associated factors of suicidal ideation among adolescents aged 11 to 15 years. METHOD: Cross-sectional population-based study. Adolescents completed a self-report that contained the Children's Depression Inventory. Suicidal ideation was measured according to item 9 of the Children's Depression Inventory. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied using a hierarchical model. RESULTS: 1145 adolescents were invited to participate, and 1039 were interviewed (refusal rate: 9.26%. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 14.1%. Factors associated to suicidal ideation: female gender, current alcohol consumption, use of illicit drugs, symptoms indicating conduct disorders and high Children's Depression Inventory scores for depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Prevention strategies should focus on female adolescents, especially those sexually active with probable mental health problems and substance use.OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência e fatores associados à ideação suicida entre adolescentes de 11 a 15 anos. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base-populacional. Os adolescentes responderam a um questionário auto-aplicável que continha o Children's Depression Inventory. A ideação suicida foi mensurada de acordo com o item 9 do Children's Depression Inventory. Foi utilizada a análise de regressão logística multivariada acompanhada de um modelo hierárquico. RESULTADOS: 1.145 adolescentes foram convidados a participar e 1.039 foram entrevistados (recusas: 9,26%. A prevalência de ideação suicida foi de 14,1%. Fatores associados à ideação suicida: sexo feminino, consumir álcool, uso de drogas ilícitas, apresentar sintomas indicativos de transtorno de conduta e elevada pontuação no Children's Depression Inventory para sintomas depressivos. CONCLUSÃO: Estratégias de prevenção devem priorizar adolescentes do sexo feminino, principalmente aquelas sexualmente ativas, com prováveis problemas de sa

  3. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

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    Barbosa Filho Valter

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess the variables. Six BRFCH were analyzed: insufficiently active, excessive TV watching, current alcohol and tobacco use, daily soft drinks consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were studied as possible correlates of the presence of BRFCH. Results The BRFCH with the highest prevalence were insufficiently active (50.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 48.0-52.9 and daily soft drinks consumption (47.6%, 95% CI: 45.1-50.0. Approximately 30% of the adolescents presented three or more BRFCH simultaneously. Girls, adolescents who did not participate in organized physical activity, and who used computer/video games daily were the main high-risk subgroups for insufficiently active. Boys and those who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for daily soft drinks consumption. For excessive TV watching, we identified to be at risk those who were from a high economic class, unemployed, and who used computer/video games daily. For current alcohol use, we identified older adolescents, who were from a high economic class and who worked to be at risk. Older adolescents, who worked and who spent little active time during a physical education class were the high-risk subgroups for current tobacco use. For inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, we identified those who did not participate in organized physical activity to be at risk. Older adolescents, who were from a high economic class

  4. PREVALENCE OF MARKERS OF VIRAL HEPATITIS B AND D FROM HEALTHY POPULATION IN REPUBLIC TYVA

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    T. V. Kozhanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to estimate prevalence of markers, genetic diversity, risk factors of HBV and HDV infections in all age groups among healthy population in Republic Tyva. Serum samples obtained from healthy population in Republic Tyva (N = 1086 were tested (aged from birth to older 60 years. The markers of HBV and HDV infections were determined by enzyme immunoassay and PCR. HBsAg was detected in 7,7% (84/1086, anti-HBc — in 47,8% (519/1086 and HBeAg — in 0,3% (3/1086 cases. Prevalence of HBsAg in children under 9 years was 1,3%, no positive results of anti-HDV were determined among children aged up to 9 year. Prevalence of anti-HDV among HBsAg-positive individuals of healthy population was 32,1% (27/84. HBV DNA was detected in 2,9% (31/1086 cases; HDV RNA — in 32,1% (14/84 HBsAg-positive individuals. The obtained data showed high prevalence of HBV ang HDV infections among healthy population of Republic Tyva. Thus, it is necessary to extend screening program in this region to improve viral hepatitis surveillance and diagnostics. The sharp decline in the prevalence of these infections in children up to 9 years in the surveyed endemic region is an evidence of effective protection against HBV and HDV with vaccination against hepatitis B. 

  5. Prevalence of widespread pain and associations with work status: a population study

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    Henriksson KG

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This population study based on a representative sample from a Swedish county investigates the prevalence, duration, and determinants of widespread pain (WSP in the population using two constructs and estimates how WSP affects work status. In addition, this study investigates the prevalence of widespread pain and its relationship to pain intensity, gender, age, income, work status, citizenship, civil status, urban residence, and health care seeking. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a postal questionnaire was sent to a representative sample (n = 9952 of the target population (284,073 people, 18–74 years in a county (Östergötland in the southern Sweden. The questionnaire was mailed and followed by two postal reminders when necessary. Results The participation rate was 76.7% (n = 7637; the non-participants were on the average younger, earned less money, and male. Women had higher prevalences of pain in 10 different predetermined anatomical regions. WSP was generally chronic (90–94% and depending on definition of WSP the prevalence varied between 4.8–7.4% in the population. Women had significantly higher prevalence of WSP than men and the age effect appeared to be stronger in women than in men. WSP was a significant negative factor – together with age 50–64 years, low annual income, and non-Nordic citizen – for work status in the community and in the group with chronic pain. Chronic pain but not the spreading of pain was related to health care seeking in the population. Conclusion This study confirms earlier studies that report high prevalences of widespread pain in the population and especially among females and with increasing age. Widespread pain is associated with prominent effects on work status.

  6. Prevalence and detection of mixed-population enterococcal bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Ana María; Andreacchio, Kathleen A; Edelstein, Paul H

    2014-07-01

    Mixed-population (heterogeneous) enterococcal bacteremia (MEB) is rarely reported. Based on one occasion in which Vitek2 missed a vancomycin-resistant subpopulation isolated from a patient, we developed a simple method to detect this subpopulation and determined MEB frequency. The four patients presented here had either Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia caused by both vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE). No prior common antibiotic therapy was observed, and bacteremia resolved with daptomycin, gentamicin, and/or linezolid treatment. In two cases, VRE presence was missed by Vitek2. To detect the VRE subpopulation, tryptic soy broth was inoculated from positive blood cultures and a saline suspension was inoculated to a vancomycin (6-μg/ml) (V6) plate. Two isolates from each patient were studied further. Relatedness was assessed by multilocus sequence typing, fitness was evaluated by growth curve and competition assays, and vanA presence was determined by PCR. MEB represented ∼5% of all enterococcal bacteremias. All VRE subpopulations grew on V6 plates but were missed in two instances by Vitek2. VRE and VSE isolates from each patient were closely related and did not differ in overall fitness. All four VRE isolates and 2/4 VSE isolates were vanA positive. MEBs occur regardless of prior antimicrobial therapy, are relatively common in our hospital, and are important to detect. As far as we know, this study is the first to report heterogeneous E. faecalis bacteremia. There is a simple method to detect VRE subpopulations that may be missed by Vitek2.

  7. Prevalence and correlates for psychosocial distress among in-school adolescents in Zambia

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    Seter eSiziya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is scanty information on correlates for psychosocial distress in Zambia. Secondary analysis was conducted using data collected in 2004 in Zambia during the global school-based health survey to determine the prevalence and correlates for psychosocial distress. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate magnitudes of associations between exposure factors and the outcome, while the Yates’ corrected Chi-squared test was used to compare proportions at the 5% significance level. A total of 2257 students participated in the survey of which 54.2% were males. Males were generally older than females (p<0.001. Significantly more females than males were bullied (p=0.036, involved in a fight (p=0.019 and consumed alcohol (p=0.012. Psychosocial distress was detected in 15.7% of the participants (14.4% of males and 16.8% of females. Age less than 14 years, male gender, parental support for males and having close friends were protective factors against psychosocial distress. Risk factors for psychosocial distress were: being bullied, involvement in a fight, alcohol consumption, being physically active and parental support. . Age less than 14 years, male gender, parental support for males, having close friends, being bullied, involvement in a fight, alcohol consumption, being physically active and parental support were significantly associated with psychosocial distress. The prevalence of psychosocial distress among adolescents in Zambia appears to be common. There is a need to validate the psychosocial distress indicators that were used in the current study.

  8. Study of School Environment and Prevalence of Obesity & Its Predictors among Adolescent (10-13 Years Belonging to a Private School in an Urban Indian City

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    Mehan Meenakshi, Munshi Aparna, Surabhi Somila, Bhatt Trushna, Kantharia Neha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent shift in lifestyle and behavioral patterns in population have caused an obesity epidemic during formative years. Present study evaluated existing health and nutrition policies in a private school in an urban Indian city and assessed prevalence of obesity in adolescent children & their association if any, with predictive behaviors of obesity. Methods: A private coeducational school located in an urban Indian city was selected and its existing health policies were evaluated using CDC’s School Health Index (SHI. Further, 5 teachers were assessed regarding their knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of healthy dietary & lifestyle practices. Critical evaluation of school canteen services was also done. Total 273 adolescents (10-13 years were enrolled after taking informed consent. Prevalence of obesity & its relationship with modifiable risk factors (fast food & sweetened beverage intake, physical inactivity, low fruit & vegetable intake and increased television viewing was found by comparing behaviors amongst obese & non-obese adolescents. Their biochemical profile for assessment of anemia, dyslipidemia and high fasting blood sugar levels was also determined. Results: Current framework of school lacked clear health & nutrition policies. Canteen food service offered unhealthy food. Teachers had insufficient knowledge about healthy behaviors among children. Prevalence of overweight & obesity was 23.5%. Cumulative presence of >3 risk behaviors of obesity was significantly associated with its development (OR 2.07, 95% CI. Mean consumption of sweetened carbonated beverages by overweight and obese subjects was significantly higher (p<0.05 than non-obese. Conclusion: There is a need to sensitize school authorities and teachers about importance of a strong health and nutrition related policies and health promotion programs.

  9. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

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    Pedro J. Serrano-Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99% raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75% agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy’s diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9. Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6. No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies.

  10. Mycoplasma genitalium: prevalence and behavioural risk factors in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit; Sokolowski, Ineta; Østergaard, Lars;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium has been shown to cause urethritis in men and cervicitis in women and may also be a causative agent in female infertility. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of urogenital M genitalium infection and identify sexual behavioural risk factors in the general......, and for men younger age at first intercourse was associated with M genitalium infection. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the prevalence of infection in the general population is too low for population-based screening. However, the development of test algorithms based on behavioural risk factors is a promising...

  11. School screening and point prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in 4000 Norwegian children aged 12 years

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    Brox Jens

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is discussed. The aim of the present study was to describe the point prevalence of AIS and to evaluate the effectiveness of school screening in 12-year- old children. Methods Community nurses and physical therapists in the Southern Health region of Norway including about 12000 school children aged 12 years were invited to participate. All participating community nurses and physical therapists fulfilled an educational course to improve their knowledge about AIS and learn the screening procedure including the Adam Forward Bending Test and measurement of gibbus using a scoliometer. Results Sub-regions including 4000 school children participated. The prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis defined as a positive Adam Forward Bending Test, gibbus > 7° and primary major curve on radiographs > 10°, was 0.55%. Five children (0.13% had a major curve > 20°. Bracing was not indicated in any child; all children were post menarche; four had Risser sign of 4, and one with Risser 1 did not have curve progression > 5° at later follow-up. In one of these 5 children however, the major curve progressed to 45° within 7 months after screening and the girl was operated. Conclusion The point prevalence of AIS in 12- year old children is in agreement or slightly lower than previous studies. The screening model employed demonstrates acceptable sensitivity and specificity and low referral rates. Screening at the age of 12 years only was not effective for detecting patients with indication for brace treatment.

  12. Prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in the Chinese populations: a meta-analysis of dementia prevalence surveys, 1980-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaodong; Xu, Yong; Nie, Hongwei; Lei, Ting; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Minjie

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dementia and its major subtypes in China. Forty-eight eligible studies were included in this review. The pooled prevalence for the population aged 60 years and older of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was 1.9%, vascular dementia (VaD) was 0.9%, and total dementia was 3.0%. The prevalence of VaD was significantly higher in Northern China than in Southern China. The prevalence of VaD was significantly higher in urban compared to rural areas. The prevalence of dementia and prevalence of AD increased with age in both males and females, and a higher prevalence of AD than VaD was observed in all age groups. AD has become more common than VaD in China since 1990. The current prevalence of dementia in China may be similar to that of developed countries.

  13. Consequences of the Diagnostic Criteria Proposed for the ICD-11 on the Prevalence of PTSD in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachser, Cedric; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, a working group of the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a reformulation of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria for the upcoming 11(th) edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11; Maercker, Brewin, Bryant, Cloitre, van Ommeren, et al., 2013). This study investigated the consequences of the proposed ICD-11 PTSD symptom reduction on the prevalence of PTSD in children and adolescents. Prevalence rates of PTSD in a clinical sample of 159 traumatized children and adolescents were compared applying criteria according to the 4(th) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), the ICD-10 (WHO, 1992), and the ICD-11. The prevalence rate was 76.1% using DSM-IV, 88.1% using ICD-10, and 61.0% using ICD-11. The use of the criteria proposed for ICD-11 resulted in 27.1% less positive cases compared with ICD-10 and 15.1% less positive cases compared with DSM-IV. Our results showed that in a clinical sample of children and adolescents the prevalence of PTSD was significantly affected by the use of different diagnostic systems. This will constitute a major challenge for research and practice because, depending on the algorithm used, different groups of patients will be included in studies and different groups of individuals will be able to access medical care and therapy.

  14. Is the prevalence of Taenia taeniaeformis in Microtus arvalis dependent on population density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Giraudoux, Patrick; Quéré, Jean-Pierre; Ashford, Richard William; Delattre, Pierre

    2003-12-01

    Populations of common voles Microtus arvalis were studied as hosts of the tapeworm Taenia taeniaeformis during a 14-yr survey. They were monitored in spring, summer, and autumn in a pastoral ecosystem in eastern France. A total of 7,574 voles were sampled during 2 multiannual population fluctuations. A third fluctuation was sampled during the increase phase only. Overall prevalence was lowest in summer (0.6%), increased by 3 times in autumn (1.5%) and a further 5 times in spring (7.8%). Analysis of prevalence, based on 7,384 voles, by multiple logistic regression revealed that extrinsic factors such as season and intrinsic factors such as host age and host density have a combined effect. In the longer term, host age and host density were positively associated with prevalence in summer. Host density was strongly associated with autumn prevalence. There was no association between the fluctuation phase and prevalence. The study shows that a long timescale (here a multiannual survey) is necessary to demonstrate the positive effect of host density on the prevalence of this indirectly transmitted parasite. The demonstration of this relationship depends on the rodents being intermediate rather than definitive hosts.

  15. Prevalence of Coronary Risk Factors among Population Aged 35 Years and Above From Rural Maharashtra, India

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    Abhishek Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is predicted that cardiovascular diseases will be the most important cause of mortality in India by the year 2015. Since the key to combating the increased incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD is the control of known risk factors by a population based strategy aimed at comprehensive risk reduction, it is pertinent to study the magnitude of the risk. Aim: The present study was therefore conducted to assess the prevalence of certain coronary risk factors among rural population aged 35 years and above in Maharashtra. Methods: The present community based cross sectional survey was carried out in the rural area of Pune district on 272 subjects using a structured questionnaire, clinical examination followed by lab investigations. SPSS version 17.0 was used for analysis. Results: Tobacco consumption was found to be prevalent in 51.83% of the study subjects followed by physical inactivity which was prevalent among 31.61% whereas high diastolic blood pressure was found to be prevalent in 29.41% of the study subjects. Obesity and alcohol consumption were found to be prevalent among 13.97% of the study subjects. Among the biochemical parameters studied, hypertriglyceridemia was found to be prevalent in 22.05% followed by raised fasting blood sugar in 15.44% of the study subjects. Conclusion: Behaviour change communication strategies targeting these modifiable known high risk factors need to be emphasized to lower coronary heart disease (CHD related morbidity burden in the community.

  16. Point prevalence of complex wounds in a defined United Kingdom population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jill; Buckley, Hannah L; Lamb, Karen A; Stubbs, Nikki; Saramago, Pedro; Dumville, Jo C; Cullum, Nicky A

    2014-01-01

    Complex wounds (superficial-, partial-, or full-thickness skin loss wounds healing by secondary intention) are common; however, there is a lack of high-quality, contemporary epidemiological data. This paper presents point prevalence estimates for complex wounds overall as well as for individual types. A multiservice, cross-sectional survey was undertaken across a United Kingdom city (Leeds, population 751,485) during 2 weeks in spring of 2011. The mean age of people with complex wounds was approximately 70 years, standard deviation 19.41. The point prevalence of complex wounds was 1.47 per 1,000 of the population, 95% confidence interval 1.38 to 1.56. While pressure ulcers and leg ulcers were the most frequent, one in five people in the sample population had a less common wound type. Surveys confined to people with specific types of wound would underestimate the overall impact of complex wounds on the population and health care resources.

  17. The Prevalence of the Celiac Disease Among Urban Bedouin Population in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inna, Rudoy; Andrew, Korobeinikov; Hanna, Shalev; Ilia, Volkov

    2012-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is a common, but often under-diagnosed condition with possible serious complications. CD, having a prevalence of about 1% is more common than once thought. Only limited research is available comparing differences between adults and children. A comprehensive Medline search was conducted. No data was found concerning the prevalence of CD among the adult Bedouin population. Methods The research is retrospective and descriptive. The objective of our research was to determine the prevalence of the CD within adult and child Bedouin populations in urban Israel. A report of all of diagnosed CD patients extracted from the medical computerized information system (“Clicks”). Results In our sample we found the prevalence was 0.51% in children and 0.12% in adults. Conclusion In our opinion, one of reasons for the low prevalence level in the Bedouin community might be that typical CD symptoms are less prominent in Bedouin communities than in other communities. But no doubt hypo-diagnosis does exist. We suppose more advanced research about the nature and typical clinical manifestations of CD within the Bedouin population need to be investigated. Medical personnel working within the Bedouin community needs information concerning CD and the characteristics of diagnosis and treatment in the Bedouin community. The Bedouin community itself needs more information concerning CD and the importance of treatment, which could also improve early diagnosis and compliance. PMID:27785197

  18. The Global Epidemiology of Impetigo: A Systematic Review of the Population Prevalence of Impetigo and Pyoderma.

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    Asha C Bowen

    Full Text Available We conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of the global childhood population prevalence of impetigo and the broader condition pyoderma.PubMed was systematically searched for impetigo or pyoderma studies published between January 1 1970 and September 30 2014. Two independent reviewers extracted data from each relevant article on the prevalence of impetigo.Sixty-six articles relating to 89 studies met our inclusion criteria. Based on population surveillance, 82 studies included data on 145,028 children assessed for pyoderma or impetigo. Median childhood prevalence was 12·3% (IQR 4·2-19·4%. Fifty-eight (65% studies were from low or low-middle income countries, where median childhood prevalences were 8·4% (IQR 4·2-16·1% and 14·5% (IQR 8·3-20·9%, respectively. However, the highest burden was seen in underprivileged children from marginalised communities of high-income countries; median prevalence 19·4%, (IQR 3·9-43·3%.Based on data from studies published since 2000 from low and low-middle income countries, we estimate the global population of children suffering from impetigo at any one time to be in excess of 162 million, predominantly in tropical, resource-poor contexts. Impetigo is an under-recognised disease and in conjunction with scabies, comprises a major childhood dermatological condition with potential lifelong consequences if untreated.

  19. HEV prevalence in the general population and among workers at zoonotic risk in Latium Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcano, A; Angelucci, M; Candelori, E; Martini, V; Patti, A M; Mancini, C; Santi, A L; Calvani, A; Casagni, L; Lamberti, A

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infections are responsible for large waterborne outbreaks in developing countries. Sporadic cases in the developed world are mainly imported from endemic areas. HEV has been suggested to be a zoonotic infection, for which pigs may be the reservoir; specific swine strains of HEV have been identified. Humans are susceptible to infections with swine strains. The aim of this study was to analyse whether Italian pig farmers, veterinarians and abattoir workers are more exposed than persons with other occupations. A total of 92 workers at zoonotic risk and 3511 controls from the general population of two Latium cities, Rome and Rieti, were tested for IgG-HEV antibodies. No significant difference in anti-HEV prevalence was observed between the two groups. The prevalence of general population was 2.9% against 3.3% of pig breeders, while there was a statistically significant difference (p = .0004) between subjects recruited in Rome (prevalence 2.5%) and those recruited in Rieti (prevalence 5.5%). Moreover, in some subgroups of general population and in a subgroup of pig breeders, the prevalence was higher than that previously reported in Italy and in other European countries. The highest value (33%) was found in male housekeepers enrolled in Rome; an analogous value was found in the employees of abattoirs (33%). Further studies are needed to elucidate the transmission routes.

  20. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related disorders in a large adult population in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokusoglu Mehmet

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few existing large population studies on the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome-related disorders of Turkey. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related disorders in the Turkish adult population, to address sex, age, educational and geographical differences, and to examine blood pressure, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and serum lipids in Turkey. Methods This study was executed under the population study "The Healthy Nutrition for Healthy Heart Study" conducted between December 2000 and December 2002 by the Health Ministry of Turkey. Overall, 15,468 Caucasian inhabitants aged over 30 were recruited in 14 centers in the seven main different regions of Turkey. The data were analyzed with the Students' t, ANOVA or Chi-Square tests. Results Overall, more than one-third (35.08 % of the participants was obese. The hypertensive people ratio in the population was 13.66 %, while these ratios for DM and metabolic syndrome were 4.16 % and 17.91 %, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, metabolic syndrome and obesity were higher in females than males, whereas diabetes mellitus was higher in males than females. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related disorders were found to be significantly different across educational attainments for both men and women. The prevalence of hypertension increased with age, while it was remarkable that in the age group of 60–69 years, prevalence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome reached a peak value and than decreased. For obesity, the peak prevalence occurred in the 50–59 year old group. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related disorders were found to be significantly different according to geographical region. Conclusion In conclusion, high prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome, particularly among women, is one of the major public health problems in Turkey. Interestingly, obesity prevalence is relatively

  1. The prevalence of allergic contact sensitization in a general population in Tromso, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Dotterud, Lars Kåre

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence of contact sensitization in a general adult population and the relationship between the history of metal dermatitis and sensitization to metal allergens. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional population study using patch tests and a questionnaire was conducted among adults in Tromso, Northern Norway. METHODS: A random sample of 830 participants aged 18-75 years were invited to participate in the patch testing and completed a 1-page self-administe...

  2. Disparities in Prevalence of Smoking and Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy: A Population-Based Study

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    Josiane L. Dias-Damé

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine time trends in prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy by family income, maternal level of education, skin color, and age. Methods. We conducted three population-based surveys in 2007, 2010, and 2013 with newly delivered mothers living in the municipality of Rio Grande, Southern Brazil. Data were collected using questionnaires administered after delivery in all (two maternity units in the city, at Dr. Miguel Riet Corrêa Júnior Hospital and at Santa Casa de Misericórdia. Time trends were analyzed using chi-square test for linear trend. Results. Data of 7,572 women showed that the prevalence of smoking before pregnancy decreased from 28% (26.2–29.7 in 2007 to 22% (20.8–24.0 in 2013 (P<0.001. Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy decreased from 22% (20.4–23.7 in 2007 to 18% (16.6–19.5 in 2013 (P<0.001. This reduction varied across income ranging from 17% (poorest to 35% (richest (P<0.001. The lower the income, the higher the smoking prevalence during pregnancy. Smoking cessation was more prevalent among women of higher level of education and income. Conclusions. Smoking before and during pregnancy is still highly prevalent and the prevalence of cessation is low pointing to a need to strengthen actions targeting low-income, less educated, black pregnant women.

  3. Prevalence of Hypertension in Nigerian Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Trend Analysis of Data from the Past Four Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejike, Chukwunonso E C C

    2017-01-12

    Despite four decades of research, there is no systematic review and trend analysis on paediatric (pre)hypertension in Nigeria. This article reviewed data from cross-sectional studies on the subject. From the initial 9334 articles identified, 30 studies that met the inclusion criteria were systematically reviewed. Data from studies that defined hypertension as blood pressure (BP) greater than the 95th percentile for age, height and sex gave a prevalence of 8.2% [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.6-28.2%] for prehypertension and 5.1% (95% CI: 2.9-8.6%) for hypertension. For studies that defined hypertension as BP greater than 2 SD points from the mean of the population, the prevalence of hypertension was found to be 4.0% (95% CI: 2.8-5.7%). A significant negative trend (Z = -0.89; α hypertension in the reviewed population. The prevalence of (pre)hypertension in Nigerian children and adolescents is moderate but has slightly declined over time.

  4. Prevalence of the Pathological Internet Use in a Sample of Turkish School Adolescents

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    S Canbaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The Internet addiction, also described as pathological Internet use (PIU, is conceptualized by an individual's in­ability to control his or her use of the Internet, which eventually causes marked distress and/or functional impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of the PIU among adolescence, in relation to different Internet ac­tivities, and to excessive use of the Internet in Samsun, Turkey."nMethods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 1 and 31, 2005 in Samsun, Turkey. In total, 1315 high school students (760 male, 555 female; mean age, 15.2±1.1 years were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire and Young's Internet Addiction Scale (IAS was applied to the participants."nResults: Although only 506 (38.5% of the participants have a computer at their home, total 1054 (80.2% used a computer at home or public, such as an internet cafe. Eight hundred and ten (76.9% of the participants, used a computer, to access to the Internet. Of the internet users, 10(1.2%, 161 (19.9% and 639 (78.9% were Internet addicts (IAs, possible Internet ad­dicts (PAs, and nonaddicts (NAs, respectively. It is found that males were more likely than females to be pathological us­ers in this study (P< 0.05."nConclusion: Our results still demonstrate that the Internet plays an important role in the lives of Turkish adolescents.

  5. Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight in an Indigenous Population in Central Brazil: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Geraldo F. Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight and associated factors in indigenous people of the Jaguapiru village in Central Brazil. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study between January 2009 and July 2011 in the adult native population of the Jaguapiru village, Central Brazil. Sociodemographic and lifestyle data were obtained; anthropometric measures, arterial blood pressure, and blood glucose were measured. The independent variables were tested by Poisson regression, and the interactions between them were analyzed. Results: 1,608 indigenous people (982 females, mean age 37.7 ± 15.1 years were included. The prevalence of obesity was 23.2% (95% CI 20.9-25.1%. Obesity was more prevalent among 40- to 49-year-old and overweight among 50- to 59-year-old persons. Obesity was positively associated with female sex, higher income, and hypertension. Among indigenous people, interactions were found with hypertension and sedentary lifestyle - hypertension in males and sedentary lifestyle in females. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in indigenous people of the Jaguapiru village is high. Males as well as hypertensive and higher family income individuals have higher rates. Sedentary lifestyle and hypertension leverage the rates of obesity. Prevention and adequate public health policies can be critical for the control of excess weight and its comorbidities among Brazilian indigenous people.

  6. Prevalence of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction in the general population; The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mosterd (Arend); A.W. Hoes (Arno); M.C. de Bruyne (Martine); D.T. Linker (David); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); J.W. Deckers (Jaap); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To determine the prevalence of heart failure and symptomatic as well as asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 5540 participants of the Rotterdam Study (age 68.9+/-8.7 years, 2251 men) aged

  7. The prevalence of neck pain in the world population: a systematic critical review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejer, René; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of neck pain (NP) in the world population and to identify areas of methodological variation between studies. A systematic search was conducted in five databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, OSH-ROM, and PsycINFO), followed by a screening...

  8. The Prevalence of Low Self-Esteem in an Intellectually Disabled Forensic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This was a quantitative study to measure the prevalence low self-esteem in an intellectually disabled forensic population. The dependent variables used were the adapted six-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the adapted Evaluative Beliefs Scale. It had a repeated measures design with independent variables including consideration of…

  9. Prevalence and Diagnostic Approach to Sleep Apnea in Hemodialysis Patients: A Population Study

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    Valentina Forni Ogna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous observations found a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in the hemodialysis population, but the best diagnostic approach remains undefined. We assessed OSA prevalence and performance of available screening tools to propose a specific diagnostic algorithm. Methods. 104 patients from 6 Swiss hemodialysis centers underwent polygraphy and completed 3 OSA screening scores: STOP-BANG, Berlin’s Questionnaire, and Adjusted Neck Circumference. The OSA predictors were identified on a derivation population and used to develop the diagnostic algorithm, which was validated on an independent population. Results. We found 56% OSA prevalence (AHI ≥ 15/h, which was largely underdiagnosed. Screening scores showed poor performance for OSA screening (ROC areas 0.538 [SE 0.093] to 0.655 [SE 0.083]. Age, neck circumference, and time on renal replacement therapy were the best predictors of OSA and were used to develop a screening algorithm, with higher discriminatory performance than classical screening tools (ROC area 0.831 [0.066]. Conclusions. Our study confirms the high OSA prevalence and highlights the low diagnosis rate of this treatable cardiovascular risk factor in the hemodialysis population. Considering the poor performance of OSA screening tools, we propose and validate a specific algorithm to identify hemodialysis patients at risk for OSA for whom further sleep investigations should be considered.

  10. Prevalence and Diagnostic Approach to Sleep Apnea in Hemodialysis Patients: A Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni Ogna, Valentina; Ogna, Adam; Pruijm, Menno; Bassi, Isabelle; Zuercher, Emilie; Halabi, Georges; Phan, Olivier; Bullani, Roberto; Teta, Daniel; Gauthier, Thierry; Cherpillod, Anne; Mathieu, Claudine; Mihalache, Alexandra; Cornette, Francoise; Haba-Rubio, José; Burnier, Michel; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous observations found a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the hemodialysis population, but the best diagnostic approach remains undefined. We assessed OSA prevalence and performance of available screening tools to propose a specific diagnostic algorithm. Methods. 104 patients from 6 Swiss hemodialysis centers underwent polygraphy and completed 3 OSA screening scores: STOP-BANG, Berlin's Questionnaire, and Adjusted Neck Circumference. The OSA predictors were identified on a derivation population and used to develop the diagnostic algorithm, which was validated on an independent population. Results. We found 56% OSA prevalence (AHI ≥ 15/h), which was largely underdiagnosed. Screening scores showed poor performance for OSA screening (ROC areas 0.538 [SE 0.093] to 0.655 [SE 0.083]). Age, neck circumference, and time on renal replacement therapy were the best predictors of OSA and were used to develop a screening algorithm, with higher discriminatory performance than classical screening tools (ROC area 0.831 [0.066]). Conclusions. Our study confirms the high OSA prevalence and highlights the low diagnosis rate of this treatable cardiovascular risk factor in the hemodialysis population. Considering the poor performance of OSA screening tools, we propose and validate a specific algorithm to identify hemodialysis patients at risk for OSA for whom further sleep investigations should be considered. PMID:26229952

  11. [Factors of individual radiation sensitivity in caries prevalence in population of radiation polluted regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevbitov, A V; Skatova, E A

    2005-01-01

    Analysing dental diseases prevalence in population of radiation polluted regions after the Chernobyl accident, one should take into account not only the level of the soil contamination with radionuclides but also factors of individual sensitivity to radioactivity, main of which is the age of the exposed person.

  12. Asthma prevalence in Olympic summer athletes and the general population: an analysis of three European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burns, J.; Mason, C.; Mueller, N.; Ohlander, J.; Zock, J.P.; Drobnic, F.; Wolfarth, B.; Heinrich, J.; Omenass, E.; Stensrud, T.; Nowak, D.; Radon, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some studies have shown a higher prevalence of asthma in elite athletes as compared to the general population. It is inconclusive to what extent certain sport categories are especially affected. The present study offered a unique opportunity to assess these differences in asthma prevalen

  13. The epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Linneberg, Allan;

    2010-01-01

    . This study aimed to review the epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population. Literature was examined using Pubmed-Medline, Biosis, Science Citation Index, and dermatology text books. On the basis of studies performed between 1964 and 2007, the point prevalence of hand eczema was around 4%, the 1...

  14. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: a systematic review

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    Aleem Sohaib

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to systematically review the medical literature for the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among the general and specific populations. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included cohort studies and cross sectional studies assessing the prevalence of use of waterpipe in either the general population or a specific population of interest. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We stratified the data analysis by country and by age group. The study was not restricted to a specific context. Results Of a total of 38 studies, only 4 were national surveys; the rest assessed specific populations. The highest prevalence of current waterpipe smoking was among school students across countries: the United States, especially among Arab Americans (12%-15% the Arabic Gulf region (9%-16%, Estonia (21%, and Lebanon (25%. Similarly, the prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among university students was high in the Arabic Gulf region (6%, the United Kingdom (8%, the United States (10%, Syria (15%, Lebanon (28%, and Pakistan (33%. The prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among adults was the following: Pakistan (6%, Arabic Gulf region (4%-12%, Australia (11% in Arab speaking adults, Syria (9%-12%, and Lebanon (15%. Group waterpipe smoking was high in Lebanon (5%, and Egypt (11%-15%. In Lebanon, 5%-6% pregnant women reported smoking waterpipe during pregnancy. The studies were all cross-sectional and varied by how they reported waterpipe smoking. Conclusion While very few national surveys have been conducted, the prevalence of waterpipe smoking appears to be alarmingly high among school students and university students in Middle Eastern countries and among groups of

  15. Links between Psychotropic Substance Use and Sensation Seeking in a Prevalence Study: The Role of Some Features of Parenting Style in a Large Sample of Adolescents

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    Marco Scalese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The objectives of the study were to (a investigate the prevalence risk of current drug users and (b explore the association between parental monitoring, adolescent-parent relationship, family structure, financial status, and sensation-seeking and psychotropic substance use. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2002 Italian student population survey of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. The sample size was 10,790 adolescents, aged 15–19 years. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed. Findings. The prevalence of users was 27.3% (34.2% males; 21.6% females. Single-parent and reconstructed families were related to the greatest likelihood of substance use. A medium financial status and, for females, a satisfying relationship with father were protective factors. Probability of engaging in risk-taking behavior increased when parental knowledge decreased. Exploring deeper how parental monitoring could modify the relation between different traits of sensation seeking and substances use revealed the following: “thrill and adventure seeking,” within the case of a good monitoring, can help against the use of substances; “boredom susceptibility” is not associated with drug use, except when parental monitoring is weak. Conclusions. Specific subdimensions, associated with substance use, may be more amenable to prevention than general interventions on sensation-seeking personality. Family is the context that could promote health education.

  16. Prevalence

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    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  17. Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em adolescentes escolares do município de Fortaleza, Brasil Prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescent students in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil

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    Lício de Albuquerque Campos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: determinar a prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em adolescentes escolares do Município de Fortaleza, Brasil, e estimar a diferença entre a prevalência nas escolas públicas e privadas segundo sexo e faixa etária (adolescência precoce e tardia. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal realizado no período de março a maio de 2003 com 1158 adolescentes, sendo 571 de escolas públicas e 587 de escolas privadas. Sobrepeso foi definido como indice de massa corporal (IMC igual ou superior ao percentil 85 e inferior ao percentil 95; obesidade, IMC igual ou maior ao percentil 95, ambos para idade e sexo. RESULTADOS: a prevalência total de sobrepeso e obesidade foi 19,5%. Nas escolas privadas, sobrepeso/obesidade alcançou 23,9%, freqüência maior do que nas públicas (18,0% (p = 0,018. A prevalência de sobrepeso/obesidade encontrada no sexo masculino (19,6% foi semelhante ao do feminino (19,0% (p = 0,80; na adolescência precoce, a prevalência foi (24,1 % maior do que a encontrada na adolescência tardia (15,0 % (p OBJECTIVES: to determine overweight and obesity prevalence in adolescent students in the Municipality of Fortaleza, Brazil and to estimate prevalence rates of public and private schools according to gender and age group (early and late adolescence. METHODS: a cross sectional study performed in the period of March to May 2003 comprised of 1158 adolescents, 571 from public schools and 587 from private schools. Overweight was defined when body mass index (BMI was determined to be equal or above percentile 85 and under percentile 95; obesity was defined when BMI was determined as equal or over percentile 95, regardless of age and gender. RESULTS: total prevalence of overweight and obesity was of 19.5%. In private schools, overweight/obesity reached 23.9%, a rate higher than in public schools (18.0% (p = 0.018. Overweight/ obesity prevalence in the male gender (19.6% was similar to the female gender (19.0% p = 0.80, in early

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents and Their Parents in Central Greece (FETA Project

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    Anna Patsopoulou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents’ and adolescents’ demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12–18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ, the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2 and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ. Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy, maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents’ obesity.

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents and Their Parents in Central Greece (FETA Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsopoulou, Anna; Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Katsioulis, Antonios; Rachiotis, George; Malissiova, Eleni; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA) aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents’ and adolescents’ demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12–18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2) and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ). Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy), maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents’ obesity. PMID:26712779

  20. Prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairment in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal

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    Roriz Jose M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite worldwide recognition of the burden of dementia, no epidemiological data is yet available in Portugal. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence and describe the pattern of cognitive impairment with dementia or no dementia (CIND in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal. Methods Two random samples of residents aged 55 to 79 years in rural and urban communities were drawn from the health centres registries to be screened for cognitive impairment. The screening criteria for dementia were an abnormal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score or a Blessed Dementia Scale score. After excluding those who tested positive for dementia, cut-off points for CIND were set at 1 standard deviation below the mean of the MMSE according to educational level. All those who screened positive either for dementia or CIND were examined by a neurologist for establishing a definitive diagnosis. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher in rural than in urban populations, 16.8% (95% CI: 14.3-19.8% vs. 12.0% (95%CI: 9.3-15.4%, with a rural/urban prevalence ratio (PR of 2.16 (95% CI: 1.04-4.50 in the eldest and 2.19 (95% CI: 1.01-4.76 in persons with vascular risk factors. The prevalence of dementia was 2.7% (95% CI: 1.9-3.8% with a rural/urban PR = 2.1 and the prevalence of CIND was 12.3% (95% CI: 10.4-14.4% and PR = 1.3. The prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age and in those with cerebrovascular disease or other comorbid conditions while the prevalence of CIND, besides these factors, is also higher in persons with low levels of education or vascular risk factors. Alzheimer's and vascular disease were equally likely aetiologies of dementia (38.7%, the later more common in men PR(F:M = 0.3 as opposed to the former PR(F:M = 2.0. Vascular CIND, associated either with cerebrovascular disease or vascular risk factors was more frequent (39.7% then depression (18.4% or any other aetiology

  1. Prevalence of self-medication in the adult population of Brazil: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Paulo Henrique Faria; Galvão, Taís Freire; de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; de Sá, Pedro Terra Teles; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Pereira, Mauricio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of self-medication in Brazil’s adult population. METHODS Systematic review of cross-sectional population-based studies. The following databases were used: Medline, Embase, Scopus, ISI, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, CRD, Lilacs, SciELO, the Banco de teses brasileiras (Brazilian theses database) (Capes) and files from the Portal Domínio Público (Brazilian Public Domain). In addition, the reference lists from relevant studies were examined to identify potentially eligible articles. There were no applied restrictions in terms of the publication date, language or publication status. Data related to publication, population, methods and prevalence of self-medication were extracted by three independent researchers. Methodological quality was assessed following eight criteria related to sampling, measurement and presentation of results. The prevalences were measured from participants who used at least one medication during the recall period of the studies. RESULTS The literature screening identified 2,778 records, from which 12 were included for analysis. Most studies were conducted in the Southeastern region of Brazil, after 2000 and with a 15-day recall period. Only five studies achieved high methodological quality, of which one study had a 7-day recall period, in which the prevalence of self-medication was 22.9% (95%CI 14.6;33.9). The prevalence of self-medication in three studies of high methodological quality with a 15-day recall period was 35.0% (95%CI 29.0;40.0, I2 = 83.9%) in the adult Brazilian population. CONCLUSIONS Despite differences in the methodologies of the included studies, the results of this systematic review indicate that a significant proportion of the adult Brazilian population self-medicates. It is suggested that future research projects that assess self-medication in Brazil standardize their methods. PMID:26083944

  2. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Spanish children and adolescents. Do we need waist circumference measurements in pediatric practice?

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    Helmut Schröder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC and waist to height ratio (WHtR in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO among normal and overweight individuals was analyzed. DESIGN: Data were obtained from a study conducted from 1998 to 2000 in a representative national sample of 1521 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years (50.0% female in Spain. WC and WHtR measurements were obtained in addition to BMI. AO was defined as WHtR ≥0.50 (WHtR-AO, sex and age specific WC≥90(th percentile (WC-AO1, and sex and age specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2. RESULTS: IOTF- based overweight and obsity prevalence was 21.5% and 6.6% in children and 17.4% and 5.2% in adolescents, respectively. Abdominal obesity (AO was defined as WHtR≥0.50 (WHtR-AO, sex- and age-specific WC≥90th percentile (WC-AO1, and sex- and age-specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2. The respective prevalence of WHtR-AO, WC-AO1, and WC-AO2 was 21.3% (24.6% boys; 17.9% girls, 9.4% (9.1% boys; 9.7% girls, and 26.8% (30.6% boys;22.9% girls in children and 14.3% (20.0% boys; 8.7% girls, 9.6% (9.8% boys; 9.5% girls, and 21.1% (28.8% boys; 13.7% girls in adolescents. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of AO in Spanish children and adolescents is of concern. The high proportion of AO observed in young patients who are normal weight or overweight indicates a need to include waist circumference measurements in routine clinical practice.

  3. Prevalence of high blood pressure in Brazilian adolescents and quality of the employed methodological procedures: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gabriella Pereira de Andrada Magalhães

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on studies that estimated the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP or systemic arterial hypertension (SAH in Brazilian adolescents, considering the employed methodological procedures. METHODS: Bibliographical research of prevalence studies of HBP/SAH in adolescents from 1995 to 2010. The search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed/Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, and Isi Adolec. The descriptors "hypertension", "BP", "teen", "students", "cross-sectional", "prevalence" and "Brazil" were used in Portuguese and English. Furthermore, a score ranging from 0 to 18 based on Recommendations for Blood Pressure Measurement in Humans and Experimental Animals and the VI Brazilian Guidelines of Hypertension was elaborated, in order to analyze the procedures used to measure BP in studies. RESULTS: Twenty-one articles were identified, mostly published in the last 10 years, and 90.5% were performed in school-based and regions of the Southeast, Northeast and South. The prevalence of HBP/SAH ranged from 2.5 to 30.9%. The score of the studies ranged from 0 to 16. A significant negative correlation (rho = -0.504; p = 0.020 was observed between the prevalence of HBP/SAH and the score of BP measurement quality. CONCLUSION: The great variability of PAE/SAH estimates appears to be influenced by methodological procedures used in the studies.

  4. Interplay between Endophyte Prevalence, Effects and Transmission: Insights from a Natural Grass Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Anaïs; Magda, Danièle; Hazard, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Two main mechanisms are thought to affect the prevalence of endophyte-grass symbiosis in host populations: the mode of endophyte transmission, and the fitness differential between symbiotic and non-symbiotic plants. These mechanisms have mostly been studied in synthetic grass populations. If we are to improve our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of such symbioses, we now need to determine the combinations of mechanisms actually operating in the wild, in populations shaped by evolutionary history. We used a demographic population modeling approach to identify the mechanisms operating in a natural stand of an intermediate population (i.e. 50% of plants symbiotic) of the native grass Festuca eskia. We recorded demographic data in the wild over a period of three years, with manipulation of the soil resources for half the population. We developed two stage-structured matrix population models. The first model concerned either symbiotic or non-symbiotic plants. The second model included both symbiotic and non-symbiotic plants and took endophyte transmission rates into account. According to our models, symbiotic had a significantly higher population growth rate than non-symbiotic plants, and endophyte prevalence was about 58%. Endophyte transmission rates were about 0.67 or 0.87, depending on the growth stage considered. In the presence of nutrient supplementation, population growth rates were still significantly higher for symbiotic than for non-symbiotic plants, but endophyte prevalence fell to 0%. At vertical transmission rates below 0.10-0.20, no symbiosis was observed. Our models showed that a positive benefit of the endophyte and vertical transmission rates of about 0.6 could lead to the coexistence of symbiotic and non-symbiotic F. eskia plants. The positive effect of the symbiont on host is not systematically associated with high transmission rates of the symbiont over short time scales, in particular following an environmental change.

  5. Ideal cardiovascular health prevalence in the Brazilian population - National Health Survey (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido; Claro, Rafael; Gomes, Crizian Saar; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Primordial prevention is defined as the initial prevention of risk factors, through the adoption of healthier behaviors. Within this concept, the American Heart Association (AHA) has defined seven metrics, based on evidence, to achieve ideal cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiovascular health in the Brazilian population, according to sex, age, and region of residence, using data from the latest National Health Survey (2013). We assessed the risk factors, as recommended by the AHA, combined (number of factors) and individually: four behavioral (smoking, physical activity, body mass index and diet) and three biological factors (blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol levels). The Brazilian population has reached very low prevalence (1%), for the sum of 7 factors in ideal level. Individually, 3.2% of the population consumed ideal diet, followed by physical activity (23.6%) and body mass index (43.7%). The subjects aged between 18 and 35 years showed higher prevalence of metrics combined at the optimal levels (0.5%), which was also reached by the population of the Northern region. These results indicate that greater efforts are urgent by public policies at the level of primordial prevention in order to achieve appropriate targets of cardiovascular health in the Brazilian population.

  6. PREVALENCE OF DIENTAMOEBA FRAGILIS AMONG AN ORANG ASLI POPULATION IN RURAL MALAYSIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Hasim, Liyana; Moktar, Norhayati; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M

    2015-09-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a trichomonad parasite that can infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans causing gastrointestinal disease. Little is known about its epidemiology. We evaluated the prevalence of D. fragilis by conducting a cross sectional study of an Orang Asli population in rural Malaysia. We examined stool samples from 150 participants for D. fragilis using Wheatley's trichrome stain and collected demographic data from each participant using a structured questionnaire. Five participants (3.3%) had D. fragilis in their stool; four of these were aged population. Further studies are needed to determine the virulence, pathogenicity and mode of transmission of D. fragilis in the study population.

  7. PREVALENCE OF FOOD ALLERGIES IN THE POPULATION OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN FROM THE CITY OF OSIJEK

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović, Nika; Vlahović, Jelena; MIŠKULIN, MAJA

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Food allergy is an immune-mediated hypersensitivity to allergens in food. This allergy affects about 6-8% of children younger than three years, about 4% of school-age children and about 2% of the adult population in the world. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of food allergies in the population of preschool children from the city of Osijek and to identify the most common causes of these allergies in the study population. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study ...

  8. Prevalence of ischemic heart disease among urban population of Siliguri, West Bengal

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    Mandal Sukanta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and the associated risk factors among the urban population of Siliguri. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of the population aged ≥40 years old in the Municipal Corporation area of Siliguri. Study variables were age, sex, occupation, addiction, food habit, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram change. Results: Out of 250 individuals who took part in this study, 29 (11.6% had ischemic heart disease (IHD and 118 (47.2% had hypertension. Males had a higher (13.5% prevalence of IHD than females (9.4%. About 5% of the patients had asymptomatic IHD. IHD among the study population is significantly associated with hypertension and smoking.

  9. Perceived stress and musculoskeletal pain are prevalent and significantly associated in adolescents : An epidemiological cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Østerås, Berit; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Haga, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term musculoskeletal pain and negative stress are health risks with adverse long-term health effects, and these health risks seem to increase among young people. The mechanisms behind this are unclear. There is a need for a better understanding of perceived stress and musculoskeletal pain among adolescents, in order to improve health promotion and treatment approaches in this group. Methods Objectives were to evaluate the current prevalence of perceived stress and musculoskele...

  10. The prevalence of malocclusion and its association with dental caries among 12-18-year-old disabled adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vellappally, Sajith; Seby J Gardens; Al Kheraif, Abdul-Aziz Abdullah; Krishna, Madhusudan; Babu, Suresh; Hashem, Mohamed; Jacob, Vimal; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence of malocclusion among 12-18-year-old disabled adolescents in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, by using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and to determine the association of malocclusion with dental caries. Methods This cross-sectional study included 243 children with various mental disabilities with or without physical infirmities. The Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and the dentition status were recorded using the World Health Organization Oral Health Surveys – Bas...

  11. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension amongst school children and adolescents in North Karnataka: A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar V Baradol; SV Patil; Anand Ranagol

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Childhood obesity& hypertension are global health problems as they caused increase in morbidity & mortality. Objective: To find out the prevalence of obesity, overweight in school going children and adolescents of north Karnataka. Also to study obesity related morbidities like Prehypertension and Hypertension and associated risk factors for sustained hypertension. Materials and Methods: Total 2800 children in age group from 10-16 years from 3 schools of Urban and rural region of...

  12. The prevalence of peanut sensitization and the association to pollen sensitization in a cohort of unselected adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade an increased occurrence of peanut hypersensitivity and severe anaphylactic reactions to peanut have been reported. However, few prevalence studies have been performed in unselected populations. This study evaluated the point prevalence of peanut hypersensitivity in Danish adole......, the case history should be evaluated together with examination for pollen sensitization....

  13. Psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents presenting with unexplained chronic pain: what is the prevalence and clinical relevancy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knook, L.M.; Konijnenberg, A.Y.; Hoeven, J. van der; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Engeland, H. van; Graeff-Meeder, E.R. de

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among children with unexplained chronic pain (UCP) is high in unselected populations and pain clinics, yet the clinical relevance of these disorders in children referred for unexplained pain is not known. This study assessed the prevalence of clinically releva

  14. Domestic violence in pregnant adolescents: Characterization of the partners and prevalence of the different forms of expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monterrosa-Castro, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pregnancy in adolescents and domestic violence (DV are worldwide problems. Their prevalence is influenced by cultural factors. Objectives: To characterize pregnant adolescents and their sexual partners, and to determine the prevalence of psychological, physical and sexual DV. Methodology: Cross-sectional study of 406 Colombian pregnant teenagers. Socio-demographic data were collected, and the scales “Are you being abused?” and “Abuse Assessment Screen” were applied. The former identifies domestic violence by the partner, and the latter, DV at any moment, the last year or during pregnancy. Results: Age: 16.5 ± 1.5 years, 92.9 % were in late adolescence, average years of schooling: nine; 50 % dropped out from school when they became pregnant; 70 % depended on their parents, both before and after pregnancy. DV by the partner: 7.1 %; physical DV: 6.7 %; psychological DV: 3.7 %; sexual DV: 2.2 %. DV by partner/husband/other person: 12.4 %; physical or emotional abuse by partner/another person: 21.7 %; fear from the partner: 3.4 %. There was significant association between alcohol consumption by the partner every weekend and DV. Conclusion: Frequency of DV against pregnant adolescents is high and alcohol consumption by the partner is an important risk factor for it.

  15. Prevalence of internet addiction and its association with stressful life events and psychological symptoms among adolescent internet users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Jiaji

    2014-03-01

    Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is a serious public health problem around the world. However, there have been few studies that examine the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescent internet users. We examined the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among a random sample of school students who were internet users (N=755) in Wuhan, China. Internet addiction, stressful life events, coping style and psychological symptoms were measured by self-rated scales. The prevalence rate of internet addiction was 6.0% among adolescent internet users. Logistic regression analyses indicated that stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with IA after controlling for demographic characteristics. Analyses examining the coping style with the IA revealed that negative coping style may mediate the effects of stressful life events to increase the risk of IA. However, no significant interaction of stressful life events and psychological symptoms was found. These findings of the current study indicate a high prevalence of internet addiction among Chinese adolescent internet users and highlight the importance of stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem as a risk factor for IA which mainly mediated through negative coping style.

  16. A Study on the prevalence of Internet addiction and its association with psychopathological symptoms and obesity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Huseyin Cam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: There has been an explosive growth of internet usage worldwide and this is expected to continue with its use becoming an integral part of everyday life. The internet provides tremendous educational benefits; however, excessive internet use can lead to negative outcomes such as psychopathological symptoms and obesity. The aim of the study was to study association with the prevalence of internet addiction and psychopathological symptoms and obesity in adolescent age group. Methods: A total of 1175 high school students from three high schools in Giresun City were surveyed using Internet Addiction Test, Dukes Health Profile. The Data was collected using a structured questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Of the 1,175 adolescents who took part in the study, 588 (50.0% were female and 587 (50.0% were males. The mean age of adolescents was 15.72 +/- 1.14 years. The prevalence rate of problematic internet use was 7.1% among adolescent internet users. Those with excessive use internet had high scores on anxiety, depression, and anxiety depression. A relationship between problematic internet use and obesity was not found. Conclusions: Problematic internet use is becoming a significant public health issue that requires urgent attention. Effective measures are needed to prevent the spread of this problem and interventions to prevent the effects of problematic internet use on psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction should be conducted as early as possible. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 181-188

  17. Differences in the Prevalence, Severity and Symptom Profiles of Depression in Boys and Adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder versus Normally Developing Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, severity and symptom profiles for major depressive disorder (MDD) were compared in samples of boys and adolescents with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Self-reports were obtained on the Depression subscale of the Child and Adolescent Symptoms Inventory (CASI-D) with 70 ASD and 50 non-ASD male participants between the…

  18. Prevalence of Hearing Loss Among a Representative Sample of Canadian Children and Adolescents, 3 to 19 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, David; McNamee, James; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Ramage-Morin, Pamela; Beauregard, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: There are no nationally representative hearing loss (HL) prevalence data available for Canadian youth using direct measurements. The present study objectives were to estimate national prevalence of HL using audiometric pure-tone thresholds (0.5 to 8 kHz) and or distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) for children and adolescents, aged 3 to 19 years. Design: This cross-sectional population-based study presents findings from the 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey, entailing an in-person household interview and hearing measurements conducted in a mobile examination clinic. The initial study sample included 2591 participants, aged 3 to 19 years, representing 6.5 million Canadians (3.3 million males). After exclusions, subsamples consisted of 2434 participants, aged 3 to 19 years and 1879 participants, aged 6 to 19 years, with valid audiometric results. Eligible participants underwent otoscopic examination, tympanometry, DPOAE, and audiometry. HL was defined as a pure-tone average >20 dB for 6- to 18-year olds and ≥26 dB for 19-year olds, for one or more of the following: four-frequency (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) pure-tone average, high-frequency (3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz) pure-tone average, and low-frequency (0.5, 1, and 2 kHz) pure-tone average. Mild HL was defined as >20 to 40 dB (6- to 18-year olds) and ≥26 to 40 dB (19-year olds). Moderate or worse HL was defined as >40 dB (6- to 19-year olds). HL in 3- to 5-year olds (n = 555) was defined as absent DPOAEs as audiometry was not conducted. Self-reported HL was evaluated using the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 hearing questions. Results: The primary study outcome indicates that 7.7% of Canadian youth, aged 6 to 19, had any HL, for one or more pure-tone average. Four-frequency pure-tone average and high-frequency pure-tone average HL prevalence was 4.7 and 6.0%, respectively, whereas 5.8% had a low-frequency pure-tone average HL. Significantly more children/adolescents had unilateral HL

  19. Youth Mental Health in a Populous City of the Developing World: Results from the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Zambrano, Joaquin; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Background: Because the epidemiologic data available for adolescents from the developing world is scarce, the objective is to estimate the prevalence and severity of psychiatric disorders among Mexico City adolescents, the socio-demographic correlates associated with these disorders and service utilization patterns. Methods: This is a multistage…

  20. Population-based biochemistry, immunologic and hematological reference values for adolescents and young adults in a rural population in Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Zeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is need for locally-derived age-specific clinical laboratory reference ranges of healthy Africans in sub-Saharan Africa. Reference values from North American and European populations are being used for African subjects despite previous studies showing significant differences. Our aim was to establish clinical laboratory reference values for African adolescents and young adults that can be used in clinical trials and for patient management. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A panel of 298, HIV-seronegative individuals aged 13-34 years was randomly selected from participants in two population-based cross-sectional surveys assessing HIV prevalence and other sexually transmitted infections in western Kenya. The adolescent (<18 years-to-adults (≥ 18 years ratio and the male-to-female ratio was 1∶1. Median and 95% reference ranges were calculated for immunohematological and biochemistry values. Compared with U.S-derived reference ranges, we detected lower hemoglobin (HB, hematocrit (HCT, red blood cells (RBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, neutrophil, glucose, and blood urea nitrogen values but elevated eosinophil and total bilirubin values. Significant gender variation was observed in hematological parameters in addition to T-bilirubin and creatinine indices in all age groups, AST in the younger and neutrophil, platelet and CD4 indices among the older age group. Age variation was also observed, mainly in hematological parameters among males. Applying U.S. NIH Division of AIDS (DAIDS toxicity grading to our results, 40% of otherwise healthy study participants were classified as having an abnormal laboratory parameter (grade 1-4 which would exclude them from participating in clinical trials. CONCLUSION: Hematological and biochemistry reference values from African population differ from those derived from a North American population, showing the need to develop region-specific reference values. Our data also show variations in hematological

  1. Hypodontia: prevalence and pattern amongst the living Druze population - a Near Eastern genetic isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsoleihat, Firas; Khraisat, Ameen

    2014-06-01

    The Druze population is a small-sized Near Eastern genetic isolate with high rates of consanguineous marriages. The present study aimed at investigating prevalence, pattern and distribution of hypodontia in the permanent dentition, excluding wisdom teeth, amongst this population. Panoramic radiographs, dental casts, and anamnestic records of 85 un-admixed Druze schoolchildren (45 males, 40 females; age range=14-18 years, mean age=16 years, SD=0.5 years) were examined for evidence of hypodontia. Those with any type of facial clefts or craniofacial syndromes were excluded. Hypodontia prevalence was 11.8% (11.1% for males, 12.5% for females) with no statistically significant difference between sexes. The average number of missing teeth per child was 1.4 (1.2 for males, 1.6 for females). The majority (90%) of affected individuals exhibited minor hypodontia (one or two teeth missing). The most commonly missing teeth were upper lateral incisors and canines, followed by lower and upper second premolars. Asymmetrical hypodontia was more prevalent. Maxillary, left side, and anterior segment predominance were observed. The distinct features of hypodontia among the Druze population are the relatively high prevalence of minor hypodontia, and the upper lateral incisors and canines being the most commonly missing teeth.

  2. [Prevalence of hepatitis C virus and excessive consumption of alcohol in a nonhospital worker population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto Domingo, J J; Carrión Bolaños, J A; Bandrés Moya, F

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the study was to know the prevalence of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a non hospital work population by ELISA 3.0 and PCR-Amplicor, as well as its relationship with excessive alcohol intake (more than 280 g/week in men and 168 g/week in women). A transversal seroepidemiologic study was carried out in 1,109 workers of the Empresa Nacional de Electricidad, S.A. (ENDESA). During the annual medical examinations (April 1993-October 1994) the amount of alcoholic beverages each worker had consumed over the 7 days prior to the medical examination was obtained by anamnesis together with a blood sample for different laboratory tests. Sixteen percent of the workers had had excessive alcohol intake. The prevalence of anti HCV antibodies in the study population was 2.4% being up to 4.6% in the workers declaring excessive alcohol consumption and 10.4% if they also presented an elevation in any of the transaminases. The prevalence of the potentially ineffective workers was 1.46%. The prevalence of anti C antibodies by ELISA 3.0 was greater than expected (2.4%) significantly increasing in the population group which declared excessive alcohol intake, thereby demonstrating the relationship between alcohol and hepatitis C.

  3. Assessment of prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in multiethnic population of the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Sathvik Belagodu; Rao, Padma Gurumadhva; Multani, Satendra Kumar; Jain, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    United Arab Emirates (UAE) has a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D. Not much data are available regarding the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency among multiethnic UAE adult population. (1) To determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in multiethnic UAE population (2) To compare the Vitamin D status in Arab and non-Arab population (3) To identify the demographic variables associated with hypovitaminosis D. It was a retrospective study conducted at a secondary care hospital. Electronic case records of all the subjects who had checked their Vitamin D levels during the time period of May 2010-October 2012 were considered for the study. Vitamin D severe deficiency, deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency were defined as serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels 30 ng/mL, respectively. A total 425 subjects were included for the data analysis. Vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed in 208 (48.9%) subjects followed by severe Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in 141 (33.2%) and 63 (14.8%) subjects, respectively. The overall prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was 96.9%. Negative association (r = -0.196, P < 0.01) was observed between body mass index (BMI) and 25(OH)D levels. Ethnicity was not (P = 0.103) a predictor of 25(OH)D levels. Majority of our study subjects had Vitamin D deficiency. There was no substantial difference in 25(OH)D levels of different ethnic groups. Female gender, age, and BMI were the predictors 25(OH)D levels.

  4. Assessment of the Prevalence of Pulp Stones in a Sample of Turkish Central Anatolian Population

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    Hakan Çolak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pulp stones (PS in a Turkish dental patient population with respect to sexes and dental localization in relation between sex and this anomaly. Materials Methods. A retrospective study was performed using bitewing radiographs of 814 patients ranging in age from 15 to 65. All data (age, sex, and location was obtained from the files. These patients were analyzed for pulp stones. Descriptive characteristics of sexes, jaws, and dental localization were recorded. The Pearson chi-squared test was used. Results. Of the patients, 462 (56.8% were female and 352 (43.2% were male. Sixty (12% had one or more teeth that contained pulp stones. Pulp stones were identified in 518 (63.6% of the subjects and in 2391 (27.8% of the teeth examined. Pulp stone occurrence was significantly more common in the females than in males. With the increasing of age, the prevalence of pulp stones increased. Molars had statistically more pulp stones than premolars. Pulp stones were significantly more common in the maxilla compared with mandible. Conclusion. Prevalence of pulp stones in Turkish population was 27.8% but further larger-scale studies are required to assess its prevalence in the general population to compare it with other ethnic groups.

  5. Peruvians’ sleep duration: analysis of a population-based survey on adolescents and adults

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    Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained settings, will provide informative evidence on a potentially modifiable risk factor. The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of sleep duration in the Peruvian adult and adolescent population, together with its socio-demographic profile.Material and Methods. A total of 12,424 subjects, mean age 35.8 years (SD ±17.7, 50.6% males, were included in the analysis. This is a cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the Use of Time National Survey conducted in 2010. We used weighted means and proportions to describe sleep duration according to socio-demographic variables (area and region; sex; age; education attainment; asset index; martial and job status. We used Poisson regressions, taking into account the multistage sampling design of the survey, to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Main outcomes were short- (<6 h and long-sleep duration (≥ 9 h.Results. On average, Peruvians slept 7.7 h (95% CI [7.4–8.0] on weekdays and 8.0 h (95% CI [7.8–8.1] during weekends. The proportions of short- and long-sleep, during weekdays, were 4.3% (95% CI [2.9%–6.3%] and 22.4% (95% CI [14.9%–32.1%], respectively. Regarding urban and rural areas, a much higher proportion of short-sleep was observed in the former (92.0% vs. 8.0%; both for weekdays and weekends. On the multivariable analysis, compared to regular-sleepers (≥ 6 to <9 h, short-sleepers were twice more likely to be older and to have higher educational status, and 50% more likely to be currently employed. Similarly, relative to regular-sleep, long-sleepers were more likely to have a lower socioeconomic status as per educational attainment.Conclusions. In this

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of gallstone disease in an Iranian population:a study on cadavers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmaail Farzaneh; Hassan Toifghi Zavvareh; Jaber Gharadaghi; Mehrdad Sheikhvatan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The prevalence of gallstones is low in Asians. In Iran, many factors inlfuence the prevalence of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gallbladder stones and their chemical characteristics in a population by the study of cadavers. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, autopsies were performed on 253 cadavers of more than 13 years old. The cadavers were studied to determine the number, location of stone formation, chemical composition, dry weight, and mean diameter of stones in the gallbladder and common bile duct. RESULTS:The prevalence of gallstone disease in these cadavers was 6.3% (men 4.7%, women 8.6%, not signiifcantly different, P=0.216). There was a positive relationship between the age and prevalence of gallstone disease (P=0.033). The most common stone compositions were cholesterol and oxalate. The mean diameter (P=0.0058) and dry weight (P CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of gallstones differed among age groups. Diameter and dry weight of gallstones were dependent on location of stone formation and chemical composition.

  7. The Prevalence and Distribution of Vitreoretinal Interface Abnormalities among Urban Community Population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Yue, Song; Wu, Jingyang; Zhang, Jiahua; Lian, Jie; Huang, Desheng; Teng, Weiping; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the prevalence and distribution of vitreoretinal interface abnormalities (VIAs) among urban community population in Shenyang, China. According to the WHO criteria, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 304 Type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients and 304 people without diabetes as control over 45 years old. The presence of VIAs was determined by standardized grading of macular optical coherence tomography (Optovue OCT; Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA) scans and two-field fundus photographs in at least one eye. For both men and women, high prevalence of VIAs (70.79%) was observed among over 65-years-old T2D patients. Prevalence of VIAs was observed to be high among T2D patients in all age groups compared to normal subjects. Prevalence of VIAs increased with age in all subjects. Prevalence of components of VIAs was epiretinal membrane (ERM) 11.43%, posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) 17.76%, vitreomacular traction syndrome (VMT) 5.67%, macular cysts/macular edema (MC/ME) 4.61%, full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) 0.82%, and partial thickness macular hole (PTMH) 0.74% in any eye, respectively. ERM and MC/ME were more prevalent in T2D in both males and females. The results highlight the need for early detection using OCT and approaches for the prevention of VIAs of diabetes in urban community.

  8. The Prevalence and Distribution of Vitreoretinal Interface Abnormalities among Urban Community Population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify the prevalence and distribution of vitreoretinal interface abnormalities (VIAs among urban community population in Shenyang, China. According to the WHO criteria, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 304 Type 2 diabetes (T2D patients and 304 people without diabetes as control over 45 years old. The presence of VIAs was determined by standardized grading of macular optical coherence tomography (Optovue OCT; Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA scans and two-field fundus photographs in at least one eye. For both men and women, high prevalence of VIAs (70.79% was observed among over 65-years-old T2D patients. Prevalence of VIAs was observed to be high among T2D patients in all age groups compared to normal subjects. Prevalence of VIAs increased with age in all subjects. Prevalence of components of VIAs was epiretinal membrane (ERM 11.43%, posterior vitreous detachment (PVD 17.76%, vitreomacular traction syndrome (VMT 5.67%, macular cysts/macular edema (MC/ME 4.61%, full-thickness macular hole (FTMH 0.82%, and partial thickness macular hole (PTMH 0.74% in any eye, respectively. ERM and MC/ME were more prevalent in T2D in both males and females. The results highlight the need for early detection using OCT and approaches for the prevention of VIAs of diabetes in urban community.

  9. Human papillomavirus type-specific prevalence in the cervical cancer screening population of Czech women.

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    Ruth Tachezy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPVtypes has been recognized as a causal factor for the development of cervical cancer and a number of other malignancies. Today, vaccines against HPV, highly effective in the prevention of persistent infection and precancerous lesions, are available for the routine clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: The data on the prevalence and type-specific HPV distribution in the population of each country are crucial for the surveillance of HPV type-specific prevalence at the onset of vaccination against HPV. METHODS: Women attending a preventive gynecological examination who had no history of abnormal cytological finding and/or surgery for cervical lesions were enrolled. All samples were tested for the presence of HPV by High-Risk Hybrid Capture 2 (HR HC2 and by a modified PCR-reverse line blot assay with broad spectrum primers (BS-RLB. RESULTS: Cervical smears of 1393 women were analyzed. In 6.5% of women, atypical cytological findings were detected. Altogether, 28.3% (394/1393 of women were positive for any HPV type by BS-RLB, 18.2% (254/1393 by HR HC2, and 22.3% (310/1393 by BS-RLB for HR HPV types. In women with atypical findings the prevalence for HR and any HPV types were significantly higher than in women with normal cytological findings. Overall, 36 different HPV types were detected, with HPV 16 being the most prevalent (4.8%. HPV positivity decreased with age; the highest prevalence was 31.5% in the age group 21-25 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our study subjects represent the real screening population. HPV prevalence in this population in the Czech Republic is higher than in other countries of Eastern Europe. Also the spectrum of the most prevalent HPV types differs from those reported by others but HPV 16 is, concordantly, the most prevalent type. Country-specific HPV type-specific prevalences provide baseline information which will enable to measure the impact of HPV vaccination in the future.

  10. Prevalence of class III malocclusion and crossbite among children and adolescents with craniomandibular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Nenad; Drinkuth, Nicole; Toll, Douglas E

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have been devoted to the causes of craniomandibular dysfunction (CMD). This investigation addressed the effect of class III malocclusion and crossbite on CMD based on a sample of 115 prepubertal and adolescent patients of both sexes. Although class III malocclusion only accounted for 12.2% of the total sample, thus, being the smallest group, the percentage of crossbite (71.4%) among these patients was disproportionately higher than among the other classes. Of the total sample, the prevalence of crossbite was 30.4%. We compared these findings to a large-scale (n=4727) study by Thilander et al. (2002), who reported a strikingly high percentage of class I patients compared to our findings (72.7% versus 27.8%) and a lower percentage of crossbite cases (8.0% versus 30.4%). In accordance with the "orthodontic risk child" concept by Grabowski et al. (2007) and Stahl et al. (2007), we conclude that class III malocclusion and crossbite are keys in the pathogenesis of CMD.

  11. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Dantas Ferreira Marques

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,477 middle school students enrolled in the public school network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Methods: The sample was determined using a two-stage cluster sampling technique for selecting schools and classes. A posteriori error was estimated. The students were classified as overweight or obese according to the World Health Organization's 2007 classifications. They were also classified according to age, stage of sexual maturity, socioeconomic class and the presence of abdominal obesity. Results: Overall, 9.3% of the students were overweight and 6.4% were obese; therefore, 15.7% of the students were considered to have excess weight (obesity + overweight, at a 95% confidence interval. Abdominal obesity was found in 12.9% of all students and in 13% of those of normal weight. An association was found between excess weight and age < 14 years (p = 0.030 and abdominal obesity (p = 0.001. Conclusions: Intervention programs should be implemented to prevent and treat obesity in childhood and adolescence. In addition, professionals working with individuals in this age group should be sensitized to this problem. The need to standardize the anthropometric indicators used in the different studies is also emphasized.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation and attempts among children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Dupuis, Lorette C; Ray, Robin

    2015-11-10

    Suicide is a potentially preventable public health issue. It is therefore important to examine its immediate precursors, including suicidal ideation and attempts, to help in the development of future public health interventions. The present study reports the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts in the past 12 months in children and adolescents and identifies correlates of such behaviors in a large and diverse sample of middle and high school students. Data were drawn from a representative sample of Ottawa students (n=1922) aged 11-20 years (14.4±1.9 years) from three cycles (2009, 2011 and 2013) of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS), a cross-sectional school-based appraisal of students in grades 7-12 across Ontario, Canada. Overall, 10.8% of students exhibited suicidal ideation and 3.0% reported suicide attempts in the past 12 months. The conditional probability of making an attempt was 25.5% among suicide ideators. Multivariable analyses indicated that being a girl and using alcohol and cannabis were positively associated with suicidal ideation, while tobacco was positively associated with suicide attempts. Being a victim of school bullying was significantly associated with reports of suicidal ideation and attempts, whereas school connectedness had protective effects against both suicidal ideation and attempts. These results indicate that suicidal ideation and attempts are related to other risky behaviors. Suicide-prevention efforts should be integrated within broader health-promoting initiatives.

  13. Age trends in prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Roma minority population of Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeljko, Hrvojka Marija; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Barešić, Ana; Tomas, Zeljka; Petranović, Matea Zajc; Miličić, Jasna; Salihović, Marijana Peričić; Janićijević, Branka

    2013-07-01

    The Roma (Gypsy) are the largest European minority population characterized by poverty, social exclusion as well as by numerous life-style and cultural specificities, which all could have an adverse impact on their cardiovascular health. This study assesses the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in community-based sample of 430 adult Roma, living in rural area of Croatia, by providing the actual and age-adjusted estimates using the European standard population. The most prominent classical CVD risk phenotypes (blood pressure, obesity, smoking, glucose and lipid profile) were selected, and the standard risk cut-offs were applied. The study has shown that compared to general population of Croatia, the Roma population bears a high CVD risk factors load related to smoking and high glucose level. The CVD risk factors prevalence in Roma also showed important sex and age patterns, the most imposing of which are the findings of higher prevalence of CVD risks in women (especially obesity and triglyceride levels) and the trend of higher body mass index (BMI) level in younger age group (18-34 years) which both stand in contrast to the trends characterizing the general population of Croatia. These findings are complemented by the trend of decreased risk in the oldest age group (65+ years) for all investigated CVD risk factors (with exception of triglycerides level) compared to the 50-64 age group. We conclude that the age and sex CVD risks pattern point to the health transition of this rural Roma population. As we expect the proportion of CVD in the Roma minority of Croatia to increase in the future along with further modernization of their lifestyle, the CVD prevention measures in this population are urgent and should be primarily targeted at women and at the younger segment of this population.

  14. High prevalence of nickel allergy in an overweight female population: a pilot observational analysis.

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    Elena Angela Lusi

    Full Text Available In our Allergy Unit, we incidentally observed that a low Nickel diet, prescribed for delayed allergy to Nickel sulfate, reduced body mass index (BMI and waist circumference in overweight patients.This pilot cross-sectional analysis was undertaken to compare the prevalence of Nickel allergy of overweight individuals versus the general population. We also had the chance to report the efficacy of a low Nickel diet on BMI and waist circumference in Nickel-sensitive overweight subjects.Eighty-seven overweight subjects, with a BMI > 26 Kg/m2, were consecutively enrolled in a health prevention program, and screened for the presence of Nickel allergy. The enrolled population was mostly females (72/87 (82.8%. Forty-three overweight women and two men showed a Nickel allergy and started a low Nickel diet. After 6-months of dieting, 24 overweight allergic women could be traced and changes in BMI and waist circumference were calculated.Prevalence of Nickel allergy in overweight.Prevalence of Nickel allergy in overweight female was 59.7%, compared with a prevalence rate of 12.5% in the general population. A significant reduction in BMI was observed in 24 out of 43 overweight females with Nickel allergy after 24 weeks of a low Nickel diet. Relative to baseline, mean BMI decrease was 4.2 ± 0.5 (P < 0.001 and the mean decline in waist circumference was 11.7 ± 0.6 cm (P < 0.001.This pilot observational analysis showed a substantially higher prevalence of Nickel allergy among overweight females, especially those with metabolic syndrome and fatty liver disease. A normocaloric low Nickel diet was effective in reducing BMI in this population. Further research is strongly needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  15. Cyberbullying among male adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: prevalence, correlates, and association with poor mental health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence rates and multilevel correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators among male adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were also examined. The experiences of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in 251 male adolescents with ADHD were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were examined using multiple regression analysis. A total of 48 (19.1%) and 36 (14.3%) participants reported that they were cyberbullying victims or perpetrators, respectively. Those who had increased age and a higher parental occupational socioeconomic status, and reported more severe traditional passive bullying victimization were more likely to be cyberbullying victims. Those who had increased age and combined-type ADHD, and reported lower BAS reward responsiveness, more severe Internet addiction and more severe traditional passive bullying perpetration were more likely to be cyberbullying perpetrators. Cyberbullying victims reported more severe depression and suicidality than those who were not cyberbullying victims. A high proportion of male adolescents with ADHD are involved in cyberbullying. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents should monitor the possibility of cyberbullying involvement among male adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the cyberbullying correlates identified in this study.

  16. Breast tumours of adolescents in an African population

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    Umanah Ivy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumours of the breast are uncommon in childhood and adolescence. Patients in this age group often require a different approach to diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this study is to highlight the clinicopathologic features of breast tumours in adolescents in a Nigerian city. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four breast tumour materials from patients aged 10-19 years were analyzed over a 10-year period at the Department of Pathology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH, Benin City, Edo State, Benin City, Nigeria. Results: A majority of the breast tumours were benign. Fibroadenoma was the most common tumour with 46 cases (54.8%, followed by fibrocystic changes with 15 cases (17%. Malignancy was extremely rare in this group, with only one case (1.2% of an invasive ductal carcinoma. Histologically, most tumours were indistinguishable from the adult types. Conclusion: Fibroadenoma is the most common breast tumour in adolescents in Benin City, Nigeria. Breast cancer and male breast tumours are rare in this age group. Routine complete physical examination of children and adolescents should include breast examination.

  17. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms : An adolescent population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvanie, Irma J.; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A. M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. I

  18. [Population prevalence of congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in the Donetsk region of Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, V N; Moskalenko, V Z; Grona, V N; Sopov, G A; Linchevskiĭ, G L

    2001-01-01

    The population prevalence of congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in Donetsk region in the course of 11 years (1989-1999) has been descriptively studied. Its frequency is 0.73:1000 or 1:1370 newborn infants annual with range of 0.54 to 1.01:1000. It is somewhat lower than that of more wide spread congenital diseases: labial cleft and hemochromatoses. Pyloric stenosis is detected in 42 of 43 populations of Donetsk region. There is a population nonuniformity of the case rate: from 0.19 to 1.9:1000 newborn infants, that the authors are inclined to explain by dissimilarity of a gene pool in the populations due to random migration of the population.

  19. Prevalence of self-reported symptoms and consequences related to inhalation of airborne chemicals in a Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Dirksen, Asger; Elberling, Jesper;

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and consequences of self-reported symptoms related to inhalation of airborne chemicals in a Danish general population.......To estimate the prevalence and consequences of self-reported symptoms related to inhalation of airborne chemicals in a Danish general population....

  20. Prevalence of sealants in relation to dental caries on the permanent molars of 12 and 15-year-old Greek adolescents. A national pathfinder survey

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    Mamai-Homata Eleni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of sealants as an effective measure for the prevention of pit and fissure caries in children has been well documented by several studies; either they are used on an individual or on a public health basis. In order to plan and establish a national preventive program with sealants in a community, it is mandatory to know the epidemiological pattern of caries along with other variables influencing their use and effectiveness. Aims: To assess the utilization and distribution pattern of pit and fissure sealants on the first and second permanent molars of Greek adolescents and to evaluate whether the existing usage of sealants and some socio-demographic factors are correlated to caries prevalence on the population examined Methods A stratified cluster sample of 2481 Greek adolescents was selected according to WHO guidelines (1224 twelve and 1,257 fifteen-year-old, living in urban and rural areas in 11 districts within the country. Five calibrated examiners carried out clinical examinations, recording caries experience at the dentine threshold (BASCD criteria and presence or absence of sealants along with Socio-demographic indicators associated with oral health. Mann Whitney and Pearson's chi-square non parametric tests were utilized for assessing the data. The level of significance was p Results Sealants utilization varied considerably within the different districts, with 8,3% of the 12 and 8,0% of the 15-year-old adolescents having at least one sealed molar. Sealants reduced DMFS scores by 11% in the 12-year-olds and by 24% in the 15-year-olds, while 15-year-old adolescents from rural areas had a statistically significant (p = 0.002 less chance of having sealants (71% compared to children from urban areas. Girls had higher chance to receive sealants in both age groups (26% for the 12 and 19% for the 15-year-old as well as patients that visited the dentist for prevention compared to those visiting the dentist because they

  1. The Prevalence of Crohn’s Disease in the Israeli Kibbutz Population

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    Yaron Niv

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study of Crohn’s disease was performed in 279 Israeli Kibbutzim (rural communities (population 121,403. The prevalence on December 31, 1987 was 25.53 per 100,000 population. When the data were stratified according to ethnic group, the highest point prevalence was found in Asian/African-born Jews (41.76 per 100,000 population, greater than in Israeli-born, or European/American-born Kibbutz members (38.92 and 17.35 cases per 100,000 population, respectively. There were 15 women and 16 men (female to male ratio 0.94. The average age of patients was 45 years in the survey year, and 35 years at diagnosis. Terminal ileitis was found in 69%, ileocolitis in 19%, and colitis in 12%. Probable complications of Crohn’s disease were observed in 10 cases (32%. Anemia was demonstrated in two cases (6%. The high rate of Crohn’s disease prevalence among Israeli-born versus European/American-born Kibbutz members may point to a role for environmental factors in the etiology of the disease.

  2. Identification and Characterization of Prodromal Risk Syndromes in Young Adolescents in the Community: A Population-Based Clinical Interview Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    While a great deal of research has been conducted on prodromal risk syndromes in relation to help-seeking individuals who present to the clinic, there is a lack of research on prodromal risk syndromes in the general population. The current study aimed first to establish whether prodromal risk syndromes could be detected in non-help-seeking community-based adolescents and secondly to characterize this group in terms of Axis-1 psychopathology and general functioning. We conducted in-depth clinical interviews with a population sample of 212 school-going adolescents in order to assess for prodromal risk syndromes, Axis-1 psychopathology, and global (social\\/occupational) functioning. Between 0.9% and 8% of the community sample met criteria for a risk syndrome, depending on varying disability criteria. The risk syndrome group had a higher prevalence of co-occurring nonpsychotic Axis-1 psychiatric disorders (OR = 4.77, 95% CI = 1.81-12.52; P < .01) and poorer global functioning (F = 24.5, df = 1, P < .0001) compared with controls. Individuals in the community who fulfill criteria for prodromal risk syndromes demonstrate strong similarities with clinically presenting risk syndrome patients not just in terms of psychotic symptom criteria but also in terms of co-occurring psychopathology and global functioning.

  3. Prevalence

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    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  4. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension among Saudi Adult Population: A National Survey

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    Abdalla A. Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed at estimating prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and predictors of hypertension among Saudi adult population. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select 4758 adult participants. Three blood pressure measurements using an automatic sphygmomanometer, sociodemographics, and antihypertensive modalities were obtained. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 25.5%. Only 44.7% of hypertensives were aware, 71.8% of them received pharmacotherapy, and only 37.0% were controlled. Awareness was significantly associated with gender, age, geographical location, occupation, and comorbidity. Applying drug treatment was significantly more among older patients, but control was significantly higher among younger patients and patients with higher level of physical activity. Significant predictors of hypertension included male gender, urbanization, low education, low physical activity, obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion prevalence is high, but awareness, treatment, and control levels are low indicating a need to develop a national program for prevention, early detection, and control of hypertension.

  5. [Prevalence and etiology of secondary amenorrhea in a selected Mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, I; Cervera-Aguilar, R; Vergara, M D; Ayala, A R

    1999-08-01

    Studies performed upon american and european population indicate that secondary amenorrhea is associated to 3 months without menses, despite biases observed in age variation and intervals of apparition; nonetheless a 3 month lapse is the standard of reference to quality patients within mexican females. Hence, we investigated the prevalence of secondary amenorrhea among all females (n = 1099) that consulted in our clinic, grouped by age (15-50 yrs), time (months) of amenorrea and identifying the etiology when possible. The prevalence observed was 4.9% with major incidence of 4-12 months of amenorrhea duration (x 5.7 months) between 26-35 years of age. The three most common causes in order of frequency were: Hypothyroidism (14.8%); hiperandrogenism (12.9%) and pituitary adenoma (11.1%). It is concluded that the prevalence of secondary amenorrhea in our study resembled that found in the literature, although in this instance primary hyperthyroidism was the leading cause.

  6. High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the female population of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès, Xavier; Murga, Gladys Beatriz; Hernández, Gabriela; Sabidó, Meritxell; Chuy, Alejandro; Lloveras, Belén; Alameda, Francesc; de San José, Sílvia; Bosch, Francesc Xavier; Pedroza, Isabel; Castellsagué, Xavier; Casabona, Jordi

    2009-09-01

    The potential introduction of the newly licensed HPV-vaccines at affordable prices could play a central role in preventing cervical cancer in middle and low-income countries, where most of the cases occur. In spite of this, basic epidemiological data about HPV and HPV-related lesions are still scarce. To determine the prevalence of cervical abnormalities, HPV prevalence, genotype distribution and related risk factors, we carried out a cross-sectional study in a population from Guatemala that included 297 women from the general population (GP women) and 297 sex workers (SW). All participating women were interviewed and underwent a complete gynecological examination that included collection of cervical cells for cytological diagnosis, HPV DNA detection and typing by PCR methods. Cervical HPV DNA prevalence among GP women and from SW was 38.1% (95% CI: 32.5-43.8) and 67.3% (95% CI: 61.7-72.6), respectively. The prevalence of abnormal cytology among GP women was 7.7% (ASCUS = 1.4%, LSIL = 4.7%, ASC-H = 0.3% and HSIL = 1.4%) and among SW was 21.6% (ASCUS = 7.5%, LSIL = 10.6%, ASC-H = 1.4% and HSIL = 2.1%). The most prevalent HPV types among women with normal cytology were HPVs 51 (n = 30), 66 (n = 25) and 16 (n = 25), and among women with HSIL or ASC-H (n = 14) HPVs 58 (n = 5) and 16 (n = 5). Determinants associated with HPV DNA detection were having had an occasional partner during the last 6 months and smoking habit among GP women, and being a minor among SW. HPV and abnormal cytology prevalence is high among women in Guatemala. The introduction of a HPV vaccination program would prevent an important fraction of HPV-related disease burden.

  7. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in an Adult Urban Population of the West of Iran

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    F. Sharifi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in an urban population of Zanjan, a province located to the west of Tehran. Methods. Randomly selected adults >20 years were studied using stratified sampling. Target study sample was 2941 (1396 males and 1545 females. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using Adult Treatment Panel-III (ATP-III guidelines when any three of the following were present: central obesity, raised triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, blood pressure ≥130/≥85 mm Hg, and diabetes or fasting plasma glucose (FPG ≥100 mg/dl. Results. Metabolic syndrome was present in 697 (23.7% subjects (CI 95%:22%–25%, P = .001, prevalence was 23.1% in men and 24.4% in women (P : .4. The prevalence increased from 7.5% in the population younger than 30 y to 45.6% in ages more than 50 years. Low HDL was the most common metabolic abnormality in both sexes. Most of those with metabolic syndrome had three components of the syndrome (75.6%, 170 subjects (24.4% had four and none had five components simultaneously. The prevalence of obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2, hypercholesterolemia (≥200 mg/dl and high LDL cholesterol (≥130 mg/dl was greater in the metabolic syndrome group than normal subjects (P = .00. Conclusions. There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this urban population of the northern west of Iran. Focus of cardiovascular prevention should be undertaken in this area.

  8. Prevalence of hypertension, its correlates and awareness among adult tribal population of Kerala state, India

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    I I Meshram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing prevalence of hypertension is a public health problem in India. Aims: To study prevalence, correlates, and awareness of hypertension among tribal adult population in Kerala. Setting and Design: A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in tribal areas of Kerala by adopting multistage random sampling procedure. Materials and Methods: Data was collected on socio-demographic and behavioral factors, and anthropometric measurements were carried out. Body mass index (BMI was categorized using the classification recommended for Asians. Waist circumference ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women was used cut off for defining an abdominal obesity. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was carried out to study association of hypertension with socio-demographic variables, personal habits, and obesity. Results: A total of 4,193 adults (men 1,891, women: 2,302 of ≥20 years of age were covered. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 40% (n=1671. The prevalence of hypertension increases with increase in age among both the genders. Regression analysis showed that the risk of hypertension was significantly (P<0.001 lower among educated and among higher socio-economic status group. Sedentary activity had 1.3 times (CI=1.09-1.60 and alcohol consumption had 1.4 (CI=1.17-1.73 times higher risk of hypertension. The risk of hypertension was 1.7 times higher among overweight/obese subjects. Overall, only 10% (n=164 of the adult population was aware of hypertension status, and about 8% (n=129 were on regular treatment. Conclusion: It was observed that the prevalence of hypertension was higher among tribal adult population of Kerala and was associated with age, gender, education, HHs wealth index, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, and overweight/obesity.

  9. Prevalence and incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus in the adult population of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsa, K; Talli, S; Harding, P; Parsik, E; Esko, M; Teepere, A; Tammaru, M

    2017-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated considerable variability in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) incidence and prevalence estimates. Lack of reliable epidemiological data may hinder evidence-based health care planning. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of SLE in the Estonian adult population. The SLE billing cases were extracted from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund database 2006-2010 and verified using health care providers' databases. The patients' life status data for January 1, 2011, were retrieved from the Estonian Population Register. The calculations for the estimates' lower limits were based on verified cases only; the upper limits calculations also accounted for the billing cases for which clinical data were unavailable. The period prevalence of SLE was between 39 and 48 per 100,000 and incidence rate between 1.5 and 1.8 per 100,000 person-years. The point prevalence on January 1, 2011, was between 37 and 40 per 100,000. The estimates are comparable with internationally published figures and can be used to enhance evidence-based health care planning. The high percentage of billing cases that could not be verified using clinical data supports the argument that epidemiological studies based solely on administrative databases are usually of low reliability.

  10. "Prevalence and criteria of metabolic syndrome in an urban population: Yazd Healthy Heart Project "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadrbafoghi SM

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is a complex of metabolic disorders that contemporary occurrence in a person is more than the risk of occurrence of each one separately. this syndrome has gained researcher's attention because of its relationship with cardiovascular disease and diabetes type II and its high prevalence in populations Methods: A cross-sectional study performed on 1110 participants, 20-74 years old with cluster sampling. All of them had interview and special questionnaire were filled. Epidemiologic and demographic data were about hypertention cardio vascular disease and related lab data. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 32.1% that it was significantly more in women than men .this prevalence increased with age and BMI in both sexes .the most common metabolic disorder was TG>=150. 19.2% have none, 21.1% have one, 27.6% have two, 20.8% have three,9% have four and 2.3% have all criteria of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Approximately one third of population of Yazd have metabolic syndrome and according to other statistics of Iran, this prevalence is more than U.S and Europe. It seems there is an urgent need for a national multicenter program for determinding risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

  11. Retinitis Pigmentosa with EYS Mutations Is the Most Prevalent Inherited Retinal Dystrophy in Japanese Populations

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    Yuuki Arai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gain information about disease prevalence and to identify the responsible genes for inherited retinal dystrophies (IRD in Japanese populations. Clinical and molecular evaluations were performed on 349 patients with IRD. For segregation analyses, 63 of their family members were employed. Bioinformatics data from 1,208 Japanese individuals were used as controls. Molecular diagnosis was obtained by direct sequencing in a stepwise fashion utilizing one or two panels of 15 and 27 genes for retinitis pigmentosa patients. If a specific clinical diagnosis was suspected, direct sequencing of disease-specific genes, that is, ABCA4 for Stargardt disease, was conducted. Limited availability of intrafamily information and decreasing family size hampered identifying inherited patterns. Differential disease profiles with lower prevalence of Stargardt disease from European and North American populations were obtained. We found 205 sequence variants in 159 of 349 probands with an identification rate of 45.6%. This study found 43 novel sequence variants. In silico analysis suggests that 20 of 25 novel missense variants are pathogenic. EYS mutations had the highest prevalence at 23.5%. c.4957_4958insA and c.8868C>A were the two major EYS mutations identified in this cohort. EYS mutations are the most prevalent among Japanese patients with IRD.

  12. Gender differences in the prevalence and development of metabolic syndrome in Chinese population with abdominal obesity.

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    Shaoyong Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Not all the people with metabolic syndrome (MS have abdominal obesity (AO. The study aimed to investigate gender differences in the prevalence and development of MS in Chinese population with abdominal obesity, which has rarely been reported. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2007-08 China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study, and participants were divided into two samples for analysis. Sample 1 consisted of 19,046 people with abdominal obesity, while sample 2 included 2,124 people meeting pre-specified requirements. Survival analysis was used to analyze the development of MS. RESULTS: The age-standardized prevalence of MS in Chinese population with AO was 49.5%. The prevalence in males (73.7% was significantly higher than that in females (36.9%. Males had significantly higher proportions of combinations of three or four MS components than females (36.4% vs. 30.2% and 18.4% vs. 5%, respectively. MS developed quick at first and became slow down later. Half of the participants with AO developed to MS after 3.9 years (95% CI: 3.7-4.1 from the initial metabolic abnormal component, whereas 75% developed to MS after 7.7 years (95% CI: 7.5-7.9. CONCLUSION: Compared with females, Chinese males with AO should receive more attention because of their higher prevalence of MS and its components, more complex and risky combinations of abnormal components, and faster development of MS.

  13. Prevalência e gravidade da asma em adolescentes e sua relação com índice de massa corporal Prevalence and severity of asthma among adolescents and their relationship with the body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Cassol

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a relação entre o aumento do índice de massa corporal e a prevalência e a gravidade da asma em escolares adolescentes residentes em Santa Maria e região (RS. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base populacional, do qual participaram 4.010 adolescentes (13 e 14 anos de idade, sem restrições de sexo, tendo preenchido de forma correta o questionário do International Study of Asthma and Allergies fase III (módulo asma. Utilizou-se o índice de massa corporal (kg/m² com os seguintes percentis (Organização Mundial de Saúde para definir o estado nutricional: abaixo do quinto (desnutrição, igual ou superior ao quinto e inferior ao 85° (normal, igual ou superior ao 85° e inferior ao 95° (sobrepeso, igual ou superior ao 95° (obesidade. Para verificar a associação entre índice de massa corporal e a prevalência e gravidade da asma, foi utilizado o teste do qui-quadrado para tendência linear, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: O aumento do índice de massa corporal mostrou associação positiva e significante com o da prevalência de "sibilos alguma vez" (p = 0,036 e a de "sibilos após exercício" (p = 0,008, independentemente do sexo. Quando estratificado por gênero, houve associação positiva apenas para "sibilos alguma vez" (p = 0,028 para meninos e "sibilos após exercício" (p = 0,03 para meninas. CONCLUSÃO: O aumento do índice de massa corporal associou-se com o aumento da prevalência de sibilos alguma vez na vida, mas não com o aumento da prevalência e gravidade da asma em adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the increase of body mass index and the prevalence and severity of asthma in adolescents from Santa Maria, in southern Brazil, and surrounding regions. METHOD: A cross-sectional, observational, population-based study was carried out with 4,010 schoolchildren aged 13 and 14 years, without any gender restrictions, who answered the written questionnaire of the

  14. Prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in Karnataka and Kerala population: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savita, J. K.; Yathindra Kumar, B. N.; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.; Ranjitha, J.; Pujari, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in the male and female populations of Karnataka and Kerala. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 100 plaster models of each group, which were equally distributed between both the genders, with an age range of 17–23 years. The rugae patterns were recorded by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Correlation between the rugae shape and population as well as the rugae shape and gender were analyzed using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 22 (IBM Corp). Results: Curved, straight, and wavy rugae patterns were the most common in both Kerala and Karnataka sample populations. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved pattern; discriminant function analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved and straight patterns. Significant gender differences were found in the curved pattern for Karnataka population and in unification patterns for both populations by Chi-square/Fischer exact test. Conclusions: The curved and straight rugae patterns were significantly more frequent in the Kerala population compared to the Karnataka population. Because of the limited sample size of this study, further cross-sectional studies are suggested. PMID:27382539

  15. Prevalence estimates of autism spectrum disorder in the school population of Seville, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    El preprint está en español y la versión publicada en inglés A preliminary task for the design and development of interventions for differentgroups of people with disabilities is to determine the prevalence rate of the target population to which the interventions are directed. In the case of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), the determination of such a percentage remains a controversial matter; and when combined with educating these people, makes detection, identifica...

  16. Type D personality is a risk factor for psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescents: a cross-sectional study of a large population-based cohort of Swedish adolescents

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    Condén Emelie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type D personality, or the “distressed personality”, is a psychosocial factor associated with negative health outcomes, although its impact in younger populations is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Type D personality and the associations between Type D personality and psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescences. Methods A population-based, self-reported cross-sectional study conducted in Västmanland, Sweden with a cohort of 5012 students in the age between 15–18 years old. The participants completed the anonymous questionnaire Survey of Adolescent Life in Västmanland 2008 during class hour. Psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain were measured through index measuring the presence of symptoms and how common they were. DS14 and its two component subscales of negative affectivity (NA and social inhibition (SI were measured as well. Results There was a difference depending on sex, where 10.4% among boys and 14.6% among girls (p =  Conclusions There was a strong association between Type D personality and both psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain where adolescent with a type D personality reported more symptoms. The present study contributes to the mapping of the influence of Type D on psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescents.

  17. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

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    Macur Mirna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia.

  18. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among the Rural Geriatric Population: A Pilot Study in Karnataka, India

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    Sreejith S. Nair

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing life expectancy around the world, an outstanding achievement of our century, has brought with it new public health challenges. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 72 million inhabitants above 60 years of age as of 2001. The life expectancy in India increased from 32 years in 1947 to over 66 years in 2010, with 8.0% of the population now reaching over 60 years of age. Few studies in India target the health, especially mental health, of this geriatric population. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the geriatric population of the rural area of Singanodi,Karnataka, India.Methods: This cross sectional, epidemiological, community-based study was conducted in a rural health training area of Singanodi, Raichur District, Karnataka, India.The General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 366 participants. Chi square tests with Yates correction were utilized for statistical analysis using SPSS 19.0 software.Results:We found that 33.9% of the geriatric population in the selected province were above the threshold for mental illness based on the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Females had a higher prevalence of mental disorder at 77.6% (152 out of 196 as compared to males who had a prevalence of 42.4% (72 out of 170. The most common psychiatric disorder was depression (21.9%, and generalized anxiety was present in 10.7% of the study population. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 16.3%, with a significantly higher percentage of  affected individuals in 80+ age group.Conclusion: Mental disorders are common among elderly people, but they are not well documented in rural India. The assessment of psychiatric disorder prevalence will help strengthen psycho-geriatric services and thus improve the quality of life of the elderly.  A system that ensures comprehensive health care will have to be developed for

  19. Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Its Association with Glycemic Control in Indian Type 2 Diabetes Population

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    Kaithala Charitha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Diabetes mellitus is considered as one of the major health problems in India. With nearly one million diabetic deaths every year, India turned out as the “diabetic capital of the world”. Diabetes is considered as one of the seven major controllable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia is considered as one of the most important cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetic population. In the current study we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with glycemic control among the type 2 diabetic population.

  20. Daily hassles in a population of Romanian adolescents

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    Bogdan Nemeş

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is aimed to identify the most important long-term stressors for Romanian adolescents. Material and Methods: 1143 randomly selected Romanian subjects were considered. Mean age in the study sample was 15.02, with a standard deviation (SD of 0.371. About 65.4% of subjects were females. Daily hassles related to the family environment, physical state, psychological status, financial status of the family and interpersonal relationships were covered Results: 22.7% of the subjects reported daily hassles related to their familial environment, 7.8% reported daily hassles related to their physical state, 59.6% reported daily hassles related to their psychological state, 41.9% reported financial difficulties of their families and 4.4% of adolescent reported being bullied. Conclusion: Stressors that appear to be most relevant for adolescents in north-western Romania are: financial difficulties of the family and psychological difficulties. There are no differences in reporting bullying between genders and that this phenomenon is less frequent in Romania. A greater attention should be paid to the effects of workforce migration.

  1. Prevalence of specific antibody to hepatitis E virus in the general population of the community of Madrid, Spain.

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    Fogeda, M; Avellón, A; Echevarría, J M

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an infectious agent causing hepatitis among humans. Although hepatitis E has been reported from many European countries, its incidence in Europe is largely unknown, and the prevalence of the HEV infection is also unknown for most countries of the region. Antibody to HEV (anti-HEV) was tested on 2,305 serum samples from the general population of the Community of Madrid (Spain) collected in the year 2008 among people aged 2-60 years. Total anti-HEV was tested by enzyme-immunoassay (EIA), and reactive samples were retested separately for anti-HEV IgG and IgM by recombinant immunoblot test (RIBT). Fifty samples (2.17%) displayed reactivity for total anti-HEV after EIA testing, and anti-HEV IgG was confirmed by RIBT in 25 (1.08%). The frequency of RIBT-confirmed anti-HEV ranged from 0.97% among the youngest to 3.61% among the oldest, and displayed a statistically significant trend to increasing with age. The rate of RIBT confirmation was also significantly higher among the individuals aged above 20 years old than among those younger of 21 years. HEV infection would be less frequent in the Community of Madrid than in Catalonia or the United Kingdom, and contact with HEV would be very uncommon among children and adolescents of the region. Confirmation of EIA-reactive samples by RIBT reduced the final numbers of anti-HEV testing as much as 50%, and some findings of this study suggest that such testing protocol would reflect better the real prevalence of anti-HEV in settings of low endemicity than the single testing by EIA.

  2. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (4) Prevalence and Trends of Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Urban School-age Children and Adolescents, 1985-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG-YE JI; WORKING GROUP ON OBESITY IN CHINA (WGOC)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the nationwide prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity, and their group variations and trends over the past 20 years in the Chinese urban population. Methods Data sets of boys and girls at the age of 7-18 years collected from the series of Chinese national surveillance on students' constitution and health (CNSSCH) between 1985 and 2000 were divided into five socioeconomic and demographic groups, while BMI classification reference proposed by Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) was used as screening reference to calculate the prevalence and trends of overweight/obesity in these groups. Results In 2000, the prevalence of obesity and overweight in boys aged 7-18 years was 11.3% and 6.5% in Beijing, 13.2% and 4.9% in Shanghai, 9.9% and 4.5% in coastal big cities, and 5.8% and 2.0% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively, while the prevalence of of obesity and overweight in girls of the same age group was 8.2% and 3.7% in Beijing, 7.3% and 2.6% in Shanghai, 5.9% and 2.8% in coastal big cities, and 4.8% and 1.7% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was low in most of the inland cities at an early stage of epidemic overweight. The epidemic manifested a gradient distribution in groups, which was closely related to socioeconomic status (SES) of the study population. However, a dramatic and steady increasing trend was witnessed among all sex-age subgroups in the five urban groups, and such a trend was stronger in boys than in girls, and much stronger in children than in adolescents. Conclusion Although China is at an early stage of epidemic obesity by and large, the prevalence of obesity in her urban population, particularly in coastal big cities has reached the average level of developed countries. The increasing trend has been rapid since early 1990s, and the increments in obesity and overweight are exceptionally high. The prospect of epidemic obesity in China is in no way optimistic

  3. Prevalence of Abnormity of Blood Lipid and Associated Factors in Health Examination Population in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-ming Kang; Jie-shi Zhang; Xin-xin Liu; Min-shan Wang; Ming-li Zhao; Jian-chun Yu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of abnormity of blood lipid and associated factors in healthy population in Beijing.Methods Totally,38462 individuals who received health examination were enrolled in our study.We divided them into eight groups according to their ages.The levels of serum total cholesterol,triglyceride,high density lipoprotein cholesterol,and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were tested,and the relationship of blood lipid abnormity with body mass index(BMI)and fasting blood glucose was analyzed.Results The incidences of hypercholesterolemia,hyperglyceridemia,low high-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia,and hyper low-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia presented increasing trend in this population.The incidence rate of abnormity of blood lipid in health examination population increased with BMI increase.The incidence of abnormity of blood lipid in overweight and obesity population was significantly higher than that in low weight and normal weight populations(P<0.05).Meanwhile,the trend of abnormal blood lipid incidence coincided with that of abnormal fasting blood glucose.Conclusions The prevalence of overweight,obesity,and abnormity of blood lipid in Beijing presents increasing trend.The incidence of abnormity of blood lipid increases with BMI increase,in coincidence with that of fasting blood glucose.

  4. The Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy Among Known Diabetic Population in Nepal.

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    Mishra, S K; Pant, B P; Subedi, P

    2016-01-01

    Background The worldwide prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) was found to be 34.6%. WHO estimates that DR is responsible for 4.8% of the 37 million cases of blindness throughout the world. In a study undertaken in urban population in Nepal, M.D. Bhattarai found the prevalence of diabetes among people aged 20 years and above to be 14.6% and the prevalence among people aged 40 years and above to be 19%. Studies on DR, to our knowledge, have mostly been hospital based in Nepal. Little information is available about prevalence of DR at the community level in Nepal. Objective To investigate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors among known diabetic population of Nepal. Method A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among individuals aged 30 and more using cluster sampling method. The study sites were Kathmandu metropolitan city and Birgunj sub-metropolitan city. A sample size of 5400 was calculated assuming 5% prevalence rate with 95% confidence level, 5% worst acceptable level and 1.5 cluster sampling design effect. Study participants were interviewed, anthropometric measurements and fundus photograph was taken from participants with diabetes. Fundus photographs were used to grade retinopathy. Result Around 12% of the respondents were diabetic, mean age 55.43±11.86 years, of which slightly more than half were females (50.2%). Among these diabetic respondents 9.9% had some forms of diabetic retinopathy, mean age 54.08±10.34 years, 56.7% were male. When severe grade of retinopathy in any eye was considered as overall grade of retinopathy for the individual, prevalence of Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy, Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy and complete vision loss was found to be 9.1%, 0.5% and 0.3%. Prevalence of Diabetic Macular Edema was 5.5%. Duration of diabetes, family history of diabetes and blood pressure at the day of survey was found to be associated with having any retinopathy. Conclusion Diabetic retinopathy

  5. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with overweight and obesity among adolescents in Kaski district, Nepal

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    Bishwas Acharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occurrence of overweight and obesity is at increasing level in low income and developing countries and is not limited to high income countries only. Adolescent is at high risk for its development. Rationale: To find out the prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors responsible for overweight and obesity which are unrecognized health problems and are risk factors for non-communicable disease. To date no study has been done focusing overweight and obesity in Kaski district, Nepal and very few in context of Nepal. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their association with socio demographic factors among higher secondary school level adolescents in Kaski district, Nepal. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Kaski district among 838 adolescents randomly selected from 12 schools using multistage cluster sampling from 24th October to 4th December, 2013 using self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric assessment. BMI for age was calculated using WHO Anthroplus software v.1.0.4 using cut off value of 85th percentile and 95th percentile for overweight and obesity respectively. Statistical analysis was done using SPSSv. 16.  Results: The study revealed 8.1% prevalence of overweight and obesity of among higher secondary level school adolescents with 5.8% overweight and 2.3% obese. Urban respondents were found significantly more overweight/obese than village respondents (p=0.001, OR=2.360. Adolescents of ethnic/indigenous group (p<0.001, OR=2.56, fathers’ with government job (p=0.011, OR=2.08, mothers’ with teaching job (p=0.038, OR=2.57 and average monthly family income more than or equal to NRs.25, 000 (p=0.007, OR=1.97 were found significantly more overweight and obese. But, other socio demographic factors like gender (p=0.26, birth order (p=0.404 and parents’ education (p=0.121 for fathers’ and p=0.282 for mothers’ education weren’t significantly associated

  6. Is the prevalence of overactive bladder overestimated? A population-based study in Finland.

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    Kari A O Tikkinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In earlier studies, one in six adults had overactive bladder which may impair quality of life. However, earlier studies have either not been population-based or have suffered from methodological limitations. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of overactive bladder symptoms, based on a representative study population and using consistent definitions and exclusions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of the study was to assess the age-standardized prevalence of overactive bladder defined as urinary urgency, with or without urgency incontinence, usually with urinary frequency and nocturia in the absence of urinary tract infection or other obvious pathology. In 2003-2004, a questionnaire was mailed to 6,000 randomly selected Finns aged 18-79 years who were identified from the Finnish Population Register Centre. Information on voiding symptoms was collected using the validated Danish Prostatic Symptom Score, with additional frequency and nocturia questions. Corrected prevalence was calculated with adjustment for selection bias due to non-response. The questionnaire also elicited co-morbidity and socio-demographic information. Of the 6,000 subjects, 62.4% participated. The prevalence of overactive bladder was 6.5% (95% CI, 5.5% to 7.6% for men and 9.3% (CI, 7.9% to 10.6% for women. Exclusion of men with benign prostatic hyperplasia reduced prevalence among men by approximately one percentage point (to 5.6% [CI, 4.5% to 6.6%]. Among subjects with overactive bladder, urgency incontinence, frequency, and nocturia were reported by 11%, 23%, and 56% of men and 27%, 38%, and 40% of women, respectively. However, only 31% of men and 35% of women with frequency, and 31% of subjects of both sexes with nocturia reported overactive bladder. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate a prevalence of overactive bladder as low as 8% suggesting that, in previous studies, occurrence has been overestimated due to vague criteria and selected study

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for developing posttraumatic stress disorder in a general intensive care population - a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Cecilie Bræin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: 1) To investigate prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS) in a general intensive care patient population, and risk factors for post ICU-PTSD/PTSS. 2) To investigate how instruments and loss to follow-up could influence the prevalence of PTSD/PTSS in this patient population. Background: Studies have found a wide variance of PTSD/PTSS in this patient population. A number of risk factors were associated with developing post-ICU ...

  8. Prevalence of Accommodative and Non-Strabismic Binocular Anomalies in a Puerto Rican Pediatric Population

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    Stefania M. Paniccia, OD, MS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There exists a considerable void in the literature of studies that examine the prevalence of non-strabismic binocular and accommodative disorders in the pediatric population of Puerto Rico. The purpose of this retrospective study was to fill this void by performing a comprehensive record review of the pediatric clinical population of the InterAmerican University College of Optometry satellite clinics. Methods: This study was performed using a random selection of 593 existing health records of patients between the ages of 5 and 20 years. Patients had participated in a complete optometric assessment between the years 2004 and 2012. The criteria for selection were the absence of strabismus, amblyopia, nystagmus, vertical deviation, corneal pathology, retinal pathology, lens pathology, or any other parameter outside of population requirements. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS program. Results of this study indicate that the most common non-strabismic and accommodative anomalies in the studied population are accommodative insufficiency (39.0%, convergence insufficiency (12.6%, convergence excess (9.1%, and accommodative infacility (7.6%. Conclusions: Accommodative and non-strabismic binocular vision problems are prevalent in the pediatric population of the InterAmerican satellite clinics. This is the first epidemiologic study about the prevalence of these conditions in Puerto Rico. Due to the possibility of these non-strabismic and accommodative anomalies resulting in a reduced quality of life for children and affecting school performance, sports performance, and play activities, an appropriate vision evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment is important. Lastly, further comprehensive studies should be conducted in Puerto Rico using this study as a base for data collection and analysis.

  9. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DENTAL CARIES AMONG THE POPULATION OF JAGDALPUR, CHHATTISGARH

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    Raichoor Anil Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dental caries is a major and significant oral health condition that affects about 50 to 60% of the population in India among oral diseases. Unfortunately in rural areas oral health care is often limited due to lack of perceived need for dental care among the rural population, financial constraints as well as shortage of dental manpower. AIM This study aims to determine the prevalence of dental caries among the general population of Jagdalpur and also determine the important factors that could have contributed to the disease. SETTING AND DESIGN Case records of patients who reported to the Department of Dentistry were studied retrospectively. Information about decayed, missed, filled teeth, occupation, oral hygiene techniques as well as dental visits was recorded. METHODS AND MATERIAL Retrospective data of 100 patients who visited the Department of Dentistry was collected from the medical records division. Case sheets having incomplete information or patients who were aged below 5 years and above 75 years were not considered for the study. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Was done using software SPSS 17.0 version. Chi square test (Descriptive Statistics was done to test the significance of nonparametric analysis. P values were considered significant at 0.05% level. RESULTS Of the 100 case records that were examined, dental caries was more prevalent in males than females with asymptomatic significance of both dental caries and missing teeth to be statistically significant. Restored teeth contributed to almost 72.72% of the population. CONCLUSION The prevalence of dental caries among the rural general population is significantly high. Less frequent dental visits and improper or inadequate brushing technique/methods could have contributed to the high incidence of dental caries. Creating awareness regarding proper oral hygiene methods as well as regular dental checkup is recommended.

  10. The prevalence of pulp stones in historical populations from the middle Euphrates valley (Syria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Jacek; Komarnitki, Julian; Zalewska, Marta; Wiśniewska, Ewa; Szopiński, Kazimierz; Olczyk-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    There are many reports in the literature concerning pulp stones in contemporary living populations, but there are no descriptions of cases of pulp stones and their prevalence in populations of the past. Here we present a study of pulp stones in a series of archaeologically derived samples from the Middle Euphrates Valley (Syria) obtained from two sites: Terqa and Tell Masaikh. The specimens were assigned to five periods: Early Bronze (2650-2350 BC); Middle Bronze (2200-1700 BC); late Roman (AD 200-400); Islamic (AD 600-1200); and Modern Islamic (AD 1850-1950). A total of 529 teeth representing 117 adult individuals of both sexes were examined. Pulp stones were identified by X-ray and 10 selected specimens were sectioned for histological study. Pulp stones were found in 99 of 117 individuals (85%) and in 271 of 529 (51%) teeth. Pulp stone prevalence was found to increase with age, for individuals of older age classes have more pulp stones than younger individuals. Intriguingly, the prevalence of single pulp stones was higher among older individuals (36-45, >46), while younger individuals (17-25, 26-35) more often possessed multiple stones. Individuals with moderate to highly advanced dental wear have pulp stones significantly more often than individuals whose tooth wear is limited to invisible or very small facets. Though there is no statistical significance in the prevalence of pulp stones across chronological periods, it appears that a high level of calcium in the diet is accompanied by a greater prevalence of pulp stones.

  11. Prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in a large unselected general population in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hatsushi Yamagishi; Katsuaki Kato; Daisuke Shibuya; Shigemitsu Aida; Tooru Shimosegawa; Tomoyuki Koike; Shuichi Ohara; Shigeyuki Kobayashi; Ken Ariizumi; Yasuhiko Abe; Katsunori Iijima; Akira Imatani; Yoshifumi Inomata

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To examine the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms in a large unselected general population in Japan.METHODS:In Japan,mature adults are offered regular check-ups for the prevention of gastric cancer.A notice was sent by mail to all inhabitants aged>40 years.A total of 160983 Japanese (60774 male,100209 female;mean age 61.9 years) who underwent a stomach check up were enrolled in this study.In addition,from these 160983 subjects,we randomly selected a total of 82894(34275 male,48619 female; mean age 62.4 years)to evaluate the prevalence of abdominal pain.The respective subjects were prospectively asked to complete questionnaires concerning the symptoms of heartburn,dysphagia,and abdominal pain for a 1 mo period.RESULTS:The respective prevalences of the symptoms in males and females were:heartburn,15.8% vs 20.7%;dysphagia,5.4% vs 7.8%; and abdominal pain,6.6%vs 9.6% .Among these symptoms,heartburn was significantly high compared with the other symptoms,and the prevalence of heartburn was significantly more frequent in females than in males in the 60-89-year age group.Dysphagia was also significantly more frequent in female patients.CONCLUSION:The prevalence of typical GERD symptoms (heartburn) was high,at about 20% of the Japan population,and the frequency was especially high in females in the 60-89 year age group.

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection in an indigenous population in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Jocieli Malacarne

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION Recent studies have shown a high incidence and prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI in indigenous populations around the World. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and annual risk of infection (ARI as well as to identify factors associated with LTBI in an indigenous population from the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2011. We performed tuberculin skin tests (TSTs, smears and cultures of sputum samples, and chest radiographs for individuals who reported cough for two or more weeks. Associations between LTBI (TST ≥5mm and socio-demographic, clinical, and epidemiological characteristics were investigated using Poisson regression with robust variance. Prevalence ratio (PR was used as the measure of association. RESULTS We examined 263 individuals. The prevalence of LTBI was 40.3%, and the ARI was 2.4%. Age ≥15 years [PR=5.5; 95% confidence interval (CI: 3.5-8.6], contact with tuberculosis (TB patients (PR=3.8; 95% CI: 1.2-11.9, previous TB history (PR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.7, and presence of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG scar (PR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-2.9 were associated with LTBI. CONCLUSIONS Although some adults may have been infected years prior, the high prevalence of infection and its strong association with age ≥15 years, history of TB, and recent contact with TB patients suggest that the TB transmission risk is high in the study area.

  13. Variation in the prevalence, awareness, and control of diabetes in a multiethnic population: a nationwide population study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampal, Sanjay; Rampal, Lekhraj; Rahmat, Ramlee; Zain, Azhar Md; Yap, Yee Guan; Mohamed, Mafauzy; Taha, Mohamad

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between different ethnic groups and the prevalence, awareness, and control of diabetes in Malaysia. A population-based cross-sectional study using multistage sampling was conducted in Malaysia. Diabetes is defined as having a fasting blood glucose > or =7 mmol/L or a self-reported diabetic on treatment. Among the 7683 respondents aged > or =30 years, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 15.2% (95% CI = 14.1, 16.4). Multivariate analysis showed that compared with Malays, Chinese had lower odds (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.71; 95% CI = 0.56, 0.91) and Indians had higher odds of having diabetes (aOR 1.54; 95% CI = 1.20, 1.98). The odds of diabetes increased with age, family history of diabetes, body mass index, and lower education levels. Among those with diabetes mellitus, 45.0% were aware and 42.7% were under treatment. Among treated diabetics, 25.1% had their fasting blood sugar under control. There is a significant association between prevalence of diabetes and different ethnic groups.

  14. Estimation of physical activity and prevalence of excessive body mass in rural and urban Polish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Karolina; Bryl, Wiesław; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Strażyńska, Agata; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    Excessive body mass and sedentary lifestyle are well-known factors for cardiovascular risk, which when present in the young population may have significant health consequences, both in the short- and long-term. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and sedentary lifestyle in two teenage populations living in an urban or rural area. An additional aim was to compare their physical activity. The study was designed and conducted in 2009. The study population consisted of 116 students aged 15-17 years - 61 males (52.7%) and 55 females (47.3%), randomly selected from public junior grammar schools and secondary schools in the Poznań Region. There were 61 respondents from a rural area - 32 males (52.5%) and 29 females (47.5%), whereas 55 teenagers lived in an urban area - 29 males (47.5%) and 26 females (47.3%). Students were asked to complete a questionnaire, which was especially prepared for the study and contained questions concerning health and lifestyle. A basic physical examination was carried out in all 116 students, including measurements of the anthropometric features. Calculations were performed using the statistical package STATISTICA (data analysis software system), Version. 8.0. When comparing these two populations, no statistically significant differences were detected in the ratio of weight-growth, with the exception of the fact that the urban youths had a larger hip circumference (97.1 v. 94.3 cm, p0.05), the problem of excessive weight affected both sexes in a similar proportion (25% boys and 24.1% girls, p>0.05). In this paper it is shown that there were differences concerning physical activity of teenagers living in urban and rural areas. Urban students much more often declared an active lifestyle (72.7% v.42.6%, pactivity (not counting compulsory physical education classes).

  15. The epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population--prevalence and main findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Linneberg, Allan; Menné, Torkil

    2010-02-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of hand eczema in the general population. These studies are of high value as they tend to be less biased than studies using clinical populations and as they are important for healthcare decision makers when they allocate resources. This study aimed to review the epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population. Literature was examined using Pubmed-Medline, Biosis, Science Citation Index, and dermatology text books. On the basis of studies performed between 1964 and 2007, the point prevalence of hand eczema was around 4%, the 1-year prevalence nearly 10%, whereas the lifetime prevalence reached 15%. Based on seven studies, the median incidence rate of hand eczema was 5.5 cases/1000 person-years (women = 9.6 and men = 4.0). A high incidence rate was associated with female sex, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work. Atopic dermatitis was the single most important risk factor for hand eczema. Hand eczema resulted in medical consultations in 70%, sick leave (> 7 days) in about 20%, and job change in about 10%. Mean sick time was longer among those with allergic hand eczema than those with atopic and irritant hand eczema. Moderate to severe extension of hand eczema was the strongest risk factor for persistence of hand eczema. Other risk factors included early onset of hand eczema and childhood eczema. The aetiology of hand eczema is multifactorial and includes environmental as well as genetic factors. Future studies should focus on unresolved areas of hand eczema, for example, genetic predisposition.

  16. Prevalence of malocclusion traits and orthodontic treatment in a Finnish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krooks, Laura; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Kanavakis, Georgios; Lähdesmäki, Raija

    2016-07-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of malocclusion traits and the extent of orthodontic treatment in a Finnish adult population. Materials and methods The study population comprised subjects (n = 1964) from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 living in the city of Oulu and within 100 km of it. A clinical oral and dental examination with registration of occlusion was carried out in 2012 in connection with a 46-year follow-up survey. Data on previous orthodontic treatment were collected based on a questionnaire. Results In the clinical examination, 39.5% of the subjects had at least one malocclusion trait. The most common malocclusion traits were lateral crossbite (17.9%), overbite ≥ 6 mm (11.7%) and overjet ≥ 6 mm (9.7%). Crossbite on the left premolars, negative overjet and increased overbite were found more frequently in men. The prevalence of malocclusion traits was at the same level in treated and untreated groups. Overall, 18.6% of the subjects had undergone orthodontic treatment. Women showed a significantly higher prevalence of orthodontic treatment. Conclusions The most common malocclusion trait in the present study was lateral crossbite. Significant male dominance in the prevalence of malocclusion was observed, which has not been reported earlier in Finland. Orthodontic treatment of malocclusion traits was more common among females in Northern Finland. This study indicates that orthodontic treatment provided in childhood was, on average, adequate in reducing malocclusion traits to the level observed in the general population.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of dental caries in an elderly population in northeast China.

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    Lu Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. METHODS: A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65-74 years from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT and decayed-filled teeth (DFT indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197. T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40, and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (P<0.01. Missing teeth accounted for 80.72% of DMFT, and filled teeth due to caries accounted for 2.08% with a rate higher in urban areas (P<0.01. Logistic regression analysis indicated significant association among elderly population in urban areas (OR 1.713; 95% CI 1.337-2.195, smoking (OR 1.779; 95% CI 1.384-2.288, and individuals without dental insurance (OR 2.050; 95% CI 1.120-3.754 with dental caries. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries.

  18. Eating Disorders in the Adolescent Population: An Overview.

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    Reijonen, Jori H.; Pratt, Helen D.; Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    Selectively reviews the literature on the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder) as described in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) and "International Classification of Diseases" (10th ed.). Discusses the prevalence and course of…

  19. A Comparative study on the prevalence of HCC seromarkers among tribal and coastal population

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    Joseph Selvin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An extensive study on the prevalence of seromarkers (HBsAg and AFP of hepatocellular carcinoma among two low socioeconomic groups of Karumanthurai tribes and Kanyakumari coastal population was carried out. The results obtained suggest that the mean HBsAg value of tribal was more than that of the coastal population. The mean AFP of elevated and normal cases was found to be invariably significant (P< 0.01 over the two areas. Coastal patients tended to be significantly older than the tribal patients (P < 0.005, Wilcoxon rank sum test. All two racial/geographic regions showed a preponderance of male patients but this tendency was significantly more marked (P < 0.05 in the tribal group than in the coastal sample. Liquor habit and lack of personal hygienic practices were associated with the prevalence of HBsAg and AFP in both the areas. Surprisingly a positive association has been found between the consumption of marine foods and reduced risk of HCC. Thus the reduced risk of HCC among coastal population can probably be due to the development of immunity against HBV due to the dietary pattern of marine food consumption by coastal population.

  20. Nutritional and physical activity behaviours and habits in adolescent population of Belgrade

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    Đorđević-Nikić Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Proper nutrition and regular physical activity are essential parts of a adolescent's overall health. The aim of this research was to evaluated eating and physical activity behaviours and habits, nutritional and food knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy related to diet and health of the adolescents of the city of Belgrade, Serbia. Methods. A dietary questionnaire previously constructed and tested in adolescent population from Italy was self-administrated. We evaluated eating habits, physical activity, meaning of healthy and unhealthy dietary habits and food, self-efficacy, barriers affecting food choices, nutritional and food safety, and body mass index (BMI of the adolescents. The sample included 707 adolescents, the mean age of 15,8 ± 2 years enrolled in the first grade at several high schools in Belgrade. Results. Only 27% of the adolescents had satisfactory eating habits; 31% have a very active lifestyle; 7% good nutritional knowledge and 6- 12% satisfactory food safety knowledge and hygiene practices. Conclusion. Significant deviations from recommendations for healthy lifestyle was noted in adolescents’ habits, knowledge and practice. It is therefore necessary to develop and organize programs for promotion of healthy behaviours adapted to the adolescents’ needs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47015

  1. Consumption patterns of sweet drinks in a population of Australian children and adolescents (2003–2008

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    Jensen Britt W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intake of sweet drinks has previously been associated with the development of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the consumption pattern of sweet drinks in a population of children and adolescents in Victoria, Australia. Methods Data on 1,604 children and adolescents (4–18 years from the comparison groups of two quasi-experimental intervention studies from Victoria, Australia were analysed. Sweet drink consumption (soft drink and fruit juice/cordial was assessed as one day’s intake and typical intake over the last week or month at two time points between 2003 and 2008 (mean time between measurement: 2.2 years. Results Assessed using dietary recalls, more than 70% of the children and adolescents consumed sweet drinks, with no difference between age groups (p = 0.28. The median intake among consumers was 500 ml and almost a third consumed more than 750 ml per day. More children and adolescents consumed fruit juice/cordial (69% than soft drink (33% (p Conclusion The proportion of Australian children and adolescents from the state of Victoria consuming sweet drinks has been stable or decreasing, although a high proportion of this sample consumed sweet drinks, especially fruit juice/cordial at both time points.

  2. Prevalence and sensitization of atopic allergy and coeliac disease in the Northern Sweden Population Health Study

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    Stefan Enroth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atopic allergy is effected by a number of environmental exposures, such as dry air and time spent outdoors, but there are few estimates of the prevalence in populations from sub-arctic areas. Objective. To determine the prevalence and severity of symptoms of food, inhalation and skin-related allergens and coeliac disease (CD in the sub-arctic region of Sweden. To study the correlation between self-reported allergy and allergy test results. To estimate the heritability of these estimates. Study design. The study was conducted in Karesuando and Soppero in Northern Sweden as part of the Northern Sweden Population Health Study (n=1,068. We used a questionnaire for self-reported allergy and CD status and measured inhalation-related allergens using Phadiatop, food-related allergens using the F×5 assay and IgA and IgG antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG to indicate prevalence of CD. Results. The prevalence of self-reported allergy was very high, with 42.3% reporting mild to severe allergy. Inhalation-related allergy was reported in 26.7%, food-related allergy in 24.9% and skin-related allergy in 2.4% of the participants. Of inhalation-related allergy, 11.0% reported reactions against fur and 14.6% against pollen/grass. Among food-related reactions, 14.9% reported milk (protein and lactose as the cause. The IgE measurements showed that 18.4% had elevated values for inhalation allergens and 11.7% for food allergens. Self-reported allergies and symptoms were positively correlated (p<0.01 with age- and sex-corrected inhalation allergens. Allergy prevalence was inversely correlated with age and number of hours spent outdoors. High levels of IgA and IgG anti-tTG antibodies, CD-related allergens, were found in 1.4 and 0.6% of participants, respectively. All allergens were found to be significantly (p<3e–10 heritable, with estimated heritabilities ranging from 0.34 (F×5 to 0.65 (IgA. Conclusions. Self-reported allergy

  3. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA IN A SEMI-URBAN POPULATION OF PREGNANT WOMEN

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    Suganthi Ramalingam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Anaemia is a serious and prominent problem in the developing countries. This study evaluates the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women attending the outpatient clinic in a semi-urban hospital for a period of six months. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data from a sample of 500 pregnant women was collected and the patients were screened for anaemia on their booking visit in KFMS&R for a period of six months from March-August 2015. Haemoglobin was estimated by cyanmethaemoglobin method using Systronic photocolorimeter on their first antenatal visit. The degree of anaemia was categorised according to ICMR datamild (10-10.99 g/dL, moderate (7-9.99 g/dL, severe (<7 g/dL. RESULTS It was observed that the prevalence of anaemia was 51.8% in the population under study. The prevalence of mild anaemia was 18.53%, that of moderate anaemia was 63.70% and that of severe anaemia was 17.76%. It was also noticed that the prevalence of anaemia was higher in young pregnant women between 17-21 years of age (63.26%. CONCLUSION Anaemia continues to be a major health problem in India and prevention and early diagnosis will significantly reduce maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  4. Agreement between parents and adolescents on dental fluorosis: a population-based study.

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    Almeida, Maria Eneide Leitão de; Teixeira, Ana Karine Macedo; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Paiva, Saul Martins; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and compared the reports from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with those of their parents regarding the perceptions and concerns arising from this disease. The study was conducted in the cities of Viçosa and Sobral and the District of Rafael Arruda (Sobral), Ceará. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011, with 891 students examined and 780 parents or guardians interviewed. Dental fluorosis was measured using the Dean's Index, and the Child's and Parent's Questionnaire about Teeth Appearance was used to assess the reports from parents and adolescents. A chi-squared test for trends was used to compare the opinions of parents and adolescents about fluorosis, and the agreement was measured using the weighted kappa. For the dichotomous variables, we used the unweighted kappa coefficient. The prevalence of fluorosis was 29.7%, but in the District of Rafael Arruda, evidence of very mild and mild fluorosis was found in 32.5% of the subjects, and moderate and severe fluorosis was found in 28.7%. There was poor agreement between the data reported by the adolescents and their parents or guardians regarding areas of concern and their perceived satisfaction with the appearance and color of their teeth. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was high in one of the communities studied, but the clinical diagnosis of this condition should not necessarily equate with concern and dissatisfaction with aesthetic appearances among teenagers and their parents.

  5. Agreement between parents and adolescents on dental fluorosis: a population-based study

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    Maria Eneide Leitão de Almeida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and compared the reports from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with those of their parents regarding the perceptions and concerns arising from this disease. The study was conducted in the cities of Viçosa and Sobral and the District of Rafael Arruda (Sobral, Ceará. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011, with 891 students examined and 780 parents or guardians interviewed. Dental fluorosis was measured using the Dean's Index, and the Child's and Parent's Questionnaire about Teeth Appearance was used to assess the reports from parents and adolescents. A chi-squared test for trends was used to compare the opinions of parents and adolescents about fluorosis, and the agreement was measured using the weighted kappa. For the dichotomous variables, we used the unweighted kappa coefficient. The prevalence of fluorosis was 29.7%, but in the District of Rafael Arruda, evidence of very mild and mild fluorosis was found in 32.5% of the subjects, and moderate and severe fluorosis was found in 28.7%. There was poor agreement between the data reported by the adolescents and their parents or guardians regarding areas of concern and their perceived satisfaction with the appearance and color of their teeth. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was high in one of the communities studied, but the clinical diagnosis of this condition should not necessarily equate with concern and dissatisfaction with aesthetic appearances among teenagers and their parents.

  6. Prevalence of Gingivitis, Plaque accumulation and Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth among slum population in Bangladesh.

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    Hannan, M A; Chowdhury, M T H; Khan, M A I; Chowdhury, A F M A; Shahidullah, K M; Saha, A K; Anjum, A

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional survey, using cluster sampling technique, of slum population, was done to explore the oral health status and the prevalence of common oral diseases. A close ended questionnaire comprising Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index, Gingival Index (Löe and Silness) and Plaque Index was applied to evaluate and record oral diseases, in both male and female population, covering a wide range of age groups. Clinical examination was carried out in different shum set ups, including slum schools by trained and calibrated examiners. Three thousand nine hundred and four (3904) slum dwellers participated in the survey. Prevalence of Caries was expressed in mean DMFT, recording of gingival status followed the method of Löe and Silness, oral hygiene status was evaluated using Plaque index. Mean decayed component, of the DMFT, was significantly higher than filling and missing component. Both decayed and missing components showed increasing trend, and filling components decreased as the age progressed. Prevalence of gingivitis and plaque accumulation was remarkably high among slum dwellers. Significantly high level of common oral diseases was found among Tongi slum dwellers.

  7. High Prevalence and Low Awareness of Hypertension in a Market Population in Enugu, Nigeria

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    Ifeoma I. Ulasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A community-based study put the prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria at 32.8%. Market workers in Nigeria lead sedentary life style and often depend on salt-laden fast food while at work. Method. An unselected population of market workers were screened for hypertension and its risk factors by a pretested, structured questionnaire, clinical examination, and laboratory investigation. Hypertension was defined as BP ≥ 140 and/or ≥ 90 mmHg or being on drug therapy. Results. Forty-two percent of the screened population were hypertensive. Of this number, 70.6% did not know they were hypertensive before the screening. More males than females (=.022 were hypertensive. Prevalence of hypertension increased with age from 5.4% in the age group <20 years to 80% in the age group ≥70 years. Conclusion. The prevalence of hypertension in market workers in this study was 42%, and the majority of them were unaware of their disease.

  8. High prevalence and low awareness of hypertension in a market population in enugu, Nigeria.

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    Ulasi, Ifeoma I; Ijoma, Chinwuba K; Onwubere, Basden J C; Arodiwe, Ejikeme; Onodugo, Obinna; Okafor, Christian

    2011-01-27

    Background. A community-based study put the prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria at 32.8%. Market workers in Nigeria lead sedentary life style and often depend on salt-laden fast food while at work. Method. An unselected population of market workers were screened for hypertension and its risk factors by a pretested, structured questionnaire, clinical examination, and laboratory investigation. Hypertension was defined as BP ≥ 140 and/or ≥ 90 mmHg or being on drug therapy. Results. Forty-two percent of the screened population were hypertensive. Of this number, 70.6% did not know they were hypertensive before the screening. More males than females (P = .022) were hypertensive. Prevalence of hypertension increased with age from 5.4% in the age group <20 years to 80% in the age group ≥70 years. Conclusion. The prevalence of hypertension in market workers in this study was 42%, and the majority of them were unaware of their disease.

  9. Prevalence of bipolar disorder in a HIV-infected outpatient population.

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    de Sousa Gurgel, Wagner; da Silva Carneiro, Alexandre Henrique; Barreto Rebouças, Diego; Negreiros de Matos, Karla Julianne; do Menino Jesus Silva Leitão, Terezinha; de Matos e Souza, Fábio Gomes

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the prevalence of bipolar disorder (BD) among 196 HIV-infected adult outpatients attending in a specialized unit in Fortaleza, Brazil. Patients were interviewed with the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and a socio-demographic questionnaire based on WHO's behavioral surveillance surveys. Positive MDQ screening was found in 13.2% (N=26) and the BD diagnosis was confirmed in 8.1% (N=16) of the sample. There is an almost four times higher prevalence of BD among the HIV-infected patients of the sample (8.1%) than in the general population from the USA (2.1%). The prevalence of BD type I in the HIV patients was 5.6% (N=11) which is almost six times higher than the US general population (1%). The odds ratios of sexual behaviors and substance abuse variables correlated with BD were calculated. The variables associated with the diagnoses of BD were sex with commercial partners, sex outside the primary relationship, alcohol use disorders, and illicit drug abuse. The most common psychiatric comorbidity in the BD group was substance abuse (61.5%). A better understanding of psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects of HIV-positive patients may help in improving long-term outcome of these patients.

  10. Prevalence of actinic cheilitis in a population of agricultural sugarcane workers.

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    Miranda, Ana M O; Soares, Léo G; Ferrari, Thiago M; Silva, Denise G; Falabella, Márcio E V; Tinoco, Eduardo M B

    2012-01-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a pre-malignant inflammatory reaction of the lips caused by continuous exposure to solar rays. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of AC in a population of sugarcane workers in Brazil. 1,539 individuals who were exposed to the sun during working hours and 150 individuals who were not exposed were screened for clinical signs of AC. The sample was classified according to years of exposure to the sun, ethnicity, gender smoking and severity of the lesion. A 9.16% (n= 141) prevalence of AC was observed among the population which had been exposed to the sun. The prevalence of AC lesions was significantly higher among individuals who had been exposed to the sun for more than 10 years than among those who had been exposed for less than 10 years, and among Caucasians and males than non-Caucasians and females. It was concluded that the severity of the lesions was associated with time of exposure to the sun.

  11. High prevalence of anemia in children and adult women in an urban population in southern Brazil.

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    Lucia Mariano da Rocha Silla

    Full Text Available This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years and women (14 to 30 years tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil.

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Mental Disorders in Israeli Adolescents: Results from a National Mental Health Survey

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    Farbstein, Ilana; Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Levinson, Daphna; Goodman, Robert; Levav, Itzhak; Vograft, Itzik; Kanaaneh, Rasim; Ponizovsky, Alexander M.; Brent, David A.; Apter, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Background: The development of epidemiological instruments has enabled the assessment of mental disorders in youth in countries that plan policy according to evidence-based principles. The Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA) was conducted in 2004-2005 in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers.…

  13. Prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in adolescents: nine-year follow-up study (2003-2012

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    Dirceu Solé

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic eczema in adolescents (AD; 13-14 years living in seven Brazilian cities, by applying the standardized written questionnaire (WQ of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC, and to evaluate the time trend nine years after the last assessment of ISAAC phase 3 (ISP3. METHODS: The ISAAC-WQ was answered by 20,099 AD from the Northern, Northeastern, Southeastern, and Southern Brazilian regions. Values obtained were compared to those observed in ISP3 using nonparametric (chi-squared or Fisher tests, and the ratio of annual increment/decrement was established for each of the centers, according to the symptom assessed. RESULTS: Considering the national data and comparing to values of ISP3, there was a decrease in the mean prevalence of active asthma (18.5% vs. 17.5% and an increase in the frequency of severe asthma (4.5% vs. 4.7% and physician-diagnosed asthma (14.3% vs. 17.6%. An increase in prevalence of rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema was also observed. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic eczema in Brazil was variable; higher prevalence values, especially of asthma and eczema, were observed in regions located closer to the Equator.

  14. Prevalence of microalbuminuria among middle-aged population of China: a multiple center cardiovascular epidemiological study.

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    Hao, Guang; Wang, ZengWu; Zhang, Linfeng; Chen, Zuo; Wang, Xin; Guo, Min; Tian, Ye; Shao, Lan; Zhu, Manlu

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of microalbuminuria (MAU) and the relationships with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors among a middle-aged Chinese population. Data from 10 313 participants were included in our cross-sectional survey. Microalbuminuria was defined as the urine albumin to creatinine ratio of 30:300 mg/g from a single-spot morning urine sample. Microalbuminuria was found to be common in males and females (15.04% vs 10.09%) aged 35 to 64 years in this Chinese general population, especially in those with obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Multivariate analysis found that body mass index, triglyceride, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, alcohol consumption, hypertension, and diabetes were independently associated with MAU. Microalbuminuria may be a useful indicator for risk of CV disease in general populations.

  15. Online Positive Interventions to Promote Well-being and Resilience in the Adolescent Population: A Narrative Review.

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    Baños, Rosa M; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Mira, Adriana; Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Botella, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown an alarming prevalence of depression, anxiety, and behavior disorders in youth. Thus, prevention of psychological problems in this population becomes crucial. According to the World Health Organization (1), prevention should also include the promotion and development of the individual's strengths in order to reduce vulnerability to suffering from mental disorders. In addition, other key elements of prevention are the reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of interventions. The information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, have much to offer in terms of the prevention and promotion of positive mental health in adolescents. This paper reviews these fields of research-prevention, positive psychology, Internet, and adolescents-and discusses the potential of positive interventions delivered over the Internet as effective and sustainable health promotion tools. The paper provides a brief description of the systems developed so far and a summary of selected features of the studies detected in the literature review. The overall conclusions are that there is a need for more controlled studies with long-term follow-ups, the interventions should be designed considering the specific features of the target users and the specific contexts where the interventions will be delivered, and they could be enhanced by the use of other technologies, such as smartphones, sensors, or social networks.

  16. Prevalence of thinness among the adolescent girls (age group 13yrs-18yrs of Garhkhal Village of Himachal Pradesh, India.

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    Priyanka Rani Garg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal Tablo"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Malnutrition has now been redefined in terms of “under nutrition” and conceptualized in terms of thinness which is an important problem among children and adolescents in rural areas of developing countries like India. Therefore, present study was carried out to assess the prevalence of thinness among the adolescent girls (age group 13yrs-18yrs of Garhkhal Village of Himachal Pradesh, India. The study design was cross-sectional. Height and weight were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI was carried out. Identification of thinness was done according to the new International BMI-based classification cut offs as given by Cole et al., 2007. In general the mean BMI increased with increasing age. Overall age-combined prevalence was 79.5%. Present study indicated the poor health status of the adolescent girls of the selected area which indicates the high nutritional stress among them as evident from the thinness prevalent among them.

  17. Gender-Specific Analyses of the Prevalence and Factors Associated with Substance Use and Misuse among Bosniak Adolescents

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    Natasa Zenic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnicity and religion are known to be important factors associated with substance use and misuse (SUM. Ethnic Bosniaks, Muslims by religion, are the third largest ethnic group in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, but no study has examined SUM patterns among them. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of SUM and to examine scholastic-, familial- and sport-factors associated with SUM in adolescent Bosniaks from Bosnia-and-Herzegovina. The sample comprised 970 17-to-18-year-old adolescents (48% boys. Testing was performed using an previously validated questionnaire investigating socio-demographic-factors, scholastic-variables, and sport-factors, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, simultaneous smoking and drinking (multiple SUM, and the consumption of other drugs. The 30% of boys and 32% of girls smoke (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 0.86–1.49, 41% of boys and 27% of girls are defined as harmful alcohol drinkers (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.48–2.54, multiple SUM is prevalent in 17% of boys and 15% of girls (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.79–1.56, while the consumption of other drugs, including sedatives, is higher in girls (6% and 15% for boys and girls, respectively; OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.89–4.70. Scholastic achievement is negatively associated with SUM. SUM is more prevalent in those girls who report higher income, and boys who report a worse familial financial situation. The study revealed more negative than positive associations between sport participation and SUM, especially among girls. Results can help public health authorities to develop more effective prevention campaign against SUM in adolescence.

  18. [THE FEATURES OF PREVALENCE OF SKIN DISEASE AS AN INDEX OF ECOLOGICALLY RELATED MORBIDITY OF POPULATION IN BIOCLIMATIC ZONES OF PRIMORYE KRAI].

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    Yarygina, M V; Kiku, P F; Gorborukova, T V

    2015-01-01

    There are presented results of the socio-hygienic analysis of ecologically related skin pathology ofthe population of Primorsky Krai. The aim of the work is to establish the patterns of distribution of ecologically related skin diseases in various ecological bioclimatic zones of Primorsky Krai. There was performed an analysis of skin diseases ofform 12 according to ICD-10 main demographic groups (children, adolescents and adults) of the population of Primorsky Krai, residing in various bioclimatic zones of Krai with different levels of environmental stringency in rural and urban areas for the period of 2000-2013. There were established causal-effect relationships of the prevalence of skin diseases, as ecologically related pathology. The level of the prevalence of skin diseases among the population in the Primorye region depends on bioclimatic zones, the degree of the stringency of the environmental situation and combinations of environmental factors. The prevalence of skin diseases in adults, adolescents and children, as the organism's response to the impact ofthe parameters ofthe environment is affected by the complex offactors, the main of them are hygienic: the sanitary--hygienic level of ambient air pollution, the specification of chemical pollution and adverse physical factors in urban and rural settlements, the characteristics of the state of the soil. The medical-sociological research of the lifestyle of the population was performed on the basis of a specially designed questionnaire. The questionnaire included three arrays of issues: environmental, hygienic and social. On the basis of medical and sociological research with the use of multivariate analysis, method of correlation pleiades advanced by P. V. Terentiev, lifestyle and psycho-emotional factors, socio-hygienic, bioclimatic factors were found to play an important role in the prevalence of ecologically related pathology of skin in residents of Primorsky Krai. Differences in responses between urban and