WorldWideScience

Sample records for adolescent population prevalence

  1. Prevalence of psychotic symptoms in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, I

    2012-09-01

    Psychotic symptoms occur more frequently in the general population than psychotic disorder and index risk for psychopathology. Multiple studies have reported on the prevalence of these symptoms using self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews but there is a lack of consensus about the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among children and adolescents.

  2. Prevalence, comorbidity and heritability of hoarding symptoms in adolescence: a population based twin study in 15-year olds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volen Z Ivanov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hoarding Disorder (HD is often assumed to be an 'old age' problem, but many individuals diagnosed with HD retrospectively report first experiencing symptoms in childhood or adolescence. We examined the prevalence, comorbidity and etiology of hoarding symptoms in adolescence. METHODS: To determine the presence of clinically significant hoarding symptoms, a population-based sample of 15-year old twins (N = 3,974 completed the Hoarding Rating Scale-Self Report. Co-occurring Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD were estimated from parental report. Model-fitting analyses divided hoarding symptom scores into additive genetic, shared, and non-shared environmental effects. RESULTS: The prevalence of clinically significant hoarding symptoms was 2% (95% CI 1.6-2.5%, with a significantly higher prevalence in girls than boys. Exclusion of the clutter criterion (as adolescents do not have control over their environment increased the prevalence rate to 3.7% (95% CI 3.1-4.3%. Excessive acquisition was reported by 30-40% among those with clinically significant hoarding symptoms. The prevalence of co-occurring OCD (2.9%, ASD (2.9% and ADHD (10.0% was comparable in hoarding and non-hoarding teenagers. Model-fitting analyses suggested that, in boys, additive genetic (32%; 95% CI 13-44% and non-shared environmental effects accounted for most of the variance. In contrast, among girls, shared and non-shared environmental effects explained most of the variance, while additive genetic factors played a negligible role. CONCLUSIONS: Hoarding symptoms are relatively prevalent in adolescents, particularly in girls, and cause distress and/or impairment. Hoarding was rarely associated with other common neurodevelopmental disorders, supporting its DSM-5 status as an independent diagnosis. The relative importance of genetic and shared environmental factors for hoarding differed

  3. Acne scars in 18-year-old male adolescents: a population-based study of prevalence and associated factors*

    OpenAIRE

    Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar

    2016-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional stud...

  4. Prevalence of child abuse in child and adolescent clinical population referred to psychiatric facilities in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed Gholamreza Nourazar; Mohammad Rahim Kakaie; Fatemeh Ranjbar; Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani; Mostafa Farahbakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was ‎designed to evaluate the prevalence of child abuse in a child and adolescent psychiatric clinical population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a clinical population of children and adolescents aged 8-18 years. 80 out-patients and 94 in-patients were selected according to probability proportional to size sampling. Kiddie schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia questionnaire, a demographic questionnaire, and child abuse self-...

  5. Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them with the rates among adolescents in the general…

  6. Acne scars in 18-year-old male adolescents: a population-based study of prevalence and associated factors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar

    2016-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken during presentation for military service, which is compulsory for all 18-year-old males. A questionnaire was applied, covering topics like diet, smoking habits, ethnicity, family structure, socio-economic level, as well as specific questions about active acne and resulting scars. Dermatologists conducted the clinical examination. Results A total of 2,201 male adolescents were interviewed and examined. The overall prevalence of acne scarring was 22%. The malar region was the most frequently involved, present in 80% of affected individuals, followed by the frontal region (31.5%), back (17%), anterior chest (8.2%) and mentonian region (6.4%). Correlation between the intensity of clinical acne and the presence of scars was found, but no association was observed with educational level, smoking, ethnicity, obesity or socio-economic status. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of acne scars among this population. This is the first study to ascertain a correlation between acne scarring and factors such as socio-economic status and educational level. The direct relation between acne severity and scarring indicates that prompt and effective treatment is the best way to reduce scarring.

  7. Acne scars in 18-year-old male adolescents: a population-based study of prevalence and associated factors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar

    2016-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken during presentation for military service, which is compulsory for all 18-year-old males. A questionnaire was applied, covering topics like diet, smoking habits, ethnicity, family structure, socio-economic level, as well as specific questions about active acne and resulting scars. Dermatologists conducted the clinical examination. Results A total of 2,201 male adolescents were interviewed and examined. The overall prevalence of acne scarring was 22%. The malar region was the most frequently involved, present in 80% of affected individuals, followed by the frontal region (31.5%), back (17%), anterior chest (8.2%) and mentonian region (6.4%). Correlation between the intensity of clinical acne and the presence of scars was found, but no association was observed with educational level, smoking, ethnicity, obesity or socio-economic status. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of acne scars among this population. This is the first study to ascertain a correlation between acne scarring and factors such as socio-economic status and educational level. The direct relation between acne severity and scarring indicates that prompt and effective treatment is the best way to reduce scarring. PMID:27438194

  8. Thoracic spine pain in the general population: Prevalence, incidence and associated factors in children, adolescents and adults. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straker Leon M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thoracic spine pain (TSP is experienced across the lifespan by healthy individuals and is a common presentation in primary healthcare clinical practice. However, the epidemiological characteristics of TSP are not well documented compared to neck and low back pain. A rigorous evaluation of the prevalence, incidence, correlates and risk factors needs to be undertaken in order for epidemiologic data to be meaningfully used to develop evidence-based prevention and treatment recommendations for TSP. Methods A systematic review method was followed to report the evidence describing prevalence, incidence, associated factors and risk factors for TSP among the general population. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched to identify studies that reported either prevalence, incidence, associated factors (cross-sectional study or risk factors (prospective study for TSP in healthy children, adolescents or adults. Studies were evaluated for level of evidence and method quality. Results Of the 1389 studies identified in the literature, 33 met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The mean (SD quality score (out of 15 for the included studies was 10.5 (2.0. TSP prevalence data ranged from 4.0–72.0% (point, 0.5–51.4% (7-day, 1.4–34.8% (1-month, 4.8–7.0% (3-month, 3.5–34.8% (1-year and 15.6–19.5% (lifetime. TSP prevalence varied according to the operational definition of TSP. Prevalence for any TSP ranged from 0.5–23.0%, 15.8–34.8%, 15.0–27.5% and 12.0–31.2% for 7-day, 1-month, 1-year and lifetime periods, respectively. TSP associated with backpack use varied from 6.0–72.0% and 22.9–51.4% for point and 7-day periods, respectively. TSP interfering with school or leisure ranged from 3.5–9.7% for 1-year prevalence. Generally, studies reported a higher prevalence for TSP in child and adolescent populations, and particularly for females. The 1 month, 6 month, 1 year and 25 year incidences were 0

  9. DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 eating disorders in adolescents: prevalence, stability, and psychosocial correlates in a population-based sample of male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Oddy, Wendy H; Crosby, Ross D

    2013-08-01

    The current study aimed to compare the prevalence, stability, and psychosocial correlates of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 eating disorders, in a population-based sample of male and female adolescents followed prospectively from 14 to 20 years of age. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective, population-based cohort study that has followed participants from prebirth to young adulthood. Detailed self-report questionnaires were used to assess eating disorder symptoms when participants were aged 14, 17, and 20 years. Comparisons between DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 were conducted using McNemar chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests. Changes in eating disorder prevalence over time were considered using generalized estimating equations. Eating disorder prevalence rates were significantly greater when using DSM-5 than DSM-IV-TR criteria, at all time points for females and at age 17 only for males. "Unspecified"/"other" eating disorder diagnoses were significantly less common when applying DSM-5 than DSM-IV-TR criteria, but still formed 15% to 30% of the DSM-5 cases. Diagnostic stability was low for all disorders, and DSM-5 binge eating disorder or purging disorder in early adolescence predicted DSM-5 bulimia nervosa in later adolescence. Cross-over from binge eating disorder to bulimia nervosa was particularly high. Regardless of the diagnostic classification system used, all eating disorder diagnoses were associated with depressive symptoms and poor mental health quality of life. These results provide further support for the clinical utility of DSM-5 eating disorder criteria, and for the significance of binge eating disorder and purging disorder.

  10. Adolescent Gambling Behaviour and Attitudes: A Prevalence Study and Correlates in an Australian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alun C.; Dowling, Nicki; Thomas, Shane A.; Bond, Lyndal; Patton, George

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that a range of risk factors are associated with adolescent problem gambling. Using a representative sample of 2,788 eighth grade students in Victoria, Australia, the primary aim of this study was to examine the degree to which these risk factors are associated with different levels of adolescent gambling…

  11. High prevalence of daily and multi-site pain -- a cross-sectional population-based study among 3000 Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael S; Roos, Ewa M; Olesen, Jens L;

    2013-01-01

    Daily pain and multi-site pain are both associated with reduction in work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adults. However, no population-based studies have yet investigated the prevalence of daily and multi-site pain among adolescents and how these are associated with res...

  12. Prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them wi

  13. Back pain prevalence and associated factors in children and adolescents: an epidemiological population study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Matias; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; da Rosa, Bruna Nichele; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of back pain among Brazilian school children and the factors associated with this pain. METHODS All 1,720 schoolchildren from the fifth to the eight grade attending schools from the city of Teutonia, RS, Southern Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. From these, 1,597 children participated. We applied the Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument. The dependent variable was back pain, while the independent one were demographic, socioeconomic, behavior and heredity data. The prevalence ratio was estimated by multivariate analysis using the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). RESULTS The prevalence of back pain in the last three months was 55.7% (n = 802). The multivariate analysis showed that back pain is associated with the variables: sex, parents with back pain, weekly frequency of physical activity, daily time spent watching television, studying in bed, sitting posture to write and use the computer, and way of carrying the backpack. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of back pain in schoolchildren is high and it is associated with demographic, behavior and heredity aspects. PMID:27305406

  14. Back pain prevalence and associated factors in children and adolescents: an epidemiological population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Noll

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of back pain among Brazilian school children and the factors associated with this pain. METHODS All 1,720 schoolchildren from the fifth to the eight grade attending schools from the city of Teutonia, RS, Southern Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. From these, 1,597 children participated. We applied the Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument. The dependent variable was back pain, while the independent one were demographic, socioeconomic, behavior and heredity data. The prevalence ratio was estimated by multivariate analysis using the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05. RESULTS The prevalence of back pain in the last three months was 55.7% (n = 802. The multivariate analysis showed that back pain is associated with the variables: sex, parents with back pain, weekly frequency of physical activity, daily time spent watching television, studying in bed, sitting posture to write and use the computer, and way of carrying the backpack. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of back pain in schoolchildren is high and it is associated with demographic, behavior and heredity aspects.

  15. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease, Thalassemia, Sickle-Cell Anemia, and Iron-Deficiency Anemia among the UAE Adolescent Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Barakat-Haddad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of high blood pressure, heart disease, and medical diagnoses in relation to blood disorders, among 6,329 adolescent students (age 15 to 18 years who reside in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Findings indicated that the overall prevalence of high blood pressure and heart disease was 1.8% and 1.3%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence for thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia was 0.9%, 1.6%, and 5%, respectively. Bivariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the prevalence of high blood pressure among the local and expatriate adolescent population in the Emirate of Sharjah. Similarly, statistically significant differences in the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia were observed among the local and expatriate population in Abu Dhabi city, the western region of Abu Dhabi, and Al-Ain. Multivariate analysis revealed the following significant predictors of high blood pressure: residing in proximity to industry, nonconventional substance abuse, and age when smoking or exposure to smoking began. Ethnicity was a significant predictor of heart disease, thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia. In addition, predictors of thalassemia included gender (female and participating in physical activity. Participants diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia and iron-deficiency anemia were more likely to experience different physical activities.

  16. Prevalence of anaemia among school adolescent girls.

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    Neha Goyal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is a major public health problem especially among adolescent females and can result in diminished physical growth and cognitive development, performance in school and at work, and affects reproduction. Findings from NFHS-3 (2005-06 indicate that 56% of the adolescent girls in India are anaemic and, of these 17% suffer from moderate to severe anaemia. Aim & Objective: To find the prevalence of anaemia among adolescent girls in rural and urban schools of Haldwani. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in rural as well as urban schools of Haldwani from October 2012 to March 2014 among 770 (443 rural and 327 urban adolescent girls selected by multistage random sampling, using predesigned and pretested questionnaire to collect relevant data, and estimating haemoglobin concentration using Haemoglobin Colour Scale. Data was analysed by using SPSS v 20. Results: 48.18% of adolescent girls were found to have anaemia. Prevalence of anaemia was 43.11% and 55.04% among rural and urban school girls respectively. Mean haemoglobin concentration of study subjects was 11.35g/dl. Prevalence of mild, moderate and severe anaemia among study population was 34.53%, 10.13% and 3.52% respectively. Conclusion: The present study revealed that half of the school going adolescent girls were suffering from anaemia in rural and urban areas of Haldwani

  17. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had adolescents from rural than urban areas (P adolescents in our population.

  18. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

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    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  19. Prevalence of smoking, alcohol and substance use among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Denmark compared with the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders G; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk of alcohol and substance abuse in adulthood. An unequivocal reason for this association has not yet been identified but it has been shown that pharmacological treatment...... is likely to reduce this risk. Aims: To test whether adolescents with ADHD in pharmacological treatment have a higher prevalence of smoking and use of alcohol and drugs than a matched control group from the general population. The study will also analyse associations between smoking, alcohol and drug use......, drugs and alcohol and the self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results: 21% of ADHD probands vs. 16% controls were daily smokers (P = 0.326). Among alcohol users, 52% of ADHD probands vs. 70% controls confirmed monthly alcohol intake (P = 0.014); 4% of cases...

  20. Prevalence of child abuse in child and adolescent clinical population referred to psychiatric facilities in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Gholamreza Nourazar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was ‎designed to evaluate the prevalence of child abuse in a child and adolescent psychiatric clinical population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a clinical population of children and adolescents aged 8-18 years. 80 out-patients and 94 in-patients were selected according to probability proportional to size sampling. Kiddie schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia questionnaire, a demographic questionnaire, and child abuse self-report scale were filled for each subject. Data were analyzed by using Stata software. Results: Among the out-patient subjects, 50 were male (62.5% and 30 were female (37.5%; for in-patient these subjects numbers were 76 (80.9% and 18 (19.1%, respectively. The mean age of subjects was 15.2 years in the in-patient group and 11.7 years in the out-patient group. In 66.1% of abuse cases the perpetrators were parents, 5.2% siblings, and 28.7% someone else. Among in-patient subjects, summed up prevalence rates of severe and very severe psychological abuse, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse were 11.7, 33.0, 2.1, and 0.0%, respectively; for out-patient subjects these values were 3.8, 11.2, 3.8, and 0.0%, respectively. Moreover, among in-patient subjects, prevalence rates of moderate psychological abuse, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse were 27.7, 27.7, 24.5, and 4.3%, respectively; and for out-patient subjects these values were 30.0, 27.5, 11.2, and 0.0%, respectively. Subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD suffered a higher rate of physical abuse, whereas, subjects with bipolar mood disorder (BMD suffered a higher rate of sexual abuse. Conclusion: The prevalence of child abuse is highly prevalent in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders. It is recommended that this population be screened routinely for child abuse.

  1. The association between use of electronic media and prevalence of headache in adolescents: results from a population-based cross-sectional study

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    Straube Andreas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of electronic media, i.e. mobile phones, computers, television, game consoles or listening to music, is very common, especially amongst adolescents. There is currently a debate about whether frequent use of these media might have adverse effects on health, especially on headaches, which are among the most-reported health complaints in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between frequent use of electronic media and the prevalence of different types of headache in adolescents. Methods Data were derived from a population-based sample (n = 1,025, ages 13-17 years. Type of headache (i.e. migraine, tension-type headache, unclassifiable headache was ascertained by standardized questionnaires for subjects reporting headache episodes at least once per month during the last six months. Duration of electronic media use was assessed during personal interviews. Associations were estimated with logistic regression models adjusted for age group, sex, family condition and socio-economic status. Results Most of the adolescents used computers (85%, watched television (90% or listened to music (90% daily, otherwise only 23% of the participants used their mobile phones and only 25% played with game consoles on a daily basis. A statistically significant association between listening to music and any headache (odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.1 for 30 minutes per day, 2.1; 1.2-3.7 for 1 to 2 hours per day; 2.0; 1.2-3.5 for 3 hours and longer listening to music per day was observed. When stratifying for type of headache, no statistically significant association was seen. Conclusions Apart from an association between listening to music on a daily basis and overall headache, no consistent associations between the use of electronic media and different types of headache were observed.

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Rita Elizabeth Moreira Mascarenhas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6±1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28 and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30. Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P=0.02 and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P=0.01. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide.

  3. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease, Thalassemia, Sickle-Cell Anemia, and Iron-Deficiency Anemia among the UAE Adolescent Population

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Barakat-Haddad

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of high blood pressure, heart disease, and medical diagnoses in relation to blood disorders, among 6,329 adolescent students (age 15 to 18 years) who reside in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Findings indicated that the overall prevalence of high blood pressure and heart disease was 1.8% and 1.3%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence for thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia was 0.9%, 1.6%, and 5%, respectively. Bivariate analysis reve...

  4. Prevalence of DSM IV anxiety and affective disorders in a pediatric population of asthmatic children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, G; Nollet-Clemençon, C; de Blic, J; Mouren-Simeoni, M C; Scheinmann, P

    2000-06-01

    A series of 82 children and adolescents with moderate and severe persistent asthma was studied. Their psychopathological problems were compared to those of 82 healthy subjects, matched for age, sex and socio-economic status. The patients completed the Child Depression Inventory, an inventory of fears and anxiety (ECAP) and the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory. Parents of asthmatic children filled in the Child Behavior Check List to assess their social competence. The patients were examined with the revised Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. There were more anxiety symptoms in the asthmatic group than in the control group. Asthmatics were not significantly more depressed than controls and their self-esteem was as good. We found 29 anxiety disorders, four affective disorders and four disruptive behavior disorders. Generalized anxiety disorder was the main diagnosis (n=24). The asthmatic subgroup presenting anxiety and affective disorders had poorer self esteem, fewer activities and worse social competence than other asthmatics and controls. Adolescents did not seem to have more emotional disturbances than younger patients. Girls did not have more DSM IV anxiety or affective disorders than boys. PMID:10802131

  5. Psychotropic medication in the French child and adolescent population: prevalence estimation from health insurance data and national self-report survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legleye Stéphane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work is to estimate the French frequencies of dispensed psychotropic prescriptions in children and adolescents. Prevalence estimations of dispensed prescriptions are compared to the frequencies of use of psychotropic reported by 17 year-old adolescents. Methods Prescription data is derived from national health insurance databases. Frequencies of dispensed prescriptions are extrapolated to estimate a range for the 2004 national rates. Self-report data is derived from the 2003 and 2005 ESCAPAD study, an epidemiological study based on a questionnaire focused on health and drug consumption. Results The prevalence estimation shows that the prevalence of prescription of a psychotropic medication to young persons between 3 and 18 years is about 2.2%. In 2005, the self-report study (ESCAPAD shows that 14.9% of 17 year-old adolescents took medication for "nerves" or "to sleep" during the previous 12 months. The same study in 2003 also shows that 62.3% of adolescents aged 17 and 18 reporting psychotropic use, took the medication for anxiety and 56.8% to sleep. Only 49.7% of these medications are suggested by a doctor. Conclusion This study underlines a similar range of prevalence of psychotropic prescriptions in France to that observed in other European countries. Nevertheless, the proportion of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines seems to be higher, whereas the proportion of methylphenidate is lower. Secondly, a disparity between the prevalence of dispensed prescriptions and the self-report of actual use of psychotropics has been highlighted by the ESCAPAD study which shows that these treatments are widely used as "self-medication".

  6. High Prevalence of Obesity in Ambulatory Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…

  7. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young people

  8. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

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    Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4 had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2 smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8 smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use

  9. "Prevalence and Correlates of Snoring in Adolescents "

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    Katayoon Bidad

    2006-09-01

    These results suggest that snoring is associated with multiple factors in adolescents. We conclude that the prevalence of snoring is relatively high in children of this region. This highlights the need for awareness among physicians about the problem of sleep-disordered breathing, especially in children with asthma and obesity, and also the need for further studies to measure the prevalence of sleep breathing disorders among Iranians.

  10. Cosmetic Labiaplasty in an Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runacres, Sean A; Wood, Paul L

    2016-06-01

    Labiaplasty (defined as the surgical reduction of the labia minora) is the most common procedure under the umbrella of female genital cosmetic surgery with the prevalence increasing over the past 10-15 years. However, the concept of labial hypertrophy holds an arbitrary definition, with no research into labial size undertaken within the pediatric and adolescent populations. Under the tenets of medical ethics there is acceptance of the need to avoid harm and so, for reasons to be outlined, performance of labiaplasty in children and adolescents should be avoided. This Mini-Review does not extend to pathological conditions that affect the labia minora. PMID:26453828

  11. ERICA: prevalences of hypertension and obesity in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Szklo, Moyses; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; Schaan, Beatriz; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension and obesity and the population attributable fraction of hypertension that is due to obesity in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from participants in the Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which was the first national school-based, cross-section study performed in Brazil were evaluated. The sample was divided into 32 geographical strata and clusters from 32 schools and classes, with regional and national representation. Obesity was classified using the body mass index according to age and sex. Arterial hypertension was defined when the average systolic or diastolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the reference curve. Prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of arterial hypertension and obesity, both on a national basis and in the macro-regions of Brazil, were estimated by sex and age group, as were the fractions of hypertension attributable to obesity in the population. RESULTS We evaluated 73,399 students, 55.4% female, with an average age of 14.7 years (SD = 1.6). The prevalence of hypertension was 9.6% (95%CI 9.0-10.3); with the lowest being in the North, 8.4% (95%CI 7.7-9.2) and Northeast regions, 8.4% (95%CI 7.6-9.2), and the highest being in the South, 12.5% (95%CI 11.0-14.2). The prevalence of obesity was 8.4% (95%CI 7.9-8.9), which was lower in the North region and higher in the South region. The prevalences of arterial hypertension and obesity were higher in males. Obese adolescents presented a higher prevalence of hypertension, 28.4% (95%CI 25.5-31.2), than overweight adolescents, 15.4% (95%CI 17.0-13.8), or eutrophic adolescents, 6.3% (95%CI 5.6-7.0). The fraction of hypertension attributable to obesity was 17.8%. CONCLUSIONS ERICA was the first nationally representative Brazilian study providing prevalence estimates of hypertension in adolescents. Regional and sex differences were observed. The study indicates

  12. Prevalence and consequences of insomnia in pediatric population.

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    Magda Kaczor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia presents an increasing and significant health issue in paediatric population. As the problem had grown over past decade, it became recognised by the specialists dealing with children and adolescents. In a recent study American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry members were asked about their experience with patients complaining about sleep disturbances. Doctors reported that sleep was a problem for 1/3 of their patients out of which 1/4 required pharmacotherapy [1]. Multiple studies concerning adults confirmed significance of healthy sleep in optimal cognitive, emotional, social and biological functioning. Adequate sleep is important in prophylaxis of many chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke [2]. Due to increasing prevalence of insomnia in children and adolescents growing attention is paid to its short and long term consequences in this group. This review summarises available data on chronic insomnia prevalence and its consequences in population under 18 years old.

  13. Prevalence and consequences of insomnia in pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczor, Magda; Skalski, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Insomnia presents an increasing and significant health issue in paediatric population. As the problem had grown over past decade, it became recognised by the specialists dealing with children and adolescents. In a recent study American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry members were asked about their experience with patients complaining about sleep disturbances. Doctors reported that sleep was a problem for 1/3 of their patients out of which 1/4 required pharmacotherapy [1]. Multiple studies concerning adults confirmed significance of healthy sleep in optimal cognitive, emotional, social and biological functioning. Adequate sleep is important in prophylaxis of many chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke [2]. Due to increasing prevalence of insomnia in children and adolescents growing attention is paid to its short and long term consequences in this group. This review summarises available data on chronic insomnia prevalence and its consequences in population under 18 years old. PMID:27556114

  14. ERICA: prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, José Rocha; Bento, Vivian Freitas Rezende; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Olandoski, Marcia; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the distribution of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in Brazilian adolescents, as well as the prevalence of altered levels of such parameters. METHODS Data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) were used. This is a country-wide, school-based cross-sectional study that evaluated 12 to 17-year old adolescents living in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants. The average and distribution of plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were evaluated. Dyslipidemia was determined by levels of total cholesterol ≥ 170 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol < 45 mg/dL, or triglycerides ≥ 130 mg/dl. The data were analyzed by gender, age, and regions in Brazil. RESULTS We evaluated 38,069 adolescents – 59.9% of females, and 54.2% between 15 and 17 years. The average values found were: total cholesterol = 148.1 mg/dl (95%CI 147.1-149.1), HDL cholesterol = 47.3 mg/dl (95%CI 46.7-47.9), LDL cholesterol = 85.3 mg/dl (95%CI 84.5-86.1), and triglycerides = 77.8 mg/dl (95%CI 76.5-79.2). The female adolescents had higher average levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, without differences in the levels of triglycerides. We did not observe any significant differences between the average values among 12 to 14 and 15- to 17-year old adolescents. The most prevalent lipid alterations were low HDL cholesterol (46.8% [95%CI 44.8-48.9]), hypercholesterolemia (20.1% [95%CI 19.0-21.3]), and hypertriglyceridemia (7.8% [95%CI 7.1-8.6]). High LDL cholesterol was found in 3.5% (95%CI 3.2-4.0) of the adolescents. Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol was higher in Brazil’s North and Northeast regions. CONCLUSIONS A significant proportion of Brazilian adolescents has alterations in their plasma lipids. The high prevalence of low HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Brazil’s North and Northeast regions

  15. ERICA: prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria Neto, José Rocha; Bento, Vivian Freitas Rezende; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Olandoski, Marcia; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the distribution of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in Brazilian adolescents, as well as the prevalence of altered levels of such parameters. METHODS Data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) were used. This is a country-wide, school-based cross-sectional study that evaluated 12 to 17-year old adolescents living in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants. The average and distribution of plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were evaluated. Dyslipidemia was determined by levels of total cholesterol ≥ 170 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol < 45 mg/dL, or triglycerides ≥ 130 mg/dl. The data were analyzed by gender, age, and regions in Brazil. RESULTS We evaluated 38,069 adolescents - 59.9% of females, and 54.2% between 15 and 17 years. The average values found were: total cholesterol = 148.1 mg/dl (95%CI 147.1-149.1), HDL cholesterol = 47.3 mg/dl (95%CI 46.7-47.9), LDL cholesterol = 85.3 mg/dl (95%CI 84.5-86.1), and triglycerides = 77.8 mg/dl (95%CI 76.5-79.2). The female adolescents had higher average levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, without differences in the levels of triglycerides. We did not observe any significant differences between the average values among 12 to 14 and 15- to 17-year old adolescents. The most prevalent lipid alterations were low HDL cholesterol (46.8% [95%CI 44.8-48.9]), hypercholesterolemia (20.1% [95%CI 19.0-21.3]), and hypertriglyceridemia (7.8% [95%CI 7.1-8.6]). High LDL cholesterol was found in 3.5% (95%CI 3.2-4.0) of the adolescents. Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol was higher in Brazil's North and Northeast regions. CONCLUSIONS A significant proportion of Brazilian adolescents has alterations in their plasma lipids. The high prevalence of low HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Brazil's North and Northeast regions, must be

  16. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  17. The Prevalence, Lethality and Intent of Suicide Attempts among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Judy A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    Although suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in the United States, little is known about the prevalence or characteristics of suicide attempts among adolescents. Data from 1,710 adolescents attending 9 high schools in 5 communities were examined to determine the prevalence of suicide attempts and the lethality and intent…

  18. Prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction in children and adolescents

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    Marina Fernandes de Sena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD in children and adolescents, verifying the methodological variations. DATA SOURCES: Research conducted in Medline, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO databases, including manuscripts (except reviews and case reports published from 1990 to 2012. The descriptors were "temporomandibular joint syndrome", "temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome", "temporomandibular joint disorders", "prevalence studies", and "cross-sectional studies"; the words "dysfunction", "disorder", "temporomandibular", "children", "adolescents", "prevalence", "frequency", and "transversal" were used. DATA SYNTHESIS: Seventeen articles were selected, and the TMD frequency varied from 16 to 68%. Regarding the methodological criteria, only three articles (18% reported sample size determination, three (18% clearly described the sample selection process by stratified selection technique, and nine studies (53% carried out the calibration of the examiners. The diagnostic criteria used in the studies were: Helkimo index (n=2; 12%, Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD (n=4; 24%, the jaw index (n=1; 6%, clinical protocols (n=10; 59%, and anamnestic questionnaires (n=6; 35%. CONCLUSIONS: The TMD prevalence in children and adolescents varies in the literature. Appropriate and standardized methods are needed to identify, with greater validity, the presence of TMD in this population, allowing a better understanding of the pathological aspects in order to address more effective preventive and therapeutic procedures.

  19. Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Gibson, Will

    2014-02-01

    The problematic use of mobile phones among adolescents has not been widely studied. There are very few instruments for assessing potential technological addiction to mobile phones, or for categorizing different types of users or uses. The most widely used scale is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS), which is used to study adult populations, and has been applied in various forms in international contexts. The aims of this study were to adapt the Spanish version of this scale (MPPUSA) to British adolescents, and then to estimate the prevalence of possible problematic users. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1,529 secondary school pupils aged between 11 and 18 years, with 1,026 completed questionnaires being collected. The analysis showed that the factor and construct validity and reliability were comparable to those obtained in previous studies. The prevalence of problematic users among the students was 10%, and the typical problematic user tended to be an adolescent between 11 and 14 years old, studying in a public school, who considered themselves to be an expert user of this technology, who made extensive use of his/her mobile phone, and who attributed the same problem of use among their peers. These users presented notable scores in all the symptoms covered by the scale used to assess problematic use. In conclusion, the adaptation of the MPPUSA as a screening scale for British adolescents presents good sensitivity and specificity for detecting the main addictive symptoms proposed in this validated version.

  20. The Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Female Adolescents of Yazd

    OpenAIRE

    N Esnaashari; AR Bakhshayesh; AR Afshani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Body dysmorphic disorder is one of the common disorders in which adolescents give excessive attention to their appearances. In fact, it may causes disruptions in adolescents' individual and social life. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in female adolescents of Yazd. Method: In this cross-sectional study, the population consisted of all high school female students of Yazd (N= 10737) in 2012-2013, among which 371 students wer...

  1. The prevalence of triggers in paediatric migraine: a questionnaire study in 102 children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Neut, Dorothée; Fily, Antoine; Cuvellier, Jean-Christophe; Vallée, Louis

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and characterization of migraine triggers have not been rigorously studied in children and adolescents. Using a questionnaire, we retrospectively studied the prevalence of 15 predefined trigger factors in a clinic-based population. In 102 children and adolescents fulfilling the Second Edition of The International Headache Classification criteria for paediatric migraine, at least one migraine trigger was reported by the patient and/or was the parents’ interpretation in 100% of p...

  2. Prevalence of insulin resistance in obese adolescents

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    Aman B. Pulungan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Childhood obesity is a global health problem, with the prevalence is differed in each country and affected by many factors, such as lifestyle and physical activity. Insulin resistance (IR as a basic mechanism of several metabolic diseases in obesity, is related with metabolic syndrome (MetS along with its long term complications, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Several factors are known to be associated with IR, and the presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN has an important meaning in predicting IR.Objectives To assess the prevalence of IR, MetS in obese adolescents and its potentially associated factors, such as gender, signs of AN, and family history of metabolic diseases.Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in obese adolescents, aged 12-15 years, over a two-month period. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, and lipid profiles were measured. Oobesity was defined using body mass index (BMI. Insulin resistance was quantified by the homeostasis model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF 2007 criteria.Results Of 92 obese adolescents, IR was found in 38% of subjects, with females predominating (57.2%. Signs of AN were seen in 71.4% of subjects and a positive family history of metabolic diseases was found in 82.8% of subjects, including family history of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and hypertension. Less than 10% of subjects were considered to be in a prediabetic state, and none had T2DM. No statistical significance was found between gender, family history, or signs of AN and IR (P>0.05. Metabolic syndromes was found in 19.6% of subjects, with the following prevalences for each component: 34.8% for hypertension, 78.3% for central obesity, 8.7% for impaired fasting glucose (IFG, 22.8% for low levels of HDL, and 21.7% for high triglyceride levels. A strong correlation was found between IR and IFG with OR=5.69 (95%CI 1.079 – 29.993, P=0

  3. Prevalence of insulin resistance in obese adolescents

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    Aman B. Pulungan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Childhood obesity is a global health problem, with the prevalence is differed in each country and affected by many factors, such as lifestyle and physical activity. Insulin resistance (IR as a basic mechanism of several metabolic diseases in obesity, is related with metabolic syndrome (MetS along with its long term complications, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Several factors are known to be associated with IR, and the presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN has an important meaning in predicting IR. Objectives To assess the prevalence of IR, MetS in obese adolescents and its potentially associated factors, such as gender, signs of AN, and family history of metabolic diseases. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in obese adolescents, aged 12-15 years, over a two-month period. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, and lipid profiles were measured. Oobesity was defined using body mass index (BMI. Insulin resistance was quantified by the homeostasis model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF 2007 criteria. Results Of 92 obese adolescents, IR was found in 38% of subjects, with females predominating (57.2%. Signs of AN were seen in 71.4% of subjects and a positive family history of metabolic diseases was found in 82.8% of subjects, including family history of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and hypertension. Less than 10% of subjects were considered to be in a prediabetic state, and none had T2DM. No statistical significance was found between gender, family history, or signs of AN and IR (P>0.05. Metabolic syndromes was found in 19.6% of subjects, with the following prevalences for each component: 34.8% for hypertension, 78.3% for central obesity, 8.7% for impaired fasting glucose (IFG, 22.8% for low levels of HDL, and 21.7% for high triglyceride levels. A strong correlation was found between IR and IFG with OR=5.69 (95%CI 1.079 – 29.993, P=0

  4. Prevalência e fatores associados ao transtorno da conduta entre adolescentes: um estudo de base populacional Prevalence and factors associated with behavioral disorders in adolescents: a population-based study

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    Ana Laura Sica Cruzeiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procurou estimar a prevalência e os fatores associados ao transtorno da conduta em adolescentes com idade entre 11 e 15 anos. Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 1.145 adolescentes na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os adolescentes responderam a um questionário auto-aplicado. O transtorno da conduta foi avaliado através do Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Foi investigada a associação desta psicopatologia com sexo, idade, nível sócio-econômico, escolaridade do adolescente, reprovação na escola, religião, sedentarismo, consumo de álcool, tabagismo, uso de drogas, depressão e sofrer bullying. A regressão ordinal foi usada para a análise estatística. Estima-se que, entre os entrevistados, 29,2% tenham transtorno da conduta. Na análise multivariada, a chance de um adolescente apresentar um ponto a mais na escala que avalia transtorno da conduta foi 2,04 (IC95%: 1,53-2,71 vezes maior no sexo masculino. O consumo de bebida alcoólica, o uso de drogas e sofrer bullying estiveram associados com maior pontuação na escala de transtornos de conduta. Os resultados também mostraram que os fatores associados ao transtorno da conduta apontam para a forte interrelação entre comportamentos de saúde na adolescência.This study proposed to estimate the prevalence of behavioral disorders and associated factors in adolescents (11-15 years, using a cross-sectional design (n = 1,145. Subjects answered a self-administered questionnaire. Behavioral disorder was assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. The study analyzed disorders in relation to gender, age, socioeconomic status, schooling, failure in school, religion, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol consumption, drug use, depression, and bullying (as victim. Ordinal regression was used for the statistical analysis, with a hierarchical model for the outcome. An estimated 29.2% of the sample presented behavioral

  5. Prevalence of Internet addiction in Latino adolescents with psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Katia A; Rosario, Katyna; Colón-De Martí, Luz N; Martínez, Karen G

    2011-06-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is particularly relevant in the adolescent population. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of IA in a clinical sample of Latino adolescents receiving ambulatory psychiatric treatment. The correlation between their pattern of Internet use and their respective psychiatric diagnosis was also studied. Adolescent patients from the Psychiatric Ambulatory Clinic at the Pediatric University Hospital (N=71) completed the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a questionnaire about Internet use. Information regarding demographic and diagnostic data was retrieved from their clinical records. None of the subjects presented severe IA. A total of 71.8% (n=51) of the adolescents obtained scores reflecting no problem related to IA. Only 11.6% (n=5) of subjects have discussed Internet use with their therapist. Mood disorders showed a statistically significant (p=0.044) correlation with a higher score on the IAT. Mental health care practitioners must consider questions on Internet use as an essential part of the patients' evaluation given its significant correlation with diagnosis of a mood disorder.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of early onset of sexual intercourse in a random sample of a multiethnic adolescent population in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Gülen; Martin, Loic; Levy-Loeb, Mathieu; Thomas, Stéphanie; Euzet, Géneviève; Van Melle, Astrid; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    French Guiana, a French overseas department in South America, has been classified epidemic for HIV. This territory is consisting of a very young population with almost 45% of them being younger than 20 years of age. Delaying the onset of first sexual intercourse (SI) is one of the major objectives to fight HIV infection in adolescents. The objective of this study is to identify the age of first SI and the risk factors of early onset. A behavioural surveillance survey among students living on the coastline and alongside the Maroni River was conducted in 2011/2012. A total of 1603 students filled out the survey. While 60% had already SI, the mean age of first intercourse was 12.1 years for boys and 13.9 years for girls. Accordingly, over 90% had a premature onset of SI. Risk factors are age, male gender, living alongside the Maroni River, another language than the French being mother tongue, not being religious, alcohol and cannabis consumption and a bad attitude towards condom use. Risk factors for girls are an older first sexual partner, having more than three lifetime sexual partners and condom rupture. Evidence-based implementation with respect of local and socio-demographic aspects is necessary to improve youths' appreciation of SI and related risk of sexual transmitted diseases. PMID:25782704

  7. Obesity and Overweight Prevalence Among Adolescents With Disabilities

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    James H. Rimmer, PhD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWe examined overweight and obesity prevalence among adolescents with disabilities by disability type (physical vs cognitive and demographic factors (sex, age, race/ethnicity.MethodsParents (N = 662 of adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with disabilities from 49 states responded to an online survey from September 2008 through March 2009.ResultsPrevalence of obesity among adolescents with physical and cognitive disabilities (17.5% was significantly higher compared with that among adolescents without disabilities (13.0%. Obesity prevalence was higher among males, 18-year-olds, and youths with cognitive disabilities than among females, younger adolescents, and youths with physical disabilities.ConclusionThe higher prevalence of obesity among youths with disabilities compared with nondisabled youths, particularly in certain subgroups, requires further examination in future surveillance research.

  8. Prevalence of juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome in an urban population of Turkish adolescents: impact on depressive symptoms, quality of life and school performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunus Durmaz; Gamze Alayli; Sevgi Canbaz; Yeliz Zahiroglu; Ayhan Bilgici; Ilker Ilhanl(ι); Omer Kuru

    2013-01-01

    Background Juvenile Fibromyalgia Syndrome (JFMS) is a chronic health condition characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and multiple tender points (TP).The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of JFMS in the urban population of Samsun and to determine the impact of JFMS on depression symptoms,school performance and quality of life (QOL).Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1109 children (mean age (14.8±2.0) years old).A questionnaire was applied to the children and a medical examination including TP was performed.Yunus and Masi's criteria were used for diagnosis of JFMS.The children with JFMS were compared with an age and sex matched non-JFMS group.Depression was assessed with Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and QOL was evaluated with Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL4.0).Results Sixty-one (5.5%) (13 boys and 48 girls) of 1109 children met the diagnostic criteria of JFMS.While PedsQL scores of children with JFMS were lower than the non-JFMS group for physical,emotional,social,school functioning and total score (P=0.001),CDI total score was higher in the JFMS group than in the non-JFMS group (P=0.001).The JFMS group reported more school absences (P=0.001) and the average school grade was lower in the JFMS group than in the non-JFMS group (P=0.03).Conclusion The prevalence of JFMS is high in school age children.Since JFMS is a common problem of childhood,early diagnosis and identification of the disorder and more comprehensive and successful treatment approaches with appropriate psychological assistance may prevent more complex and severe problems in adulthood.

  9. Prevalência de sobrepeso em adolescentes: um estudo de base populacional em uma cidade no Sul do Brasil Prevalence of overweight in adolescents: a population-based study in a southern Brazilian city

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    Carmem L. Dutra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a prevalência de sobrepeso em adolescentes e sua distribuição segundo varíaveis demográficas, sócio-econômicas, comportamentais e biológicas. Foram entrevistados 810 adolescentes entre 10 e 19 anos, residentes na zona urbana de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O sobrepeso foi definido de acordo com a OMS (IMC > ou = Percentil 85, segundo idade e sexo conforme a população de referência do I National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. O processo amostral foi por conglomerados e as análises bruta e ajustada (Regressão de Poisson levaram em conta o efeito de delineamento. A prevalência de sobrepeso em adolescentes foi de 19,3% (IC95%: 16,6-22,0 e não houve diferença entre os sexos. Adolescentes pertencentes aos níveis econômicos mais elevados, que realizaram dieta para emagrecer nos três meses anteriores à entrevista, que assistiam quatro horas ou mais de televisão por dia e que realizavam apenas uma ou duas refeições diárias apresentaram maior proporção de sobrepeso. Na análise ajustada, o sobrepeso nos meninos esteve diretamente associado com nível econômico e, nas meninas, com as variáveis dieta para emagrecer, número de horas diárias assistindo à televisão e inversamente associado com o número de refeições.The prevalence of overweight and its association with demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and biological variables were evaluated. The sample included 810 adolescents (10-19 years of age living in the urban area of Pelotas, a southern Brazilian city. Overweight was defined as a body mass index > or = the 85th percentile, according to sex and age, and compared to the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, following the WHO recommendation for adolescents. A clustering sampling strategy was used, and both the crude and adjusted analyses (Poisson Regression took this strategy into account. The prevalence of overweight was 19.3% (95%CI: 16.6-22.0 and there was no

  10. Indoor tanning by adolescents: prevalence, practices and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazovich, DeAnn; Forster, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Despite known acute and chronic health effects from the use of indoor tanning, including the potential for all forms of skin cancer, the practice is popular in the United States (US) and Europe. A review of the scientific literature that examines adolescents and indoor tanning use was undertaken, summarising what is known about prevalence and practices among adolescents, characteristics associated with adolescent use, and policies that regulate adolescent access to indoor tanning facilities. The prevalence of indoor tanning is consistently found to be higher among girls than boys and to increase with age in both Europe and the US. An examination of other demographic characteristics, skin cancer risk factors, knowledge, attitudes and social factors points to higher prevalence of the behaviour among adolescents with positive attitudes towards tans and whose friends or parents also tan indoors. Adolescent access to indoor tanning is rarely regulated in the US or Europe, and where regulations exist, business compliance is low. In addition, businesses actively market their product to adolescents as they organise to limit further regulations prohibiting adolescent access. Pricing, licensure, advertising restrictions and media campaigns, in combination with adolescent-targeted interventions, are possible strategies that could be tested for their effectiveness to reduce adolescent indoor tanning use. Harm reduction policies, such as eye protection, that reduce risk for adolescents who choose to tan indoors, are also important.

  11. The Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Female Adolescents of Yazd

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    N Esnaashari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Body dysmorphic disorder is one of the common disorders in which adolescents give excessive attention to their appearances. In fact, it may causes disruptions in adolescents' individual and social life. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in female adolescents of Yazd. Method: In this cross-sectional study, the population consisted of all high school female students of Yazd (N= 10737 in 2012-2013, among which 371 students were selected as the study sample by using Cochran formula and cluster sampling method. Moreover, the participants completed a series of demographic questions as well as the questionnaire of Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Y-BOCS-BDD. Results: The findings revealed that 41% of sample were reported to have unusual concern about appearance and body shape in range of low to very severe. As a matter of fact, most of them experienced moderate severity and 7.1% showed severe body dysmorphic disorder that required immediate psychological intervention. The prevalence in female adolescents was estimated as 7.1% and most prevalent age of suffering was 17. Conclusion: In this research, it was endeavored to provide a more realistic image of body dysmorphic disorder in Yazd adolescents by utilizing a precise methodology. Considering the high prevalence of this disorder in female adolescents and its adverse consequences, some programs are recommended to be applied for diagnosis and early treatment of body dysmorphic disorder to promote adolescents mental health.

  12. Prevalence of child sexual abuse among adolescents in Geneva: results of a cross sectional survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Halpérin, D. S.; Bouvier, P.; Jaffé, P. D.; Mounoud, R. L.; Pawlak, C. H.; Laederach, J.; Wicky, H. R.; Astié, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the cumulative prevalence of child sexual abuse in a representative sample of the adolescent population of Geneva. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey with an anonymous self administered questionnaire centred on a factual description of sexual activities. SETTING--68 classes (17 schools) randomly selected from the 201 ninth grade classes of the public school system in Geneva. SUBJECTS--1193 adolescents aged 13-17 years, of whom 1116 (93.5%; 568 girls, 548 boys) consented to t...

  13. Prevalence of Anemia among Adolescent Girls in an Urban Slum

    OpenAIRE

    Meenal Vinay Kulkarni, P M Durge, N B Kasturwar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Nutritional anemia is one of India's major public health problems. Adolescence is a vulnerable period in the human life cycle for the development of nutritional anemia. Anemia in adolescent girls contributes to maternal and foetal mortality and morbidity in future. Most of the health care services in India are for mother and child group. Objectives: To estimate prevalence of anemia among adolescent girls in an urban slum and to study socio-demographic and menstrual factors assoc...

  14. Bullying Among Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Prevalence and Perception

    OpenAIRE

    van Roekel, Eeske; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Didden, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This study examined: (a) the prevalence of bullying and victimization among adolescents with ASD, (b) whether they correctly perceived bullying and victimization, and (c) whether Theory of Mind (ToM) and bullying involvement were related to this perception. Data were collected among 230 adolescents with ASD attending special education schools. We found prevalence rates of bullying and victimization between 6 and 46%, with teachers reporting significantly higher rates than peers. Furthermore, ...

  15. Bullying Among Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Prevalence and Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roekel, G.H. van; Scholte, R.H.J.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined: (a) the prevalence of bullying and victimization among adolescents with ASD, (b) whether they correctly perceived bullying and victimization, and (c) whether Theory of Mind (ToM) and bullying involvement were related to this perception. Data were collected among 230 adolescents

  16. Prevalence of Violence Tendency in Adolescents

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    Özlem HASKAN AVCI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the extensiveness of violence tendency to depending on individual and family factors in adolescents. For this purpose, information has been collected from 899 high school students educated in state schools located in Adana province. Violence Tendency Scale (VTS developed by Haskan and Yıldırım (2012 has been used in order to determine the violence tendency levels of the students. The prevalence of students’ tendency has been tested with chi-square. When analyzed in terms of individual characteristics, violence tendency has been found more extensive in boys rather than girls, and more extensive in the students watching violence and heroic movies. When it is analyzed in terms of family factors, violence tendency has been found to be more spread with the students experiencing violence at home, and having families using alcohol compared to the ones experiencing neither violence nor alcohol cases. Moreover, students whose fathers work and earn money display more tendency to violence than the ones whose fathers doesn’t make money by working. Besides, students having family members in prison have been understood to be more tend to violence.

  17. Prevalence, 20-month incidence and outcome of unipolar depressive disorders in a community sample of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, AJ; Wittchen, HU; Schuster, P

    1999-01-01

    Background. This article presents prospective longitudinal findings on prevalence, incidence, patterns of change and stability of depressive disorders in a community sample of 1228 adolescents. Methods. Data were collected at baseline and follow-up (20 months later) in a representative population sa

  18. Prevalence and severity of micronutrient deficiency: a cross-sectional study among adolescents in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to determine the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies (iron, zinc and folate) in Sri Lankan adolescent school children and the extent to which multiple micronutrient deficiencies exist in this population, a cross-sectional survey (2003) in the Galle district of the micronutrient and ant...

  19. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Eating Disturbances among Children and Adolescents: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemp-Arlt, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction and eating disturbances are prevalent among youths and are beginning at an increasingly younger age. The glorification of the ideal, thin body type surrounds youths, in direct contrast to the increasing rates of overweight and obesity among the same population. The messages that children and adolescents are receiving are…

  20. Prevalence, Characteristics, and Associations of Sexual Abuse with Sociodemographics and Consensual Sex in a Population-Based Sample of Swedish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate lifetime prevalence and characteristics of self-reported child sexual abuse and associations between child sexual abuse, gender, sociodemographic data, and consensual sexual experiences. A questionnaire was completed by 4,339 Swedish high school seniors. Three categories of child sexual abuse were…

  1. Prevalence of excessive screen time and associated factors in adolescents

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    Joana Marcela Sales de Lucena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of excessive screen time and to analyze associated factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study with 2874 high school adolescents with age 14-19 years (57.8% female from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Northeast Brazil. Excessive screen time was defined as watching television and playing video games or using the computer for more than 2 h/day. The associated factors analyzed were: sociodemographic (gender, age, economic class, and skin color, physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents. Results: The prevalence of excessive screen time was 79.5% (95%CI 78.1-81.1 and it was higher in males (84.3% compared to females (76.1%; p<0.001. In multivariate analysis, adolescent males, those aged 14-15 year old and the highest economic class had higher chances of exposure to excessive screen time. The level of physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents were not associated with excessive screen time. Conclusions: The prevalence of excessive screen time was high and varied according to sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents. It is necessary to develop interventions to reduce the excessive screen time among adolescents, particularly in subgroups with higher exposure.

  2. Cribra orbitalia: Prevalence in contemporary populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Maryna; Voeller, Sarah; Botha, Deona; Ross, Ann H

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of cribra orbitalia (CO) is often used as an indicator of the general health status of past populations. Although debates as to its exact etiology are still ongoing, cribra is generally accepted to be the result of an anemic condition. Cribra has been reported to be declining in modern populations or even to be absent. The aim of this study was to compare modern, historic, and prehistoric prevalences of CO to assess whether it has changed through time and if it still occurs in contemporary populations. CO in skeletons (n = 844) from two widely different regions, the northeastern US and the central Gauteng area of South Africa, were compared in order to evaluate temporal trends. The sample comprised 245 prehistoric, 381 historic, and 218 modern skeletons. In adult skeletons the prevalence was found to be lower in historic South Africans (2.23%) than in historic North Americans (6.25%). It was lower in modern North Americans than in modern South Africans (12.35 and 16.8%, respectively). Its prevalence in prehistoric North Americans (11.86%) was also not much different from that of modern North Americans (12.35%). The frequency of CO in historic South African juveniles was higher (10.71%) than in historic North American juveniles (1.35%). Modern South African children had a lower frequency (25.14%) than modern American juveniles (40%), although the sample in the North American group was small. It seems that CO is still present in modern populations, and that health may indeed have declined for some groups in recent times. Clin. Anat. 29:823-830, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with sedentary behavior in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Paula Jaudy Pedroso; Domingos, Isabela Prado; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Ana Paula MURARO; Sichieri, Rosely; Regina Maria Veras GONÇALVES-SILVA

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of sedentary behavior and associated factors in adolescents. METHODS A cross-sectional study with adolescents aged 10 to 17 years, of both sexes, belonging to a 1994-1999 birth cohort in the city of Cuiabá, MT, Central Western Brazil. Data were collected using a questionnaire containing sociodemographic, economic, lifestyle and anthropometric variables. Sedentary behavior was determined as using television and/or computer/video games for a time greater than...

  4. Investigation of Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Adolescents

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    Zuhal Uyan1

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood and adolescence. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of ADHD with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD which may accompany to ADHD according to parent and teacher statements. Method: This cross-sectional research involving 251 adolescents from 9 different schools in Ankara was carried out between April and June 2007. Adolescents were assessed in Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale based on DSM-IV. A questionnaire was used for sociodemographic attributes. Screening and rating scale was completed by both class teacher and parent of the students. Results: According to the combined statements of parent and teacher 5.9% of the students had ADHD symptoms. The prevalence of ADHD was 12.7% and 27.4% on the basis of parent and teacher reports respectively. ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among boys on the basis of both teacher and parent reports (p<0.001. There was no significant difference between ADHD symptoms and socioeconomic status and parent education level. The prevalence of ODD was 46.4% and 52.5% among adolescents with ADHD symptoms according to parent and teacher assessments respectively. Conclusion: Informing parent and teachers about DEHB and other disruptive behaviors, and about the outcomes due these problems is important in view of early recognition of the problem, initiation of treatment and being supportive for the adolescent.

  5. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders amongst Adolescents in Tehran

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    Zahra Shahrivar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among 12 to 17 years old adolescents in urban areas of Tehran. "nMethod: In this study, 1105 adolescents (12 -17 years old were selected from 250 clusters of the entire 22 municipality areas of Tehran using a multistage sampling method. After responding to the Farsi version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report version, the Farsi version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL was administered to 273 adolescents and their families. The prevalence of adolescent psychiatric disorders was determined using the results of K-SADS-PL. "nResults: There were not any statistically significant differences between the sexes in the frequency of psychiatric disorders except for ADHD which was observed more frequently in boys. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, depressive disorders and separation anxiety disorder. "nConclusion: The frequency of psychiatric disorders among the adolescents in Tehran's urban areas was comparable to the reports from other countries. However, using methods to deal with missing data makes these prevalence rates somehow higher.

  6. Age-specific Prevalence of Antibodies to Hepatitis A in Children and Adolescents from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1978 and 1995: Relationship of Prevalence to Environmental Factors

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    Claudia L Vitral

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The age-specific prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV was determined in two different population groups with low socio-economic status from Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, whose serum samples were collected 17 years apart (Population 1, 1978; Population 2, 1995. In Population 2, analysis of the anti-HAV prevalence was also carried out with respect to environmental factors. Population 1 was composed of 520 stored sera collected from the umbilical cord of term neonates and children aged 1 month to 6 years. In population 2, 720 serum samples were collected from children and adolescents with ages ranging from 1 to 23 years. The overall prevalence rate of anti-HAV in Population 1 and Population 2 was 65.6% and 32.1%, respectively. In Population 1, the anti-HAV prevalence reached 88% at the age of 3, while in Population 2, it increased from 4.5% in children under the age of 3 to 66% in the group of adolescents over the age of 14. The low exposure to HAV infection in younger children from Population 2 could be a result of improved environmental hygiene and sanitation, as demonstrated by the presence of piped water, waste and sewage disposal systems in most houses from this population group. These findings indicate a possible change in the prevalence of hepatitis A in Rio de Janeiro

  7. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents aged 10-18 years in Jammu, J and K

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    Narinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adolescents attending school in the Jammu region, India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between November 2009 and December 2010, among a total of 1160 school-going adolescents of both sexes aged 10-18 years. Relevant metabolic and anthropometric variables were analyzed and criteria suggested by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel Third (NCEP-ATP III modified for age was used to define metabolic syndrome. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6%. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in males (3.84% than in females (1.6% and slightly higher in urban area (2.80% than in rural area (2.52%, whereas prevalence of metabolic syndrome among centrally obese subjects was as high as 33.33%. High density lipoprotein cholesterol was the most common and high blood pressure was the least common constituent of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was most prevalent in 16-18 years age group (4.79%. Conclusion : This study demonstrates that metabolic syndrome phenotype exists in substantial number (up to 3% of adolescent population in the Jammu region, India, and particularly 33% of obese adolescents are at risk to develop metabolic syndrome. These findings pose a serious threat to the current and future health of these young people.

  8. Period Prevalence of Dizziness and Vertigo in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Thyra Langhagen; Lucia Albers; Florian Heinen; Andreas Straube; Filipp Filippopulos; Landgraf, Mirjam N; Lucia Gerstl; Klaus Jahn; Rüdiger von Kries

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the period prevalence and severity of dizziness and vertigo in adolescents. Methods In 1661 students in 8th-10th grade in twelve grammar schools in Munich, Germany information on vertigo/dizziness was assessed by a questionnaire in the class room setting. Three month prevalence of dizziness/vertigo was estimated; symptoms were categorized as orthostatic dizziness, spinning vertigo, swaying vertigo or unspecified dizziness. Duration of symptoms and impact on daily life act...

  9. Prevalence of Sleepwalking in an Adult Population

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    Mume CO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may besimple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking isa disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. In children, episodes of sleepwalking are rarely violent; inadults, however, sleepwalking might include violence, which could endanger the patient or others and might precipitate legalissues. There is inadequate information on the prevalence and demographic correlates of sleepwalking in Nigeria.Objectives: One objective of this study was to determine the lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking in an adult populationin Ile-Ife, in Southwestern Nigeria. Another objective was to determine the age and sex distribution of sleepwalking amongthose who have experienced it at least once in their lifetime. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 228 healthyindividuals aged 18 – 60 years was obtained and the members were asked to fill out a survey form about lifetime prevalencerate of sleepwalking. Results: The overall lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking was 7% (16 of 228 participants. It was10.4% in males and 3.5% in females, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This studyhas shown that sleepwalking is common in the population. In view of the psychological effects of sleepwalking and thepotential physical and legal problems associated with it, adequate efforts should be made for early detection and promptmanagement of the condition.

  10. Prevalence of Anemia among Adolescent Girls in an Urban Slum

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    Meenal Vinay Kulkarni, P M Durge, N B Kasturwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutritional anemia is one of India's major public health problems. Adolescence is a vulnerable period in the human life cycle for the development of nutritional anemia. Anemia in adolescent girls contributes to maternal and foetal mortality and morbidity in future. Most of the health care services in India are for mother and child group. Objectives: To estimate prevalence of anemia among adolescent girls in an urban slum and to study socio-demographic and menstrual factors associated with it. Material and methods: A cross sectional community based study was conducted among 272 adolescent girls in an urban slum area under Urban Health Training centre, department of Community Medicine, NKP Salve Institute of Medical science, Nagpur from June 2009 to February 2010. Out of five areas one area was selected by simple random sampling. Information regarding socio-demographic and menstrual factors was recorded in pre-designed, pre -tested proforma. Hemoglobin estimation was done by Sahli’s haemoglobinometer. Data was analyzed by mean, standard deviation and chi square test. Results: Prevalence of anemia was found to be very high (90.1% among adolescent girls. Majority of the girls were having mild or moderate anemia (88.6%. A significant association was found between adolescent girl’s education, mother’s occupation and anemia. No association was found between menstrual factors and anemia. Conclusions-Nutrition education along with nutritional supplementation and iron folic acid tablets should be provided to all girls.

  11. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Chinese adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Yang, X.; Zhai, F.; Kok, F.J.; Piao, J.; Zhang, J.; Ma, G.

    2008-01-01

    Since national figures on the occurrence of metabolic syndrome among Chinese adolescents are lacking, this study aims to estimate its prevalence and distribution among Chinese youngsters. The 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey is a nationally representative cross-sectional study. Applyi

  12. Prevalence of Problematic Video Gaming among Ontario Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nigel E.; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Ballon, Bruce; Cheung, Joyce T. W.; Adlaf, Edward M.; Henderson, Joanna; Chan, Vincy; Rehm, Jurgen; Hamilton, Hayley; Mann, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Video game playing has become a very popular activity among adolescents. Its impact on the mental health and well-being of players is just beginning to be explored. This paper reports on the prevalence of problematic gaming in a representative sample of 2,832 Ontario students in grades 7 to 12. The survey included questions about the school grade,…

  13. Prevalence of COPD in rural population, Muzaffarnagar

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    Rahul Chaturvedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is a life-threatening lung disease that interferes with normal breathing – it is more than a “smoker’s cough”. Recently, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD has gained interest as a major public health concern and is currently the focus of intense research because of its persistently increasing prevalence, mortality, and disease burden in countries of high, middle and low income. Objective: The present study was undertaken with following objectives  1 To asess the prevalence of COPD in 30 years and above in rural catchment of bilaspur which is field practice area of MMC.2 To study the risk factors associated with COPD in a Study population Material and Methods: Study Area: The study was conducted in catchment area of Rural Health Training Center, which is a field practice area of the department of community medicine, Muzaffarnagar Medical college, Muzaffarnagar, having  1323 registered families with population of 1425. Study design: cross-sectional Study period: carried out between 1st April 2014 to 31st March 2015. Results: In the present study, the symptoms of chronic bronchitis were reported by 71 (7.8% subjects. Out of these only 62 had an airflow limitation based on low FEV1/FVC ratio on spirometry. Conclusion The present study also showed that bidi smoking was more prevalent in the economically underprivileged and those with low educational status due to affordability factor. Bidi smoking was more harmful than cigarette smoking in causation of COPD in the present study. Smoking anytime in life increased the chances of COPD 13 folds

  14. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AMONG ADOLESCENT SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN GUNTUR

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    Phanindra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia is a nutritional problem worldwide and its prevalence is higher in developing countries when compared to the developed countries. Anaemia, a manifestation of under-nutrition and poor dietary intake of iron is a public health problem, not only among pregnant women, infants and young children, but also among adolescents. Recent studies on the prevalence of anaemia have been conducted on preschool children only, so there is a need for more studies related to anaemia among school children. The present study was done to estimate the prevalence of anaemia among school children aged 10-15 years from Guntur, Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 school children aged 10 to 15 years. Purposive sampling was used to include 250 boys and 250 girls. Haemoglobin estimation was done by cyanmethaemoglobin method. The severity of anaemia was classified on the basis of WHO criteria into Mild, Moderate and Severe. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 21. RESULTS The overall prevalence of anaemia was 27.4% in the present study. A higher prevalence of anaemia was observed among girls (42.4% than boys (12.4%. The prevalence of mild anaemia was 34.4% and 9.6% among girls and boys respectively. CONCLUSION The prevalence of anaemia is high among school going adolescents. Special emphasis should be given on nutritional supplementation with iron and health education for this age group.

  15. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in adolescents in Turkey: effects of gender, lifestyle and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysoy, Gökhan; Güler-Baysoy, Nüket; Kesicioğlu, Aynur; Akın, Demet; Dündar, Tuğba; Pamukçu-Uyan, Ayten

    2014-01-01

    Scarce data exist concerning the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in adolescence. Changes in lifestyle, presence of stressors and psychological vulnerability during this stage of life place adolescents in the risk group for irritable bowel syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in adolescents who are about to begin their university studies and to identify lifestyle and psychological factors related to irritable bowel syndrome. All students newly enrolled at Abant Izzet Baysal University during the 2005-2006 academic year were recruited. Questionnaires including the Rome II questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were sent to the addresses of the eligible students before matriculation to the university. A total of 2217 students completed the questionnaires, of which 2038 (91.9%) were regarded as valid. Irritable bowel syndrome prevalence was 10.8% and was significantly higher in females than in males (14.0% vs. 7.1%, p<0.001). In logistic regression analyses, gender (OR=2.48, 95% CI=1.68-3.66) and depression (OR=1.08, 95% CI=1.04-1.12) were significantly linked to irritable bowel syndrome. The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in this adolescent population is similar to that reported in other studies. The association of irritable bowel syndrome with depression should guide preventive and therapeutic efforts for this specific age group. PMID:26388590

  16. Anemia prevalence in children and adolescents from educational centers in the outskirts of Londrina, PR, Brazil

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    MIGLIORANZA Lúcia Helena da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is the world most prevalent nutritional problem. To investigate anemia prevalence and its relation to nutritional status, 526 children and adolescents, 284 males and 242 females, aged 7 to 14 years old, were evaluated. The studied subjects take part in a program of the Social Action Department of the city of Londrina, state of Paraná, and attend Public Educational Centers which provides them three daily meals and pedagogic assistance. These individuals belong to deprived areas in the city outskirts, where the per capita income is lower than US$500 a year. The hemoglobin dosage was determined by digital puncture and read by Hemocue portable photometer. Anemia prevalence was verified in 41.3% of the assessed population, with no significant statistical differences between males and females (p=0.412. No association between anemia and malnutrition was found. In conclusion, high prevalence of anemia was observed in this population.

  17. Increasing adolescent HIV prevalence in Eastern Zimbabwe--evidence of long-term survivors of mother-to-child transmission?

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    Jeffrey W Eaton

    Full Text Available Recent data from the Manicaland HIV/STD Prevention Project, a general-population open HIV cohort study, suggested that between 2004 and 2007 HIV prevalence amongst males aged 15-17 years in eastern Zimbabwe increased from 1.20% to 2.23%, and in females remained unchanged at 2.23% to 2.39%, while prevalence continued to decline in the rest of the adult population. We assess whether the more likely source of the increase in adolescent HIV prevalence is recent sexual HIV acquisition, or the aging of long-term survivors of perinatal HIV acquisition that occurred during the early growth of the epidemic. Using data collected between August 2006 and November 2008, we investigated associations between adolescent HIV and (1 maternal orphanhood and maternal HIV status, (2 reported sexual behaviour, and (3 reporting recurring sickness or chronic illness, suggesting infected adolescents might be in a late stage of HIV infection. HIV-infected adolescent males were more likely to be maternal orphans (RR = 2.97, p<0.001 and both HIV-infected adolescent males and females were more likely to be maternal orphans or have an HIV-infected mother (male RR = 1.83, p<0.001; female RR = 16.6, p<0.001. None of 22 HIV-infected adolescent males and only three of 23 HIV-infected females reported ever having had sex. HIV-infected adolescents were 60% more likely to report illness than HIV-infected young adults. Taken together, all three hypotheses suggest that recent increases in adolescent HIV prevalence in eastern Zimbabwe are more likely attributable to long-term survival of mother-to-child transmission rather than increases in risky sexual behaviour. HIV prevalence in adolescents and young adults cannot be used as a surrogate for recent HIV incidence, and health systems should prepare for increasing numbers of long-term infected adolescents.

  18. Smoking Stages in an Iranian Adolescent Population

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    Akbar Fotouhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is determining the prevalence of smoking stages in adolescents of Tabriz city (northwest of Iran and identifying the personal, environmental, and psychological factors relating to cigarette smoking. Fifty-seven high schools were randomly selected, and 4903 students were completed a self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking and the related risk factors. The association of independent variables with cigarette smoking was evaluated using the ordinal logistic regression model. In total, 17.3% of the participants were experimenters (95% CI: 15.8-18.9 and 5.0% were regular smokers (95% CI: 3.7-6.2. The results showed that the male gender (OR=2.92; CI: 1.94-4.77, age (OR=1.27; CI: 1.02-1.64, having general risk taking behavior (OR=1.50; CI: 1.02-2.21, presence of a cigarette smoker in the family (OR=1.78; CI: 1.23-2.54, friendship with close cigarette smoker friends (OR=2.52; CI: 1.65-3.86, substance abuse experience (OR=8.27; CI: 2.61-25.61, attitude toward cigarette smoking (OR=1.22; CI: 1.10-1.27 and positive thinking about cigarette smoking (OR=1.05; CI: 1.01-1.14 are associated to cigarette smoking in adolescents. The cigarette smoking prevalence is minimal in Tabriz city adolescents, especially in girls; but the experimenter prevalence is considerable. Findings of this study justifies adopting more serious measures in the pre-adolescence and adolescence period.

  19. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; dos Santos, Debora França; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Tavares, Bruno Mendes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students). Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old) who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits. PMID:26910548

  20. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; dos Santos, Debora França; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Tavares, Bruno Mendes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students). Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old) who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits.

  1. Prevalence and comorbidity of mental disorders among adolescents living in residential youth care

    OpenAIRE

    Jozefiak, Thomas; Kayed, Nanna Sønnichsen; Rimehaug, Tormod; Wormdal, Anne Kristine; Brubakk, Ann Mari; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Most adolescents are placed in residential youth care (RYC) because of severe psychosocial strains and child maltreatment, which represent risk factors for developing mental disorders. To plan RYC units and ensure that residents receive evidence-based psychiatric interventions, it is necessary to obtain reliable and valid prevalence estimates of mental disorders in this population. However, there is a lacuna of research on diagnoses derived from standardized clinical interviews. The aim of th...

  2. Adolescents' Experiences of sexual abuse - Prevalence, abuse characteristics, disclosure, health and ethical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Priebe, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this thesis was to investigate aspects of self-reported sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence in a population-based study of Swedish high school students. The aim of this thesis was first to investigate the lifetime prevalence of sexual abuse of varying severity and characteristics as well as the associations between sexual abuse, gender, socio-demographic characteristics and consensual sexual experiences. The next aim was to investigate disclosure rates and...

  3. Prevalence of excessive screen time and associated factors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Marcela Sales de Lucena; Luanna Alexandra Cheng; Thaísa Leite Mafaldo Cavalcante; Vanessa Araújo da Silva; José Cazuza de Farias Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of excessive screen time and to analyze associated factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study with 2874 high school adolescents with age 14-19 years (57.8% female) from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Northeast Brazil. Excessive screen time was defined as watching television and playing video games or using the computer for more than 2 h/day. The associated factors analyze...

  4. Prevalence of Eating Disorders Among Adolescents in the Northwest of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Rauof, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Malek, Ayyoub; Babapour Kheiroddin, Jalil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perceived sociocultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Adolescents face special problems that are less common during childhood. Several studies indicate that the prevalence of eating disorders has been increased among adolescents. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence, prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) among adolesce...

  5. Prevalência e fatores de risco para tabagismo em adolescentes Prevalence and risk factors for smoking among adolescents

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    Maura C Malcon

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O tabagismo é uma das principais causas de enfermidades evitáveis e incapacidades prematuras. Nesse sentido, realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de medir a prevalência e estudar fatores de risco associados ao tabagismo nos adolescentes. MÉTODOS: A partir de um delineamento transversal de base populacional, estudou-se uma amostra representativa de 1.187 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos, da zona urbana de Pelotas, sul do Brasil. Todos os adolescentes da amostra, de cada domicílio, foram entrevistados por meio de questionário pré-codificado, individual e confidencial. Utilizou-se o teste de Kaplan-Meier para análise da curva de sobrevida. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de tabagismo na amostra foi de 12,1% (IC95% 10,3%-14%. As prevalências foram similares para os sexos femininos e masculinos. Os fatores de risco para tabagismo na análise multivariada, por regressão logística, foram: maior idade, odds ratio (OR de 28,7 (11,5-71,4, irmãos mais velhos fumantes, OR de 2,4 (1,5-3,8, três ou mais amigos fumantes, OR de 17,5 (8,8-34,8 e baixa escolaridade OR de 3,5 (1,5-8,0. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de tabagismo na adolescência mostrou-se alta, na cidade de Pelotas. Campanhas antitabágicas devem ser direcionadas à comunidade e à família tendo o adolescente como alvo. Medidas legais adotadas pelo governo são importantes para impedir o acesso dos adolescentes ao cigarro.OBJECTIVE: Tobacco smoking is one of the main causes of preventable disease and premature disability. Th estudy was aimed at measuring smoking prevalence and related risk factors among adolescents. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative sample of 1,187 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years living in the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. All adolescents were interviewed separately using a confidential coded questionnaire. Kaplan-Meier test was performed for survival curve analysis. RESULTS: The overall smoking prevalence

  6. The Prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Emma L Anderson

    Full Text Available Narrative reviews of paediatric NAFLD quote prevalences in the general population that range from 9% to 37%; however, no systematic review of the prevalence of NAFLD in children/adolescents has been conducted. We aimed to estimate prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in young people and to determine whether this varies by BMI category, gender, age, diagnostic method, geographical region and study sample size.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies reporting a prevalence of NAFLD based on any diagnostic method in participants 1-19 years old, regardless of whether assessing NAFLD prevalence was the main aim of the study.The pooled mean prevalence of NAFLD in children from general population studies was 7.6% (95%CI: 5.5% to 10.3% and 34.2% (95% CI: 27.8% to 41.2% in studies based on child obesity clinics. In both populations there was marked heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 98%. There was evidence that prevalence was generally higher in males compared with females and increased incrementally with greater BMI. There was evidence for differences between regions in clinical population studies, with estimated prevalence being highest in Asia. There was no evidence that prevalence changed over time. Prevalence estimates in studies of children/adolescents attending obesity clinics and in obese children/adolescents from the general population were substantially lower when elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT was used to assess NAFLD compared with biopsies, ultrasound scan (USS or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Our review suggests the prevalence of NAFLD in young people is high, particularly in those who are obese and in males.

  7. Prevalence of low back pain in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis

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    Calvo-Muñoz Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is common in children and adolescents, and it is becoming a public health concern. In recent years there has been a considerable increase in research studies that examine the prevalence of LBP in this population, but studies exhibit great variability in the prevalence rates reported. The purpose of this research was to examine, by means of a meta-analytic investigation, the prevalence rates of LBP in children and adolescents. Methods Studies were located from computerized databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, MedLine, PEDro, IME, LILACS, and CINAHL and other sources. The search period extended to April 2011. To be included in the meta-analysis, studies had to report a prevalence rate (whether point, period or lifetime prevalence of LBP in children and/or adolescents (≤ 18 years old. Two independent researchers coded the moderator variables of the studies, and extracted the prevalence rates. Separate meta-analyses were carried out for the different types of prevalence in order to avoid dependence problems. In each meta-analysis, a random-effects model was assumed to carry out the statistical analyses. Results A total of 59 articles fulfilled the selection criteria. The mean point prevalence obtained from 10 studies was 0.120 (95% CI: 0.09 and 0.159. The mean period prevalence at 12 months obtained from 13 studies was 0.336 (95% CI: 0.269 and 0.410, whereas the mean period prevalence at one week obtained from six studies was 0.177 (95% CI: 0.124 and 0.247. The mean lifetime prevalence obtained from 30 studies was 0.399 (95% CI: 0.342 and 0.459. Lifetime prevalence exhibited a positive, statistically significant relationship with the mean age of the participants in the samples and with the publication year of the studies. Conclusions The most recent studies showed higher prevalence rates than the oldest ones, and studies with a better methodology exhibited higher lifetime prevalence rates than studies that were

  8. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, a...

  9. The Prevalence of Borderline Personality Symptoms in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Morteza Shamohammadi; Maryam Salmanian

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in 16-18 year old adolescents. Methods In this cross sectional - descriptive study, 422 high school students (211 boys, 211 girls) aged 16-18 were selected by cluster random sampling and simple random sampling in 2011-2012. The participants were assessed using the revised diagnostic interview for borderline questionnaire (DIB-R) and demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coe...

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Dating Violence in a National Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Resnick, Heidi S.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the prevalence of serious forms of dating violence in adolescents from a nationally representative sample of adolescents. The results conclude that serious dating violence is highly prevalent among adolescents and a major health problem that needs to be tackled by early detection, prevention and intervention.

  11. The prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in adolescents.

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    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in 16-18 year old adolescents.In this cross sectional - descriptive study, 422 high school students (211 boys, 211 girls aged 16-18 were selected by cluster random sampling and simple random sampling in 2011-2012. The participants were assessed using the revised diagnostic interview for borderline questionnaire (DIB-R and demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman correlation coefficient.Of the participants, 0/9% (0/22 % of the 16 year olds, 0.45 % of the 17 year olds and 0/22% of the 18 year olds were diagnosed with borderline personality symptoms. Also, the prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in boys was 0/45 % of the total sample and it was 0/45 % of the total sample in girls. With respect to the relationship between demographic variables (age, sex, location, parents' occupation, parents' kinship, parents' education and birth order and borderline personality symptoms, only parents' kinship showed a weak correlation with borderline personality symptoms.In the view of the prevalence of 0.9% of the borderline personality symptoms in adolescents, attention should be paid to the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. Furthermore, works need to be done to improve the mental health and quality of life of adolescents.

  12. The Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Unwanted Sexual Contact among Boys and Girls Living in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Elya E.; Romaniuk, Helena; Olsson, Craig A.; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Carlin, John B.; Patton, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with both short- and long-term adverse mental and physical health consequences, yet there remains considerable controversy about the prevalence of CSA in the general population. There is also little prospective data on unwanted sexual contact (USC) collected during adolescence. Methods: Data…

  13. Period Prevalence of Dizziness and Vertigo in Adolescents.

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    Thyra Langhagen

    Full Text Available To assess the period prevalence and severity of dizziness and vertigo in adolescents.In 1661 students in 8th-10th grade in twelve grammar schools in Munich, Germany information on vertigo/dizziness was assessed by a questionnaire in the class room setting. Three month prevalence of dizziness/vertigo was estimated; symptoms were categorized as orthostatic dizziness, spinning vertigo, swaying vertigo or unspecified dizziness. Duration of symptoms and impact on daily life activities were assessed.72.0% (95%-CI = [69.8-74.2]; N = 1196 of the students (mean age 14.5±1.1 reported to suffer from at least one episode of dizziness or vertigo in the last three months. Most adolescents ticked to have symptoms of orthostatic dizziness (52.0%, 95%-CI = [49.5-54.4], N = 863. The period prevalence for the other types of vertigo were spinning vertigo: 11.6%, 95%-CI = [10.1-13.3], N = 193; swaying vertigo: 12.2%, 95%-CI = [10.6-13.8], N = 202; and unspecified dizziness: 15.2%, 95%-CI = [13.5-17.1], N = 253. About 50% of students with spinning vertigo and swaying vertigo also report to have orthostatic dizziness. Most vertigo/dizziness types were confined to less than one minute on average. The proportion of students with any dizziness/vertigo accounting for failure attending school, leisure activities or obliging them to stay in bed were more pronounced for spinning or swaying vertigo.Dizziness and vertigo in grammar school students appear to be as common as in adults. In face of the high period prevalence and clinical relevance of dizziness/vertigo in adolescents there is a need for prevention strategies. Risk factors for dizziness/vertigo need to be assessed to allow for conception of an intervention programme.

  14. The prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among inpatient adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD male war veterans.

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    Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Cheong, Siew Man; Mahadir Naidu, Balkish; Kaur, Gurpreet; Manickam, Mala A; Mat Noor, Malisa; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Depression among adolescents has been recognized as a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the Malaysia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 were analyzed with additional data from the validated DASS21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress) questionnaire. The study revealed that 17.7% of respondents had depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis further showed that feeling lonely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.99; 95% CI = 2.57-3.47), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.63-2.44), using drugs (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.21-2.82), and being bullied (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.60-1.99) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Lack of parental supervision, alcohol use, and tobacco use were also significant risk factors. Addressing depressive symptoms among adolescents may have implications for managing their risks of being bullied and substance use. This study also highlights the need to further investigate depressive symptoms among adolescents of Indian ethnicity. PMID:25070697

  16. Trends in prevalence of substance use among Icelandic adolescents, 1995–2006

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    Allegrante John P

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent substance use continues to be of great global public health concern in many countries with advanced economies. Previous research has shown that substance use among 15–16 year-old-youth has increased in many European countries in recent years. The aim of this study was to examine trends in prevalence of daily smoking, alcohol intoxication, and illicit substance use among Icelandic adolescents. Methods Repeated-measures, population-based cross-sectional surveys of between 3,100 and 3,900 10th-grade students who participated in the annual Youth of Iceland studies were analyzed, with response rates of between 80% and 90%. Results The prevalence of daily smoking, alcohol intoxication, and illicit substance use was at a peak in 1998, with almost 23% having reported daily smoking, 42% having reported becoming intoxicated at least once during the last 30 days, and over 17% having used hashish once or more often in their lifetime. By 2006, daily smoking had declined to 12%, having become intoxicated once or more often during the last 30 days to 25%, and having ever used hashish declined to 9%. Conclusion The prevalence of substance use among Icelandic 10th graders declined substantially from 1995 to 2006. Proportions of adolescents who smoke cigarettes, had become intoxicated during the last 30 days, as well as those admitting to hashish use all decreased to a great deal during the period under study. The decline in prevalence of adolescent substance use in Iceland is plausibly the result of local community collaboration where researchers, policy makers and practitioners who work with young people have combined their efforts.

  17. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with a population based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangerud, Wenche Langfjord; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use by diagnostic category in 566 adolescent psychiatric patients, comparing this sample with 8173 adolescents from the general population in Norway who completed the Young-HUNT 3 survey. Frequencies of current alcohol use were high in both samples but were lower among psychiatric patients. Compared with adolescents in the general population, adolescents in the clinical sample had a higher prevalence of current smoking and over four times higher odds of having tried illicit drugs. In the clinical sample, those with mood disorders reported the highest frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use, whereas those with autism spectrum disorders reported the lowest frequencies. Our results show an increased prevalence of risky health behaviors among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with the general population. The awareness of disorder-specific patterns of smoking and substance use may guide preventive measures.

  18. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors

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    Rodrigo Bozza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. Objective: To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. Methods: A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. Results: The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6. Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR, 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28 had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Conclusion: Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.

  19. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents.

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    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56, overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37, stress (AOR = 2.56, and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85. The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15, instant noodles (AOR = 1.17, and confections (AOR = 1.17 and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22 and vegetables (AOR = 1.19 were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis.

  20. Prevalence of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders in Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleitlich-Bilyk, Back; Goodman, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders and the pattern of comorbidity in a population-based sample of 7- to 14-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren. Method: Random sampling of schools (stratified into private, public rural, and public urban) was followed by random sampling of pupils from school lists. In 2000-2001, a total of 1,251…

  1. Prevalence of tinnitus and hyperacusis in children and adolescents: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing, Susanne Nemholt; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Wedderkopp, Niels; Baguley, David M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review studies of the epidemiology of tinnitus and hyperacusis in children and young people, in order to determine the methodological differences implicated in the variability of prevalence estimates and the influence of population characteristics on childhood tinnitus and hyperacusis. Data sources Articles were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus databases and from the relevant reference lists using the methods described in the study protocol, which has previously been published. Reporting Items for Systematic Review (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Eligibility criteria Studies addressing childhood prevalence, for example, children and young people aged 5–19 years. Data selection 2 reviewers independently assessed the studies for eligibility, extracted data and assessed study consistency. Owing to the heterogeneity in the methodologies among the reported studies, only narrative synthesis of the results was carried out. Results Having identified 1032 publications, 131 articles were selected and 25 articles met the inclusion criteria and had sufficient methodological consistency to be included. Prevalence estimates of tinnitus range from 4.7% to 46% in the general paediatric population and among children with normal hearing, and from 23.5% to 62.2% of population of children with hearing loss. Reported prevalence ranged from 6% to 41.9% when children with hearing loss and normal hearing were both included. The prevalence of hyperacusis varied from 3.2% to 17.1%. Conclusions Data on prevalence vary considerably according to the study design, study population and the research question posed. The age range of children studied was varied and a marked degree of variation between definitions (tinnitus, hyperacusis) and measures (severity, perception, annoyance) was observed. The lack of consistency among studies indicates the necessity of examining the epidemiology of tinnitus and hyperacusis in children and adolescents with a set of

  2. The Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Female Adolescents of Yazd

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    N Esnaashari

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: In this research, it was endeavored to provide a more realistic image of body dysmorphic disorder in Yazd adolescents by utilizing a precise methodology. Considering the high prevalence of this disorder in female adolescents and its adverse consequences, some programs are recommended to be applied for diagnosis and early treatment of body dysmorphic disorder to promote adolescents mental health.

  3. Female Overweight and Obesity in Adolescence: Developmental Trends and Ethnic Differences in Prevalence, Incidence, and Remission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using…

  4. Prevalence, etiology, and types of dental trauma in children and adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Pournaghi Azar, Fatemeh; Rezapour, Aziz; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Moosavi, Ahmad; Ghertasi Oskouei, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental traumas are common among children and adolescents in many societies posing health and social problems. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on prevalence, etiology, types, and other epidemiologic aspects of dental trauma in children and adolescents (0-18 years old). Methods: In this systematic meta-analytical review, data were collected searching for key words including traumatic dental injuries, dental trauma, dental injury, dental trauma, tooth injuries, tooth trauma, traumatized teeth, dentoalveolar trauma, oral trauma, epidemiology, etiology, prevalence, incidence, occurrence, child*, and adolescence in the following databases: Scopus, CINAHL, Science Direct, PubMed and Google scholar. Results: From the total of 3197 articles, 44 completely relevant papers were included in the study. The prevalence of dental trauma was variable based on geographical area and was estimated 17.5% in the population, with higher prevalence in boys. Falling was the major cause for dental trauma, and the most frequent location was home. The most frequent type of trauma was enamel fracture. Conclusion: A relatively high prevalence was detected for dental trauma, which calls for effective planning and intervention to prevent the occurrence in children and adolescents. These may include special care for children, eliminating fall-prone areas, installing safety measures at homes, using protective appliances in sports, education, and raising the knowledge and availability of services to address enamel fracture. Region-specific criteria should be taken into account in programs and interventions. PMID:26793672

  5. The prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and the association with BMI status

    OpenAIRE

    Veldwijk Jorien; Proper Karin I; Hoeven-Mulder Henriëtte B; Bemelmans Wanda JE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies among adults show an association between abuse and Body Mass Index (BMI) status. When an aberrant BMI status as a consequence of abuse is already prevalent in adolescence, early detection and treatment of abuse might prevent these adolescents from developing serious weight problems and other long-term social, emotional and physical problems in adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and exa...

  6. Prevalence and correlates of contraceptive use among female adolescents in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Nyarko, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a critical stage in the life course and evidence suggests that even though contraceptive use has been steadily increasing among women in Ghana over the past years, contraceptive prevalence and determinants among female adolescents is quite lacking. This paper examines the prevalence and correlates of contraceptive use among female adolescents in Ghana. Methods The paper used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health survey. Bivariate analysis was carried out to...

  7. PREVALENCE OF IMPAIRED GLUCOSE REGULATION IN THE POPULATION OF TIANJIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-yue Zhi; Jian-hua Wang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) in the population of Tianjin.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tianjin from June to September in 2005.The multi-phasic stratified cluster sampling method was adopted.Totally,21454 people were selected as survey sample.Information on risk factors was collected through face-to-face questionnaire interview.Fasting capillary whole blood glucose level and other clinical indexes were tested.Results The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in the population was 5.61% (5.32% in male,5.89% in female).The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was 2.91% (2.59% in male,3.20% in female) in whole population,and the prevalence of female was significantly higher than that of male (P=0.04).The prevalences of IFG and IGT increased with the increasing of age.And the prevalences were also influenced by the profession,educational level,and income level.Conclusion The prevalences oflGT and IFG in Tianjin are similar to those in the other big cities of China.

  8. Malnutrition Prevalence in Lasa Xizang Children and Adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Xiao Jian; JI Cheng Ye

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of malnutrition among children and adolescents in Xizang (Tibet). Methods We analyzed data from the Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health for the years 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 pertaining to Tibetan children and adolescents in Lase (Lhasa), aged 7-18 years old. Numbers of survey subjects for these years were:2 393, 2 754, 2 397, and 2 643, respectively. Results Our results indicated that the rate of occurrence of stunting in Tibet has evidenced a gradual decline:for boys, from 26.8%in 2000 to 9.3%in 2010;and for girls, from 25.8%in 2000 to 10.8%in 2010. In general, the wasting rate for both boys and girls in Tibet has gradually decreased over time:for boys, from 17.7%in 1995 to 4.6%in 2005;and for girls from 12.5%in 1995 to 2.3%in 2005. The stunting rates of boys aged 7-13 years old and of girls aged 7-11 years old were 67.5%and 53.1%, respectively, while these rates for boys aged 14-18 years old and girls aged 12-18 years old were 32.5%and 46.9%, respectively. Conclusion Stunting and wasting rates of Tibetan children and adolescents indicate a gradual declining trend over time. The stunting rates of both boys and girls during early puberty were significantly higher than those during late puberty.

  9. The prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and the association with BMI status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veldwijk Jorien

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies among adults show an association between abuse and Body Mass Index (BMI status. When an aberrant BMI status as a consequence of abuse is already prevalent in adolescence, early detection and treatment of abuse might prevent these adolescents from developing serious weight problems and other long-term social, emotional and physical problems in adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and examined the association of these abuse subtypes with BMI status. Methods In total, data of 51,856 secondary school students aged 13–16 who had completed a questionnaire on health, well-being and lifestyle were used. BMI was classified into four categories, underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Adolescents reported if they had ever been physically, sexually or mentally abused. Crude and adjusted General Estimation Equation (GEE analyses were performed to investigate the association between abuse subtypes and BMI status. Analyses were adjusted for ethnicity and parental communication, and stratified for gender and educational level. Results Eighteen percent of the adolescents reported mental abuse, 7% reported sexual abuse, and 6% reported physical abuse. For underweight, overweight and obese adolescents these percentages were 17%, 25%, and 44%; 7%, 8%, and 16%; and 6%, 8%, 18% respectively. For the entire population, all these subtypes of abuse were associated with being overweight and obese (OR=3.67, 1.79 and 1.50 and all but sexual abuse were associated with underweight (OR=1.21 and 1.12. Stratified analyses showed that physical and sexual abuse were significantly associated with obesity among boys (OR=1.77 and 2.49 and among vocational school students (OR=1.60 and 1.69, and with underweight among girls (OR=1.26 and 0.83. Conclusion Mental abuse was reported by almost half of the obese adolescents and associated with underweight, overweight and

  10. Prevalence of hypertension among adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vivian Siqueira Santos; Galvão, Taís Freire; de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; Dutra, Eliane Said; Bertolin, Maria Natacha Toral; de Carvalho, Kenia Mara Baiocchi; Pereira, Mauricio Gomes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of hypertension among adolescent Brazilian students. METHODS A systematic review of school-based cross-sectional studies was conducted. The articles were searched in the databases MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, Web of Science, CAPES thesis database and Trip Database. In addition, we examined the lists of references of relevant studies to identify potentially eligible articles. No restrictions regarding publication date, language, or status applied. The studies were selected by two independent evaluators, who also extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality following eight criteria related to sampling, measuring blood pressure, and presenting results. The meta-analysis was calculated using a random effects model and analyses were performed to investigate heterogeneity. RESULTS We retrieved 1,577 articles from the search and included 22 in the review. The included articles corresponded to 14,115 adolescents, 51.2% (n = 7,230) female. We observed a variety of techniques, equipment, and references used. The prevalence of hypertension was 8.0% (95%CI 5.0–11.0; I2 = 97.6%), 9.3% (95%CI 5.6–13.6; I2 = 96.4%) in males and 6.5% (95%CI 4.2–9.1; I2 = 94.2%) in females. The meta-regression failed to identify the causes of the heterogeneity among studies. CONCLUSIONS Despite the differences found in the methodologies of the included studies, the results of this systematic review indicate that hypertension is prevalent in the Brazilian adolescent school population. For future investigations, we suggest the standardization of techniques, equipment, and references, aiming at improving the methodological quality of the studies. PMID:27253903

  11. Intraregional differences in asthma prevalence and risk factors for asthma among adolescents in Split-Dalmatia County, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Gudelj, Ivan; Kobal, Iva Mrkić; Škvorc, Helena Munivrana; Miše, Kornelija; Vrbica, Žarko; Plavec, Davor; Tudorić, Neven

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Our aim was to assess the differences in intraregional prevalence of asthma in adolescents in Split-Dalmatia County to determine asthma risk factors in our population and estimate the specificity and sensitivity of the questionnaire used. Material/Methods We conducted the study using the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II short questionnaire supplemented by some questions from the International Study of Asthma in Childhood questionnaire. The participants suspec...

  12. Prevalence of Family Violence and Associated Factors Among In-School Adolescents in São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralo, Janaina Maria; Schor, Neia; Tavares, Carlos Mendes; Silva, Valter

    2016-05-01

    Family violence is a social and public health issue across the world for many populations and affects many different types of people, for example, children, women, and vulnerable adults. Adolescents are one of the main victims of this important phenomenon. This article estimates the prevalence of family violence in adolescents and associated factors. The study was carried out in 2012 with a probability and representative sample of 656 adolescents aged between 11 and 17 years who were enrolled at public schools located in the extreme South of the city of São Paulo. The association was tested by the proportion test, Pearson's chi-square or Fischer's exact test, and Poisson regression adjusted by robust variance estimation, considering a level of significance of 5%. Among adolescents, 38.9% reported having been victims of family violence. Women were victimized with higher frequency (44.1%). The factors associated with prevalence of family violence were being of the female sex (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.20, 1.80]) and living only with the father (PR = 1.52; 95% CI = [1.11, 2.08]). The prevalence of adolescents who were victims of family violence is high; however, special attention must be paid to women and adolescents who live only with their father-they were established, in this study, as a risk group. Epidemiological studies of this nature are important to reveal the reality of family violence and to aid the construction of intersectoral public policies to promote health, prevent violence, and foster a peaceful culture. PMID:25670744

  13. Changing patterns of hepatitis A prevalence within the Saudi population over the last 18 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faleh AI Faleh; Suliman AI Shehri; Saleh AI Ansari; Mohammed AI Jeffri; Yaqoub AI Mazrou; Ahmad Shaffi; Ayman A Abdo

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To determine the seroprevalence of Hepatitis A (HAV) amongst Saudi children and compare it with previously reported prevalence data from the same population.METHODS:A total of 1357 students were randomly selected between the ages of 16 and 18 years (689 males and 668 females) from three different regions of Saudi Arabia (Madinah,Al-Qaseem,and Aseer) and tested for anti-HAV-IgG.RESULTS:The overall prevalence of anti-HAV-IgG among the study population was 18.6%.There was no difference between males and females but there was a significant difference in the seroprevalence (P=0.0001) between the three different regions,with Madinah region showing the highest prevalence (27.4%).When classified according to socioeconomic status,lower class students had a prevalence of 36.6%,lower middle class 16.6%,upper middle class 9.6%,and upper class 5.9% (P=0.0001).Comparing the current study results with those of previous studies in 1989 and 1997 involving the same population,there was a marked reduction in the overall prevalence of HAV from 52% in 1989,to 25% in 1997,to 18.6% in 2008 (P<0.0001).CONCLUSION:Over the last 18 years,there has been a marked decline in the prevalence of HAV in Saudi children and adolescents.The current low prevalence rates call for strict adherence to vaccination policies in high-risk patients and raises the question of a universal HAV vaccination program.

  14. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in Iranian children and adolescents: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hovsepian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is considered as an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD. The link between childhood dyslipidemia and occurrence of atherosclerosis and its sequels in adulthood are well-documented. This study aimed to systematically review the prevalence of dyslipidemia among Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: An electronic search was conducted on studies published from January 1990 to January 2014. The main international electronic data sources were PubMed and the NLM Gateway (for MEDLINE, Institute of Scientific Information (ISI, and SCOPUS. For Persian databases, we used domestic databases with systematic search capability including IranMedex, Irandoc, and Scientific Information Database (SID. We included all available population-based studies and national surveys conducted in the pediatric age group (aged <21 years. Results: In this review, 1772 articles were identified (PubMed: 1464; Scopus: 11; ISI: 58; SID: 90; IranMedex: 149; Irandoc: 57. During three refine steps and after removing of duplicates, 182 articles related to the study domain were selected. After quality assessment, 46 studies were selected for text appraisal, of which 26 qualified articles were evaluated at the final step. The prevalence range of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C were 3-48%, 3-50%, 5-20% and 5-88%, respectively. Low HDL-C and hypertriglyceridemia were the most prevalent lipid disorders in this group of population. Conclusion: Dyslipidemia is a common health problem among Iranian children and adolescents. Few data were available in preschool children. This finding provides useful information for health policy makers to implement action-oriented interventions for prevention and early control of this important CVD risk factor.

  15. Population-based incidence and prevalence of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnts, Hisse; van der Maarel, Silvère M.; Padberg, George W.; Verschuuren, Jan J.G.M.; Bakker, Egbert; Weinreich, Stephanie S.; Verbeek, André L.M.; van Engelen, Baziel G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence and prevalence of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) in the Netherlands. Methods: Using 3-source capture-recapture methodology, we estimated the total yearly number of newly found symptomatic individuals with FSHD, including those not registered in any of the 3 sources. To this end, symptomatic individuals with FSHD were available from 3 large population-based registries in the Netherlands if diagnosed within a 10-year period (January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2010). Multiplication of the incidence and disease duration delivered the prevalence estimate. Results: On average, 52 people are newly diagnosed with FSHD every year. This results in an incidence rate of 0.3/100,000 person-years in the Netherlands. The prevalence rate was 12/100,000, equivalent to 2,000 affected individuals. Conclusions: We present population-based incidence and prevalence estimates regarding symptomatic individuals with FSHD, including an estimation of the number of symptomatic individuals not present in any of the 3 used registries. This study shows that the total number of symptomatic persons with FSHD in the population may well be underestimated and a considerable number of affected individuals remain undiagnosed. This suggests that FSHD is one of the most prevalent neuromuscular disorders. PMID:25122204

  16. Leptospirosis Prevalence in a Population of Yucatan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Navarrete Espinosa Joel; Moreno Muñoz Maribel; Rivas Sánchez Beatriz; Velasco Castrejón Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To measure the prevalence of leptospirosis with two techniques in inhabitants of Izamal, Yucatan and to determine its relation with some exposure factors. Material and Methods. Transversal study in populations belonging to the HR62—IMSS-Opportunities working force in Izamal, Yucatan. Population, including 6 years of age or more, was randomly selected to participate in the study. A questionnaire was applied for personal ID and exposure factors; blood samples were taken for leptospir...

  17. Prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity in the Lausanne population.

    OpenAIRE

    Paccaud Fred; Mooser Vincent; Bochud Murielle; Marques-Vidal Pedro; Waeber Gérard; Vollenweider Peter

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity can be defined using body mass index (BMI) or waist (abdominal obesity). Little information exists regarding its prevalence and determinants in Switzerland. Hence, we assessed the levels of obesity as defined by BMI or waist circumference in a Swiss population-based sample. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based non-stratified random sample of 3,249 women and 2,937 men aged 35–75 years living in Lausanne, Switzerland. Overall participation rate was 41%. Results ...

  18. Psychosocial Correlates of Insomnia in an Adolescent Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomos, Konstantinos E.; Avagianou, Penelope-Alexia; Floros, Georgios D.; Skenteris, Nikolaos; Mouzas, Odysseas D.; Theodorou, Kyriaki; Angelopoulos, Nikiforos V.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the nature of the relationship between psychosocial factors and insomnia complaints in an adolescent non-clinical population. It is a cross-sectional study of a stratified sample of 2,195 Greek adolescent high-school students. Subjects were given the Athens insomnia scale, the Symptom Checklist scale (SCL-90-R) and a…

  19. Links between Psychotropic Substance Use and Sensation Seeking in a Prevalence Study: The Role of Some Features of Parenting Style in a Large Sample of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Scalese; Olivia Curzio; Valentina Cutrupi; Luca Bastiani; Mercedes Gori; Francesca Denoth; Sabrina Molinaro

    2014-01-01

    Aims. The objectives of the study were to (a) investigate the prevalence risk of current drug users and (b) explore the association between parental monitoring, adolescent-parent relationship, family structure, financial status, and sensation-seeking and psychotropic substance use. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2002 Italian student population survey of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. The sample size was 10,790 adolescents, aged 15–19 years. Multivariate logi...

  20. Mental health problems in deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents: findings on prevalence, pathogenesis and clinical complexities, and implications for prevention, diagnosis and intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Gent, Tiejo van

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to expand the knowledge of mental health problems with deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents in the following domains: 1. The prevalence of mental health problems; 2. Specific intra- and interpersonal aspects of pathogenesis; 3. characteristics of the hearing impaired population with severe mental health problems. The rate of mental health problems, especially of emotional problems, was increased in deaf adolescents of normal intelligence compare...

  1. Body weight/image perceptions and prevalence of obesity among adolescents-Kerala, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, K.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity can be seen as the first wave of a defined cluster of non communicable diseases called "New World Syndrome" creating an enormous socioeconomic and public health burden in poorer countries. The rising prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity cannot be addressed by a single etiology. Multiple factors plays role and among them perception on body weight and image plays vital role in adolescents. So the objective of this study was to know the perceptions of adolescents on t...

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Overweight/Obesity Among Adolescents in an Urban City of North India

    OpenAIRE

    Rohilla, Ravi; Rajput, Meena; Rohilla, Jyoti; Malik, Manisha; Garg, Dinesh; Verma, Madhur

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Obesity and overweight is a growing pandemic affecting millions of adolescents in developed as well as developing countries. Obesity is associated with the onset of major chronic diseases leading to complications and also psychosocial problems in adolescents. The greater concern is that the risks of obesity during childhood will persist into adolescence and adulthood. The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of being overweight and obesity and to st...

  3. Night eating in Hong Kong adolescents : prevalence and associations with dinner habits, bedtime and weight status

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yuan; 黄园

    2014-01-01

    Background: With adolescent obesity increasing in many developed and developing countries, many studies have investigated the effects of dietary habits on adolescent obesity. However, night-eating, which may lead to extra caloric intake and weight gain, is understudied. Given adolescents’ behavior patterns required during this period to be likely to influence long term behaviors, the present study investigated the prevalence of night-eating in Hong Kong adolescents and its association wit...

  4. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among preparatory school adolescents in Urban Sharkia Governorate, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed A Talat; Eman El Shahat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become an important public health problem in children and adolescent because of the rapid increase in its prevalence rate and its severe co-morbidities. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among preparatory school adolescent in urban Sharkia Governorate, aged from 12 to 15 years and to explore the associated risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at Sharkia Governorate during academic year 2014–2015 (from Octob...

  5. Prevalence of self-reported smoking experimentation in adolescents with asthma or allergic rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia de Sousa Campos Fernandes; Cláudia Ribeiro de Andrade; Alessandra Pinheiro Caminhas; Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos; Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking experimentation among adolescents with asthma or allergic rhinitis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving adolescent students (13-14 years of age) in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The participants completed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaires, both of which have been validated for use in Brazil. We calculated the prevalence of smoking ...

  6. Ethnicity and Adolescent Depression: Prevalence, Access to Services, and Promising Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Amanda E.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is more common among adolescents of ethnic minority backgrounds, who also are less likely to receive professional help. This article presents information about prevalence of depression and service use across ethnic groups, and then outlines several promising intervention programs that are designed for adolescents suffering from…

  7. Prevalence and Determinants of Suicide Ideation among Lebanese Adolescents: Results of the GSHS Lebanon 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoud, Ziyad R.; Afifi, Rema A.; Haddad, Pascale H.; DeJong, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined prevalence and risk factors for suicide ideation in 5038 Lebanese adolescents using Global School Health Survey data. Around 16% of Lebanese adolescents thought of suicide. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that risk factors for suicide ideation included poor mental health (felt lonely, felt worried, felt…

  8. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse: Prevalence and Correlates among Adolescents Living in Rural Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Yang, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Ching; Wang, Mei-Hua; Lan, Chu-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of childhood physical and sexual abuse in adolescents living in the rural areas of Taiwan. Method: A sample of indigenous (n = 756) and non-indigenous (n = 928) adolescents was randomly selected from junior high schools in the rural areas of…

  9. Prevalence of Internet Addiction and Correlations with Family Factors among South Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths…

  10. Prevalence of Obesity-Related Chronic Health Conditions in Overweight Adolescents with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, Kiyoshi; Rimmer, James H.; Lowry, Brienne D.; Vogel, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of 15 common obesity-related chronic health conditions was examined in a convenience sample of adolescents, ages 12-18 years old, with mobility and non-mobility limitations (n=208 and 435, respectively). In both groups, overweight adolescents (BMI[greater than or equal to] 85th %ile) had a significantly higher number of…

  11. Polycystic ovarian syndrome: Prevalence and its correlates among adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja Bhuvanashree

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is the most frequent endocrinological disorder affecting young women of reproductive age having wide spread morbidity. Though, several factors have been identified attributing to its cause, yet it demands further investigations. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 253 adolescent females (age: 10-19 years to elicit the associations between PCOS and the cesarean mode of delivery, eruption of wisdom tooth and other factors through a binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean age was 18.57 ΁ 0.19 (standard error of mean years. The prevalence of PCOS in Nellore district is 15.4% (95% confidence interval: 10.97-19.83. Higher risk of PCOS was associated with the cesarean mode of delivery (odds ratio [OR] = 4.91, P < 0.0001, eruption of at least 1 wisdom tooth (OR = 2.61, P = 0.025 and the presence of central obesity (OR = 2.57, P = 0.05. Discussion: An attempt has been taken to hypothesize causal association of associated factors with PCOS from the available literature, which in turn may pave the path for newer approaches for prevention and management.

  12. Adolescent Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    As with school age children, it is difficult to make conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments for adolescents because of the differences in instruments, research designs, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Sex Exchange Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Emilio; Salazar, Marissa; Monjaras, Lidia

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines prevalence and correlates of exchanging sex for drugs, money, food shelter, or other favors (sex exchange) among a nationally representative sample of youth and young adults. Adolescents and young adults (n = 11,620, 53% female, 47% male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used for the current sample. Participants completed in-home interviews at both waves. Results revealed that sex exchange was reported by 4.9% (n = 569) of the population in wave 2 or wave 3, and 4.6% (n = 26) of those who exchanged sex did so at both waves. More males reported exchanging sex than females (n = 332 versus n = 237). Respondents who reported child sexual abuse were more likely to exchange sex (95% CI 2.51-4.28, p abuse. Both males and females who engaged in sex exchange were at greater risk for sexually transmitted infections; however, the odds of ever exchanging sex were highest among males who ever had gonorrhea (OR = 6.2; 95% CI 3.75-10.3). Although sex exchange has been studied extensively among homeless and runaway youth, the current study reveals sex exchange also occurs in the general population. PMID:27266400

  14. A Systematic Review on the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity, in Iranian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Djalalinia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Obesity has now become a common health problem worldwide. To gain insight into the epidemiology of the problem in Iran, we systematically reviewed all available studies on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Iranian pediatric population. Evidence Acquisition We systematically searched PubMed, ISI, SCOPUS, as well as Iranmedex, Irandoc, and Scientific Information Database (SID databases.All studies on mean and standard deviation or percentile categories of BMI, WC, WHR, or WHtR or prevalence of obesity/overweight in Iranian child and adolescence, were performed from January 1990 to the end of December 2013. Refining processes were conducted by two independent reviewers. Quality assessment and data extraction followed based on validated form. As, these data were heterogeneous, meta-analysis was not performed. Results From 3253 records, through three refining steps, 129 articles were found related to our study. In Iran, national studies are limited and nearly there is no comprehensive study for sub-national trends. Different age and sex groups had large variations in the prevalence of obesity and overweight (from 1% up to 16.1% and from 4.4% up to 42.3% respectively for obesity and overweight. Conclusions Related data are very scattered or limited to some specific subgroups in some living areas. For comparing, aggregating, and imputing the information we need more modern practical statistical methods.

  15. The prevalence of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury (NSSI in a representative sample of the German population

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    Paul L. Plener

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is a proposed new “condition for further study” in the DSM-5. To date no prevalence data has been available on this diagnostic entity from a representative sample of the general population. Methods A representative sample of the German population (N = 2509, mean age = 48.8 years, SD = 18.1, female 55.4 % completed the NSSI section of the German version of the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview (SITBI-G. Results A history of NSSI at least once during lifetime was reported by 3.1 % of all participants, with higher lifetime prevalence rates in younger age groups. DSM-5 NSSI disorder criteria were met by 0.3 %. The most common function of NSSI was automatic negative reinforcement (e.g. to alleviate negative feelings. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting rates for the proposed NSSI category in DSM-5 from a representative sample of the general population. In comparison to findings from community samples of adolescents, adults seem to have lower lifetime prevalence rates of NSSI, thus making it necessary to emphasize prevention and treatment efforts in younger age groups.

  16. Prevalence of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders in Chile: A Community Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Benjamin; Saldivia, Sandra; de la Barra, Flora; Kohn, Robert; Pihan, Ronaldo; Valdivia, Mario; Rioseco, Pedro; Melipillan, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Background: In Latin America, there is limited research on the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. This Chilean survey is the first national representative survey in the Latin American region to examine the prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) psychiatric disorders in the region in children and…

  17. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Fagundes Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761 was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2, and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopted. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the intraoral examinations and interviews in households. The dependent variable (severity of malocclusion was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI. The independent variables were grouped into five blocks: demographic characteristics, socioeconomic condition, use of dental services, health-related behavior and oral health subjective conditions. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion. RESULTS We interviewed and examined 736 adolescents (91.5% response rate, 69.9% of whom showed no abnormalities or slight malocclusion. Defined malocclusion was observed in 17.8% of the adolescents, being severe or very severe in 12.6%, with pressing or essential need of orthodontic treatment. The probabilities of greater severity of malocclusion were higher among adolescents who self-reported as black, indigenous, pardo or yellow, with lower per capita income, having harmful oral habits, negative perception of their appearance and perception of social relationship affected by oral health. CONCLUSIONS Severe or very severe malocclusion was more prevalent among socially disadvantaged adolescents, with reported harmful habits and perception of compromised esthetics and social relationships. Given that malocclusion can interfere with the self-esteem of adolescents, it is essential to improve public policy for the inclusion of orthodontic treatment among

  18. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Nepomuceno, Marcela Oliveira; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761) was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2), and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopted. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the intraoral examinations and interviews in households. The dependent variable (severity of malocclusion) was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). The independent variables were grouped into five blocks: demographic characteristics, socioeconomic condition, use of dental services, health-related behavior and oral health subjective conditions. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion. RESULTS We interviewed and examined 736 adolescents (91.5% response rate), 69.9% of whom showed no abnormalities or slight malocclusion. Defined malocclusion was observed in 17.8% of the adolescents, being severe or very severe in 12.6%, with pressing or essential need of orthodontic treatment. The probabilities of greater severity of malocclusion were higher among adolescents who self-reported as black, indigenous, pardo or yellow, with lower per capita income, having harmful oral habits, negative perception of their appearance and perception of social relationship affected by oral health. CONCLUSIONS Severe or very severe malocclusion was more prevalent among socially disadvantaged adolescents, with reported harmful habits and perception of compromised esthetics and social relationships. Given that malocclusion can interfere with the self-esteem of adolescents, it is essential to improve public policy for the inclusion of orthodontic treatment among health care

  19. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study

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    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in seven Arab countries using similar reference standard. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in seven cities in Arab countries, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and United Arab Emirates. A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used. The total sample included was 4698 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years (2240 males, 2458 females. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF reference standard was used to classify the adolescents as nonobese, overweight, and obese. Results. Among males, overweight was highest among Kuwaiti adolescents (25.6%, followed by Jordanian (21.6%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. Among females, the highest prevalence of overweight was reported in Libyan adolescents (26.6%, followed by Kuwaiti (20.8%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. As for obesity, Kuwaiti adolescents showed the highest prevalence of obesity for both males (34.8% and females (20.6%. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to establish a plan of action to combat obesity in schoolchildren in these countries.

  20. An age structured model for obesity prevalence dynamics in populations

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    Gilberto González Parra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Modeling the correlation of the development of obesity in a population with age and time and predict the dynamics of the correlation of the development of obesity in a population with age and time under different scenarios in Valencia (Spain. Materials and methods. An age structured mathematical model is used to describe the future dynamics of obesity prevalence for different ages in human population with excess weight. Simulation of the model with parameters estimated using the Health Survey of the Region of Valencia 2000 (4.319 interviews and Health Survey of the Region of Valencia 2005 (4.012 interviews. The model considers only overweight and obese populations since these subpopulations are the most relevant on obesity health concern. Results. The model allows predicting and studying the prevalence of obesity for each age. Results showed an increasing trend of obesity in the following years in well accordance with the trend observed in several countries. Conclusions. Based on the numerical simulations it is possible to conclude that the age structured mathematical model is suitable to forecast the obesity epidemic in each age group in different countries. Additionally, this type of models may be applied to study other characteristics of other populations such animal populations.

  1. Prática de atividade física na adolescência e prevalência de osteoporose na idade adulta Physical activity practice in adolescence and prevalence of osteoporosis in adulthood

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    Fernando Vinholes Siqueira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a associação entre prática de atividade física na adolescência e osteoporose na vida adulta. Realizou-se um estudo de base populacional incluindo uma amostra aleatória de 1.016 indivíduos de 50 anos ou mais. Atividade física no lazer foi avaliada utilizando o Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física - IPAQ. Os indivíduos foram definidos como ativos se estiveram engajados em atividade física durante a sua adolescência (10-19 anos pelo menos por seis meses consecutivos. Os indivíduos ativos na adolescência demonstraram probabilidade 67% menor do que os inativos de apresentar osteoporose na vida adulta (p The aim of the present study was to assess the association between physical activity practice in adolescence and the prevalence of osteoporosis in adulthood. A population-based study with a randomly-selected sample of 1.016 individuals, aged 50 years or older was carried out. Leisure physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Individuals were defined as active in adolescence (10-19 years if had been engaged in physical activity for at least six consecutive months. Individuals classified as active in adolescence were 67% less likely to present osteoporosis in adulthood than inactive ones (p/ adolescence reduces the risk of osteoporosis in later life regardless of activity levels in adulthood. Thus, adolescence is a crucial period of life for improvement in bone health.

  2. Prevalence of burning mouth syndrome in adult Turkish population

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    Hakan Çolak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is defined as a chronic orofacial pain condition, characterized symptomatically by burning pain localized to the tongue and lips or may involve the entire oral cavity. The prevalence of burning mouth symptoms reported from international studies ranges from 0.6% to 15%. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of burning mouth syndrome in adult Turkish population.Materials and methods: A questionnaire was designed to collect data on demographic characteristics, medical history and drugs taken by the patients and clinical examination was performed. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 1000 (500 men and 500 women randomly selected patients who attended attending to Kırıkkale University Dental Faculty Department of Restorative Dentistry.Results: BMS was diagnosed in 12 patients with 0.12% prevalence in 2 man and 10 women, with 1:5 ratio respectively. The most common site for BMS was tongue. Para functional habits were the most common local factor. According to visual analogue scale (VAS mean (±SD level of burning intensity was 5.45 (±1.69.Conclusions: Burning Mouth Syndrome in Turkish population has low prevalence and is more frequent in females.

  3. Association between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche in different geographic latitudes

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    Mihas Constantinos

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age at menarche is considered a reliable prognostic factor for idiopathic scoliosis and varies in different geographic latitudes. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence has also been reported to be different in various latitudes and demonstrates higher values in northern countries. A study on epidemiological reports from the literature was conducted to investigate a possible association between prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche among normal girls in various geographic latitudes. An attempt is also made to implicate a possible role of melatonin in the above association. Material-methods 20 peer-reviewed published papers reporting adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and 33 peer-reviewed papers reporting age at menarche in normal girls from most geographic areas of the northern hemisphere were retrieved from the literature. The geographic latitude of each centre where a particular study was originated was documented. The statistical analysis included regression of the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche by latitude. Results The regression of prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche by latitude is statistically significant (p Conclusion Late age at menarche is parallel with higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Pubarche appears later in girls that live in northern latitudes and thus prolongs the period of spine vulnerability while other pre-existing or aetiological factors are contributing to the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A possible role of geography in the pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis is discussed, as it appears that latitude which differentiates the sunlight influences melatonin secretion and modifies age at menarche, which is associated to the prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis.

  4. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections in At-Risk Adolescent Females at a Comprehensive, Stand-Alone Adolescent Health Center in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorsky, Risa L.; Hollman, Dominic; Steever, John; Soghomonian, Christine; Diaz, Angela; Strickler, Howard; Schlecht, Nicolas; Burk, Robert D.; Ochner, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common among adolescents, and multiple STIs over one’s lifetime can increase health risks. Few studies have assessed lifetime STI prevalence. This study evaluates minority, underserved adolescents’ self-reported lifetime STI history and objective STI rates. Methods Lifetime STI rates of female patients at an urban adolescent health center were obtained from self-administered questionnaires. Additionally, STI test results were retrieved from electronic medical records. Results Patients reported a high lifetime prevalence of STIs. By comparing self-report and objective data, underreporting was identified for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and herpes. Conclusions STI rates in at-risk adolescent females are higher than in the general population and remain elevated over time. Lifetime STI reports could expand our understanding of sexual health and should be further studied. Underreporting, which may increase health risks and hinder health care delivery, requires further investigation. Improvements in STI screening and prevention targeting at-risk populations are warranted. PMID:24807980

  5. Prevalence Of Depressive Disordrs In Tehran Resident Population (year 2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaviani H; Ahmadi Abhari A S; Nazari H; Honnozi K

    2002-01-01

    Depression is a debilitating disease that every one is likely to experience over a short or long term period of his or her life."nMethods and Materials: This study aimed to examine the one - month prevalence of anxiety and depression in Tehranian resident population. 1070 men and women (age 20-65) were screened by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Then, those who scored above the cut - off point were psychiatrically interviewed. The interviewers were blind to the respondents' scores ...

  6. Anti-HCV prevalence in the general population of Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakina, Valentina; Valantinas, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for HCV acquisition and prevalence of anti-HCV in the general population of Lithuania. Material/Methods The study enrolled 1528 randomly selected adults from the 5 biggest cities of Lithuania and its rural regions. Screening for anti-HCV was performed by analysis of peripheral capillary blood with lateral flow immunochromatography and confirmation of positive cases by peripheral venous blood testing with 2-step chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Results Anti-HCV prevalence in Lithuania is 2.78% and according to the standard European population the adjusted anti-HCV rate is 2.85%. It is more prevalent among men (crude rates: 4.02% males vs. 1.49% females, p=.0030) and this does not depend on age. Vilnius and Kaunas regions have higher infection rates than smaller rural regions (2.92% and 3.01% vs. 2.24%, 0.74% and 1.35%). Nowadays among our population HCV infection spreads mainly via intravenous drug use (OR=42.5, p<.0001). HCV transmission occurs through blood transfusions (OR=6.4, p=.0002), tooth removal (OR=4.1, p=.0048), childbirth (OR=5.0, p=.0224), multiple and a long-term hospitalization (OR=3.0, p=.0064), tattooing (OR=4.4, p=.0013), open traumas (OR=3.7, p=.0009) and intrafamilially (OR=11.3, p=.0002). Conclusions 2.78% of the population is anti-HCV-positive. The anti-HCV rate is higher in Vilnius and Kaunas in comparison with other regions. HCV spreads mainly through intravenous drug use, but intrafamilial and some nosocomial routes are also important. The anti-HCV prevalence did not depend on age. Despite active prevention of nosocomial HCV transmission, the incidence of HCV infection does not decrease due to virus spread mostly in “trusted networks” of intravenous drug users. PMID:22367136

  7. Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in an Adult Iranian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Ghanaei, Fariborz; Joukar, Farahnaz; Rabiei, Maryam; Dadashzadeh, Alireza; Kord Valeshabad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Nowadays the importance of oral health to life quality is not obvious to anyone in our world. Oral lesions can interfere with daily social activities in involved patients through impacts on mastication, swallowing and speech and symptoms like xerostomia, halitosis or dysesthesia. Objectives To assess the prevalence and types of oral lesions in a general population in Rasht, Northern Province of Iran. Patients and Methods 1581 people aged > 30 years old who were inhabitant of Rasht,...

  8. Trends in child and adolescent obesity prevalence according to socioeconomic position: protocol for a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Alexandra; Backholer, Kathryn; Wong, Evelyn; Palermo, Claire; Keating, Catherine; Peeters, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a significant public health issue and is socially patterned, with greater prevalence of obesity observed in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Recent evidence suggests that the prevalence of childhood obesity is levelling off in some countries. However, this may not be the case across all socioeconomic strata. The aim of this review is to examine whether trends in child and adolescent obesity prevalence since 1990 differ according to socioeconomic position ...

  9. Prevalence, comorbidity and predictors of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents in rural north-eastern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Abbo, Catherine; Kinyanda, Eugene; Kizza, Ruth B; Levin, Jonathan; Ndyanabangi, Sheilla; Stein, Dan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent anxiety disorders are the most prevalent form of childhood psychopathology. Research on child and adolescent anxiety disorders has predominantly been done in westernized societies. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence, comorbidity, and predictors of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents in non-western societies including those in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper investigates the prevalence, comorbidity, and predictors of anxiety disorders in child...

  10. Fibromyalgia in the adult Danish population: I. A prevalence study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Kjøller, M; Jacobsen, S;

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of fibromyalgia have so far been based on rheumatologic and general practice settings, which are poor proxies for the underlying population. The study is based on a national health interview survey carried out by the Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology in 1990......%). Eight subjects, all female, met the 1990 American College of Rheumatism criteria for fibromyalgia. Dropouts were regarded as not having fibromyalgia. The prevalence of fibromyalgia in the Danish population between 18 and 79 years of age was found to be a minimum estimate of 0.66% (95% confidence limits...

  11. Allergy from infancy to adolescence. A population-based 18-year follow-up cohort

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    Aromaa Minna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxious parents have many concerns about the future health of their atopic infants. Paediatricians and primary care practitioners need to seek knowledge on long-term outcomes in order to cope with the increasing caseload of suspected allergy and the concerns of parents. The aim of the study was to assess suspected and diagnosed allergy in infancy as predictors of allergy and asthma in adolescence. Methods Families expecting their first baby and making their first visit to a maternity health care clinic in 1986 were selected as the study population in a random sample. There were 1278 eligible study families. The data were provided of the children at the ages of 9 and 18 months and 3, 5, 12, 15 and 18 years by health care professionals, parents, and adolescents (themselves. Results At the age of 9 months, the prevalence of allergy suspicions was distinctly higher than that of allergy diagnoses. At the age of five years suspected allergy approaches were nil, and the prevalence of diagnosed allergy was about 9%. During the adolescence, the prevalence of self-reported allergy increases steadily up to the age of 18 years, and that of asthma remains at approximately 5%. Suspected allergy at the age of 9 or 18 months and at the 5 years of age does not predict allergy at adolescence. Compared with non-allergic children, children with definite allergy at the age of 5 were over 8 times more likely to have allergy and nearly 7 times more likely to have asthma in adolescence. Conclusion An early ascertained diagnosis of allergy, but not suspicions of allergy, predicts prevailing allergy in adolescence. Efforts need to be focused on accurate diagnosis of early childhood allergies.

  12. Lower Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis and Allergic Sensitization among Children and Adolescents with a Two-Sided Migrant Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Schmitz, Roma; Thamm, Michael; Ellert, Ute

    2016-03-01

    In industrialized countries atopic diseases have been reported to be less likely in children and adolescents with a migrant background compared to non-migrants. This paper aimed at both examining and comparing prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis and allergic sensitization to specific IgE antibodies in children and adolescents with and without a migrant background. Using data of the population-based German Health Interview and Examination Survey for children and adolescents (KiGGS;n = 17,450; 0-17 years), lifetime and 12-month prevalence of atopic diseases and point prevalence of 20 common allergic sensitizations were investigated among migrants compared to non-migrants. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the association of atopic disease and allergic sensitization with migrant background. In multivariate analyses with substantial adjustment we found atopic dermatitis about one-third less often (OR 0.73, 0.57-0.93) in participants with a two-sided migrant background. Statistically significant associations between allergic sensitizations and a two-sided migrant background remained for birch (OR 0.73, 0.58-0.90), soybean (OR 0.72, 0.54-0.96), peanut (OR 0.69, 0.53-0.90), rice (OR 0.64, 0.48-0.87), potato (OR 0.64, 0.48-0.85), and horse dander (OR 0.58, 0.40-0.85). Environmental factors and living conditions might be responsible for the observed differences. PMID:26927147

  13. Psychopathology in adolescents and young adults : prediction, course and prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Ferdinand (Robert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis manuscript contains results of an epidemiological study of psychopathology in adolescents and young adults. The first aim of the study was to determine the development of psychopathology from adolescence into young adulthood. The second aim was to validate recently developed' proced

  14. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in a low socioeconomic status population

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    Pereira Carlos AB

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fibromyalgia, as well as to assess the major symptoms of this syndrome in an adult, low socioeconomic status population assisted by the primary health care system in a city in Brazil. Methods We cross-sectionally sampled individuals assisted by the public primary health care system (n = 768, 35–60 years old. Participants were interviewed by phone and screened about pain. They were then invited to be clinically assessed (304 accepted. Pain was estimated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Fibromyalgia was assessed using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, as well as screening for tender points using dolorimetry. Statistical analyses included Bayesian Statistics and the Kruskal-Wallis Anova test (significance level = 5%. Results From the phone-interview screening, we divided participants (n = 768 in three groups: No Pain (NP (n = 185; Regional Pain (RP (n = 388 and Widespread Pain (WP (n = 106. Among those participating in the clinical assessments, (304 subjects, the prevalence of fibromyalgia was 4.4% (95% confidence interval [2.6%; 6.3%]. Symptoms of pain (VAS and FIQ, feeling well, job ability, fatigue, morning tiredness, stiffness, anxiety and depression were statically different among the groups. In multivariate analyses we found that individuals with FM and WP had significantly higher impairment than those with RP and NP. FM and WP were similarly disabling. Similarly, RP was no significantly different than NP. Conclusion Fibromyalgia is prevalent in the low socioeconomic status population assisted by the public primary health care system. Prevalence was similar to other studies (4.4% in a more diverse socioeconomic population. Individuals with FM and WP have significant impact in their well being.

  15. Prevalence of Childhood and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity from 2003 to 2010 in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System

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    Scott Gee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An observational study of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC BMI coding distributions was conducted to ascertain the trends in overweight and obesity prevalence among KPNC members aged 2–19 between the periods of 2003–2005 and 2009-2010. A decrease in the prevalence of overweight (−11.1% change and obesity (−3.6% change and an increase in the prevalence of healthy weight (+2.7% change were demonstrated. Children aged 2–5 had the greatest improvement in obesity prevalence (−11.5% change. Adolescents aged 12–19 were the only age group to not show a decrease in obesity prevalence. Of the racial and ethnic groups, Hispanics/Latinos had the highest prevalence of obesity across all age groups. The KPNC prevalence of overweight and obesity compares favorably to external benchmarks, although differences in methodologies limit our ability to draw conclusions. Physician counseling as well as weight management programs and sociodemographic factors may have contributed to the overall improvements in BMI in the KPNC population. Physician training, practice tools, automated BMI reminders and performance feedback improved the frequency and quality of physician counseling. BMI screening and counseling at urgent visits, in addition to well-child care visits, increased the reach and dose of physician counseling.

  16. Prevalence of hypertension in overweight and obese children from a large school-based population in Shanghai, China

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    Lu Xi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ongoing rise in the prevalence of hypertension in children and adolescents is considered to be accompanied with the epidemic of childhood overweight and obesity. In this study, we established a large scale cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China, which presented a new evidence for the correlation of hypertension prevalence with overweight and obesity stages in Chinese children and adolescents. Methods A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during February to December 2009 in Shanghai, China, including total 78,114 children and adolescents. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC and blood pressure (BP were measured. Overweight and obesity were defined according to sex- and age- specific Chinese reference data. Results Both SBP and DBP were very significantly increased in overweight (OW and obese (OB groups. With age and sex controlled, BMI and WC were independently positively correlated with SBP and DBP. The prevalence of high SBP, DBP and hypertension were markedly higher among OW and OB children than normal weight (NW group. Odds ratios (ORs for high SBP, high DBP and high BP were significantly greater in OW and OB children than NW group, and showed a trend increase correlating with obesity stages (all P Conclusions In this study on a large school-based population in Shanghai, China, BMI and WC are positively correlated with SBP and DBP. Being overweight or obese greatly increased the risk of hypertension in Chinese children and adolescents, in which WC is considered as a more sensitive indicator than BMI.

  17. Prevalência e fatores associados ao sobrepeso e à obesidade em adolescentes Prevalence and factors associated to overweight and obesity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Gomes Terres

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e os fatores associados ao sobrepeso e à obesidade em adolescentes de zona urbana. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional, realizado no município de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, de 2001 a 2002. Adolescentes entre 15 e 18 anos de idade foram medidos, pesados e responderam a questionário auto-aplicável. De 90 setores sorteados, foram visitados 86 domicílios em cada setor, totalizando 960 adolescentes. A prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade foi definida a partir do índice de massa corporal, mediante a utilização dos pontos de corte, ajustados à idade e ao sexo. Realizou-se análise multivariada com regressão de Poisson, considerando um modelo hierárquico das variáveis associadas ao sobrepeso e à obesidade. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sobrepeso e de obesidade foi 20,9% e 5%, respectivamente. A relação entre a obesidade e idade e escolaridade do adolescente foi inversa. Verificou-se associação de sobrepeso e obesidade com o relato de obesidade dos pais (p=0,03 e maturação sexual do adolescente (p=0,01. Os hábitos de fazer dieta e omitir refeições foram associados à obesidade, com riscos de 3,98 (IC 95%: 1,83-8,67 e 2,54 (IC 95%: 1,22-5,29, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade na região são preocupantes a despeito do comportamento dos adolescentes para prevenir a obesidade. É necessária a implantação de campanhas mais eficazes, direcionadas a orientar melhor os adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and factors associated to overweight and obesity in urban area adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in the municipality of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, between 2001 and 2002. Adolescents between 15 and 18 years old were weighed, measured and asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. Of 90 areas drawn, 86 dwellings were visited in each area, comprising a total of 960 adolescents

  18. Prevalence of Eating Disorders Among Adolescents in the Northwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauof, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Malek, Ayyoub; Babapour Kheiroddin, Jalil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perceived sociocultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Adolescents face special problems that are less common during childhood. Several studies indicate that the prevalence of eating disorders has been increased among adolescents. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence, prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) among adolescents in two cities of Iran, Urmia and Tabriz. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey in which 1990 adolescent boys and girls were selected through multistage random sampling. The study was based on self-report questionnaires including eating attitudes test (EAT-26) and DSM-IV criteria for the presence of eating disorders. To analyze the obtained data we calculated measures of central tendency and dispersion, linear and logistic regression and Fisher’s exact test. Results: According to diagnostic criteria of EAT-26, 492 students (24.2%) were at risk of ED and scored above the recommended cut-off point on EAT-26. Among 1990 students, a total of 51 cases (0.25%) of eating disorder (14 anorexia nervosa, 18 bulimia nervosa, and 19 eating disorder not otherwise specified) were diagnosed. Conclusions: The obtained prevalence of ED in our study was higher than previous studies in Iran. We found high numbers of boys with ED. Overweight adolescents were shown to be more susceptible to strict dieting than normal-weight adolescents. These results suggest that it is necessary to provide screening and treatment services for Iranian adolescents. Further research is needed to develop intervention programs to control eating disorders among Iranian adolescents. PMID:26568851

  19. Prevalência de asma em adolescentes na cidade de Fortaleza, CE Prevalence of asthma among adolescents in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil

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    Maria de Fátima Gomes de Luna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de asma em adolescentes (13-14 anos na cidade de Fortaleza, CE. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal utilizando o questionário do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood e envolvendo 3.015 adolescentes de escolas públicas e privadas entre 2006 e 2007. RESULTADOS: As prevalências de "sibilos alguma vez na vida", "sibilos nos últimos doze meses" (asma ativa e "asma alguma vez na vida" (asma diagnosticada foram, respectivamente, 44,1%, 22,6% e 11,6%. As prevalências de "sibilos alguma vez na vida" (p = 0,001, "1-3 crises de sibilos nos últimos 12 meses" (p = 0,001; asma ativa (p = 0,002; "sono interrompido por sibilos menos que uma vez por semana" (p OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of asthma among adolescents (13-14 years of age in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 3,015 adolescents at public and private schools between 2006 and 2007. The participants completed the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalences of "wheezing ever", "wheezing within the last 12 months" (active asthma and "asthma ever" (physician-diagnosed asthma were 44.1%, 22.6% and 11.6%, respectively. The prevalences of "wheezing ever" (p = 0.001, "1-3 wheezing attacks within the last 12 months" (p = 0.001, active asthma (p = 0.002, "sleep disturbed due to wheezing less than one night per week" (p < 0.001 and "dry cough at night" (p < 0.001 were higher among girls. Private school students presented higher prevalences of "wheezing ever", active asthma, "1-3 wheezing attacks within the last 12 months", "4-12 wheezing attacks within the last 12 months" and physician-diagnosed asthma (p < 0.001 for all, as well as of "exercise-induced wheezing" (p = 0.032. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of asthma and asthma-related symptoms in students aged 13-14 years in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil, was high, predominantly among girls and private

  20. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of DSM-5 eating disorders in the Australian population

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Phillipa; Girosi, Federico; Mond, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background New DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for eating disorders were published in 2013. Adolescent cohort studies in the Australian community indicate that the point prevalence of DSM-5 eating disorders may be as high as 15% in females and 3% in males. The goal of the current study was to determine the 3-month prevalence of DSM-5 disorders in a representative sample of Australian older adolescents and adults. A secondary aim was to explore the demographic correlates of these disorders, specific...

  1. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children and Adolescents in Dalmatia: A Hospital Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, Lukrecija; Unić, Ivana; Škrabić, Veselin

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) are one of the biggest public health issues in child and adolescent population. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this hospital based study is the first report on the prevalence of MS in obese children and adolescents in Dalmatia, the Mediterranean part of Croatia. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of individual cardiovascular risk factors and MS. Between January 2009 and June 2014, 201 obese subjects aged 6 to 18 were analyzed retrospectively from our Pediatric Endocrine Unit database. The subjects were then classified in two groups of obesity; subjects with BMI z score 2.0–3.0 were classified as moderately obese and subjects with BMI z score > 3.0 were classified as severely obese. The overall prevalence of MS using the modified IDF criteria was 30.3%. The most common component of MS in both groups was arterial hypertension, while impaired fasting glucose was the least common component of MS. Our finding of high prevalence of MS underlines the importance of early childhood obesity treatment.

  2. Leptospirosis prevalence in a population of yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Navarrete Espinosa; Maribel, Moreno Muñoz; Beatriz, Rivas Sánchez; Oscar, Velasco Castrejón

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To measure the prevalence of leptospirosis with two techniques in inhabitants of Izamal, Yucatan and to determine its relation with some exposure factors. Material and Methods. Transversal study in populations belonging to the HR62-IMSS-Opportunities working force in Izamal, Yucatan. Population, including 6 years of age or more, was randomly selected to participate in the study. A questionnaire was applied for personal ID and exposure factors; blood samples were taken for leptospirosis diagnosis. Simple frequencies, proportions, tendency and dispersion measures, prevalence and odd ratios and confidence intervals (CI) of 95%, and logistic regression model were obtained. Results. 204 patients, between 9 and 80 years old were included; 180 were positive (88.2%) with the dark-field technique; using MAT cutoff at 1 : 40, 178 patients (87.3%) were positive, while at 1 : 80 there were 103 positive (50.5%). The predominant serovar was Hardjo (94%). The highest prevalence was in women (96.3%) and in the >45-year-old group (95.7%); feminine gender (RM = 2.31 IC 95% 3.59-28.6), housewife (RM = 22.8 IC 95% 4.9-106.1), being in contact with stagnant water (RM = 5.2 IC 95% 1.7-15.9), and being in contact with domestic animal feces (RM = 5.1 IC 95% 1.9-13.1), these being the most significant variables in the final logistic regression model. Conclusions. The prevalence found was higher than the one nationally and internationally reported, representing an important finding, being in turn a local public health, maybe nationally. It is urgent to reinforce this research as well as to establish preventive and control measure to avoid exposure and health damages. PMID:22567331

  3. Leptospirosis Prevalence in a Population of Yucatan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarrete Espinosa Joel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To measure the prevalence of leptospirosis with two techniques in inhabitants of Izamal, Yucatan and to determine its relation with some exposure factors. Material and Methods. Transversal study in populations belonging to the HR62—IMSS-Opportunities working force in Izamal, Yucatan. Population, including 6 years of age or more, was randomly selected to participate in the study. A questionnaire was applied for personal ID and exposure factors; blood samples were taken for leptospirosis diagnosis. Simple frequencies, proportions, tendency and dispersion measures, prevalence and odd ratios and confidence intervals (CI of 95%, and logistic regression model were obtained. Results. 204 patients, between 9 and 80 years old were included; 180 were positive (88.2% with the dark-field technique; using MAT cutoff at 1∶40, 178 patients (87.3% were positive, while at 1∶80 there were 103 positive (50.5%. The predominant serovar was Hardjo (94%. The highest prevalence was in women (96.3% and in the >45-year-old group (95.7%; feminine gender (RM = 2.31 IC 95% 3.59–28.6, housewife (RM = 22.8 IC 95% 4.9–106.1, being in contact with stagnant water (RM = 5.2 IC 95% 1.7–15.9, and being in contact with domestic animal feces (RM = 5.1 IC 95% 1.9–13.1, these being the most significant variables in the final logistic regression model. Conclusions. The prevalence found was higher than the one nationally and internationally reported, representing an important finding, being in turn a local public health, maybe nationally. It is urgent to reinforce this research as well as to establish preventive and control measure to avoid exposure and health damages.

  4. Study of prevalence of depression in adolescent students of a public school

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Bansal; Sunil Goyal; Kalpana Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Background: Three to nine per cent of teenagers meet the criteria for depression at any one time, and at the end of adolescence, as many as 20% of teenagers report a lifetime prevalence of depression. Usual care by primary care physicians fails to recognize 30-50% of depressed patients. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional one-time observational study using simple screening instruments for detecting early symptoms of depression in adolescents. Two psychological instruments were used: GHQ-1...

  5. Effect of social and environmental determinants on overweight and obesity prevalence among adolescent school children

    OpenAIRE

    Anuradha, R. K.; Sathyavathi, R. B.; T Muneeswara Reddy; R. Hemalatha; Sudhakar, G.; P Geetha; K Kodanda Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity among children and adolescents is a public health concern. Objective: To assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its association with social and environmental determinants among the adolescent school children of Tirupati town of Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Data was collected by interviewer-administered method from school children aged between 12 to 16 years. The sample consisted of 2258 subjects (1097 boys and 1161 girls). Overw...

  6. Prevalence and predictors of suicidal ideations among school going adolescents in a hilly state of India

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, Durgesh; Gupta, Anmol; Thakur, Anita; Mazta, Salig Ram; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescent suicide is an important public health issue. Suicidal ideations are often the precursor of suicide and can be targeted by appropriate and timely interventions. Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence of suicide ideation and to study its predictive factors among school going adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in selected senior secondary schools in Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh, India. A pre-validated, self-admin...

  7. Prevalence of periodontitis in rural and urban population

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    Vimal Kumar Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases are multifactorial in origin having different forms and progression. The incidence and prevalence rates of periodontitis may be different in different areas of the World & India. Aim & Objective: To estimate the prevalence of periodontal disease. Methods & Materials: The study population consisted of multistage stratified random sample of 1280 subjects from total population of district Ghaziabad. A cross-sectional study was conducted with multi stage stratified random sampling techniques to select the sample population. The subjects were divided into different age groups and the periodontal assessment was made on the basis of, oral hygene index – simplified (OHI-S,Index, CPITN index, ESI Index. The statistical analysis was done using the CHI-Square test to determine the p value. Results: Significantly more number of females were found to be having good oral hygiene status than males. Conclusions: Significant association was observed between males and females having different scores of OHI-S, CPITN and ESI index in different age groups.

  8. Clinical and Histopathological Profiles of Pediatric and Adolescent Oral and Maxillofacial Biopsies in a Persian Population

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    Shirin Saravani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The frequency of pediatric and adolescent oral and maxillofacial lesions is various in different societies. The present study aimed at investigating the frequency of oral and maxillofacial pediatric and adolescent biopsies in Zahedan (southeast Iran, and compare the results with other epidemiologic studies.Methods and Materials This retrospective study reviewed oral and maxillofacial lesions in patients with 0-18 years old referring to the treatment centers of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences during 12-years period. Patients’ demographic information including age, gender and location of the lesion were collected and statistically analyzed.ResultsIn general, among 1112 oral and maxillofacial lesions, 154 (13.9% cases were related to children and adolescents younger than 18 years old. The average age of patients was 11.4 ± 4.9, 53.2% and 46.8% of them were boys and girls, respectively. The most frequent sites of lesions were the gingiva and lip. The most prevalent lesions included inflammatory/reactive, cystic and neoplastic lesions, respectively. Benign and malignant tumors comprised 12.3% and 4.5% of cases. Moreover, pyogenic granuloma and peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG were the most frequent lesions.ConclusionThe most prevalent oral and maxillofacial lesions in patients under 18 years old were inflammatory/reactive lesions in gingiva and in the 13-18 age range. Determining the characteristics of these lesions in the children and adolescents population provides a firm groundwork for proper diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents in Northwest Ohio: Correlates of Prevalence and Age at Onset

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    James H. Price

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence and correlates of smoking initiation among adolescents. We have used data from adolescents (n=5,392 ages 10-18 who participated in the 2003 Tobacco Survey, a representative sample of adolescents in Northwest Ohio. A selfreport of cigarette smoking was obtained using a questionnaire administered in classrooms. Data were analyzed using weighted chi-square and multiple logistic regressions in SAS that accounted for the survey design. The prevalence rates for adolescents that ever tried smoking were 7.4% in elementary (grades 4-5; 17.7% in middle (grades 6-8, and 41.4% in high (grades 9-12 schools, respectively. The highest prevalence rate was among Hispanics. Having a close friend that smoked and a smoker at home correlated significantly with both initiation of smoking and smoking at an earlier age. Smoking was correlated with low academic achievement among adolescents in all grades. Students who reported smoking by parents or siblings were significantly more likely to start smoking at an earlier age, compared to other students living in a non-smoking home environment. Smoking prevention program should include components focused on adolescents’ home environment and should start as early as the 4th grade.

  10. Hepatitis E. virus is prevalent in the Danish pig population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; De Deus, N.;

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for major outbreaks of acute hepatitis in humans from developing countries, but evidence increases that also in industrialized countries locally acquired HEV infections acor. The disease usually affects young adults and has a relatively high mortality in inf...... with swine or ingestion of undercooked swine meat. The aim of this study was to clarify if HEV is prevalent in the Danish pig population. Presence of HEV was examined by detection of HEV by real time RT-PCR or serological screening for HEV antibodies....

  11. Acne vulgaris: prevalence and clinical forms in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil *

    OpenAIRE

    Bagatin, Ediléia; Timpano, Denise Lourenço; Guadanhim, Lilia Ramos dos Santos; Nogueira, Vanessa Mussupapo Andraus; Terzian, Luiz Roberto; Steiner, Denise; Florez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acne is a common disease in adolescents, but there are no epidemiological data for acne in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence and degree of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo and study socio-demographic factors, family history and lifestyle, associated with the disease. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 452 adolescents aged between 10 and 17 (mean=13.3 years), students from elementary and high school, examined by 3 independent evaluators. RESULTS 62.4% were female, 85.8...

  12. Impaired Awareness of Hypoglycemia in a Population-Based Sample of Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Trang T.; Gallego, Patricia H.; Davis, Elizabeth A; Jones, Timothy W.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and clinical associations of impaired awareness of hypoglycemia in a population-based sample of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A validated questionnaire was administered to 656 patients with type 1 diabetes over a 6-month period to determine hypoglycemia awareness status. Case ascertainment was 79% of the clinic population. The rate of severe hypoglycemia was determined by data collected prospectively in the pre...

  13. Prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in rural areas of District Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh

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    Vaibhav Jain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It is a phase of life marked by special attributes including rapid physical growth and development; physical, social and psychological maturity. Aims & Objectives: The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in a rural area of District Muzaffarnagar. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 210 adolescent girls and boys (10-19 years old selected using multistage random sampling technique. The subjects were interviewed & detailed information was collected on a structured and pre-tested questionnaire after taking consent from the subject/ parents. The clinical diagnosis was generated as per the criteria laid down in ICD-10. The data was entered in Epi Info statistical software package Version 3.4.3 and suitable statistical methods were applied. Results: The overall prevalence of psychosocial problems amongst adolescent was found to be 41.43%. Most of them had conduct disorder (40.51% males & 35.88% females followed by depression (30.38% males & 26.72% females. Conclusions: There are significant psychosocial problems amongst the adolescents. So, enough emphasis should be given to this component of adolescent health and thus it is recommended that a holistic approach to the underlying causes of psychosocial problems of adolescents should be undertaken.

  14. Prevalence of obesity in relation to television viewing and physical activity among Meitei adolescents of Manipur

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    M. S. Singh,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate overweight/obesity in relation to television viewing and physical activity. Cross-sectional data on 540 Meitei subjects (256 adolescent boys and 284 adolescent girls aged between 14 and 19 years of age was collected following a house to house survey. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was evaluated by using zscores BMI for age and sex recommended by WHO. The observed overall frequency of overweight/obesity among adolescent boys and girls was 6.6 per cent and 6.7 per cent, respectively. Subjects who watched television for more than three hours daily reported a higher frequency of overweight/obesity (adolescent boys 21.7% and adolescent girls 33.3% as compared to those who watched TV for less than 3 hours per day (adolescent boys 2.0% and adolescent girls 2.1%. The study further indicated that the higher frequency of overweight/obesity among adolescent boys (30.2% and adolescent girls (19.4% was found among those who exercised below one hour daily as compared to those who exercised more than one hour (1.9% boys and 1.1% girls. The present study indicates that the prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher among adolescent boys and girls who spent more time on watching television and inactive physical activity. Inactive physical activity and prolonged television watching signify more sedentary lifestyles, which in turn, leads to unhealthy gains in body weight over time due to the accumulation of more unwanted fat depositions in the body and less opportunities to shed these.

  15. 12-Month and Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts among Black Adolescents in the National Survey of American Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Sean; Baser, Raymond S.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Jackson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    The data from the National Survey of American life on the suicidal behavior of 1,170 African American and Caribbean black adolescents aged 13 to 17 shows that black adolescents report having a lifetime prevalence of 7.5 percent for suicidal ideation and 2.7 percent for attempts. The 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation is 3.2 percent and…

  16. The Prevalence of Obesity in a Nigerian Military Population

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    Ezekiel Taiwo Adebayo Obashina Ayodele Ogunbiyi Ishiaku Baba Abdulkareem Nurudeen Ayoola Hussain

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Worldwide, obesity is increasing in prevalence, nearing epidemic proportions in the United States of America. Also, there are reports of rising prevalence in Africa. Obesity is an important aetiological factor for many non-communicable diseases. Recent anecdotal reports indicate that the prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and bronchial asthma is increasing among Nigerian military personnel; however, the rate of possible aetiological factors such as obesity is not known. Obesity can be evaluated using the body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and waist to height ratio (WHR. However, for epidemiological convenience and study within populations, the BMI is satisfactory. Methodology: A cross sectional study. Data of Nigerian military personnel�s annual medical examination conducted between January and March 2010 were retrieved to compute body mass index using World Health Organisation (WHO criteria. Results: 39.6% of personnel were overweight or obese. Most of these were aged between 30 and 39 years. While there were differences in the BMI of males and females, this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: To manage weight problems, focused health education, increased physical activity and nutritional advice are necessary. Modalities such as waist circumference should be added to annual medical examination of military personnel to improve the predictive value of the examination. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 313-318

  17. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe: population based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Greenlees, Ruth; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Dias, Carlos; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Lynch, Catherine; McDonnell, Robert; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O’Mahony, Mary T; Pierini, Anna; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; de Walle, Hermien E K; Wellesley, Diana; Wiesel, Awi; Dolk, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To provide contemporary estimates of the prevalence of microcephaly in Europe, determine if the diagnosis of microcephaly is consistent across Europe, and evaluate whether changes in prevalence would be detected using the current European surveillance performed by EUROCAT (the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies). Design Questionnaire and population based observational study. Setting 24 EUROCAT registries covering 570 000 births annually in 15 countries. Participants Cases of microcephaly not associated with a genetic condition among live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks’ gestation, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly at any gestation. Main outcome measures Prevalence of microcephaly (1 Jan 2003-31 Dec 2012) analysed with random effects Poisson regression models to account for heterogeneity across registries. Results 16 registries responded to the questionnaire, of which 44% (7/16) used the EUROCAT definition of microcephaly (a reduction in the size of the brain with a skull circumference more than 3 SD below the mean for sex, age, and ethnic origin), 19% (3/16) used a 2 SD cut off, 31% (5/16) were reliant on the criteria used by individual clinicians, and one changed criteria between 2003 and 2012. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe was 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.16 to 1.96) per 10 000 births, with registries varying from 0.4 (0.2 to 0.7) to 4.3 (3.6 to 5.0) per 10 000 (χ2=338, df=23, I2=93%). Registries with a 3 SD cut off reported a prevalence of 1.74 per 10 000 (0.86 to 2.93) compared with those with the less stringent 2 SD cut off of 1.21 per 10 000 (0.21 to 2.93). The prevalence of microcephaly would need to increase in one year by over 35% in Europe or by over 300% in a single registry to reach statistical significance (PZika virus of a similar magnitude to those observed in Brazil. Because of the rarity of microcephaly and discrepant diagnostic criteria, however, the smaller increases expected in

  18. Prevalence of Dental Caries in Kosovar Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begzati, Agim; Kelmendi, Jeta; Ilijazi, Donika; Kqiku, Lumnije

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in the Kosovar adult population. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in Kosovo was conducted examining 9387 patients, aged 18 upwards, between January 2010 and December 2011. Clinical evaluation was done using WHO criteria for evaluation of dental health status and data collection. Results. The prevalence of caries for the whole study was 72.80%. The mean DMFT index was 9.61 (±5.12) in the 18–34-year age group, 11.6 (±6.42) in the 35–44-year age group, 13.68 (±8.12) among the 45–64-year age group, 17.98 (±9.81) in the 65–74-year age group, and 23.19 (±9.41) in the age group of 75+ years, respectively. A significant difference of mean DMFT and its each component was observed between the ages (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study comes out with the significant levels of dental caries among young Kosovar population (18–34 years old). PMID:27516774

  19. Prevalence of Dental Caries in Kosovar Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerim Kamberi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in the Kosovar adult population. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in Kosovo was conducted examining 9387 patients, aged 18 upwards, between January 2010 and December 2011. Clinical evaluation was done using WHO criteria for evaluation of dental health status and data collection. Results. The prevalence of caries for the whole study was 72.80%. The mean DMFT index was 9.61 (±5.12 in the 18–34-year age group, 11.6 (±6.42 in the 35–44-year age group, 13.68 (±8.12 among the 45–64-year age group, 17.98 (±9.81 in the 65–74-year age group, and 23.19 (±9.41 in the age group of 75+ years, respectively. A significant difference of mean DMFT and its each component was observed between the ages (P<0.001. Conclusion. This study comes out with the significant levels of dental caries among young Kosovar population (18–34 years old.

  20. E-Cigarette Prevalence and Correlates of Use among Adolescents versus Adults: A Review and Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2014-01-01

    Perceived safer than tobacco cigarettes, prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing. Analyses of cartridges suggest that e-cigarettes may pose health risks. In light of increased use and the potential for consequences, we searched Google Scholar and Pubmed in July of 2013 using keywords, such as e-cigarette and vaping, to compare differences and similarities in prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette use among adolescents (grades 6-12) versus adults (aged ≥18 years). ...

  1. International prevalence of adolescent non-suicidal self-injury and deliberate self-harm

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    Muehlenkamp Jennifer J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The behaviours of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI and deliberate self-harm (DSH are prevalent among adolescents, and an increase of rates in recent years has been postulated. There is a lack of studies to support this postulation, and comparing prevalence across studies and nations is complicated due to substantial differences in the methodology and nomenclature of existing research. Methods We conducted a systematic review of current (2005 - 2011 empirical studies reporting on the prevalence of NSSI and DSH in adolescent samples across the globe. Results Fifty-two studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were obtained for analysis. No statistically significant differences were found between NSSI (18.0% SD = 7.3 and DSH (16.1% SD = 11.6 studies. Assessment using single item questions led to lower prevalence rates than assessment with specific behaviour checklists. Mean prevalence rates have not increased in the past five years, suggesting stabilization. Conclusion NSSI and DSH have a comparable prevalence in studies with adolescents from different countries. The field would benefit from adopting a common approach to assessment to aide cross-cultural study and comparisons.

  2. Prevalence of acne vulgaris in Chinese adolescents and adults: a community-based study of 17,345 subjects in six cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yiwei; Wang, Tinglin; Zhou, Cheng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ding, Xiaolan; Tian, Shan; Liu, Ying; Peng, Guanghui; Xue, Shuqi; Zhou, June; Wang, Renli; Meng, Xuemei; Pei, Guangde; Bai, Yunhua; Liu, Qing; Li, Hang; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition in adolescents. The prevalence of acne is thought to vary between ethnic groups and countries. A large-scale community-based study was performed in six cities in China to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for acne in the Chinese population. A total of 17,345 inhabitants were included in this study. Of these, 1,399 were found to have acne. No acne was found in subjects under 10 years of age, and only 1.6% in the 10-year-old group had acne. Prevalence then increased rapidly with age, up to 46.8% in the 19-year-old group. After that, it declined gradually with age. Acne was rare in people over 50 years of age. In subjects in their late teens and 20s, acne was more prevalent in males, while in those over 30 years of age it was more prevalent in females. In subjects with acne, 68.4% had mild; 26.0% had moderate and 5.6% had severe acne. In adult acne, persistent acne was much more common (83.3%) than late-onset acne (16.7%). Smoking and drinking were found to be associated with adolescent acne, while no association was found between diet and acne. These results suggest that the prevalence of acne in the Chinese population is lower than that in Caucasian populations, and that adult acne is not uncommon in Chinese subjects. PMID:21710106

  3. Prevalence of Weak D Antigen In Western Indian Population

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    Tanvi Sadaria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discovery of Rh antigens in 1939 by Landsteiner and Weiner was the revolutionary stage in blood banking. Of these antigens, D, which decides Rh positivity or negativity, is the most antigenic. A problem is encountered when an individual has a weakened expression of D (Du, i.e., fewer numbers of D antigens on red cell membrane. Aims and Objectives: To know the prevalence of weak D in Indian population because incidence varies in different population. To determine the risk of alloimmunization among Rh D negative patients who receives the blood of weak D positive donors. Material and Methods: Rh grouping of 38,962 donors who came to The Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion of Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from 1st January 2013 to 30th September 2014 was done using the DIAGAST (Automated Grouping. The samples that tested negative for D antigen were further analysed for weak D (Du by indirect antiglobulin test using blend of Ig G and Ig M Anti D. This was done using Column agglutination method in ID card (gel card. Results: The total number of donors studied was 38,962. Out of these 3360(8.6% were tested Rh D negative. All Rh D negative donors were tested for weak D (Du. 22 (0.056% of total donors and 0.65% of Rh negative donors turned out to be weak D (Du positive. Conclusion: The prevalence of weak D (Du in Western Indian population is 0.056 %, So the risk of alloimmunization in our setting due to weak D (Du antigen is marginal. But, testing of weak D antigen is necessary in blood bank because weak D antigen is immunogenic and can produce alloimmunization if transfused to Rh D negative subjects.

  4. Prevalence of headache in adolescents and association with use of computer and videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Michelle Katherine Andrade; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Silva, Georgia Rodrigues Reis; Oliveira, Valéria Mayaly Alves de; Beltrão, Natália Barros; Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato de

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of headache in adolescents and its association with excessive use of electronic devices and games. The sample comprised 954 adolescents of both sexes (14 to 19 years) who answered a questionnaire about use of computers and electronic games, presence of headache and physical activity. The binary and multinomial logistic regression, with significance level of 5% was used for inferential analysis. The prevalence of headache was 80.6%. The excessive use of electronics devices proved to be a risk factor (OR = 1.21) for headache. Subjects aged between 14 and 16 years were less likely to report headache (OR = 0.64). Regarding classification, 17.9% of adolescents had tension-type headache, 19.3% had migraine and 43.4% other types of headache. The adolescents aged form 14 to 16 years had lower chance (OR ≤ 0.68) to report the tension-type headache and other types of headache. The excessive use of digital equipment, electronic games and attending the third year of high school proved to be risk factors for migraine-type development (OR ≥ 1.84). There was a high prevalence of headache in adolescents and high-time use of electronic devices. We observed an association between excessive use of electronic devices and the presence of headache, and this habit is considered a risk factor, especially for the development of migraine-type. PMID:26602725

  5. Prevalence of headache in adolescents and association with use of computer and videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Michelle Katherine Andrade; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Silva, Georgia Rodrigues Reis; Oliveira, Valéria Mayaly Alves de; Beltrão, Natália Barros; Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato de

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of headache in adolescents and its association with excessive use of electronic devices and games. The sample comprised 954 adolescents of both sexes (14 to 19 years) who answered a questionnaire about use of computers and electronic games, presence of headache and physical activity. The binary and multinomial logistic regression, with significance level of 5% was used for inferential analysis. The prevalence of headache was 80.6%. The excessive use of electronics devices proved to be a risk factor (OR = 1.21) for headache. Subjects aged between 14 and 16 years were less likely to report headache (OR = 0.64). Regarding classification, 17.9% of adolescents had tension-type headache, 19.3% had migraine and 43.4% other types of headache. The adolescents aged form 14 to 16 years had lower chance (OR ≤ 0.68) to report the tension-type headache and other types of headache. The excessive use of digital equipment, electronic games and attending the third year of high school proved to be risk factors for migraine-type development (OR ≥ 1.84). There was a high prevalence of headache in adolescents and high-time use of electronic devices. We observed an association between excessive use of electronic devices and the presence of headache, and this habit is considered a risk factor, especially for the development of migraine-type.

  6. Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaine Souza Lima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL in female adolescent students.METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05.RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001; interference in ADL (p<0.001; medication use (p<0.001; age (p=0.045 and seek for medical care (p<0.022.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance.

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents and Their Parents in Central Greece (FETA Project)

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Patsopoulou; Zoi Tsimtsiou; Antonios Katsioulis; George Rachiotis; Eleni Malissiova; Christos Hadjichristodoulou

    2015-01-01

    The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA) aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents’ and adolescents’ demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12–18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. Du...

  8. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and its predictors among school going adolescents of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgesh Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarettes smoking is a common mode of consuming tobacco in India. This habit usually starts in adolescence and tracks across the life course. Interventions like building decision making skills and resisting negative influences are effective in reducing the initiation and level of tobacco use. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of adolescent current cigarette smoking behavior and to investigate the individual and social factors, which influence them both to and not to smoke. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out among school going adolescents in Shimla town of North India. After obtaining their written informed consent, a questionnaire was administered. Results: The overall prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 11.8%. The binary logistic regression model revealed that parents′ and peers′ smoking behavior influence adolescent smoking behavior. Individual self-harm tendency also significantly predicted cigarette smoking behavior. Parental active participation in keeping a track of their children′s free time activities predicted to protect adolescents from taking this habit. Conclusion: Our research lends support to the need for intervention on restricting adolescents from taking up this habit and becoming another tobacco industries′ addicted customer. Parents who smoke should quit this habit, which will not only restore their own health, but also protect their children. All parents should be counseled to carefully observe their children′s free time activities.

  9. The prevalence of self-reported deliberate self harm in Irish adolescents

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    Arensman Ella

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self harm is major public health problem, in particular among young people. Although several studies have addressed the prevalence of deliberate self harm among young people in the community, little is known about the extent to which deliberate self harm comes to the attention of medical services, the self harm methods used and the underlying motives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the methods, motives and help seeking behaviour associated with this behaviour. Methods A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was administered in 39 schools in the Southern area of the Health Service Executive, Ireland. Of the 4,583 adolescents aged 15–17 years who were invited to participate in the survey, 3,881 adolescents took part (response: 85%. Results A lifetime history of DSH was reported by 9.1% (n = 333 of the adolescents. DSH was more common among females (13.9% than males (4.3%. Self cutting (66.0% and overdose (35.2% were the most common DSH methods. A minority of participants accessed medical services after engaging in DSH (15.3%. Conclusion DSH is a significant problem in Irish adolescents and the vast majority do not come to the attention of health services. Innovative solutions for prevention and intervention are required to tackle DSH in adolescents.

  10. The prevalence of self-reported deliberate self harm in Irish adolescents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morey, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self harm is major public health problem, in particular among young people. Although several studies have addressed the prevalence of deliberate self harm among young people in the community, little is known about the extent to which deliberate self harm comes to the attention of medical services, the self harm methods used and the underlying motives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the methods, motives and help seeking behaviour associated with this behaviour. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was administered in 39 schools in the Southern area of the Health Service Executive, Ireland. Of the 4,583 adolescents aged 15-17 years who were invited to participate in the survey, 3,881 adolescents took part (response: 85%). RESULTS: A lifetime history of DSH was reported by 9.1% (n = 333) of the adolescents. DSH was more common among females (13.9%) than males (4.3%). Self cutting (66.0%) and overdose (35.2%) were the most common DSH methods. A minority of participants accessed medical services after engaging in DSH (15.3%). CONCLUSION: DSH is a significant problem in Irish adolescents and the vast majority do not come to the attention of health services. Innovative solutions for prevention and intervention are required to tackle DSH in adolescents.

  11. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among preparatory school adolescents in Urban Sharkia Governorate, Egypt

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    Mohamed A Talat

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: This study found a relatively high prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents aged 12–15 years in urban Sharkia Governorate. Risk factors of overweight and obesity were low level of parent education, faulty feeding habits and physical inactivity.

  12. Prevalence and predictors of severe hypoglycemia in Danish children and adolescents with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, A; Kanijo, B; Fredheim, S;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of severe hypoglycemia in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to pinpoint predictors of this acute complication in children on modern treatment modalities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study is based on data from DanDiabKids, a...

  13. Comorbid Depression and Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: Prevalence and Implications for Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Elizabeth K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Comorbid conditions are common in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and can raise issues for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning. Methods: First, reported prevalence rates for depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with AN were reviewed. Diagnostic issues and current understanding of the temporal onset and…

  14. Prevalence and Predictors of PTSD and Depression among Adolescent Victims of the Spring 2011 Tornado Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zachary W.; Sumner, Jennifer A.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Grös, Kirstin; Paul, Lisa A.; Welsh, Kyleen E.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relatively few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episode (MDE) in disaster-affected adolescents. Fewer still have administered diagnostic measures or studied samples exposed to tornadoes, a common type of disaster. Further, methodologic problems limit the…

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Dating Violence among Adolescent Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge of dating violence behaviors among adolescent victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), first, by determining the prevalence of psychological and physical dating violence and the reciprocity of violence, and second, by investigating the influence of certain CSA characteristics to dating violence.…

  16. Social Phobia and Subtypes in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement: Prevalence, Correlates, and Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; He, Jian-Ping; Kattan, Gabriela; Albano, Anne Marie; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Social phobia typically develops during the adolescent years, yet no nationally representative studies in the United States have examined the rates and features of this condition among youth in this age range. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) present the lifetime prevalence, sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and…

  17. The Prevalence of Cyberbullying among Adolescents: A Case Study of Middle Schools in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic-Citic, Branislava; Djuric, Sladjana; Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Cyberbullying has become widespread, and is generating growing concerns as it affects students and school climates in general. The objective of this article is to investigate the prevalence of cyberbullying among Serbian adolescents. Special emphasis was placed on gender differences regarding different forms of cyberbullying and victimization. In…

  18. Prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Jeppe; Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse;

    2008-01-01

    civil registration system. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and weight for 1,026 and 1,152 children and adolescents (4—18 years), who participated in 1995 and 2000—2002, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was defined according to the international age...... and gender-specific child BMI cut-off points. In the statistical analysis, overweight and obesity were included in the prevalence of overweight. Results: Mean BMI increased significantly between 1995 and 2000—2002 for all combinations of age groups (4—6, 7—10, 11—14 and 15—18 years) and genders. Prevalence...

  19. Geographic variations in tumor prevalence among marine fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, H F; Action, A B; Dunn, B P; Oishi, K; Yamazaki, F; Harada, T; Peters, G; Peters, N

    1977-11-15

    A global epidemiological study on the frequency of skin papillomas among various flatfish species (Pleuronectids), papillomas of eels and the virus induced lymphocystis disease has revealed particular distribution patterns. Skin papillomas are prevalent among at least 20 flatfish species of the northern Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, and Japan Sea but appear to be absent from the Atlantic, North Sea, and the Caribbean Sea. The opposite is found for lymphocystis, which is common among flatfish species of the Atlantic shores of Europe and North America. Similarly the skin papillomas of eels are restricted to relatively small region along the European coast extending from the Baltic countries to Denmark, Germany and Holland. Superimposed on this global distribution pattern are local variations in tumor prevalences which can vary from about 58% to 0.01%. The geographic distribution pattern points to the existence of areas around the globe in which flatfish or eels are able to develop skin papillomas. Outside these areas of "potential skin papilloma risk," flatfish and eel populations are not afflicted with papillomas even if they inhabit estuaries or rivers with a high man-made or naturally-occurring pollution. PMID:924694

  20. Prevalence of voice quality deviations in the normal adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindle, B R; Morris, H L

    1979-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of voice quality deviations in a normal adult population. One-hundred twelve subjects, aged 17 to 80, read a short paragraph aloud into a high-fidelity tape recorder and completed a case history questionnaire. A group of 11 pretrained judges rated overall performance of each taped sample on a seven-point equal-appearing intervals scale, then designated those quality components which contributed toward deviant ratings. Eighty-two percent of the group received a mean severity rating lower than 1.99; 16% had a rating between 2.00 and 2.99; and 2% was assigned a mean rating higher than 3.00.

  1. Prevalence of periodontitis among the adolescents aged 15-18 years in Mangalore City: An epidemiological and microbiological study

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    K Pallavi Nanaiah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is a group of inflammatory diseases affecting the supporting tissues of the tooth. Both aggressive periodontitis (AP and chronic periodontitis (CP have a multifactorial etiology, with dental plaque as the initiating factor. However, the initiation and progression of periodontitis are influenced by other factors including microbiologic, social and behavioral and systemic and genetic factors. The prevalence of periodontal diseases varies in different regions of the world according to the definition of periodontitis and the study population, and there are indications that they may be more prevalent in developing than in developed countries. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the adolescents of 15-18 years of age in Mangalore City. One thousand one hundred students aged 15-18 years were selected for the study from the schools and colleges in Mangalore City using a convenient sampling method. The prevalence of AP and CP were assessed in the study using a community periodontal index. Students who were diagnosed clinically and radiographically were subjected to microbiological examination to confirm AP. Results: A high prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis was found in students belonging to the lower socioeconomic status group compared with the higher socioeconomic groups, which were associated with poor oral hygiene habits. The prevalence of AP was found to be 0.36% and that of CP was found to be 1.5%. Conclusion: Oral diseases have a significant impact on the social and psychological aspects of an individual′s life. Exposure to risk factors, such as age, low socio-economic status, poor education, low dental care utilization, poor oral hygiene levels, smoking, psychosocial stress and genetic factors are significantly associated with an increased risk of periodontitis among adolescents. Although genetic factors play a major role in periodontitis, the treatment outcome will still be

  2. Prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish populations: A reanalysis of dementia prevalence surveys, 1990-2008

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    Boix Raquel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish elderly. Methods We identified screening surveys, both published and unpublished, in Spanish populations, which fulfilled specific quality criteria and targeted prevalence of dementia in populations aged 70 years and above. Surveys covering 13 geographically different populations were selected (prevalence period: 1990-2008. Authors of original surveys provided methodological details of their studies through a systematic questionnaire and also raw age-specific data. Prevalence data were compared using direct adjustment and logistic regression. Results The reanalyzed study population (aged 70 year and above was composed of Central and North-Eastern Spanish sub-populations obtained from 9 surveys and totaled 12,232 persons and 1,194 cases of dementia (707 of Alzheimer's disease, 238 of vascular dementia. Results showed high variation in age- and sex-specific prevalence across studies. The reanalyzed prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in women; increased with age, particularly for Alzheimer's disease; and displayed a significant geographical variation among men. Prevalence was lowest in surveys reporting participation below 85%, studies referred to urban-mixed populations and populations diagnosed by psychiatrists. Conclusion Prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Central and North-Eastern Spain is higher in females, increases with age, and displays considerable geographic variation that may be method-related. People suffering from dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Spain may approach 600,000 and 400,000 respectively. However, existing studies may not be completely appropriate to infer prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in Spain until surveys in Southern Spain are conducted.

  3. The prevalence of atopic diseases and the patterns of sensitization in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases are among the most common chronic diseases in adolescents, and it is uncertain whether the prevalence of atopic diseases has reached a plateau or is still increasing. The use of the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood) questionnaire has provided...... comparable prevalence rates from many countries, whereas studies including clinical examinations and strict diagnostic criteria are scarce. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of atopic diseases, the pattern of sensitization, and comorbidities at 14 years in a prospective birth cohort. METHODS......: The children were examined eight times from birth to 14 years. Visits included questionnaire-based interviews, clinical examination, skin prick test, and specific IgE. RESULTS: Follow-up rate at 14 years was 66.2%. The 12-month prevalence of any atopic disease was high (40.3%) mostly due to a high prevalence...

  4. Prevalence, incidence, and comorbidity of clinically diagnosed obsessive-compulsive disorder in Taiwan: a national population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Chung; Tsai, Kuen-Jer; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Sung, Pi-Shan; Wu, Ming-Hsiu; Hung, Kuo-Wei; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang

    2014-12-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic debilitating anxiety disorder significant in intrusive thoughts and compensation repetitive behaviors. Few studies have reported on this condition Asia. This study estimated the prevalence, incidence and psychiatric comorbidities of OCD in Taiwan. We identified study subjects for 2000-2008 with a principal diagnosis of OCD according to the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic criteria by using National Health Research Institute database. These patients received either outpatient or inpatient care for their condition. Rates were directly age- and sex-adjusted to the 2004 Taiwan population distribution. The estimated mean annual incidence was 27.57 per 10(5) inhabitants and the one year prevalence was 65.05 per 10(5) inhabitants. Incidence and prevalence increased with age, peaking at age 18-24 years in males and at 35-44 years in females. About 53% of adults (≥18 years) and 48% of child and adolescent patients (6-17 years) had one or more comorbid psychiatric conditions. The most common comorbid diagnosis was depressive disorders for both adult and child-adolescent patients. We found a lower prevalence and incidence of clinically diagnosed OCD than that of community studies. Many Asian patients with OCD also had various psychiatric comorbidities, a clinically relevant finding. PMID:25169892

  5. THE PREVALENCE OF DENTAL ANOMALIES IN A TURKISH POPULATION

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    Gamze Aren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies in a Turkish population according to the gender and age. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed using panoramic radiographs of 2025 patients (885 males and 1140 females ranging in age from 9 to 35 (mean age 25.61±10.04 years attending Department of Oral Radiology, University of Istanbul, Faculty of Dentistry. These patients were examined to determine the presence of developmental dental anomalies involving hypodontia, hyperdontia, microdontia, taurodontism and other root anomalies. The incidence of these anomalies were assessed according to the gender and age. Results: Among the 2025 subjects, a total of 96 individuals (42 males and 54 females showed at least one of the selected dental anomalies (4.74%. Tooth agenesis was the most common dental abnormality (1.77% followed by taurodontism (1.18%, hyperdontia (0.79%, microdontia (0.54% and root anomalies (0.44%, respectively. Conclusion: Tooth agenesis is the most common developmental dental anomaly in the studied Turkish population followed by taurodontism.

  6. Prevalence of pregnancies in adolescent students in the city of Cartagena. February - june 2010

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    Arrieta-Hoyos Jaime Andrés

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: to determine the prevalence of pregnancies in a population of adolescent students in three schools in the city of Cartagena, and estimate their possible association with sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviors.METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional study, data were collected through a survey of 638 female adolescent students. Data were stored and analyzed using statistical program Epi Info version 3.5.1.RESULTS: 26.2% of girls had had sex at the time of the survey, and of these 27.5% had their first intercourse at age 15. The prevalence of teenage pregnancy schools was 4.4%. The first sexual intercourse before 16 years is a risk factor for teen pregnancy (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.9. CONCLUSIONS: further research is required to obtain an accurate diagnosis of complex factors and dimensions involved in the reproductive health of young people in the country, so as to develop tools to promote a harmonious and responsible sexuality.RESUMENOBJETIVOS: Determinar la prevalencia de embarazos en una población de adolescentes escolares de tres colegios de la ciudad de Cartagena, y estimar su posible asociación con algunas variables sociodemográficas y de conductas sexuales.METODOLOGÍA: Estudio de corte transversal, los datos se obtuvieron por medio de una encuesta realizada a 638 estudiantes adolescentes del sexo femenino. Los datos fueron almacenados y analizados por medio del programa estadístico EPI – INFO versión 3.5.1. RESULTADOS: El 26.2% de las adolescentes ya habían tenido relaciones sexuales al momento de la encuesta, y de estas el 27,5% tuvieron su primera relación sexual a los 15 años. La prevalencia de embarazo de las adolescentes escolares fue de 4,4%. El inicio de vida sexual antes de los 16 años es un factor de riesgo para embarazo en adolescentes (OR 3,4; IC 95% 1,1 – 10,9. CONCLUSIONES: Se requieren mayores investigaciones para obtener un diagnostico preciso de los complejos factores y dimensiones

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of Sexting Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Maziarz, Lauren; Ward, Britney

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexting among sixth through twelfth grade students and its correlations with other risk behaviors. The survey was conducted in 35 different schools in a midwestern state. Overall, 17% of students engaged in sexting, which varied significantly by age (3% of 12-year-olds to 32% of…

  8. Domestic violence against children and adolescents: prevalence of physical injuries in a southern Brazilian metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Leidielly Aline; Dalledone, Mariana; Pizzatto, Eduardo; Zaiter, Wellington; de Souza, Juliana Feltrin; Losso, Estela Maris

    2015-01-01

    Violence against children and adolescents is a public health issue worldwide that threatens physical and mental wellbeing and causes irreparable harm. Reports on this violence are an essential way to prevent it and to protect the children and adolescents. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of physical injuries that occur in domestic environments and reported to the Child and Adolescent Protection Network. This retrospective study was conducted at the Epidemiology Center of the Municipality of Curitiba. A total of 10,483 reports for the years 2010 (5,112) and 2011 (5,371) were analyzed and from them were selected reports of physical injuries that occurred in the family environment. The children and adolescents were 0-17 years old, comprising 322 cases of physical abuse within the family in 2010. Out of these, 57.1% were male and 42.9% were female, and 58% (187) presented head and neck injuries. There were 342 reports in 2011, 49% were male and 51% were female; head and neck injuries corresponded to 65% (222) of the reported cases. The prevalence of injuries increased by 6% and head and neck injury increased by 19% between 2010 and 2011. It may be concluded that physical abuse is associated with a high prevalence of head and neck injury, which is easily observed by the health and education professionals. Notification organs should be created in Brazilian hospitals and health centers, which is essential to conduct epidemiological surveillance and appropriate policies. PMID:25672385

  9. Prevalence and Social Correlates of Sexual Intercourse among School-Going Adolescents in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent sexuality is a relevant public health issue, as it affects risk to contract HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. The assessment of prevalence of sexual intercourse among adolescents may guide policies and programmes aimed at reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted infections among this age group. Using data from the Thailand Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS 2008, we assessed the prevalence of sexual intercourse in the last 12 months and its associated factors among adolescents (=2758. Overall the prevalence of sexual intercourse in the past 12 months was 11.0% (14.6% males and 7.6% females. Variables positively associated with the outcome in multivariable analysis were male gender (OR=1.66; 95% CI 1.14–242, older age, ≥15 years (OR=2.60, 1.80–3.74, current alcohol use (OR=2.22, 1.46–3.36, psychosocial distress (OR=2.11, 1.44–3.09 and among females current smoking (OR=5.47, 1.62–18.48, lifetime drug use (AOR=4.35, 1.04–18.3 and lack of parental or guardian bonding (AOR=0.51, 0.27–0.97. Efforts to control unhealthy lifestyles (substance use and psychosocial distress may impact on adolescents' sexual activity.

  10. Association between Dental Erosion and Diet in Brazilian Adolescents Aged from 15 to 19: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yêska Paola Costa Aguiar; Fábio Gomes dos Santos; Eline Freitas de Farias Moura; Fernanda Clotilde Mariz da Costa; Sheyla Marcia Auad; Saul Martins Paiva; Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2014-01-01

    Dental erosion is a pathological condition resulting from the irreversible dissolution of the mineralized portion of the teeth, being recognized in modern society as an important cause of loss of tooth structure. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and its association with diet in Brazilian adolescents of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil. A population-based study was conducted on a stratified sample of 675 adolescents aged from 15 to 19 of both sexes using the index proposed by O'Sul...

  11. Increase in self-reported migraine prevalence in the Danish adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Skytthe, Axel;

    2012-01-01

    It is uncertain whether migraine prevalence has increased in modern society. The aim of this study was to assess any change in migraine prevalence over an 8-year period among the adult population in Denmark.......It is uncertain whether migraine prevalence has increased in modern society. The aim of this study was to assess any change in migraine prevalence over an 8-year period among the adult population in Denmark....

  12. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from the age range of 2 to 19 years old in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehues, Janaina R; Gonzales, Ana Inês; Lemos, Robson R; Bezerra, Poliana Penasso; Haas, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Infant juvenile obesity is currently a worldwide public health problem and it is increasing at alarming rate in the Brazilian population, showing its relevance in terms of public health. Objectives. Determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents between 2 and 19 years old in different regions of Brazil. Methods. The following electronic databases were searched (from September through November 2013): Medline (PubMed), LILACS, and SciELO, using the descriptors and Boolean operators (obesity) and (overweight) and (child) and (prevalence) and (Brazil). Prospective and/or cross-sectional designs studies were found regarding the prevalence of overweight and obese children and adolescents in the five regions of Brazil. Results. A total of 191 scientific articles were found of which 17 met all inclusion criteria. A higher prevalence of overweight was found in the south (25.7%) and north (28.8%) of the country, and obesity in the southeast (15.4%) and south (10.4%). Conclusions. The scope of the studies was mostly based on municipal coverage, which resulted in limitations for conclusive analysis, showing the need for further studies of prevalence at the national level, with emphasis on public health in obese children and adolescents throughout the Brazilian territory. PMID:24995019

  13. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents from the Age Range of 2 to 19 Years Old in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina R. Niehues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infant juvenile obesity is currently a worldwide public health problem and it is increasing at alarming rate in the Brazilian population, showing its relevance in terms of public health. Objectives. Determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents between 2 and 19 years old in different regions of Brazil. Methods. The following electronic databases were searched (from September through November 2013: Medline (PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO, using the descriptors and Boolean operators (obesity and (overweight and (child and (prevalence and (Brazil. Prospective and/or cross-sectional designs studies were found regarding the prevalence of overweight and obese children and adolescents in the five regions of Brazil. Results. A total of 191 scientific articles were found of which 17 met all inclusion criteria. A higher prevalence of overweight was found in the south (25.7% and north (28.8% of the country, and obesity in the southeast (15.4% and south (10.4%. Conclusions. The scope of the studies was mostly based on municipal coverage, which resulted in limitations for conclusive analysis, showing the need for further studies of prevalence at the national level, with emphasis on public health in obese children and adolescents throughout the Brazilian territory.

  14. Prevalence of premenstrual symptoms and premenstrual dysphoric disorder among adolescents students of Zahedan

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    Nourmohammad Bakhshani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is believed that adolescents suffer from dysmenorrhea but premenstrual syndrome (PMS is not a common and prevalent disorder. Recently, some studies indicated that PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD were common problems among students and prevalence of premenstrual symptoms reported differently due to socio-cultural characteristics. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of PMS and PMDD in a group of Iranian adolescent students.Materials and Method: In this descriptive study, 142 students (aged 14-18years from high schools of Zahedan (southeast of Iran were selected and asked to complete the PMS questionnaire, including symptoms of PMS and demographic characteristics. Results: The findings of current study showed that 142 participants 83.1% (n=118 of them had PMS and about 57.7% (n=82 met the criteria for DSM-IV for MDD. Also, 28.2% of participants with PMS and 26.8% of those with PMDD reported that severity of symptoms interfered with their function and adjustment. Most common symptoms were breast pain (100%, gastric pain (53.5%, tiredness or lethargic (51.4%, backache (47.2% and joint or muscle pain (38.7%. Mean of severity of symptoms was higher in students aged 16 (p=0.05.Conclusion: The prevalence of PMS and PMDD were common among the adolescents, thus systematic and well designed programs and interventions for prevention and management of PMS was highly recommended

  15. High Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Markers in Romanian Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

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    Ruta Simona

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated the frequency of hepatitis coinfection in Romanian adolescents who were diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection prior to 1995. Methods One hundred sixty-one adolescents (13–18 years of age with symptomatic HIV infection, but without signs of hepatic dysfunction, and 356 age-matched, HIV-uninfected controls underwent laboratory testing for markers of parenterally acquired hepatitis virus infection. Results Seventy-eight percent of HIV-infected adolescents had markers of past or present hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, as compared with 32% of controls (P = .0001. The prevalence of HBV replicative markers was more than 5-fold higher in HIV-infected adolescents as compared with controls: 43.4% vs 7.9% (P = .0001, respectively, for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg; and 11.2% vs 2.2% (P = .0001, respectively, for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg. The prevalence of HBsAg chronic carriers and the presence of HBV replicative markers was significantly higher in patients with immunologically defined AIDS (CD4+ cell counts P = .02 for HBsAg and 22.8% vs 5.7%, (P = .002 for HBV DNA. After 1 year of follow-up, the proportion of those who cleared the HBeAg was considerably lower in severely immunosuppressed coinfected patients: 4.7% vs 37.1% (P = .003. Four additional HIV-infected adolescents became HBsAg-positive over the term of follow-up (incidence rate, 24.9/1000 person-years, despite a record of immunization against hepatitis B. Conclusion A substantial percentage of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Romanian adolescents have evidence of past or present HBV infection. In HIV-infected adolescents, the degree of immunosuppression is correlated with persistence of HBV replicative markers, even in the absence of clinical or biochemical signs of liver disease.

  16. Parent-Adolescent Conversations about Eating, Physical Activity and Weight: Prevalence across Sociodemographic Characteristics and Associations with Adolescent Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence of parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight across sociodemographic characteristics and to examine associations with adolescent BMI, dietary intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Data from two linked epidemiological studies were used for cross-sectional analysis. Parents (n=3,424; 62% females) and adolescents (n=2,182; 53.2% girls) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Fathers reported ...

  17. Obsessive compulsive phenomenology in a sample of Egyptian adolescent population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rady

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Obsessive symptoms among children and adolescent age groups are increasing, an observation made by mental health professionals working with this age group. Our epidemiological study targeted secondary school students to estimate the prevalence of obsessive symptoms, obsessive compulsive disorder and their different obsessive compulsive contents. Methods: The study is cross sectional carried on 1299 secondary school students, the sample size was chosen based on an estimated Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD prevalence of 2% in literature. Equal samples were recruited from the 3 educative zones in Alexandria Governorate. Obsessive compulsive symptoms were assessed by the Arabic version of Lyeton obsessive inventory child version LOI-CV. Students scoring above 35 were subjected to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children MINI-KID Arabic. OCD patient students detected by MINI-KID were assessed by psychiatric interview to confirm fulfilling criteria of OCD according to DSM IV-TR criteria. Different obsessive compulsive symptoms were assessed by a standardized questionnaire. Results: Among the studied sample (n = 1299, 201 students scored > 35 on LOI-CV i.e. 15.5% of the total sample have OCS. The prevalence of OCD among studied sample was 2.2% as 29 students from the OCS students were fulfilling diagnostic criteria for OCD according to DSM-IV TR. Common obsessive symptoms were of excessive conscience 65.5%, blasphemous 55.2%, repeated words 51.7% and sexual obsessions 48.2%. Conclusions: The prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms is high among adolescent age group. Cultural impact should be considered to better understand obsessive phenomenology, raising the importance of OCD study from a transcultural perspective.

  18. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors Pirjo L; Kaltiala-Heino Riittakerttu; Rimpelä Arja H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, an...

  19. Licit and illicit substance use by adolescent students in eastern India: Prevalence and associated risk factors

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    Dechenla Tsering

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of tobacco, alcohol, and other substances is a worldwide problem and affects many adolescents. Objective: (1 To find out the magnitude of licit and illicit substance use among students; and (2 to find out the association between socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the students and habits of use. Materials and Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional study conducted during June 2003 to May 2004. In a multistage random sampling among all the districts and schools in West Bengal, India, 416 high school students from two schools were selected. The main outcome measures were substance use, namely, tobacco, alcohol, and cannabinoids. From the schools, all the students in the classes VIII, IX, and X were taken as the study population and were administered a pretested close-ended anonymous self-administered questionnaire relating to pattern, frequency, and correlates of substance use. Results: The ultimate response rate was 87.02% and 416 students could be covered in our study. The overall prevalence rates among rural and urban students were 6.14% and 0.6% for illicit drug use, 8.60% and 11.04% for tobacco, and 7.37% and 5.23% for alcohol consumption, respectively. Both licit and illicit substance use was associated more with male students. Current and regular use were mostly restricted to tobacco, and the use of a substance by family members had a significant impact on its use by their children. "Enjoyment" and "Curiosity" were found to have the major influence in their decision to use a substance. Conclusions: Early identification of the magnitude and the factors related to substance use can improve scopes for planning and preventive approaches for this vulnerable group before the problems get serious after which interventions become difficult.

  20. The prevalence and distribution of thoracic and lumbar vertebral numerical variation in the juveniles and adolescents without spinal deformities in Han population of Jiangsu%358例无脊柱畸形汉族儿童与青少年胸、腰椎脊椎数目的变异率及其分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文; 刘臻; 朱泽章; 徐磊磊; 汪飞; 邱勇

    2014-01-01

    study including 176 males and 182 females with standing full-spine radiography was re-viewed to assess the number of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. The prevalence and the distribution of the variation were recorded. The Chi-square test was used to detect the differences among the different types of variation in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Results: 9.2% of the subjects(thirty-three) had an atypical number of vertebrae in the thoracic and/or lumbar spine. Nineteen subjects(5.3%) had an atypical number of thoracic vertebrae, eighteen(5.0%) had eleven thoracic vertebrae and only 1 subject(0.2%) had thirteen thoracic verte-brae. Eighteen subjects(5.0%) had an atypical number of lumbar vertebrae, among whom one(0.2%) has four lumbar vertebrae and seventeen (4.7%) have six. The prevalence of variation of 11 thoracic vertebrae and 6 lumbar vertebrae was higher than that of the 13 thoracic vertebrae and 4 lumbar vertebrae respectively ( P<0.05). Fourteen(3.9%) subjects had 16 thoracic and lumbar vertebrae and fifteen(4.2%) subjects had 18 tho-racic and lumbar vertebrae. Multilevel vertebral anomalies were present in 1.1% of the subjects(four of 358), with 11 thoracic vertebrae and 6 lumbar vertebrae for all. Conclusions: The variation of the number of tho racic or lumbar vertebrae was found in 9.2% juveniles and adolescents without spinal deformities, with a higher possibility of variable 11 thoracic or 6 lumbar vertebrae in Han population of Jiangsu.

  1. Prevalence Of Depressive Disordrs In Tehran Resident Population (year 2000

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    Kaviani H

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a debilitating disease that every one is likely to experience over a short or long term period of his or her life."nMethods and Materials: This study aimed to examine the one - month prevalence of anxiety and depression in Tehranian resident population. 1070 men and women (age 20-65 were screened by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Then, those who scored above the cut - off point were psychiatrically interviewed. The interviewers were blind to the respondents' scores on BDI; 5% of the total sample were also added to the list of those to be interviewed. Interviewers were the third year psychiatric residents at Roozbeh hospital. Tehran, especially trained for this research's purpose."nResults: The results showed women (BDI- 12.16 are more depressed than men (BDI- 8.47. Furthermore, men (%16.7 were less likely to have depession disorders than women (% 30.50."nConclusion: We will discuss discrepancies between (the present results and the results from previous research by others.

  2. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  3. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  4. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in scholars from Bucaramanga, Colombia: a population-based study

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    Camacho Paul A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and metabolic syndrome are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, thus the increasing trend in their prevalence among children and adolescents from developing countries requires a further understanding of their epidemiology and determinants. Methods and design A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 6–10 year-old children from Bucaramanga, Colombia. A two-stage random-cluster (neighborhoods, houses sampling process was performed based on local city maps and local statistics. The study involves a domiciliary survey; including a comprehensive socio-demographic, nutritional and physical activity characterization of the children that participated in the study, followed by a complete clinical examination; including blood pressure, anthropometry, lipid profile determination, fasting glucose and insulin levels. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome will be determined using definitions and specific percentile cut-off points for this population. Finally, the association between components of metabolic syndrome and higher degrees of insulin resistance will be analyzed through a multivariable logistic regression model. This study protocol was designed in compliance with the Helsinki declaration and approved by the local ethics board. Consent was obtained from the children and their parents/guardians. Discussion A complete description of the environmental and non-environmental factors underlying the burden of metabolic syndrome in children from a developing country like Colombia will provide policy makers, health care providers and educators from similar settings with an opportunity to guide primary and secondary preventive initiatives at both individual and community levels. Moreover, this description may give an insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms mediating the development of cardio-metabolic diseases early in life.

  5. Prevalence and tracking of back pain from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Per; Wedderkopp, Niels; Korsholm, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that back pain (BP) is a common condition already in childhood. However, the development until early adulthood is not well understood and, in particular, not the individual tracking pattern. The objectives of this paper are to show the prevalence estimates of BP, low ...... back pain (LBP), mid back pain (MBP), neck pain (NP), and care-seeking because of BP at three different ages (9, 13 and 15 years) and how the BP reporting tracks over these age groups over three consecutive surveys....

  6. The worldwide prevalence of insufficient physical activity in adolescents: a systematic review

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    Augusto César Ferreira de Moraes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To perform a systematic review of cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of insufficient physical activity (IPA based on a WHO-defined cutoff point (< 60 min/d of moderate and vigorous physical activity. Methods: The search was carried out using online databases (BioMed Central, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycInfo, PubMed MEDLINE, SCOPUS, SPORT-Discus, and included articles published from the beginning of the databases until February18th, 2012, as well as references cited by the retrieved articles and information provided by the authors. Only original articles using questionnaires in the diagnosis were considered. Results: Of 2,384 papers initially retrieved, fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria, of which seven were conducted in Brazil. The prevalence of IPA varied from 18.7% to 90.6%, with a median of 79.7%. In all surveys, the prevalence was higher among girls than boys and the developing countries have higher prevalence. Conclusions: We concluded that the prevalence of IPA is high among adolescents and that the definition adopted in this study is rarely used in the literature. These results suggesting that is necessary the development of interventions for increasing physical activity levels among adolescents.

  7. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents of Urban AND Rural Area of Surat, Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Parekh; Malay Parekh; Divyeshkumar Vadasmiya

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study in prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban & rural adolescents in Surat (Gujarat, India). Methods: The data were derived from cross-sectional sampling of children, 176 in rural and 213 in urban, aged 14–16 years doing study in government schools in year of 2009. Age, gender and body mass index (BMI) were used to define overweight and obesity. Result: The prevalence of obesity increased significantly from 12.8% in rural to 14.6% in urban (p&...

  8. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

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    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Cigarette Smoking Prevalence among Adolescents in China: 1981–2010

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    Juan Han

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systematic data regarding adolescent smoking are needed at the national level to support evidence-based tobacco control in China. The goal of this study was to estimate smoking prevalence among Chinese adolescents using published data. Methods: Published studies were located electronically from the commonly used databases in Chinese and English, complemented by manual searching. Forty-five studies were selected of the 9771 retrieved from the databases. These studies targeted adolescents aged 12–17 or middle/high school students, were conducted during the 1981–2010, and had adequate data for meta-analysis. The 45 selected studies covered 52 sites in different parts of China. Smoking rates were estimated using the sample-weighted and random effect method. Results: The estimated prevalence rate of lifetime smoking (ever smoked varied within a narrow range (39.04%–46.03% for males and progressively increased from 2.47% in 1981–1985 to 19.72% in 2001–2005 for females. The prevalence rate of current (30-day smoking for males declined from 26.62% in 1981–1985 to 10.86% in 1996–2000 before increasing again. The prevalence of current smoking for females increased from 0.29% in 1981–1985 to 3.26% in 2006–2010. Conclusions: The high levels of male smoking and the rapid increase in female smoking indicate growing burdens from tobacco-related diseases, underscoring the urgent need to strengthen adolescent tobacco control in China.

  10. Prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among Iraqi adolescents: Iraq GYTS 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Hamid Y; Abdul Satar, Bushra A

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of any form of tobacco by 13–15 year old individuals is 10% globally as identified through the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). This study aimed at assessing the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among Iraqi adolescents. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out on 1750 participants selected randomly from preparatory and secondary schools in Baghdad, Iraq in 2012. Through a multistage stratified random sample scheme. The GYTS questionnaire was applied. Res...

  11. Self-mutilation and suicidal behaviour in Sami and Norwegian adolescents: prevalence and correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Kvernmo, Siv; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To study the prevalence and psychosocial and ethnocultural correlates of selfmutilation and/or suicidal behaviour in Indigenous Sami and majority Norwegian adolescents in north Norway. Study design. A cross-sectional questionnaire study. Methods. A total of 487 students, aged 13–16 years in 21 junior high schools and 247 parents participated in this school based questionnaire study conducted in 1990 in Finnmark, the county in Norway with the highest suicide rates. Sociodemographic...

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chong-Wen Wang; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Kwok-Kei Mak; Sai-Yin Ho; Wong, Paul W. C.; Ho, Rainbow T. H.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in ...

  13. Prevalence of obesity and its correlates in school going adolescents of Haldwani, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India

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    Shantanu Aggarwal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: With a rising trend of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs in the present world, overweight and obesity has gained importance as it is not only a disease in itself but also risk factor for majority of other NCDs. A dramatic increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescent has raised the concern of various public health physicians especially in developing country like India. Aims & Objective: To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity & its correlates among school going adolescents of Haldwani block. Material & Methods: School based cross sectional study was done among the adolescents of 8th to 12th standard. To calculate the maximum sample size prevalence of obesity was assumed to be 50%, taking absolute error of 5%, design effect of 2 and 10% non-response rate the sample was calculated to be 880, rounded off to 900. Samples were collected from 30 clusters/schools using simple random sampling. Data was collected using a pre-designed, semi-structured and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 13% (CI = 10.8 - 15.2%. Overweight and obesity was found to be significantly associated with urban area, private school, Socio-economic class I, non-vegetarian diet, physical inactivity and playing videogames, working on laptops and computer on univariate analysis. On applying binary logistic regression factors like private schools, socioeconomic class I, non-vegetarian diet and physical inactivity were again found to be significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Prevalence of obesity was found to be more in adolescents having modifiable risk factors. 

  14. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa Filho Valter; de Campos Wagner; Bozza Rodrigo; Lopes Adair da

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH) among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males) that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess...

  15. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in danish infants, children and adolescents--are we still on a plateau?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Morgen, Camilla; Rokholm, Benjamin; Sjöberg Brixval, Carina;

    2013-01-01

    After the worldwide steep increase in child and adolescent overweight and obesity during the last decades, there is now evidence of a levelling off in the prevalence in many countries in the Western world.......After the worldwide steep increase in child and adolescent overweight and obesity during the last decades, there is now evidence of a levelling off in the prevalence in many countries in the Western world....

  16. Prevalence of Abdominal Obesity in Spanish Children and Adolescents. Do We Need Waist Circumference Measurements in Pediatric Practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Schröder; Lourdes Ribas; Corinna Koebnick; Anna Funtikova; Gomez, Santiago F; Montserat Fíto; Carmen Perez-Rodrigo; Lluis Serra-Majem

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among nor...

  17. Lipid Profiles and Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Eastern Iranian Adolescents, Birjand, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Taheri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular risk factors begin in childhood and adolescence. This study aimed at assessing serum lipids and prevalence of Dyslipidemia in 11-18 year old students of Birjand. Methods: The present cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was done on 2,643 middle and high school students of Birjand aged 11-18 years (1,396 girls and 1,247 boys. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of blood lipids, including Cholesterol, Triglyceride, HDL, and LDL after a 12-hour fasting period. The defined borderline and abnormal values stated in 2011 by the American Academy of Child, was used. Results: According to our results, it is concluded that: (i 34.3% (31.3% girls and 37.6% boys of adolescents had at least one dyslipidemia. (ii 24.7% of the individuals had HDL lower than 40, where 14% of them TG≥130, 6.1% of cases TC≥200, and 3.5% of cases LDL≥130. Lipid disorder within low HDL type and hypertriglyceridemia were significantly higher in boys (P<0.05 than girls. Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in the age group of 11-14 years and low HDL in the age group of 15-18 years showed the highest values (P<0.05. Conclusion: Adolescents of Birjand have high prevalence of dyslipidemia. Preventive measures are recommended to improve lifestyle, including healthy nutrition, encouraging adolescents to exercise, and more mobility.

  18. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION TO PREVALENCE OF SKIN DISEASES AMONG ADOLESCENTS

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    Toraub Kawshar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pattern of skin diseases in any community is influenced by genetic constitution, climate, socioeconomic status, occupation, education, hygienic standards, customs and quality of medical care. The burden of skin disease also has an impact on the Quality of Life of adolescents. This study aims to investigate the level of awareness and assess the prevalence of different types of skin diseases among adolescents in Mauritius. Material and Methods: 500 adolescents and young adults of both sexes and aged between 11-23 years were recruited. A questionnaire was used to elicit information and to assess the knowledge status of skin diseases and to determine possible risk factors. In addition, a validated questionnaire based on Quality of Life Index was used to determine the psychosocial effect of adolescents suffering from skin diseases. Data was analysed using IBM Statistics SPSS version 20 and Microsoft Excel 2007. Results: Incidence of skin diseases was 22.9% in males and 24.7% females respectively. Acne was the most common skin problems in both gender followed by fungal infection (2.9% in males and eczema (2.4% in females. Climatic conditions (e.g summer, consumption of oily and spicy foods, sports practice and familial history were correlated positively with prevalence of skin diseases. Conclusion: Acne, eczema and fungal infection were the most common skin diseases identified. The findings also indicate that more respondents between 15-19 years old were more prone to skin diseases.

  19. Prevalence and predictors of substance use: a comparison between adolescents with and without learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, J W; Irvin, D M; Reid, R; Vasa, S F

    1994-04-01

    A considerable body of literature has accumulated that examines patterns of substance use and abuse among adolescents attending general education classes. However, much less information exists on the prevalence and predictors of substance use among adolescents with learning disabilities. One purpose of this study was to determine the comparative prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among a sample of 123 students with learning disabilities (91 male and 32 female, mean age = 14.37 years) and 138 nondisabled students (77 male and 61 female, mean age = 13.71 years). A second purpose was to determine whether two psychosocial variables (self-esteem and type of behavior problem) or severity of drinking problem best predicted use of tobacco and marijuana. Students were administered the Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI)-School form (Coopersmith, 1987) and the Adolescent Drinking Index (ADI) (Harrell & Wirtz, 1989); their teachers completed the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist (RBPC) (Quay & Peterson, 1987). Tobacco and marijuana use were proportionally higher for adolescents with learning disabilities; no differences emerged for alcohol use between groups. A discriminant function analysis revealed that scores on the SEI and subscale scores of the RBPC did not reliably predict tobacco or marijuana use for either group. ADI scores were reliable predictors of marijuana use for students with learning disabilities and tobacco use for both groups. PMID:8051503

  20. Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Other Clinically Significant Body Image Concerns in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, Jennifer; Kittler, Jennifer; Phillips, Katharine A.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study assessed prevalence and clinical correlates of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders (ED), and other clinically significant body image concerns in 208 consecutively admitted adolescent inpatients. It was hypothesized that adolescents with BDD would have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidality.…

  1. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity in adolescents aged 12 to 19 years: Comparison between the United States and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), its risk factors, and obesity in adolescents in the United States (US) and Korea. Data were obtained from the 2003-2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and 2005 Korea NHANES for adolescents aged 12-19 yr i...

  2. Recognizing Internet Addiction: Prevalence and Relationship to Academic Achievement in Adolescents Enrolled in Urban and Rural Greek High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Alexandraki, Kiriaki; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2013-01-01

    This study aims: a) to estimate the prevalence of internet addiction among adolescents of urban and rural areas in Greece, b) to examine whether the Internet Addiction Test cut-off point is applicable to them and c) to investigate the phenomenon's association with academic achievement. Participants were 2090 adolescents (mean age 16, 1036 males,…

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with physical fighting among Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Hussin, Siti Fatimah; Abd Aziz, Nur Shahida; Hasim, Hazrin; Sahril, Norhafizah

    2014-09-01

    Physical fighting among adolescents is one manifestation of interpersonal violence that is an important issue globally, but attention to this problem in Malaysia has been limited. We analyzed data available from the Malaysia Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2012. Of the 25 507 respondents, 27.4% reported having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months. Being bullied (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.67-3.39) was significantly and highly associated with involvement in physical fighting. Smoking (aOR = 2.56; 95% CI = 2.20-2.97), males (aOR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.62-1.93), using drugs (aOR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.09-2.15), and drinking alcohol (aOR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.24-1.63) were other factors associated with physical fighting. Parental supervision showed no significant association with physical fighting. These findings indicate that more attention needs to be given to bullying at school by school authorities and parents.

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with physical fighting among Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Hussin, Siti Fatimah; Abd Aziz, Nur Shahida; Hasim, Hazrin; Sahril, Norhafizah

    2014-09-01

    Physical fighting among adolescents is one manifestation of interpersonal violence that is an important issue globally, but attention to this problem in Malaysia has been limited. We analyzed data available from the Malaysia Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2012. Of the 25 507 respondents, 27.4% reported having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months. Being bullied (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.67-3.39) was significantly and highly associated with involvement in physical fighting. Smoking (aOR = 2.56; 95% CI = 2.20-2.97), males (aOR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.62-1.93), using drugs (aOR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.09-2.15), and drinking alcohol (aOR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.24-1.63) were other factors associated with physical fighting. Parental supervision showed no significant association with physical fighting. These findings indicate that more attention needs to be given to bullying at school by school authorities and parents. PMID:25038192

  5. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder in children and adolescents from public schools in Southern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Minghelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD in children and adolescents is in the range of 6-68% and can be triggered or aggravated by emotional stress. Aim: The study was to investigate the prevalence of TMD in Portuguese children and adolescents and its association with emotional stress. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 3,260 students aged 5-19 years. The questionnaire was used to assess the presence of TMD, and was applied in a single moment. Results: TMD was observed in 821 (25.2% students. The most common symptoms of TMD were: if considered tense or nervous (52%, have headaches (36.8%, and habit of clenching or grinding teeth (27.3%. The girls had a 1.36 higher probability of developing TMD than boys (95% CI: 1.14-1.63; p < 0.001; moreover, students from the older age group had a 2.31 higher probability of developing the disorder (95% CI: 1.85-2.89; p < 0.001. Students who considered themselves tense or nervous presented 8.74 higher probability (95% CI: 7.03-10.86; p < 0.001 of developing TMD. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of TMD in children and adolescents in southern Portugal, and revealed a significant association between this dysfunction and the levels of emotional stress. Female students, older students, and those considered tense or nervous have a higher probability of developing TMD.

  6. Prevalence of gingivitis and associated factors in 13-16-year-old adolescents in Greece

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    Nikolaos Andreas Chrysanthakopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of gingivitis and investigate possible associations among gingivitis and socioeconomic, demographic variables and oral hygiene habits in a sample of adolescents in Greece. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 812 adolescents, 384 boys and 428 girls aged 13-16 years. All participants were clinically examined and answered questions regarding socioeconomic, demographic variables and oral hygiene habits. Statistical analysis of the questionnaire items was carried out by using a multiple logistic regression analysis models. Results: Five hundred and ninety-one adolescents were diagnosed as having gingivitis giving a prevalence rate 72.8%. Male gender (P < 0.05, lower parental educational (P < 0.01 and income level (P = 0.001, no regular dental follow-up (P < 0.001, no daily tooth-brushing (P < 0.001, no dental floss use (P < 0.001, presence of dental plaque (P < 0.001, and smoking (P < 0.001 were the most important associated factors of gingivitis. Conclusion: The study showed that gingivitis was associated with male gender, lower educational and income parental level, inadequate oral hygiene, the presence of dental plaque and smoking while the prevalence of this condition in the study sample was 72.8%.

  7. [SURPS French version validation in a Quebec adolescent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay-Jolin, Laura; Perrier-Ménard, Eveline; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Garel, Patricia; Séguin, Jean R; Conrod, Patricia J

    2013-09-01

    Objective: The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) has been developed to screen personality risk factors for substance misuse. This scale assesses 4 high-risk personality traits using a 23-item, self-report questionnaire. SURPS helps guiding targeted approaches to prevention of substance abuse and misuse. It has been validated in the United Kingdom, English Canada, Sri Lanka, and China. This study aims to validate this scale in a sample of French-speaking adolescents from Quebec as well as its sensitivity in a clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Two hundred two 15-year-old youths from a community sample completed a French version of SURPS as well as other measures of personality and substance use. This study reports the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the scale, as well as a factor analysis of items. Further, 40 youths (mean age 15.7 years) from a clinical population completed SURPS and their scores were compared with those of the community sample. Results: SURPS French translation has good internal consistency and demonstrated a 4-factor structure very similar to the original scale. The 4 subscales show good concurrent validity, and 3 of the subscales were found to correlate with measures of substance use. Finally, 95% of the clinical sample was identified at high risk for substance misuse according to SURPS cut-off scores. Conclusion: SURPS French translation seems to be a valid and sensitive scale that can be used in a French-speaking adolescent population from Quebec.

  8. The role of national policies intended to regulate adolescent smoking in explaining the prevalence of daily smoking: a study of adolescents from 27 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Christina W; Kreiner, Svend; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    bans in schools were associated with lower odds ratios of daily smoking, which was the one positive association in the study. The study found no association between cigarette prices and adolescent daily smoking prevalence, and also the somewhat unexpected finding that having an age limit for allowing......AIMS: This study seeks to examine whether contextual factors influence adolescents' daily smoking. A focus was placed on three modifiable policies operating at a national level, non-smoking policy at educational facilities, price and minimum age for buying tobacco. DESIGN: This study is based...... voluntary bans. If this association is causal, introducing mandatory bans may reduce adolescent smoking prevalence. The findings that price was unrelated to smoking prevalence undermine findings elsewhere that adolescent smokers are more price-sensitive than adult smokers, but longitudinal studies...

  9. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Samantha Caesar de; Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital). Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents), 20 to 59 years old (adults) and 60 years old or over (older adults). Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R). The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points) over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar) components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups. PMID:27547722

  10. Motivos e prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal em adolescentes Reasons and prevalence of body image dissatisfaction in adolescents

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    Edio Luiz Petroski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar os motivos e a prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal (IC em adolescentes. Métodos: Participaram do estudo 641 adolescentes de 11 a 17 anos. A imagem corporal foi autoavaliada através da escala de nove silhuetas corporais. Resultados: A prevalência de insatisfação com a IC foi de 60,4% (masculino = 54,5%, feminino = 65,7%; p OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of body image (BI dissatisfaction in adolescents. The study enrolled 641 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the town of Saudades, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of BI dissatisfaction was 60.4% (males = 54.5%, females = 65.7%; p < 0.05. Boys were more likely to wish to increase the size of their body silhouette (26.4% while girls wished to reduce theirs (52.4%. Adolescents from urban areas manifested greater prevalence of BI dissatisfaction and were more likely to want to reduce their body silhouette. The reasons given by these adolescents for why they were dissatisfied with their body images were similar for both sexes (p = 0.156. When analyzed by neighborhood the urban adolescents said that their dissatisfaction was esthetic, whereas the rural adolescents said it was based on self-esteem. An association was detected between perceived BI and the reasons for dissatisfaction. Conclusions: Esthetics, self-esteem and health were the most common reasons for BI dissatisfaction among these adolescents. More than half of them were dissatisfied with their body silhouettes. Therefore, there is a need for interventions by health services and professionals in this age range in order to avoid possible future problems with eating disorders (anorexia, bulimia and vigorexia.

  11. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe : population based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, Joan K; Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Greenlees, Ruth; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Dias, Carlos; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Lynch, Catherine; McDonnell, Robert; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O'Mahony, Mary T; Pierini, Anna; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; de Walle, Hermien E K; Wellesley, Diana; Wiesel, Awi; Dolk, Helen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide contemporary estimates of the prevalence of microcephaly in Europe, determine if the diagnosis of microcephaly is consistent across Europe, and evaluate whether changes in prevalence would be detected using the current European surveillance performed by EUROCAT (the European S

  12. Population-based cohort study of anti-infective medication use before and after the onset of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C; van der Vorst, Marja M J; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; de Boer, Anthonius; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2014-01-01

    A population-based cohort study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO database to investigate prevalence and patterns of anti-infective medication use in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) before and after the onset of this disease. All patients <19 years with at least 2 insulin prescri

  13. BIRTH AND POPULATION PREVALENCE OF DUCHENNE MUSCULAR-DYSTROPHY IN THE NETHERLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANESSEN, AJ; BUSCH, HFM; TEMEERMAN, GJ; TENKATE, LP

    1992-01-01

    Mutations causing Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have a short survival. Therefore, birth and population prevalence are maintained by new mutations. The present inventory was made to estimate the birth and population prevalence rates of DMD in the Netherlands. Seven methods of case identification

  14. Prevalence of hepatitis C in the general population in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slavenburg, S.; Verduyn-Lunel, F.M.; Hermsen, J.T.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Drenth, J.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted by blood-blood contact and this leads to high HCV prevalence in risk populations such as haemophilia patients and intravenous drug users. The prevalence in the general Dutch population is unknown, although it appears to be very low in screen

  15. Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome in obese Kuwaiti adolescents

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    Boodai SA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shurooq A Boodai,1 Lynne M Cherry,2 Naveed A Sattar,2 John J Reilly3 1University of Glasgow School of Medicine, Yorkhill Hospitals, Glasgow, Scotland; 2Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland; 3University of Strathclyde Physical Activity for Health Group, School of Psychological Sciences and Health, Glasgow, Scotland Background: Childhood and adolescent obesity is associated with insulin resistance, abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation, liver disease, and compromised vascular function. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MetS in a sample of obese Kuwaiti adolescents, as prevalence data might be helpful in improving engagement with obesity treatment in future. Methods: Eighty obese Kuwaiti adolescents (40 males with a mean (standard deviation age of 12.3 years (1.1 years participated in the present study. All participants had a detailed clinical examination and anthropometry, blood pressure taken, and assessment of fasting levels of C-reactive protein, intracellular adhesion molecule, interleukin-6, fasting blood glucose, insulin, liver function tests (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lipid profile (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment, and adiponectin. MetS was assessed using two recognized criteria modified for use in younger individuals. Results: The cardiometabolic risk factors with highest prevalence of abnormal values included aspartate aminotransferase (88.7% of the sample and insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (67.5%, intracellular adhesion molecule (66.5%, fasting insulin (43.5%, C-reactive protein (42.5%, low

  16. Determination of the obesity prevalence and affecting risk factors, of eating habits among adolescents

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    Demet Aktas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and the affecting risk factors of obesity and the eating habits among adolescents. Methods: The study is a descriptive in design. The research was carried out between December 2013 and February 2014 at a private university in Ankara. This study was conducted with 260 students. The data were presented as frequencies, mean, standard deviations and were analyzed by test of chi-square, Pearson correlation analysis and logistic regression analysis. Data were collected using an Interview Questionnaire, the Eating Habits Index and anthropometric measurements were performed. Results: The mean age of students was 20.87+/-2.29. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among students were 23.1% and 6.5% respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was related with male gender (p<0.05, family history of obesity (95% CI: 2.22-2.43, fast eating habit (p<0.05, and healthy dietary habits (95% CI: 1.02-2.85. The percents of moderate grade and high grade risk groups of students according to Eating Habits Index were 56.5 and 30.8 respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in this study was determined to be high. The prevention and control of obesity is urgently needed. In this content, comprehensive strategies of intervention propose periodical monitoring, education on pattern of nutrition, and healthy dietary behaviors. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 406-412

  17. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents of Urban AND Rural Area of Surat, Gujarat

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    Alok Parekh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study in prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban & rural adolescents in Surat (Gujarat, India. Methods: The data were derived from cross-sectional sampling of children, 176 in rural and 213 in urban, aged 14–16 years doing study in government schools in year of 2009. Age, gender and body mass index (BMI were used to define overweight and obesity. Result: The prevalence of obesity increased significantly from 12.8% in rural to 14.6% in urban (p<0.01, whereas underweight decreased from 13.6% to 4.6% (p<0.001. There was a significantly higher risk of being overweight and obese in urban than rural, after adjusting for age, gender. Urban Males had significantly higher increase in prevalence and risk of being overweight and obese. Conclusion: This study showed an increasing in prevalence of overweight and obesity in urban adolescents especially with male gender, calling for an urgent need for immediate and targeted preventive measures. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 325-329

  18. Cannabis use disorders are comparatively prevalent among nonwhite racial/ethnic groups and adolescents: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Brady, Kathleen T; Mannelli, Paolo; Killeen, Therese K

    2014-03-01

    The racial/ethnic composition of the US population is shifting, with the nonwhite population growing faster than whites. We examined cannabis use disorder (CUD) prevalences and correlates in seven racial/ethnic groups. We included cannabis use (CU) prevalence as a comparison. Data were from the 2005-2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N = 394,400). Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted, self-interviewing methods. The following were included as control variables: age, sex, family income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode history, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder, and survey year. Past-year CU prevalence increased significantly from 10.45% in 2005 to 11.41-11.54% during 2009-2011. Compared with whites, mixed-race individuals had higher odds of CU; Asian Americans and Hispanics had lower odds of CU. There were no significant yearly changes in CUD prevalence in the sample during 2005-2011 (1.58-1.73%). Compared with whites, individuals who were mixed-race, black, and Native American had higher odds of CUD; Asian Americans had lower odds. In aggregate, 15.35% of past-year cannabis users met criteria for a CUD in the 12-month period. Past-year cannabis users who were black, Native American, Hispanic, or Asian American had higher odds of CUD than white users. In each racial/ethnic group, adolescent cannabis users generally showed greater odds of CUD than adult users. Behavioral health indicators (major depressive episode, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder) were associated with CU and CUD. In conclusion, CUD disproportionally affects nonwhite groups and youth. PMID:24342767

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of depressive disorders in early adolescents in central Norway

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    Larsson Bo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of depressive disorders among adolescents has varied across studies. The present study aims to assess current and lifetime prevalence and characteristics of adolescent Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Dysthymia and Depression NOS among adolescents in Central Norway in addition to socio-demographics and use of mental health care. Method In the Youth and Mental Health Study a representative sample of 2432 junior high school students (mean age 14.9 years, SD = 0.6 from two counties in Central Norway were screened with the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ. A subset of 345 of these adolescents (72.5% girls, 220 high scorers (MFQ = > 26, 74 middle scorers (MFQ 7-25, and 50 low scorers (MFQ Results Almost one in four subjects (23% had life-time depression. Prevalences of current Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Dysthymia and "Double depression" were 2.6%, 1.0% and 0.6%, respectively, and for Depression NOS 6.3%. All depressive disorders were characterized by long duration of episodes with large variations, and for any depressive disorder onset before 12 years of age. In multivariate analyses MDD and Dysthymia were most strongly associated with gender and not living with both biological parents. There was no gender difference for Depression NOS. Although a considerable number of depressed subjects had received mental health care, the reason for contact with services was seldom due to affective symptoms. Less than 20% had been in contact with specialist mental health services. Conclusion High rates of Depression NOS, early onset of depressive episodes, long duration, and low use of specialized services point to the need for improved diagnostic assessment and treatment for young individuals.

  20. Body weight/image perceptions and prevalence of obesity among adolescents-Kerala, India

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    K Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity can be seen as the first wave of a defined cluster of non communicable diseases called "New World Syndrome" creating an enormous socioeconomic and public health burden in poorer countries. The rising prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity cannot be addressed by a single etiology. Multiple factors plays role and among them perception on body weight and image plays vital role in adolescents. So the objective of this study was to know the perceptions of adolescents on their body weight and body image. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of high schools of Thiruvananthapuram city corporation, Kerala, India. The sample size of this study was 1718 and the technique adopted is multistage and stratified random sampling. Data was collected using pre designed and pretested semi-structured questionnaire which is self-administered. Body mass index was calculated based on physical measurements such as height and weight using standard methods. Results: This study revealed that 67.3% of study subjects underestimated their body weight and 15.5% over estimated their body weight. The prevalence of overweight/obesity is high among those who underestimated their body weight (18.7% compared to subjects who overestimated (6.7% but the prevalence of underweight is high among the subjects who overestimated their body weight (60.8% compared to subjects who underestimated (22%. Conclusion: Schools are probably the ideal medium of intervention as they are central to children′s lives and information can be relatively quickly dissipated through this channel and Helping adolescents to attain a realistic, positive perception of their body weight and image through health education.

  1. Prevalence of Internet addiction and its association with social support and other related factors among adolescents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Jing; Li, Yi-Feng; Bi, Linda; Qian, Zhen-Zhong; Lu, Shan-Shan; Feng, Fang; Hu, Cai-Yun; Gong, Feng-Feng; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2016-10-01

    A cross-sectional study design was applied amongst a random sample (n = 10158) of Chinese adolescents. Self-completed questionnaires, including demographic characteristics, Internet use situation, Youth Internet Addiction Test, Youth Social Support Rating Scale and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale were utilized to examine the study objectives. Among the study population, the prevalence rate of Internet addiction was 10.4%, with 1038 (10.2%) moderately and 21 (0.2%) severely addicted to the Internet. Results from the multivariate logistic regression analyses suggested that a variety of related factors have significant effects on Internet addiction (parental control, per capita annual household income, academic performance, the access to Internet, online activities). The correlation coefficients showed that Internet addiction was negatively correlated with social support and positively associated with depression. Social support had a significant negative predictive effect on Internet addiction. The mediating effect of depression between social support and Internet addiction was remarkable. PMID:27544491

  2. Epidemiological determinants of obesity in adolescent population Maharastra, India. Sanjeev Chincholikar1, Amit Sohani2

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    Sanjeev Chincholikar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For establishing effective intervention, it is important to identify major determinants in an early stage of life. Effective prevention of adult obesity will require prevention and management of childhood obesity. Aims & Objectives: To study the epidemiological determinants of obesity in adolescent girls. Material & Methods: All adolescent school going boys and girls in the age group between 10 to 19 years were included as per definition of adolescent. 585 students were selected by systematic sample i.e. every 3rd student was included in the study sample. A pretested standardized questionnaire which consisted of questions related to sociodemographic data was used to screen the population for obesity. Results: When body mass index was correlated with various socioeconomic variables, it was found that prevalence of obesity was more in   males (overweight- 20.84%;obese-5.43% as compared to females (overweight- 16.92%; obese-3.14%,more  in the upper socioeconomic status (27.27% as compared to lower socioeconomic status(15%,more in  subjects with more frequency of junk food(30.97% as compared to having occasional junk food (20.93,more in  subjects with more frequency of eating sweets ( 25.73% as compared to occasional sweet eaters(13.59%. Conclusion: The dietary habits like more frequency of junk food, more sweet consumption, and socioeconomic status had a major impact on body mass index of children.

  3. Malocclusion prevalence and orthodontic treatment need in central Anatolian adolescents compared to European and other nations' adolescents

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    Fundagul Bilgic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in a large sample of Central Anatolian adolescents and compare them with European-other nations' adolescents. Methods: The sample included 1125 boys and 1204 girls aged between 12 and 16 years with no previous orthodontic treatment history. Occlusal variables examined were molar relationship, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, posterior crossbite, and scissors bite. The dental health (DHC and aesthetic components (AC of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN were used as an assessment measure of the need for orthodontic treatment for the total sample. Results: The results indicated a high prevalence of Class I (34.9% and Class II, Division 1 malocclusions (40.0%. Moreover, increased (18% and reduced bites (14.%, and increased (25.1% and reversed overjet (10.% were present in the sample. Conclusion: Using the DHC of the IOTN, the proportion of subjects estimated to have great and very great treatment need (grades 4 and 5 was 28.%. However, only 16.7% of individuals were in need (grades 8-10 of orthodontic treatment according to the AC.

  4. Annual Research Review: A Meta-Analysis of the Worldwide Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Salum, Giovanni A.; Sugaya, Luisa S.; Caye, Arthur; Rohde, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature on the prevalence of mental disorders affecting children and adolescents has expanded significantly over the last three decades around the world. Despite the field having matured significantly, there has been no meta-analysis to calculate a worldwide-pooled prevalence and to empirically assess the sources of…

  5. Social and dental status along the life course and oral health impacts in adolescents: a population-based birth cohort

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    Menezes Ana MB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful social conditions in early life might predispose individuals to dental status which in turn may impact on adolescents' quality of life. Aims To estimate the prevalence of oral health impacts among 12 yr-old Brazilian adolescents (n = 359 and its association with life course socioeconomic variables, dental status and dental services utilization in a population-based birth cohort in Southern Brazil. Methods Exploratory variables were collected at birth, at 6 and 12 yr of age. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (OIDP was collected in adolescence and it was analyzed as a ranked outcome (OIDP from 0 to 9. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance was performed guided by a theoretical determination model. Results The response rate was of 94.4% (n = 339. The prevalence of OIDP = 1 was 30.1% (CI95%25.2;35.0 and OIDP ≥ 2 was 28.0% (CI95%23.2;32.8. The most common daily activity affected was eating (44.8%, follow by cleaning the mouth and smiling (15.6%, and 15.0%, respectively. In the final model mother schooling and mother employment status in early cohort participant's life were associated with OIDP in adolescence. As higher untreated dental caries at age 6 and 12 years, and the presence of dental pain, gingival bleeding and incisal crowing in adolescence as higher the OIDP score. On the other hand, dental fluorosis was associated with low OIDP score. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of adolescent's early life social environmental as mother schooling and mother employment status and the early and later dental status on the adolescent's quality of life regardless family income and use of dental services.

  6. ESCAP holds expert group meeting on population issues facing adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes the activities at the ESCAP Population Division Expert Group Meeting on Adolescents that was held during September-October 1997 in Bangkok, Thailand. The meeting was a follow-up to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The meeting considered 1) the ICPD recommendations; 2) the recommendations contained in the Jakarta Plan of Action on Human Resource Development; and 3) the Proposals for Action on Human Resources Development for Youth in Asia and the Pacific. Participants included about 25 people from Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The conference relied on 8 invited experts, two resource persons, advisors from the UNFPA Country Support Team for East and Southeast Asia, and representatives of UNFPA, the Population Council, and the East-West Center. A concern was the declining age of menarche of girls in the ESCAP region and the increasing age of marriage. During the time of menarche and marriage, girls are migrating and moving away from their family and community in rural areas. Family structure and relationships are changing. Increases are observed in adolescent premarital sexual activity, the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, substance abuse, teenage pregnancy, and abortion. The mass media and information technologies have both a positive and a negative influence on adolescents. Parent-child communication exchanges and teacher-student exchanges are "less than ideal." Old traditions and practices change slower than people change. Boys and girls are affected differently by the sociocultural and economic environment. The societal norms set expectations for behavior that may conflict with individual beliefs and practices. Changes brought by globalization and rapid economic growth provide greater opportunity for young girls and women to obtain employment and autonomy.

  7. Hypertension in a pediatric and adolescent population following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, R S; Zalenski, R; Geary, D F; Iravani, A; Garin, E H; Pfaff, W W; Howard, R J; Brient, B W; Walker, D; Richard, G A

    1981-06-01

    The post-renal transplant courses of 53 children and adolescents were evaluated for the prevalence and the etiology of hypertension. The blood pressures were averaged over specific time periods following transplantation and converted to percentile ranks according to standards for age. The number of antihypertensives employed to control blood pressure was assessed. Factors such as sex, obesity, race, donor source, antigen match, steroid administration, rejection, recurrent glomerulonephritis, pre-transplant nephrectomy, renal function and proteinuria were assessed as to their importance in producing hypertension or normotension in the post-transplant period. The average blood pressure was well within acceptable range shortly after transplantation. The patients requiring antihypertensives to control blood pressure dropped by two years post transplant. Chronic rejection was by far the most important factor influencing average blood pressure and the need to employ antihypertensives. Alternate-day prednisone and good graft function were important in establishing the normotensive state. PMID:7042620

  8. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance among obese children and adolescents

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    Robabeh Ghergherechi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Robabeh Ghergherechi1, Ali Tabrizi21Department of Pediatrics Endocrinology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Students’ Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranPurpose: Obesity is one of the most important nutritional disorders in the world which has an obvious relationship with the incidence of metabolic diseases. Obesity prevalence has increased among children and adolescents during recent decades, leading to a rise in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM II prevalence in these two age brackets. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, and gather metabolic findings in obese children and adolescents.Methods and materials: We studied 110 obese children and adolescents (body mass index > 95th percentile for age and gender 4–18 years of age referred to the endocrine clinic of the Children’s Hospital at Tabriz University in a descriptive cross-sectional study. ­Fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in all subjects were determined. Oral glucose tolerance test after eating 75 g/kg glucose was performed. Homeostatic model assessment was used to ­estimate insulin resistance.Results: Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance prevalence in 68 obese adolescents was 14.7% and 31.8%, respectively. Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was not seen in 23.8% of 42 obese children. No case of DM II was seen. There was a significant statistical difference in glucose (P = 0.003 and insulin (P < 0.001 level at minute 120 in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance compared to obese children and adolescents without impaired glucose tolerance. Rate of insulin resistance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance was greater and had a significant statistical difference (P = 0.03.Conclusion: Obesity has a close relationship with increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in children and adolescents. Oral glucose

  9. Prevalence of Dysmenorrhea among Adolescent Girls (14-19 Yrs) of Kadapa District and its Impact on Quality of Life: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh K. Kumbhar, Mrudula Reddy, Sujana B., Roja Reddy K., Divya Bhargavi K., C. Balkrishna

    2011-01-01

    Background: After menarche many adolescent girls faces problems of irregular menstruation, excessive bleeding, and dysmenorrhea. Of these, dysmenorrhea is one of the common problems experienced by most of the adolescent girls. This study conducted to assess the prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its impact on adolescent girls (14 – 19 yrs) Objectives: This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of dysmenorrhea among adolescent girls (14-19yrs) and also to study the various symptoms of dys...

  10. Prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in healthy children and adolescents in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Figueira-Silva Cecília M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and age distribution of Epstein-Barr virus infection varies in different populations and there is little information about the epidemiology of this infection in Brazil. We studied the prevalence of EBV antibodies in a sample of 283 children and adolescents between 1 and 21 years old. The sample was taken from two neighborhoods in Vitória (capital city of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The São Pedro (SP neighborhood represented an area with lower socioeconomic status and the Praias (P neighborhood represented an area with higher SES. Anti-VCA (Virus Capsid Antigen antibodies were detected by ELISA and anti-EBNA (Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen antibodies were detected by an anti-complement immunofluorescence method, both using commercial kits. The results showed an overall prevalence rates of anti-VCA and anti-EBNA of 71% and 54% respectively. The prevalence for both anti-EBV antibodies was higher and probably the infection occurred earlier in the SP neighborhood. Among the various socioeconomic factors studied only low family income and maternal education level were significantly correlated with a higher frequency of positive serology for anti-VCA. These results demonstrate that there is a high prevalence of EBV antibodies in children and adolescents living in Vitória, that occurs more frequently at a younger age in children from families with low socioeconomic status. In addition, the results demonstrate an intermediate age distribution pattern between those reported in developed and underdeveloped countries.

  11. Prevalence, comorbidities, and cofactors associated with alcohol consumption among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Mala A; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta B; Abdul Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Bt; Kamaruddin, Rozanim Bt; Sabtu, Mohd Yusoff B

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol is deleterious to physical and mental health as well as social well-being. This study aims to examine the prevalence of alcohol consumption and factors associated with its use among school-going Malaysian adolescents. The Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 employed 2-stage clustering design to Malaysian secondary school respondents aged 12 to 17 years. The prevalence of current alcohol usage was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8-10.07) overall, 11.2% (95% CI: 9.80-12.80) among males, and 23.4 (95% CI: 21.40-25.50) among Chinese students. Multivariate logistic regression showed that adolescents who had used alcohol were more likely to have used substance (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.39; 95% CI: 2.33-4.99), experienced injury (aOR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.20-1.95), and engaged in sexual behaviors (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.12-1.79), and fights (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.08-1.41). The current national policies on alcohol should be strengthened to curb alcohol consumption among adolescents.

  12. The prevalence of inhalant use and associated factors among adolescents in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

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    Fernando Silva-Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study was to establish the prevalence of inhalant use among adolescents and its association with marijuana use, alcohol consumption, socioeconomic status and gender. A cross-sectional study was performed with a representative sample of 891 adolescents from public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data were collected using two self-administered questionnaires: the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT C. The socioeconomic status was evaluated using the Social Vulnerability Index, mother's education level and type of school (public or private. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test (p < 0.05 and logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of inhalant use was 7.9%. No significant association was found between the use of inhalants and socioeconomic status after the logistic regression analysis. Inhalant use among adolescents was associated with marijuana use (OR: 4.61; 95% CI: 2.27 - 9.36 and with binge drinking (OR: 5.02; 95% CI: 2.57 - 9.81.

  13. Population pharmacokinetics of midazolam and its metabolites in overweight and obese adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Rongen (Anne); J.D. Vaughns (Janelle D.); G.S. Moorthy (Ganesh S.); J.S. Barrett (Jeffrey S.); C.A.J. Knibbe (Catherijne); J.N. van den Anker (John)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAim In view of the increasing prevalence of obesity in adolescents, the aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A substrate midazolam and its metabolites in overweight and obese adolescents. Methods Overweight (BMI for age ≥ 85th percentile) and obese (BMI for

  14. Prevalence of frailty and contributory factors in three Chinese populations with different socioeconomic and healthcare characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Jean; Zheng, Zheng; Leung, Jason; Chan, Piu

    2015-01-01

    Background Frailty predicts dependence and mortality, and is an important health indicator for aging populations. Comparing frailty prevalence between populations of the same ethnicity but different socioeconomic, lifestyle, health and social care systems, and environmental characteristics would address the role of these factors in contributing to frailty. Methods We compare frailty prevalence and contributory factors across three Chinese populations: Beijing rural, Beijing urban, and Hong Ko...

  15. Prevalência de hipertensão pulmonar avaliada por ecocardiografia Doppler em uma população de pacientes adolescentes e adultos com fibrose cística Prevalence of pulmonary hypertension evaluated by Doppler echocardiography in a population of adolescent and adult patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Maria Eidt Rovedder

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de hipertensão pulmonar (HP em pacientes com fibrose cística (FC, comparar características clínicas, escore radiológico, função pulmonar e parâmetros ecocardiográficos nos grupos com e sem HP e correlacionar achados ecocardiográficos com características clínicas, escore radiológico e função pulmonar. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal prospectivo em pacientes clinicamente estáveis (idade > 16 anos atendidos por um programa de adultos para FC. Os pacientes foram submetidos a avaliação clínica, ecocardiografia Doppler, testes de função pulmonar e exame radiológico do tórax. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se a velocidade de regurgitação tricúspide (VRT em 37 dos 40 pacientes estudados. A prevalência de HP foi de 49% com um ponte de corte da VRT de 2,5 m/s (18 pacientes e de 30% com um ponte de corte da VRT de 2,8 m/s (11 pacientes. Os valores de saturação periférica de oxigênio (SpO2 em repouso, escore clínico, volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 e capacidade vital forçada (CVF foram significativamente menores no grupo com HP. A VRT correlacionou-se significativamente com SpO2 em repouso (p OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, to compare clinical characteristics, radiographic scores, pulmonary function, and echocardiographic parameters in patients with and without PH, and to correlate echocardiographic findings with clinical characteristics, radiographic scores, and pulmonary function. METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study involving clinically stable patients (aged 16 or older enrolled in an adult CF program. The patients were submitted to clinical evaluation, Doppler echocardiography, pulmonary function tests, and chest X-rays. RESULTS: Tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV was obtained in 37 of the 40 patients studied. The prevalence of PH was 49% with a TRV cut-off of 2.5 m/s (18 patients

  16. Physical activity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders and in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Mangerud, Wenche Langfjord; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adults who suffer from psychiatric disorders report low levels of physical activity and the activity levels differ between disorders. Less is known regarding physical activity across psychiatric disorders in adolescence. We investigate the frequency and type of physical activity in adolescent psychiatric patients, compared with adolescents in the general population. Methods: A total of 566 adolescent psychiatric patients aged 13–18 years who participated in the CAP sur...

  17. Physical activity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders and in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Mangerud, Wenche Langfjord; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2014-01-01

    Background Adults who suffer from psychiatric disorders report low levels of physical activity and the activity levels differ between disorders. Less is known regarding physical activity across psychiatric disorders in adolescence. We investigate the frequency and type of physical activity in adolescent psychiatric patients, compared with adolescents in the general population. Methods A total of 566 adolescent psychiatric patients aged 13–18 years who participated in the CAP survey, Norway, w...

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Anemia Among Adolescents in Denizli, Turkey

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    İbrahim Ethem

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of anemia among adolescents in Denizli where Mediterranean cuisine (fresh fruit and vegetables is adopted.Methods: We accepted hemoglobin values below 12 g/dl for girls and 13 g/dl for boys as the criteria of anemia. We recorded a detailed history including nutritional habits, consumption of animal source foods especially red meat, consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, presence of parasitic infestation, psychosocial status, school success and any materials consumed except ordinary food.Findings: We investigated the prevalence of anemia in 1120 children (672 girls and 448 boys, aged 12 to 16 years. We found that the overall prevalence of anemia was 5.6%. 8.3% of the girls and 1.6% of the boys were anemic. We diagnosed iron deficiency anemia in 37(59% anemic patients and combined iron deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia in 26 (41% anemic patients. None of the patients had folic acid deficiency.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the socioeconomic status of the family, traditional eating habits of the region, the fear of gaining weight and irregular eating habits are of great importance in the development of adolescent anemia in Denizli.

  19. High prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in Hispanic adolescents: correlations with adipocytokines and markers of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cynthia M; Ortiz, Ana P; Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Velázquez-Torres, Guermarie; Santiago, Damarys; Giovannetti, Katya; Bernabe, Raúl; Lee, Mong-Hong; Yeung, Sai-Ching J

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed the association of cardiometabolic risk factors with systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and adypocytokines in a Hispanic adolescent subgroup. A clinic-based sample of 101 Puerto Rican adolescents, 48 of whom were overweight or obese based on body mass index percentiles for age and sex, was recruited during 2010. Data were collected through interviews, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and blood drawing. Overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 16.8 % and increased to 37.5 % among overweight/obese youth. The overweight/obese group exhibited significantly (p reactive protein, fibrinogen, leptin, and IL-6 and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, adiponectin, and IGF-1. Total adiponectin significantly correlated with most cardiovascular risk factors independent of sex, Tanner stage, and adiposity. Altered cardiometabolic and adipocytokine profiles were present in this Hispanic subgroup, reinforcing the need to strengthen strategies addressing childhood obesity. PMID:23828626

  20. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon. PMID:25986501

  1. Prevalence, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of GATA2-related myelodysplastic syndromes in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarski, Marcin W; Hirabayashi, Shinsuke; Pastor, Victor; Starý, Jan; Hasle, Henrik; Masetti, Riccardo; Dworzak, Michael; Schmugge, Markus; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry; Ussowicz, Marek; De Moerloose, Barbara; Catala, Albert; Smith, Owen P; Sedlacek, Petr; Lankester, Arjan C; Zecca, Marco; Bordon, Victoria; Matthes-Martin, Susanne; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Kühl, Jörn Sven; Sykora, Karl-Walter; Albert, Michael H; Przychodzien, Bartlomiej; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P; Schwarz, Stephan; Göhring, Gudrun; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Cseh, Annámaria; Noellke, Peter; Yoshimi, Ayami; Locatelli, Franco; Baumann, Irith; Strahm, Brigitte; Niemeyer, Charlotte M

    2016-03-17

    Germline GATA2 mutations cause cellular deficiencies with high propensity for myeloid disease. We investigated 426 children and adolescents with primary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and 82 cases with secondary MDS enrolled in 2 consecutive prospective studies of the European Working Group of MDS in Childhood (EWOG-MDS) conducted in Germany over a period of 15 years. Germline GATA2 mutations accounted for 15% of advanced and 7% of all primary MDS cases, but were absent in children with MDS secondary to therapy or acquired aplastic anemia. Mutation carriers were older at diagnosis and more likely to present with monosomy 7 and advanced disease compared with wild-type cases. For stratified analysis according to karyotype, 108 additional primary MDS patients registered with EWOG-MDS were studied. Overall, we identified 57 MDS patients with germline GATA2 mutations. GATA2 mutations were highly prevalent among patients with monosomy 7 (37%, all ages) reaching its peak in adolescence (72% of adolescents with monosomy 7). Unexpectedly, monocytosis was more frequent in GATA2-mutated patients. However, when adjusted for the selection bias from monosomy 7, mutational status had no effect on the hematologic phenotype. Finally, overall survival and outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) were not influenced by mutational status. This study identifies GATA2 mutations as the most common germline defect predisposing to pediatric MDS with a very high prevalence in adolescents with monosomy 7. GATA2 mutations do not confer poor prognosis in childhood MDS. However, the high risk for progression to advanced disease must guide decision-making toward timely HSCT. PMID:26702063

  2. Prevalence of Thinness and Stunting and Associated Factors among Adolescent School Girls in Adwa Town, North Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregyorgis, Tsgehana; Tadesse, Takele; Atenafu, Azeb

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Despite the fact that adolescence is a window of opportunity to break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition, adolescents are the neglected age groups. Hence information regarding the nutritional status of adolescents is lacking making creating and implementing intervention programs difficult. Objective. To assess the prevalence of thinness, stunting, and associated factors among adolescent school girls in Adwa town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods. Data on 814 adolescent female students were collected from March to April 2015 using interviewer administered pretested semistructured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO Anthroplus software. Results. The prevalence of thinness and stunting was 21.4% and 12.2%, respectively. Age of adolescent [AOR = 2.15 (1.14,4.03)], mother's educational status [AOR = 2.34 (1.14,4.80)], eating less than 3 meals per day [AOR = 1.66 (1.12,2.46)], having family size >5 [AOR = 2.53 (1.66,3.86)] were significantly associated with thinness among the adolescent girls. Family size >5 [AOR = 2.05 (1.31,3.23)] and unimproved source of drinking water [AOR = 3.82 (2.20,6.62)] were significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Thinness and stunting are prevalent problems in the study area. Strategies to improve the nutritional status of girls should be given much attention. PMID:27294107

  3. Prevalence of Thinness and Stunting and Associated Factors among Adolescent School Girls in Adwa Town, North Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregyorgis, Tsgehana; Tadesse, Takele; Atenafu, Azeb

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Despite the fact that adolescence is a window of opportunity to break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition, adolescents are the neglected age groups. Hence information regarding the nutritional status of adolescents is lacking making creating and implementing intervention programs difficult. Objective. To assess the prevalence of thinness, stunting, and associated factors among adolescent school girls in Adwa town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods. Data on 814 adolescent female students were collected from March to April 2015 using interviewer administered pretested semistructured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO Anthroplus software. Results. The prevalence of thinness and stunting was 21.4% and 12.2%, respectively. Age of adolescent [AOR = 2.15 (1.14,4.03)], mother's educational status [AOR = 2.34 (1.14,4.80)], eating less than 3 meals per day [AOR = 1.66 (1.12,2.46)], having family size >5 [AOR = 2.53 (1.66,3.86)] were significantly associated with thinness among the adolescent girls. Family size >5 [AOR = 2.05 (1.31,3.23)] and unimproved source of drinking water [AOR = 3.82 (2.20,6.62)] were significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Thinness and stunting are prevalent problems in the study area. Strategies to improve the nutritional status of girls should be given much attention. PMID:27294107

  4. Prevalence of insulin resistance and its association with metabolic syndrome criteria among Bolivian children and adolescents with obesity

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    Rodriguez Susana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a one of the most common nutritional disorder worldwide, clearly associated with the metabolic syndrome, condition with implications for the development of many chronic diseases. In the poorest countries of Latin America, malnourishment is still the most prevalent nutritional problem, but obesity is emerging in alarming rates over the last 10 years without a predictable association with metabolic syndrome. The objective of our study was to determine the association between insulin-resistance and components of the metabolic syndrome in a group of Bolivian obese children and adolescents. The second objective was determining the relation of acanthosis nigricans and insulin-resistance. Methods We studied 61 obese children and adolescents aged between 5 and 18 years old. All children underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and fasting blood sample was also obtained to measure insulin, HDL, LDL and triglycerides serum level. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III criteria adapted for children. Results Metabolic syndrome was found in 36% of the children, with a higher rate among males (40% than females (32.2% (p = 0.599. The prevalence of each of the components was 8.2% in impaired glucose tolerance, 42.6% for high triglyceride level, 55.7% for low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and 24.5% for high blood pressure. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR > 3.5 was found in 39.4% of the children, with a higher rate in males (50% than females (29%. A strong correlation was found between insulin resistance and high blood pressure (p = 0.0148 and high triglycerides (p = 0.002. No statistical significance was found between the presence of acanthosis nigricans and insulin resistance. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome has a prevalence of 36% in children and adolescent population in the study. Insulin resistance was very common among

  5. Population-based incidence and prevalence of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenen, J.C.W.; Arnts, H.; Maarel, S.M. van der; Padberg, G.W.A.M.; Verschuuren, J.J.; Bakker, E.; Weinreich, S.S.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and prevalence of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) in the Netherlands. METHODS: Using 3-source capture-recapture methodology, we estimated the total yearly number of newly found symptomatic individuals with FSHD, including those not registered in an

  6. Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderstrom, Irina R.

    2007-01-01

    Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

  7. Prevalence of odontogenic cysts and tumors among UAE population

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    Natheer Hashim Al-Rawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Odontogenic cysts and tumors are lesions that tend to arise from the tooth apparatus or its remnants. Odontogenic cysts and tumors constitute an important aspect of oral maxillofacial pathology as they can be diagnosed in general dental practice. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of odontogenic cysts and tumors diagnosed in the UAE and to compare the results with findings in the literature. Materials and Methods: Data of odontogenic cysts diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 were collected from the files of the Oral Pathology Laboratory and Oral Surgery Department of Tawam Hospital, UAE. Results: Most of the prevalent odontogenic cysts are radicular cysts (69.1% - followed by dentigerous cysts (7.9%. Among the odontogenic tumors, the most prevalent is odontoma (12.2% followed by ameloblastoma (2.9%. The middle and posterior mandible was the most common anatomic site for the formation of cysts and tumors. In fact, 93.4% of patients over 40 years presented with odontogenic cysts, whereas 6.3% presented with odontogenic tumor. Odontoma as odontogenic tumor was seen mostly in the first and second decades of life. Conclusion: The prevalence of odontogenic cysts was similar to that reported in the literature, with inflammatory cysts occurring most frequently.

  8. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in danish infants, children and adolescents--are we still on a plateau?

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    Camilla Schmidt Morgen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After the worldwide steep increase in child and adolescent overweight and obesity during the last decades, there is now evidence of a levelling off in the prevalence in many countries in the Western world. AIM: To examine whether there still is a plateau in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Danish children and adolescents, or whether the prevalence is decreasing or rising again. METHODS: THE TRENDS IN THE PREVALENCE RATES WERE BASED ON THREE DATA SETS PROVIDING COMPARABLE REPEATED ESTIMATES: 1 the Danish Health Visitors Child Health Database (DHVCHD with measurements on infant and childhood height and weight from 2002 to 2011 (n up to 39,984, 2 the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC with maternal reports of measured infant and childhood height and weight from 1998 to 2010 (n up to 56,826 and 3 the Danish part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (HBSC with self-reported information on adolescent height and weight from the years 2002 to 2010 (n = 16,557. Overweight and obesity were categorized according to WHO growth standards. Trends were assessed by repeated point estimates and linear regression analyses providing regression coefficients for changes in per cent per year with 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity for infants, children and adolescents showed a mixed pattern of decline, stability and increase (ranging from -1.10 through 0.29 per cent per year with CI's from -3.10 through 2.37. Overall, there were no consistent statistically significant trends upwards or downwards, although some significant downward trends in childhood and adolescence were observed. CONCLUSION: This study, based on data from 1998 through 2011, showed that the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity among Danish infants, children and adolescents were largely still on a plateau with tendencies for a decline among children and adolescents.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of truancy among adolescents in Swaziland: findings from the Global School-Based Health Survey

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    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Educational attainment is an important determinant of diverse health outcomes. Truancy among adolescents jeopardizes chances of achieving their educational goals. Truant behaviors are also associated with various psychosocial problems. There is however limited data on the prevalence and factors associated with truancy among adolescents in Africa. Methods We used data from the Swaziland Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS conducted in 2003 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported truancy within the last 30 days among adolescents. We also assessed the association between self-reported truancy and a selected list of independent variables using logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 7341 students participated in the study. In analysis of available data, 2526 (36.2% and 4470 (63.8% were males and females respectively. The overall prevalence of truancy within the last 30 days preceding the study was 21.6%. Prevalence of truancy was 27.4% (605 and 17.9% (723 in males and females respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, being a male, having been bullied, lower school grades, and alcohol use were positively associated with truancy. Adolescents who perceived themselves as having parental support were less likely to have reported being truant. Conclusion Truancy among adolescents in Swaziland should be regarded as an important social problem as it is relatively prevalent. The design and implementation of intervention programs aimed to reduce truant behaviours should incorporate our knowledge of the factors identified as associated with bullying.

  10. Overview on Prevalence and Recent Trends in Adolescent Substance Use and Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiper, Nicholas C; Ridenour, Ty A; Hochwalt, Bridget; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2016-07-01

    Substance use and consequent disorders have burdened US health care, criminal justice, and society at large for centuries. Pathological substance use almost invariably begins before 25 years of age, demonstrating how critical adolescence is within the etiology, prevention, and treatment of substance use disorder. This article provides a high-level overview of the prevalence of substance use disorders to provide a context within which the remaining issue provides in-depth descriptions of the evidence on specific topics. Described herein are trends in substance use, substance use disorder, and demographic comparisons. PMID:27338960

  11. Type I sensitization in adolescents: prevalence and association with atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens M.; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2003-01-01

    The prevalence of Type I sensitization and its relationship to atopic dermatitis were assessed in a cohort of 1501 8th grade schoolchildren (aged 12-16) in Odense, Denmark. The protocol included a questionnaire, a clinical examination, IgE measurements and skin prick tests. A history of atopic...... dermatitis was found in 21.3%, allergic asthma in 6.9% and allergic rhinitis in 15.7% of the adolescents. One or more positive specific IgE measurements (CAP FEIA) were found in 29.6% of the schoolchildren (inhalant allergens 28.4%, food allergens 8.5%, pityrosporum ovale 1.5%) and a considerable proportion...

  12. Prevalence and correlates of probable common mental disorders in a population with high prevalence of HIV in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Chibanda, D.; Cowan, F.; Gibson, L; Weiss, HA; Lund, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2014 close to 10 million people living with HIV (PLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa were on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). The incidence of non-communicable diseases has increased markedly in PLWH as mortality is reduced due to use of HAART. Common mental disorders (CMD) are highly prevalent in PLWH. We aimed to determine factors associated with probable CMD and depression, assessed by 2 locally validated screening tools in a population with high prevalence of HIV in Ha...

  13. Study of prevalence of depression in adolescent students of a public school

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    Vivek Bansal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Three to nine per cent of teenagers meet the criteria for depression at any one time, and at the end of adolescence, as many as 20% of teenagers report a lifetime prevalence of depression. Usual care by primary care physicians fails to recognize 30-50% of depressed patients. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional one-time observational study using simple screening instruments for detecting early symptoms of depression in adolescents. Two psychological instruments were used: GHQ-12 and BDI. Also socio-demographic data (e.g. academic performance, marital harmony of parents, bullying in school, etc was collected in a separate semi-structured performa. Statistical analysis was done with Fisher′s Exact Test using SPSS17. Results: 15.2% of school-going adolescents were found to be having evidence of distress (GHQ-12 score e"14; 18.4% were depressed (BDI score e"12; 5.6% students were detected to have positive scores on both the instruments. Certain factors like parental fights, beating at home and inability to cope up with studies were found to be significantly (P < 0.05 associated with higher GHQ-12 scores, indicating evidence of distress. Economic difficulty, physical punishment at school, teasing at school and parental fights were significantly (P < 0.05 associated with higher BDI scores, indicating depression. Conclusion: The study highlights the common but ignored problem of depression in adolescence. We recommend that teachers and parents be made aware of this problem with the help of school counselors so that the depressed adolescent can be identified and helped rather than suffer silently.

  14. Prevalence of pemphigus and pemphigoid autoantibodies in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Prüßmann, Wiebke; Prüßmann, Jasper; Koga, Hiroshi; Recke, Andreas; Iwata, Hiroaki; Juhl, David; Görg, Siegfried; Henschler, Reinhard; HASHIMOTO, TAKASHI; Schmidt, Enno; Zillikens, Detlef; Ibrahim, Saleh M.; Ludwig, Ralf J

    2015-01-01

    Background Mucocutaneous blistering is characteristic of autoimmune bullous dermatoses (AIBD). Blisters are caused by autoantibodies directed against structural components of the skin. Hence, detection of specific autoantibodies has become a hallmark for AIBD diagnosis. Studies on prevalence of AIBD autoantibodies in healthy individuals yielded contradictory results. Methods To clarify this, samples from 7063 blood donors were tested for presence of anti-BP180-NC16A, anti-BP230 and anti-Dsg1/...

  15. Contextual and individual assessment of dental pain period prevalence in adolescents: a multilevel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peres Marco A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence that health and disease occur in social contexts, the vast majority of studies addressing dental pain exclusively assessed information gathered at individual level. Objectives To assess the association between dental pain and contextual and individual characteristics in Brazilian adolescents. In addition, we aimed to test whether contextual Human Development Index is independently associated with dental pain after adjusting for individual level variables of socio-demographics and dental characteristics. Methods The study used data from an oral health survey carried out in São Paulo, Brazil, which included dental pain, dental exams, individual socioeconomic and demographic conditions, and Human Development Index at area level of 4,249 12-year-old and 1,566 15-year-old schoolchildren. The Poisson multilevel analysis was performed. Results Dental pain was found among 25.6% (95%CI = 24.5-26.7 of the adolescents and was 33% less prevalent among those living in more developed areas of the city than among those living in less developed areas. Girls, blacks, those whose parents earn low income and have low schooling, those studying at public schools, and those with dental treatment needs presented higher dental-pain prevalence than their counterparts. Area HDI remained associated with dental pain after adjusting for individual level variables of socio demographic and dental characteristics. Conclusions Girls, students whose parents have low schooling, those with low per capita income, those classified as having black skin color and those with dental treatment needs had higher dental pain prevalence than their counterparts. Students from areas with low Human Development Index had higher prevalence of dental pain than those from the more developed areas regardless of individual characteristics.

  16. Contextual and individual assessment of dental pain period prevalence in adolescents: a multilevel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that health and disease occur in social contexts, the vast majority of studies addressing dental pain exclusively assessed information gathered at individual level. Objectives To assess the association between dental pain and contextual and individual characteristics in Brazilian adolescents. In addition, we aimed to test whether contextual Human Development Index is independently associated with dental pain after adjusting for individual level variables of socio-demographics and dental characteristics. Methods The study used data from an oral health survey carried out in São Paulo, Brazil, which included dental pain, dental exams, individual socioeconomic and demographic conditions, and Human Development Index at area level of 4,249 12-year-old and 1,566 15-year-old schoolchildren. The Poisson multilevel analysis was performed. Results Dental pain was found among 25.6% (95%CI = 24.5-26.7) of the adolescents and was 33% less prevalent among those living in more developed areas of the city than among those living in less developed areas. Girls, blacks, those whose parents earn low income and have low schooling, those studying at public schools, and those with dental treatment needs presented higher dental-pain prevalence than their counterparts. Area HDI remained associated with dental pain after adjusting for individual level variables of socio demographic and dental characteristics. Conclusions Girls, students whose parents have low schooling, those with low per capita income, those classified as having black skin color and those with dental treatment needs had higher dental pain prevalence than their counterparts. Students from areas with low Human Development Index had higher prevalence of dental pain than those from the more developed areas regardless of individual characteristics. PMID:20707920

  17. Prevalence of Diabetes and Associated Factors in the Uyghur and Han Population in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Gong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of diabetes and identify risk factors in the Uyghur and Han population in Xinjiang, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study in urban and rural areas in Xinjiang, including 2863 members of the Uyghur population and 3060 of the Han population aged 20 to 80 years, was conducted from June 2013 to August 2013. Data on fasting plasma glucose (FPG and personal history of diabetes were used to estimate the prevalence of diabetes. Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, and lipid profiles were collected to identify risks factors using the multivariate logistic regression model. Results: In urban areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 8.21%, and the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was higher in the Uyghur population (10.47% than in the Han population (7.36%. In rural areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 6.08%, and it did not differ significantly between the Uyghur population (5.71% and the Han population (6.59%. The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older age, obesity, high triglycerides (TG, and hypertension were all associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur and Han population. Urban residence and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C were associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur population. Being an ex-drinker was associated with an increased risk of diabetes and heavy physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of diabetes in the Han population. Conclusions: Our study indicates that diabetes is more prevalent in the Uyghur population compared with the Han population in urban areas. Strategies aimed at the prevention of diabetes require ethnic targeting.

  18. Prevalence of thinness among the adolescent girls (age group 13yrs-18yrs of Garhkhal village of Himachal Pradesh, India.

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    Priyanka Rani Garg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition has now been redefined in terms of “under nutrition” and conceptualized in terms of thinness which is an important problem among children and adolescents in rural areas of developing countries like India. Therefore, present study was carried out to assess the prevalence of thinness among the adolescent girls (age group 13yrs-18yrs of Garhkhal Village of Himachal Pradesh, India. The study design was cross-sectional. Height and weight were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI was carried out. Identification of thinness was done according to the new International BMI-based classification cut offs as given by Cole et al., 2007. In general the mean BMI increased with increasing age. Overall age-combined prevalence was 79.5%. Present study indicated the poor health status of the adolescent girls of the selected area which indicates the high nutritional stress among them as evident from the thinness prevalent among them.

  19. Prevalence of widespread pain and associations with work status: a population study

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksson KG; Cöster Lars; Björk Jonas; Gerdle Björn; Henriksson Chris; Bengtsson Ann

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background This population study based on a representative sample from a Swedish county investigates the prevalence, duration, and determinants of widespread pain (WSP) in the population using two constructs and estimates how WSP affects work status. In addition, this study investigates the prevalence of widespread pain and its relationship to pain intensity, gender, age, income, work status, citizenship, civil status, urban residence, and health care seeking. Methods A cross-section...

  20. Prevalence and familial predictors of suicidal behaviour among adolescents in Lithuania: a cross-sectional survey 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sirvyte, Dainora; Zemaitiene, Nida

    2016-01-01

    Background In the past decades Lithuania has been experiencing a very high suicide rate among young people and there are scarce data on the role of the family in shaping these people suicidal behaviour. This study investigated the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts, as well as their association with a range of familial factors in a representative sample of Lithuanian adolescents. Methods Study subjects (N = 3572) were adolescents aged 13- and 15-years from the schools in Lithuania w...

  1. The prevalence and risk factors for depression symptoms in a rural Chinese sample population.

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    Xinghu Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is essential to understand how we can prevent and treat the epidemic of depression. Several studies have reported the prevalence of depressive symptoms in the urban population in China, but there is a lack of information regarding the prevalence of depression in rural populations. OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence of depression in a rural Chinese population and to analyze the risk factors for depression. METHODS: This study used a cross-sectional approach. A total of 11,473 subjects were surveyed and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9 and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief scales. Living conditions, per capita income, marital status, and information about dietary health and chronic disease status were assessed. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms in the population was 5.9%. The prevalence in women (8.1% was higher compared with men (3.5% and also increased with age. The per capita income level, amount of sleep obtained per day, education level, weekly consumption of meat and beans or bean products, salt intake, and chronic disease status were associated with depressive symptoms. The quality of life of individuals with a score less than 10 points on the PHQ-9 was significantly better compared with individuals with a score greater than 10. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among rural population is higher than some southern cities in China. Dietary patterns may be an important risk factor linked to this disorder in the Chinese rural population.

  2. High prevalence of side population in human cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Boesch, Maximilian; Zeimet, Alain G; Fiegl, Heidi; Wolf, Barbara; Huber, Julia; Klocker, Helmut; Gastl, Guenther; Sopper, Sieghart; Wolf, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cell lines are essential platforms for performing cancer research on human cells. We here demonstrate that, across tumor entities, human cancer cell lines harbor minority populations of putative stem-like cells, molecularly defined by dye extrusion resulting in the side population phenotype. These findings establish a heterogeneous nature of human cancer cell lines and argue for their stem cell origin. This should be considered when interpreting research involving these model systems.

  3. The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in a community sample of Iranian population: Iranian PCOS prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinpanah Farhad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the heavy burden and impact of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS in reproduction and public health, estimates regarding its prevalence at community levels are limited. We aimed to ascertain prevalence of PCOS in a community based sample using the National Institute of Health (NIH, the Rotterdam consensus (Rott. and the Androgen Excess Society (AES criteria. Methods Using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method, 1126 women were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women of different geographic regions of Iran. PCOS were diagnosed using universal assessment of ultrasonographic parameters, hormonal profiles and clinical histories. Results The mean +/- SD of age of study population was 34.4 +/- 7.6 years. Estimated prevalence of idiopathic hirsutism was 10.9% (95% CI: 8.9-12.9%; 8.3% of women had only oligo/anovulation and 8.0% had only polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS was 7.1% (95% CI: 5.4-8.8% using the NIH definition, 11.7% (95% CI: 9.5-13.7% by AES criteria and 14.6% (95% CI: 12.3-16.9% using the Rott definition. Conclusions At community level, widespread screening of Rotterdam criteria will increase the estimated prevalence of PCOS over twofold. Establishing an explicit and contemporaneous method for definition and screening of each PCOS criteria has important investigational implications and increase the comparability of published research.

  4. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

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    Lindfors Pirjo L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey. The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%; and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%. Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying

  5. Sexual selection and sex differences in the prevalence of childhood externalizing and adolescent internalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Despite the well-established sex difference in prevalence of many childhood and adolescent psychopathological conditions, no integrative metatheory of sex differences in psychopathology exists. This review attempts to provide a metatheoretical framework to guide empirical examination of sex differences in prevalence of childhood-onset "externalizing" and adolescent-onset "internalizing" disorders, based on sexual selection evolutionary theory. Sexual selection theory suggests important between-sex differences in markers, mechanisms, etiology, and developmental timing of risk and resilience relevant to psychopathology. Namely, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that disinhibition and sensation-seeking may be important proximate risk markers for childhood-onset externalizing disorders in males. The theory suggests that these male-biased markers may be a product of their higher exposure to prenatal testosterone, which makes them more susceptible to prenatal stressors with downstream effects on dopaminergic neurotransmission, especially for those with genetic alleles associated with lower dopaminergic function. In contrast, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that negative emotionality, empathy, and cognitive rumination may be important proximate risk markers for adolescent-onset internalizing disorders in females. The theory suggests that these markers are propagated by rapidly rising levels of estradiol at puberty that interact with cortisol and oxytocin. These hormones exert downstream effects on the serotonergic system in such a way as to increase females' sensitivity to interpersonal stressors particularly at puberty and especially for those with lower functional serotonergic activity. Such a metatheory can help integrate prior ideas about sex differences and can also generate new predictions of sex differences in markers, etiology, mechanisms, and developmental timing of common forms of psychopathology. PMID:23627633

  6. Effect of social and environmental determinants on overweight and obesity prevalence among adolescent school children

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    R K Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overweight and obesity among children and adolescents is a public health concern. Objective: To assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its association with social and environmental determinants among the adolescent school children of Tirupati town of Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Data was collected by interviewer-administered method from school children aged between 12 to 16 years. The sample consisted of 2258 subjects (1097 boys and 1161 girls. Overweight and obesity were defined by body mass index (BMI based on the current method recommended by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention 2000. Data on social and environmental determinants were collected by using a pre-tested and validated questionnaire. Results: In the present sample, 11.2 percent and 4.8 percent of boys and 10.3 percent and 4.8 percent of girls were overweight and obese. The literacy level of parents, family income and child sleep duration significantly associated with overweight. Parental level of education was a risk factor for overweight (Mother: 1.570; 95% CI: 1.048-2.354. Similarly increase in family income (OR = 1.529; 95% CI: 1.089-2.148 and child sleep duration <7 hrs per day (OR = 2.006; 95% CI: 1.194-3.371 raised children′s association in gaining weight. Conclusion: Our study reinforces the burgeoning prevalence of overweight and obesity among the adolescents. Interventional measures taken should consider family, school and physical environment to check the problem of overweight/obesity.

  7. Prevalence of Obesity in Adolescents with History of Pregnancy and Associated Factors in Korea

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    Seong-Ik Baek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pregnancy was a risk factor for excessive weight gain for women. However, there is no information about the prevalence of obesity and its relationship with a history of pregnancy in girls. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the prevalence of obesity in adolescent females with a history of pregnancy and fac­tors associated with it, in Korea.Methods: In 2009, 69 of 34,247 female students revealed that they had experienced pregnancy in response to the 5th Ko­rea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V project by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Pre­vention (KCDCP. The body mass index (BMI and experienced pregnancy categories of the KYRBWS-V were as­sessed, and, for data analysis, the independent t-test, chi-square test, and multivariate logistic regression were used.Results: The risk of pregnancy was increased by approximately 47% per unit increase in age, and 331% per unit in­crease in depression, respectively. Conversely, the risk decreased by 19% per unit increase in BMI and 33% per unit in­crease (ranged from 1: very rich to 5: very poor in the family economic state.Conclusion: Obesity in adolescent females is minimally affected by a history of pregnancy, if at all, despite the fact that pregnancy was a risk factor for excessive weight gain in women. However, adolescent females with a history of preg­nancy have higher levels of depression than do normal peers in Korea.

  8. The prevalence of urinary incontinence in pregnancy among a multi-ethnic population resident in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bø, Kari; Øglund, Guro Pauck; Sletner, Line; Jenum, Anne Karen

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) in a multi-ethnic population of pregnant women, and to analyse for possible associations of the known risk factors for UI in such a population. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: All pregnant women in three administrative city districts attending the Child Health Clinics. POPULATION AND SAMPLE: Out of 823 women identified in the [corrected] first trimester, 77...

  9. Prevalence of co-morbid depression in diabetic population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depression is common among diabetic patients and is linked with worse outcomes. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and determinants of depression in patients with established type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: In this cross sectional study, patients with established T2DM were examined consecutively for depression by administering the nine-item PHQ-9. A sample of 112 participants was purposively selected. Differences in characteristics between participants were tested with independent t-test at 5% significance level. Results: One hundred-twelve patients were evaluated, including 41 (36.6%) males, 71 females (63.4%). The mean age of participants was 49.5 ± 12.1 years, with the mean duration of diabetes 8. 7.3 years. Mean PHQ-9 score was 11.9 ± 6.9, with 67 cases (59.8%) achieving the diagnosis of clinically significant depression. Depression was found to be more in females (13.14 ± 6.73) as compared to males (9.97 ± 6.92, p=0.02). A positive correlation was observed between depression and duration of diabetes, whereas a weak positive correlation was noticed between depression and age. However, no significant relationship was observed between depression and type of medication (p=0.094).Conclusions: The study showed high prevalence of depression in patients with T2DM, with higher occurrence in females as compared to males. The risk factors of depression were age and duration of diabetes. (author)

  10. Dementia in a tribal landlocked elderly population at high altitude: What explains the lower prevalence?

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    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies across the populations have suggested that dementia is differentially distributed with a lower prevalence in developing regions than the developed ones. A comparison in the prevalence of dementia across populations may provide an insight into its risk factors. Earlier, we reported on the prevalence of dementia in elderly population in migrant, urban, rural, and tribal populations. The present study was conducted with a view to estimating the prevalence of dementia in Tribal Landlocked Elderly Population at high altitude and therefore to draw some conclusions on the differential distribution of dementia across populations. Methods: A cross-sectional comprehensive two-phase survey of all residents aged 60 years and older was conducted. Phase 1 involved screening of all individuals aged 60 and above with the help of a cognitive screen specifically developed for the tribal population. Phase 2 involved clinical examination of individuals who were suspected of dementia as per the developed cognitive screening test. Results: The results revealed that six individuals out of a total of 481 studied above 60 years of age in the studied population scored between 17 and 23, thus qualifying as suffering from mild cognitive impairment. Importantly, none of the individuals above 60 years of age scored <17. Discussion: The current study is in conformity with our previous study conducted on urban, rural, and migrant areas of the state of Himachal Pradesh again emphasizing on dementia being rare in tribal populations and thereby pointing to the presence of some protective factors among tribal people.

  11. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence population provided with enhanced diagnosis of symptomatic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L Corbett

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Directly observed treatment short course (DOTS, the global control strategy aimed at controlling tuberculosis (TB transmission through prompt diagnosis of symptomatic smear-positive disease, has failed to prevent rising tuberculosis incidence rates in Africa brought about by the HIV epidemic. However, rising incidence does not necessarily imply failure to control tuberculosis transmission, which is primarily driven by prevalent infectious disease. We investigated the epidemiology of prevalent and incident TB in a high HIV prevalence population provided with enhanced primary health care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twenty-two businesses in Harare, Zimbabwe, were provided with free smear- and culture-based investigation of TB symptoms through occupational clinics. Anonymised HIV tests were requested from all employees. After 2 y of follow-up for incident TB, a culture-based survey for undiagnosed prevalent TB was conducted. A total of 6,440 of 7,478 eligible employees participated. HIV prevalence was 19%. For HIV-positive and -negative participants, the incidence of culture-positive tuberculosis was 25.3 and 1.3 per 1,000 person-years, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 18.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.3 to 34.5: population attributable fraction = 78%, and point prevalence after 2 y was 5.7 and 2.6 per 1,000 population (adjusted odds ratio = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.5 to 6.8: population attributable fraction = 14%. Most patients with prevalent culture-positive TB had subclinical disease when first detected. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies based on prompt investigation of TB symptoms, such as DOTS, may be an effective way of controlling prevalent TB in high HIV prevalence populations. This may translate into effective control of TB transmission despite high TB incidence rates and a period of subclinical infectiousness in some patients.

  12. Lifetime Prevalence of Mental Disorders in U.S. Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikangas, Kathleen Ries; He, Jian-ping; Burstein, Marcy; Swanson, Sonja A.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Cui, Lihong; Benjet, Corina; Georgiades, Katholiki; Swendsen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To present estimates of the lifetime prevalence of "DSM-IV" mental disorders with and without severe impairment, their comorbidity across broad classes of disorder, and their sociodemographic correlates. Method: The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement NCS-A is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 10,123…

  13. Social anxiety disorder in Saudi adolescent boys: Prevalence, subtypes, and parenting style as a risk factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazwani, Jaafar Y.; Khalil, Shamsun N.; Ahmed, Razia A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Available information on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents in Saudi Arabia is limited. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, severity, and subtypes of SAD, and parenting style risk factors associated with SAD in the adolescent. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools for boys in Abha, Saudi Arabia during the Academic year 2013. To collect the data, a questionnaire eliciting information on background characteristics and parenting style as well as the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Test (LSAS), for the evaluation of SAD, were used. Results: A total of 454 students participated in the study. The age of the participants ranged between 15 and 20 years with a mean of 17.4 years. The prevalence of SAD was 11.7%. Around 36% and 11.4% of the students respectively had severe and more severe forms of SAD. Parenting style such as parental anger, criticism particularly in front of others, exaggerated protection, maltreatment and family provocation emerged as a significant risk factor for SAD. The independent predictors of SAD were a parental provocation and physical or emotional maltreatment by the parent (odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90–8.31 and OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 3.17–5.19, respectively). Conclusion: The prevalence of SAD in secondary school students at Abha is high. Parenting style risk factors for SAD are modifiable. In this context, a national program to improve mental health in this age group is crucial. PMID:26929726

  14. Social anxiety disorder in Saudi adolescent boys: Prevalence, subtypes, and parenting style as a risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Y Ghazwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Available information on social anxiety disorder (SAD in adolescents in Saudi Arabia is limited. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, severity, and subtypes of SAD, and parenting style risk factors associated with SAD in the adolescent. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools for boys in Abha, Saudi Arabia during the Academic year 2013. To collect the data, a questionnaire eliciting information on background characteristics and parenting style as well as the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Test (LSAS, for the evaluation of SAD, were used. Results: A total of 454 students participated in the study. The age of the participants ranged between 15 and 20 years with a mean of 17.4 years. The prevalence of SAD was 11.7%. Around 36% and 11.4% of the students respectively had severe and more severe forms of SAD. Parenting style such as parental anger, criticism particularly in front of others, exaggerated protection, maltreatment and family provocation emerged as a significant risk factor for SAD. The independent predictors of SAD were a parental provocation and physical or emotional maltreatment by the parent (odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90-8.31 and OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 3.17-5.19, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of SAD in secondary school students at Abha is high. Parenting style risk factors for SAD are modifiable. In this context, a national program to improve mental health in this age group is crucial.

  15. Hepatitis E. virus is prevalent in the Danish pig population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; De Deus, N.;

    such as USA, Europe, Japan and China. There is increasing evidence for the zoonotic origin of infections with HEV genotypes 3 and 4. Swine HEV sequences closely related to human HEV sequences have been detected in many countries and in several cases the source of infection has been linked to contact......Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for major outbreaks of acute hepatitis in humans from developing countries, but evidence increases that also in industrialized countries locally acquired HEV infections acor. The disease usually affects young adults and has a relatively high mortality...... in infected pregnant women. HEV sequences worldwide can be classified into four major genotypes. Genotypes 1 and 2 are causing the majority of HEV infections in humans in hyper-endemic areas. In contrast, HEV genotypes 3 and 4 identified in cases of human hepatitis with increasing prevalence in countries...

  16. Prevalência de anemia e níveis séricos de hemoglobina em adolescentes segundo estágio de maturidade sexual Prevalence of anemia and hemoglobin serum levels in adolescents according to sexual maturation stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Brandão Mariath

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante a adolescência o crescimento acelerado promove um aumento nas necessidades nutricionais, inclusive de ferro, tornando os adolescentes um grupo de risco nutricional. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a prevalência de anemia e os níveis séricos de hemoglobina de acordo com o estágio de maturidade sexual em uma amostra representativa composta por 272 adolescentes matriculados em escolas da rede municipal de ensino de Balneário Camboriú-SC. A auto-avaliação da maturidade sexual foi realizada segundo os critérios de Tanner (1962. Os níveis sangüíneos de hemoglobina foram medidos através do sistema HemoCue® e o diagnóstico de deficiência de ferro foi baseado no critério proposto pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (2001. Foram consideradas significativas as diferenças ao nível de pAccelerated growth spurt during adolescence leads to increased nutritional requirements, including iron, therefore posing a nutritional risk to adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of anemia and hemoglobin serum levels according to the sexual maturation stage in a representative sample comprised of 272 adolescents enrolled in public schools in Balneário Camboriú, SC. Self-assessment of sexual maturation was carried out according to criteria defined by Tanner (1962. Hemoglobin serum levels were measured through the HemoCue® system and the diagnosis of iron deficiency was based on the cut off points proposed by the World Health Organization (2001. Differences were considered significant at the level of p<0.05. We found a prevalence of 31.2% of anemia without significant differences between genders. Hemoglobin serum levels were significantly higher in boys (p=0.044 than in girls. We did not find significant differences between mean hemoglobin levels of girls who had reached menarche and the ones who had not. There was no statistical association between the presence of anemia and sexual maturation stages of adolescents

  17. Population and antenatal-based HIV prevalence estimates in a high contracepting female population in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnighausen Till

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To present and compare population-based and antenatal-care (ANC sentinel surveillance HIV prevalence estimates among women in a rural South African population where both provision of ANC services and family planning is prevalent and fertility is declining. With a need, in such settings, to understand how to appropriately adjust ANC sentinel surveillance estimates to represent HIV prevalence in general populations, and with evidence of possible biases inherent to both surveillance systems, we explore differences between the two systems. There is particular emphasis on unrepresentative selection of ANC clinics and unrepresentative testing in the population. Methods HIV sero-prevalence amongst blood samples collected from women consenting to test during the 2005 annual longitudinal population-based serological survey was compared to anonymous unlinked HIV sero-prevalence amongst women attending antenatal care (ANC first visits in six clinics (January to May 2005. Both surveillance systems were conducted as part of the Africa Centre Demographic Information System. Results Population-based HIV prevalence estimates for all women (25.2% and pregnant women (23.7% were significantly lower than that for ANC attendees (37.7%. A large proportion of women attending urban or peri-urban clinics would be predicted to be resident within rural areas. Although overall estimates remained significantly different, presenting and standardising estimates by age and location (clinic for ANC-based estimates and individual-residence for population-based estimates made some group-specific estimates from the two surveillance systems more predictive of one another. Conclusion It is likely that where ANC coverage and contraceptive use is widespread and fertility is low, population-based surveillance under-estimates HIV prevalence due to unrepresentative testing by age, residence and also probably by HIV status, and that ANC sentinel surveillance over

  18. Assessment of prevalence of domestic violence and mental health profile of adolescents exposed to domestic violence in an urban slum in Mumbai

    OpenAIRE

    Renuka C. Hiremath; Samadhan Prakashrao Debaje

    2014-01-01

    Background: Domestic violence in adolescent age group with prevalence of 22.5% is a major cause for causing depression and other behavioral changes. These changes caused due to domestic violence in adolescent age group may persist or worsen in later life as adult resulting in substance abuse or criminal mentality or depression or phobias. Purpose of current study was to assess the prevalence of domestic violence among the adolescents and to compare the mental health in terms of behavior, self...

  19. Prevalence of Contact Allergy to p-Phenylenediamine in the European General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, Thomas L; Naldi, Luigi; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Ofenloch, Robert; Svensson, Åke

    2016-01-01

    Population-based studies on contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of contact allergy to PPD and its risk factors in the general population of 5 European countries. A total of 10,425 subjects were interviewed, and a rand

  20. Nutritional and physical activity behaviours and habits in adolescent population of Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević-Nikić Marina; Dopsaj Milivoj; Vesković Ana

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Proper nutrition and regular physical activity are essential parts of a adolescent's overall health. The aim of this research was to evaluated eating and physical activity behaviours and habits, nutritional and food knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy related to diet and health of the adolescents of the city of Belgrade, Serbia. Methods. A dietary questionnaire previously constructed and tested in adolescent population from Italy was self-administrated. We evaluated eat...

  1. Parent-Adolescent Conversations about Eating, Physical Activity and Weight: Prevalence across Sociodemographic Characteristics and Associations with Adolescent Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence of parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight across sociodemographic characteristics and to examine associations with adolescent BMI, dietary intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Data from two linked epidemiological studies were used for cross-sectional analysis. Parents (n=3,424; 62% females) and adolescents (n=2,182; 53.2% girls) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Fathers reported more parent-adolescent conversations about healthful eating and physical activity with their sons and mothers reported more weight-focused conversations with their daughters. Parents of Hispanic/Latino and Asian/Hmong youth and parents from lower SES categories engaged in more conversations about weight and size. Adolescents whose mothers or fathers had weight-focused conversations with them had higher BMI percentiles. Adolescents who had two parents engaging in weight-related conversations had higher BMI percentiles. Healthcare providers may want to talk about the types of weight-related conversations parents are having with their adolescents and emphasize avoiding conversations about weight specifically. PMID:24997555

  2. Parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight: prevalence across sociodemographic characteristics and associations with adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-02-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence of parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight across sociodemographic characteristics and to examine associations with adolescent body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Data from two linked epidemiological studies were used for cross-sectional analysis. Parents (n = 3,424; 62% females) and adolescents (n = 2,182; 53.2% girls) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Fathers reported more parent-adolescent conversations about healthful eating and physical activity with their sons and mothers reported more weight-focused conversations with their daughters. Parents of Hispanic/Latino and Asian/Hmong youth and parents from lower socioeconomic status categories engaged in more conversations about weight and size. Adolescents whose mothers or fathers had weight-focused conversations with them had higher BMI percentiles. Adolescents who had two parents engaging in weight-related conversations had higher BMI percentiles. Healthcare providers may want to talk about the types of weight-related conversations parents are having with their adolescents and emphasize avoiding conversations about weight specifically.

  3. Psychiatric disorders and MND in non-handicapped preterm children - Prevalence and stability from school age into adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoihorst, P. F.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.; van Engeland, H.

    2007-01-01

    In preterm children (N = 66) without major physical and/or mental handicaps the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and minor neurological dysfunction (MND) was assessed at school age (8-10 years). In adolescence (15-17 years) 43 children were reassessed. The study sample was drawn from a cohort of

  4. Aspirin-intolerant asthma in the population : prevalence and important determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Jonas; Ekerljung, Linda; Bossios, Apostolos; Bjerg, Anders; Wennergren, Göran; Rönmark, Eva; Torén, Kjell; Lötvall, Jan; Lundbäck, Bo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population-based studies on aspirin-intolerant asthma are very few and no previous population study has investigated risk factors for the condition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of aspirin-intolerant asthma in the general population. METHODS: A questionnaire on respiratory health was mailed to 30 000 randomly selected subjects aged 16-75 years in West Sweden, 29 218 could be traced and 18 087 (62%) responded. The questionnaire included questions on ast...

  5. The prevalence of baby bottle tooth decay among two native American populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M; Bruerd, B

    1987-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a disease characterized by severe dental caries in the primary dentition that may have significant short-term and long-term implications for the health of children. Its prevalence and various etiologic factors have not been addressed fully in the dental literature. In 1985, 514 Native American Head Start children in Alaska and Oklahoma were screened to establish the prevalence of BBTD in those populations. The prevalence of BBTD ranged between 17 and 85 percent, with a mean of 53 percent. BBTD is clearly a significant health problem for this population group. Concerted intervention efforts to lower the prevalence of this preventable condition should be instituted and their effectiveness evaluated for potential utility among other affected groups.

  6. Life events and functional somatic symptoms : A population study in older adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvanie, Irma J; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of negative life events on functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents, based on data from 957 participants of the population cohort TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey. Life events experienced between age 16 and age 19 were ass

  7. Consumption patterns of sweet drinks in a population of Australian children and adolescents (2003-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B. W.; Nichols, M.; Allender, S.;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Intake of sweet drinks has previously been associated with the development of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the consumption pattern of sweet drinks in a population of children and adolescents in Victoria, Australia. Methods...

  8. Prevalence, incidence, and natural course of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Michaela; Jacobi, Corinna; Paul, Martin; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence, incidence, age-of-onset and diagnostic stability of threshold and subthreshold anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) in the community. Data come from a prospective-longitudinal community study of 3021 subjects aged 14-24 at baseline, who were followed up at three assessment waves over 10 years. Eating disorder (ED) symptomatology was assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI at each wave. Diagnostic stability was defined as the proportion of individuals still affected with at least symptomatic eating disorders (EDs) at follow-ups. Baseline lifetime prevalence for any threshold ED were 2.9 % among females and 0.1 % among males. For any subthreshold ED lifetime prevalence were 2.2 % for females and 0.7 % for males. Symptomatic expressions of EDs (including core symptoms of the respective disorder) were most common with a lifetime prevalence of 11.5 % among females and 1.8 % among males. Symptomatic AN showed the earliest onset with a considerable proportion of cases emerging in childhood. 47 % of initial threshold AN cases and 42 % of initial threshold BN cases showed at least symptomatic expressions of any ED at any follow-up assessment. Stability for subthreshold EDs and symptomatic expressions was 14-36 %. While threshold EDs are rare, ED symptomatology is common particularly in female adolescents and young women. Especially threshold EDs are associated with a substantial risk for stability. A considerable degree of symptom fluctuation is characteristic especially for subthreshold EDs. PMID:26754944

  9. Prevalence, incidence, and natural course of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Michaela; Jacobi, Corinna; Paul, Martin; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence, incidence, age-of-onset and diagnostic stability of threshold and subthreshold anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) in the community. Data come from a prospective-longitudinal community study of 3021 subjects aged 14-24 at baseline, who were followed up at three assessment waves over 10 years. Eating disorder (ED) symptomatology was assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI at each wave. Diagnostic stability was defined as the proportion of individuals still affected with at least symptomatic eating disorders (EDs) at follow-ups. Baseline lifetime prevalence for any threshold ED were 2.9 % among females and 0.1 % among males. For any subthreshold ED lifetime prevalence were 2.2 % for females and 0.7 % for males. Symptomatic expressions of EDs (including core symptoms of the respective disorder) were most common with a lifetime prevalence of 11.5 % among females and 1.8 % among males. Symptomatic AN showed the earliest onset with a considerable proportion of cases emerging in childhood. 47 % of initial threshold AN cases and 42 % of initial threshold BN cases showed at least symptomatic expressions of any ED at any follow-up assessment. Stability for subthreshold EDs and symptomatic expressions was 14-36 %. While threshold EDs are rare, ED symptomatology is common particularly in female adolescents and young women. Especially threshold EDs are associated with a substantial risk for stability. A considerable degree of symptom fluctuation is characteristic especially for subthreshold EDs.

  10. Prevalence of seroreactivity among blood donors in rural population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonwane B

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The seroreactivity pattern amongst blood donors in rural population was studied at S.R.T. Rural Medical College and Hospital, Ambajogai (M. S.. The study period was from January 1996 to December 2001. A total number of 12,240 blood donors were screened. The voluntary donation was 36.98% and replacement donors were 63.02%. No professional donor is bled in our blood bank. The HIV seroreactivity among voluntary donors was 1.56% and 2.11% in replacement donors. The HBsAg seroreactivity was 2.78% in voluntary donors and 4.84% in replacement donors. VDRL seroreactivity is 1.12% in replacement donors. No malarial parasite and HCV seroreactive donor was found in our study period. We have found the magnitude of hepatitis to be far more than that of HIV. Hence testing for HCV routinely is mandatory, besides HBsAg.

  11. Prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension in the General Population: The Rotterdam Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Eduardo M.; Gall, Henning; Leening, Maarten J. G.; Lahousse, Lies; Loth, Daan W.; Krijthe, Bouwe P.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H.; Ghofrani, Hossein A.; Franco, Oscar H.; Felix, Janine F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure and carries an increased mortality. Population-based studies into pulmonary hypertension are scarce and little is known about its prevalence in the general population. We aimed to describe the distribution of echocardiographically-assessed pulmonary artery systolic pressure (ePASP) in the general population, to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, and to identify associated factors. Methods Participants (n = 3381, mean age 76.4 years, 59% women) from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort, underwent echocardiography. Echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was defined as ePASP>40 mmHg. Results Mean ePASP was 26.3 mmHg (SD 7.0). Prevalence of echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was 2.6% (95%CI: 2.0; 3.2). Prevalence was higher in older participants compared to younger ones (8.3% in those over 85 years versus 0.8% in those between 65 and 70), and in those with underlying disorders versus those without (5.9% in subjects with COPD versus 2.3%; 9.2% in those with left ventricular systolic dysfunction versus 2.3%; 23.1% in stages 3 or 4 left ventricular diastolic dysfunction versus 1.9% in normal or stage 1). Factors independently associated with higher ePASP were older age, higher BMI, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, COPD and systemic hypertension. Conclusion In this large population-based study, we show that pulmonary hypertension as measured by echocardiography has a low prevalence in the overall general population in the Netherlands, but estimates may be higher in specific subgroups, especially in those with underlying diseases. Increased pulmonary arterial pressure is likely to gain importance in the near future due to population aging and the accompanying prevalences of underlying disorders. PMID:26102085

  12. Prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension in the General Population: The Rotterdam Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo M Moreira

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure and carries an increased mortality. Population-based studies into pulmonary hypertension are scarce and little is known about its prevalence in the general population. We aimed to describe the distribution of echocardiographically-assessed pulmonary artery systolic pressure (ePASP in the general population, to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, and to identify associated factors.Participants (n = 3381, mean age 76.4 years, 59% women from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort, underwent echocardiography. Echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was defined as ePASP>40 mmHg.Mean ePASP was 26.3 mmHg (SD 7.0. Prevalence of echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was 2.6% (95%CI: 2.0; 3.2. Prevalence was higher in older participants compared to younger ones (8.3% in those over 85 years versus 0.8% in those between 65 and 70, and in those with underlying disorders versus those without (5.9% in subjects with COPD versus 2.3%; 9.2% in those with left ventricular systolic dysfunction versus 2.3%; 23.1% in stages 3 or 4 left ventricular diastolic dysfunction versus 1.9% in normal or stage 1. Factors independently associated with higher ePASP were older age, higher BMI, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, COPD and systemic hypertension.In this large population-based study, we show that pulmonary hypertension as measured by echocardiography has a low prevalence in the overall general population in the Netherlands, but estimates may be higher in specific subgroups, especially in those with underlying diseases. Increased pulmonary arterial pressure is likely to gain importance in the near future due to population aging and the accompanying prevalences of underlying disorders.

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Wen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94% reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6% identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of video and internet gaming addiction among Hong Kong adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W C; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed. PMID:25032242

  15. Prevalence and correlates of video and internet gaming addiction among Hong Kong adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W C; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.

  16. ASSOCIATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI WITH THE PREVALENCE OF FLIES POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Flayiah Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass releases of house fly Musca domestica (L and stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L. Produced by manure piles accumulated nearby horse stables and dairy farm village in Abu-Graib provide continuous threat to inhabitants west of Baghdad. Timing of fly’s mass release in association with the presence of Escherichia coli in manure piles was examined at these locations. Experimental result indicated that flies survived during cold period of December and January in form of larvae deep in manure piles where temperature was around 15-17°C. Once the population of fly’s larvae started to increase by the second week of February, the concentration of E. coli was up to 80×106 CFU mL-1 in manure suspension. Later when larval population reached to a maximum number by the last week of April, the concentration of E. coli in manure sample dropped down to 38×102 CFU mL-1. Similar trend was observed with the proportion of E. coli to general bacteria present in manure samples where the percent decreased from 89% in early season to 1.5% when maximum number of larvae was recorded. The correlation coefficient (R between the number of larvae and coli form bacteria was = -0.73657. These results suggest the association of larval development with the consumption of E. coli. Thus manipulation of bacterial community in manure piles may lead to possible eradication of fly’s seasonal release.

  17. The prevalence of bisexual and homosexual orientation and related health risks among adolescents in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Griensven, Frits; Kilmarx, Peter H; Jeeyapant, Supaporn; Manopaiboon, Chomnad; Korattana, Supaporn; Jenkins, Richard A; Uthaivoravit, Wat; Limpakarnjanarat, Khanchit; Mastro, Timothy D

    2004-04-01

    Homo- or bisexual (HB) adolescents may have greater and different health risks than the population of heterosexual adolescents. We assessed sexual orientation and health risk behaviors in 1,725 consenting 15- to 21-year-old vocational school students in northern Thailand. Data were collected using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing. Nine percent of males and 11.2% of females identified themselves as homo- or bisexual. HB males had an earlier mean age at sexual debut (14.7 years) and a higher mean number of lifetime sexual partners (7.9) than did heterosexual males (16.8 years and 5.8 partners, respectively). HB males (25.9%) and females (32.2%) were sexually coerced more often than were heterosexual males (4.6%) and females (19.6%). Drug use was reported significantly more frequently by HB females and significantly less frequently by HB males than by their heterosexual counterparts. HB males showed more signs of social isolation and depression than did heterosexual males. We conclude that HB adolescents in northern Thailand are at greater and different health risks than are their heterosexual counterparts. Differential health education messages for HB and heterosexual youth are warranted. PMID:15146146

  18. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with insomnia in a community based population in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, Yiqiang; Zhang, Fen; Lu, Leihong; Wang, Jinsong; Sun, Yihong; Ding, Rongjing; Hu, Dayi; Yu, Jinming

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with insomnia are scarce in China. This study investigated the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with insomnia in a community based Chinese population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Beijing and recruited 10054 participants aged ≥18 years. The association between self-reported insomnia and dyslipidemia was determined by multiple logistic regression models. Age, gender, education, obesity, b...

  19. The Prevalence and Predictors of Low-Cost Generic Program Use in the Pediatric Population

    OpenAIRE

    Pauly, Nathan James; Talbert, Jeffery Charles; Brown, Joshua David

    2015-01-01

    Background Low-cost generic drug programs (LCGPs) increase the accessibility and affordability in the USA of prescription medication that can treat many common pediatric conditions. No studies have assessed the prevalence and predictors of LCGP use in the pediatric population, analyzed trends in LCGP use since their implementation, or analyzed which medications are most commonly purchased for children through LCGPs. Objectives Our objective was to determine the prevalence of LCGP use in the U...

  20. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Gender differences and prevalence in a Pakistani medical student population

    OpenAIRE

    Vaqar Talha; Satti Minahil; Tayyeb Syed M; Khan Asmatullah; Shahid Fatima; Gowani Saqib A; Shaikh Mehrine; Taqui Ather M; Shahid Saman; Shamsi Afreen; Ganatra Hammad A; Naqvi Haider A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect which causes significant distress or impairment in functioning. Few studies have assessed gender differences in BDD in a non clinical population. Also no study assessed BDD in medical students. This study was designed to determine the point prevalence of BDD in Pakistani medical students and the gender differences in prevalence of BDD, body foci of co...

  1. Spatial Clustering of HIV Prevalence in Atlanta, Georgia and Population Characteristics Associated with Case Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Hixson, Brooke A.; Omer, Saad B; Del Rio, Carlos; Frew, Paula M.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed prevalent HIV cases in Atlanta to examine case distribution trends and population characteristics at the census tract level that may be associated with clustering effects. We calculated cluster characteristics (area and internal HIV prevalence) via Kuldorff's spatial scan method. Subsequent logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze sociodemographics associated with inclusion in a cluster. Organizations offering voluntary HIV testing and counseling services were identi...

  2. Rumination syndrome in children and adolescents: a school survey assessing prevalence and symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajindrajith Shaman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rumination syndrome (RS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGD increasingly recognized in children and adolescents. The epidemiology of this condition in school aged children is poorly understood. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of rumination and other related associations in a cohort of Sri Lankan children. Methods Children aged 10-16 years were randomly selected from 8 schools in 4 provinces in Sri Lanka. RS was diagnosed using Rome III criteria. Data was collected using a self administered questionnaire distributed in an examination setting. It was translated into Sinhala, the native language and pretested before distribution. Results A total of 2163 children were included in the study (55% boys, mean age 13.4 years, SD 1.8 years. Prevalence of RS was 5.1% (n = 110; boys 5.1% and girls 5.0%. When symptoms were analyzed, 73.6% reported re-swallowing of regurgitated food, while the rest spat it out. In 94.5% regurgitation occurred during the first hour after the meal. Only 8.2% had daily symptoms while 62.7% had symptoms weekly. Abdominal pain, bloating and weight loss were the commonest symptoms associated with RS (19.1%, 17.3% and 11.8% respectively. No significant association was observed between exposure to stressful events and rumination (p > 0.05. Twenty (18.2% with RS fulfilled Rome III criteria for at least one other FGD. School absenteeism was seen in 11.8% of affected children. Conclusion RS was reasonably common in this cohort of school-aged children and adolescents in Sri Lanka. However, symptoms were severe enough to affect schooling only in 12% of affected children. Around one fifth with RS had at least one other overlapping FGD.

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with vitamin A deficiency in children and adolescents

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    Rita de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with vitamin A deficiency (VAD in children and adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 546 schoolchildren, aged between 7 and 14 years, of both genders, enrolled in public elementary schools. Blood was collected for measurement of serum retinol. The retinol concentration in the samples was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Data were collected on anthropometrics, dietary, demographic, and socioeconomic factors. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of interest. Results: Approximately 27.5% of the students had retinol values < 30 μg/dL. The multivariate analysis showed, after the appropriate adjustments, a positive and statistically significant association of moderate/severe VAD (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.17 to 4.10 and marginal VAD (OR = 2.34; 95% CI 1.47 to 3.73 with age < 10 years. There was also association of VAD moderate/severe (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.01 to 5.05 and borderline VAD (OR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.08 to 4.21 with the anthropometric status of underweight. Lower intake of retinol was detected among those with severe VAD. Conclusion: VAD is a health concern among children and adolescents. Lower weight and younger schoolchildren had greater vulnerability to VAD.

  4. The influence of asthma onset and severity on malocclusion prevalence in children and adolescents

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    Luiz Sekio Tanaka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The influence of asthma, its severity levels and onset time on malocclusion occurrence were investigated. METHODS: The sample was composed by 176 children/adolescents, of both genders, aged 3 to 15 years, that were divided in two groups. The asthma group (AG enrolled 88 children/adolescents that were seen at the Breathe Londrina Program. The asthma-free group (AFG enrolled 88 preschool and school children recruited in 2 public schools. Malocclusion diagnosis was made according to WHO criteria (OMS, 1999. RESULTS: A higher prevalence in malocclusions in asthmatic patients in mixed dentition was observed when compared to controls (p0.05 and permanent dentition (p>0.05. A significant association was seen between asthma onset time and marked maxillary overjet (p<0.05, and open bite (p<0.05 in the mixed dentition, being both conditions more common among those that have presented the symptoms of asthma prior to 12 months of age. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that the early manifestation of asthma at first year of life can cause dentofacial changes. Therefore, the prompt diagnostic of the illness, as well as the establishment of a proper therapy could improve the symptoms and chronic complications of asthma and also reduce its impact on craniofacial development.

  5. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Overweight and Obesity in a Nigerian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Maruf, Fatai A.; Udoji, Nwannedimma V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This survey explored prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associations with socio-demographic variables in a Nigerian population. Methods This cross-sectional survey involved 1521 adults in Nnewi. Age, sex, educational and occupational status, and BMI were recorded. Results Prevalence of overweight was higher in males (32.3%; 95% CI, 29.5%–35.2%) than in females (29.8%; 95% CI, 26.8%–33.0%); the reverse was the case for prevalence of obesity (19.6%; 95% CI, 17.3%–22.2% in ...

  6. The prevalence of culture-confirmed toenail onychomycosis in at-risk patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Daigle, D; Foley, K A

    2015-06-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail and is the most common nail affliction in the general population. Certain patient populations are at greater risk of infection and the prevalence of onychomycosis reported in the literature has yet to be summarized across these at-risk groups. We performed a systematic review of the literature and calculated pooled prevalence estimates of onychomycosis in at-risk patient populations. The prevalence of dermatophyte toenail onychomycosis was as follows: general population 3.22% (3.07, 3.38), children 0.14% (0.11, 0.18), the elderly 10.28% (8.63, 12.18), diabetic patients 8.75% (7.48, 10.21), psoriatic patients 10.22% (8.61, 12.09), HIV positive patients 10.40% (8.02, 13.38), dialysis patients 11.93% (7.11, 19.35) and renal transplant patients 5.17% (1.77, 14.14). Dialysis patients had the highest prevalence of onychomycosis caused by dermatophytes, elderly individuals had the highest prevalence of onychomycosis caused by yeasts (6.07%; 95% CI = 3.58, 10.11) and psoriatic patients had the highest prevalence of onychomycosis caused by non-dermatophyte moulds (2.49%; 95% CI = 1.74, 3.55). An increased prevalence of onychomycosis in certain patient populations may be attributed to impaired immunity, reduced peripheral circulation and alterations to the nail plate which render these patients more susceptible to infection.

  7. Influence of behavioral determinants on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school going adolescents of Aligarh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Tabassum; Khan, Zulfia; Khan, Iqbal M; Ansari, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally and the prevention of adult obesity will require prevention and management of childhood obesity. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and behavioral determinants of overweight and obesity in school going adolescents. A total of 660 adolescents from affluent and nonaffluent schools were taken. Overweight and obesity was defined as per World Health Organization 2007 growth reference. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.8% and 4.8%, respectively. Prevalence of both overweight and obesity was higher among males. Statistically significant difference was found in prevalence of overweight and obesity among affluent schools (14.8% and 8.2%) and nonaffluent schools (4.8% and 1.5%). Important determinants of overweight and obesity were increased consumption of fast food, low physical activity level and watching television for more than 2 h/day. The prevalence of obesity is high even in small cities. Dietary behavior and physical activity significantly affect weight of adolescent children. PMID:24820987

  8. Influence of behavioral determinants on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school going adolescents of Aligarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabassum Nawab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally and the prevention of adult obesity will require prevention and management of childhood obesity. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and behavioral determinants of overweight and obesity in school going adolescents. A total of 660 adolescents from affluent and nonaffluent schools were taken. Overweight and obesity was defined as per World Health Organization 2007 growth reference. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.8% and 4.8%, respectively. Prevalence of both overweight and obesity was higher among males. Statistically significant difference was found in prevalence of overweight and obesity among affluent schools (14.8% and 8.2% and nonaffluent schools (4.8% and 1.5%. Important determinants of overweight and obesity were increased consumption of fast food, low physical activity level and watching television for more than 2 h/day. The prevalence of obesity is high even in small cities. Dietary behavior and physical activity significantly affect weight of adolescent children.

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents and Their Parents in Central Greece (FETA Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsopoulou, Anna; Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Katsioulis, Antonios; Rachiotis, George; Malissiova, Eleni; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-12-26

    The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA) aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents' and adolescents' demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12-18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2) and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ). Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy), maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents' obesity.

  10. Hepatitis B and C virus prevalence and association with demographics: report of population screening in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyekwere, Charles Asabamaka; Hameed, Ladi

    2015-10-01

    Hepatitis B and C remain a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide with its attendant consequences. The burden of these viral infections in sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria rely on estimates based on small population studies in some select populations. We present the report of a population survey in Nigeria during the period 2010-2012. A total of 5,558 adults participated in the screening exercise. The minimum age recorded was 18 years, while the maximum age was 75 years. The mean ± S.D. was 36.07 ± 8.76 years. The prevalence of hepatitis B (HBsAg) among the adults screened was determined to be 6.7% while that of hepatitis C (HCV) was 0.9%. The peak prevalence for HBsAg carriage was in the third to fourth decade in keeping with childhood acquisition while of HCV antibody was in the sixth to seventh decade. Male gender was significantly associated with HBsAg carriage while we noted a higher prevalence in those within the lower socioeconomic status. Overall our findings suggest that hepatitis B is endemic in Nigeria, much less than previously reported, while the prevalence for HCV is low although reports of pockets of high prevalence exist in select populations (hospital patients including those living with HIV). PMID:25515733

  11. Prevalence of widespread pain and associations with work status: a population study

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    Henriksson KG

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This population study based on a representative sample from a Swedish county investigates the prevalence, duration, and determinants of widespread pain (WSP in the population using two constructs and estimates how WSP affects work status. In addition, this study investigates the prevalence of widespread pain and its relationship to pain intensity, gender, age, income, work status, citizenship, civil status, urban residence, and health care seeking. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a postal questionnaire was sent to a representative sample (n = 9952 of the target population (284,073 people, 18–74 years in a county (Östergötland in the southern Sweden. The questionnaire was mailed and followed by two postal reminders when necessary. Results The participation rate was 76.7% (n = 7637; the non-participants were on the average younger, earned less money, and male. Women had higher prevalences of pain in 10 different predetermined anatomical regions. WSP was generally chronic (90–94% and depending on definition of WSP the prevalence varied between 4.8–7.4% in the population. Women had significantly higher prevalence of WSP than men and the age effect appeared to be stronger in women than in men. WSP was a significant negative factor – together with age 50–64 years, low annual income, and non-Nordic citizen – for work status in the community and in the group with chronic pain. Chronic pain but not the spreading of pain was related to health care seeking in the population. Conclusion This study confirms earlier studies that report high prevalences of widespread pain in the population and especially among females and with increasing age. Widespread pain is associated with prominent effects on work status.

  12. Prevalence and detection of mixed-population enterococcal bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Ana María; Andreacchio, Kathleen A; Edelstein, Paul H

    2014-07-01

    Mixed-population (heterogeneous) enterococcal bacteremia (MEB) is rarely reported. Based on one occasion in which Vitek2 missed a vancomycin-resistant subpopulation isolated from a patient, we developed a simple method to detect this subpopulation and determined MEB frequency. The four patients presented here had either Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia caused by both vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE). No prior common antibiotic therapy was observed, and bacteremia resolved with daptomycin, gentamicin, and/or linezolid treatment. In two cases, VRE presence was missed by Vitek2. To detect the VRE subpopulation, tryptic soy broth was inoculated from positive blood cultures and a saline suspension was inoculated to a vancomycin (6-μg/ml) (V6) plate. Two isolates from each patient were studied further. Relatedness was assessed by multilocus sequence typing, fitness was evaluated by growth curve and competition assays, and vanA presence was determined by PCR. MEB represented ∼5% of all enterococcal bacteremias. All VRE subpopulations grew on V6 plates but were missed in two instances by Vitek2. VRE and VSE isolates from each patient were closely related and did not differ in overall fitness. All four VRE isolates and 2/4 VSE isolates were vanA positive. MEBs occur regardless of prior antimicrobial therapy, are relatively common in our hospital, and are important to detect. As far as we know, this study is the first to report heterogeneous E. faecalis bacteremia. There is a simple method to detect VRE subpopulations that may be missed by Vitek2.

  13. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

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    Pedro J. Serrano-Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99% raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75% agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy’s diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9. Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6. No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies.

  14. Suicidal ideation in adolescents aged 11 to 15 years: prevalence and associated factors Ideação suicida em adolescentes de 11 a 15 anos: prevalência e fatores associados

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    Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence and associated factors of suicidal ideation among adolescents aged 11 to 15 years. METHOD: Cross-sectional population-based study. Adolescents completed a self-report that contained the Children's Depression Inventory. Suicidal ideation was measured according to item 9 of the Children's Depression Inventory. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied using a hierarchical model. RESULTS: 1145 adolescents were invited to participate, and 1039 were interviewed (refusal rate: 9.26%. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 14.1%. Factors associated to suicidal ideation: female gender, current alcohol consumption, use of illicit drugs, symptoms indicating conduct disorders and high Children's Depression Inventory scores for depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Prevention strategies should focus on female adolescents, especially those sexually active with probable mental health problems and substance use.OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência e fatores associados à ideação suicida entre adolescentes de 11 a 15 anos. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base-populacional. Os adolescentes responderam a um questionário auto-aplicável que continha o Children's Depression Inventory. A ideação suicida foi mensurada de acordo com o item 9 do Children's Depression Inventory. Foi utilizada a análise de regressão logística multivariada acompanhada de um modelo hierárquico. RESULTADOS: 1.145 adolescentes foram convidados a participar e 1.039 foram entrevistados (recusas: 9,26%. A prevalência de ideação suicida foi de 14,1%. Fatores associados à ideação suicida: sexo feminino, consumir álcool, uso de drogas ilícitas, apresentar sintomas indicativos de transtorno de conduta e elevada pontuação no Children's Depression Inventory para sintomas depressivos. CONCLUSÃO: Estratégias de prevenção devem priorizar adolescentes do sexo feminino, principalmente aquelas sexualmente ativas, com prováveis problemas de sa

  15. Prevalence and associated factors of physical fighting among school-going adolescents in Namibia

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    Kazembe Lawrence N

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpersonal physical violence is an important global public health concern that has received limited attention in the developing world. There is in particular a paucity of data regarding physical violence and its socio-demographic correlates among in-school adolescents in Namibia. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data from the Namibia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS conducted in 2004. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of physical fighting within the last 12 months. We obtained frequencies of socio-demographic attributes. We also assessed the association between self-reported history of having engaging in a physical fight and a selected list of independent variables using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 6283 respondents, 50.6% (55.2% males and 46.2% females reported having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months. Males were more likely to have been in a physical fight than females (OR = 1.71, 95% CI (1.44, 2.05. Smoking, drinking alcohol, using drugs and bullying victimization were positively associated with fighting (OR = 1.91, 95% CI (1.49, 2.45; OR = 1.48, 95% CI (1.21, 1.81; OR = 1.55, 95% CI (1.22, 1.81; and OR = 3.12, 95% CI (2.62, 3.72, respectively. Parental supervision was negatively associated with physical fighting (OR = 0.82, 95% CI (0.69, 0.98. Both male and female substance users (cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug use were more likely to engage in physical fighting than non-substance users (OR = 3.53, 95% CI (2.60, 4.81 for males and OR = 11.01, 95% CI (7.25, 16.73 for females. Parental supervision was negatively associated with physical fighting (OR = 0.85, 95% CI (0.72, 0.99. Conclusion Prevalence of physical fighting within the last 12 months was comparable to estimates obtained in European countries. We also found clustering of problem behaviours or experiences among adolescents who reported having engaged in physical violence in the past

  16. Prevalence of self-reported multimorbidity in the general population and in primary care practices: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mokraoui, Nadjib-Mohamed; Haggerty, Jeannie; Almirall, José; Fortin, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Settings affect estimation of multimorbidity prevalence. Multimorbidity prevalence was reported to be substantially higher among family practice-based patients than in the general population, but prevalence estimates were obtained with different methods and at different time periods. The aim of the present study was to compare estimates of the prevalence of multimorbidity in the general population and in primary care clinical practices, both measured simultaneously and with the sam...

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Night Eating in the German General Population

    OpenAIRE

    Martina de Zwaan; Astrid Müller; Allison, Kelly C.; Elmar Brähler; Anja Hilbert

    2014-01-01

    Recently, night eating syndrome (NES) was included into the DSM-5 as an example of "Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders." The study provides insight into the population prevalence of NES using a large representative German population sample (n = 2,460) with a wide age range (14-85 years). The prevalence of NES was 1.1% using a cut-off on the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) of 25. A positive screening for NES was positively associated with depression and anxiety, eating disorder psyc...

  18. Prevalence and correlates of night eating in the German general population.

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    Martina de Zwaan

    Full Text Available Recently, night eating syndrome (NES was included into the DSM-5 as an example of "Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders." The study provides insight into the population prevalence of NES using a large representative German population sample (n = 2,460 with a wide age range (14-85 years. The prevalence of NES was 1.1% using a cut-off on the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ of 25. A positive screening for NES was positively associated with depression and anxiety, eating disorder psychopathology, and body weight.

  19. Prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in the Chinese populations: a meta-analysis of dementia prevalence surveys, 1980-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaodong; Xu, Yong; Nie, Hongwei; Lei, Ting; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Minjie

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dementia and its major subtypes in China. Forty-eight eligible studies were included in this review. The pooled prevalence for the population aged 60 years and older of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was 1.9%, vascular dementia (VaD) was 0.9%, and total dementia was 3.0%. The prevalence of VaD was significantly higher in Northern China than in Southern China. The prevalence of VaD was significantly higher in urban compared to rural areas. The prevalence of dementia and prevalence of AD increased with age in both males and females, and a higher prevalence of AD than VaD was observed in all age groups. AD has become more common than VaD in China since 1990. The current prevalence of dementia in China may be similar to that of developed countries.

  20. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

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    Barbosa Filho Valter

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess the variables. Six BRFCH were analyzed: insufficiently active, excessive TV watching, current alcohol and tobacco use, daily soft drinks consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were studied as possible correlates of the presence of BRFCH. Results The BRFCH with the highest prevalence were insufficiently active (50.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 48.0-52.9 and daily soft drinks consumption (47.6%, 95% CI: 45.1-50.0. Approximately 30% of the adolescents presented three or more BRFCH simultaneously. Girls, adolescents who did not participate in organized physical activity, and who used computer/video games daily were the main high-risk subgroups for insufficiently active. Boys and those who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for daily soft drinks consumption. For excessive TV watching, we identified to be at risk those who were from a high economic class, unemployed, and who used computer/video games daily. For current alcohol use, we identified older adolescents, who were from a high economic class and who worked to be at risk. Older adolescents, who worked and who spent little active time during a physical education class were the high-risk subgroups for current tobacco use. For inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, we identified those who did not participate in organized physical activity to be at risk. Older adolescents, who were from a high economic class

  1. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents in northeast China.

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    Yang Xiaoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To describe the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders and comorbidity in a large school-based sample of 6-17 year old children and adolescents in northeast China. METHODS: A two-phase cross-sectional study was conducted on 9,806 children. During the screening phase, 8848 children (90.23% and their mothers and teachers were interviewed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. During the diagnostic phase, 1129 children with a positive SDQ and 804 randomly selected children with a negative SDQ (11%, and their mothers and teachers, were interviewed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of DSM-IV disorders was 9.49% (95% CI = 8.10-11.10%. Anxiety disorders were the most common (6.06%, 95% CI = 4.92-7.40, followed by depression (1.32%, 95% CI = 0.91-1.92%, oppositional defiant disorder (1.21%, 95%CI = 0.77-1.87 and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (0.84%, 95% CI = 0.52-1.36%. Of the 805 children with a psychiatric disorder, 15.2% had two or more comorbid disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one in ten Chinese school children has psychiatric disorders involving a level of distress or social impairment likely to warrant treatment. Prevention, early identification and treatment of these disorders are urgently needed and pose a serious challenge in China.

  2. Prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among school going adolescent students of Raipur city Chhattisgarh state, India

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    Neha Shrivastava

    2015-04-01

    Methods: Study design: Cross-sectional, Study area: 16 selected high schools of Raipur city, in which 12 were government schools and 4 private schools. Study subjects: 1006 high-school students, Sampling technique: Two stage cluster sampling according to probability proportional to size, Study tool: Predesigned pretested questionnaire. Statistical analysis: Data was entered in Microsoft excel sheet and analyzed in Epi info 7 software. Results: The mean age of students in the study was 15 years. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco consumption was 10%. Majority male 80.9% were users, mean age of initiation was 13 years (SD 7.07, Peer pressure (76% was the reason for initiation. Pocket money 57.1% found to be the major source of purchasing. Strong association of family member tobacco use and promotional advertisement were found. Conclusion: Study reflects smokeless tobacco use was prevalent among adolescent students and there is a need for targeted interventions to reduce the risk and deleterious consequences. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 921-924

  3. Study of School Environment and Prevalence of Obesity & Its Predictors among Adolescent (10-13 Years Belonging to a Private School in an Urban Indian City

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    Mehan Meenakshi, Munshi Aparna, Surabhi Somila, Bhatt Trushna, Kantharia Neha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent shift in lifestyle and behavioral patterns in population have caused an obesity epidemic during formative years. Present study evaluated existing health and nutrition policies in a private school in an urban Indian city and assessed prevalence of obesity in adolescent children & their association if any, with predictive behaviors of obesity. Methods: A private coeducational school located in an urban Indian city was selected and its existing health policies were evaluated using CDC’s School Health Index (SHI. Further, 5 teachers were assessed regarding their knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of healthy dietary & lifestyle practices. Critical evaluation of school canteen services was also done. Total 273 adolescents (10-13 years were enrolled after taking informed consent. Prevalence of obesity & its relationship with modifiable risk factors (fast food & sweetened beverage intake, physical inactivity, low fruit & vegetable intake and increased television viewing was found by comparing behaviors amongst obese & non-obese adolescents. Their biochemical profile for assessment of anemia, dyslipidemia and high fasting blood sugar levels was also determined. Results: Current framework of school lacked clear health & nutrition policies. Canteen food service offered unhealthy food. Teachers had insufficient knowledge about healthy behaviors among children. Prevalence of overweight & obesity was 23.5%. Cumulative presence of >3 risk behaviors of obesity was significantly associated with its development (OR 2.07, 95% CI. Mean consumption of sweetened carbonated beverages by overweight and obese subjects was significantly higher (p<0.05 than non-obese. Conclusion: There is a need to sensitize school authorities and teachers about importance of a strong health and nutrition related policies and health promotion programs.

  4. Pré-hipertensão arterial e pressão de pulso aumentada em adolescentes: prevalência e fatores associados Arterial prehypertension and elevated pulse pressure in adolescents: prevalence and associated factors

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    Maria Luiza Garcia Rosa

    2006-07-01

    ói, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2003 to 2004. RESULTS: Thirty nine (8.6% presented prehypertension (PH and 13.4%, elevated pulse pressure (PP. At bivariate analysis, PH was significantly associated with sex, age and obesity, with more prevalent in boys aged between 15 and 17 years, and in the obese. Elevated PP was associated with gender only, as it was more prevalent in boys. Sexual maturation did not show an association with PH or elevated PP. Similar correlations were found at logistic regression. PH prevalence odds ratio was 7.7 for sex, 4.3 for age and 4.6 for obesity. Elevated PP prevalence odds ratio was 10.8 for sex. The correlation between PP and physical activity was positive and significant. The elevation of PP was attributable to systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION: PH and the elevated PP were shown to be present in adolescents from a population with a low prevalence of hypertension, mostly in boys. Further prospective studies are necessary to assess the persistence and the impact of those conditions.

  5. Prevalence of substance use among male adolescents in an urban slum area of Karimnagar district, Andhra Pradesh

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    Prashant R Kokiwar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years substance use has increased greatly throughout the world. Adolescence is the critical period when the first initiation of substance use takes place. Interventions at the adolescent age are effective to bring about lifestyle modifications. A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out among 260 randomly selected adolescents in an urban slum area, with the objective of studying the prevalence and determinants of substance use among adolescents. The adolescent age group was selected as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO (10 - 19 years. The overall prevalence of substance use was 32.7%. About 31% initiated substance use at 13 - 15 years of age, and the reason was peer pressure in 52.9%. Education of the study subject, education of parents, and substance use by parents and by peers were significantly associated with substance use. Children and parents should be educated to prevent substance use. There was a need to change the social environment.

  6. Prevalência de transtornos emocionais e comportamentais em adolescentes com asma Prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorders in adolescents with asthma

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    Cristina Gonçalves Alvim

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de transtornos emocionais e comportamentais em adolescentes com asma e compará-la com a prevalência em adolescentes sem asma. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal através de um questionário de transtornos psicológicos (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire aplicado a adolescentes de 14 a 16 anos, com e sem asma, selecionados aleatoriamente em escolas municipais de Belo Horizonte (MG Brasil. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de transtornos emocionais e comportamentais em adolescentes com e sem asma foi 20,4% (IC95%: 14,5-27,8% e 9% (IC95%: 6,1-12,8%, respectivamente. Entre os adolescentes com asma, 56,6% (IC95%: 48,3-64,5% apresentavam escores dentro da faixa de normalidade e 23% (IC95%: 16,8-30,7%, valores limítrofes. Entre os que não tinham asma, 75% (IC95%: 69,7-79,6% apresentavam escores normais e 16% (IC95%: 12,2-20,7%, limítrofes. A mediana no escore total do questionário foi 14 nos portadores de asma e 12 nos sem asma (p OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorders in adolescents with asthma and to compare it with that of adolescents without asthma. METHODS: A transversal study using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, administered to adolescents with or without asthma, ranging from 14 to 16 years of age and randomly selected from schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. RESULTS: The prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorders in adolescents with and without asthma was 20.4% (95% CI: 14.5-27.8% and 9.0% (95% CI: 6.1-12.8%, respectively. Among adolescents with asthma, 56.6% (95% CI: 48.3-64.5% presented normal scores, and 23.0% (95% CI 16.8-30.7% presented borderline scores. Among adolescents without asthma, 75.0% (95% CI: 69.7-79.6% presented normal scores, and 16.0% (95% CI: 12.2-20.7% presented borderline scores. The median total score on the questionnaire was 14 and 12 among subjects with and without asthma, respectively (p < 0.01. In the final

  7. The Global Epidemiology of Impetigo: A Systematic Review of the Population Prevalence of Impetigo and Pyoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Asha C.; Mahé, Antoine; Hay, Roderick J.; Andrews, Ross M.; Steer, Andrew C.; Tong, Steven Y. C.; Carapetis, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of the global childhood population prevalence of impetigo and the broader condition pyoderma. Methods PubMed was systematically searched for impetigo or pyoderma studies published between January 1 1970 and September 30 2014. Two independent reviewers extracted data from each relevant article on the prevalence of impetigo. Findings Sixty-six articles relating to 89 studies met our inclusion criteria. Based on population surveillance, 82 studies included data on 145,028 children assessed for pyoderma or impetigo. Median childhood prevalence was 12·3% (IQR 4·2–19·4%). Fifty-eight (65%) studies were from low or low-middle income countries, where median childhood prevalences were 8·4% (IQR 4·2–16·1%) and 14·5% (IQR 8·3–20·9%), respectively. However, the highest burden was seen in underprivileged children from marginalised communities of high-income countries; median prevalence 19·4%, (IQR 3·9–43·3%). Conclusion Based on data from studies published since 2000 from low and low-middle income countries, we estimate the global population of children suffering from impetigo at any one time to be in excess of 162 million, predominantly in tropical, resource-poor contexts. Impetigo is an under-recognised disease and in conjunction with scabies, comprises a major childhood dermatological condition with potential lifelong consequences if untreated. PMID:26317533

  8. The prevalence of tic disorders in children and adolescents in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Helvio L; Quagliato, Elizabeth M A B

    2014-12-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) and tic disorders represent events of familiar magnitude characterized by involuntary movements and/or vocalization. To determine the prevalence of TS/tic disorders we studied a sample of 762 subjects (388 M, 374 F), between 1992 and 1997, age 6 to 43 years old, taken out of a population of 10,155 subjects (4,918 M, 5,237 F; age: 3-56 years old). A structured 4-item questionnaire, direct interview (multistaged), >1 yr follow-up, were used. 9,565 subjects (4,614 M, 4,951 F) sent back the questionnaires, 3,354 of these (1,671 M, 1,683 F) with positive answers to tics. 42 subjects (31 M, 11 F, age: 7-21 years old, mean: 11 years old) met the DSM-III-R criteria. The total minimal prevalence of TS is 0.43%, with a 3:1 ratio male/female. The minimal prevalence of chronic tic disorder is 2.27%. The total minimal prevalence for tic disorders at all is 2.91%. No special education students participation. PMID:25465775

  9. The prevalence of tic disorders in children and adolescents in Brazil

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    Helvio L. Alves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourette syndrome (TS and tic disorders represent events of familiar magnitude characterized by involuntary movements and/or vocalization. To determine the prevalence of TS/tic disorders we studied a sample of 762 subjects (388 M, 374 F, between 1992 and 1997, age 6 to 43 years old, taken out of a population of 10,155 subjects (4,918 M, 5,237 F; age: 3-56 years old. A structured 4-item questionnaire, direct interview (multistaged, >1 yr follow-up, were used. 9,565 subjects (4,614 M, 4,951 F sent back the questionnaires, 3,354 of these (1,671 M, 1,683 F with positive answers to tics. 42 subjects (31 M, 11 F, age: 7-21 years old, mean: 11 years old met the DSM-III-R criteria. The total minimal prevalence of TS is 0.43%, with a 3:1 ratio male/female. The minimal prevalence of chronic tic disorder is 2.27%. The total minimal prevalence for tic disorders at all is 2.91%. No special education students participation.

  10. Prevalence of DSM-IV intermittent explosive disorder in Black adolescents: Findings from the National Survey of American Life, Adolescent Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Diane Graves; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Faison, Nakesha; Sweetman, Julie A; Abelson, Jamie M; Jackson, James S

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of (4th ed.; ) intermittent explosive disorder (IED) in adolescents, and no information is currently available regarding the relationship between race/ethnicity and IED among Black youth in the United States. Using the World Health Organization World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (Adolescent Version), we estimated the prevalence, severity, and disability of IED in a national, probability sample of African American and Caribbean Black youth (ages 13-17) from the National Survey of American Life, Adolescent Supplement. Face-to-face surveys of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth were conducted between 2001 and 2003. We calculated lifetime and 12-month diagnoses of IED using diagnostic algorithms based on and assessed IED disability using a modified Sheehan Disability Scale. Overall findings indicated lifetime and 12-month IED prevalence rates of 9.2% and 7.0%, respectively. Lifetime prevalence rates of IED were 9.0% for African American and 12.4% for Caribbean Black teens. Within the past 12 months, 6.7% of African American and 11.5% of Caribbean Black adolescents met diagnostic criteria for IED. Lifetime and 12-month IED were associated with anxiety disorders. In addition, few teens with lifetime IED received any treatment. Findings are consistent with recent evidence that intermittent explosive disorder may be more common than previously considered, especially among adolescents. Significant acts of aggression and impairment are associated with IED, and low treatment rates indicate that more research on this disorder and intervention options is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078052

  11. Prevalence of talon cusps in a Portuguese population: Forensic identification significance of a rare trait

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    Ricardo Jorge Simões; Hugo F.V. Cardoso; Inês Morais Caldas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental techniques are frequently used in human identification; some of those include comparative analyses of dental features that, being rare or unique to an individual, can establish a positive identification. The usefulness of each feature depends on its population, frequency, and uniqueness. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of talon cusps in a Portuguese population. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was performed. Three hundred and two patients...

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of psychiatric disorders in an industrial population in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Srihari; Kar, Nilamadhab; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Nair, Sreekumaran

    2007-01-01

    Background: Recent information on psychiatric morbidity in industrial employees is not available in India. Such information may help in building mental health care for this population. Aim: The aim was to study the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity and the risk factors associated with it in an industrial population. Materials and Methods: Two hundred thirty-eight individuals were selected by a stratified randomisation technique and screened using the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12)...

  13. Food Addiction: Its Prevalence and Significant Association with Obesity in the General Population

    OpenAIRE

    Pardis Pedram; Danny Wadden; Peyvand Amini; Wayne Gulliver; Edward Randell; Farrell Cahill; Sudesh Vasdev; Alan Goodridge; Carter, Jacqueline C.; Guangju Zhai; Yunqi Ji; Guang Sun

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. OBJECTIVES: to assess 1) the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than con...

  14. Disparities in Prevalence of Smoking and Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane L. Dias-Damé

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine time trends in prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy by family income, maternal level of education, skin color, and age. Methods. We conducted three population-based surveys in 2007, 2010, and 2013 with newly delivered mothers living in the municipality of Rio Grande, Southern Brazil. Data were collected using questionnaires administered after delivery in all (two maternity units in the city, at Dr. Miguel Riet Corrêa Júnior Hospital and at Santa Casa de Misericórdia. Time trends were analyzed using chi-square test for linear trend. Results. Data of 7,572 women showed that the prevalence of smoking before pregnancy decreased from 28% (26.2–29.7 in 2007 to 22% (20.8–24.0 in 2013 (P<0.001. Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy decreased from 22% (20.4–23.7 in 2007 to 18% (16.6–19.5 in 2013 (P<0.001. This reduction varied across income ranging from 17% (poorest to 35% (richest (P<0.001. The lower the income, the higher the smoking prevalence during pregnancy. Smoking cessation was more prevalent among women of higher level of education and income. Conclusions. Smoking before and during pregnancy is still highly prevalent and the prevalence of cessation is low pointing to a need to strengthen actions targeting low-income, less educated, black pregnant women.

  15. Prevalence and prediction of silent ischaemia in diabetes mellitus: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, O; Arildsen, H; Damsgaard, E M;

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of silent ischaemia in diabetic subjects in the population, to compare the prevalence of silent ischaemia in diabetics and non-diabetics and to attempt to predict the presence of silent ischaemia in diabetic subjects. METHODS: A random...... sample of 120 users of insulin and 120 users of oral hypoglycaemic agents aged 40-75 years living in the Danish municipality of Horsens were asked to participate in the study. Corresponding to the youngest half of the sample two non-diabetic controls were randomly selected from the Central Population...... registered simultaneously with ECG evidence of ischaemia. Individuals with ischaemia, but without angina pectoris, were defined as persons with silent ischaemia. RESULTS: Seventy-four percent of the invited group were included. The observed prevalence of silent ischaemia in diabetics was 13.5% (95% CI = 8...

  16. Comparison of age-specific cataract prevalence in two population-based surveys 6 years apart

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    Rochtchina Elena

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we aimed to compare age-specific cortical, nuclear and posterior subcapsular (PSC cataract prevalence in two surveys 6 years apart. Methods The Blue Mountains Eye Study examined 3654 participants (82.4% of those eligible in cross-section I (1992–4 and 3509 participants (75.1% of survivors and 85.2% of newly eligible in cross-section II (1997–2000, 66.5% overlap with cross-section I. Cataract was assessed from lens photographs following the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System. Cortical cataract was defined if cortical opacity comprised ≥ 5% of lens area. Nuclear cataract was defined if nuclear opacity ≥ Wisconsin standard 4. PSC was defined if any present. Any cataract was defined to include persons who had previous cataract surgery. Weighted kappa for inter-grader reliability was 0.82, 0.55 and 0.82 for cortical, nuclear and PSC cataract, respectively. We assessed age-specific prevalence using an interval of 5 years, so that participants within each age group were independent between the two surveys. Results Age and gender distributions were similar between the two populations. The age-specific prevalence of cortical (23.8% in 1st, 23.7% in 2nd and PSC cataract (6.3%, 6.0% was similar. The prevalence of nuclear cataract increased slightly from 18.7% to 23.9%. After age standardization, the similar prevalence of cortical (23.8%, 23.5% and PSC cataract (6.3%, 5.9%, and the increased prevalence of nuclear cataract (18.7%, 24.2% remained. Conclusion In two surveys of two population-based samples with similar age and gender distributions, we found a relatively stable cortical and PSC cataract prevalence over a 6-year period. The increased prevalence of nuclear cataract deserves further study.

  17. Prevalence of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction in the general population; The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mosterd (Arend); A.W. Hoes (Arno); M.C. de Bruyne (Martine); D.T. Linker (David); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); J.W. Deckers (Jaap); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To determine the prevalence of heart failure and symptomatic as well as asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 5540 participants of the Rotterdam Study (age 68.9+/-8.7 years, 2251 men) aged

  18. The Prevalence of Low Self-Esteem in an Intellectually Disabled Forensic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This was a quantitative study to measure the prevalence low self-esteem in an intellectually disabled forensic population. The dependent variables used were the adapted six-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the adapted Evaluative Beliefs Scale. It had a repeated measures design with independent variables including consideration of…

  19. Syncope prevalence in the ED compared to general practice and population: a strong selection process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.R.A. Olde Nordkamp; N. van Dijk; K.S. Ganzeboom; J.B. Reitsma; J.S.K. Luitse; L.R.C. Dekker; W.K. Shen; W. Wieling

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the prevalence and distribution of the different causes of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) in the emergency department (ED) and chest pain unit (CPU) and estimated the proportion of persons with syncope in the general population who seek medical attention from either th

  20. The prevalence and morbidity of sensitization to fragrance mix I in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of sensitization to fragrance mix (FM) I and Myroxylon pereirae (MP, balsam of Peru) has decreased in recent years among Danish women with dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether the decrease could be confirmed among women in the general population...

  1. The prevalence of neck pain in the world population: a systematic critical review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejer, René; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of neck pain (NP) in the world population and to identify areas of methodological variation between studies. A systematic search was conducted in five databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, OSH-ROM, and PsycINFO), followed by a screening of...

  2. Asthma prevalence in Olympic summer athletes and the general population: an analysis of three European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burns, J.; Mason, C.; Mueller, N.; Ohlander, J.; Zock, J.P.; Drobnic, F.; Wolfarth, B.; Heinrich, J.; Omenass, E.; Stensrud, T.; Nowak, D.; Radon, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some studies have shown a higher prevalence of asthma in elite athletes as compared to the general population. It is inconclusive to what extent certain sport categories are especially affected. The present study offered a unique opportunity to assess these differences in asthma prevalen

  3. Prevalence and Diagnostic Approach to Sleep Apnea in Hemodialysis Patients: A Population Study

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    Valentina Forni Ogna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous observations found a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in the hemodialysis population, but the best diagnostic approach remains undefined. We assessed OSA prevalence and performance of available screening tools to propose a specific diagnostic algorithm. Methods. 104 patients from 6 Swiss hemodialysis centers underwent polygraphy and completed 3 OSA screening scores: STOP-BANG, Berlin’s Questionnaire, and Adjusted Neck Circumference. The OSA predictors were identified on a derivation population and used to develop the diagnostic algorithm, which was validated on an independent population. Results. We found 56% OSA prevalence (AHI ≥ 15/h, which was largely underdiagnosed. Screening scores showed poor performance for OSA screening (ROC areas 0.538 [SE 0.093] to 0.655 [SE 0.083]. Age, neck circumference, and time on renal replacement therapy were the best predictors of OSA and were used to develop a screening algorithm, with higher discriminatory performance than classical screening tools (ROC area 0.831 [0.066]. Conclusions. Our study confirms the high OSA prevalence and highlights the low diagnosis rate of this treatable cardiovascular risk factor in the hemodialysis population. Considering the poor performance of OSA screening tools, we propose and validate a specific algorithm to identify hemodialysis patients at risk for OSA for whom further sleep investigations should be considered.

  4. Prevalence and Diagnostic Approach to Sleep Apnea in Hemodialysis Patients: A Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni Ogna, Valentina; Ogna, Adam; Pruijm, Menno; Bassi, Isabelle; Zuercher, Emilie; Halabi, Georges; Phan, Olivier; Bullani, Roberto; Teta, Daniel; Gauthier, Thierry; Cherpillod, Anne; Mathieu, Claudine; Mihalache, Alexandra; Cornette, Francoise; Haba-Rubio, José; Burnier, Michel; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous observations found a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the hemodialysis population, but the best diagnostic approach remains undefined. We assessed OSA prevalence and performance of available screening tools to propose a specific diagnostic algorithm. Methods. 104 patients from 6 Swiss hemodialysis centers underwent polygraphy and completed 3 OSA screening scores: STOP-BANG, Berlin's Questionnaire, and Adjusted Neck Circumference. The OSA predictors were identified on a derivation population and used to develop the diagnostic algorithm, which was validated on an independent population. Results. We found 56% OSA prevalence (AHI ≥ 15/h), which was largely underdiagnosed. Screening scores showed poor performance for OSA screening (ROC areas 0.538 [SE 0.093] to 0.655 [SE 0.083]). Age, neck circumference, and time on renal replacement therapy were the best predictors of OSA and were used to develop a screening algorithm, with higher discriminatory performance than classical screening tools (ROC area 0.831 [0.066]). Conclusions. Our study confirms the high OSA prevalence and highlights the low diagnosis rate of this treatable cardiovascular risk factor in the hemodialysis population. Considering the poor performance of OSA screening tools, we propose and validate a specific algorithm to identify hemodialysis patients at risk for OSA for whom further sleep investigations should be considered. PMID:26229952

  5. Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight in an Indigenous Population in Central Brazil: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Geraldo F. Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight and associated factors in indigenous people of the Jaguapiru village in Central Brazil. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study between January 2009 and July 2011 in the adult native population of the Jaguapiru village, Central Brazil. Sociodemographic and lifestyle data were obtained; anthropometric measures, arterial blood pressure, and blood glucose were measured. The independent variables were tested by Poisson regression, and the interactions between them were analyzed. Results: 1,608 indigenous people (982 females, mean age 37.7 ± 15.1 years were included. The prevalence of obesity was 23.2% (95% CI 20.9-25.1%. Obesity was more prevalent among 40- to 49-year-old and overweight among 50- to 59-year-old persons. Obesity was positively associated with female sex, higher income, and hypertension. Among indigenous people, interactions were found with hypertension and sedentary lifestyle - hypertension in males and sedentary lifestyle in females. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in indigenous people of the Jaguapiru village is high. Males as well as hypertensive and higher family income individuals have higher rates. Sedentary lifestyle and hypertension leverage the rates of obesity. Prevention and adequate public health policies can be critical for the control of excess weight and its comorbidities among Brazilian indigenous people.

  6. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem Sohaib

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to systematically review the medical literature for the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among the general and specific populations. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included cohort studies and cross sectional studies assessing the prevalence of use of waterpipe in either the general population or a specific population of interest. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We stratified the data analysis by country and by age group. The study was not restricted to a specific context. Results Of a total of 38 studies, only 4 were national surveys; the rest assessed specific populations. The highest prevalence of current waterpipe smoking was among school students across countries: the United States, especially among Arab Americans (12%-15% the Arabic Gulf region (9%-16%, Estonia (21%, and Lebanon (25%. Similarly, the prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among university students was high in the Arabic Gulf region (6%, the United Kingdom (8%, the United States (10%, Syria (15%, Lebanon (28%, and Pakistan (33%. The prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among adults was the following: Pakistan (6%, Arabic Gulf region (4%-12%, Australia (11% in Arab speaking adults, Syria (9%-12%, and Lebanon (15%. Group waterpipe smoking was high in Lebanon (5%, and Egypt (11%-15%. In Lebanon, 5%-6% pregnant women reported smoking waterpipe during pregnancy. The studies were all cross-sectional and varied by how they reported waterpipe smoking. Conclusion While very few national surveys have been conducted, the prevalence of waterpipe smoking appears to be alarmingly high among school students and university students in Middle Eastern countries and among groups of

  7. Prevalence of the Pathological Internet Use in a Sample of Turkish School Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Canbaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The Internet addiction, also described as pathological Internet use (PIU, is conceptualized by an individual's in­ability to control his or her use of the Internet, which eventually causes marked distress and/or functional impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of the PIU among adolescence, in relation to different Internet ac­tivities, and to excessive use of the Internet in Samsun, Turkey."nMethods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 1 and 31, 2005 in Samsun, Turkey. In total, 1315 high school students (760 male, 555 female; mean age, 15.2±1.1 years were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire and Young's Internet Addiction Scale (IAS was applied to the participants."nResults: Although only 506 (38.5% of the participants have a computer at their home, total 1054 (80.2% used a computer at home or public, such as an internet cafe. Eight hundred and ten (76.9% of the participants, used a computer, to access to the Internet. Of the internet users, 10(1.2%, 161 (19.9% and 639 (78.9% were Internet addicts (IAs, possible Internet ad­dicts (PAs, and nonaddicts (NAs, respectively. It is found that males were more likely than females to be pathological us­ers in this study (P< 0.05."nConclusion: Our results still demonstrate that the Internet plays an important role in the lives of Turkish adolescents.

  8. Prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairment in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roriz Jose M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite worldwide recognition of the burden of dementia, no epidemiological data is yet available in Portugal. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence and describe the pattern of cognitive impairment with dementia or no dementia (CIND in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal. Methods Two random samples of residents aged 55 to 79 years in rural and urban communities were drawn from the health centres registries to be screened for cognitive impairment. The screening criteria for dementia were an abnormal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score or a Blessed Dementia Scale score. After excluding those who tested positive for dementia, cut-off points for CIND were set at 1 standard deviation below the mean of the MMSE according to educational level. All those who screened positive either for dementia or CIND were examined by a neurologist for establishing a definitive diagnosis. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher in rural than in urban populations, 16.8% (95% CI: 14.3-19.8% vs. 12.0% (95%CI: 9.3-15.4%, with a rural/urban prevalence ratio (PR of 2.16 (95% CI: 1.04-4.50 in the eldest and 2.19 (95% CI: 1.01-4.76 in persons with vascular risk factors. The prevalence of dementia was 2.7% (95% CI: 1.9-3.8% with a rural/urban PR = 2.1 and the prevalence of CIND was 12.3% (95% CI: 10.4-14.4% and PR = 1.3. The prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age and in those with cerebrovascular disease or other comorbid conditions while the prevalence of CIND, besides these factors, is also higher in persons with low levels of education or vascular risk factors. Alzheimer's and vascular disease were equally likely aetiologies of dementia (38.7%, the later more common in men PR(F:M = 0.3 as opposed to the former PR(F:M = 2.0. Vascular CIND, associated either with cerebrovascular disease or vascular risk factors was more frequent (39.7% then depression (18.4% or any other aetiology

  9. Prevalence of self-medication in the adult population of Brazil: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Paulo Henrique Faria; Galvão, Taís Freire; de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; de Sá, Pedro Terra Teles; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Pereira, Mauricio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of self-medication in Brazil’s adult population. METHODS Systematic review of cross-sectional population-based studies. The following databases were used: Medline, Embase, Scopus, ISI, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, CRD, Lilacs, SciELO, the Banco de teses brasileiras (Brazilian theses database) (Capes) and files from the Portal Domínio Público (Brazilian Public Domain). In addition, the reference lists from relevant studies were examined to identify potentially eligible articles. There were no applied restrictions in terms of the publication date, language or publication status. Data related to publication, population, methods and prevalence of self-medication were extracted by three independent researchers. Methodological quality was assessed following eight criteria related to sampling, measurement and presentation of results. The prevalences were measured from participants who used at least one medication during the recall period of the studies. RESULTS The literature screening identified 2,778 records, from which 12 were included for analysis. Most studies were conducted in the Southeastern region of Brazil, after 2000 and with a 15-day recall period. Only five studies achieved high methodological quality, of which one study had a 7-day recall period, in which the prevalence of self-medication was 22.9% (95%CI 14.6;33.9). The prevalence of self-medication in three studies of high methodological quality with a 15-day recall period was 35.0% (95%CI 29.0;40.0, I2 = 83.9%) in the adult Brazilian population. CONCLUSIONS Despite differences in the methodologies of the included studies, the results of this systematic review indicate that a significant proportion of the adult Brazilian population self-medicates. It is suggested that future research projects that assess self-medication in Brazil standardize their methods. PMID:26083944

  10. Links between Psychotropic Substance Use and Sensation Seeking in a Prevalence Study: The Role of Some Features of Parenting Style in a Large Sample of Adolescents

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    Marco Scalese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The objectives of the study were to (a investigate the prevalence risk of current drug users and (b explore the association between parental monitoring, adolescent-parent relationship, family structure, financial status, and sensation-seeking and psychotropic substance use. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2002 Italian student population survey of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. The sample size was 10,790 adolescents, aged 15–19 years. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed. Findings. The prevalence of users was 27.3% (34.2% males; 21.6% females. Single-parent and reconstructed families were related to the greatest likelihood of substance use. A medium financial status and, for females, a satisfying relationship with father were protective factors. Probability of engaging in risk-taking behavior increased when parental knowledge decreased. Exploring deeper how parental monitoring could modify the relation between different traits of sensation seeking and substances use revealed the following: “thrill and adventure seeking,” within the case of a good monitoring, can help against the use of substances; “boredom susceptibility” is not associated with drug use, except when parental monitoring is weak. Conclusions. Specific subdimensions, associated with substance use, may be more amenable to prevention than general interventions on sensation-seeking personality. Family is the context that could promote health education.

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents and Their Parents in Central Greece (FETA Project

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    Anna Patsopoulou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents’ and adolescents’ demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12–18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ, the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2 and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ. Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy, maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents’ obesity.

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents and Their Parents in Central Greece (FETA Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsopoulou, Anna; Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Katsioulis, Antonios; Rachiotis, George; Malissiova, Eleni; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA) aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents’ and adolescents’ demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12–18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2) and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ). Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy), maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents’ obesity. PMID:26712779

  13. Ideal cardiovascular health prevalence in the Brazilian population - National Health Survey (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido; Claro, Rafael; Gomes, Crizian Saar; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Primordial prevention is defined as the initial prevention of risk factors, through the adoption of healthier behaviors. Within this concept, the American Heart Association (AHA) has defined seven metrics, based on evidence, to achieve ideal cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiovascular health in the Brazilian population, according to sex, age, and region of residence, using data from the latest National Health Survey (2013). We assessed the risk factors, as recommended by the AHA, combined (number of factors) and individually: four behavioral (smoking, physical activity, body mass index and diet) and three biological factors (blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol levels). The Brazilian population has reached very low prevalence (1%), for the sum of 7 factors in ideal level. Individually, 3.2% of the population consumed ideal diet, followed by physical activity (23.6%) and body mass index (43.7%). The subjects aged between 18 and 35 years showed higher prevalence of metrics combined at the optimal levels (0.5%), which was also reached by the population of the Northern region. These results indicate that greater efforts are urgent by public policies at the level of primordial prevention in order to achieve appropriate targets of cardiovascular health in the Brazilian population.

  14. The prevalence of tic disorders in children and adolescents in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) and tic disorders represent events of familiar magnitude characterized by involuntary movements and/or vocalization. To determine the prevalence of TS/tic disorders we studied a sample of 762 subjects (388 M, 374 F), between 1992 and 1997, age 6 to 43 years old, taken out of a population of 10,155 subjects (4,918 M, 5,237 F; age: 3-56 years old). A structured 4-item questionnaire, direct interview (multistaged), >1 yr follow-up, were used. 9,565 subjects (4,614 M, 4,951...

  15. Prevalence of ischemic heart disease among urban population of Siliguri, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Sukanta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and the associated risk factors among the urban population of Siliguri. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of the population aged ≥40 years old in the Municipal Corporation area of Siliguri. Study variables were age, sex, occupation, addiction, food habit, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram change. Results: Out of 250 individuals who took part in this study, 29 (11.6% had ischemic heart disease (IHD and 118 (47.2% had hypertension. Males had a higher (13.5% prevalence of IHD than females (9.4%. About 5% of the patients had asymptomatic IHD. IHD among the study population is significantly associated with hypertension and smoking.

  16. Prevalence of high blood pressure in Brazilian adolescents and quality of the employed methodological procedures: systematic review

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    Marina Gabriella Pereira de Andrada Magalhães

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on studies that estimated the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP or systemic arterial hypertension (SAH in Brazilian adolescents, considering the employed methodological procedures. METHODS: Bibliographical research of prevalence studies of HBP/SAH in adolescents from 1995 to 2010. The search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed/Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, and Isi Adolec. The descriptors "hypertension", "BP", "teen", "students", "cross-sectional", "prevalence" and "Brazil" were used in Portuguese and English. Furthermore, a score ranging from 0 to 18 based on Recommendations for Blood Pressure Measurement in Humans and Experimental Animals and the VI Brazilian Guidelines of Hypertension was elaborated, in order to analyze the procedures used to measure BP in studies. RESULTS: Twenty-one articles were identified, mostly published in the last 10 years, and 90.5% were performed in school-based and regions of the Southeast, Northeast and South. The prevalence of HBP/SAH ranged from 2.5 to 30.9%. The score of the studies ranged from 0 to 16. A significant negative correlation (rho = -0.504; p = 0.020 was observed between the prevalence of HBP/SAH and the score of BP measurement quality. CONCLUSION: The great variability of PAE/SAH estimates appears to be influenced by methodological procedures used in the studies.

  17. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Spanish children and adolescents. Do we need waist circumference measurements in pediatric practice?

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    Helmut Schröder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC and waist to height ratio (WHtR in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO among normal and overweight individuals was analyzed. DESIGN: Data were obtained from a study conducted from 1998 to 2000 in a representative national sample of 1521 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years (50.0% female in Spain. WC and WHtR measurements were obtained in addition to BMI. AO was defined as WHtR ≥0.50 (WHtR-AO, sex and age specific WC≥90(th percentile (WC-AO1, and sex and age specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2. RESULTS: IOTF- based overweight and obsity prevalence was 21.5% and 6.6% in children and 17.4% and 5.2% in adolescents, respectively. Abdominal obesity (AO was defined as WHtR≥0.50 (WHtR-AO, sex- and age-specific WC≥90th percentile (WC-AO1, and sex- and age-specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2. The respective prevalence of WHtR-AO, WC-AO1, and WC-AO2 was 21.3% (24.6% boys; 17.9% girls, 9.4% (9.1% boys; 9.7% girls, and 26.8% (30.6% boys;22.9% girls in children and 14.3% (20.0% boys; 8.7% girls, 9.6% (9.8% boys; 9.5% girls, and 21.1% (28.8% boys; 13.7% girls in adolescents. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of AO in Spanish children and adolescents is of concern. The high proportion of AO observed in young patients who are normal weight or overweight indicates a need to include waist circumference measurements in routine clinical practice.

  18. The Prevalence and Distribution of Vitreoretinal Interface Abnormalities among Urban Community Population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify the prevalence and distribution of vitreoretinal interface abnormalities (VIAs among urban community population in Shenyang, China. According to the WHO criteria, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 304 Type 2 diabetes (T2D patients and 304 people without diabetes as control over 45 years old. The presence of VIAs was determined by standardized grading of macular optical coherence tomography (Optovue OCT; Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA scans and two-field fundus photographs in at least one eye. For both men and women, high prevalence of VIAs (70.79% was observed among over 65-years-old T2D patients. Prevalence of VIAs was observed to be high among T2D patients in all age groups compared to normal subjects. Prevalence of VIAs increased with age in all subjects. Prevalence of components of VIAs was epiretinal membrane (ERM 11.43%, posterior vitreous detachment (PVD 17.76%, vitreomacular traction syndrome (VMT 5.67%, macular cysts/macular edema (MC/ME 4.61%, full-thickness macular hole (FTMH 0.82%, and partial thickness macular hole (PTMH 0.74% in any eye, respectively. ERM and MC/ME were more prevalent in T2D in both males and females. The results highlight the need for early detection using OCT and approaches for the prevention of VIAs of diabetes in urban community.

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of gallstone disease in an Iranian population:a study on cadavers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmaail Farzaneh; Hassan Toifghi Zavvareh; Jaber Gharadaghi; Mehrdad Sheikhvatan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The prevalence of gallstones is low in Asians. In Iran, many factors inlfuence the prevalence of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gallbladder stones and their chemical characteristics in a population by the study of cadavers. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, autopsies were performed on 253 cadavers of more than 13 years old. The cadavers were studied to determine the number, location of stone formation, chemical composition, dry weight, and mean diameter of stones in the gallbladder and common bile duct. RESULTS:The prevalence of gallstone disease in these cadavers was 6.3% (men 4.7%, women 8.6%, not signiifcantly different, P=0.216). There was a positive relationship between the age and prevalence of gallstone disease (P=0.033). The most common stone compositions were cholesterol and oxalate. The mean diameter (P=0.0058) and dry weight (P CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of gallstones differed among age groups. Diameter and dry weight of gallstones were dependent on location of stone formation and chemical composition.

  20. Assessment of prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in multiethnic population of the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Sathvik Belagodu; Rao, Padma Gurumadhva; Multani, Satendra Kumar; Jain, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    United Arab Emirates (UAE) has a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D. Not much data are available regarding the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency among multiethnic UAE adult population. (1) To determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in multiethnic UAE population (2) To compare the Vitamin D status in Arab and non-Arab population (3) To identify the demographic variables associated with hypovitaminosis D. It was a retrospective study conducted at a secondary care hospital. Electronic case records of all the subjects who had checked their Vitamin D levels during the time period of May 2010-October 2012 were considered for the study. Vitamin D severe deficiency, deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency were defined as serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels 30 ng/mL, respectively. A total 425 subjects were included for the data analysis. Vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed in 208 (48.9%) subjects followed by severe Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in 141 (33.2%) and 63 (14.8%) subjects, respectively. The overall prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was 96.9%. Negative association (r = -0.196, P < 0.01) was observed between body mass index (BMI) and 25(OH)D levels. Ethnicity was not (P = 0.103) a predictor of 25(OH)D levels. Majority of our study subjects had Vitamin D deficiency. There was no substantial difference in 25(OH)D levels of different ethnic groups. Female gender, age, and BMI were the predictors 25(OH)D levels.

  1. The prevalence of peanut sensitization and the association to pollen sensitization in a cohort of unselected adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade an increased occurrence of peanut hypersensitivity and severe anaphylactic reactions to peanut have been reported. However, few prevalence studies have been performed in unselected populations. This study evaluated the point prevalence of peanut hypersensitivity in Danish adole......, the case history should be evaluated together with examination for pollen sensitization....

  2. Human papillomavirus type-specific prevalence in the cervical cancer screening population of Czech women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Tachezy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPVtypes has been recognized as a causal factor for the development of cervical cancer and a number of other malignancies. Today, vaccines against HPV, highly effective in the prevention of persistent infection and precancerous lesions, are available for the routine clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: The data on the prevalence and type-specific HPV distribution in the population of each country are crucial for the surveillance of HPV type-specific prevalence at the onset of vaccination against HPV. METHODS: Women attending a preventive gynecological examination who had no history of abnormal cytological finding and/or surgery for cervical lesions were enrolled. All samples were tested for the presence of HPV by High-Risk Hybrid Capture 2 (HR HC2 and by a modified PCR-reverse line blot assay with broad spectrum primers (BS-RLB. RESULTS: Cervical smears of 1393 women were analyzed. In 6.5% of women, atypical cytological findings were detected. Altogether, 28.3% (394/1393 of women were positive for any HPV type by BS-RLB, 18.2% (254/1393 by HR HC2, and 22.3% (310/1393 by BS-RLB for HR HPV types. In women with atypical findings the prevalence for HR and any HPV types were significantly higher than in women with normal cytological findings. Overall, 36 different HPV types were detected, with HPV 16 being the most prevalent (4.8%. HPV positivity decreased with age; the highest prevalence was 31.5% in the age group 21-25 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our study subjects represent the real screening population. HPV prevalence in this population in the Czech Republic is higher than in other countries of Eastern Europe. Also the spectrum of the most prevalent HPV types differs from those reported by others but HPV 16 is, concordantly, the most prevalent type. Country-specific HPV type-specific prevalences provide baseline information which will enable to measure the impact of HPV vaccination in the future.

  3. Prevalence of HLA-B27 in the New Zealand population: effect of age and ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Rebecca L; Wallace, Mary C.; Jones, Gregory T.; van Rij, Andre M.; Tony R Merriman; Harrison, Andrew; White, Douglas; Stamp, Lisa K.; Ching, Daniel; Highton, John; Stebbings, Simon M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HLA-B27 genotyping is commonly used to support a diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A recent study has suggested that HLA-B27 may adversely affect longevity. The objectives of this study were to determine, for the first time, the prevalence of HLA-B27 in the New Zealand population, and to test whether HLA-B27 prevalence declines with age. Methods 117 Caucasian controls, 111 New Zealand Māori controls, and 176 AS patients were directly genotyped for HLA-B27 using PCR-SSP. T...

  4. Sex differences in prevalence rates and predictors of cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziya, S; Ntata, P R T; Rudatsikira, E; Makupe, C M; Umar, E; Muula, A S

    2007-09-01

    An analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey for Kilimanjaro, Tanzania was carried out to assess sex differences in the prevalence rates and predictors of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents. A total of 2323 adolescents participated in the study of whom 53% were females and 47% males. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 3.0% and 1.4% among males and females, respectively. The common factors that were significantly positively associated with cigarette smoking between sexes were: having more pocket money, closest friend smoked cigarettes, seeing actors smoke on TV, videos or movies, and seeing advertisements for cigarettes at social gatherings. Seeing anti-smoking messages at social gatherings were negatively associated with smoking among both sexes. While having had something such as a t-shirt or pen with a cigarette brand logo on it was positively associated with cigarette smoking among males, it was negatively associated with cigarette smoking among females. Male adolescents older than 15 years, those in their 9th year of schooling, and those who had seen cigarette brand names on TV were more likely to smoke. Meanwhile, male respondents who were in their 8th year of schooling, had seen anti-smoking media messages, and advertisements for cigarettes in newspapers or magazines were less likely to smoke. Among female adolescents, those who had parents who smoked, and surprisingly those who perceived that cigarette smoking as harmful were more likely to smoke. Interestingly, seeing advertisement for cigarettes on billboards was negatively associated with smoking among female adolescents. Interventions aimed to reduce adolescent smoking need to be designed and implemented with due consideration of sex differences in these associated factors. PMID:18087898

  5. PREVALENCE OF HUMANIST PERSPECTIVE OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN ABA- ABIA STATE, NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR CROSS CULTURAL COUNSELING

    OpenAIRE

    Rev. Azu Kalu Oko PhD, Mcasson; Mrs. Ugboaku, N wankpa

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the prevale nce of the humanist perspective of sexual harassment among adolescents in a Christian mission secondary school. Three research questions and two hypotheses were used. The descriptive survey used a cluster sample of 70 students. A close- ended questionnaire was used as the instrument for gathering data which were analyzed using frequency distribution, percentage and the correlation test. The findings indicate that t he traditional perspective of sexual harass...

  6. The Prevalence of Physical Activity Levels in Albanian Children and Adolescents in the Physical Education Class and Their Leisure Time

    OpenAIRE

    M. Shehu; B. Mema

    2015-01-01

    Many studies that show that all individuals (children, adolescents, adults) who participate in regular Physical Activity, namely "every day" their memory, concentration and communication, problem solving and leadership skills will be improved compared with individuals who are inactive. Moreover, these improvements can have a positive impact in their process of learning and many other subject areas. The purpose of this study is to present the prevalence of physical activity in Albanian childre...

  7. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with overweight and obesity among adolescents in Kaski district, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bishwas Acharya; Hoshiar Singh Chauhan; Surya Bahadur Thapa; Hari Prasad Kaphle; Dipendra Malla

    2014-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of overweight and obesity is at increasing level in low income and developing countries and is not limited to high income countries only. Adolescent is at high risk for its development. Rationale: To find out the prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors responsible for overweight and obesity which are unrecognized health problems and are risk factors for non-communicable disease. To date no study has been done focusing overweight and obesity in Kaski dist...

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of depression in childhood and adolescence as seen in 4 districts of north-eastern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kinyanda, Eugene; Kizza, Ruth; Abbo, Catherine; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Levin, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background Millions of African children are having to grow up under harsh and adverse psychosocial conditions but it’s not fully understood how this negative psychosocial environment is affecting their mental health. This paper examines the prevalence and risk factors of depression in childhood and adolescence as seen in a community sample derived from four disadvantaged districts in north-eastern Uganda. Methods 1587 children were assessed using a structured instrument administered by traine...

  9. The prevalence of malocclusion and its association with dental caries among 12-18-year-old disabled adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vellappally, Sajith; Seby J Gardens; Al Kheraif, Abdul-Aziz Abdullah; Krishna, Madhusudan; Babu, Suresh; Hashem, Mohamed; Jacob, Vimal; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence of malocclusion among 12-18-year-old disabled adolescents in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, by using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and to determine the association of malocclusion with dental caries. Methods This cross-sectional study included 243 children with various mental disabilities with or without physical infirmities. The Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and the dentition status were recorded using the World Health Organization Oral Health Surveys – Bas...

  10. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Substance Use and Misuse among Kosovar Adolescents; Cross Sectional Study of Scholastic, Familial-, and Sports-Related Factors of Influence

    OpenAIRE

    Enver Tahiraj; Mladen Cubela; Ljerka Ostojic; Jelena Rodek; Natasa Zenic; Damir Sekulic; Blaz Lesnik

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is considered to be the most important period for the prevention of substance use and misuse (SUM). The aim of this study was to investigate the problem of SUM and to establish potentially important factors associated with SUM in Kosovar adolescents. Multi-stage simple random sampling was used to select participants. At the end of their high school education, 980 adolescents (623 females) ages 17 to 19 years old were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of smoking, alcohol consum...

  11. Female adolescent sexual and nonsexual violent offenders: a comparison of the prevalence and impact of risk and protective factors for general recidivism

    OpenAIRE

    Put, Van Der, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study adds to the scarce literature on female adolescent sexual offenders by examining differences between female adolescent sexual and nonsexual violent offenders in the prevalence and impact of dynamic risk and protective factors for general recidivism. Method: The sample consisted of female adolescents who were convicted for a sexual offense (FSOs; n =31) or nonsexual violent offense (FNSOs; n = 407), and for whom the Washington State Juvenile Court Assessment was complete...

  12. Prevalence of internet addiction and its association with stressful life events and psychological symptoms among adolescent internet users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Jiaji

    2014-03-01

    Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is a serious public health problem around the world. However, there have been few studies that examine the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescent internet users. We examined the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among a random sample of school students who were internet users (N=755) in Wuhan, China. Internet addiction, stressful life events, coping style and psychological symptoms were measured by self-rated scales. The prevalence rate of internet addiction was 6.0% among adolescent internet users. Logistic regression analyses indicated that stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with IA after controlling for demographic characteristics. Analyses examining the coping style with the IA revealed that negative coping style may mediate the effects of stressful life events to increase the risk of IA. However, no significant interaction of stressful life events and psychological symptoms was found. These findings of the current study indicate a high prevalence of internet addiction among Chinese adolescent internet users and highlight the importance of stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem as a risk factor for IA which mainly mediated through negative coping style.

  13. A Study on the prevalence of Internet addiction and its association with psychopathological symptoms and obesity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Huseyin Cam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: There has been an explosive growth of internet usage worldwide and this is expected to continue with its use becoming an integral part of everyday life. The internet provides tremendous educational benefits; however, excessive internet use can lead to negative outcomes such as psychopathological symptoms and obesity. The aim of the study was to study association with the prevalence of internet addiction and psychopathological symptoms and obesity in adolescent age group. Methods: A total of 1175 high school students from three high schools in Giresun City were surveyed using Internet Addiction Test, Dukes Health Profile. The Data was collected using a structured questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Of the 1,175 adolescents who took part in the study, 588 (50.0% were female and 587 (50.0% were males. The mean age of adolescents was 15.72 +/- 1.14 years. The prevalence rate of problematic internet use was 7.1% among adolescent internet users. Those with excessive use internet had high scores on anxiety, depression, and anxiety depression. A relationship between problematic internet use and obesity was not found. Conclusions: Problematic internet use is becoming a significant public health issue that requires urgent attention. Effective measures are needed to prevent the spread of this problem and interventions to prevent the effects of problematic internet use on psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction should be conducted as early as possible. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 181-188

  14. High prevalence of nickel allergy in an overweight female population: a pilot observational analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Angela Lusi

    Full Text Available In our Allergy Unit, we incidentally observed that a low Nickel diet, prescribed for delayed allergy to Nickel sulfate, reduced body mass index (BMI and waist circumference in overweight patients.This pilot cross-sectional analysis was undertaken to compare the prevalence of Nickel allergy of overweight individuals versus the general population. We also had the chance to report the efficacy of a low Nickel diet on BMI and waist circumference in Nickel-sensitive overweight subjects.Eighty-seven overweight subjects, with a BMI > 26 Kg/m2, were consecutively enrolled in a health prevention program, and screened for the presence of Nickel allergy. The enrolled population was mostly females (72/87 (82.8%. Forty-three overweight women and two men showed a Nickel allergy and started a low Nickel diet. After 6-months of dieting, 24 overweight allergic women could be traced and changes in BMI and waist circumference were calculated.Prevalence of Nickel allergy in overweight.Prevalence of Nickel allergy in overweight female was 59.7%, compared with a prevalence rate of 12.5% in the general population. A significant reduction in BMI was observed in 24 out of 43 overweight females with Nickel allergy after 24 weeks of a low Nickel diet. Relative to baseline, mean BMI decrease was 4.2 ± 0.5 (P < 0.001 and the mean decline in waist circumference was 11.7 ± 0.6 cm (P < 0.001.This pilot observational analysis showed a substantially higher prevalence of Nickel allergy among overweight females, especially those with metabolic syndrome and fatty liver disease. A normocaloric low Nickel diet was effective in reducing BMI in this population. Further research is strongly needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  15. Female adolescent sexual and nonsexual violent offenders: a comparison of the prevalence and impact of risk and protective factors for general recidivism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. van der Put

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study adds to the scarce literature on female adolescent sexual offenders by examining differences between female adolescent sexual and nonsexual violent offenders in the prevalence and impact of dynamic risk and protective factors for general recidivism. Method: The sample consiste

  16. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  17. Substance use among adolescents in special education and residential youth care : Prevalence, onset and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kepper, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents attending special education for learning disabilities (SEL), special education for behavioural problems (SEB) and adolescents living in a residential youth care (RYC) institution present a complex risk profile including severe behavioural and emotional problems, deviant peer networks, an

  18. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents in Bahia, Brazil

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    Cibele Dantas Ferreira Marques

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,477 middle school students enrolled in the public school network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Methods: The sample was determined using a two-stage cluster sampling technique for selecting schools and classes. A posteriori error was estimated. The students were classified as overweight or obese according to the World Health Organization's 2007 classifications. They were also classified according to age, stage of sexual maturity, socioeconomic class and the presence of abdominal obesity. Results: Overall, 9.3% of the students were overweight and 6.4% were obese; therefore, 15.7% of the students were considered to have excess weight (obesity + overweight, at a 95% confidence interval. Abdominal obesity was found in 12.9% of all students and in 13% of those of normal weight. An association was found between excess weight and age < 14 years (p = 0.030 and abdominal obesity (p = 0.001. Conclusions: Intervention programs should be implemented to prevent and treat obesity in childhood and adolescence. In addition, professionals working with individuals in this age group should be sensitized to this problem. The need to standardize the anthropometric indicators used in the different studies is also emphasized.

  19. Analysis of 809 Facial Bone Fractures in a Pediatric and Adolescent Population

    OpenAIRE

    Sang Hun Kim; Soo Hyang Lee; Pil Dong Cho

    2012-01-01

    Background Facial fractures are infrequent in children and adolescents and have different clinical features from those in adults. The low incidence in children and adolescents reflects the flexibility and underdevelopment of their facial skeletons, as well as their more protected environments. Only a few reports have reviewed such patients in Korea. The authors performed a retrospective study to analyze the characteristics of facial fractures in the Korean pediatric population. Methods We con...

  20. Adolescent school absenteeism and service use in a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Haugland, Siren; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Bøe, Tormod; Hysing, Mari

    2015-01-01

    Background School absenteeism is linked to a range of health concerns, health risk behaviors and school dropout. It is therefore important to evaluate the extent to which adolescents with absenteeism are in contact with health care and other services. The aim of the current study was to investigate service use of Norwegian adolescents with moderate and high absenteeism in comparison to students with lower rates of absence. Methods The study employs data from a population-based study from 2012...

  1. Eating Behaviors and Overweight among Adolescents: A Population-Based Survey in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hirotaka Ochiai; Takako Shirasawa; Tadahiro Ohtsu; Rimei Nishimura; Aya Morimoto; Hiromi Hoshino; Naoko Tajima; Akatsuki Kokaze

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors and overweight among population-based adolescents in Japan. Methods. Study subjects comprised adolescents in the seventh grade (age range, 12–13 years) from Ina, a town in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, between 1999 and 2008. The height and weight of the subjects were measured, and information concerning eating behaviors (eating speed and eating until full) was obtained using a self-administered ...

  2. The Prevalence of Crohn’s Disease in the Israeli Kibbutz Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaron Niv

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study of Crohn’s disease was performed in 279 Israeli Kibbutzim (rural communities (population 121,403. The prevalence on December 31, 1987 was 25.53 per 100,000 population. When the data were stratified according to ethnic group, the highest point prevalence was found in Asian/African-born Jews (41.76 per 100,000 population, greater than in Israeli-born, or European/American-born Kibbutz members (38.92 and 17.35 cases per 100,000 population, respectively. There were 15 women and 16 men (female to male ratio 0.94. The average age of patients was 45 years in the survey year, and 35 years at diagnosis. Terminal ileitis was found in 69%, ileocolitis in 19%, and colitis in 12%. Probable complications of Crohn’s disease were observed in 10 cases (32%. Anemia was demonstrated in two cases (6%. The high rate of Crohn’s disease prevalence among Israeli-born versus European/American-born Kibbutz members may point to a role for environmental factors in the etiology of the disease.

  3. [Prevalence and etiology of secondary amenorrhea in a selected Mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, I; Cervera-Aguilar, R; Vergara, M D; Ayala, A R

    1999-08-01

    Studies performed upon american and european population indicate that secondary amenorrhea is associated to 3 months without menses, despite biases observed in age variation and intervals of apparition; nonetheless a 3 month lapse is the standard of reference to quality patients within mexican females. Hence, we investigated the prevalence of secondary amenorrhea among all females (n = 1099) that consulted in our clinic, grouped by age (15-50 yrs), time (months) of amenorrea and identifying the etiology when possible. The prevalence observed was 4.9% with major incidence of 4-12 months of amenorrhea duration (x 5.7 months) between 26-35 years of age. The three most common causes in order of frequency were: Hypothyroidism (14.8%); hiperandrogenism (12.9%) and pituitary adenoma (11.1%). It is concluded that the prevalence of secondary amenorrhea in our study resembled that found in the literature, although in this instance primary hyperthyroidism was the leading cause. PMID:10504790

  4. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension among Saudi Adult Population: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla A. Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed at estimating prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and predictors of hypertension among Saudi adult population. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select 4758 adult participants. Three blood pressure measurements using an automatic sphygmomanometer, sociodemographics, and antihypertensive modalities were obtained. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 25.5%. Only 44.7% of hypertensives were aware, 71.8% of them received pharmacotherapy, and only 37.0% were controlled. Awareness was significantly associated with gender, age, geographical location, occupation, and comorbidity. Applying drug treatment was significantly more among older patients, but control was significantly higher among younger patients and patients with higher level of physical activity. Significant predictors of hypertension included male gender, urbanization, low education, low physical activity, obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion prevalence is high, but awareness, treatment, and control levels are low indicating a need to develop a national program for prevention, early detection, and control of hypertension.

  5. The epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Linneberg, Allan;

    2010-01-01

    . This study aimed to review the epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population. Literature was examined using Pubmed-Medline, Biosis, Science Citation Index, and dermatology text books. On the basis of studies performed between 1964 and 2007, the point prevalence of hand eczema was around 4%, the 1......-year prevalence nearly 10%, whereas the lifetime prevalence reached 15%. Based on seven studies, the median incidence rate of hand eczema was 5.5 cases/1000 person-years (women = 9.6 and men = 4.0). A high incidence rate was associated with female sex, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work...... eczema. Moderate to severe extension of hand eczema was the strongest risk factor for persistence of hand eczema. Other risk factors included early onset of hand eczema and childhood eczema. The aetiology of hand eczema is multifactorial and includes environmental as well as genetic factors. Future...

  6. Cyberbullying among male adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: prevalence, correlates, and association with poor mental health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence rates and multilevel correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators among male adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were also examined. The experiences of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in 251 male adolescents with ADHD were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were examined using multiple regression analysis. A total of 48 (19.1%) and 36 (14.3%) participants reported that they were cyberbullying victims or perpetrators, respectively. Those who had increased age and a higher parental occupational socioeconomic status, and reported more severe traditional passive bullying victimization were more likely to be cyberbullying victims. Those who had increased age and combined-type ADHD, and reported lower BAS reward responsiveness, more severe Internet addiction and more severe traditional passive bullying perpetration were more likely to be cyberbullying perpetrators. Cyberbullying victims reported more severe depression and suicidality than those who were not cyberbullying victims. A high proportion of male adolescents with ADHD are involved in cyberbullying. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents should monitor the possibility of cyberbullying involvement among male adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the cyberbullying correlates identified in this study.

  7. Cyberbullying among male adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: prevalence, correlates, and association with poor mental health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence rates and multilevel correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators among male adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were also examined. The experiences of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in 251 male adolescents with ADHD were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were examined using multiple regression analysis. A total of 48 (19.1%) and 36 (14.3%) participants reported that they were cyberbullying victims or perpetrators, respectively. Those who had increased age and a higher parental occupational socioeconomic status, and reported more severe traditional passive bullying victimization were more likely to be cyberbullying victims. Those who had increased age and combined-type ADHD, and reported lower BAS reward responsiveness, more severe Internet addiction and more severe traditional passive bullying perpetration were more likely to be cyberbullying perpetrators. Cyberbullying victims reported more severe depression and suicidality than those who were not cyberbullying victims. A high proportion of male adolescents with ADHD are involved in cyberbullying. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents should monitor the possibility of cyberbullying involvement among male adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the cyberbullying correlates identified in this study. PMID:25241113

  8. Population-based biochemistry, immunologic and hematological reference values for adolescents and young adults in a rural population in Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Zeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is need for locally-derived age-specific clinical laboratory reference ranges of healthy Africans in sub-Saharan Africa. Reference values from North American and European populations are being used for African subjects despite previous studies showing significant differences. Our aim was to establish clinical laboratory reference values for African adolescents and young adults that can be used in clinical trials and for patient management. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A panel of 298, HIV-seronegative individuals aged 13-34 years was randomly selected from participants in two population-based cross-sectional surveys assessing HIV prevalence and other sexually transmitted infections in western Kenya. The adolescent (<18 years-to-adults (≥ 18 years ratio and the male-to-female ratio was 1∶1. Median and 95% reference ranges were calculated for immunohematological and biochemistry values. Compared with U.S-derived reference ranges, we detected lower hemoglobin (HB, hematocrit (HCT, red blood cells (RBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, neutrophil, glucose, and blood urea nitrogen values but elevated eosinophil and total bilirubin values. Significant gender variation was observed in hematological parameters in addition to T-bilirubin and creatinine indices in all age groups, AST in the younger and neutrophil, platelet and CD4 indices among the older age group. Age variation was also observed, mainly in hematological parameters among males. Applying U.S. NIH Division of AIDS (DAIDS toxicity grading to our results, 40% of otherwise healthy study participants were classified as having an abnormal laboratory parameter (grade 1-4 which would exclude them from participating in clinical trials. CONCLUSION: Hematological and biochemistry reference values from African population differ from those derived from a North American population, showing the need to develop region-specific reference values. Our data also show variations in hematological

  9. Prevalence of Periodontal Disease in the General Population of India-A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattani, Deepti R; Bhatia, Nidhi; Mahajan, Rupali; Saravanan, SP

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in destruction of tissues and structures surrounding the teeth thus, if left untreated causes loss of teeth and ultimately results in edentulism, posing a great negative impact on individuals’ quality of life. Hence the global epidemiological data suggests periodontal disease to be one of a major burden on oral diseases. To reduce this burden it is necessary to know the true prevalence of the disease according to which proper initiatives can be formulated. India being home to nearly 1.2 billion people and one amongst the rapidly developing country, its population requires being systemically as well as orally healthy to lead a good quality of life. However due to large heterogenecity amongst its residing population in terms of geographical area, culture, education, socioeconomic status, a variety of oral diseases like periodontal diseases are prevalent here. Even though the early studies suggested that the population is highly susceptible to the disease, the true prevalence of periodontal disease has not been found yet due to paucity in literature available. Aim To systematically review the available literature taken from various parts of India and find the prevalence rate of periodontal disease amongst the general population of India. Materials and Methods A literature search was performed using PUB MED, COCHRANE and EMBASE databases on August 6, 2015. Following full text assessment a thorough references search was made and potential studies were included. A Quality assessment of retrieved articles from 2nd round was done using a self designed questionnaire and only field survey studies were included in the systematic review. Results The literature search yielded six studies which had performed field surveys to find the prevalence of periodontal disease in their respective areas. These studies have observed different sets of age groups and the same has been accomplished by using

  10. Peruvians’ sleep duration: analysis of a population-based survey on adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained settings, will provide informative evidence on a potentially modifiable risk factor. The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of sleep duration in the Peruvian adult and adolescent population, together with its socio-demographic profile. Material and Methods. A total of 12,424 subjects, mean age 35.8 years (SD ±17.7, 50.6% males, were included in the analysis. This is a cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the Use of Time National Survey conducted in 2010. We used weighted means and proportions to describe sleep duration according to socio-demographic variables (area and region; sex; age; education attainment; asset index; martial and job status. We used Poisson regressions, taking into account the multistage sampling design of the survey, to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Main outcomes were short- (<6 h and long-sleep duration (≥ 9 h. Results. On average, Peruvians slept 7.7 h (95% CI [7.4–8.0] on weekdays and 8.0 h (95% CI [7.8–8.1] during weekends. The proportions of short- and long-sleep, during weekdays, were 4.3% (95% CI [2.9%–6.3%] and 22.4% (95% CI [14.9%–32.1%], respectively. Regarding urban and rural areas, a much higher proportion of short-sleep was observed in the former (92.0% vs. 8.0%; both for weekdays and weekends. On the multivariable analysis, compared to regular-sleepers (≥ 6 to <9 h, short-sleepers were twice more likely to be older and to have higher educational status, and 50% more likely to be currently employed. Similarly, relative to regular-sleep, long-sleepers were more likely to have a lower socioeconomic status as per educational attainment. Conclusions. In this

  11. High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the female population of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès, Xavier; Murga, Gladys Beatriz; Hernández, Gabriela; Sabidó, Meritxell; Chuy, Alejandro; Lloveras, Belén; Alameda, Francesc; de San José, Sílvia; Bosch, Francesc Xavier; Pedroza, Isabel; Castellsagué, Xavier; Casabona, Jordi

    2009-09-01

    The potential introduction of the newly licensed HPV-vaccines at affordable prices could play a central role in preventing cervical cancer in middle and low-income countries, where most of the cases occur. In spite of this, basic epidemiological data about HPV and HPV-related lesions are still scarce. To determine the prevalence of cervical abnormalities, HPV prevalence, genotype distribution and related risk factors, we carried out a cross-sectional study in a population from Guatemala that included 297 women from the general population (GP women) and 297 sex workers (SW). All participating women were interviewed and underwent a complete gynecological examination that included collection of cervical cells for cytological diagnosis, HPV DNA detection and typing by PCR methods. Cervical HPV DNA prevalence among GP women and from SW was 38.1% (95% CI: 32.5-43.8) and 67.3% (95% CI: 61.7-72.6), respectively. The prevalence of abnormal cytology among GP women was 7.7% (ASCUS = 1.4%, LSIL = 4.7%, ASC-H = 0.3% and HSIL = 1.4%) and among SW was 21.6% (ASCUS = 7.5%, LSIL = 10.6%, ASC-H = 1.4% and HSIL = 2.1%). The most prevalent HPV types among women with normal cytology were HPVs 51 (n = 30), 66 (n = 25) and 16 (n = 25), and among women with HSIL or ASC-H (n = 14) HPVs 58 (n = 5) and 16 (n = 5). Determinants associated with HPV DNA detection were having had an occasional partner during the last 6 months and smoking habit among GP women, and being a minor among SW. HPV and abnormal cytology prevalence is high among women in Guatemala. The introduction of a HPV vaccination program would prevent an important fraction of HPV-related disease burden.

  12. Prevalence of sealants in relation to dental caries on the permanent molars of 12 and 15-year-old Greek adolescents. A national pathfinder survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamai-Homata Eleni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of sealants as an effective measure for the prevention of pit and fissure caries in children has been well documented by several studies; either they are used on an individual or on a public health basis. In order to plan and establish a national preventive program with sealants in a community, it is mandatory to know the epidemiological pattern of caries along with other variables influencing their use and effectiveness. Aims: To assess the utilization and distribution pattern of pit and fissure sealants on the first and second permanent molars of Greek adolescents and to evaluate whether the existing usage of sealants and some socio-demographic factors are correlated to caries prevalence on the population examined Methods A stratified cluster sample of 2481 Greek adolescents was selected according to WHO guidelines (1224 twelve and 1,257 fifteen-year-old, living in urban and rural areas in 11 districts within the country. Five calibrated examiners carried out clinical examinations, recording caries experience at the dentine threshold (BASCD criteria and presence or absence of sealants along with Socio-demographic indicators associated with oral health. Mann Whitney and Pearson's chi-square non parametric tests were utilized for assessing the data. The level of significance was p Results Sealants utilization varied considerably within the different districts, with 8,3% of the 12 and 8,0% of the 15-year-old adolescents having at least one sealed molar. Sealants reduced DMFS scores by 11% in the 12-year-olds and by 24% in the 15-year-olds, while 15-year-old adolescents from rural areas had a statistically significant (p = 0.002 less chance of having sealants (71% compared to children from urban areas. Girls had higher chance to receive sealants in both age groups (26% for the 12 and 19% for the 15-year-old as well as patients that visited the dentist for prevention compared to those visiting the dentist because they

  13. Prevalence of hypertension, its correlates and awareness among adult tribal population of Kerala state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I I Meshram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing prevalence of hypertension is a public health problem in India. Aims: To study prevalence, correlates, and awareness of hypertension among tribal adult population in Kerala. Setting and Design: A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in tribal areas of Kerala by adopting multistage random sampling procedure. Materials and Methods: Data was collected on socio-demographic and behavioral factors, and anthropometric measurements were carried out. Body mass index (BMI was categorized using the classification recommended for Asians. Waist circumference ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women was used cut off for defining an abdominal obesity. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was carried out to study association of hypertension with socio-demographic variables, personal habits, and obesity. Results: A total of 4,193 adults (men 1,891, women: 2,302 of ≥20 years of age were covered. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 40% (n=1671. The prevalence of hypertension increases with increase in age among both the genders. Regression analysis showed that the risk of hypertension was significantly (P<0.001 lower among educated and among higher socio-economic status group. Sedentary activity had 1.3 times (CI=1.09-1.60 and alcohol consumption had 1.4 (CI=1.17-1.73 times higher risk of hypertension. The risk of hypertension was 1.7 times higher among overweight/obese subjects. Overall, only 10% (n=164 of the adult population was aware of hypertension status, and about 8% (n=129 were on regular treatment. Conclusion: It was observed that the prevalence of hypertension was higher among tribal adult population of Kerala and was associated with age, gender, education, HHs wealth index, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, and overweight/obesity.

  14. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in an Adult Urban Population of the West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sharifi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in an urban population of Zanjan, a province located to the west of Tehran. Methods. Randomly selected adults >20 years were studied using stratified sampling. Target study sample was 2941 (1396 males and 1545 females. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using Adult Treatment Panel-III (ATP-III guidelines when any three of the following were present: central obesity, raised triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, blood pressure ≥130/≥85 mm Hg, and diabetes or fasting plasma glucose (FPG ≥100 mg/dl. Results. Metabolic syndrome was present in 697 (23.7% subjects (CI 95%:22%–25%, P = .001, prevalence was 23.1% in men and 24.4% in women (P : .4. The prevalence increased from 7.5% in the population younger than 30 y to 45.6% in ages more than 50 years. Low HDL was the most common metabolic abnormality in both sexes. Most of those with metabolic syndrome had three components of the syndrome (75.6%, 170 subjects (24.4% had four and none had five components simultaneously. The prevalence of obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2, hypercholesterolemia (≥200 mg/dl and high LDL cholesterol (≥130 mg/dl was greater in the metabolic syndrome group than normal subjects (P = .00. Conclusions. There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this urban population of the northern west of Iran. Focus of cardiovascular prevention should be undertaken in this area.

  15. "Prevalence and criteria of metabolic syndrome in an urban population: Yazd Healthy Heart Project "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadrbafoghi SM

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is a complex of metabolic disorders that contemporary occurrence in a person is more than the risk of occurrence of each one separately. this syndrome has gained researcher's attention because of its relationship with cardiovascular disease and diabetes type II and its high prevalence in populations Methods: A cross-sectional study performed on 1110 participants, 20-74 years old with cluster sampling. All of them had interview and special questionnaire were filled. Epidemiologic and demographic data were about hypertention cardio vascular disease and related lab data. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 32.1% that it was significantly more in women than men .this prevalence increased with age and BMI in both sexes .the most common metabolic disorder was TG>=150. 19.2% have none, 21.1% have one, 27.6% have two, 20.8% have three,9% have four and 2.3% have all criteria of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Approximately one third of population of Yazd have metabolic syndrome and according to other statistics of Iran, this prevalence is more than U.S and Europe. It seems there is an urgent need for a national multicenter program for determinding risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of helicobacter pylori infection among Pakistani population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Prevalence of H. pylori infection is higher in developing countries including Pakistan. The basic purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori infection and determination of possible risk factors. Methodology: A prospective epidemiologic survey of H. pylori infection was accomplished in 2008 and 2009 involving 516 asymptomatic individuals of Barakaho, Islamabad, Pakistan. Data 13 were obtained by questionnaire and H. pylori positivity was checked by C UBT. Results: A total of 516 individuals participated in the study of which 384 (74.4%) were positive for H. pylori infection. The prevalence was 73.5% in males and 75.4% in females (p = 0.622) and increased with increasing age (p < 0.001). Presence of household animals (p = 0.004) and more family members (p H. pylori prevalence while no association was seen with other risk factors such as education level, drinking water source, number of rooms in house and monthly family income. Conclusions: High prevalence of H. pylori infection in Pakistani population is comparable to the data of developing countries. H. pylori household animals and more family member. (author)

  17. Isolated systolic hypertension in an elderly Danish population. Prevalence and daytime ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talleruphuus, Ulrik; Bang, Lia Evi; Wiinberg, Niels;

    2006-01-01

    inhabitants aged 70-80 years. In untreated subjects, the prevalence of ISH was 17.4% (95% CI 14.9-20.2) in women and 13.5% (95% CI 11.3-15.9) in men using clinic blood pressure at first visit. The prevalence increased significantly with age. The prevalence was reduced to 10.4% when using the average of all......-visits clinic blood pressures. By a simulation model, it was demonstrated that his reduction mainly resulted from a regression towards the mean. Average all-visits clinic blood pressure was 172.6 +/- 10.4/81.1 +/- 6.0 mmHg. Less than one-third of those with all-visit ISH had sustained ISH. Identifying subjects......Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence in a representative population do not seem to be available. The prevalence of ISH and the white coat effect was thus studied in a cross-sectional survey of 2806...

  18. Isolated systolic hypertension in an elderly Danish population. Prevalence and daytime ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talleruphuus, Ulrik; Bang, Lia Evi; Wiinberg, Niels;

    2006-01-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence in a representative population do not seem to be available. The prevalence of ISH and the white coat effect was thus studied in a cross-sectional survey of 2806...... inhabitants aged 70-80 years. In untreated subjects, the prevalence of ISH was 17.4% (95% CI 14.9-20.2) in women and 13.5% (95% CI 11.3-15.9) in men using clinic blood pressure at first visit. The prevalence increased significantly with age. The prevalence was reduced to 10.4% when using the average of all......-visits clinic blood pressures. By a simulation model, it was demonstrated that his reduction mainly resulted from a regression towards the mean. Average all-visits clinic blood pressure was 172.6 +/- 10.4/81.1 +/- 6.0 mmHg. Less than one-third of those with all-visit ISH had sustained ISH. Identifying subjects...

  19. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization: An Epidemiological Study with Prevalence and Etiological Factors in Indian Pediatric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ramesh K

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aims: To determine the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in Indian children and to analyze the possible etiological factors. Materials and methods: First permanent molars and all permanent incisors were examined in 1,369 children aged 8 to 12 years. Examinations were performed by two calibrated observers. The subjects were evaluated using judgment criteria proposed by Weerheijm et al in 2003. The parents accompanying children were given a questionnaire regarding pre- and postnatal history of the children. Results: A total of 191 children were diagnosed with MIH with a prevalence of 13.9%. Chi-square/Fisher exact test was used to compare the dichotomous variables. The relative risk with its 95% confidence interval was calculated to find the risk of clinical infections, such as chicken pox, jaundice, renal disorders, cardiac disorders, and affected molars with sex and type of delivery. Pre- and postnatal history of infection in a child was significantly correlated with the prevalence of MIH. Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH was 13.9% in the age group of 8 to 12 years. Prenatal and postnatal infections play an important role in hypomineralization of molars and incisors. How to cite this article: Mishra A, Pandey RK. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization: An Epidemiological Study with Prevalence and Etiological Factors in Indian Pediatric Population. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):167-171. PMID:27365942

  20. Prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in Karnataka and Kerala population: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savita, J. K.; Yathindra Kumar, B. N.; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.; Ranjitha, J.; Pujari, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in the male and female populations of Karnataka and Kerala. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 100 plaster models of each group, which were equally distributed between both the genders, with an age range of 17–23 years. The rugae patterns were recorded by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Correlation between the rugae shape and population as well as the rugae shape and gender were analyzed using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 22 (IBM Corp). Results: Curved, straight, and wavy rugae patterns were the most common in both Kerala and Karnataka sample populations. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved pattern; discriminant function analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved and straight patterns. Significant gender differences were found in the curved pattern for Karnataka population and in unification patterns for both populations by Chi-square/Fischer exact test. Conclusions: The curved and straight rugae patterns were significantly more frequent in the Kerala population compared to the Karnataka population. Because of the limited sample size of this study, further cross-sectional studies are suggested. PMID:27382539

  1. Xeroderma Pigmentosum: Low Prevalence of Germline XPA Mutations in a Brazilian XP Population

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Miranda Santiago; Amanda França de Nóbrega; Rafael Malagoli Rocha; Silvia Regina Rogatto; Maria Isabel Achatz

    2015-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by DNA repair defects that cause photophobia, sunlight-induced cancers, and neurodegeneration. Prevalence of germline mutations in the nucleotide excision repair gene XPA vary significantly in different populations. No Brazilian patients have been reported to carry a germline mutation in this gene. In this study, the germline mutational status of XPA was determined in Brazilian patients exhibiting major clinical...

  2. Assessment of Prevalence of Diabetes among Rural Population of Pune District, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ritesh P Kundap, Kshama B Vidhate, Kevin Fernandez

    2015-01-01

    "Introduction: Diabetes is the commonest non-communicable disease in India with its onset almost a decade earlier as compared to developed countries. The proportion of people with diabetes is increasing very fast in India. Increased longevity and susceptibility of Indians to premature onset of DM have been the important reasons for this change. Objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of diabetes and associated risk factors in rural population using a simple diagnostic tool. ...

  3. Prevalence of using non prescribed medications in economically deprived rural population of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Haseeb, Abdul; Bilal, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Self medication is described as an act of procurement and consumption of medical drugs without the advice of medical physician for diagnosis, prescription and surveillance of treatment. There is a paucity of literature with regards to self medication among rural dwellers of Pakistan and no initiatives have been taken to resolve this issue. Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate frequency, practice and prevalence of self medication among economically deprived rural population of Kar...

  4. Prevalence and awareness of halitosis in a sample of Jordanian population

    OpenAIRE

    Hammad, Mohammad M.; Darwazeh, Azmi MG.; Al-Waeli, Haider; Tarakji, Bassel; Alhadithy, Teeb T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and awareness of halitosis among the subjects of a population, and also to compare the results of Halimeter® readings to self-estimation of halitosis and to assess the relationship between halitosis and oral health. Materials and Methods: A sample of 205 employees from the Jordan University for Science and Technology (JUST) were selected as study subjects. A standardized questionnaire focusing on dental hygiene, self-reported hal...

  5. Prevalence and correlates of valvular heart diseases in the elderly population in Hubei, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Shu; Si Chen; Tingting Qin; Zhen Fu; Tucheng Sun; Mingxing Xie; Li Zhang; Nianguo Dong; Ping Yin

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of valvular heart diseases (VHD) in the elderly population. The participants’ personal information, medical history, behavioral habits and clinical status were assessed by questionnaire, while the left ventricular dimensions, function and the presence and severity of VHD were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography. This study analyzed the data of 3948 participants who were older than 60 years. Significant VHD was present in 1.93% of pa...

  6. Hemoplasma prevalence and hematological abnormalities associated with infection in three different cat populations from Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Pires dos Santos; Francisco de Oliveira Conrado; Joanne Belle Messick; Alexander Welker Biondo; Simone Tostes de Oliveira; Ana Marcia Sá Guimaraes; Naíla Cannes do Nascimento; Viviane Pedralli; Camila Serina Lasta; Félix Hilário Diaz González

    2014-01-01

    Three hemoplasma species are recognized in domestic cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’. We report the prevalence and hematological abnormalities of hemoplasma infection in 369 domestic cats from three different populations (blood donors, hospitalized cats and shelter cats) from Southern Brazil. Complete blood counts were performed at the time of blood collection, and DNA was extracted and tested by conventional PCR for each...

  7. Helicobacter pylori prevalence and circulating micronutrient levels in a low-income United States population

    OpenAIRE

    Epplein, Meira; Signorello, Lisa B.; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Fowke, Jay H.; Correa, Pelayo; Blot, William J.

    2011-01-01

    High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori, the leading cause of gastric cancer, and low levels of micronutrients have been observed in many developing countries, and the question remains as to the whether an association between the two exists. The present study seeks to further our understanding of this potential connection in the Southern Community Cohort Study, representing a low-income population in the United States. Blood levels of antibodies to Helicobacter pylori proteins were assessed us...

  8. High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in a Swiss rheumatology outpatient population.

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll D.; Dudler J.; Lamy O.; Hans D.; So A.; Krieg M.A.; Aubry-Rozier B.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D is important for bone metabolism and neuromuscular function. While a routine dosage is often proposed in osteoporotic patients, it is not so evident in rheumatology outpatients where it has been shown that the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D is high. The aim of the current study was to systematically evaluate the vitamin D status in our outpatient rheumatology population to define the severity of the problem according to rheumatologic diseases. During November 2009, all patients wer...

  9. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms : An adolescent population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvanie, Irma J.; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A. M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. I

  10. Dysfunctional Cognitions Associated with Adolescent Depression: Findings across Special Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, John W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study examined differences in reported depressive symptomatology and related dysfunctional cognitions in nonhandicapped, learning-disabled, and seriously emotionally disturbed adolescents from both public school and juvenile correction settings. No significant main effect was found for differences across label, but consequential differences…

  11. Breast tumours of adolescents in an African population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umanah Ivy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumours of the breast are uncommon in childhood and adolescence. Patients in this age group often require a different approach to diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this study is to highlight the clinicopathologic features of breast tumours in adolescents in a Nigerian city. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four breast tumour materials from patients aged 10-19 years were analyzed over a 10-year period at the Department of Pathology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH, Benin City, Edo State, Benin City, Nigeria. Results: A majority of the breast tumours were benign. Fibroadenoma was the most common tumour with 46 cases (54.8%, followed by fibrocystic changes with 15 cases (17%. Malignancy was extremely rare in this group, with only one case (1.2% of an invasive ductal carcinoma. Histologically, most tumours were indistinguishable from the adult types. Conclusion: Fibroadenoma is the most common breast tumour in adolescents in Benin City, Nigeria. Breast cancer and male breast tumours are rare in this age group. Routine complete physical examination of children and adolescents should include breast examination.

  12. Identification and Characterization of Prodromal Risk Syndromes in Young Adolescents in the Community: A Population-Based Clinical Interview Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    While a great deal of research has been conducted on prodromal risk syndromes in relation to help-seeking individuals who present to the clinic, there is a lack of research on prodromal risk syndromes in the general population. The current study aimed first to establish whether prodromal risk syndromes could be detected in non-help-seeking community-based adolescents and secondly to characterize this group in terms of Axis-1 psychopathology and general functioning. We conducted in-depth clinical interviews with a population sample of 212 school-going adolescents in order to assess for prodromal risk syndromes, Axis-1 psychopathology, and global (social\\/occupational) functioning. Between 0.9% and 8% of the community sample met criteria for a risk syndrome, depending on varying disability criteria. The risk syndrome group had a higher prevalence of co-occurring nonpsychotic Axis-1 psychiatric disorders (OR = 4.77, 95% CI = 1.81-12.52; P < .01) and poorer global functioning (F = 24.5, df = 1, P < .0001) compared with controls. Individuals in the community who fulfill criteria for prodromal risk syndromes demonstrate strong similarities with clinically presenting risk syndrome patients not just in terms of psychotic symptom criteria but also in terms of co-occurring psychopathology and global functioning.

  13. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macur Mirna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia.

  14. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among the Rural Geriatric Population: A Pilot Study in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreejith S. Nair

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing life expectancy around the world, an outstanding achievement of our century, has brought with it new public health challenges. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 72 million inhabitants above 60 years of age as of 2001. The life expectancy in India increased from 32 years in 1947 to over 66 years in 2010, with 8.0% of the population now reaching over 60 years of age. Few studies in India target the health, especially mental health, of this geriatric population. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the geriatric population of the rural area of Singanodi,Karnataka, India.Methods: This cross sectional, epidemiological, community-based study was conducted in a rural health training area of Singanodi, Raichur District, Karnataka, India.The General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 366 participants. Chi square tests with Yates correction were utilized for statistical analysis using SPSS 19.0 software.Results:We found that 33.9% of the geriatric population in the selected province were above the threshold for mental illness based on the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Females had a higher prevalence of mental disorder at 77.6% (152 out of 196 as compared to males who had a prevalence of 42.4% (72 out of 170. The most common psychiatric disorder was depression (21.9%, and generalized anxiety was present in 10.7% of the study population. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 16.3%, with a significantly higher percentage of  affected individuals in 80+ age group.Conclusion: Mental disorders are common among elderly people, but they are not well documented in rural India. The assessment of psychiatric disorder prevalence will help strengthen psycho-geriatric services and thus improve the quality of life of the elderly.  A system that ensures comprehensive health care will have to be developed for

  15. Prevalence and co-morbidity among anxiety disorders in a national cohort of psychiatrically referred children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hoeyer, Mette; Dyrborg, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides prevalence estimates of anxiety disorders as well as homotypic (e.g., other anxiety disorders) and heterotypic (e.g., mood, externalizing) co-morbidity in a national sample of children and adolescents referred to the psychiatric system in Denmark. Data were gathered from...... a database containing 83% of all youth referred from 2004 to 2007 (N=13,241). A prevalence of 5.7% of anxiety disorder was found in the sample. Homotypic co-morbidity was found in only 2.8%, whereas heterotypic co-morbidity was found in 42.9% of the cohort. A total of 73.6% had a principal anxiety disorder...... as opposed to 26.4% who had other principal diagnoses and a secondary anxiety disorder. The national database not only provides a valuable prevalence estimate of anxiety disorders in every-day non-research psychiatric settings, but also highlights the importance of applying standardized screening instruments...

  16. Prevalence and Distribution of Oral Mucosal Lesions in a Geriatric Indian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Santosh; Doni, Bharti; Maheshwari, Sneha

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral health is important to individuals of all age groups. Previous epidemiologic studies of the oral health status of the general population in India provided very little information about oral mucosal lesions in the elderly. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of the oral lesions in a geriatric Indian population. Methods 5,100 patients were clinically evaluated, with age ranging from 60 to 98 years. There were 3,100 males and 2,000 females, wit...

  17. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in an urban population: The Chennai Glaucoma Study

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    Lingam Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in an urban south Indian population. Settings and Design: Population-based cross-sectional study. Exactly 3850 subjects aged 40 years and above from Chennai city were examined at a dedicated facility in the base hospital. Materials and Methods: All subjects had a complete ophthalmic examination that included best-corrected visual acuity. Low vision and blindness were defined using World Health Organization (WHO criteria. The influence of age, gender, literacy, and occupation was assessed using multiple logistic regression. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test, t-test, and multivariate analysis were used. Results: Of the 4800 enumerated subjects, 3850 subjects (1710 males, 2140 females were examined (response rate, 80.2%. The prevalence of blindness was 0.85% (95% CI 0.6-1.1% and was positively associated with age and illiteracy. Cataract was the leading cause (57.6% and glaucoma was the second cause (16.7% for blindness. The prevalence of low vision was 2.9% (95% CI 2.4-3.4% and visual impairment (blindness + low vision was 3.8% (95% CI 3.2-4.4%. The primary causes for low vision were refractive errors (68% and cataract (22%. Conclusions: In this urban population based study, cataract was the leading cause for blindness and refractive error was the main reason for low vision.

  18. Assessment of Prevalence of Diabetes among Rural Population of Pune District, India

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    Ritesh P Kundap, Kshama B Vidhate, Kevin Fernandez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Introduction: Diabetes is the commonest non-communicable disease in India with its onset almost a decade earlier as compared to developed countries. The proportion of people with diabetes is increasing very fast in India. Increased longevity and susceptibility of Indians to premature onset of DM have been the important reasons for this change. Objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of diabetes and associated risk factors in rural population using a simple diagnostic tool. Method: A cross sectional survey was done in one randomly selected village of rural field practise area of a medical college in Pune district. House to house visits were paid and 255 residents of 20 and above years of age were interviewed using Indian diabetes risk score (IDRS. Those who screened positive on the score were tested for fasting blood sugar by Glucometer method. Results: The prevalence of diabetes among the study population was 10.5%. Among the 27 newly detected cases 18 had high risk and 9 had moderate risk on IDRS. The statistically significant risk factors were age, non vegetarian diet, socio economic status and body mass index. Conclusion: The prevalence diabetes has started increasing in poor, illiterate and health ignorant rural population. They should be diagnosed at the earliest possible time using simple diagnostic tools like IDRS. "

  19. Prevalence of Abnormity of Blood Lipid and Associated Factors in Health Examination Population in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-ming Kang; Jie-shi Zhang; Xin-xin Liu; Min-shan Wang; Ming-li Zhao; Jian-chun Yu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of abnormity of blood lipid and associated factors in healthy population in Beijing.Methods Totally,38462 individuals who received health examination were enrolled in our study.We divided them into eight groups according to their ages.The levels of serum total cholesterol,triglyceride,high density lipoprotein cholesterol,and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were tested,and the relationship of blood lipid abnormity with body mass index(BMI)and fasting blood glucose was analyzed.Results The incidences of hypercholesterolemia,hyperglyceridemia,low high-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia,and hyper low-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia presented increasing trend in this population.The incidence rate of abnormity of blood lipid in health examination population increased with BMI increase.The incidence of abnormity of blood lipid in overweight and obesity population was significantly higher than that in low weight and normal weight populations(P<0.05).Meanwhile,the trend of abnormal blood lipid incidence coincided with that of abnormal fasting blood glucose.Conclusions The prevalence of overweight,obesity,and abnormity of blood lipid in Beijing presents increasing trend.The incidence of abnormity of blood lipid increases with BMI increase,in coincidence with that of fasting blood glucose.

  20. Prevalência de inatividade física e fatores associados em adolescentes Prevalence of physical inactivity and associated factors in adolescents

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    Augusto César Ferreira de Moraes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de inatividade física em adolescentes (14 a 18 anos da cidade de Maringá/PR e explorar sua associação com variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, comportamental e indicadores de estado nutricional. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com uma amostra representativa de escolares do ensino médio da cidade incluindo 991 (54,5% moças de 12 colégios públicos e privados selecionados por meio de amostragem em múltiplos estágios. O nível de atividade física habitual foi verificado por meio do IPAQ modificado para adolescentes, usando como referência a última semana. A inatividade física foi definida 4 h/dia, estado nutricional e obesidade abdominal. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de inatividade física em adolescentes foi de 56,9% (moças= 57,9%, rapazes= 55,7%, p=0,46. Os fatores de risco associados à inatividade física foram pertencer ao nível socioeconômico mais baixo, estudar em escolas públicas e ser obeso. CONCLUSÃO: Encontramos uma alta prevalência de inatividade física no estudo. Faz-se urgentemente necessário o desenvolvimento de estratégias, que visem o aumento da atividade física, o que pode ser obtido por meio de desenvolvimento de conteúdos escolares que promovam estilos de vida saudável.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of physical inactivity among adolescents (14-18 years in the city of Maringá/PR and to explore its association with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral, indicators of nutritional status variables. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 991 adolescents (54.5% girls from both public and private high schools selected through multi stage random sampling. The level of habitual physical activity was verified through the IPAQ modified for adolescents, using the last week as a reference period. Physical inactivity was defined as 4 h/d, nutritional status and abdominal obesity. RESULTS: Prevalence of physical inactivity among adolescents was 56

  1. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (4) Prevalence and Trends of Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Urban School-age Children and Adolescents, 1985-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG-YE JI; WORKING GROUP ON OBESITY IN CHINA (WGOC)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the nationwide prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity, and their group variations and trends over the past 20 years in the Chinese urban population. Methods Data sets of boys and girls at the age of 7-18 years collected from the series of Chinese national surveillance on students' constitution and health (CNSSCH) between 1985 and 2000 were divided into five socioeconomic and demographic groups, while BMI classification reference proposed by Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) was used as screening reference to calculate the prevalence and trends of overweight/obesity in these groups. Results In 2000, the prevalence of obesity and overweight in boys aged 7-18 years was 11.3% and 6.5% in Beijing, 13.2% and 4.9% in Shanghai, 9.9% and 4.5% in coastal big cities, and 5.8% and 2.0% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively, while the prevalence of of obesity and overweight in girls of the same age group was 8.2% and 3.7% in Beijing, 7.3% and 2.6% in Shanghai, 5.9% and 2.8% in coastal big cities, and 4.8% and 1.7% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was low in most of the inland cities at an early stage of epidemic overweight. The epidemic manifested a gradient distribution in groups, which was closely related to socioeconomic status (SES) of the study population. However, a dramatic and steady increasing trend was witnessed among all sex-age subgroups in the five urban groups, and such a trend was stronger in boys than in girls, and much stronger in children than in adolescents. Conclusion Although China is at an early stage of epidemic obesity by and large, the prevalence of obesity in her urban population, particularly in coastal big cities has reached the average level of developed countries. The increasing trend has been rapid since early 1990s, and the increments in obesity and overweight are exceptionally high. The prospect of epidemic obesity in China is in no way optimistic

  2. Sleep quality among internally displaced Georgian adolescents and population-based controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhelashvili, Irine; Eliozishvili, Marine; Lortkipanidze, Nani; Oniani, Nikoloz; Cervena, Katerina; Darchia, Nato

    2016-09-01

    Sleep problems in children and adolescents are a significant public health concern and may be linked to a variety of psychoemotional difficulties. This study aimed to evaluate sleep quality and associated factors in conflict-affected Georgian adolescents after 9 months of forced displacement. Thirty-three internally displaced adolescents (mean age 11.4 years) and 33 adolescents (mean age 10.8 years) from the general population completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Parents completed the Children's Sleep-Wake Scale and provided information on their socioeconomic status (SES) and the adolescents' sleep behavior, academic performance, and peer social relationships. The groups differed significantly in sleep quality, peer relationships, SES, and CDI scores. In the internally displaced group, the only significant predictor of sleep quality was SES, which increased the predictive capacity of the model (demographic and psychosocial variables) by 20% in the hierarchical analyses. The most significant predictor in the non-internally displaced group was CDI. This research indicates that displacement may affect sleep quality and psychosocial functioning. The importance of family SES as a contributing factor to displaced adolescents' poor sleep quality is highlighted. An integrated approach designed to improve the psychosocial environment of internally displaced adolescents is needed for their protection. PMID:26311481

  3. The prevalence of pulp stones in historical populations from the middle Euphrates valley (Syria).

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    Tomczyk, Jacek; Komarnitki, Julian; Zalewska, Marta; Wiśniewska, Ewa; Szopiński, Kazimierz; Olczyk-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    There are many reports in the literature concerning pulp stones in contemporary living populations, but there are no descriptions of cases of pulp stones and their prevalence in populations of the past. Here we present a study of pulp stones in a series of archaeologically derived samples from the Middle Euphrates Valley (Syria) obtained from two sites: Terqa and Tell Masaikh. The specimens were assigned to five periods: Early Bronze (2650-2350 BC); Middle Bronze (2200-1700 BC); late Roman (AD 200-400); Islamic (AD 600-1200); and Modern Islamic (AD 1850-1950). A total of 529 teeth representing 117 adult individuals of both sexes were examined. Pulp stones were identified by X-ray and 10 selected specimens were sectioned for histological study. Pulp stones were found in 99 of 117 individuals (85%) and in 271 of 529 (51%) teeth. Pulp stone prevalence was found to increase with age, for individuals of older age classes have more pulp stones than younger individuals. Intriguingly, the prevalence of single pulp stones was higher among older individuals (36-45, >46), while younger individuals (17-25, 26-35) more often possessed multiple stones. Individuals with moderate to highly advanced dental wear have pulp stones significantly more often than individuals whose tooth wear is limited to invisible or very small facets. Though there is no statistical significance in the prevalence of pulp stones across chronological periods, it appears that a high level of calcium in the diet is accompanied by a greater prevalence of pulp stones.

  4. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DENTAL CARIES AMONG THE POPULATION OF JAGDALPUR, CHHATTISGARH

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    Raichoor Anil Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dental caries is a major and significant oral health condition that affects about 50 to 60% of the population in India among oral diseases. Unfortunately in rural areas oral health care is often limited due to lack of perceived need for dental care among the rural population, financial constraints as well as shortage of dental manpower. AIM This study aims to determine the prevalence of dental caries among the general population of Jagdalpur and also determine the important factors that could have contributed to the disease. SETTING AND DESIGN Case records of patients who reported to the Department of Dentistry were studied retrospectively. Information about decayed, missed, filled teeth, occupation, oral hygiene techniques as well as dental visits was recorded. METHODS AND MATERIAL Retrospective data of 100 patients who visited the Department of Dentistry was collected from the medical records division. Case sheets having incomplete information or patients who were aged below 5 years and above 75 years were not considered for the study. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Was done using software SPSS 17.0 version. Chi square test (Descriptive Statistics was done to test the significance of nonparametric analysis. P values were considered significant at 0.05% level. RESULTS Of the 100 case records that were examined, dental caries was more prevalent in males than females with asymptomatic significance of both dental caries and missing teeth to be statistically significant. Restored teeth contributed to almost 72.72% of the population. CONCLUSION The prevalence of dental caries among the rural general population is significantly high. Less frequent dental visits and improper or inadequate brushing technique/methods could have contributed to the high incidence of dental caries. Creating awareness regarding proper oral hygiene methods as well as regular dental checkup is recommended.

  5. Long term trends in prevalence of neural tube defects in Europe: population based study

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    Loane, Maria; de Walle, Hermien; Arriola, Larraitz; Addor, Marie-Claude; Barisic, Ingeborg; Beres, Judit; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Dias, Carlos; Draper, Elizabeth; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Klungsoyr, Kari; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; Lynch, Catherine; McDonnell, Bob; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O’Mahony, Mary T; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Rounding, Catherine; Sipek, Antonin; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Study question What are the long term trends in the total (live births, fetal deaths, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly) and live birth prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD) in Europe, where many countries have issued recommendations for folic acid supplementation but a policy for mandatory folic acid fortification of food does not exist? Methods This was a population based, observational study using data on 11 353 cases of NTD not associated with chromosomal anomalies, including 4162 cases of anencephaly and 5776 cases of spina bifida from 28 EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) registries covering approximately 12.5 million births in 19 countries between 1991 and 2011. The main outcome measures were total and live birth prevalence of NTD, as well as anencephaly and spina bifida, with time trends analysed using random effects Poisson regression models to account for heterogeneities across registries and splines to model non-linear time trends. Summary answer and limitations Overall, the pooled total prevalence of NTD during the study period was 9.1 per 10 000 births. Prevalence of NTD fluctuated slightly but without an obvious downward trend, with the final estimate of the pooled total prevalence of NTD in 2011 similar to that in 1991. Estimates from Poisson models that took registry heterogeneities into account showed an annual increase of 4% (prevalence ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.07) in 1995-99 and a decrease of 3% per year in 1999-2003 (0.97, 0.95 to 0.99), with stable rates thereafter. The trend patterns for anencephaly and spina bifida were similar, but neither anomaly decreased substantially over time. The live birth prevalence of NTD generally decreased, especially for anencephaly. Registration problems or other data artefacts cannot be excluded as a partial explanation of the observed trends (or lack thereof) in the prevalence of NTD. What this study adds In the absence of mandatory fortification

  6. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with overweight and obesity among adolescents in Kaski district, Nepal

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    Bishwas Acharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occurrence of overweight and obesity is at increasing level in low income and developing countries and is not limited to high income countries only. Adolescent is at high risk for its development. Rationale: To find out the prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors responsible for overweight and obesity which are unrecognized health problems and are risk factors for non-communicable disease. To date no study has been done focusing overweight and obesity in Kaski district, Nepal and very few in context of Nepal. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their association with socio demographic factors among higher secondary school level adolescents in Kaski district, Nepal. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Kaski district among 838 adolescents randomly selected from 12 schools using multistage cluster sampling from 24th October to 4th December, 2013 using self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric assessment. BMI for age was calculated using WHO Anthroplus software v.1.0.4 using cut off value of 85th percentile and 95th percentile for overweight and obesity respectively. Statistical analysis was done using SPSSv. 16.  Results: The study revealed 8.1% prevalence of overweight and obesity of among higher secondary level school adolescents with 5.8% overweight and 2.3% obese. Urban respondents were found significantly more overweight/obese than village respondents (p=0.001, OR=2.360. Adolescents of ethnic/indigenous group (p<0.001, OR=2.56, fathers’ with government job (p=0.011, OR=2.08, mothers’ with teaching job (p=0.038, OR=2.57 and average monthly family income more than or equal to NRs.25, 000 (p=0.007, OR=1.97 were found significantly more overweight and obese. But, other socio demographic factors like gender (p=0.26, birth order (p=0.404 and parents’ education (p=0.121 for fathers’ and p=0.282 for mothers’ education weren’t significantly associated

  7. Prevalence of malocclusion traits and orthodontic treatment in a Finnish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krooks, Laura; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Kanavakis, Georgios; Lähdesmäki, Raija

    2016-07-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of malocclusion traits and the extent of orthodontic treatment in a Finnish adult population. Materials and methods The study population comprised subjects (n = 1964) from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 living in the city of Oulu and within 100 km of it. A clinical oral and dental examination with registration of occlusion was carried out in 2012 in connection with a 46-year follow-up survey. Data on previous orthodontic treatment were collected based on a questionnaire. Results In the clinical examination, 39.5% of the subjects had at least one malocclusion trait. The most common malocclusion traits were lateral crossbite (17.9%), overbite ≥ 6 mm (11.7%) and overjet ≥ 6 mm (9.7%). Crossbite on the left premolars, negative overjet and increased overbite were found more frequently in men. The prevalence of malocclusion traits was at the same level in treated and untreated groups. Overall, 18.6% of the subjects had undergone orthodontic treatment. Women showed a significantly higher prevalence of orthodontic treatment. Conclusions The most common malocclusion trait in the present study was lateral crossbite. Significant male dominance in the prevalence of malocclusion was observed, which has not been reported earlier in Finland. Orthodontic treatment of malocclusion traits was more common among females in Northern Finland. This study indicates that orthodontic treatment provided in childhood was, on average, adequate in reducing malocclusion traits to the level observed in the general population. PMID:26940248

  8. Prevalence and correlates of dental caries in an elderly population in northeast China.

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    Lu Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. METHODS: A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65-74 years from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT and decayed-filled teeth (DFT indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197. T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40, and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (P<0.01. Missing teeth accounted for 80.72% of DMFT, and filled teeth due to caries accounted for 2.08% with a rate higher in urban areas (P<0.01. Logistic regression analysis indicated significant association among elderly population in urban areas (OR 1.713; 95% CI 1.337-2.195, smoking (OR 1.779; 95% CI 1.384-2.288, and individuals without dental insurance (OR 2.050; 95% CI 1.120-3.754 with dental caries. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries.

  9. Type D personality is a risk factor for psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescents: a cross-sectional study of a large population-based cohort of Swedish adolescents

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    Condén Emelie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type D personality, or the “distressed personality”, is a psychosocial factor associated with negative health outcomes, although its impact in younger populations is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Type D personality and the associations between Type D personality and psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescences. Methods A population-based, self-reported cross-sectional study conducted in Västmanland, Sweden with a cohort of 5012 students in the age between 15–18 years old. The participants completed the anonymous questionnaire Survey of Adolescent Life in Västmanland 2008 during class hour. Psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain were measured through index measuring the presence of symptoms and how common they were. DS14 and its two component subscales of negative affectivity (NA and social inhibition (SI were measured as well. Results There was a difference depending on sex, where 10.4% among boys and 14.6% among girls (p =  Conclusions There was a strong association between Type D personality and both psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain where adolescent with a type D personality reported more symptoms. The present study contributes to the mapping of the influence of Type D on psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescents.

  10. A Comparative study on the prevalence of HCC seromarkers among tribal and coastal population

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    Joseph Selvin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An extensive study on the prevalence of seromarkers (HBsAg and AFP of hepatocellular carcinoma among two low socioeconomic groups of Karumanthurai tribes and Kanyakumari coastal population was carried out. The results obtained suggest that the mean HBsAg value of tribal was more than that of the coastal population. The mean AFP of elevated and normal cases was found to be invariably significant (P< 0.01 over the two areas. Coastal patients tended to be significantly older than the tribal patients (P < 0.005, Wilcoxon rank sum test. All two racial/geographic regions showed a preponderance of male patients but this tendency was significantly more marked (P < 0.05 in the tribal group than in the coastal sample. Liquor habit and lack of personal hygienic practices were associated with the prevalence of HBsAg and AFP in both the areas. Surprisingly a positive association has been found between the consumption of marine foods and reduced risk of HCC. Thus the reduced risk of HCC among coastal population can probably be due to the development of immunity against HBV due to the dietary pattern of marine food consumption by coastal population.

  11. Common mental disorders in adolescents: a population based cross-sectional study Transtornos mentais comuns em adolescentes: estudo transversal de base populacional

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    Karen Amaral Tavares Pinheiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and the factors associated with common mental disorders among adolescents in Pelotas, a southern Brazilian city. METHOD: A population based cross-sectional study was carried out in the urban area of Pelotas. Multi-stage sampling was used to obtain a sample of adolescents aged between 15 and 18 years. Adolescents were interviewed using a self-report confidential questionnaire. The presence of common mental disorders was assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20. Multivariate analysis was carried out using the Poisson regression with a robust adjustment of variance and control for design effect. RESULTS: Nine hundred and sixty adolescents were interviewed. The prevalence of common mental disorders was 28.8%. Adolescents aged 17 years showed prevalence of 1.37 (95% CI 1.06-1.78 times greater than the 15 year olds. Adolescents whose mothers had between 5 and 8 years of schooling had a prevalence 1.42 (95% CI 1.01-1.51 times greater than those whose mothers had more than 8 years of schooling. Smoking and sedentary behavior were also associated with an increased prevalence of common mental disorders. Those who were dissatisfied with their body image showed a prevalence of 1.47 (95% CI 1.07-2.02. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal schooling, tobacco smoking, sedentary behavior and body image dissatisfaction were factors associated with the presence of common mental disorders.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência e os fatores associados à presença de transtornos mentais comuns entre adolescentes em Pelotas, uma cidade do sul do Brasil. MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo transversal populacional na área urbana de Pelotas. Foi utilizada uma amostragem multi-etapas para obter uma amostra de adolescentes com idades entre 15 e 18 anos. Os adolescentes foram entrevistados utilizando um questionário confidencial auto-aplicável. A presença de transtornos mentais comuns foi avaliada utilizando o Self-Reporting Questionnaire

  12. Daily hassles in a population of Romanian adolescents

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    Bogdan Nemeş

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is aimed to identify the most important long-term stressors for Romanian adolescents. Material and Methods: 1143 randomly selected Romanian subjects were considered. Mean age in the study sample was 15.02, with a standard deviation (SD of 0.371. About 65.4% of subjects were females. Daily hassles related to the family environment, physical state, psychological status, financial status of the family and interpersonal relationships were covered Results: 22.7% of the subjects reported daily hassles related to their familial environment, 7.8% reported daily hassles related to their physical state, 59.6% reported daily hassles related to their psychological state, 41.9% reported financial difficulties of their families and 4.4% of adolescent reported being bullied. Conclusion: Stressors that appear to be most relevant for adolescents in north-western Romania are: financial difficulties of the family and psychological difficulties. There are no differences in reporting bullying between genders and that this phenomenon is less frequent in Romania. A greater attention should be paid to the effects of workforce migration.

  13. Prevalence and sensitization of atopic allergy and coeliac disease in the Northern Sweden Population Health Study

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    Stefan Enroth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atopic allergy is effected by a number of environmental exposures, such as dry air and time spent outdoors, but there are few estimates of the prevalence in populations from sub-arctic areas. Objective. To determine the prevalence and severity of symptoms of food, inhalation and skin-related allergens and coeliac disease (CD in the sub-arctic region of Sweden. To study the correlation between self-reported allergy and allergy test results. To estimate the heritability of these estimates. Study design. The study was conducted in Karesuando and Soppero in Northern Sweden as part of the Northern Sweden Population Health Study (n=1,068. We used a questionnaire for self-reported allergy and CD status and measured inhalation-related allergens using Phadiatop, food-related allergens using the F×5 assay and IgA and IgG antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG to indicate prevalence of CD. Results. The prevalence of self-reported allergy was very high, with 42.3% reporting mild to severe allergy. Inhalation-related allergy was reported in 26.7%, food-related allergy in 24.9% and skin-related allergy in 2.4% of the participants. Of inhalation-related allergy, 11.0% reported reactions against fur and 14.6% against pollen/grass. Among food-related reactions, 14.9% reported milk (protein and lactose as the cause. The IgE measurements showed that 18.4% had elevated values for inhalation allergens and 11.7% for food allergens. Self-reported allergies and symptoms were positively correlated (p<0.01 with age- and sex-corrected inhalation allergens. Allergy prevalence was inversely correlated with age and number of hours spent outdoors. High levels of IgA and IgG anti-tTG antibodies, CD-related allergens, were found in 1.4 and 0.6% of participants, respectively. All allergens were found to be significantly (p<3e–10 heritable, with estimated heritabilities ranging from 0.34 (F×5 to 0.65 (IgA. Conclusions. Self-reported allergy

  14. Prevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction in Salvador, northeastern Brazil: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, E D; Lisboa Lôbo, C F; Villa, M; Nicolosi, A; Glasser, D B

    2002-08-01

    Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Brazil and to explore potential sociodemographic, medical, and lifestyle correlates. A cross-sectional, population-based, household survey was conducted in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Cluster samples of representative households were randomly selected for interviews. Of 654 eligible subjects, 602 (92%) participated. A structured questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers. ED was categorized as 'none', 'mild', 'moderate', or 'severe' according to the ability to 'attain and/or maintain an erection satisfactory for sexual intercourse'. All data were obtained by self-report. The age-adjusted prevalence of ED was 39.5% (minimal 25.1%, moderate 13.1%, severe 1.3%). Prevalence and severity increased with age. Having never been married, diabetes, depression, or prostate disease and current depressive or lower urinary tract symptoms were significantly (P<0.05) associated with increased prevalence. Medical, sociodemographic, and lifestyle variables associated with ED may alert physicians to patients at risk for ED and offer insight to its etiology. PMID:12161762

  15. Prevalence, associated factors and management of insomnia in prison populations: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewa, Lindsay H; Kyle, Simon D; Hassan, Lamiece; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2015-12-01

    Prisoners have many potential risk factors for insomnia including mental ill health and substance misuse. However, literature on prevalence, associated factors and management of insomnia in prison has yet to be systematically examined in this group. The paper objective was to synthesise and appraise the research that examines insomnia in a prison environment. An integrative literature review using thematic analysis was conducted to critically reflect on the current evidence base and outline a prospective research agenda. From the original 384 sourced papers, 33 met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently included for review. Definitions of insomnia and assessment tools used in studies varied considerably making the overall validity of findings uncertain. Notably, no studies used a recommended measure to assess insomnia disorder (ID). Thematic analysis yielded five themes: 1) the varied prevalence of insomnia; 2) the comorbidity of insomnia, psychiatric disorder and substance misuse; 3) the negative influence of prison-related situational and environmental factors on insomnia; 4) the role of hypnotic medication, and, 5) preliminary indications that non-pharmacological treatment can improve sleep. The methodological heterogeneity and variable quality across studies in the assessment of insomnia means conclusive data on prevalence, associated factors and management is lacking. Nonetheless, sleep problems are common and impairing in prison, are linked to comorbid conditions and negatively influenced by the prison environment, which routinely provides limited scope for effective management. Future research in prison populations is needed to reliably identify insomnia prevalence and determine how it can be managed effectively. PMID:25644983

  16. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA IN A SEMI-URBAN POPULATION OF PREGNANT WOMEN

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    Suganthi Ramalingam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Anaemia is a serious and prominent problem in the developing countries. This study evaluates the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women attending the outpatient clinic in a semi-urban hospital for a period of six months. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data from a sample of 500 pregnant women was collected and the patients were screened for anaemia on their booking visit in KFMS&R for a period of six months from March-August 2015. Haemoglobin was estimated by cyanmethaemoglobin method using Systronic photocolorimeter on their first antenatal visit. The degree of anaemia was categorised according to ICMR datamild (10-10.99 g/dL, moderate (7-9.99 g/dL, severe (<7 g/dL. RESULTS It was observed that the prevalence of anaemia was 51.8% in the population under study. The prevalence of mild anaemia was 18.53%, that of moderate anaemia was 63.70% and that of severe anaemia was 17.76%. It was also noticed that the prevalence of anaemia was higher in young pregnant women between 17-21 years of age (63.26%. CONCLUSION Anaemia continues to be a major health problem in India and prevention and early diagnosis will significantly reduce maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  17. Prevalence of Gingivitis, Plaque accumulation and Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth among slum population in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M A; Chowdhury, M T H; Khan, M A I; Chowdhury, A F M A; Shahidullah, K M; Saha, A K; Anjum, A

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional survey, using cluster sampling technique, of slum population, was done to explore the oral health status and the prevalence of common oral diseases. A close ended questionnaire comprising Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index, Gingival Index (Löe and Silness) and Plaque Index was applied to evaluate and record oral diseases, in both male and female population, covering a wide range of age groups. Clinical examination was carried out in different shum set ups, including slum schools by trained and calibrated examiners. Three thousand nine hundred and four (3904) slum dwellers participated in the survey. Prevalence of Caries was expressed in mean DMFT, recording of gingival status followed the method of Löe and Silness, oral hygiene status was evaluated using Plaque index. Mean decayed component, of the DMFT, was significantly higher than filling and missing component. Both decayed and missing components showed increasing trend, and filling components decreased as the age progressed. Prevalence of gingivitis and plaque accumulation was remarkably high among slum dwellers. Significantly high level of common oral diseases was found among Tongi slum dwellers.

  18. Prevalence and perception of smoking habits among the Palestinian population in the Gaza Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldalo, Ahmed S

    2016-01-01

    Background The Gaza Strip is a densely populated place with ~2 million inhabitants in an area of 365 km2. The aim of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence in the Gaza Strip and to identify the perception of the Palestinian population on smoking. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Gaza Strip, Palestinian territories, during the period from June to September 2014. Convenient sampling method was adopted. A structured pretested questionnaire was used. Results A total of 600 adults aged 15 years or older completed the questionnaires with a response rate of 83.3%. The prevalence rate of smoking was 26.3%, with a significantly higher rate among males (31%) than females (6.9%) (Psmoking and the most influential factor in convincing smokers to quit was the family. Smokers’ knowledge about smoking risks motivates them to try stop smoking (64.9%) or desire to stop smoking (65.2%). Conclusion The study revealed that tobacco use is significantly prevalent in the Gaza Strip. The author recommends rapid antismoking campaigns with stress on the family role and massive intervention programs to encourage young people to change their behavior toward smoking.

  19. Prevalence of Contact Allergy to p-Phenylenediamine in the European General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepgen, Thomas L; Naldi, Luigi; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Ofenloch, Robert; Svensson, Åke

    2016-02-01

    Population-based studies on contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of contact allergy to PPD and its risk factors in the general population of 5 European countries. A total of 10,425 subjects were interviewed, and a random sample (n = 2,739) was patch tested to PPD. Overall, 5,286 individuals (50.9%) reported having used hair colorants at least once in their lifetime (78% female, 20% male), and 35% had used hair colorants during the last 12 months. Hair colorant avoidance because of any skin problem during the lifetime was reported by 6%. Black henna tattoos had been used by 5.5% during their lifetime. The prevalence of PPD contact allergy was 0.8% (95% confidence interval 0.6-1.0%), with no statistically significant association with gender or hair dye use. The prevalence of PPD in black henna tattoo users was 3.2% versus 0.6% in nonusers (P hair coloring products was found in 0.1% (95% confidence interval 0.0-0.2%). A significant association with PPD contact allergy was observed for subjects who had black henna tattoos in their lifetime, with an age- and gender-adjusted odds ratio of 9.33 (95% confidence interval 3.45-25.26, P < 0.001). Black henna tattoos are an important risk factor for PPD contact allergy. PMID:26802237

  20. Prevalence of disability according to multimorbidity and disease clustering: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Marengoni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of chronic diseases has increased with population ageing, and research has attempted to elucidate the correlation between chronic diseases and disability. However, most studies in older populations have focused on the effect of single disabling conditions, even though most older adults have more than one chronic disease (multimorbidity. Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate the association of disability with disease, in terms of multimorbidity and specified pairs of diseases, in a population-based study of older adults. Materials and Methods: Using the Kungsholmen Project, we estimated the prevalence of disability by the number of chronic diseases, disease status by organ systems, and in specific pairs of chronic conditions, in a Swedish population (n=1,099; ≥77 years. Disability was defined as need of assistance in at least one activity of daily living (Katz index. Results: Functional disability was seen in 17.9% of participants. It increased as the number of chronic diseases increased. The prevalence of disability varied greatly amongst specific pairs of diseases: from 6.7% in persons affected by hypertension and atrial fibrillation to 82.4% in persons affected by dementia and hip fracture. In multivariate logistic regression models, the disease pairs that were significantly associated with the highest increased relative odds of disability contained dementia (dementia–hip fracture, dementia–CVD, and dementia–depression. Conclusions: Our findings suggest specific pairs of diseases are much more highly associated with disability than others, particularly diseases coupled with dementia. This knowledge may improve prevention of disablement and planning of resource distribution.

  1. The prevalence of craniomandibular disorders in the military population of the Republic of Serbia

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    Dodić Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cra- niomandibular dysfunction (CMD in the military personel of the Republic of Serbia, as well as the distribution of sings and symptoms of CMD in this population group. Material and methods. The epidemiological investigation included 284 male persons between 18-25 years of age. The sample consisted of Military Academy students, and soldiers from different regions of the Republic of Serbia. A questionnaire was designed using Helkimo's clinical dysfunction index and sings and symptoms of CMD were evaluated, namely the anamnestic index (Ai and the dysfunction index (Di. Results. According to the anamnestic dysfunction index (Ai, 85% of persons among the examined group presented without any symptoms of CMD (Ai=0, 14% had mild symptoms (Ai =1 and 1% had severe symptoms of CMD (Ai=5. Functional analysis of the orofacial system in the examined group (evaluation of dysfunction index - Di revealed, however, that 70% of solders had at least one sign of CMD, precisely a dysfunction index Di>0. The analysis of signs and symptoms of CMD revealed that disturbances in mandibular kinematics were the most prevalent sign of CMD in this population group, which was confirmed in 56% of examined persons. Disturbed functions of temporomandibular (TM joints (click, and reciprocal click, deviation and deflection during mandibular opening were established in 31% of examined persons, and sensitivity of TM joints and masticatory muscles during palpation in 4% of examined persons. Pain during mandibular movements was established only in 1% of examined persons. Conclusion. The results of this investigation point to significant prevalence of Craniomandibular disorders in the examined population group. The incidence of TMJ and masticaory muscle pain in 4% of examined persons and of pain during mandibular movements only in 1% of examined persons, points to presence of mild or initial types of CMD in this

  2. Androgenetic alopecia in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Vera H

    2003-02-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), or hereditary hair thinning, is a common and unwelcome cause of hair loss in men and women. AGA also occurs in adolescents, though its prevalence in this younger population is not known. Physical appearance is extremely important to most adolescents, and early onset of hair loss can have a definite negative effect on self-image and self-esteem. Minoxidil topical solution is widely used by adults for hair loss, but its use by adolescents has not been systematically evaluated. This article provides an overview of AGA and presents new information on the prevalence and age at onset of hereditary hair thinning in adolescents. In addition, data are presented on the efficacy and proper use of minoxidil topical solution in adolescent boys and girls. PMID:12635889

  3. Prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in adolescents: nine-year follow-up study (2003-2012

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    Dirceu Solé

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic eczema in adolescents (AD; 13-14 years living in seven Brazilian cities, by applying the standardized written questionnaire (WQ of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC, and to evaluate the time trend nine years after the last assessment of ISAAC phase 3 (ISP3. METHODS: The ISAAC-WQ was answered by 20,099 AD from the Northern, Northeastern, Southeastern, and Southern Brazilian regions. Values obtained were compared to those observed in ISP3 using nonparametric (chi-squared or Fisher tests, and the ratio of annual increment/decrement was established for each of the centers, according to the symptom assessed. RESULTS: Considering the national data and comparing to values of ISP3, there was a decrease in the mean prevalence of active asthma (18.5% vs. 17.5% and an increase in the frequency of severe asthma (4.5% vs. 4.7% and physician-diagnosed asthma (14.3% vs. 17.6%. An increase in prevalence of rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema was also observed. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic eczema in Brazil was variable; higher prevalence values, especially of asthma and eczema, were observed in regions located closer to the Equator.

  4. Prevalence of West Nile virus in Mashhad, Iran:A population-based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zahra Meshkat; Sadegh Chinikar; MohammadTaghi Shakeri; Lida Manavifar; Maryam Moradi; Hessam Mirshahabi; Tahmineh Jalali; Sahar Khakifirouz; Nariman Shahhosseini

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the prevalence of West Nile virus seropositivity in the general population of Mashhad, Northeast of Iran.Methods:One hundred and eighty two individuals living in the city of Mashhad were studied using cluster sampling method. Both IgM and IgG antibodies against WNV were detected by ELISA method.Results:In this study, the overall IgG seroprevalence of positive West Nile virus was 11%; however, IgM antibody was not found in the participants.Conclusions:Our study suggested that the prevalence rate of West virus is considerable in Mashhad city. It seems necessary for clinicians and health care workers to be aware of WNV infection in the Northeast Iran.

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Mental Disorders in Israeli Adolescents: Results from a National Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbstein, Ilana; Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Levinson, Daphna; Goodman, Robert; Levav, Itzhak; Vograft, Itzik; Kanaaneh, Rasim; Ponizovsky, Alexander M.; Brent, David A.; Apter, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Background: The development of epidemiological instruments has enabled the assessment of mental disorders in youth in countries that plan policy according to evidence-based principles. The Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA) was conducted in 2004-2005 in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers.…

  6. Allelic prevalence of intron 3 insertion/deletion genetic polymorphism of DNA double-strand break repair gene XRCC4 in four healthy Iranian populations

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    Leila Fallahzadeh-Abarghooei

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Although there is a significant heterogeneity between Iranian populations, the Del allele shows high prevalence among Iranian populations, which is much higher than the allelic prevalence among Asians.

  7. The prevalence and relevance of the Brugada-type electrocardiogram in the Danish general population: data from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecini, Redi; Cedergreen, Pernille Kallerup; Theilade, Simone;

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of the Brugada-type electrocardiogram (ECG) in the Danish population is not known.......The prevalence of the Brugada-type electrocardiogram (ECG) in the Danish population is not known....

  8. Lifetime Prevalence of Transient Loss of Consciousness in an Urban Russian Population

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    S Gudkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Most international studies on epidemiology of transient loss of consciousness (TLC were performed many years ago. There are no data about the lifetime prevalence of TLC in Russia. Objective: To identify the lifetime prevalence and presumed mechanisms of TLC in an urban Russian population. Methods: 1796 individuals (540 males [30.1%] and 1256 females [69.9%] aged 20 to 69 years (mean age 45.8 ± 11.9 years were randomly selected and interviewed within the framework of multicentre randomised observational trial. Results: The overall prevalence of TLC in the studied population was 23.3% (418/1796, with the highest proportion (28% seen in 40-49 year age group. TLC was significantly more common in women than in men (27.5% vs 13.5%. The mean age of patients at the time of the first event was 16 (11; 23 years, with 333 (85% individuals experiencing the first episode of TLC under 30 years. The average time after the first episode of TLC was 27 (12; 47 years. The following mechanisms of TLC were determined using the questionnaire: neurally-mediated syncope (56.5%, arrhythmogenic onset of syncope (6.0%, nonsyncopal origin of TLC (1.4%, single episode during lifetime (2.1%. Reasons for TLC remained unidentified in 34% cases. 27 persons (6.5% reported a family history of sudden death, mainly patients with presumably arrhythmogenic origin (24%. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the overall prevalence of TLC in individuals aged 20-69 years is high. The most common cause of TLC is neurally-mediated syncope. These data about the epidemiology can help to develop cost-effective management approaches to TLC.

  9. Prevalence of Distolingual Roots in the Permanent Mandibular Molars in a Chinese Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongchun Gu; Longxing Ni

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to detect the prevalence of distolingual (DL) roots in the permanent mandibular molars in a Chinese population by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).Methods:A total of 500 Chinese patients' CBCT images were examined.The incidences and bilateral concurrence rates of DL roots were determined for the permanent mandibular first,second and third molars.The differences between sexes and sides were tested by using Chi-square tests.The antimeric correlations for occurrence of the trait were analyzed with the Spearman's rank order correlation test.Results:The prevalence of 3-rooted mandibular first molars was 31.98% (134/419 individuals) calculated by individuals,and 25.89% (217/838 teeth) calculated by teeth.The bilateral concurrence rate was 61.94 %.A significant right-side predilection was found in the female group (P=0.025) as well as for both sexes combined (P=0.009).The Spearman's correlations coefficient between antimeres was 0.77 (P=0.000).The prevalence of DL roots in the mandibular second and third molars were 2.02% (8/396individuals) and 12.10% (19/157 individuals),respectively.The corresponding bilateral concurrence rate was 12.50% and 35.83%,and the bilateral correlation coefficient was 0.22 (P=0.000) and 0.50 (P=0.000),respectively.Conclusion:Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of the DL roots in the Chinese population.Understanding the pattern of occurrence would be useful for dental treatment.

  10. The prevalence and influence factors of inter-ankle systolic blood pressure difference in community population.

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    Zhihong Zhang

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of interankle systolic blood pressure difference (sIAND and its influencing factors in community population. METHODS: This study included 2849 (65.1±9.4 y subjects. Blood pressure (BPs of four limbs was simultaneously measured with 4 electronic sphygmomanometers after 10 min rest in supine position. The difference of systolic BP (SBP between two ankles was calculated as DETASBP. The criterion for abnormal sIAND was ≥10 mmHg of absolute DeltaSBP, in which the criterion for 1o sIAND was 10-19 mmHg and for 2o sIAND was ≥20 mmHg. Age, gender, smoking, hypertension, family histories of hypertension and diabetes were recorded. Fasting blood glucose and lipids, circumference of hip and waist, and body mass index (BMI were measured. RESULTS: The SBP was higher in the right ankle than in the left ankle (158.9±21.8 vs 157.3±21.6 mmHg, P<0.05 and mean DeltaSBP was 6.08±6.26 mmHg. Similar difference was found in both genders. The prevalence of abnormal was 18.5%, in which, the prevalence 1o sIAND was 15.3% and that of 2o sIAND was 3.1%. Multivariate regression analysis showed that age, waist circumference and blood glucose level were the positive factors for DeltaSBP. The normal upper limit for DeltaSBP was 16.7 mmHg in this population, the prevalence of sIAND by≥16 mmHg was 5.8%. CONCLUSION: Aging, hypertension, obesity and abnormal glucose metabolism are positive factors for inter-ankle SBP difference.

  11. The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in Iranian male population over 65 years old

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    Mirsharifi R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Prevalence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA, estimated by various studies, ranged from 4.1% to 14.2% in men older than 60 years. Most cases of AAA are asymptomatic and often discovered incidentally. Approximately the initial presentation in 12% of cases of AAA is sudden rupture with subsequent high mortality. This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence and screening necessity of AAA among Iranian men older than 65 years old."n "nMethods: In this cross-sectional study, men older than 65 years, who referred for ultrasound examination to three different centers in Tehran, Iran at the year 2008 were included for evaluation of size of the abdominal aorta and presence of AAA."n "nResults: A total of 240 men older than 65 years enrolled in this study. AAA was found in 24 of the participants with prevalence rate of 10% in the studied population. Mean diameter of detected aneurysms was 3.931.435 cm. In 4 (1.7% subjects, aneurysms greater than 5.5 cm in diameter were detected. One of these four subjects had the history of coronary artery disease and one was cigarette smoker. Three out of four had history of hypertension."n "nConclusion: Considering the estimated prevalence rate of AAA by the current study and the population of Iranian men older than 65, implementing of mass screening for AAA in this group would detect 986 asymptomatic cases each year. Therefore, the authors recommend further studies about the cost-effectiveness of mass screening for AAA among Iranian men above 65 years.

  12. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Gender differences and prevalence in a Pakistani medical student population

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    Vaqar Talha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect which causes significant distress or impairment in functioning. Few studies have assessed gender differences in BDD in a non clinical population. Also no study assessed BDD in medical students. This study was designed to determine the point prevalence of BDD in Pakistani medical students and the gender differences in prevalence of BDD, body foci of concern and symptoms of BDD. Methods The medical students enrolled in a medical university in Karachi, Pakistan filled out a self-report questionnaire which assessed clinical features of BDD. BDD was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria. Results Out of the 156 students, 57.1% were female. A total of 78.8% of the students reported dissatisfaction with some aspect of their appearance and 5.8% met the DSM-IV criteria for BDD. The male to female ratio for BDD was 1.7. Regarding gender differences in body foci of concern, the top three reported foci of concern in male students were head hair (34.3%, being fat (32.8%, skin (14.9% and nose(14.9%, whereas in females they were being fat (40.4%, skin (24.7% and teeth (18%. Females were significantly more concerned about being fat (p = 0.005. Male students were significantly more concerned about being thin (p = 0.01 and about head hair (p = 0.012. Conclusion BDD is fairly common in our medical student population, with a higher prevalence in males. Important gender differences in BDD symptomatology and reported body foci of concern were identified which reflected the influence of media on body image perception. The impact of cultural factors on the prevalence as well as gender differences in BDD symptomatology was also established.

  13. Eating Disorders in the Adolescent Population: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijonen, Jori H.; Pratt, Helen D.; Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    Selectively reviews the literature on the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder) as described in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) and "International Classification of Diseases" (10th ed.). Discusses the prevalence and course of eating disorders,…

  14. Violência sexual e sua prevalência em adolescentes de Porto Alegre, Brasil Sexual violence and its prevalence among adolescents, Brazil

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    Guilherme Vanoni Polanczyk

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência da exposição à violência sexual entre adolescentes estudantes de escolas estaduais. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 52 escolas estaduais de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, com ensino fundamental completo, por meio de um processo de amostragem aleatória, estratificada de acordo com o tamanho das escolas. Foi selecionada, em cada escola, uma turma de oitava série por sorteio aleatório e foram incluídos todos os adolescentes presentes nas salas de aula que consentiram em participar do estudo. Foi utilizado o instrumento Triagem da Exposição de Crianças à Violência na Comunidade para identificar jovens que foram vítimas, testemunhas ou que conheciam vítimas de atos de violência sexual. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 1.193 adolescentes, representando 10,3% dos alunos matriculados na oitava série da rede estadual da cidade. Vinte e sete (2,3% adolescentes relataram ter sido vítimas de violência sexual, 54 (4,5% ter sido testemunhas de algum tipo de violência sexual e 332 (27,9% relataram conhecer alguém que tenha sido vítima de violência sexual. CONCLUSÕES: A exposição à violência sexual pelas três formas de contato relatadas mostrou-se freqüente entre os adolescentes estudados. São necessários estudos que abordem a violência sexual como um fenômeno social amplo, com múltiplos fatores associados, amparando estratégias comunitárias de prevenção e de tratamento.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence o sexual violence among adolescents of public schools. METHODS: Fifty-two public elementary schools of Porto Alegre, Brazil, were selected through random sampling stratified by school size. An 8th grade class was selected in each school through simple random sampling and all adolescents attending the classes who agreed to participate were included in the study. The Screening Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence was used to identify adolescents who were victims, witnesses or knew

  15. Prevalence of thinness among the adolescent girls (age group 13yrs-18yrs of Garhkhal Village of Himachal Pradesh, India.

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    Priyanka Rani Garg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal Tablo"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Malnutrition has now been redefined in terms of “under nutrition” and conceptualized in terms of thinness which is an important problem among children and adolescents in rural areas of developing countries like India. Therefore, present study was carried out to assess the prevalence of thinness among the adolescent girls (age group 13yrs-18yrs of Garhkhal Village of Himachal Pradesh, India. The study design was cross-sectional. Height and weight were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI was carried out. Identification of thinness was done according to the new International BMI-based classification cut offs as given by Cole et al., 2007. In general the mean BMI increased with increasing age. Overall age-combined prevalence was 79.5%. Present study indicated the poor health status of the adolescent girls of the selected area which indicates the high nutritional stress among them as evident from the thinness prevalent among them.

  16. An Investigation of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in an Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, James; Dennison, Darwin

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyze high school students' self-reports and to determine biomedical cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adolescent population. Factors evaluated included smoking frequency, dietary fat intake, saturated fat intake, and cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio. (JN)

  17. Population Based National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey among Adults (>15 Years) in Pakistan, 2010–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadeer, Ejaz; Fatima, Razia; Yaqoob, Aashifa; Tahseen, Sabira; Ul Haq, Mahboob; Ghafoor, Abdul; Asif, Muhammad; Straetemans, Masja; Tiemersma, Edine W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) amongst the adult population in 2010–2011 in Pakistan. Method A nationwide cross-sectional survey with multistage cluster sampling was conducted among adults (≥15 years) in 95 clusters in 2010–2011. All consenting participants were screened for cough and by chest X-ray. Participants with presumptive TB submitted two sputum samples for smear microscopy, culture, and molecular testing if needed. The TB prevalence estimates were adjusted for missing data and the cluster design. Result Of 131,329 eligible individuals, 105,913 (81%) participated in the survey, of whom 10,471 (9.9%) were eligible for sputum examination. We found 341 bacteriologically positive TB cases of whom 233 had sputum smear-positive TB. The adjusted prevalence estimates for smear and bacteriologically positive TB were 270/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 217–323), and 398/100,000 (95% CI 333–463), respectively. Only 61% of the diagnosed TB cases screened positive on symptoms (cough >2wks), whereas the other TB cases were detected based on X-ray abnormalities. The TB prevalence increased with age and was 1.8 times higher among men than women. The prevalence-to-notification ratio of smear-positive TB was 3.1 (95% CI 2.5–3.7), was higher among men than women, and increased with age. Conclusion Our data suggest that there is under-detection and/or -notification of TB, especially among men and elderly. TB control should be strengthened specifically in these risk groups. X-ray examination should be combined with symptom screening to enhance case detection. PMID:26863617

  18. Caries prevalence and tooth loss in Hungarian adult population: results of a national survey

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    Jáhn Marianna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health is basicly important for the well-being of people. Thus, it is strongly suggested to organize epidemiological surveys in order to gain representative data on oral condition of the given population. The purpose of the cross-sectional study was to determine the results on tooth loss and caries prevalence of Hungarian adults in different age groups. Methods Altogether 4606 persons (2923 women, 1683 men participated in the study who were classified into different age groups: 19 [less than or equal to], 20–24, 35–44, 45–64, 65–74, [greater than or equal to]75 year olds. Probands were selected randomly from the population attending the compulsory lung screening examinations. The participants were examined by calibrated dentists, according to the WHO (1997 criteria. In order to produce representative data, the chosen localities for these examinations covered the capital, the largest towns, the villages, and case weights were used for the statistical evaluation. Results The mean values of DMF-T were found between 11.79±5.68 and 21.90±7.61 These values were significantly higher in women compared to men (p Data showed some decrease in caries experience in 35–44 years of age between 2000 and 2004. The prevalence of persons with 21 or more teeth had been increased from 65.6% to 73.1%. This positive tendency has not been occured in prevalence of edentulousness in this age group: the prevalence of edentulous persons changed from 1.4 to 1.9%. In 65–74 year olds the level of edentulousness became lower, from 25.9 to 14.8% and the prevalence of persons with 21 or more teeth is higher (22.6% than it was in 2000 (13.0%. Conclusion Present data from Hungary show some slight decrease in caries experience between 35–44 years of age, although this positive tendency has not been occured in prevalence of edentulousness in this age group. A positive tendency could be experienced in the group of 65–74 year olds in

  19. Human bocavirus infections are common in Beijing population indicated by sero-antibody prevalence analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lin-qing; QIAN Yuan; ZHU Ru-nan; DENG Jie; WANG Fang; DONG Hui-jin; SUN Yu; LI Yan

    2009-01-01

    Background Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly identified human parvovirus that was originally detected in the respiratory secretions of children with respiratory infections. This study aimed to learn about the importance of HBoV infections by revealing the prevalence of serum antibodies against HBoV in Beijing population.Methods Two batches of serum specimens collected in different periods were tested by Western blotting for specific IgG against HBoV using recombinant VP2 as antigen.Results Out of 677 serum specimens collected during April 1996 to March 1997, 400 (59.1%) were positive and antibody positive rate for another batch of 141 serum specimens collected in August, 2005 from adults aged from 20 years to over 60 years was 78.7% (111/141). Comparison of the sero-prevalence profiles for serum specimens collected during 1996-1997 to those collected in 2005 indicated that the antibody positive rate for specimens collected in 2005 was higher than that of the corresponding age groups collected during 1996-1997.Conclusions The data suggest that HBoV has been circulating in Beijing population for at least over 10 years, and most of children had been exposed to HBoV by age of 7 years. Higher HBoV antibody positive rate shown in the serum specimens collected in 2005 suggested that infections by HBoV have been increased in Beijing population in recent years.

  20. Prevalence of Catalase (-21 A/T Gene Variant in South Indian (Tamil Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lourdhu Mary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalase, an endogenous antioxidant enzyme, is responsible for regulating reactive species levels. Several epidemiologic studies have suggested that single nucleotide polymorphism in catalase gene may be associated with many diseases. The genotype of CAT (-21 A/T point mutation in promoter region of catalase gene was determined by polymerase chain based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in the DNA of 100 healthy volunteers. The frequency of CAT (-21 A/T gene polymorphism AA, AT, and TT genotypes was found to be 7, 23, and 70 percent, respectively. The mutant “T” allele frequency was found to be 0.82 among the south Indian (Tamil population. Chi square analysis showed that the study population lies within the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The wild type genotype (AA was found to be very low (7% and the mutant genotype (AT/TT was found to be more prevalent (93% among the south Indian population. This suggests that the high prevalence of mutant genotype may increase the susceptibility to oxidative stress associated diseases.