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Sample records for adolescent population prevalence

  1. Prevalence of keratoconus in an adolescent population

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    Jorge E. Valdez-García

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Through this study, we found that our statistics matched those of internationally published reports concerning the early age of onset of the disease and its corresponding bilateralism. However, contrary to the international reports, it was evident that this condition was more prevalent among the females in our study sample, and no other associated pathologies were found.

  2. Are eating disorders and their symptoms increasing in prevalence among adolescent population?

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    Litmanen, Jessi; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Isomaa, Rasmus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2017-01-01

    A debate concerns whether eating disorders are increasing in prevalence. The role of socio-economic status (SES) for adolescent eating disorders (ED) is another matter of debate. To ascertain whether self-reported eating disorders or their symptoms have increased in prevalence in adolescent population from the early 2000s to early 2010s. A person-identifiable classroom survey, Adolescent Mental Health Cohort study, was carried out among the 9th graders in comprehensive schools in Tampere, Finland, during academic year 2002-2003, and replicated among then 9th graders during academic years 2012-2013. Eating disorders were elicited with questionnaires tailored according to DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. No changes were observed between 2002-2003 and 2012-2013 in the prevalence of anorexia and bulimia, most of the symptoms of anorexia and bulimia, or the proportion of adolescents having received treatment due to eating disorders among the girls or the boys. Eating disorders, treatment contacts due to eating disorders, and eating disorder symptoms were not systematically associated with either low or high parental socio-economic status. Based on this dataset, eating disorders are not increasing in the adolescent population. Adolescent eating disorders are not associated with socio-economic status of their family.

  3. Social phobia in Finnish general adolescent population: prevalence, comorbidity, individual and family correlates, and service use.

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    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rantanen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the epidemiology of social phobia (SP) among early to middle adolescents, at the time of suggested mean onset of the disorder. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, comorbidity, individual and familial correlates, and service use associated with SP among Finnish 12-17-year-old adolescents in general population. A sample of 784 adolescents was screened with the Social Phobia Inventory, and a sub-sample (n=350) was interviewed with a semi-structured clinical interview to identify SP, sub-clinical SP (SSP), and a range of other axis I DSM-IV disorders. Individual and familial correlates, and service use associated with SP were also inquired. We found a 12-month prevalence of 3.2% for SP, and 4.6% for SSP. The prevalence rose and the gender ratio shifted to female preponderance as age increased. SP was frequently comorbid with other anxiety disorders (41%) and depressive disorders (41%). Adolescents with SP/SSP were impaired in their academic and global functioning, and reported more parental psychiatric treatment contacts. Two thirds (68%) of adolescents with SP reported having been bullied by peers. Only one fifth of adolescents with non-comorbid SP had been in contact with a mental health professional. We conclude that adolescent SP is a relatively frequent, undertreated and highly comorbid condition, associated with educational impairment, depression and anxiety in parents, and peer victimization. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Prevalence of different forms of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents: a population-based study.

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    Feng, Jui-Ying; Chang, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Fetzer, Susan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2015-04-01

    Reported cases of child maltreatment are increasing in Taiwan. Yet, comprehensive epidemiological characteristics of adolescents' exposure over the wide spectrum of violence are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and magnitude of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents. A population-based study was conducted with 5,276 adolescents aged 12-18 from 35 schools in 17 cities and townships to determine the prevalence of five forms of child maltreatment in Taiwan. A total of 5,236 adolescents completed anonymous, self-report, structured questionnaires. Most adolescents (91%, n=4,788) experienced at least one form of maltreatment with 83% (n=4,347) exposed during the previous year. Violence exposure was the most common type of child maltreatment experienced, followed by psychological abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse. Adolescents reported an average of 7.4 (SD=5.87) victimizations over their lifetime and 4.8 (SD=4.82) victimizations during the past year. Females reported a higher rate of neglect, while males reported a higher rate of sexual abuse. Most of the sexual abuse perpetrators were known by their victims. Adolescents' victimization and polyvictimization from child maltreatment in Taiwan deserves a review and modification of national control and prevention policies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. PREVALENCE OF ASTHMA-LIKE SYMPTOMS AND DIAGNOSED ASTHMA IN THE POPULATION OF ADOLESCENTS

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    L.S. Namazova-Baranova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the recent years, standardised epidemiological studies of asthma and asthma'like symptoms in the population of children have been conducted. ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood questionnaire has been predominantly used as a tool to assess the prevalence of clinical implications and diagnosed conditions in children. However, this technique has limitations in terms of subject age (children aged 6–7 and 13–14. We have conducted a study on the prevalence of Asthma and allergy in adolescents (children aged 15–17 using the standardised GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network questionnaire in two Russian cities from central region and Siberia (Moscow and Tomsk. It has been found that the prevalence of asthma'like symptoms in adolescents was three times the level of clinically diagnosed asthma, which accounted for no more than 7%, with this indicator having no variance depending on the region of residence.Key words: asthma, GA2LEN, prevalence, epidemiology, adolescents.

  6. Prevalence of psychotic symptoms in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, I

    2012-09-01

    Psychotic symptoms occur more frequently in the general population than psychotic disorder and index risk for psychopathology. Multiple studies have reported on the prevalence of these symptoms using self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews but there is a lack of consensus about the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among children and adolescents.

  7. Poly-victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population: Prevalence, social and psychological profile, and detrimental effects.

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    Mossige, Svein; Huang, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on poly-victimization, with the aim of providing a realistic estimation of the prevalence of lifetime victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population (ages 18-19 years). Based upon the concept from previous research, we applied measures of child poly-victimization on Norwegian data obtained from a national youth survey in 2015 (N = 4,531) to arrive at an estimation of its prevalence. We used variables that measure individual characteristics such as gender and educational aspiration and socio-economic factors such as parents' education level and home economic situation to derive a social and psychological profile of victimization and poly-victimization among young people. Finally, we estimated the effects of poly-victimization on mental health such as symptoms of depression, anxiety and trauma. Our study identified a poly-victimization prevalence of 8.6% among young people, i.e. they were exposed to three of all four forms of violence investigated by our study: non-physical violence, witnessing violence against parents, physical violence and sexual abuse. Adolescents of poly-victimization are six times more likely to report depression and anxiety and trauma when compared with those without victimization. Poly-victimization is a phenomenon that heavily burdens many young people across many national contexts. Poly-victims clearly tend to develop depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The early detection of sexual abuse, physical violence, and bullying victimization is of critical importance and preventive measures could consider addressing family factors through parental educational programs.

  8. Primary dysmenorrhea: prevalence in adolescent population of Tbilisi, Georgia and risk factors

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    Gagua, Tinatin; Tkeshelashvili, Besarion; Gagua, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea in female adolescents living in Tbilisi, Georgia; find possible risk factors and establish an association, if any, with nutrition and sleep hygiene. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was used. A retrospective case control study was used to identify risk factors. Participants: A total of 2561 women consented to participate in the research. 431 participants were included in the case-control study. Interventions: Detailed questionnaire included: reproductive history, demographic features, menstrual pattern, severity of dysmenorrhea and associated symptoms; information about nutrition and sleep hygiene. Results The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 52.07%. Due to pain, 69.78% reported frequent school absenteeism. The risk of dysmenorrhea in students who had a family history of dysmenorrhea was approximately 6 times higher than in students with no prior history. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was significantly higher among smokers compared with non-smokers 3.99% vs. 0.68% (p=.0.05 OR:6.102). Those women reporting an increased intake of sugar reported a marked increase of dysmenorrhea compared to women reporting no daily sugar intake (55.61% vs. 44.39%, p=.0023 LR:0.0002). However, alcohol, family atmosphere and nationality showed no correlation with dysmenorrhea. Our study revealed two most important risk factors of dysmenorrhea: meal skipping 59.78% vs. 27.03%, p=.00000 LR: 0.00000 OR:4.014 and sleep hygiene-receiving less sleep 38.77% vs. 19.59%, p=0.000055 LR: 0.000036 OR:2.598. Conclusion Primary dysmenorrhea is a common problem in the adolescent population of Tbilisi Geogia. It adversely affects their educational performance. Meal skipping and sleep quantity are associated with dysmenorrhea and may cause other reproductive dysfunctions. PMID:24592031

  9. Poly-victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population: Prevalence, social and psychological profile, and detrimental effects.

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    Svein Mossige

    Full Text Available This study focuses on poly-victimization, with the aim of providing a realistic estimation of the prevalence of lifetime victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population (ages 18-19 years.Based upon the concept from previous research, we applied measures of child poly-victimization on Norwegian data obtained from a national youth survey in 2015 (N = 4,531 to arrive at an estimation of its prevalence. We used variables that measure individual characteristics such as gender and educational aspiration and socio-economic factors such as parents' education level and home economic situation to derive a social and psychological profile of victimization and poly-victimization among young people. Finally, we estimated the effects of poly-victimization on mental health such as symptoms of depression, anxiety and trauma.Our study identified a poly-victimization prevalence of 8.6% among young people, i.e. they were exposed to three of all four forms of violence investigated by our study: non-physical violence, witnessing violence against parents, physical violence and sexual abuse. Adolescents of poly-victimization are six times more likely to report depression and anxiety and trauma when compared with those without victimization.Poly-victimization is a phenomenon that heavily burdens many young people across many national contexts. Poly-victims clearly tend to develop depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The early detection of sexual abuse, physical violence, and bullying victimization is of critical importance and preventive measures could consider addressing family factors through parental educational programs.

  10. [Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and associated factors in Spanish population of school children and adolescents].

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    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Chueca-Guindulain, María Jesús; Berrade-Zubiri, Sara; Moreno-Gónzalez, Paula; Malumbres-Chacón, María

    2017-08-08

    To analyse the prevalence of hypovitaminosisD and associated factors in school children and adolescents living in a region of northern Spain. Cross-sectional study (convenience sampling). Primary Health Care. A total of 602 Caucasian individuals (aged 3.1 to 15.4years) were included in the study. Prevalence of hypovitaminosisD were calculated (dependent variable). HypovitaminosisD is defined according to the US Endocrine Society criteria: deficiency (calcidiol <20ng/mL), insufficiency (calcidiol: 20-29ng/mL), and sufficiency (calcidiol ≥30ng/mL). Gender, age, body mass index, residence, and season of the year were recorded (independent variables), and their association with hypovitaminosisD was analysed by multiple regression. The prevalence of hypovitaminosisD was 60.4% (insufficiency: 44.6%; deficiency: 15.8%). Multivariate analysis showed that factors associated to hypovitaminosisD were being female (OR: 1.6; 95%CI: 1.1-2.3), pubertal age (OR: 1.8; 95%CI: 1.2-2.6), autumn (OR: 9.5; 95%CI: 4.8-18.7), winter (OR: 8.8; 95%CI: 4.5-17.5) and spring time (OR: 13.2; 95%CI: 6.4-27.5), living in urban areas (OR:1.6; CI95%: 1.1-2.2), and severe obesity (OR: 4.4; 95%CI: 1.9-10.3). There is a high prevalence of hypovitaminosisD in juvenile populations. being female, pubertal age, autumn, winter and spring seasons, severe obesity, and living in urban areas are factors associated to hypovitaminosisD. Consideration should be given to the administration of vitamin supplements and/or the increase in the ingestion of natural vitaminD dietary sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence, comorbidity and heritability of hoarding symptoms in adolescence: a population based twin study in 15-year olds.

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    Volen Z Ivanov

    Full Text Available Hoarding Disorder (HD is often assumed to be an 'old age' problem, but many individuals diagnosed with HD retrospectively report first experiencing symptoms in childhood or adolescence. We examined the prevalence, comorbidity and etiology of hoarding symptoms in adolescence.To determine the presence of clinically significant hoarding symptoms, a population-based sample of 15-year old twins (N = 3,974 completed the Hoarding Rating Scale-Self Report. Co-occurring Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD were estimated from parental report. Model-fitting analyses divided hoarding symptom scores into additive genetic, shared, and non-shared environmental effects.The prevalence of clinically significant hoarding symptoms was 2% (95% CI 1.6-2.5%, with a significantly higher prevalence in girls than boys. Exclusion of the clutter criterion (as adolescents do not have control over their environment increased the prevalence rate to 3.7% (95% CI 3.1-4.3%. Excessive acquisition was reported by 30-40% among those with clinically significant hoarding symptoms. The prevalence of co-occurring OCD (2.9%, ASD (2.9% and ADHD (10.0% was comparable in hoarding and non-hoarding teenagers. Model-fitting analyses suggested that, in boys, additive genetic (32%; 95% CI 13-44% and non-shared environmental effects accounted for most of the variance. In contrast, among girls, shared and non-shared environmental effects explained most of the variance, while additive genetic factors played a negligible role.Hoarding symptoms are relatively prevalent in adolescents, particularly in girls, and cause distress and/or impairment. Hoarding was rarely associated with other common neurodevelopmental disorders, supporting its DSM-5 status as an independent diagnosis. The relative importance of genetic and shared environmental factors for hoarding differed across sexes. The findings are suggestive of

  12. Prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction in a general adolescent population.

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    Johansson, Henrik; Norlander, Katarina; Berglund, Lars; Janson, Christer; Malinovschi, Andrei; Nordvall, Lennart; Nordang, Leif; Emtner, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Exercise-induced respiratory symptoms are common among adolescents. Exercise is a known stimulus for transient narrowing of the airways, such as exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of EIB and EILO in a general population of adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire on exercise-induced dyspnoea was sent to all adolescents born in 1997 and 1998 in Uppsala, Sweden (n=3838). A random subsample of 146 adolescents (99 with self-reported exercise-induced dyspnoea and 47 without this condition) underwent standardised treadmill exercise tests for EIB and EILO. The exercise test for EIB was performed while breathing dry air; a positive test was defined as a decrease of ≥10% in FEV1 from baseline. EILO was investigated using continuous laryngoscopy during exercise. The estimated prevalence of EIB and EILO in the total population was 19.2% and 5.7%, respectively. No gender differences were found. In adolescents with exercise-induced dyspnoea, 39.8% had EIB, 6% had EILO and 4.8% had both conditions. In this group, significantly more boys than girls had neither EIB nor EILO (64.7% vs 38.8%; p=0.026). There were no significant differences in body mass index, lung function, diagnosed asthma or medication between the participants with exercise-induced dyspnoea who had or did not have a positive EIB or EILO test result. Both EIB and EILO are common causes of exercise-induced dyspnoea in adolescents. EILO is equally common among girls and boys and can coexist with EIB. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Prevalence of functioning difficulties and disability in Mexican adolescent women and their populational characteristics

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    Betania Allen-Leigh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Report prevalence of functioning difficulties and disabilities among Mexican adolescent women 15-17 years old and identify differences in characteristics of those with and without a functioning difficulty or disability Materials and methods. Using data from the National Survey of Boys, Girls and Women in Mexico 2015 we estimated prevalence of functioning difficulties and disability and used chi square tests for independence and logistic regression to explore associations between this condition and various characteristics. Results. Of Mexican adolescent women 15-17 years old, 11.1% had a functioning difficulty or disability. The group of domains of functioning difficulty and disability with by far the highest prevalence was socio-emotional and behavioral functioning difficulties or disability with 8.6%. Being employed, rural residence and self-reported depression symptoms were associated with having functioning difficulties or disability. Conclusions. This survey constitutes an important initial step in collecting data on functioning difficulty and disability in Mexico although larger samples should be studied.

  14. Prevalence and heritability of body dysmorphic symptoms in adolescents and young adults: a population-based nationwide twin study.

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    Enander, Jesper; Ivanov, Volen Z; Mataix-Cols, David; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Lundström, Sebastian; Pérez-Vigil, Ana; Monzani, Benedetta; Lichtenstein, Paul; Rück, Christian

    2018-02-28

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) usually begins during adolescence but little is known about the prevalence, etiology, and patterns of comorbidity in this age group. We investigated the prevalence of BDD symptoms in adolescents and young adults. We also report on the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on BDD symptoms, and the risk for co-existing psychopathology. Prevalence of BDD symptoms was determined by a validated cut-off on the Dysmorphic Concerns Questionnaire (DCQ) in three population-based twin cohorts at ages 15 (n = 6968), 18 (n = 3738), and 20-28 (n = 4671). Heritability analysis was performed using univariate model-fitting for the DCQ. The risk for co-existing psychopathology was expressed as odds ratios (OR). The prevalence of clinically significant BDD symptoms was estimated to be between 1 and 2% in the different cohorts, with a significantly higher prevalence in females (1.3-3.3%) than in males (0.2-0.6%). The heritability of body dysmorphic concerns was estimated to be 49% (95% CI 38-54%) at age 15, 39% (95% CI 30-46) at age 18, and 37% (95% CI 29-42) at ages 20-28, with the remaining variance being due to non-shared environment. ORs for co-existing neuropsychiatric and alcohol-related problems ranged from 2.3 to 13.2. Clinically significant BDD symptoms are relatively common in adolescence and young adulthood, particularly in females. The low occurrence of BDD symptoms in adolescent boys may indicate sex differences in age of onset and/or etiological mechanisms. BDD symptoms are moderately heritable in young people and associated with an increased risk for co-existing neuropsychiatric and alcohol-related problems.

  15. Prevalence and variations of the median maxillary labial frenum in children, adolescents, and adults in a diverse population.

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    Townsend, Janice A; Brannon, Robert B; Cheramie, Toby; Hagan, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The median maxillary labial frenum (MMLF) is a normal anatomic structure with inherent morphologic variations. This study sought to evaluate the prevalence of those variations in a diverse ethnic population and to educate practitioners about the prevalence of MMLF variations to prevent unnecessary biopsies. This study included adult, adolescent, and child patients at the Louisiana State University Health Science Center School of Dentistry. Among the 284 subjects examined, frenum normale was the most common frenum classification, followed by frenum with nodule and frenum with appendix. Most nodules were found in the intermediate third of the MMLF, while appendices were mainly found in the labial third. The prevalence of an appendix was significantly higher (P variations of the MMLF are inherent and do not represent a pathologic condition, nor do they require biopsy for diagnostic purposes.

  16. Prevalence and impact of severe fatigue in adolescent and young adult cancer patients in comparison with population-based controls.

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    Poort, Hanneke; Kaal, Suzanne E J; Knoop, Hans; Jansen, Rosemarie; Prins, Judith B; Manten-Horst, Eveliene; Servaes, Petra; Husson, Olga; van der Graaf, Winette T A

    2017-09-01

    The current study determined the prevalence of severe fatigue in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients (aged 18-35 years at diagnosis) consulting a multidisciplinary AYA team in comparison with gender- and age-matched population-based controls. In addition, impact of severe fatigue on quality of life and correlates of fatigue severity were examined. AYAs with cancer (n = 83) completed questionnaires including the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS-fatigue), Quality of Life (QoL)-Cancer Survivor, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (reflecting psychological distress), and the Cancer Worry Scale (reflecting fear of cancer recurrence or progression). The vast majority of participants had been treated with chemotherapy (87%) and had no active treatment at the time of participation (73.5%). Prevalence of severe fatigue (CIS-fatigue score ≥35) in AYAs with cancer (48%, n = 40/83) was significantly higher in comparison with matched population-based controls (20%, n = 49/249; p fatigued AYAs with cancer reported lower QoL compared to non-severely fatigued AYAs with cancer (p fatigue severity (p fatigue based on a validated cut-off score was highly prevalent in this group of AYAs with cancer. QoL is significantly affected by severe fatigue, stressing the importance of detection and management of this symptom in those patients affected by a life-changing diagnosis of cancer in late adolescence or young adulthood.

  17. Prevalence of smoking, alcohol and substance use among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Denmark compared with the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders G; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk of alcohol and substance abuse in adulthood. An unequivocal reason for this association has not yet been identified but it has been shown that pharmacological treatment...... is likely to reduce this risk. Aims: To test whether adolescents with ADHD in pharmacological treatment have a higher prevalence of smoking and use of alcohol and drugs than a matched control group from the general population. The study will also analyse associations between smoking, alcohol and drug use...... and comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Methods: The sample in this case-control study comprised 219 adolescents aged 13-18 years, including a case group of 117 adolescents with ADHD and a control group of 102 adolescents without ADHD. Participating subjects completed a questionnaire about their use of cigarettes...

  18. Prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them

  19. Primary hypertension among a population of Nigerian secondary school adolescents: Prevalence and correlation with anthropometric indices: A cross-sectional study.

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    Uwaezuoke, S N; Okoli, C V; Ubesie, A C; Ikefuna, A N

    2016-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of primary hypertension and its correlation with anthropometric indices among a population of Nigerian adolescents. A cross-sectional study of secondary school adolescents aged 10-19 years in Enugu, Nigeria, using multi-staged sampling method. Anthropometry and blood pressures were measured using standardized instruments. Data analysis was with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). A total of 2419 adolescents (mean age, 14.80 ± 2.07 years) were included in the study. Prevalence of hypertension was 10.7%. Systolic and diastolic hypertension were observed in 232 (9.6%) and 85 (3.5%) of the participants, respectively. Forty-two of the 137 obese (30.7%) compared to 158 among the 1777 (7.7%) with normal body mass index (BMI) (P hypertension. Waist circumference (r = 0.37) and BMI (r = 0.37) significantly and positively correlated with systolic hypertension. Obese and overweight adolescents had higher prevalence of primary hypertension than their counterparts with normal BMI.

  20. Prevalence of high blood pressure, heart disease, thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia among the UAE adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat-Haddad, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of high blood pressure, heart disease, and medical diagnoses in relation to blood disorders, among 6,329 adolescent students (age 15 to 18 years) who reside in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Findings indicated that the overall prevalence of high blood pressure and heart disease was 1.8% and 1.3%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence for thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia was 0.9%, 1.6%, and 5%, respectively. Bivariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the prevalence of high blood pressure among the local and expatriate adolescent population in the Emirate of Sharjah. Similarly, statistically significant differences in the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia were observed among the local and expatriate population in Abu Dhabi city, the western region of Abu Dhabi, and Al-Ain. Multivariate analysis revealed the following significant predictors of high blood pressure: residing in proximity to industry, nonconventional substance abuse, and age when smoking or exposure to smoking began. Ethnicity was a significant predictor of heart disease, thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia. In addition, predictors of thalassemia included gender (female) and participating in physical activity. Participants diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia and iron-deficiency anemia were more likely to experience different physical activities.

  1. Prevalence of child abuse in child and adolescent clinical population referred to psychiatric facilities in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran

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    Seyyed Gholamreza Nourazar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was ‎designed to evaluate the prevalence of child abuse in a child and adolescent psychiatric clinical population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a clinical population of children and adolescents aged 8-18 years. 80 out-patients and 94 in-patients were selected according to probability proportional to size sampling. Kiddie schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia questionnaire, a demographic questionnaire, and child abuse self-report scale were filled for each subject. Data were analyzed by using Stata software. Results: Among the out-patient subjects, 50 were male (62.5% and 30 were female (37.5%; for in-patient these subjects numbers were 76 (80.9% and 18 (19.1%, respectively. The mean age of subjects was 15.2 years in the in-patient group and 11.7 years in the out-patient group. In 66.1% of abuse cases the perpetrators were parents, 5.2% siblings, and 28.7% someone else. Among in-patient subjects, summed up prevalence rates of severe and very severe psychological abuse, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse were 11.7, 33.0, 2.1, and 0.0%, respectively; for out-patient subjects these values were 3.8, 11.2, 3.8, and 0.0%, respectively. Moreover, among in-patient subjects, prevalence rates of moderate psychological abuse, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse were 27.7, 27.7, 24.5, and 4.3%, respectively; and for out-patient subjects these values were 30.0, 27.5, 11.2, and 0.0%, respectively. Subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD suffered a higher rate of physical abuse, whereas, subjects with bipolar mood disorder (BMD suffered a higher rate of sexual abuse. Conclusion: The prevalence of child abuse is highly prevalent in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders. It is recommended that this population be screened routinely for child abuse.

  2. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

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    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  3. Prevalence Of Dental Caries Among Female Adolescents In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was mainly to ascertain the knowledge and practice of oral health and to determine the prevalence of dental caries among female adolescents. It is a descriptive crosssectional study. The study population consisted of female adolescents in senior secondary schools in Umuahia. Two hundred and ...

  4. The association between use of electronic media and prevalence of headache in adolescents: results from a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milde-Busch, Astrid; von Kries, Rüdiger; Thomas, Silke; Heinrich, Sabine; Straube, Andreas; Radon, Katja

    2010-02-09

    Use of electronic media, i.e. mobile phones, computers, television, game consoles or listening to music, is very common, especially amongst adolescents. There is currently a debate about whether frequent use of these media might have adverse effects on health, especially on headaches, which are among the most-reported health complaints in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between frequent use of electronic media and the prevalence of different types of headache in adolescents. Data were derived from a population-based sample (n = 1,025, ages 13-17 years). Type of headache (i.e. migraine, tension-type headache, unclassifiable headache) was ascertained by standardized questionnaires for subjects reporting headache episodes at least once per month during the last six months. Duration of electronic media use was assessed during personal interviews. Associations were estimated with logistic regression models adjusted for age group, sex, family condition and socio-economic status. Most of the adolescents used computers (85%), watched television (90%) or listened to music (90%) daily, otherwise only 23% of the participants used their mobile phones and only 25% played with game consoles on a daily basis. A statistically significant association between listening to music and any headache (odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.1 for 30 minutes per day, 2.1; 1.2-3.7 for 1 to 2 hours per day; 2.0; 1.2-3.5 for 3 hours and longer listening to music per day) was observed. When stratifying for type of headache, no statistically significant association was seen. Apart from an association between listening to music on a daily basis and overall headache, no consistent associations between the use of electronic media and different types of headache were observed.

  5. The association between use of electronic media and prevalence of headache in adolescents: results from a population-based cross-sectional study

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    Straube Andreas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of electronic media, i.e. mobile phones, computers, television, game consoles or listening to music, is very common, especially amongst adolescents. There is currently a debate about whether frequent use of these media might have adverse effects on health, especially on headaches, which are among the most-reported health complaints in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between frequent use of electronic media and the prevalence of different types of headache in adolescents. Methods Data were derived from a population-based sample (n = 1,025, ages 13-17 years. Type of headache (i.e. migraine, tension-type headache, unclassifiable headache was ascertained by standardized questionnaires for subjects reporting headache episodes at least once per month during the last six months. Duration of electronic media use was assessed during personal interviews. Associations were estimated with logistic regression models adjusted for age group, sex, family condition and socio-economic status. Results Most of the adolescents used computers (85%, watched television (90% or listened to music (90% daily, otherwise only 23% of the participants used their mobile phones and only 25% played with game consoles on a daily basis. A statistically significant association between listening to music and any headache (odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.1 for 30 minutes per day, 2.1; 1.2-3.7 for 1 to 2 hours per day; 2.0; 1.2-3.5 for 3 hours and longer listening to music per day was observed. When stratifying for type of headache, no statistically significant association was seen. Conclusions Apart from an association between listening to music on a daily basis and overall headache, no consistent associations between the use of electronic media and different types of headache were observed.

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Rita Elizabeth Moreira Mascarenhas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6±1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28 and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30. Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P=0.02 and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P=0.01. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide.

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth; Sacramento Cunha Machado, Márcia; Borges da Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando; Fernandes Weyll Pimentel, Rodrigo; Teixeira Ferreira, Tatiana; Silva Leoni, Fernanda Maria; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide. PMID:23133306

  8. Psychotropic medication in the French child and adolescent population: prevalence estimation from health insurance data and national self-report survey data

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    Legleye Stéphane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work is to estimate the French frequencies of dispensed psychotropic prescriptions in children and adolescents. Prevalence estimations of dispensed prescriptions are compared to the frequencies of use of psychotropic reported by 17 year-old adolescents. Methods Prescription data is derived from national health insurance databases. Frequencies of dispensed prescriptions are extrapolated to estimate a range for the 2004 national rates. Self-report data is derived from the 2003 and 2005 ESCAPAD study, an epidemiological study based on a questionnaire focused on health and drug consumption. Results The prevalence estimation shows that the prevalence of prescription of a psychotropic medication to young persons between 3 and 18 years is about 2.2%. In 2005, the self-report study (ESCAPAD shows that 14.9% of 17 year-old adolescents took medication for "nerves" or "to sleep" during the previous 12 months. The same study in 2003 also shows that 62.3% of adolescents aged 17 and 18 reporting psychotropic use, took the medication for anxiety and 56.8% to sleep. Only 49.7% of these medications are suggested by a doctor. Conclusion This study underlines a similar range of prevalence of psychotropic prescriptions in France to that observed in other European countries. Nevertheless, the proportion of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines seems to be higher, whereas the proportion of methylphenidate is lower. Secondly, a disparity between the prevalence of dispensed prescriptions and the self-report of actual use of psychotropics has been highlighted by the ESCAPAD study which shows that these treatments are widely used as "self-medication".

  9. Differences in tobacco smoking prevalence and frequency between adolescent Palestine refugee and non-refugee populations in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank: cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Khader, Ali; Millett, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is conflicting as to the whether tobacco smoking prevalence is higher in refugee than non-refugee populations. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and frequency of tobacco smoking in Palestine refugee and non-refugee adolescent populations in the Middle East. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank among adolescent Palestine refugees and non-refugees. Age- and sex-adjusted regression models assessed the association between refugee status and current (past-30 day) tobacco use prevalence and frequency. Prevalence estimates for current tobacco smoking were similar between Palestine refugee and non-refugee groups in Jordan (26.7 % vs. 24.0 %), Lebanon (39.4 % vs. 38.5 %), and the West Bank (39.5 % vs. 38.4 %). In Syria, Palestine refugees had nearly twice the odds of current tobacco smoking compared to non-refugees (23.2 % vs. 36.6 %, AOR 1.96, 95 % CI 1.46-2.62). Palestine refugees consumed more cigarettes per month than non-refugees in Lebanon (β 0.57, 95 % CI 0.17-0.97) and Palestine refugees consumed more waterpipe tobacco per month than non-refugees in Syria (β 0.40, 95 % CI 0.19-0.61) and the West Bank (β 0.42, 95 % CI 0.21-0.64). Current tobacco smoking prevalence is in excess of 20 % in both adolescent Palestine refugee and non-refugee populations in Middle Eastern countries, however Palestine refugees may smoke tobacco more frequently than non-refugees. Comparison of simple prevalence estimates may therefore mask important differences in tobacco use patterns within population groups.

  10. Prevalence of conduct disorder among adolescents in a senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the prevalence of conduct disorder among adolescents in a senior secondary school in Benin City. This was a survey study. The population was made up of 1,540 students in one of the mixed schools that was randomly selected from the senior secondary schools in Benin City, Edo State Nigeria.

  11. High Prevalence of Obesity in Ambulatory Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…

  12. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  13. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

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    Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4 had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2 smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8 smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use

  14. Prevalence, stability, 1-year incidence and predictors of depressive symptoms among Norwegian adolescents in the general population as measured by the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Bo; Ingul, JoMagne; Jozefiak, Thomas; Leikanger, Einar; Sund, Anne Mari

    2016-01-01

    Background In numerous surveys the prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescents has been examined in single sites and at one time point. Aims We examined depressive symptoms among adolescents aged 10-19 years in four different large school samples including two cohorts over a 10-year period in different locations in the same health region in central Norway including a total of 5804 adolescents. Two cohorts were retested within a 1-year time period to predict high versus low depressive symptom scores. Changes over a 6-year period in depressive symptom levels were examined in two of the samples of 12-14-year olds. Methods Depressive symptoms were estimated by the 13-item Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). Covariates were student age, sex, school size and location. Results "Miserable or unhappy", "Tired", "Restlessness" and "Poor concentration" were the most commonly reported depressive symptoms. Depressive symptom levels and proportions of high scoring students were consistently higher among girls, in particular in mid and late adolescence. Poisson regression analysis showed that all SMFQ items significantly predicted total scores for the whole sample, while sex (girls having a higher risk) emerged as a consistent 1-year predictor of high depressive symptom levels. Conclusions The SMFQ constitutes a short, practical and feasible measure. We recommend that this standardized measure should be used in the assessment of depressive symptoms among adolescents in school, primary care and clinical settings but also to evaluate treatment outcome. High scorers should be evaluated in subsequent clinical interviews for the presence of a depressive disorder.

  15. Prevalence of mobile dependency and adolescence aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyebeh Khazaie; Alireza Saadatjoo; Samaneh Dormohamadi; Mansooreh Soleimani; Marzieh Toosinia; Fatemeh Mullah Hassan Zadeh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Various studies indicate that increasing and complicating use of cell phones in all age groups and in both sexes is associated with aggression. Despite the widespread use of mobile phones in Iran, psychological and behavioral effects of addiction to it and the consequences have not been investigated yet. The present study aimed at determining prevalence of mobile dependency and its relationship with aggression during adolescence in Birjand in 2011. Materials and Methods...

  16. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

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    Fábio Chigres Kuschnir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA. The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9, being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0 when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2 in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7 when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4. It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1, and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7. The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5, and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1; higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2, and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3. It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8, and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9. We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in

  17. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  18. PREVALENCE OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY IN ADOLESCENTS IN BIRJAND

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    Fatemeh Taheri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION: This population-based study was conducted to assess the prevalenceof overweight and obesity in high schools in the city of Birjand in Khorasan Province,Eastern Iran.METHODS: In this descriptive study, we attempted to determine the prevalence ofoverweight and obesity in Iranian adolescents attending high school in Birjand in 2005.A sample of 2230 high school students (1115 boys and 1115 girls aged 15-18 years wasselected via stepwise random sampling in four districts of Birjand. Overweight andobesity were defined based on the 85th and 95th percentiles of BMI for age, respectively,as proposed by the Center for Disease Control (CDC in 2000.RESULTS: The overall prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 6.1% and 2.3%,respectively. The prevalence of overweight was 5% in boys and 7.1% in high school girls.The prevalence of obesity was 2.8% and 1.8% in high school boys and girls, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in high schools in the city ofBirjand is lower than figures reported by other studies conducted in Iran and in othercountries.Key Words: Prevalence, overweight, obesity, adolescents.

  19. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents is still a rare disease in Germany: a population-based assessment of the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and MODY in patients aged 0-20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Andreas; Feldhahn, Lutz; Ehehalt, Stefan; Hub, Regine; Ranke, Michael B

    2009-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) in children and adolescents aged 0-20 yr in Baden-Württemberg (BW), Germany, and to compare our results with those from other European countries. Our study involved every children's hospital (n = 31), each diabetologist in private practice (n = 122), and every internal medicine unit (n = 164) in BW. A written questionnaire and a telephone survey were used to identify children with T2DM and MODY who had been examined at any of these institutions between 2004 and 2005. Population data were drawn from the national census of 1987 and the subsequent annual updates. The prevalence of T2DM for the age range from 0 to 20 yr is 2.30/100 000, whereas the prevalence of MODY in the same age range is 2.39/100 000. The median age of patients with T2DM was 15.8 yr, and 13.9 yr for MODY patients. The majority of patients with either T2DM or MODY were treated in children's hospitals and by consultant diabetologists. A molecular genetic analysis was done to substantiate the clinical diagnosis in less than half of the recruits (14.3% of T2DM and 44.8% of MODY patients). The prevalence of T2DM and MODY is considerably lower than the prevalence of type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes thus continues to be a rare disease in children and adolescents in Germany, as is also the case in other European countries.

  20. Fatherhood in adolescence: prevalence and associated factors in a community sample of youngsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Milene Maria Saalfeld de; Branco, Jerônimo Costa; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Lara, Diogo Rizzato; Mota, Denise Marques; Jansen, Karen

    2015-11-01

    This article aims to assess the prevalence of fatherhood in adolescence (FA) and associated factors in a community sample of 14 to 35 year-old men. Cross-sectional population-based study realized in the urban area of the city of Pelotas-RS, Brazil. The sample was selected by clusters, according to the city census. This sub-study only comprised sexually active men. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire in the participants' homes. The sample was composed for 934 men. The prevalence of fatherhood in adolescence was 8% (n = 75). We verified higher prevalence of FA among those that reported paternal absence (p fatherhood in adolescence.

  1. Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Gibson, Will

    2014-02-01

    The problematic use of mobile phones among adolescents has not been widely studied. There are very few instruments for assessing potential technological addiction to mobile phones, or for categorizing different types of users or uses. The most widely used scale is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS), which is used to study adult populations, and has been applied in various forms in international contexts. The aims of this study were to adapt the Spanish version of this scale (MPPUSA) to British adolescents, and then to estimate the prevalence of possible problematic users. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1,529 secondary school pupils aged between 11 and 18 years, with 1,026 completed questionnaires being collected. The analysis showed that the factor and construct validity and reliability were comparable to those obtained in previous studies. The prevalence of problematic users among the students was 10%, and the typical problematic user tended to be an adolescent between 11 and 14 years old, studying in a public school, who considered themselves to be an expert user of this technology, who made extensive use of his/her mobile phone, and who attributed the same problem of use among their peers. These users presented notable scores in all the symptoms covered by the scale used to assess problematic use. In conclusion, the adaptation of the MPPUSA as a screening scale for British adolescents presents good sensitivity and specificity for detecting the main addictive symptoms proposed in this validated version.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of early onset of sexual intercourse in a random sample of a multiethnic adolescent population in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Gülen; Martin, Loic; Levy-Loeb, Mathieu; Thomas, Stéphanie; Euzet, Géneviève; Van Melle, Astrid; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    French Guiana, a French overseas department in South America, has been classified epidemic for HIV. This territory is consisting of a very young population with almost 45% of them being younger than 20 years of age. Delaying the onset of first sexual intercourse (SI) is one of the major objectives to fight HIV infection in adolescents. The objective of this study is to identify the age of first SI and the risk factors of early onset. A behavioural surveillance survey among students living on the coastline and alongside the Maroni River was conducted in 2011/2012. A total of 1603 students filled out the survey. While 60% had already SI, the mean age of first intercourse was 12.1 years for boys and 13.9 years for girls. Accordingly, over 90% had a premature onset of SI. Risk factors are age, male gender, living alongside the Maroni River, another language than the French being mother tongue, not being religious, alcohol and cannabis consumption and a bad attitude towards condom use. Risk factors for girls are an older first sexual partner, having more than three lifetime sexual partners and condom rupture. Evidence-based implementation with respect of local and socio-demographic aspects is necessary to improve youths' appreciation of SI and related risk of sexual transmitted diseases.

  3. Prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Herbish, Abdullah S.; Al-Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Al-Salloum, Abdullah A.; Al-Qurachi, Mansour M.; Al-Omar, Ahmed M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among 0-19 years old Saudi children and adolescents. A nationwide Saudi Arabian project was conducted in the years 2001-2007 with the objective of establishing national growth charts and defining the prevalence of some chronic childhood diseases such as diabetes mellitus. The 14000 households were randomly selected based on a recent population statistic. The questionnaire used included demographic data and evidence of diabetes mellitus. The prevalence was estimated and expressed per 100,000. Breakdown of this figure per age and region was carried out. In the 11,874 out of the 14000 (84.9%) selected households, 45,682 children and adolescents were surveyed. Fifty children and adolescents were identified to have type 1 diabetes mellitus with a prevalence rate of 109.5 per 100,000. The male to female ratio was almost equal (26 males and 24 females). The distribution of prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus by region shows that the highest was 162 in the central region. Children and adolescents were also grouped by age into 5-6 (prevalence 100), 7-12 (prevalence 109), 13-16 (prevalence 243) and 17-18 (prevalence 150). We conclude that the prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents is 109.5 per 100,000. (author)

  4. Prevalence of juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome in an urban population of Turkish adolescents: impact on depressive symptoms, quality of life and school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Yunus; Alayli, Gamze; Canbaz, Sevgi; Zahiroglu, Yeliz; Bilgici, Ayhan; Ilhanli, Ilker; Kuru, Omer

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile Fibromyalgia Syndrome (JFMS) is a chronic health condition characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and multiple tender points (TP). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of JFMS in the urban population of Samsun and to determine the impact of JFMS on depression symptoms, school performance and quality of life (QOL). A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1109 children (mean age (14.8 ± 2.0) years old). A questionnaire was applied to the children and a medical examination including TP was performed. Yunus and Masi's criteria were used for diagnosis of JFMS. The children with JFMS were compared with an age and sex matched non-JFMS group. Depression was assessed with Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and QOL was evaluated with Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL4.0). Sixty-one (5.5%) (13 boys and 48 girls) of 1109 children met the diagnostic criteria of JFMS. While PedsQL scores of children with JFMS were lower than the non-JFMS group for physical, emotional, social, school functioning and total score (P = 0.001), CDI total score was higher in the JFMS group than in the non-JFMS group (P = 0.001). The JFMS group reported more school absences (P = 0.001) and the average school grade was lower in the JFMS group than in the non-JFMS group (P = 0.03). The prevalence of JFMS is high in school age children. Since JFMS is a common problem of childhood, early diagnosis and identification of the disorder and more comprehensive and successful treatment approaches with appropriate psychological assistance may prevent more complex and severe problems in adulthood.

  5. Prevalence and comorbidity of tic disorder in Israeli adolescents: results from a national mental health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Tamar; Tamir, Inbal; Zimmerman-Brenner, Sharon; Friling, Michal; Apter, Alan

    2013-02-01

    Tic disorders are common causes of morbidity in Israel but their prevalence in this country needs further study. To assess the prevalence of mental disorders in Israeli youth including tic disorders, as part of the Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA). The ISMEHA was conducted in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers during 2004-2005. We interviewed the adolescents and their mothers in their homes and collected demographic information about the use of services. We also administered a psychiatric interview, the Development and Well-Being Assessment inventory (DAWBA), which included a question on tic disorder. The prevalence of tic disorders was calculated based on the adolescents' and maternal reports. The relationships among demographic data, comorbidity rates, help-seeking behaviors and tic disorder are presented. The prevalence of tics was 1.3% according to maternal reports and 4.4% according to adolescents' reports. The prevalence correlated with externalizing disorders and learning disabilities. A higher prevalence of tics was found in the Arab population compared with Jewish adolescents. The prevalence of tic disorders in Israel, as measured by a direct question in this epidemiological study, and associated comorbidities concurs with previous reports. The complexities of prevalence estimations, comorbidities, demographic correlates, and help-seeking behaviors are discussed.

  6. [Reasons and prevalence of body image dissatisfaction in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Edio Luiz; Pelegrini, Andreia; Glaner, Maria Fátima

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of body image (BI) dissatisfaction in adolescents. The study enrolled 641 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the town of Saudades, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of BI dissatisfaction was 60.4% (males = 54.5%, females = 65.7%; p vigorexia).

  7. Dual Disorders in Adolescent Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van West, D.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents who abuse substances is the rule rather than the exception, and common comorbidities include depression, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, conduct disorder, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Among adolescents, the presence of both mental

  8. Prevalence of diagnosed temporomandibular disorders: A cross-sectional study in Brazilian adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mara de Paiva Bertoli

    Full Text Available The prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD increases during adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have examined TMD prevalence in Brazilian adolescents.To investigate the prevalence of TMD in Brazilian adolescents.A representative population-based sample of 934 adolescents (10-14-years-old was examined. TMD screening was performed using a questionnaire by the American Academy of Orofacial Pain. TMD diagnoses used research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD-Axis-I. Examinations were performed by a single calibrated examiner (kappa > 0.80.The prevalence of TMD symptoms was 34.9%; the most frequently reported symptoms were headache and neck ache (20.9%, followed by joint sounds (18.5%. Myofascial pain was the most prevalent type (10.3%, followed by disc displacement with reduction (8.0% and arthralgia (3.5%. There was a significant association between sex and TMD symptoms; prevalence was significantly higher in girls (RP = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.14-1.65; p = 0.001. Myofascial pain of TMD and displacement with reduction were more prevalent in girls (RP = 1.76; p = 0.007 and RP = 2.06; p = 0.004, respectively.TMD symptoms were present in 34.9% of adolescents, with myofascial pain being the most prevalent type (10.3%. TMD was significantly more common in girls. Routine pediatric dental care should include a TMD screening.

  9. Prevalence of Hypertension in School going Adolescents in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of hypertension seems to be increasing in children and adults in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Different studies have been carried out on the prevalence of hypertension amongst adolescents living in urban areas reflecting this seeming increase in the prevalence of hypertension. However ...

  10. Prevalence of sleepwalking in an adult population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-07

    Jan 7, 2010 ... Prevalence of sleepwalking in an adult population. Celestine Okorome Mume*. Department of Mental Health, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun. State, Nigeria. Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities.

  11. Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among Mexican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Lucatero, A G; Trujillo-Hernández, B; Millán-Guerrero, R O; Vásquez, C

    2009-03-01

    To determine the characteristics and prevalence of previous child sexual abuse among a group of Mexican junior high school students. A total of 1067 adolescents of both genders were selected to fill out a survey about child sexual abuse. The prevalence of child sexual abuse was 18.7% (n = 200). It was more frequent in girls (58%) than in boys (42%). Sexual abuse involved physical contact in 75% of those cases reporting abuse. The aggressors were neighbours (50.3%), relatives (36.8%) and strangers (13.9%). Abuse was committed through deception in 90% of the cases and involved physical mistreatment in 10% of the cases. Of the victims, 14.4% had spoken about the problem and 3.7% had taken legal action. And 9.6% of those surveyed stated that they required psychological counselling. In the population studied, the prevalency of child sexual abuse was greater than that reported in Mexico City (4.3-8.4%), although it was similar to that found in the Spanish child population (15-23%). The risk of sexual abuse is greater for girls and the principal aggressors are male neighbours, family friends and relatives; the abuse is committed in the home of the aggressor or the victim and very few cases are reported to the authorities.

  12. Prevalence of dental anomalies in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Santosh; Doni, Bharati; Kaswan, Sumita; Rahman, Farzan

    2013-10-01

    Developmental anomalies of the dentition are not infrequently observed by the dental practitioner. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in the Indian population. A retrospective study of 4133 panoramic radiographs of patients, who attended the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital between September 2008 to December 2012 was done. The ages of the patients ranged from 13 to 38 years with a mean age of 21.8 years. The orthopantomographs (OPGs) and dental records were examined for any unusual finding such as congenitally missing teeth, impactions, ectopic eruption, supernumerary teeth, odontoma, dilacerations, taurodontism, dens in dente, germination and fusion, among others. 1519 (36.7%) patients had at least one dental anomaly. The congenitally missing teeth 673 (16.3%) had the highest prevalence, followed by impacted teeth 641 (15.5%), supernumerary teeth 51 (1.2%) and microdontia 41 (1.0%). Other anomalies were found at lower prevalence ranging from transposition 7 (0.1%) to ectopic eruption 30 (0.7%). The most prevalent anomaly in the Indian population was congenitally missing teeth (16.3%), and the second frequent anomaly was impacted teeth (15.5%), whereas, macrodontia, odontoma and transposition were the least frequent anomalies, with a prevalence of 0.2%, 0.2% and 0.1% respectively. While the overall prevalence of these anomalies may be low, the early diagnosis is imperative for the patient management and treatment planning. Key words:Dental anomaly, prevalence, panoramic radiography.

  13. Prevalence, Characteristics, and Associations of Sexual Abuse with Sociodemographics and Consensual Sex in a Population-Based Sample of Swedish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate lifetime prevalence and characteristics of self-reported child sexual abuse and associations between child sexual abuse, gender, sociodemographic data, and consensual sexual experiences. A questionnaire was completed by 4,339 Swedish high school seniors. Three categories of child sexual abuse were…

  14. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Urrutia‐Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of smoking among adolescents in Uruguaiana is high. The implementation of measures to reduce/stop tobacco use and its new forms of consumption, such as electronic cigarettes and hookah, are urgent and imperative in schools.

  15. Prevalence of Low Back Pain among Adolescent Students in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oyewoleye

    KEYWORDS: low back pain, prevalence, adolescent students, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Low-back ... content validity of the questionnaire was assessed among ten experienced ... in the orthopaedic ward and out-patient physiotherapy clinic.

  16. The Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Female Adolescents of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Esnaashari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Body dysmorphic disorder is one of the common disorders in which adolescents give excessive attention to their appearances. In fact, it may causes disruptions in adolescents' individual and social life. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in female adolescents of Yazd. Method: In this cross-sectional study, the population consisted of all high school female students of Yazd (N= 10737 in 2012-2013, among which 371 students were selected as the study sample by using Cochran formula and cluster sampling method. Moreover, the participants completed a series of demographic questions as well as the questionnaire of Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Y-BOCS-BDD. Results: The findings revealed that 41% of sample were reported to have unusual concern about appearance and body shape in range of low to very severe. As a matter of fact, most of them experienced moderate severity and 7.1% showed severe body dysmorphic disorder that required immediate psychological intervention. The prevalence in female adolescents was estimated as 7.1% and most prevalent age of suffering was 17. Conclusion: In this research, it was endeavored to provide a more realistic image of body dysmorphic disorder in Yazd adolescents by utilizing a precise methodology. Considering the high prevalence of this disorder in female adolescents and its adverse consequences, some programs are recommended to be applied for diagnosis and early treatment of body dysmorphic disorder to promote adolescents mental health.

  17. Adolescent malnutrition: Prevalence and pattern in Abuja Municipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of malnutrition among adolescents in senior secondary schools in The Abuja Municipal area council. Methods: Study design: this is a cross-sectional study conducted among adolescents (10-19 years) in secondary schools. A multistage sampling technique was employed ...

  18. Prevalence of Adolescent Pregnancy in Ganye Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescent pregnancy is formally defined as a pregnancy in a young woman who has not reached her 20th birthday when the pregnancy ends, regardless of whether the woman is married or is legally an adult. The prevalence of adolescent pregnancy in Ganye local government area, Adamawa state were assessed.

  19. Adolescent Healthcare Brokering: Prevalence, Experience, Impact, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, Jennifer R.; Wallis, Lisa C.; Ball, James W.; Gershon, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Limited health literacy disproportionately affects those with limited English proficiency (LEP). Parents with LEP might rely on their adolescent children to interpret health information. We call this "adolescent healthcare brokering." This study uncovers the prevalence of brokering, kinds of tasks, emotional and academic…

  20. Prevalence of dental anomalies in Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh, Patil; Bharati, Doni; Sumita, Kaswan; Farzan, Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Developmental anomalies of the dentition are not infrequently observed by the dental practitioner. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in the Indian population. Study Design: A retrospective study of 4133 panoramic radiographs of patients, who attended the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital between September 2008 to December 2012 was done. The ages of the patients ranged from 13 to 38 year...

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Adolescents Smoking: Difference Between Korean and Korean-Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SoonBok E. Park, RN, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: These results highlight the differences of smoking prevalence and risk factors between Korean-Chinese students and Korean students. The findings may help health educators and researchers to better understand adolescent smoking and risk factors cross culturally and aid in the development of more effective education programs, which could lead to preventing tobacco use among these populations.

  2. Prevalence, 20-month incidence and outcome of unipolar depressive disorders in a community sample of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, AJ; Wittchen, HU; Schuster, P

    Background. This article presents prospective longitudinal findings on prevalence, incidence, patterns of change and stability of depressive disorders in a community sample of 1228 adolescents. Methods. Data were collected at baseline and follow-up (20 months later) in a representative population

  3. Trends in adolescent alcohol use: Effects of age, sex and cohort on prevalence and heritability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, L.M.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Willemsen, G.; van der Aa, N.; Boomsma, D.I.; Vink, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To determine the effect of age, sex and cohort on the prevalence and genetic architecture of adolescent alcohol use (AAU). Design Survey study in participants registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Setting Twins from the general population. Participants Two cohorts (data collected in

  4. Fatherhood in adolescence: prevalence and associated factors in a community sample of youngsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Maria Saalfeld de Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to assess the prevalence of fatherhood in adolescence (FA and associated factors in a community sample of 14 to 35 year-old men. Cross-sectional population-based study realized in the urban area of the city of Pelotas-RS, Brazil. The sample was selected by clusters, according to the city census. This sub-study only comprised sexually active men. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire in the participants’ homes. The sample was composed for 934 men. The prevalence of fatherhood in adolescence was 8% (n = 75. We verified higher prevalence of FA among those that reported paternal absence (p < 0.001, those that had lived with stepfather (p = 0.044, and among those that had sexual debut before the age of 14 (p = 0.011. Paternal absence, have lived with a stepfather, and early sexual experience are associated factors to fatherhood in adolescence.

  5. Prevalence of excessive screen time and associated factors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Marcela Sales de Lucena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of excessive screen time and to analyze associated factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study with 2874 high school adolescents with age 14-19 years (57.8% female from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Northeast Brazil. Excessive screen time was defined as watching television and playing video games or using the computer for more than 2 h/day. The associated factors analyzed were: sociodemographic (gender, age, economic class, and skin color, physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents. Results: The prevalence of excessive screen time was 79.5% (95%CI 78.1-81.1 and it was higher in males (84.3% compared to females (76.1%; p<0.001. In multivariate analysis, adolescent males, those aged 14-15 year old and the highest economic class had higher chances of exposure to excessive screen time. The level of physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents were not associated with excessive screen time. Conclusions: The prevalence of excessive screen time was high and varied according to sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents. It is necessary to develop interventions to reduce the excessive screen time among adolescents, particularly in subgroups with higher exposure.

  6. Prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Jeppe; Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the current prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Denmark from 1995 to 2000—2002. Methods: Cross-sectional national dietary surveys were conducted in 1995 and 2000—2002. The analysis was based on two random population samples from the Danish...... civil registration system. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and weight for 1,026 and 1,152 children and adolescents (4—18 years), who participated in 1995 and 2000—2002, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was defined according to the international age...... and gender-specific child BMI cut-off points. In the statistical analysis, overweight and obesity were included in the prevalence of overweight. Results: Mean BMI increased significantly between 1995 and 2000—2002 for all combinations of age groups (4—6, 7—10, 11—14 and 15—18 years) and genders. Prevalence...

  7. Prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cheng; Tomson, Göran; Keller, Christina; Söderqvist, Fredrik

    2018-02-17

    Studies investigating the prevalence of positive mental health and its correlates are still scarce compared to the studies on mental disorders, although there is growing interest of assessing positive mental health in adolescents. So far, no other study examining the prevalence and determinants of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents has been found. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents. This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire including Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) and items regarding multiple aspects of adolescent life. The sample involved a total of 5399 students from grade 8 and 10 in Weifang, China. Multivariate Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between potential indicators regarding socio-economic situations, life style, social support and school life and positive mental health and calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. More than half (57.4%) of the participants were diagnosed as flourishing. The correlated factors of positive mental health in regression models included gender, perceived family economy, the occurrence of sibling(s), satisfaction of self-appearance, physical activity, sleep quality, stress, social trust, desire to learn, support from teachers and parents as well as whether being bullied at school (OR ranging from 1.23 to 2.75). The Hosmer-Lemeshow p-value for the final regression model (0.45) indicated adequate model fit. This study gives the first overview on prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents. The prevalence of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents is higher than reported in most of the previous studies also using MHC-SF. Our findings suggest that adolescents with advantageous socio-economic situations, life style, social support and school life are experiencing better positive mental health than others.

  8. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders amongst Adolescents in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahrivar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among 12 to 17 years old adolescents in urban areas of Tehran. "nMethod: In this study, 1105 adolescents (12 -17 years old were selected from 250 clusters of the entire 22 municipality areas of Tehran using a multistage sampling method. After responding to the Farsi version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report version, the Farsi version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL was administered to 273 adolescents and their families. The prevalence of adolescent psychiatric disorders was determined using the results of K-SADS-PL. "nResults: There were not any statistically significant differences between the sexes in the frequency of psychiatric disorders except for ADHD which was observed more frequently in boys. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, depressive disorders and separation anxiety disorder. "nConclusion: The frequency of psychiatric disorders among the adolescents in Tehran's urban areas was comparable to the reports from other countries. However, using methods to deal with missing data makes these prevalence rates somehow higher.

  9. Age-specific Prevalence of Antibodies to Hepatitis A in Children and Adolescents from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1978 and 1995: Relationship of Prevalence to Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia L Vitral

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The age-specific prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV was determined in two different population groups with low socio-economic status from Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, whose serum samples were collected 17 years apart (Population 1, 1978; Population 2, 1995. In Population 2, analysis of the anti-HAV prevalence was also carried out with respect to environmental factors. Population 1 was composed of 520 stored sera collected from the umbilical cord of term neonates and children aged 1 month to 6 years. In population 2, 720 serum samples were collected from children and adolescents with ages ranging from 1 to 23 years. The overall prevalence rate of anti-HAV in Population 1 and Population 2 was 65.6% and 32.1%, respectively. In Population 1, the anti-HAV prevalence reached 88% at the age of 3, while in Population 2, it increased from 4.5% in children under the age of 3 to 66% in the group of adolescents over the age of 14. The low exposure to HAV infection in younger children from Population 2 could be a result of improved environmental hygiene and sanitation, as demonstrated by the presence of piped water, waste and sewage disposal systems in most houses from this population group. These findings indicate a possible change in the prevalence of hepatitis A in Rio de Janeiro

  10. Prevalence of diagnosed temporomandibular disorders among Saudi Arabian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khotani, Amal; Naimi-Akbar, Aron; Albadawi, Emad; Ernberg, Malin; Hedenberg-Magnusson, Britt; Christidis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Studies have indicated that the prevalence of symptoms and signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are rare early in childhood, but become more prevalent in adolescents and adulthood. To our knowledge, no study has investigated the prevalence of TMD-diagnoses in children in the general population. The aim was thus to investigate the prevalence of TMD-diagnoses among children and adolescents in the general population using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD). The current cross-sectional study consisted of 456 children and adolescents, aged between 10 and 18, randomly enrolled from 10 boy's- and 10 girl's- schools in Jeddah. The participants first answered two validated questions about TMD-pain, followed by a clinical examination according to RDC/TMD. One hundred twenty-four participants (27.2 %) were diagnosed with at least one TMD-diagnosis. Myofascial pain was the most common diagnosis (15 %) followed by disc displacement with reduction, arthralgia, myofascial pain with limited mouth opening and osteoarthrosis. Children diagnosed with myofascial pain more often reported orofacial pain, headache and tooth clenching (p headache as well as bruxism were associated with a TMD-pain diagnosis and disc displacement. A surprisingly low percentage of children and adolescents sought treatment by a dentist or physician for their pains.

  11. Prevalence of asthma in children and adolescents in a city in the Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Antonia Maria; Ignotti, Eliane; Hacon, Sandra de Souza; Castro, Hermano Albuquerque de

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence of asthma and asthma symptoms in students of two distinct age brackets residing in the city of Tangará da Serra, Brazil. Cross-sectional, population-based study of the prevalence of asthma in children from 6 to 7 years of age and adolescents from 13 to 14, using the standardized International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, phase 1 questionnaire, validated for use in Brazil. Students who responded affirmatively to question 2 (presence of wheezing in the preceding 12 months) were classified as suffering from asthma. The study comprised 3,362 students, of whom 1,634 (48.6%) were children and 1,728 (51.4%) were adolescents. Of the 1,634 children, 816 (49.9%) were male, and 818 (50.1%) were female. Of the 1,728 adolescents, 773 (45.0%) were male, and 955 (55.0%) were female. The prevalence of asthma among the children was 25.2%, whereas that among the adolescents was 15.9% (chi2 = 8.34; p = 0.00). The children presented higher prevalences of the following symptoms of asthma than did the adolescents: wheezing ever (54.3%), nocturnal dry cough (43.9%), wheezing in the preceding 12 months (25.2%), and from 1 to 3 attacks of wheezing in the preceding 12 months (19.1%). There were no differences between the two groups regarding physician-diagnosed asthma (approximately 4.5%). There were no statistical differences regarding the prevalence of asthma by gender in the two groups. Tangará da Serra has a high prevalence of asthma in children and adolescents, and this result is compatible with other studies carried out in Brazil and Latin America using the same methodology.

  12. A narrative review of binge eating disorder in adolescence: prevalence, impact, and psychological treatment strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzilli, Eleonora; Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) represents one of the most problematic clinical conditions among youths. Research has shown that the developmental stage of adolescence is a critical stage for the onset of eating disorders (EDs), with a peak prevalence of BED at the age of 16–17 years. Several studies among adults with BED have underlined that it is associated with a broad spectrum of negative consequences, including higher concern about shape and weight, difficulties in social functioning, and emotional-behavioral problems. This review aimed to examine studies focused on the prevalence of BED in the adolescent population, its impact in terms of physical, social, and psychological outcomes, and possible strategies of psychological intervention. The review of international literature was made on paper material and electronic databases ProQuest, PsycArticles, and PsycInfo, and the Scopus index were used to verify the scientific relevance of the papers. Epidemiological research that examined the prevalence of BED in adolescent samples in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition showed a prevalence ranging from 1% to 4%. More recently, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of BED, in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria, reporting a prevalence of ~1%–5%. Studies that focused on the possible impact that BED may have on physical, psychological, and social functioning showed that adolescents with BED have an increased risk of developing various adverse consequences, including obesity, social problems, substance use, suicidality, and other psychological difficulties, especially in the internalizing area. Despite the evidence, to date, reviews on possible and effective psychological treatment for BED among young population are rare and focused primarily on adolescent females. PMID:29379325

  13. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents aged 10-18 years in Jammu, J and K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adolescents attending school in the Jammu region, India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between November 2009 and December 2010, among a total of 1160 school-going adolescents of both sexes aged 10-18 years. Relevant metabolic and anthropometric variables were analyzed and criteria suggested by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel Third (NCEP-ATP III modified for age was used to define metabolic syndrome. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6%. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in males (3.84% than in females (1.6% and slightly higher in urban area (2.80% than in rural area (2.52%, whereas prevalence of metabolic syndrome among centrally obese subjects was as high as 33.33%. High density lipoprotein cholesterol was the most common and high blood pressure was the least common constituent of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was most prevalent in 16-18 years age group (4.79%. Conclusion : This study demonstrates that metabolic syndrome phenotype exists in substantial number (up to 3% of adolescent population in the Jammu region, India, and particularly 33% of obese adolescents are at risk to develop metabolic syndrome. These findings pose a serious threat to the current and future health of these young people.

  14. Prevalence of and Predictors of Substance Use Among Adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the school adolescents, more males than females reported being alcohol drinkers (16.7% versus 9.2%; odds ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95%CI, 1.17 - 3.29). The prevalence proportions of cigarette smoking were 26.2% for men and 15.5% for women while prevalence proportions of marijuana smoking were 4.1% for men and 3.0% ...

  15. Sexting among Spanish adolescents: Prevalence and personality profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; de Santisteban, Patricia; Resett, Santiago

    2017-02-01

    Voluntarily sending sexual content (e.g., photos, videos) among adolescents via the Internet and mobile phones, a phenomenon called sexting , is receiving increasing social and research attention. The aims of this study were: 1) to analyze the prevalence and trends of sexting among adolescents by gender and age and 2) to examine the personality profile of adolescents that participated in sexting. The sample consisted of 3,223 Spanish adolescents from 12 to 17 years of age (49.9% female; mean age = 14.06, SD = 1.37) who anonymously and voluntarily completed self-report questionnaires on sexting and the big five personality factors. The overall prevalence of sexting was 13.5%. The prevalence was 3.4% at 12 years old and increased to 36.1% at 17 years of age, showing a growing and significant linear trend. Overall, no differences were found between males and females. The personality profile of those involved in sexting was characterized by higher Extraversion and Neuroticism and by lower scores in Conscientiousness and Agreeableness. Given its high prevalence, beyond adopting a perspective based on the dangers of sexting, an educational approach that emphasizes responsible and informed use of information and communication technologies is necessary.

  16. Prevalence of Problematic Video Gaming among Ontario Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nigel E.; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Ballon, Bruce; Cheung, Joyce T. W.; Adlaf, Edward M.; Henderson, Joanna; Chan, Vincy; Rehm, Jurgen; Hamilton, Hayley; Mann, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Video game playing has become a very popular activity among adolescents. Its impact on the mental health and well-being of players is just beginning to be explored. This paper reports on the prevalence of problematic gaming in a representative sample of 2,832 Ontario students in grades 7 to 12. The survey included questions about the school grade,…

  17. National Trends in the Prevalence and Treatment of Depression in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtabai, Ramin; Olfson, Mark; Han, Beth

    2016-12-01

    This study examined national trends in 12-month prevalence of major depressive episodes (MDEs) in adolescents and young adults overall and in different sociodemographic groups, as well as trends in depression treatment between 2005 and 2014. Data were drawn from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health for 2005 to 2014, which are annual cross-sectional surveys of the US general population. Participants included 172 495 adolescents aged 12 to 17 and 178 755 adults aged 18 to 25. Time trends in 12-month prevalence of MDEs were examined overall and in different subgroups, as were time trends in the use of treatment services. The 12-month prevalence of MDEs increased from 8.7% in 2005 to 11.3% in 2014 in adolescents and from 8.8% to 9.6% in young adults (both P age range of 12 to 20 years. The trends remained significant after adjustment for substance use disorders and sociodemographic factors. Mental health care contacts overall did not change over time; however, the use of specialty mental health providers increased in adolescents and young adults, and the use of prescription medications and inpatient hospitalizations increased in adolescents. The prevalence of depression in adolescents and young adults has increased in recent years. In the context of little change in mental health treatments, trends in prevalence translate into a growing number of young people with untreated depression. The findings call for renewed efforts to expand service capacity to best meet the mental health care needs of this age group. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Anemia prevalence in children and adolescents from educational centers in the outskirts of Londrina, PR, Brazil

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    MIGLIORANZA Lúcia Helena da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is the world most prevalent nutritional problem. To investigate anemia prevalence and its relation to nutritional status, 526 children and adolescents, 284 males and 242 females, aged 7 to 14 years old, were evaluated. The studied subjects take part in a program of the Social Action Department of the city of Londrina, state of Paraná, and attend Public Educational Centers which provides them three daily meals and pedagogic assistance. These individuals belong to deprived areas in the city outskirts, where the per capita income is lower than US$500 a year. The hemoglobin dosage was determined by digital puncture and read by Hemocue portable photometer. Anemia prevalence was verified in 41.3% of the assessed population, with no significant statistical differences between males and females (p=0.412. No association between anemia and malnutrition was found. In conclusion, high prevalence of anemia was observed in this population.

  19. Increasing adolescent HIV prevalence in Eastern Zimbabwe--evidence of long-term survivors of mother-to-child transmission?

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    Jeffrey W Eaton

    Full Text Available Recent data from the Manicaland HIV/STD Prevention Project, a general-population open HIV cohort study, suggested that between 2004 and 2007 HIV prevalence amongst males aged 15-17 years in eastern Zimbabwe increased from 1.20% to 2.23%, and in females remained unchanged at 2.23% to 2.39%, while prevalence continued to decline in the rest of the adult population. We assess whether the more likely source of the increase in adolescent HIV prevalence is recent sexual HIV acquisition, or the aging of long-term survivors of perinatal HIV acquisition that occurred during the early growth of the epidemic. Using data collected between August 2006 and November 2008, we investigated associations between adolescent HIV and (1 maternal orphanhood and maternal HIV status, (2 reported sexual behaviour, and (3 reporting recurring sickness or chronic illness, suggesting infected adolescents might be in a late stage of HIV infection. HIV-infected adolescent males were more likely to be maternal orphans (RR = 2.97, p<0.001 and both HIV-infected adolescent males and females were more likely to be maternal orphans or have an HIV-infected mother (male RR = 1.83, p<0.001; female RR = 16.6, p<0.001. None of 22 HIV-infected adolescent males and only three of 23 HIV-infected females reported ever having had sex. HIV-infected adolescents were 60% more likely to report illness than HIV-infected young adults. Taken together, all three hypotheses suggest that recent increases in adolescent HIV prevalence in eastern Zimbabwe are more likely attributable to long-term survival of mother-to-child transmission rather than increases in risky sexual behaviour. HIV prevalence in adolescents and young adults cannot be used as a surrogate for recent HIV incidence, and health systems should prepare for increasing numbers of long-term infected adolescents.

  20. Adolescent Internet Addiction in Hong Kong: Prevalence, Change, and Correlates.

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    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2016-02-01

    Prevalence, change, and correlates of adolescent Internet addiction were examined in this study on the basis of six waves of longitudinal data collected over 6 years. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Over 6 years, students responded to a questionnaire containing measures of sociodemographic characteristics, positive youth development, family processes, and Internet addiction behavior. The prevalence rates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents ranged from 17% to 26.8% during the high school years. Male students consistently showed a higher prevalence rate of Internet addiction and more Internet addictive behaviors than did female students. Longitudinal data suggested that although family economic disadvantage served as a risk factor for youth Internet addiction, the effects of family intactness and family functioning were not significant. Students' overall positive youth development and general positive youth development qualities were negatively related to Internet addictive behaviors and prosocial attributes had a positive relationship with youth Internet addiction. The results suggest that promotion of positive youth development is a promising direction for preventing Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. Gender and family economic disadvantage must be considered in design of the related prevention programs. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Prevalence of emotional and behavioral symptomatology in Spanish adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Paíno, Mercedes; Aritio-Solana, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of symptoms of an emotional and behavioral nature, as well as prosocial type capabilities, measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, in non-clinical adolescents. The final sample was composed of a total of 508 students, 208 male (40.9%). The age of participants ranged from 11 to 18 years (M=13.91 years; SD=1.71). The results show that a significant number of adolescents self-reported emotional and behavioral problems. The mean scores of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire subscales varied according the gender and age of the adolescents. In the present study, the prevalence of psychological difficulties among adolescents was similar to that reported in other national and international studies. In view of these results, there is a need to develop programs for the early detection of these types of problems in schools in children and adolescents ages. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and Extrinsic Risk Factors for Dental Erosion in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafla, Ana C; Cerón-Bastidas, Ximena A; Munoz-Ceballos, Maria E; Vallejo-Bravo, Diana C; Fajardo-Santacruz, Maria C

    This manuscript examined the prevalence and extrinsic risk factors for dental erosion (DE) in early and middle adolescents in Pasto, Colombia. Dental erosion was evaluated in a random sample of 384 individuals aged 10-15 years attending three primary and high schools in this cross-sectional study. Clinical dental assessment for DE was done using O'Sullivan index. Data on general sociodemographic variables and extrinsic risks factors were obtained. Descriptive and univariate binary logistic regression analyses were performed. Dental erosion was observed in 57.3% of individuals. The univariate binary logistic regression analysis showed that frequency of drinking natural fruit juices (OR 2.670, 95% CI 1.346 - 5.295, P=0.004) and their pH (OR 2.303, 95% CI 1.292 - 4.107, P=0.004) were more associated with the odd of DE in early adolescence. However, a high SES (OR 10.360, 95% CI 3.700 - 29.010, P<0.001) and frequency of snacks with artificial lemon taste (OR 3.659, 95% CI 1.506 - 8.891, P=0.003) were highly associated with the risk of DE in middle adolescence. The results suggest that DE is a prevalent condition in adolescents living in a city in southern Colombia. The transition from early to middle adolescence implies new bio-psychosocial changes, which increase the risk for DE.

  3. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; dos Santos, Debora França; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Tavares, Bruno Mendes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students). Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old) who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits.

  4. Gambling disorder in adolescents: prevalence, new developments, and treatment challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floros, Georgios D

    2018-01-01

    Research on adolescence gambling over the past twenty years has revealed significant incidence and prevalence rates and highlighted the possible negative effects on an adolescent's well-being. Several risk and protective factors have also been identified. Over the course of the past few years, technological advances have heralded the advent of new avenues for gambling as well as new opportunities to gamble without any direct monetary exchange. This review article examines those established trends as well as the new issues that we are faced with, in order to accurately portray the current challenges in research, prevention, and treatment.

  5. Prevalência e fatores associados a porte de arma e envolvimento em agressão física entre adolescentes de 15 a 18 anos: estudo de base populacional Prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age: a population-based study

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    Ricardo Azevedo da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a prevalência e fatores associados a porte de arma e envolvimento em agressão física entre adolescentes de 15 a 18 anos na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Estudo transversal de base populacional com uma amostra representativa de 960 adolescentes entre 15 e 18 anos, residentes na cidade de Pelotas. Sortearam-se, aleatoriamente, 90 setores censitários a partir dos 448 da cidade, e foram visitados 86 domicílios de cada setor. Para análise estatística utilizou-se a regressão de Poisson. A prevalência dos comportamentos estudados na presente amostra foi de 22,8% para participação em brigas com agressão física e 9,6% para porte de armas nos últimos 12 meses. Conclui-se que jovens do sexo masculino que utilizam álcool e/ou drogas ilícitas e apresentam transtornos psiquiátricos menores mostraram maior probabilidade de portar armas e de envolverem-se em brigas com agressão física.This cross-sectional, population-based study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age (n = 960 in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Ninety of the city's 448 census tracts were selected, and 86 houses in each tract were visited. The statistical analysis used Poisson regression. Prevalence rates in the sample were 22.8% for involvement in fights with physical aggression and 9.6% for weapons possession in the previous 12 months. The study concluded that young males that use alcohol and/or illegal drugs and present minor psychiatric disorders show a higher probability of weapons possession and involvement in physical fights.

  6. Prevalence of high HbA1c levels in Brazilian adolescents: The Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents.

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    de Cássia Lima Fernandes, Rita; Teló, Gabriela H; Cureau, Felipe V; Barufaldi, Laura A; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Schaan, Beatriz D; Szklo, Moyses; Bloch, Katia V

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of elevated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in a population of adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents. This is a school-based cross-sectional study based on a complex sample of adolescents 12-17years old representative at the national and macro-regional levels and for each Brazilian state capital. Blood was collected in schools and then evaluated in a single laboratory. HbA1c levels were considered elevated if ⩾5.7% (39mmol/mol) and were analyzed according to sex, age, macro-region, type of school, skin color, and nutritional status. Data from 37,804 adolescents were analyzed. The mean level of HbA1c was 5.4% (95%CI 5.4-5.4) (36mmol/mol [95%CI 36-36]), and 20.5% (95%CI 19.1-22.0) of adolescents presented values ⩾5.7% (⩾39mmol/mol). Among males, 23.6% (95%CI 21.8-25.6) showed elevated HbA1c levels compared to 17.5% (95%CI 15.9-19.2) observed in females. The prevalence of elevated levels of HbA1c was higher in adolescents with black skin color (27.6%; 95%CI 23.2-32.4) vs. white skin color (16.9%; 95%CI 15.4-18.5), and higher in those who studied in public schools (21.6%; 95%CI 20.0-23.4) vs. private schools (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-19.0). Among obese adolescents, 29.7% (95%CI 25.4-34.3) had elevated levels of HbA1c, compared to 19.3% (95%CI 18.0-20.7) in normal weight students and 19.7% (95%CI 17.1-22.6) in overweight adolescents. Obese male adolescents of lower socioeconomic status had a higher prevalence of elevated HbA1c levels. Our findings highlight the importance of focusing on this high risk group for interventions to prevent diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A narrative review of binge eating disorder in adolescence: prevalence, impact, and psychological treatment strategies

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    Marzilli E

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleonora Marzilli,1 Luca Cerniglia,2 Silvia Cimino1 1Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology, Psychology and Medicine Faculty, Sapienza – University of Rome, 2Department of Psychology, Psychology Faculty, International Telematic University Uninettuno, Rome, Italy Abstract: Binge eating disorder (BED represents one of the most problematic clinical conditions among youths. Research has shown that the developmental stage of adolescence is a critical stage for the onset of eating disorders (EDs, with a peak prevalence of BED at the age of 16–17 years. Several studies among adults with BED have underlined that it is associated with a broad spectrum of negative consequences, including higher concern about shape and weight, difficulties in social functioning, and emotional-behavioral problems. This review aimed to examine studies focused on the prevalence of BED in the adolescent population, its impact in terms of physical, social, and psychological outcomes, and possible strategies of psychological intervention. The review of international literature was made on paper material and electronic databases ProQuest, PsycArticles, and PsycInfo, and the Scopus index were used to verify the scientific relevance of the papers. Epidemiological research that examined the prevalence of BED in adolescent samples in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition showed a prevalence ranging from 1% to 4%. More recently, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of BED, in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria, reporting a prevalence of ~1%–5%. Studies that focused on the possible impact that BED may have on physical, psychological, and social functioning showed that adolescents with BED have an increased risk of developing various adverse consequences, including obesity, social problems, substance use, suicidality, and other psychological difficulties

  8. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among North Indian adolescents using Adult Treatment Panel III and pediatric International Diabetic Federation definitions

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    Riyaz Ahmad Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Childhood obesity is an important risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome (MS in children and adolescent. Because of high prevalence of insulin resistance and MS in Indian adult population, studies are needed to identify the prevalence of these metabolic abnormalities in the adolescent population. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of MS using pediatric International Diabetic Federation (IDF definition and compare it with estimates of Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III definition among adolescents in Northern India. Materials and Methods: At a total of 899 adolescents attending school (aged 10-18 years participated in this population-based prospective study. All the clinical and biochemical assessment were done after proper consent. The MS was determined by the National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III definition modified for age and pediatric IDF definition. Results: The prevalence of MS was 3.5% according to ATP III criteria and 1.5% based on IDF criteria. No significant gender difference was observed in the distribution of MS. Hypertriglyceridemia was the most common and abdominal obesity the least common constituent of MS. Conclusion: This study provides the first estimates of MS using pediatric IDF definition in the adolescent population from Northern India.

  9. Prevalência e fatores de risco para tabagismo em adolescentes Prevalence and risk factors for smoking among adolescents

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    Maura C Malcon

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O tabagismo é uma das principais causas de enfermidades evitáveis e incapacidades prematuras. Nesse sentido, realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de medir a prevalência e estudar fatores de risco associados ao tabagismo nos adolescentes. MÉTODOS: A partir de um delineamento transversal de base populacional, estudou-se uma amostra representativa de 1.187 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos, da zona urbana de Pelotas, sul do Brasil. Todos os adolescentes da amostra, de cada domicílio, foram entrevistados por meio de questionário pré-codificado, individual e confidencial. Utilizou-se o teste de Kaplan-Meier para análise da curva de sobrevida. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de tabagismo na amostra foi de 12,1% (IC95% 10,3%-14%. As prevalências foram similares para os sexos femininos e masculinos. Os fatores de risco para tabagismo na análise multivariada, por regressão logística, foram: maior idade, odds ratio (OR de 28,7 (11,5-71,4, irmãos mais velhos fumantes, OR de 2,4 (1,5-3,8, três ou mais amigos fumantes, OR de 17,5 (8,8-34,8 e baixa escolaridade OR de 3,5 (1,5-8,0. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de tabagismo na adolescência mostrou-se alta, na cidade de Pelotas. Campanhas antitabágicas devem ser direcionadas à comunidade e à família tendo o adolescente como alvo. Medidas legais adotadas pelo governo são importantes para impedir o acesso dos adolescentes ao cigarro.OBJECTIVE: Tobacco smoking is one of the main causes of preventable disease and premature disability. Th estudy was aimed at measuring smoking prevalence and related risk factors among adolescents. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative sample of 1,187 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years living in the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. All adolescents were interviewed separately using a confidential coded questionnaire. Kaplan-Meier test was performed for survival curve analysis. RESULTS: The overall smoking prevalence

  10. The Prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Emma L Anderson

    Full Text Available Narrative reviews of paediatric NAFLD quote prevalences in the general population that range from 9% to 37%; however, no systematic review of the prevalence of NAFLD in children/adolescents has been conducted. We aimed to estimate prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in young people and to determine whether this varies by BMI category, gender, age, diagnostic method, geographical region and study sample size.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies reporting a prevalence of NAFLD based on any diagnostic method in participants 1-19 years old, regardless of whether assessing NAFLD prevalence was the main aim of the study.The pooled mean prevalence of NAFLD in children from general population studies was 7.6% (95%CI: 5.5% to 10.3% and 34.2% (95% CI: 27.8% to 41.2% in studies based on child obesity clinics. In both populations there was marked heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 98%. There was evidence that prevalence was generally higher in males compared with females and increased incrementally with greater BMI. There was evidence for differences between regions in clinical population studies, with estimated prevalence being highest in Asia. There was no evidence that prevalence changed over time. Prevalence estimates in studies of children/adolescents attending obesity clinics and in obese children/adolescents from the general population were substantially lower when elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT was used to assess NAFLD compared with biopsies, ultrasound scan (USS or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Our review suggests the prevalence of NAFLD in young people is high, particularly in those who are obese and in males.

  11. Increase in sexual risk behavior and prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among adolescents in Northern Thailand.

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    Whitehead, Sara J; Leelawiwat, Wanna; Jeeyapant, Supaporn; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Papp, John; Kilmarx, Peter H; Markowitz, Lauri E; Tappero, Jordan W; Chaowanachan, Thanyanan; Uthaivoravit, Wat; van Griensven, Frits

    2008-10-01

    Monitoring changes in adolescent sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections is critical for evaluating the effectiveness of human immunodeficiency virus and other prevention programs, but population-based data on adolescents in Thailand are limited. We report findings from 2 cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1999 and 2002 among 15-to 21-year-old vocational students. In 1999 and 2002, 1725 and 966 students, respectively, were interviewed using computer-assisted self-interview methods. Urine samples were collected and tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by polymerase chain reaction. From 1999 to 2002 C. trachomatis prevalence increased from 3.2% to 7.5% (P partners among both men (3.4-4.7, P = 0.01) and women (2.5-3.3, P partners among men (1.1-2.1, P use decreased significantly among women with casual partners (43%-19%, P = 0.03) but not among men (25%-31%, P = 0.31). Our study identified important increases in the prevalence of chlamydial infection and in sexual risk behaviors among Thai adolescents over a 3-year period. These findings are consistent with other studies suggesting profound social changes are changing norms of adolescent sexual behavior in Thailand, and highlight the need for adolescent sexual health services and prevention programming.

  12. Gambling disorder in adolescents: prevalence, new developments, and treatment challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Floros,Georgios

    2018-01-01

    Georgios D Floros 2nd Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece Abstract: Research on adolescence gambling over the past twenty years has revealed significant incidence and prevalence rates and highlighted the possible negative effects on an adolescent’s well-being. Several risk and protective factors have also been identified. Over the course of the past few years, technological advances have heralded the advent of new av...

  13. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, a...

  14. ERICA: prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescents

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    Claudia S Lopes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescent students, according to geographical macro-regions, school type, sex, and age. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents who participated in the Cardiovascular Risk Study in Adolescents (ERICA, a cross-sectional, national, school-based study conducted in 2013-2014 in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. A self-administered questionnaire and an electronic data collector were employed. The presence of common mental disorders was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. We estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of common mental disorders by sex, age, and school type, in Brazil and in the macro-regions, considering the sample design. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders was of 30.0% (95%CI 29.2-30.8, being higher among girls (38.4%; 95%CI 37.1-39.7 when compared to boys (21.6%; 95%CI 20.5-22.8, and among adolescents who were from 15 to 17 years old (33.6%; 95%CI 32.2-35.0 compared to those aged between 12 and 14 years (26.7%; 95%CI 25.8-27.6. The prevalence of common mental disorders increased with age for both sexes, always higher in girls (ranging from 28.1% at 12 years to 44.1% at 17 years than in boys (ranging from 18.5% at 12 years to 27.7% at 17 years. We did not observe any significant difference by macro-region or school type. Stratified analyses showed higher prevalence of common mental disorders among girls aged from 15 to 17 years of private schools in the North region (53.1; 95%CI 46.8-59.4. CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence of common mental disorders among adolescents and the fact that the symptoms are often vague mean these disorders are not so easily identified by school administrators or even by health services. The results of this study can help the proposition of more specific prevention and control measures, focused on highest risk subgroups.

  15. The prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Shamohammadi, Morteza; Salmanian, Maryam

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in 16-18 year old adolescents. In this cross sectional - descriptive study, 422 high school students (211 boys, 211 girls) aged 16-18 were selected by cluster random sampling and simple random sampling in 2011-2012. The participants were assessed using the revised diagnostic interview for borderline questionnaire (DIB-R) and demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman correlation coefficient. Of the participants, 0/9% (0/22 % of the 16 year olds, 0.45 % of the 17 year olds and 0/22% of the 18 year olds) were diagnosed with borderline personality symptoms. Also, the prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in boys was 0/45 % of the total sample and it was 0/45 % of the total sample in girls. With respect to the relationship between demographic variables (age, sex, location, parents' occupation, parents' kinship, parents' education and birth order) and borderline personality symptoms, only parents' kinship showed a weak correlation with borderline personality symptoms. In the view of the prevalence of 0.9% of the borderline personality symptoms in adolescents, attention should be paid to the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. Furthermore, works need to be done to improve the mental health and quality of life of adolescents.

  16. The prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in adolescents.

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    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in 16-18 year old adolescents.In this cross sectional - descriptive study, 422 high school students (211 boys, 211 girls aged 16-18 were selected by cluster random sampling and simple random sampling in 2011-2012. The participants were assessed using the revised diagnostic interview for borderline questionnaire (DIB-R and demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman correlation coefficient.Of the participants, 0/9% (0/22 % of the 16 year olds, 0.45 % of the 17 year olds and 0/22% of the 18 year olds were diagnosed with borderline personality symptoms. Also, the prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in boys was 0/45 % of the total sample and it was 0/45 % of the total sample in girls. With respect to the relationship between demographic variables (age, sex, location, parents' occupation, parents' kinship, parents' education and birth order and borderline personality symptoms, only parents' kinship showed a weak correlation with borderline personality symptoms.In the view of the prevalence of 0.9% of the borderline personality symptoms in adolescents, attention should be paid to the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. Furthermore, works need to be done to improve the mental health and quality of life of adolescents.

  17. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïano, C; Hue, O; Morin, A J S; Moullec, G

    2016-07-01

    Although there have been numerous studies examining the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities, they have not yet been integrated and synthesized through a systematic quantitative review process. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine: (i) the prevalence of overweight/obesity among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities; (ii) the sources of heterogeneity in studies reporting the prevalence of overweight/obesity in this population; and (iii) the risk of overweight/obesity in this population compared with their typically developing peers. A systematic literature search was performed and 16 studies, published between 1985 and 2015, met the inclusion criteria. The resulting pooled prevalence estimates for overweight, overweight-obesity and obesity were respectively: (i) 15%, 30%, and 13%, in children; and (ii) 18%, 33%, and 15% in adolescents. Subgroup analyses showed significant variations in the pooled prevalence estimates as a function of geographical region, recruitment setting, additional diagnoses, and norms used to define overweight or obesity. The findings also showed adolescents with intellectual disabilities to be respectively 1.54 and 1.80 times more at risk of overweight-obesity and obesity than typically developing adolescents. Unfortunately, no such comparison is available for children. © 2016 World Obesity. © 2016 World Obesity.

  18. Obesity in adolescents with intellectual disability: Prevalence and associated characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sharon; Ware, Robert; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nicholas; O'Callaghan, Michael

    Studies from a number of countries have indicated an increased risk of obesity in adolescents with intellectual disability. Whether risk factors for adults with intellectual disability apply to adolescents however is uncertain. This study examines obesity in a community sample of adolescents with intellectual disability in Australia, and investigates risk factors associated with obesity and overweight. A cross-sectional survey and medical record review on 261 adolescents with intellectual disability attending special education facilities in South-East Queensland, Australia between January 2006 and September 2010 was conducted. Information on age, gender, weight, height, syndrome specific diagnoses, problematic behaviours, mobility, taking psychotropic or epileptic medication, and perceived household financial difficulties was collected. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and participants categorised as normal/underweight, overweight or obese according to the International Obesity Taskforce definitions. Overall 22.5% (95% CI: 17.8-28.0%) of adolescents were obese, and 23.8% (95% CI: 19.0-29.4%) were overweight, a marked increase compared to Australian norms. Adolescents with Down syndrome were more likely to be obese than other participants (odds ratio=3.21; 95% CI: 1.41-7.30). No association was found with other risk factors examined. Prevalence of obesity and overweight were increased compared to general Australian adolescents. The only significant risk factor was the presence of Down syndrome. These findings reinforce the need for a health policy and practice response to obesity that is inclusive of individuals with intellectual disability. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of incorrect body posture in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciałczyk-Paprocka, Katarzyna; Stawińska-Witoszyńska, Barbara; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Sowińska, Anna; Krzyżaniak, Alicja; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Krzywińska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata

    2017-05-01

    The ever increasing epidemics of overweight and obesity in school children may be one of the reasons of the growing numbers of children with incorrect body posture. The purpose of the study was the assessment of the prevalence of incorrect body posture in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity in Poznań, Poland. The population subject to study consisted of 2732 boys and girls aged 3-18 with obesity, overweight, and standard body mass. The assessment of body mass was performed based on BMI, adopting Cole's cutoff values. The evaluation of body posture was performed according to the postural error chart based on criteria complied by professor Dega. The prevalence rates of postural errors were significantly higher among children and adolescents with overweight and obesity than among the group with standard body mass. In the overweight group, it amounted to 69.2% and in the obese group to 78.6%.  The most common postural deviations in obese children and adolescents were valgus knees and flat feet. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, predisposing to higher incidence of some types of postural errors, call for prevention programs addressing both health problems. What is Known: • The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has drawn attention to additional health complications which may occur in this population such as occurrence of incorrect body posture. What is New: • The modified chart of postural errors proved to be an effective tool in the assessment of incorrect body posture. • This chart may be used in the assessment of posture during screening tests and prevention actions at school.

  20. Prevalence and consequences of insomnia in pediatric population.

    OpenAIRE

    Magda Kaczor; Michał Skalski

    2016-01-01

    Insomnia presents an increasing and significant health issue in paediatric population. As the problem had grown over past decade, it became recognised by the specialists dealing with children and adolescents. In a recent study American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry members were asked about their experience with patients complaining about sleep disturbances. Doctors reported that sleep was a problem for 1/3 of their patients out of which 1/4 required pharmacotherapy [1]. Multiple ...

  1. [Prevalence of barriers for physical activity in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mariana Silva; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Rodriguez-Añez, Ciro Romélio

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and association of barriers to physical activity among adolescents. This cross-sectional study evaluated a representative sample of public high school students in Curitiba-PR, Brazil. A total of 1,609 school adolescents (59.7% male) between 14 and 18 years of age answered a questionnaire on physical activity status and barriers to physical activity. Logistic regressions were conducted for each barrier investigated to verify the association between the prevalence of barriers and physical activity, adjusting for confounding variables (age and socioeconomic status). Analyses were done separately for boys and girls. Only 22% of boys and 9% of girls achieved the current physical activity recommendation. Among the 12 barriers investigated, only "there is nobody to take" did not differ between boys and girls. The perception of barriers was higher for girls than boys (p barriers. "Lack of friends company" and "feel lazy" were the barriers most often reported by boys (30.4%) and girls (51.8%) respectively; however, the barrier most strongly associated with prevalence of physical inactivity was "prefer to do other things" for both boys (OR = 5.02 (2.69 - 9.37); p barriers for the practice of physical activity were more prevalent in girls and differed as to the extent of importance between genders.

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Oliano, Vinicius J; Aranda, Carolina S; Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu

    Despite anti-smoking prevention programs, many adolescents start smoking at school age. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with smoking in adolescents living in Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil. A prospective study was conducted in adolescents (12-19 years), enrolled in municipal schools, who answered a self-administered questionnaire on smoking. 798 adolescents were enrolled in the study, with equal distribution between genders. The tobacco experimentation frequency (ever tried a cigarette, even one or two puffs) was 29.3%; 14.5% started smoking before 12 years of age and 13.0% reported smoking at least one cigarette/day last month. Having a smoking friend (OR: 5.67, 95% CI: 2.06-7.09), having cigarettes offered by friends (OR: 4.21, 95% CI: 2.46-5.76) and having easy access to cigarettes (OR: 3.82, 95% CI: 1.22-5.41) was identified as factors associated with smoking. Having parental guidance on smoking (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.45-0.77), having no contact with cigarettes at home in the last week (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.11-0.79) and knowing about the dangers of electronic cigarettes (OR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.21-0.92) were identified as protection factors. The prevalence of smoking among adolescents in Uruguaiana is high. The implementation of measures to reduce/stop tobacco use and its new forms of consumption, such as electronic cigarettes and hookah, are urgent and imperative in schools. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and severity of dental caries among 18-year-old Lithuanian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žemaitienė, Miglė; Grigalauskienė, Rūta; Vasiliauskienė, Ingrida; Saldūnaitė, Kristina; Razmienė, Jaunė; Slabšinskienė, Eglė

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of dental caries among 18-year-old Lithuanian adolescents and to disclose possible differences in the prevalence and severity of dental caries related to gender, urbanization, and different county. A total of 1063 18-year-old adolescents attending school, 427 boys and 636 girls from 10 Lithuanian counties including urban and rural areas, were included in the cross-sectional study on dental caries. The method of multistage cluster sampling was used. The dental examination was performed according to the methodology of oral status evaluation recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO). The prevalence of dental caries, DMFT score, Significant Caries Index, and dental care index were determined. The overall prevalence of dental caries among 18-year-old Lithuanian adolescents was 78.3%. The study population had a mean DMFT score of 2.93 [SD, 2.81]. Considering the gender, a higher DMFT score was observed among girls than boys (3.03 [SD, 2.88] versus 2.73 [SD, 2.71]) and in rural than urban areas (3.02 [SD, 2.98] versus 2.89 [SD, 2.73]). The Significant Caries Index and the dental care index among 18-year-old adolescents were 6.14 and 62.3%, respectively. This study showed a relatively high prevalence of dental caries. The existing differences of caries experience between the urban and the rural areas as well as between the counties could be influenced by the socioeconomic differences in the country. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assumpção, Daniela; Dias, Marcia Regina Messaggi Gomes; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Fisberg, Regina Mara; de Azevedo Barros Filho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2). The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiological determinants of obesity in adolescent population Maharashtra, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Chincholikar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For establishing effective intervention, it is important to identify major determinants in an early stage of life. Effective prevention of adult obesity will require prevention and management of childhood obesity. Aims & Objectives: To study the epidemiological determinants of obesity in adolescent girls. Material & Methods: All adolescent school going boys and girls in the age group between 10 to 19 years were included as per definition of adolescent. 585 students were selected by systematic sample i.e. every 3rd student was included in the study sample. A pretested standardized questionnaire which consisted of questions related to sociodemographic data was used to screen the population for obesity. Results: When body mass index was correlated with various socioeconomic variables, it was found that prevalence of obesity was more in   males (overweight- 20.84%;obese-5.43% as compared to females (overweight- 16.92%; obese-3.14%,more  in the upper socioeconomic status (27.27% as compared to lower socioeconomic status(15%,more in  subjects with more frequency of junk food(30.97% as compared to having occasional junk food (20.93,more in  subjects with more frequency of eating sweets ( 25.73% as compared to occasional sweet eaters(13.59%. Conclusion: The dietary habits like more frequency of junk food, more sweet consumption, and socioeconomic status had a major impact on body mass index of children.

  6. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Assumpção

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.

  7. Period Prevalence of Dizziness and Vertigo in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhagen, Thyra; Albers, Lucia; Heinen, Florian; Straube, Andreas; Filippopulos, Filipp; Landgraf, Mirjam N; Gerstl, Lucia; Jahn, Klaus; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    To assess the period prevalence and severity of dizziness and vertigo in adolescents. In 1661 students in 8th-10th grade in twelve grammar schools in Munich, Germany information on vertigo/dizziness was assessed by a questionnaire in the class room setting. Three month prevalence of dizziness/vertigo was estimated; symptoms were categorized as orthostatic dizziness, spinning vertigo, swaying vertigo or unspecified dizziness. Duration of symptoms and impact on daily life activities were assessed. 72.0% (95%-CI = [69.8-74.2]; N = 1196) of the students (mean age 14.5±1.1) reported to suffer from at least one episode of dizziness or vertigo in the last three months. Most adolescents ticked to have symptoms of orthostatic dizziness (52.0%, 95%-CI = [49.5-54.4], N = 863). The period prevalence for the other types of vertigo were spinning vertigo: 11.6%, 95%-CI = [10.1-13.3], N = 193; swaying vertigo: 12.2%, 95%-CI = [10.6-13.8], N = 202; and unspecified dizziness: 15.2%, 95%-CI = [13.5-17.1], N = 253. About 50% of students with spinning vertigo and swaying vertigo also report to have orthostatic dizziness. Most vertigo/dizziness types were confined to less than one minute on average. The proportion of students with any dizziness/vertigo accounting for failure attending school, leisure activities or obliging them to stay in bed were more pronounced for spinning or swaying vertigo. Dizziness and vertigo in grammar school students appear to be as common as in adults. In face of the high period prevalence and clinical relevance of dizziness/vertigo in adolescents there is a need for prevention strategies. Risk factors for dizziness/vertigo need to be assessed to allow for conception of an intervention programme.

  8. Prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorders: a chart review

    OpenAIRE

    Tybor David J; Perrin Ellen C; Bandini Linda G; Curtin Carol; Must Aviva

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The condition of obesity has become a significant public health problem in the United States. In children and adolescents, the prevalence of overweight has tripled in the last 20 years, with approximately 16.0% of children ages 6–19, and 10.3% of 2–5 year olds being considered overweight. Considerable research is underway to understand obesity in the general pediatric population, however little research is available on the prevalence of obesity in children with development...

  9. Prevalence and correlates of contraceptive use among female adolescents in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Samuel H

    2015-08-19

    Adolescence is a critical stage in the life course and evidence suggests that even though contraceptive use has been steadily increasing among women in Ghana over the past years, contraceptive prevalence and determinants among female adolescents is quite lacking. This paper examines the prevalence and correlates of contraceptive use among female adolescents in Ghana. The paper used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health survey. Bivariate analysis was carried out to determine the contraceptive prevalence among female adolescents while logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the correlates of female adolescent contraceptive use. The study founded that female adolescent contraceptive use was significantly determined by age of adolescent, education, work status, knowledge of ovulatory cycle, visit of health facility and marital status. This has implications for adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes in Ghana. It is therefore essential to intensify girl child education and strengthen the provision of family planning information and services for female adolescents in the country.

  10. The prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among inpatient adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD male war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Cheong, Siew Man; Mahadir Naidu, Balkish; Kaur, Gurpreet; Manickam, Mala A; Mat Noor, Malisa; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Depression among adolescents has been recognized as a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the Malaysia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 were analyzed with additional data from the validated DASS21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress) questionnaire. The study revealed that 17.7% of respondents had depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis further showed that feeling lonely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.99; 95% CI = 2.57-3.47), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.63-2.44), using drugs (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.21-2.82), and being bullied (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.60-1.99) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Lack of parental supervision, alcohol use, and tobacco use were also significant risk factors. Addressing depressive symptoms among adolescents may have implications for managing their risks of being bullied and substance use. This study also highlights the need to further investigate depressive symptoms among adolescents of Indian ethnicity. © 2014 APJPH.

  12. Similar prevalence, different spectrum: IgE-mediated food allergy among Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafayev, R; Civelek, E; Orhan, F; Yüksel, H; Boz, A B; Sekerel, B E

    2013-01-01

    Scarcity of reliable data on food allergy prevalence exists in Turkey. We aimed to assess reported and confirmed IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence, and define the spectrum of allergenic food. We prospectively evaluated the ISAAC Phase II study population for food allergy. Participants that reported experiencing food allergy symptom in the last year and/or were skin prick test positive for a predefined list of food allergens, were interviewed via telephone, and those considered as having food allergy were invited to undergo clinical investigation, including challenge tests. A total of 6963 questionnaires were available. Parental reported food allergy prevalence and skin prick sensitisation rate were 20.2 ± 0.9% and 5.9 ± 0.6%. According to the above-defined criteria, 1162 children (symptom positive n=909, skin prick test positive n=301, both positive n=48) were selected and 813 (70.0%) were interviewed via telephone. Out of 152 adolescents reporting a current complaint, 87 accepted clinical investigation. There were 12 food allergies diagnosed in nine adolescents, with food allergy prevalence of 0.16 ± 0.11%. The most common foods involved in allergic reactions were walnut (n=3) and beef meat (n=2), followed by hen's egg (n=1), peanut (n=1), spinach (n=1), kiwi (n=1), cheese (n=1), hazelnut (n=1) and peach (n=1). While parental reported food allergy prevalence was within the range reported previously, confirmed IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence among adolescents was at least 0.16%, and the spectrum of foods involved in allergy differed from Western countries, implying environmental factors may play a role. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. The prevalence of encopresis in a multicultural population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, M. F.; Benninga, M. A.; Hirasing, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Population-based studies on the prevalence of encopresis in children are scarce and generally outdated. Prevalence estimates based on clinical studies are unreliable because parents tend to be reticent to seek medical help for this problem. Professional help is necessary, however,

  14. The Prevalence of Encopresis in a Multicultural Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, M.F.; Benninga, M.A.; Hira Sing, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Population-based studies on the prevalence of encopresis in children are scarce and generally outdated. Prevalence estimates based on clinical studies are unreliable because parents tend to be reticent to seek medical help for this problem. Professional help is necessary, however,

  15. Prevalence and predictors of adolescents' cigarette smoking in Madinah, Saudi Arabia: a school-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen; Kasim, Khaled

    2015-01-21

    Although the prevalence of adolescents' cigarette smoking has increased in recent decades, little is known regarding its epidemiology in certain Saudi regions, including the Madinah region. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in the Madinah region during 2013. A multistage stratified cluster sample was taken and included 3400 students (11-19 years) from 34 intermediate and secondary schools. Data concerning sociodemographic and smoking-related factors were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of smoking was estimated, and appropriate statistical analyses were performed, including univariate, predictive and multivariate regression analyses. The overall response rate was 97.7%. The prevalence of cigarette smoking in the respondents' 3322 adolescents was 15.17% (95% CI = 13.95-16.39) with significant differences in sociodemographic factors. The most important predictors were most or all friends smoking (OR = 12.5; 95% CI = 9.40-16.8). Other significant less important factors were parental smoking, belief in the harmful effects of smoking, cigarette advertisement in mass media, and pocket money. Cigarette smoking prevalence is a relatively low among adolescents in Madinah region. However, friends and parents smoking play an important role in the increased risk of smoking in the studied adolescents. These predictors must be included in any antismoking education programs targeting to this sector of population in the region.

  16. Gambling disorder in adolescents: prevalence, new developments, and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floros GD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Georgios D Floros 2nd Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece Abstract: Research on adolescence gambling over the past twenty years has revealed significant incidence and prevalence rates and highlighted the possible negative effects on an adolescent’s well-being. Several risk and protective factors have also been identified. Over the course of the past few years, technological advances have heralded the advent of new avenues for gambling as well as new opportunities to gamble without any direct monetary exchange. This review article examines those established trends as well as the new issues that we are faced with, in order to accurately portray the current challenges in research, prevention, and treatment. Keywords: adolescence, gambling disorder

  17. The prevalence of peanut sensitization and the association to pollen sensitization in a cohort of unselected adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade an increased occurrence of peanut hypersensitivity and severe anaphylactic reactions to peanut have been reported. However, few prevalence studies have been performed in unselected populations. This study evaluated the point prevalence of peanut hypersensitivity in Danish...... adolescents. The point prevalence of peanut allergy confirmed by oral challenge was estimated to 0.5%. The number of adolescents sensitized to peanut by specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (CAP FEIA) and skin prick test (SPT) were higher (5.8% resp. 3.4%). In adolescents without clinically relevant peanut...... sensitization most cases were sensitized to grass pollen and the IgE class for grass was higher than for peanut. A correlation between peanut and pollen (grass) sensitization is therefore plausible. Before a positive SPT or specific IgE measurement to peanut is considered clinically relevant in a patient...

  18. Gambling disorder in adolescents: prevalence, new developments, and treatment challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floros, Georgios D

    2018-01-01

    Research on adolescence gambling over the past twenty years has revealed significant incidence and prevalence rates and highlighted the possible negative effects on an adolescent’s well-being. Several risk and protective factors have also been identified. Over the course of the past few years, technological advances have heralded the advent of new avenues for gambling as well as new opportunities to gamble without any direct monetary exchange. This review article examines those established trends as well as the new issues that we are faced with, in order to accurately portray the current challenges in research, prevention, and treatment. PMID:29535564

  19. Factors Influencing the Prevalence of Animal Cruelty During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, M; Currie, C; Lawrence, A B

    2018-04-01

    Adolescents' interactions with animals are of increasing interest and their beneficial developmental outcomes are well known. However, negative interactions such as perpetrating cruelty toward animals during childhood and adolescence have been related with child abuse, domestic violence, and later interpersonal violence. Cruelty toward animals by adolescents has been reported predominately in criminal and clinical samples, and links have been made between animal cruelty and interpersonal violence. However, studies often lack a clear definition of animal cruelty and the animal involved. The present study addresses methodological shortcomings by providing a clear definition of the cruelty acts and the animals involved and the time frame within which cruelty acts have been taken place. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of animal cruelty of 979 British adolescents (419 male, 497 female, M age = 15.1 ± 1.57 years) by means of a survey questionnaire administered in school. Animal cruelty was investigated encompassing deliberate and nondeliberate cruelty acts, a clear definition of the target animals was included and a time frame was provided. Furthermore, acceptability of animal cruelty, engaging in antisocial behavior, and family affluence were investigated. Results show high reliabilities for the measures applied. Exploratory factor analysis reveals different types of animal cruelty. Gender differences were observed for deliberate and accidental cruelty acts, with boys reporting higher levels than girls. Younger adolescents reported higher accidental cruelty acts than older ones. Acceptance of animal cruelty played a significant role in predicting animal cruelty, together with antisocial behaviors and place of living. The present study shows for the first time the importance of distinguishing between different types of animal cruelty and defining the animals involved.

  20. Primary Dysmenorrhea in Adolescents: Prevalence, Impact and Recent Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf; Bernasconi, Sergio; Bianchin, Luigi; Bona, Gianni; Bozzola, Mauro; Buzi, Fabio; De Sanctis, Carlo; Tonini, Giorgio; Rigon, Franco; Perissinotto, Egle

    2015-12-01

    Dysmenorrhea is commonly categorized into two types; primary and secondary. Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is the focus of this review. PD is defined as painful menses with cramping sensation in the lower abdomen that is often accompanied by other symptoms, such as sweating, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and tremulousness. All these symptoms occur just before or during the menses in women with normal pelvic anatomy. In adolescents the prevalence of PD varies between 16% and 93%, with severe pain perceived in 2% to 29% of the studied girls. Several studies suggest that severe menstrual pain is associated with absenteeism from school or work and limitation of other daily activities. One-third to one-half of females with PD are missing school or work at least once per cycle, and more frequently in 5% to 14% of them. The wide variation in the prevalence rates may be attributed to the use of selected groups of subjects. Many risk factors are associated with increased severity of dysmenorrhea including earlier age at menarche, long menstrual periods, heavy menstrual flow, smoking and positive family history. Young women using oral contraceptive pills (OCP) report less severe dysmenorrhea. The considerably high prevalence of dysmenorrhea among adolescents verified that this condition is a significant public health problem that requires great attention. SUMMARY OF MAIN RESULTS: Many methodological problems are encountered during quantifying and grading severity of pain related to dysmenorrhea. Quantifying and assessment tools depend on women's self-reporting with potential bias. There is a scarcity of longitudinal studies on the natural history of dysmenorrhea as well as the possible effects of many modifiable risk factors. In addition, the duration of follow-up in the available studies is relatively short. Therefore, several aspects are still open for research. Medical treatment for dysmenorrhea includes anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), OCP or surgical intervention

  1. Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Fernandez, O; Honrubia-Serrano, L; Freixa-Blanxart, M; Gibson, W

    2014-01-01

    The problematic use of mobile phones among adolescents has not been widely studied. There are very few instruments for assessing potential technological addiction to mobile phones, or for categorizing different types of users or uses. The most widely used scale is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS), which is used to study adult populations, and has been applied in various forms in international contexts. The aims of this study were to adapt the Spanish version of this scale (MPPUSA) t...

  2. [Prevalence of psychoactive drug consumption in an obese population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá Esteve, Maria A; Barral Tafalla, Diego; Gudelis, Mindaugas; Goday, Albert; Farre Albaladejo, Magi; Cano, Juan F

    2010-04-01

    To establish the prevalence of psychoactive drug consumption in an obese population. We collected data from the clinical records of obese patients attending the Endocrinology and Nutrition Department and Psychiatry Department of Hospital del Mar between June 2005 and May 2006 (n=259). We recorded anthropometric, epidemiological and toxicological data. We also investigated the prevalence of concomitant diseases in this population. Psychoactive drugs were consumed by 37% of obese patients, mainly antidepressants (27%), anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics, and anticonvulsants. Moreover, 15% of all patients received combination treatment with two or more psychoactive drugs, mostly the association of an antidepressant and an antiepileptic drug. The prevalence of psychoactive drug consumption in our sample was higher than prevalence data observed in the general population, with antidepressant consumption being three-fold higher. Copyright 2009 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Mental health problems in a regional population of Australian adolescents: association with socio-demographic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Freund, Megan; Campbell, Elizabeth; Hodder, Rebecca K.; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Population level data regarding the general mental health status, and the socio-demographic factors associated with the mental health status of adolescents in Australia aged 12?16?years is limited. This study assessed prevalence of mental health problems in a regional population of Australian students in Grades 7?10, and investigated associations between mental health problems and socio-demographic factors. Methods A web-based survey was conducted in 21 secondary schools located in...

  4. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozza, Rodrigo; Campos, Wagner de; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Stabelini Neto, Antonio; Silva, Michael Pereira da; Maziero, Renato Silva Barbosa

    2016-05-01

    Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR) was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI) indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6). Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28) had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.

  5. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bozza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. Objective: To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. Methods: A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. Results: The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6. Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR, 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28 had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Conclusion: Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.

  6. ADHD in Tunisian Adolescents: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhalla, Ahmed; Guedria, Asma; Brahem, Takoua; Amamou, Badii; Sboui, Wiem; Gaddour, Naoufel; Gaha, Lotfi

    2018-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of ADHD in a population of high school students and to explore the factors associated with this disorder. This was a cross-sectional study that had included 447 high school students. The diagnosis of ADHD was made by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale translated in Arabic language. The sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated by a preestablished questionnaire. The self-esteem was assessed by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The prevalence of ADHD was 18.1%. The logistic regression analysis showed an association between the diagnosis of ADHD and the bad relationships with parents (odds ratio [OR] = 16.43; p antecedents (OR = 12.16; p antecedents (OR = 3.16; p = .009). The prevalence of ADHD in this study was one of the highest prevalence reported. The factors associated with ADHD may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  7. Prevalence of tinnitus and hyperacusis in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosing, Susanne Nemholt; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review studies of the epidemiology of tinnitus and hyperacusis in children and young people, in order to determine the methodological differences implicated in the variability of prevalence estimates and the influence of population characteristics on childhood tinnitus...... studies, only narrative synthesis of the results was carried out. RESULTS: Having identified 1032 publications, 131 articles were selected and 25 articles met the inclusion criteria and had sufficient methodological consistency to be included. Prevalence estimates of tinnitus range from 4.7% to 46.......1%. CONCLUSIONS: Data on prevalence vary considerably according to the study design, study population and the research question posed. The age range of children studied was varied and a marked degree of variation between definitions (tinnitus, hyperacusis) and measures (severity, perception, annoyance...

  8. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56), overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37), stress (AOR = 2.56), and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85). The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15), instant noodles (AOR = 1.17), and confections (AOR = 1.17) and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22) and vegetables (AOR = 1.19) were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis.

  9. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56, overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37, stress (AOR = 2.56, and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85. The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15, instant noodles (AOR = 1.17, and confections (AOR = 1.17 and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22 and vegetables (AOR = 1.19 were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of resistance training skill competence in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan J; DeMarco, Matthew; Kennedy, Sarah G; Kelson, Mark; Barnett, Lisa M; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lubans, David R

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and correlates of adolescents' resistance training (RT) skill competence. Participants were 548 adolescents (14.1 ± 0.5 years) from 16 schools in New South Wales, Australia. RT skills were assessed using the Resistance Training Skills Battery. Demographics, BMI, muscular fitness, perceived strength, RT self-efficacy, and motivation for RT were also assessed. The proportion demonstrating "competence" and "near competence" in each of the six RT skills were calculated and sex differences explored. Associations between the combined RT skill score and potential correlates were examined using multi-level linear mixed models. Overall, the prevalence of competence was low (range = 3.3% to 27.9%). Females outperformed males on the squat, lunge and overhead press, whereas males performed better on the push-up (p fitness was moderately and positively associated with RT skills among both males (β = 0.34, 95%CIs = 0.23 to 0.46) and females (β = 0.36, 95%CIs = 0.23 to 0.48). Our findings support a link between RT skills and muscular fitness. Other associations were statistically significant but small in magnitude, and should therefore be interpreted cautiously.

  11. Prevalence of tinnitus and hyperacusis in children and adolescents: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing, Susanne Nemholt; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Wedderkopp, Niels; Baguley, David M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review studies of the epidemiology of tinnitus and hyperacusis in children and young people, in order to determine the methodological differences implicated in the variability of prevalence estimates and the influence of population characteristics on childhood tinnitus and hyperacusis. Data sources Articles were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus databases and from the relevant reference lists using the methods described in the study protocol, which has previously been published. Reporting Items for Systematic Review (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Eligibility criteria Studies addressing childhood prevalence, for example, children and young people aged 5–19 years. Data selection 2 reviewers independently assessed the studies for eligibility, extracted data and assessed study consistency. Owing to the heterogeneity in the methodologies among the reported studies, only narrative synthesis of the results was carried out. Results Having identified 1032 publications, 131 articles were selected and 25 articles met the inclusion criteria and had sufficient methodological consistency to be included. Prevalence estimates of tinnitus range from 4.7% to 46% in the general paediatric population and among children with normal hearing, and from 23.5% to 62.2% of population of children with hearing loss. Reported prevalence ranged from 6% to 41.9% when children with hearing loss and normal hearing were both included. The prevalence of hyperacusis varied from 3.2% to 17.1%. Conclusions Data on prevalence vary considerably according to the study design, study population and the research question posed. The age range of children studied was varied and a marked degree of variation between definitions (tinnitus, hyperacusis) and measures (severity, perception, annoyance) was observed. The lack of consistency among studies indicates the necessity of examining the epidemiology of tinnitus and hyperacusis in children and adolescents with a set of

  12. Prevalence and associated factors of emotional and behavioural problems in Chinese school adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-N; Liu, L; Wang, L

    2014-05-01

    Emotional and behavioural problems are key health issues in adolescence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems in Chinese school adolescents and to explore associated factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of November/December 2009. A questionnaire including the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) self-reported version, and the characteristics of child (age, gender, only child and study pressure), parents (parent-adolescent relationship and parental expectations) and families (living area, family structure, socio-economic status and negative life events) was distributed to our study population. A total of 5220 Chinese adolescents (aged 11-18) from 30 public schools in Liaoning province completed the questionnaire. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to explore the factors associated with emotional and behavioural problems. The average problem score was 11.28 (SD = 5.86) and the 10.7% scored above the cut-off for emotional and behavioural problems. Factors that increased the risk of having emotional and behavioural problems were: poor parent-adolescent relationship, experiencing more negative life events, older age, having study pressure, living in rural areas, boys and lower parental expectations. The prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems among Chinese adolescents was lower level compared with those reported in other countries. We found parent-adolescent relationship, negative life events and age to be the strongest contributing factors of emotional and behavioural problems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Female Overweight and Obesity in Adolescence: Developmental Trends and Ethnic Differences in Prevalence, Incidence, and Remission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using…

  14. [Spanish adaptation of the "Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale" for adolescent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Ma Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Problematic use of the mobile telephone is an emerging phenomenon in our society, and one which particularly affects the teenage population. Knowledge from research on the problematic use of this technology is necessary, since such use can give rise to a behavioural pattern with addictive characteristics. There are hardly any scales for measuring possible problematic use of mobile phones, and none at all adapted exclusively for the Spanish adolescent population. The scale most widely used internationally is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS). The aim of the present study is to adapt the MPPUS for use with Spanish adolescents. The Spanish version of the questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1132 adolescents aged 12 to 18. Reliability and factorial validity were comparable to those obtained in adult population, so that the measure of problematic mobile phone use in Spanish teenagers is one-dimensional. A prevalence of 14.8% of problematic users was detected.

  15. Prevalence and etiology of vertigo in adult rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrol, R; Nehru, V I; Venkatramana, Y

    2001-01-01

    A survey on 10.000 adults between the age of 20 and 79 years out of a total population of 66.186 persons in rural settlements under the inrisduction of Union Territory of Chandigarh between June 1993 to June 1995 was conducted to find out the prevalence and various causes of vertigo. In general community, in rural population, we found that more people suffer from non-otologic vertigo rather than otologic vertigo. We found overall prevalence of vertigo in rural adult community to be 0.71%. Vertigo secondary to cardiovascular disease was most common and prevalent in 0.32% of population. Neurologic disease accounted for vertigo in 0.14%, metabolic disease in 0.09% and otologic disease 0.08%. Miscellaneous disorders were present in remaining 0.08% of population studied. To the best of our knowledge this study represents the first population based survey of prevalence of various causes of vertigo in general community in adult rural population.

  16. Epidemiological determinants of obesity in adolescent population Maharashtra, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Chincholikar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For establishing effective intervention, it is important to identify major determinants in an early stage of life. Effective prevention of adult obesity will require prevention and management of childhood obesity. Aims & Objectives: To study the epidemiological determinants of obesity in adolescent girls. Material & Methods: All adolescent school going boys and girls in the age group between 10 to 19 years were included as per definition of adolescent. 585 students were selected by systematic sample i.e. every 3rd student was included in the study sample. A pretested standardized questionnaire which consisted of questions related to sociodemographic data was used to screen the population for obesity. Results: When body mass index was correlated with various socioeconomic variables, it was found that prevalence of obesity was more in   males (overweight- 20.84%;obese-5.43% as compared to females (overweight- 16.92%; obese-3.14%,more  in the upper socioeconomic status (27.27% as compared to lower socioeconomic status(15%,more in  subjects with more frequency of junk food(30.97% as compared to having occasional junk food (20.93,more in  subjects with more frequency of eating sweets ( 25.73% as compared to occasional sweet eaters(13.59%. Conclusion: The dietary habits like more frequency of junk food, more sweet consumption, and socioeconomic status had a major impact on body mass index of children.

  17. Anisometropia prevalence in a highly astigmatic school-aged population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E

    2008-07-01

    To describe prevalence of anisometropia, defined in terms of both sphere and cylinder, examined cross-sectionally, in school-aged members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Cycloplegic autorefraction measurements, confirmed by retinoscopy and, when possible, by subjective refraction were obtained from 1041 Tohono O'odham children, 4 to 13 years of age. Astigmatism > or =1.00 diopter (D) was present in one or both eyes of 462 children (44.4%). Anisometropia > or =1.00 D spherical equivalent (SE) was found in 70 children (6.7%), and anisometropia > or =1.00 D cylinder was found in 156 children (15.0%). Prevalence of anisometropia did not vary significantly with age or gender. Overall prevalence of significant anisometropia was 18.1% for a difference between eyes > or =1.00 D SE or cylinder. Vector analysis of between-eye differences showed a prevalence of significant anisometropia of 25.3% for one type of vector notation (difference between eyes > or =1.00 D for M and/or > or =0.50 D for J0 or J45), and 16.2% for a second type of vector notation (between-eye vector dioptric difference > or =1.41). Prevalence of SE anisometropia is similar to that reported for other school-aged populations. However, prevalence of astigmatic anisometropia is higher than that reported for other school-aged populations.

  18. Prevalence and impact of unhealthy weight in a national sample of US adolescents with autism and other learning and behavioral disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Keydra L; Schieve, Laura A; Visser, Susanna; Boulet, Sheree; Sharma, Andrea J; Kogan, Michael D; Boyle, Coleen A; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2014-10-01

    We estimated the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight among US adolescents with and without autism and other learning and behavioral developmental disabilities (DDs) and assessed the health consequences of obesity among adolescents with DDs. From the 2008 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey, we selected 9,619 adolescents ages 12-17 years. Parent respondents reported weight, height, presence of DDs and health conditions. We calculated body mass index (BMI) and defined obesity, overweight, and underweight as ≥95th, ≥85th to obesity and underweight prevalences were higher among adolescents with than without DDs [adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) 1.5 (1.25-1.75) and 1.5 (1.01-2.20), respectively]. Obesity was elevated among adolescents with all DD types, and was highest among the autism subgroup [aPR 2.1 (1.44-3.16)]. Adolescents with either a DD or obesity had higher prevalences of common respiratory, gastrointestinal, dermatological and neurological conditions/symptoms than nonobese adolescents without DDs. Adolescents with both DDs and obesity had the highest estimates for most conditions. Obesity is high among adolescents with autism and other DDs and poses added chronic health risks. Obesity prevention and management approaches for this vulnerable population subgroup need further consideration.

  19. Prevalence and etiology of vertigo in adult rural population

    OpenAIRE

    Abrol, Raman; Nehru, Vikas I.; Venkatramana, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A survey on 10.000 adults between the age of 20 and 79 years out of a total population of 66.186 persons in rural settlements under the inrisduction of Union Territory of Chandigarh between June 1993 to June 1995 was conducted to find out the prevalence and various causes of vertigo. In general community, in rural population, we found that more people suffer from non-otologic vertigo rather than otologic vertigo. We found overall prevalence of vertigo in rural adult community to be 0.71%. Ver...

  20. Internet Activities During Leisure: A Comparison Between Adolescents With ADHD and Adolescents From the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolic Baric, Vedrana; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2015-11-25

    Adolescents' leisure activities are increasingly focusing on Internet activities, and today, these coexist with traditional leisure activities such as sport and meeting friends. The purpose of the present study was to investigate leisure activities, particularly Internet activities, among boys and girls with ADHD, and compare these with boys and girls from the general population. The objective was also to explore how traditional leisure activities and Internet activities interrelate among adolescents with ADHD. Adolescents with ADHD (n = 102) were compared with adolescents from the general population on leisure activities and Internet use. Leisure activities among adolescents with ADHD tended to focus on Internet activities, particularly online games. Internet activities were broadening leisure activities among adolescents with ADHD, rather than being a substitute for traditional leisure activities. Internet activities may provide adolescents with ADHD accessible means of social interaction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Adolescent deliveries in semi-urban Cameroon: prevalence and adverse neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njim, Tsi; Agbor, Valirie Ndip

    2017-06-26

    Adolescent pregnancies are high risk due to the increased probability of adverse outcomes; as adolescents are usually considered to be ill-equipped to deal with the burden of pregnancy. We sought to determine the prevalence of adolescent deliveries in a secondary-level care hospital in semi-urban Cameroon-Bamenda, the adverse neonatal outcomes and to assess if previous obstetric history could preclude adolescents from having adverse outcomes in their present pregnancy. The prevalence of adolescent deliveries was 8.7% (95% CI 7.01-10.73%). The neonates of adolescent mothers were more likely to have severe asphyxia (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.2-12.9; p = 0.03) and low birth weight (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.3-4.4; p adolescents were just as likely to have complications as multipara adolescents. The prevalence of adolescent deliveries (8.7%) in the Regional Hospital Bamenda is high. Their babies are at a high risk of adverse neonatal outcomes irrespective of their previous obstetric history (previous delivery) emphasising that adolescents are generally ill-prepared to deal with pregnancy. Strategies to reduce the prevalence of adolescent deliveries should be investigated and implemented in view of attaining the sustainable development goals.

  2. Subclinical depression in Urban Indian adolescents: Prevalence, felt needs, and correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Meghna; Manjula, M.; Vijay Sagar, K. John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subclinical depression in adolescents constitutes a risk factor for future clinical depression and hence warrants examination. However, there is a paucity of research that documents subclinical depression among adolescents in India. Objectives: (a) To investigate the prevalence of subclinical depression in urban school-going adolescents; (b) to investigate the problems and felt needs of these adolescents; (c) to examine depression-related variables; and (d) to examine the relation...

  3. Psychosocial Correlates of Insomnia in an Adolescent Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomos, Konstantinos E.; Avagianou, Penelope-Alexia; Floros, Georgios D.; Skenteris, Nikolaos; Mouzas, Odysseas D.; Theodorou, Kyriaki; Angelopoulos, Nikiforos V.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the nature of the relationship between psychosocial factors and insomnia complaints in an adolescent non-clinical population. It is a cross-sectional study of a stratified sample of 2,195 Greek adolescent high-school students. Subjects were given the Athens insomnia scale, the Symptom Checklist scale (SCL-90-R) and a…

  4. Subthreshold body dysmorphic disorder in adolescents: Prevalence and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sophie C; Mond, Jonathan; Turner, Cynthia M; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to establish the prevalence of subthreshold body dysmorphic disorder (subthreshold-BDD) in a community sample of adolescents, and to compare disorder correlates in individuals with subthreshold-BDD to those with probable full-syndrome BDD (probable-BDD) and those without BDD (non-BDD). Self-report questionnaires assessing DSM-IV BDD criteria, past mental health service use, and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders, were completed by 3149 Australian high school students (mean age =14.6 years, 63.5% male). Male participants also completed measures assessing quality of life, muscularity concerns, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and peer problems. The prevalence of subthreshold-BDD was 3.4%, and probable-BDD was 1.7%. Compared to the non-BDD group, subthreshold-BDD was associated with elevated symptoms of comorbid psychopathology and greater past mental health service use, and in male-only measures, with poorer quality of life and elevated muscularity concerns. Subthreshold-BDD participants reported significantly lower mental health service use, and fewer symptoms of depression, eating disorders, and hyperactivity than probable-BDD participants, however, other comorbid symptoms did not differ significantly between these groups. These findings indicate that subthreshold-BDD is associated with substantial difficulties for adolescents in the general community. BDD screening should include subthreshold presentations, as these may be an important target for early intervention programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [The prevalence of suicide attempts among children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Ewelina; Talarowska, Monika; Orzechowska, Agata; Florkowski, Antoni; Gałecki, Piotr

    2013-03-01

    Suicide is the act of a fatal outcome. People who think about suicide perceive death as a way to avoid problems. Suicide attempts by children and young people likely to arise from the fact that the identified single or co-occurring mental disorders. was to illustrate the suicide problem, which is increasingly frequent attempts to take their own life for children and youth. Its main objective is to determine the prevalence and determinants of suicide attempts made by young people. The study group consisted of patients Babinski Hospital in Lodz. The study included 18 patients, 9 boys and 9 girls. Research methodology is based on the stories of young patients diseases. In order to verify the prevalence of trial and / or thoughts, suicidal tendencies among children and adolescents, was used as a research,tool - a survey of its own design. The survey consists of 21 questions about basic information on the state of social, physical and mental patients. Subjective verification made disseminate ideas, trends and / or suicide attempts among children and adolescents in most reflects the actual collection of information gathered by various authors. Children coming from families reconstructed and largely incomplete exhibit suicidal behavior. The main risk factors indicating the attempt on his own life are mental disorders: depression and behavioral disorders. Family situation of young people: conflicts between the father and the mother, violence, physical / mental, has a significant effect on the risk of an attempt on his own life. Superficial self-mutilation, is the main way to make a suicide bombing.

  6. Binge drinking among adolescents: prevalence, risk practices and related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpe, Sandra; Isorna, Manuel; Barreiro, Carmen; Braña, Teresa; Rial, Antonio

    2017-09-29

    According to the last Survey on Drug Use among Secondary School Students (ESTUDES 2014-2015), consumption levels of alcohol and other substances have decreased in the last years in Spain. However, available data on binge drinking remain worrying, given the negative consequences related with this pattern. The aim of this paper is to analyse binge drinking among adolescents, providing updated data on prevalence in addition to information about the consequences and some predictive factors of binge drinking. A correlational method was used for this purpose, comprised of administering a survey to Compulsory Secondary School, High School and Vocational Training students. Based on a sample of 3,419 Galician adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.57; SD = 1.76), the results show that binge drinking is a common and global practice, with few socio-demographic differences but related with a wide range of risk practices. Furthermore, variables such as consumption expectancies, consumption by family and friends, as well as curfew time and allowance money have been identified as interesting predictive factors that should be taken into account at the preventive level.

  7. Internet addiction: Prevalence and relation with mental states in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Fumie; Ochi, Marina; Oka, Yasunori; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2016-09-01

    Internet addiction disrupts the daily lives of adolescents. We investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction in junior high school students, elucidated the relation between Internet addiction and mental states, and determined the factors associated with Internet addiction in adolescents. Junior high school students (aged 12-15 years) were assessed using Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Japanese version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and a questionnaire on access to electronic devices. Based on total IAT scores, 2.0% (male, 2.1%; female, 1.9%) and 21.7% (male, 19.8%; female, 23.6%) of the total 853 participants (response rate, 97.6%) were classified as addicted and possibly addicted, respectively. Total GHQ scores were significantly higher in the addicted (12.9 ± 7.4) and possibly addicted groups (8.8 ± 6.0) than in the non-addicted group (4.3 ± 4.6; P addicted group than in the non-addicted group. Further, accessibility to smartphones was significantly associated with Internet addiction. Students in the addicted and possibly addicted groups were considered 'problematic' Internet users. Use of smartphones warrants special attention, being among the top factors contributing to Internet addiction. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  8. Prevalence of premenstrual symptoms and premenstrual dysphoric disorder among adolescents students of Zahedan

    OpenAIRE

    Nourmohammad Bakhshani; Zahra Hasanzadeh; Mahvash Raghibi

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is believed that adolescents suffer from dysmenorrhea but premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is not a common and prevalent disorder. Recently, some studies indicated that PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) were common problems among students and prevalence of premenstrual symptoms reported differently due to socio-cultural characteristics. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of PMS and PMDD in a group of Iranian adolescent students.Materials and Me...

  9. Perception and prevalence of domestic violence in the study population

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Sandeep H.; Rajani, Kajal; Kataria, Lakhan; Trivedi, Ashish; Patel, Sangita; Mehta, Kedar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Domestic violence is a major contributor to physical and mental ill health of the victim, and it is evident to some degree, in every society of the world. Objectives: 1) To study perception about domestic violence in the study population. 2) To compare prevalence of domestic violence within the three subgroups of the study population (i.e. spouses of psychotic patients, spouses of non-psychiatric patients and hospital staff). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was cond...

  10. Adolescent Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    As with school age children, it is difficult to make conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments for adolescents because of the differences in instruments, research designs, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  11. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Brazilian Xavante indigenous population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luana Padua; Fabbro, Amaury Lelis Dal; Silva, Anderson Soares; Sartorelli, Daniela Saes; Franco, Luciana Ferreira; Kuhn, Patrícia Chamadoira; Moises, Regina Santiago; Vieira-Filho, João Paulo Botelho; Franco, Laércio Joel

    2015-01-01

    The raising prevalence of weight excess and of non-communicable diseases in indigenous populations, as well as changes in food consumption and reduction in the frequency and intensity of physical activity, suggest that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) is also elevated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of MS and the frequency of its components in the Xavante adult population living in the Indian reservations of São Marcos and Sangradouro/Volta Grande, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 932 Xavante Indians aged 20 years or more, in the 2008-2012 period. The variables analysed were gender, age, weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, initial and 2-h capillary glycemia in a 75 g OGTT, levels of triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. The diagnostic criteria for MS proposed by the IDF and AHA/NHLBI were used. The prevalence of MS was 66.1 % (95 % CI 63.0-69.2), being 76.2 % (95 % CI 72.4-80.0) in women and 55.6 % (95 % CI 51.0-60.2) in men. Women had higher prevalence of MS in all age groups. Elevated waist circumference and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol were the more frequent components in those with MS, and elevated blood pressure was the less frequent. The high prevalence of MS in the Xavante Indians is mainly due to the increased prevalence of weight excess that resulted from an intense change in their life-style, in a short period of time in a population with a genetic predisposition. These findings highlight the magnitude of this health problem and make an alert about the necessity to implement specific preventive interventions.

  12. Prevalence of mental disorders in a prison population in Durban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of serious mental disorders in a prison population in Durban, South Africa, one of the largest prisons in the Southern hemisphere. Method: 193 prisoners were interviewed using the Mini Neuro-psychiatric Interview, a screening questionnaire and a ...

  13. Human papilloma virus prevalence in a multiethnic screening population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang Mei; Stephen, Josena K; Ghanem, Tamer; Stachler, Robert; Gardner, Glendon; Jones, Lamont; Schweitzer, Vanessa P; Hall, Francis; Divine, George; Worsham, Maria J

    2013-03-01

    The goal was to determine the prevalence of high-risk HPV16 using saliva in a screening population in Detroit, Michigan. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to detect HPV16 in saliva DNA from 349 screening subjects without head and neck cancer (HNC), 156 with HNC, and 19 controls. Cut points for human papilloma virus (HPV) positivity were >0 and >0.001 copy/cell. Proportions were compared between groups using exact χ(2) or Fisher exact tests (P 0, each group had an overall HPV prevalence of more than 5%, with a higher prevalence of 30.8% in the HNC patient group. At a cut point >0.001, the prevalence was lower: 0% in the control, 1.2% in the screening, and 16.7% in the HNC group. In the latter, for both cut points, HPV prevalence was different across sites (0, women in the screening group had a higher prevalence of HPV than did men (P = .010), and at >0.001, the prevalence was higher for men in the HNC group than for women (P = .035). In the screening group, at >0, only African Americans had a higher prevalence than Caucasian Americans (P = .025). In the screening group, a 6.9% and 1.2% screening rate was noted at cut points >0 and >0.001, respectively. The results provide data to inform public health considerations of the feasibility of saliva as a screening tool in at-risk populations with the long-term goal of prophylactic vaccination against oral HPV.

  14. White-coat, masked and sustained hypertension detected by home blood pressure monitoring in adolescents: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Carneiro, Carolina de Souza; Morais, Polyana; Roriz, Vanessa; Mendonça, Karla Lorena; Nascente, Flávia Miquetichuc; Póvoa, Thaís Inácio Rolim; Barroso, Weimar Kunz Sebba; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Jardim, Paulo César Veiga

    2018-06-01

    Population-based studies estimating prevalence's of white-coat, masked and sustained hypertension in non-European adolescents are needed, particularly in developing countries. Aiming to determine these estimates and, additionally identify factors associated to these conditions this study was conducted. Cross-sectional study with a representative sample of secondary school students from a Brazilian state capital. Office measurements were performed with validated semi-automatic devices. Home BP (blood pressure) monitoring protocol included two day-time and two evening-time measurements over 6 days. Adolescents' were classified as: normotensives (office and home BP coat hypertensives (office BP ≥95th percentile and home BP coat, masked and sustained hypertension. In a sample of 1024 adolescents, prevalence of white-coat, masked and sustained hypertension was 7.5%, 2.2% and 1.7%, respectively. Male sex was positively associated with white-coat hypertension (OR 2.68; 95%CI 1.58-4.54; p coat (OR 1.23; 95%CI 1.16-1.30; p coat hypertension, masked and sustained hypertension in a population of non-European adolescents assessed by home BP monitoring was 7.5%, 2.2% and 1.7% respectively. Male sex was positively associated with white-coat hypertension in these adolescents while BMI was positively associated with both white-coat and sustained hypertension.

  15. Prevalence and Impact of Unhealthy Weight in a National Sample of US Adolescents with Autism and Other Learning and Behavioral Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Keydra L.; Visser, Susanna; Boulet, Sheree; Sharma, Andrea J.; Kogan, Michael D.; Boyle, Coleen A.; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight among US adolescents with and without autism and other learning and behavioral developmental disabilities (DDs) and assessed the health consequences of obesity among adolescents with DDs. From the 2008 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey, we selected 9,619 adolescents ages 12–17 years. Parent respondents reported weight, height, presence of DDs and health conditions. We calculated body mass index (BMI) and defined obesity, overweight, and underweight as ≥95th, ≥85th to learning disorder/other developmental delay. We compared BMI outcomes among adolescents in each DD group versus adolescents without DDs using multivariable logistic regression. Socio-demographic factors and birthweight were included as confounders. Estimates were weighted to reflect the US population. Both obesity and underweight prevalences were higher among adolescents with than without DDs [adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) 1.5 (1.25–1.75) and 1.5 (1.01–2.20), respectively]. Obesity was elevated among adolescents with all DD types, and was highest among the autism subgroup [aPR 2.1 (1.44–3.16)]. Adolescents with either a DD or obesity had higher prevalences of common respiratory, gastrointestinal, dermatological and neurological conditions/symptoms than nonobese adolescents without DDs. Adolescents with both DDs and obesity had the highest estimates for most conditions. Obesity is high among adolescents with autism and other DDs and poses added chronic health risks. Obesity prevention and management approaches for this vulnerable population subgroup need further consideration. PMID:24553796

  16. Cyberbullying Prevalence among United States Middle and High School Aged Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Fales, Jessica L.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying has established links to physical and mental health problems including depression, suicidality, substance use, and somatic symptoms. Quality reporting of cyberbullying prevalence is essential to guide evidence-based policy and prevention priorities. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate study quality and reported prevalence among cyberbullying research studies conducted in populations of US adolescents of middle and high school age. Methods Searches of peer-reviewed literature published through June 2015 for “cyberbullying” and related terms were conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science. Included manuscripts reported cyberbullying prevalence in general populations of U.S. adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19. Using a review tool based on the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement, reviewers independently scored study quality on study methods, results reporting, and reported prevalence. Results Search results yielded 1,447 manuscripts; 81 manuscripts representing 58 unique studies were identified as meeting inclusion criteria. Quality scores ranged between 12 and 37 total points out of a possible 42 points (M = 26.7, SD = 4.6). Prevalence rates of cyberbullying ranged as follows: perpetration, 1% to 41%; victimization, 3% to 72%; and overlapping perpetration and victimization, 2.3% to 16.7%. Conclusions Literature on cyberbullying in US middle and high school aged students is robust in quantity but inconsistent in quality and reported prevalence. Consistent definitions and evidence-based measurement tools are needed. PMID:26576821

  17. Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis, Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas Vaginalis Infection in Chilean Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneeus, Andrea; Schilling, Andrea; Fernandez, Mario I

    2018-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis infection in sexually active Chilean adolescents and young adults. A comparative analysis was performed between genders to identify demographic, clinical, and sexual behavior characteristics to predict the occurrence of C trachomatis. Analytical observational study. Santiago, Chile. Two hundred eighty-six sexually active volunteers aged 24 years or younger (171 female and 115 male); 82.9% (237/286) of them were classified as having high socioeconomic status. Confidential survey and self-collected samples (urine for men and vaginal swabs for women). Prevalence, demographic characteristics, symptoms, and sexual behavior characteristics. The prevalence rate of C trachomatis was 8.7% (10/115) in men and 8.8% (15/171) in women (P = .58). N gonorrhoeae was detected in 1 subject, whereas no T vaginalis cases were detected. In multivariate analysis, having some college education was protective (odds ratio [OR], 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.89), whereas having a higher number of sexual partners was a risk factor (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3) for C trachomatis infection. The latter was also predicted by postcoital bleeding (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.30-16.23) in the female model. C trachomatis infection rates were similar between both genders. Protective characteristics for the occurrence of this infection were having some college education, lower number of sexual partners, and if female, the absence of postcoital bleeding. This study highlights the importance of C trachomatis screening among the Chilean affluent population younger than 25 years. However, further studies are needed in a more diverse and representative sample to recommend universal screening in Chilean adolescents and young adults. Copyright © 2018 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of hypertension among adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Siqueira Santos Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of hypertension among adolescent Brazilian students. METHODS A systematic review of school-based cross-sectional studies was conducted. The articles were searched in the databases MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, Web of Science, CAPES thesis database and Trip Database. In addition, we examined the lists of references of relevant studies to identify potentially eligible articles. No restrictions regarding publication date, language, or status applied. The studies were selected by two independent evaluators, who also extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality following eight criteria related to sampling, measuring blood pressure, and presenting results. The meta-analysis was calculated using a random effects model and analyses were performed to investigate heterogeneity. RESULTS We retrieved 1,577 articles from the search and included 22 in the review. The included articles corresponded to 14,115 adolescents, 51.2% (n = 7,230 female. We observed a variety of techniques, equipment, and references used. The prevalence of hypertension was 8.0% (95%CI 5.0–11.0; I2 = 97.6%, 9.3% (95%CI 5.6–13.6; I2 = 96.4% in males and 6.5% (95%CI 4.2–9.1; I2 = 94.2% in females. The meta-regression failed to identify the causes of the heterogeneity among studies. CONCLUSIONS Despite the differences found in the methodologies of the included studies, the results of this systematic review indicate that hypertension is prevalent in the Brazilian adolescent school population. For future investigations, we suggest the standardization of techniques, equipment, and references, aiming at improving the methodological quality of the studies.

  19. Variations in the prevalence of spondylolysis in early British populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, H A

    1991-01-01

    Crude prevalence rates of spondylolysis were estimated in skeletal populations from various periods. There was a steady increase in prevalence from 3.74% in Romano-British to 5.08% in medieval populations, but the rate fell considerably to 1.42% in a population from an 18th/19th century context. This trend was not statistically significant, however. The male/female ratio was approximately unity until the 18th/19th century when the expected male excess appeared. The lesions predominantly affected L5 and all were isthmic in type. Of the total of 52 cases, only four were unilateral. One occurred in the fourth cervical vertebra. There were few complications; spondylolisthesis was noted in four cases and in three there were osteoarthritic changes on the superior margin of the displaced lamina. PMID:1941859

  20. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents living in Mthatha, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekokotla MA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Morongwe Annah Sekokotla,1 Nandu Goswami,2 Constance Rufaro Sewani-Rusike,1 Jehu Erapu Iputo,3 Benedicta Ngwenchi Nkeh-Chungag4 1Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa; 2Gravitational Physiology and Medicine Research Unit, Institute of Physiology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria; 3Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, 4Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa Objective: Metabolic syndrome (MetS, defined as the clustering of three of five risk factors (hypertension, obesity, triglyceridemia, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, is being increasingly mentioned among children and adolescents despite there being no consensus on how it should be defined in this set of population. Furthermore, very few studies have focused on MetS in children and adolescents in sub-Saharan populations. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the prevalence of the MetS and contributing risk in adolescents living in Mthatha, South Africa.Research design and methods: Four hundred and ten adolescents (age range: 13–18 years, both sexes were recruited into this cross-sectional study. In addition to a lifestyle questionnaire being administered, anthropometric measurements (weight, height and waist circumferences were carried out for each participant. Fasting venous blood was collected for lipid profile and blood glucose assessments. Blood pressure was also measured. MetS was assessed using appropriate diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents.Results: Complete data sets were collected from 371 participants. Females showed an elevation in the risk factors for MetS. Of the 371 participants, 40.2% were overweight/obese (47.5% females; 22.5% males. MetS was diagnosed in 3.1% female participants compared with 6.0% in male participants.Conclusions: More risk

  1. Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence among Northern Mexican Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Rogelio; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Ramos, Esteban; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.; Sureda, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥16 years. Methods and Results The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health–Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4%) than in men (48.9%) and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity. Conclusions Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention. PMID:25141255

  2. Metabolic syndrome prevalence among Northern Mexican adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Rogelio; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Ramos, Esteban; Villarreal, Jesús Z; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A; Sureda, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years. The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health-Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4%) than in men (48.9%) and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity. Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention.

  3. Metabolic syndrome prevalence among Northern Mexican adult population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Salas

    Full Text Available Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years.The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health-Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4% than in men (48.9% and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity.Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention.

  4. Utility of Capture-Recapture Methodology to Estimate Prevalence of Congenital Heart Defects Among Adolescents in 11 New York State Counties: 2008 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya-Hocagil, Tugba; Hsu, Wan-Hsiang; Sommerhalter, Kristin; McGarry, Claire; Van Zutphen, Alissa

    2017-11-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common birth defects in the United States, and the population of individuals living with CHDs is growing. Though CHD prevalence in infancy has been well characterized, better prevalence estimates among children and adolescents in the United States are still needed. We used capture-recapture methods to estimate CHD prevalence among adolescents residing in 11 New York counties. The three data sources used for analysis included Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) hospital inpatient records, SPARCS outpatient records, and medical records provided by seven pediatric congenital cardiac clinics from 2008 to 2010. Bayesian log-linear models were fit using the R package Conting to account for dataset dependencies and heterogeneous catchability. A total of 2537 adolescent CHD cases were captured in our three data sources. Forty-four cases were identified in all data sources, 283 cases were identified in two of three data sources, and 2210 cases were identified in a single data source. The final model yielded an estimated total adolescent CHD population of 3845, indicating that 66% of the cases in the catchment area were identified in the case-identifying data sources. Based on 2010 Census estimates, we estimated adolescent CHD prevalence as 6.4 CHD cases per 1000 adolescents (95% confidence interval: 6.2-6.6). We used capture-recapture methodology with a population-based surveillance system in New York to estimate CHD prevalence among adolescents. Future research incorporating additional data sources may improve prevalence estimates in this population. Birth Defects Research 109:1423-1429, 2017.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity in the Lausanne population

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    Paccaud Fred

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity can be defined using body mass index (BMI or waist (abdominal obesity. Little information exists regarding its prevalence and determinants in Switzerland. Hence, we assessed the levels of obesity as defined by BMI or waist circumference in a Swiss population-based sample. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based non-stratified random sample of 3,249 women and 2,937 men aged 35–75 years living in Lausanne, Switzerland. Overall participation rate was 41%. Results In men, the prevalences of overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were 45.5% and 16.9%, respectively, higher than in women (28.3% and 14.3%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity (waist ≥102 in men and ≥88 cm in women was higher in women than in men (30.6% vs. 23.9%. Obesity and abdominal obesity increased with age and decreased with higher educational level in both genders. In women, the prevalence of obesity was lower among former and current smokers, whereas in men the prevalence of obesity was higher in former smokers but did not differ between current and never smokers. Multivariate analysis showed age to be positively related, and education and physical activity to be negatively related with obesity and abdominal obesity in both genders, whereas differential effects of smoking were found between genders. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is higher than BMI-derived obesity in the Swiss population. Women presented with more abdominal obesity than men. The association between smoking and obesity levels appears to differ between genders.

  6. Scleroderma prevalence: demographic variations in a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatsky, S; Joseph, L; Pineau, C A; Belisle, P; Hudson, M; Clarke, A E

    2009-03-15

    To estimate the prevalence of systemic sclerosis (SSc) using population-based administrative data, and to assess the sensitivity of case ascertainment approaches. We ascertained SSc cases from Quebec physician billing and hospitalization databases (covering approximately 7.5 million individuals). Three case definition algorithms were compared, and statistical methods accounting for imperfect case ascertainment were used to estimate SSc prevalence and case ascertainment sensitivity. A hierarchical Bayesian latent class regression model that accounted for possible between-test dependence conditional on disease status estimated the effect of patient characteristics on SSc prevalence and the sensitivity of the 3 ascertainment algorithms. Accounting for error inherent in both the billing and the hospitalization data, we estimated SSc prevalence in 2003 at 74.4 cases per 100,000 women (95% credible interval [95% CrI] 69.3-79.7) and 13.3 cases per 100,000 men (95% CrI 11.1-16.1). Prevalence was higher for older individuals, particularly in urban women (161.2 cases per 100,000, 95% CrI 148.6-175.0). Prevalence was lowest in young men (in rural areas, as low as 2.8 cases per 100,000, 95% CrI 1.4-4.8). In general, no single algorithm was very sensitive, with point estimates for sensitivity ranging from 20-73%. We found marked differences in SSc prevalence according to age, sex, and region. In general, no single case ascertainment approach was very sensitive for SSc. Therefore, using data from multiple sources, with adjustment for the imperfect nature of each, is an important strategy in population-based studies of SSc and similar conditions.

  7. Internet Use, Depression, and Anxiety in a Healthy Adolescent Population: Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Robyn Pauline; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael

    2018-05-22

    Psychiatric disorders, including conduct disturbances, substance abuse, and affective disorders, emerge in approximately 20% of adolescents. In parallel with the rise in internet use, the prevalence of depression among adolescents has increased. It remains unclear whether and how internet use impacts mental health in adolescents. We assess the association between patterns of internet use and two mental health outcomes (depression and anxiety) in a healthy adolescent population. A total of 126 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 15 years were recruited. Participants reported their typical computer and internet usage patterns. At baseline and one-year follow-up, they completed the Beck Depression Index for primary care (BDI-PC) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory for Primary Care (BAI-PC). Individual linear regressions were completed to determine the association between markers of internet use at baseline and mental health outcomes at one-year follow-up. All models controlled for age, gender, and ethnicity. There was an inverse correlation between minutes spent on a favorite website per visit and BAI-PC score. No association was found between internet use and BDI-PC score. There is no relationship between internet use patterns and depression in adolescents, whereas internet use may mitigate anxiety in adolescents with higher levels of baseline anxiety. ©Robyn Pauline Thom, David S Bickham, Michael Rich. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 22.05.2018.

  8. Prevalence of Family Violence and Associated Factors Among In-School Adolescents in São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralo, Janaina Maria; Schor, Neia; Tavares, Carlos Mendes; Silva, Valter

    2016-05-01

    Family violence is a social and public health issue across the world for many populations and affects many different types of people, for example, children, women, and vulnerable adults. Adolescents are one of the main victims of this important phenomenon. This article estimates the prevalence of family violence in adolescents and associated factors. The study was carried out in 2012 with a probability and representative sample of 656 adolescents aged between 11 and 17 years who were enrolled at public schools located in the extreme South of the city of São Paulo. The association was tested by the proportion test, Pearson's chi-square or Fischer's exact test, and Poisson regression adjusted by robust variance estimation, considering a level of significance of 5%. Among adolescents, 38.9% reported having been victims of family violence. Women were victimized with higher frequency (44.1%). The factors associated with prevalence of family violence were being of the female sex (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.20, 1.80]) and living only with the father (PR = 1.52; 95% CI = [1.11, 2.08]). The prevalence of adolescents who were victims of family violence is high; however, special attention must be paid to women and adolescents who live only with their father-they were established, in this study, as a risk group. Epidemiological studies of this nature are important to reveal the reality of family violence and to aid the construction of intersectoral public policies to promote health, prevent violence, and foster a peaceful culture. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of body dysmorphic disorder in a community sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sophie C; Turner, Cynthia M; Mond, Jonathan; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2017-06-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder typically begins in adolescence, yet little is known about the prevalence and correlates of the disorder in this age group. The current study aimed to explore the presenting features of adolescents meeting probable criteria for body dysmorphic disorder in a large community sample, and compare levels of comorbid psychopathology, quality of life and mental health service use between adolescents with probable body dysmorphic disorder and those without. Questionnaires were completed at school by 3149 adolescents: 63% male, aged 12-18 years ( M = 14.58). These assessed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) body dysmorphic disorder criteria, past mental health service use and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders. In male participants, additional measures assessed quality of life, muscularity concerns, emotional symptoms, peer problems, conduct problems and hyperactivity. The prevalence of probable body dysmorphic disorder was 1.7%; there was no sex difference in prevalence, but older adolescents reported higher prevalence than younger adolescents. Probable body dysmorphic disorder participants reported substantially elevated levels of psychopathology, quality of life impairment and mental health service use compared to non-body dysmorphic disorder participants. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in adolescents is similar to adult samples, and probable body dysmorphic disorder is associated with comorbidity, distress and functional impairment in a community sample. Further research is required to better understand the presentation of body dysmorphic disorder in adolescents, and to improve diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in Iranian children and adolescents: A systematic review

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    Silva Hovsepian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is considered as an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD. The link between childhood dyslipidemia and occurrence of atherosclerosis and its sequels in adulthood are well-documented. This study aimed to systematically review the prevalence of dyslipidemia among Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: An electronic search was conducted on studies published from January 1990 to January 2014. The main international electronic data sources were PubMed and the NLM Gateway (for MEDLINE, Institute of Scientific Information (ISI, and SCOPUS. For Persian databases, we used domestic databases with systematic search capability including IranMedex, Irandoc, and Scientific Information Database (SID. We included all available population-based studies and national surveys conducted in the pediatric age group (aged <21 years. Results: In this review, 1772 articles were identified (PubMed: 1464; Scopus: 11; ISI: 58; SID: 90; IranMedex: 149; Irandoc: 57. During three refine steps and after removing of duplicates, 182 articles related to the study domain were selected. After quality assessment, 46 studies were selected for text appraisal, of which 26 qualified articles were evaluated at the final step. The prevalence range of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C were 3-48%, 3-50%, 5-20% and 5-88%, respectively. Low HDL-C and hypertriglyceridemia were the most prevalent lipid disorders in this group of population. Conclusion: Dyslipidemia is a common health problem among Iranian children and adolescents. Few data were available in preschool children. This finding provides useful information for health policy makers to implement action-oriented interventions for prevention and early control of this important CVD risk factor.

  11. An age structured model for obesity prevalence dynamics in populations

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    Gilberto González Parra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Modeling the correlation of the development of obesity in a population with age and time and predict the dynamics of the correlation of the development of obesity in a population with age and time under different scenarios in Valencia (Spain. Materials and methods. An age structured mathematical model is used to describe the future dynamics of obesity prevalence for different ages in human population with excess weight. Simulation of the model with parameters estimated using the Health Survey of the Region of Valencia 2000 (4.319 interviews and Health Survey of the Region of Valencia 2005 (4.012 interviews. The model considers only overweight and obese populations since these subpopulations are the most relevant on obesity health concern. Results. The model allows predicting and studying the prevalence of obesity for each age. Results showed an increasing trend of obesity in the following years in well accordance with the trend observed in several countries. Conclusions. Based on the numerical simulations it is possible to conclude that the age structured mathematical model is suitable to forecast the obesity epidemic in each age group in different countries. Additionally, this type of models may be applied to study other characteristics of other populations such animal populations.

  12. Prevalence of Children's Mental Health Problems and the Effectiveness of Population-Level Family Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Noriko; Yanagawa, Toshihiko; Fujiwara, Takeo; Morawska, Alina

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents is of growing importance. Intervening in children's mental health early in life has been shown to be more effective than trying to resolve these problems when children are older. With respect to prevention activities in community settings, the prevalence of problems should be estimated, and the required level of services should be delivered. The prevalence of children's mental health disorders has been reported for many countries. Preventive intervention has emphasized optimizing the environment. Because parents are the primary influence on their children's development, considerable attention has been placed on the development of parent training to strengthen parenting skills. However, a public-health approach is necessary to confirm that the benefits of parent-training interventions lead to an impact at the societal level. This literature review clarifies that the prevalence of mental health problems is measured at the national level in many countries and that population-level parenting interventions can lower the prevalence of mental health problems among children in the community.

  13. The prevalence of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury (NSSI in a representative sample of the German population

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    Paul L. Plener

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is a proposed new “condition for further study” in the DSM-5. To date no prevalence data has been available on this diagnostic entity from a representative sample of the general population. Methods A representative sample of the German population (N = 2509, mean age = 48.8 years, SD = 18.1, female 55.4 % completed the NSSI section of the German version of the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview (SITBI-G. Results A history of NSSI at least once during lifetime was reported by 3.1 % of all participants, with higher lifetime prevalence rates in younger age groups. DSM-5 NSSI disorder criteria were met by 0.3 %. The most common function of NSSI was automatic negative reinforcement (e.g. to alleviate negative feelings. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting rates for the proposed NSSI category in DSM-5 from a representative sample of the general population. In comparison to findings from community samples of adolescents, adults seem to have lower lifetime prevalence rates of NSSI, thus making it necessary to emphasize prevention and treatment efforts in younger age groups.

  14. Prevalence of burning mouth syndrome in adult Turkish population

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    Hakan Çolak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is defined as a chronic orofacial pain condition, characterized symptomatically by burning pain localized to the tongue and lips or may involve the entire oral cavity. The prevalence of burning mouth symptoms reported from international studies ranges from 0.6% to 15%. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of burning mouth syndrome in adult Turkish population.Materials and methods: A questionnaire was designed to collect data on demographic characteristics, medical history and drugs taken by the patients and clinical examination was performed. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 1000 (500 men and 500 women randomly selected patients who attended attending to Kırıkkale University Dental Faculty Department of Restorative Dentistry.Results: BMS was diagnosed in 12 patients with 0.12% prevalence in 2 man and 10 women, with 1:5 ratio respectively. The most common site for BMS was tongue. Para functional habits were the most common local factor. According to visual analogue scale (VAS mean (±SD level of burning intensity was 5.45 (±1.69.Conclusions: Burning Mouth Syndrome in Turkish population has low prevalence and is more frequent in females.

  15. Prevalence of primary glaucoma in an urban South Indian population

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    Jacob Aby

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is fast emerging as a major cause of blindness in India. In order to estimate the prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG in an urban South Indian population, we examined 972 individuals aged 30-60 years, chosen using a cluster sampling technique from 12 census blocks of Vellore town. They underwent a complete ocular examination, including applanation tonometry and gonioscopy, at the Medical College Hospital. Characteristic field defects on automated perimetry was a diagnostic requisite for POAG. Prevalence (95% CI of POAG, PACG, and ocular hypertension were 4.1 (0.08-8.1, 43.2 (30.14-56.3, and 30.8 (19.8-41.9 per 1,000, respectively. All the PACG cases detected were of the chronic type. Hitherto unavailable community-based information on primary glaucoma in our study population indicates that PACG is about five times as common as POAG.

  16. Intimate partner violence among adolescents and young women: prevalence and associated factors in nine countries: a cross-sectional study.

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    Stöckl, Heidi; March, Laura; Pallitto, Christina; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia

    2014-07-25

    Little is known about the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its associated factors among adolescents and younger women. This study analyzed data from nine countries of the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women, a population based survey conducted in ten countries between 2000 and 2004. The lifetime prevalence of IPV ranged from 19 to 66 percent among women aged 15 to 24, with most sites reporting prevalence above 50 percent. Factors significantly associated with IPV across most sites included witnessing violence against the mother, partner's heavy drinking and involvement in fights, women's experience of unwanted first sex, frequent quarrels and partner's controlling behavior. Adolescent and young women face a substantially higher risk of experiencing IPV than older women. Adolescence and early adulthood is an important period in laying the foundation for healthy and stable relationships, and women's health and well-being overall. Ensuring that adolescents and young women enjoy relationships free of violence is an important investment in their future.

  17. Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in an Adult Iranian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Ghanaei, Fariborz; Joukar, Farahnaz; Rabiei, Maryam; Dadashzadeh, Alireza; Kord Valeshabad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Nowadays the importance of oral health to life quality is not obvious to anyone in our world. Oral lesions can interfere with daily social activities in involved patients through impacts on mastication, swallowing and speech and symptoms like xerostomia, halitosis or dysesthesia. Objectives To assess the prevalence and types of oral lesions in a general population in Rasht, Northern Province of Iran. Patients and Methods 1581 people aged > 30 years old who were inhabitant of Rasht,...

  18. Links between Psychotropic Substance Use and Sensation Seeking in a Prevalence Study: The Role of Some Features of Parenting Style in a Large Sample of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Scalese, Marco; Curzio, Olivia; Cutrupi, Valentina; Bastiani, Luca; Gori, Mercedes; Denoth, Francesca; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Aims. The objectives of the study were to (a) investigate the prevalence risk of current drug users and (b) explore the association between parental monitoring, adolescent-parent relationship, family structure, financial status, and sensation-seeking and psychotropic substance use. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2002 Italian student population survey of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. The sample size was 10,790 adolescents, aged 15–19 years. Multivariate logi...

  19. Higher prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in adolescent and young adult girls belonging to different Indian tribes with varied socio-sexual lifestyle.

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    Kirti Sharma

    Full Text Available Despite high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and cervical cancer in Indian women, no study has been done in tribal populations whose socio-sexual lifestyle is different. Therefore, HPV screening has been carried out in pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adult tribal girls using self-collected urine samples.20-35 ml self-collected midstream urine samples were obtained from a total of 2278 healthy tribal girls (9-25 years comprising pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adults from three Indian states: Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. β-globin positive 2034 samples were employed for HPV detection and genotyping.The overall prevalence of HPV infection in tribal girls was 12.9% (262/2034. More than 65% (172/262 of them were infected with HR-HPV types of which HPV16 was the most predominant type (54%. Young adult girls aged 18-25 years showed a significantly higher prevalence of HPV infection (19.2%; OR = 3.36; 95% CI 2.97-6.34, P<0.001 as compared to that in adolescent (11.4%; OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.20-2.76, P<0.01 or pre-adolescent girls (6.6%.This is a first study showing significantly a very high prevalence of HPV infection in adolescent and young adult tribal girls possibly due to different socio-sexual behavior, indicating a serious health concern for Indian tribal women.

  20. A systematic review on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Iranian children and adolescents

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    Roya Kelishadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS, a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, is one of the most common metabolic disorders, which lead to many chronic diseases. The link between childhood MetS and occurrence of atherosclerosis and its sequels in adulthood is well documented. This study aims to systematically review the prevalence of MetS among Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: An electronic search was conducted on studies published from January 1990 to January 2015. The main international electronic data sources were PubMed and the NLM Gateway (for MEDLINE, Institute of Scientific Information (ISI, and SCOPUS. For Persian databases, we used domestic databases. We included all available population-based studies and national surveys conducted in the pediatric age group aged 3–21-year-old. Results: In this review, 2138 articles were identified (PubMed: 265; SCOPUS: 368; ISI: 465; Scientific Information Database: 189; IranMedex: 851; Irandoc: 46. After quality assessment, 13 qualified articles were evaluated. The number of total population and points of data were 24,772 and 125, respectively. Regarding the geographical distribution, we found 2 national, 6 provincial, and 5 district level points of data. The prevalence range of MetS among children was 1–22% using different definitions. Reported range of pediatric MetS defined by different criteria was as follows: National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III; 3–16%, International Diabetes Federation; 0–8%, American Heart Association; 4–9.5%, The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III; 1–18%, de Ferranti; 0–22%. Conclusion: MetS is a common metabolic disorder among Iranian children and adolescents, with increasing trends during the last decades. This finding provides baseline useful information for health policy makers to implement evidence based-health promotion for appropriate controlling of this growing health problem for the

  1. Inadequate calcium intake is highly prevalent in Korean children and adolescents: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2010.

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    Im, Jong Geun; Kim, Shin Hye; Lee, Gyeong-Yoon; Joung, Hyojee; Park, Mi-Jung

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess the adequacy of Ca intake and major food sources of Ca in Korean children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2010. We analysed the daily Ca intake, major food sources of Ca and the prevalence of inadequate Ca intake in the study population. Ca intake was categorized as inadequate when the participant's daily Ca intake was less than the Estimated Average Requirement. Subject The study population consisted of 7233 children and adolescents (3973 boys, 3260 girls; aged 1-18 years). Mean Ca intake was 510·2 mg/d in boys and 431·7 mg/d in girls. Overall, 75·0 % of adolescents (boys 71·6 %, girls 79·1 %) had inadequate Ca intake. The prevalence of inadequate Ca intake increased significantly from toddlers (45-55 %) to adolescents (78-86 %) in both genders. The highest ranked food sources for Ca were dairy products (35·0 %), followed by vegetables (17·3 %), grains (11·3 %) and seafood (9·9 %). Ca intake from dairy products decreased significantly from 57 % in toddlers to 30 % in adolescents, while Ca intakes from other foods increased with age. Inadequate Ca intake is highly prevalent and increased with age in Korean children and adolescents. It should be emphasized to encourage children and adolescents to eat more Ca-rich products to meet their Ca needs.

  2. Pain is prevalent among adolescents and equally related to stress across genders

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    Østerås, Berit; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Haga, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background Young people seem increasingly disabled due to pain and stress. Pain and stress are health risks with adverse long-term health effects. Traditionally, these health risks have been most prevalent and strongest associated in females, also regarding children and adolescents. Main objectives in this study were to investigate current gender differences in musculoskeletal pain and perceived stress in adolescents aged 15 and 16 years with respect to prevalence and group differences fo...

  3. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Psychiatric Disorders among Adolescent Bedouin with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disability

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    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and types of psychiatric disorders among Bedouin adolescents with mild to moderate intellectual disability. This is the first study ever conducted on this topic within the Bedouin community in the Negev in Israel. The issue of psychiatric disorders among adolescents with intellectual disability…

  4. Prevalence of Internet Addiction and Correlations with Family Factors among South Korean Adolescents

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    Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths…

  5. Prevalence of adolescent obesity at a high school in the City of Tshwane

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    Nomusa A. Ngwenya

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: Evidence-based prevalence allowed for conceptualisation of the scope of the obesity epidemic and how children and young people are also affected. To enable proper planning for adolescent obesity interventions, the depth of consequences of obesity for the adolescent cohort should be well defined and clarified.

  6. Prevalence rates of borderline symptoms reported by adolescent inpatients with BPD, psychiatrically healthy adolescents and adult inpatients with BPD.

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    Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne

    2017-08-01

    The validity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in children and adolescents has not been studied in a rigorous manner reflecting the criteria of Robins and Guze first detailed in 1970. This paper and the others in this series address some aspects of this multifaceted validation paradigm, which requires that a disorder has a known clinical presentation, can be delimited from other disorders, 'runs' in families, and something of its aetiology, treatment response and course is known. Three groups of subjects were studied: 104 adolescent inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-IV criteria for BPD, 60 psychiatrically healthy adolescents and 290 adult inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD. Adolescents with BPD had significantly higher prevalence rates of 22 of the 24 symptoms studied than psychiatrically healthy adolescents. Only rates of serious treatment regressions and countertransference problems failed to reach the Bonferroni-corrected level of 0.002. Adolescents and adults with BPD had only four symptomatic differences that reached this level of significance, with adolescents with BPD reporting significantly lower levels of quasi-psychotic thought, dependency/masochism, devaluation/manipulation/sadism and countertransference problems than adults with BPD. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that adolescents report BPD as severe as that reported by adults. They also suggest that BPD in adolescents is not a tumultuous phase of normal adolescence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The Prevalence of High-Risk HPV Types and Factors Determining Infection in Female Colombian Adolescents.

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    Luisa Del Río-Ospina

    Full Text Available This study reports six HR-HPV types' infection prevalence discriminated by species and multiple infection in unvaccinated Colombian female adolescents, as well as some factors modulating the risk of infection. HPV DNA for six high-risk viral types was identified in cervical samples taken from 2,134 12-19 year-old females using conventional generic and type-specific PCR. Binomial logistical regression analysis was used for modelling HR-HPV infection and multiple infection risk. The interaction between variables in a stepwise model was also included in such analysis. Viral DNA was detected in 48.97% of the females; 28.52% of them had multiple infections, HPV-16 being the most frequently occurring type (37.44%. Cytological abnormality prevalence was 15.61%. Being over 16 years-old (1.66: 1.01-2.71 95%CI, white ethnicity (4.40: 1.16-16.73 95%CI, having had 3 or more sexual partners (1.77: 1.11-2.81 95%CI and prior sexually-transmitted infections (STI (1.65: 1.17-2.32 95%CI were associated with a greater risk of HPV infection. Having given birth was related to a higher risk of infection by A7 species and antecedent of abortion to less risk of coinfection. Where the females in this study came from also influenced the risk of infection by A7 species as female adolescents from the Andean region had a lower risk of infection (0.42: 0.18-0.99 95%CI. The presence of factors related to risky sexual behaviour in the study population indicated that public health services should pay special attention to female adolescents to modify the risk of infection by high-risk HPV types and decrease their impact on this age group.

  8. Allergy from infancy to adolescence. A population-based 18-year follow-up cohort

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    Aromaa Minna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxious parents have many concerns about the future health of their atopic infants. Paediatricians and primary care practitioners need to seek knowledge on long-term outcomes in order to cope with the increasing caseload of suspected allergy and the concerns of parents. The aim of the study was to assess suspected and diagnosed allergy in infancy as predictors of allergy and asthma in adolescence. Methods Families expecting their first baby and making their first visit to a maternity health care clinic in 1986 were selected as the study population in a random sample. There were 1278 eligible study families. The data were provided of the children at the ages of 9 and 18 months and 3, 5, 12, 15 and 18 years by health care professionals, parents, and adolescents (themselves. Results At the age of 9 months, the prevalence of allergy suspicions was distinctly higher than that of allergy diagnoses. At the age of five years suspected allergy approaches were nil, and the prevalence of diagnosed allergy was about 9%. During the adolescence, the prevalence of self-reported allergy increases steadily up to the age of 18 years, and that of asthma remains at approximately 5%. Suspected allergy at the age of 9 or 18 months and at the 5 years of age does not predict allergy at adolescence. Compared with non-allergic children, children with definite allergy at the age of 5 were over 8 times more likely to have allergy and nearly 7 times more likely to have asthma in adolescence. Conclusion An early ascertained diagnosis of allergy, but not suspicions of allergy, predicts prevailing allergy in adolescence. Efforts need to be focused on accurate diagnosis of early childhood allergies.

  9. A Practitioner's Guide to Electronic Cigarettes in the Adolescent Population.

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    Hildick-Smith, Gordon J; Pesko, Michael F; Shearer, Lee; Hughes, Jenna M; Chang, Jane; Loughlin, Gerald M; Ipp, Lisa S

    2015-12-01

    We present guidance on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) for health care professionals who care for adolescents. ENDS provide users with inhaled nicotine in an aerosolized mist. Popular forms of ENDS include e-cigarettes and vape-pens. ENDS range in disposability, customization, and price. Growth of ENDS usage has been particularly rapid in the adolescent population, surpassing that of conventional cigarettes in 2014. Despite surging use throughout the United States, little is known about the health risks posed by ENDS, especially in the vulnerable adolescent population. These products may potentiate nicotine addiction in adolescents and have been found to contain potentially harmful chemicals. The growth in these products may be driven by relaxed purchasing restrictions for minors, lack of advertising regulations, and youth friendly flavors. Taken together, ENDS represent a new and growing health risk to the adolescent population, one that health care professionals should address with their patients. We suggest a patient centered strategy to incorporate ENDS use into routine substance counseling. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep patterns and insomnia among adolescents: a population-based study.

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    Hysing, Mari; Pallesen, Ståle; Stormark, Kjell M; Lundervold, Astri J; Sivertsen, Børge

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine sleep patterns and rates of insomnia in a population-based study of adolescents aged 16-19 years. Gender differences in sleep patterns and insomnia, as well as a comparison of insomnia rates according to DSM-IV, DSM-V and quantitative criteria for insomnia (Behav. Res. Ther., 41, 2003, 427), were explored. We used a large population-based study in Hordaland county in Norway, conducted in 2012. The sample included 10,220 adolescents aged 16-18 years (54% girls). Self-reported sleep measurements included bedtime, rise time, time in bed, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, rate and frequency and duration of difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep and rate and frequency of tiredness and sleepiness. The adolescents reported short sleep duration on weekdays (mean 6:25 hours), resulting in a sleep deficiency of about 2 h. A majority of the adolescents (65%) reported sleep onset latency exceeding 30 min. Girls reported longer sleep onset latency and a higher rate of insomnia than boys, while boys reported later bedtimes and a larger weekday-weekend discrepancy on several sleep parameters. Insomnia prevalence rates ranged from a total prevalence of 23.8 (DSM-IV criteria), 18.5 (DSM-V criteria) and 13.6% (quantitative criteria for insomnia). We conclude that short sleep duration, long sleep onset latency and insomnia were prevalent in adolescents. This warrants attention as a public health concern in this age group. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  11. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in a low socioeconomic status population

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    Pereira Carlos AB

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fibromyalgia, as well as to assess the major symptoms of this syndrome in an adult, low socioeconomic status population assisted by the primary health care system in a city in Brazil. Methods We cross-sectionally sampled individuals assisted by the public primary health care system (n = 768, 35–60 years old. Participants were interviewed by phone and screened about pain. They were then invited to be clinically assessed (304 accepted. Pain was estimated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Fibromyalgia was assessed using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, as well as screening for tender points using dolorimetry. Statistical analyses included Bayesian Statistics and the Kruskal-Wallis Anova test (significance level = 5%. Results From the phone-interview screening, we divided participants (n = 768 in three groups: No Pain (NP (n = 185; Regional Pain (RP (n = 388 and Widespread Pain (WP (n = 106. Among those participating in the clinical assessments, (304 subjects, the prevalence of fibromyalgia was 4.4% (95% confidence interval [2.6%; 6.3%]. Symptoms of pain (VAS and FIQ, feeling well, job ability, fatigue, morning tiredness, stiffness, anxiety and depression were statically different among the groups. In multivariate analyses we found that individuals with FM and WP had significantly higher impairment than those with RP and NP. FM and WP were similarly disabling. Similarly, RP was no significantly different than NP. Conclusion Fibromyalgia is prevalent in the low socioeconomic status population assisted by the public primary health care system. Prevalence was similar to other studies (4.4% in a more diverse socioeconomic population. Individuals with FM and WP have significant impact in their well being.

  12. The Prevalence of Palmaris longus agenesis among the Ghanaian population

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    Osonuga A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Background: Studies have documented the agenesis of Palmaris longus muscle in different populations but none has included the Ghanaian population. Methods: The study involved 226 subjects (130 females and 96 males who are students of the University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. The presence of the PLM was clinically determined using the Schaeffer’s test. Subjects in which the tendon was not visualized or palpable, two other tests were performed to confirm the absence. Results: The total prevalence of absence of PLM was 3.1%; absence on the left hand was commoner than on the right hand. The frequency of PLM absence was also slightly higher in females than in males representing 1.8% and 1.3% respectively. One female had the PLM absent bilaterally whiles a male subject had a trifid tendon on the right forearm with a bifid on the left. Conclusion: The prevalence of PLM agenesis in the Ghanaian population is lower compared to values coated in standard textbook on surgery. PLM is not diminishing as fast as observed in some population hence it is can be readily used as donor tendon by Ghanaian surgeons.

  13. Prevalence of obesity in Italian adolescents: does the use of different growth charts make the difference?

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    De Carli, Luca; Spada, Elena; Milani, Silvano; Ganzit, Gian Pasquale; Ghizzoni, Lucia; Raia, Melissa; Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Bo, Simona

    2018-04-01

    Since populations are becoming increasingly multi-ethnic, the use of local or international charts is a matter of debate. This study aimed to evaluate how the choice of cut-off thresholds affected prevalence of underweight (UW), overweight (OW), obesity (OB) in 1200 11-12-year Italian adolescents, and how their somatic growth depended on parental origin. The height, weight and body mass index were expressed as standard deviation score (SDS) using Italian (ISPED-2006) and UK (UK-1990) charts. The classification of UW/OW/OB was computed with the IOTF international cut-offs, and thresholds were identified as centiles corresponding to BMI values of 18.5/25.0/30.0 kg/m 2 at 18-year in ISPED-2006 or UK-1990 references. About 30% participants had non-Italian parents, above all from North-Africa and Romania. Referring to the UK-1990 charts, all groups showed negative mean SDS for height, and positive SDS for weight and BMI. Referring to the ISPED-2006 charts, all mean SDS were negative. Percentage of UW individuals was higher in accordance with ISPED-2006 than with UK-1990 charts, whereas percentages of OW/OB were higher with UK-1990 than ISPED-2006 charts. The results obtained using IOFT cut-offs were similar to UK-1990 cut-offs. These results were due to the different shape of age-dependent cut-off centiles. Independently by the parental origin, the percentages of adolescents classified as OW/OB were closer to the expected values using the ISPED-2006 then the UK-1990 cut-offs. The results suggested the use of the Italian references for adolescents with immigrant parents. The use of local charts seems more appropriate at least in Italian adolescents in the age range studied.

  14. Use of information and communication technology and prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautiainen, S; Koivusilta, L; Lintonen, T; Virtanen, S M; Rimpelä, A

    2005-08-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased among children and adolescents, as well as among adults, and television viewing has been suggested as one cause. Playing digital games (video, computer and console games), or using computer may be other sedentary behaviors related to the development of overweight and obesity. To study the relationships of times spent on viewing television, playing digital games and using computer to overweight among Finnish adolescents. Mailed cross-sectional survey. Nationally representative samples of 14-, 16-, and 18-y-old (N=6515, response rate 70%) in 2001. Overweight and obesity were assessed by body mass index (BMI). The respondents reported times spent daily on viewing television, playing digital games (video, computer and console games) and using computer (for e-mail, writing and surfing). Data on timing of biological maturation, intensity of weekly physical activity and family's socio economic status were taken into account in the statistical analyses. Increased times spent on viewing television and using computer were associated with increased prevalence of overweight (obesity inclusive) among girls: compared to girls viewing television or =4 h daily on viewing television. In girls using computer > or =1 h daily, the OR for being overweight was 1.5 compared to girls using computer games was not associated with overweight. Overweight was associated with using information and communication technology (ICT), but only with certain forms of ICT. Increased use of ICT may be one factor explaining the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity at the population level, at least in girls. Playing digital games was not related to overweight, perhaps by virtue of game playing being less sedentary or related to a different lifestyle than viewing television and using computer.

  15. Overweight and obesity prevalence among 5 year old children and 15 to 16 year old adolescents in Slovenia

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    Magdalena Avbelj

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the last twenty years a marked rise in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in developed countries was observed. Obesity in this age group is a significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. So far no comparative data on overweight and obesity in Slovene children and adolescents existed. In our study the data collected during preventive examinations of five-year-old and adolescents was analysed and guidelines for management of children with high body mass index (BMI were proposed.Methods: Using the methods of descriptional statistics the data on BMI of 4685 randomly collected five-year-old children and 2474 randomly collected adolescents aged 15–16 years were analysed. Data was collected in the years 2003–2005, evaluated according to the international reference values, and compared to other populations.Results: The prevalence of overweight among five-year-old children is 18.4% and 20.9% in boys and girls respectively. The obesity criteria are fulfilled in 9.0% boys and 7.9% girls. Among adolescents 17.1% boys and 15.4% girls are overweight and 6.2% boys and 3.8% girls are obese. These results indicate that the prevalence of obesity in Slovenia is similar as in other developed European countries.Conclusions: The study showed that obesity in childhood and adolescence in Slovenia is a problem that deserves more concern in medical institutions and on national level. Further research on reasons for this condition and new programs for stimulation of physical activity and healthy nutrition of children and adolescents are warranted.

  16. Forearm diaphyseal fractures in the adolescent population: treatment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truntzer, Jeremy; Vopat, Matthew L; Kane, Patrick M; Christino, Melissa A; Katarincic, Julia; Vopat, Bryan G

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric both-bone diaphyseal forearm fractures are commonly treated in a variety of clinical settings. Most often, closed reduction followed by immobilization leads to satisfactory results. However, in the adolescent population (10-16 years of age), forearm fractures are more challenging due to less remodeling potential. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the anatomy, biomechanics, and treatment options relevant to adolescent patients. A systematic review of peer-reviewed publications and abstracts related to the treatment for pediatric both-bone diaphyseal forearm fractures in adolescents was carried out. Forearm fractures in the pediatric population are most common following indirect blows to the forearm. When treating these fractures using closed reduction, it is important to recognize the muscular attachments of the forearm. In roughly 70-90% of cases, closed reduction leads to adequate alignment. In all cases, return to function is the primary goal; however, exact alignment parameters remain controversial. In the adolescent population, surgical treatment has risen substantially in the last few decades. Intramedullary nailing and open reduction using plate fixation are the two most common operative techniques. Unfortunately, recent results have shown that nonunion, malunion, and overall complication rates are higher in older pediatric patients. Moreover, no consensus exists regarding one technique over another. Both-bone diaphyseal fractures in the adolescent population present unique challenges regarding optimal treatment, especially when considering surgical intervention. Further research is necessary to better understand indications for specific surgical treatment.

  17. The British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Survey 1999: the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Tamsin; Goodman, Robert; Meltzer, Howard

    2003-10-01

    To describe the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders and comorbidity in a large population-based sample of British children and adolescents. Using a one-phase design, 10,438 children were assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), a structured interview with verbatim reports reviewed by clinicians so that information from parents, teachers, and children was combined in a manner that emulated the clinical process. The authors' analysis examined comorbidity and the influence of teacher reports. The overall prevalence of DSM-IV disorders was 9.5% (95% confidence interval 8.8-10.1%), but 2.1% of children were assigned "not otherwise specified" rather than operationalized diagnoses. After adjusting for the presence of a third disorder, there was no longer significant comorbidity between anxiety and conduct disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or between depression and oppositional defiant disorder. A comparison of the disorders in children with and without teacher reports suggested that the prevalence of conduct disorders and ADHD would be underestimated in the absence of teacher information. Roughly 1 in 10 children have at least one DSM-IV disorder, involving a level of distress or social impairment likely to warrant treatment. Comorbidity reported between some childhood diagnoses may be due to the association of both disorders with a third. Diagnoses of conduct disorder and ADHD may be missed if information is not sought from teachers about children's functioning in school.

  18. Prevalence of overweight and malnutrition among ethnic minority children and adolescents in China, 1991-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sifan; Zhao, Chunhua; Ma, Qinghua; Sun, Hong-Peng; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-11-24

    This study aimed to determine the trends in prevalence of childhood overweight and malnutrition in a large Chinese ethnic minority population from 1991 to 2010. In the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health from 1991 to 2010, multistage stratified sampling was conducted in the series of cross-sectional studies. Participants were 7-18-year-old students randomly selected by sex and region, and included Han and 26 ethnic minorities. During the survey period, the overall prevalence of overweight increased from 5.8% to 13.5%, and malnutrition trend increased from 3.6% to 4.1% in ethnic minority children and adolescents. Moreover, Korean and Mongol children were more likely than Han children to be obese (Korean: RR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.48-1.56; Mongol: RR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.20-1.28). Among these minorities, the Dongxiang and Li children were more likely to be malnourished (Li: RR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.37-1.57; Dongxiang: RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.34-1.58). Shui, Khalkhas, Lisu, and Monguor children were less likely to be overweight and malnourished compared with the Hans. The prevalence of overweight among ethnicities increased yearly while that for malnutrition has fluctuated over the past few decades.

  19. Prevalence of overweight and malnutrition among ethnic minority children and adolescents in China, 1991–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sifan; Zhao, Chunhua; Ma, Qinghua; Sun, Hong-peng; Pan, Chen-wei

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the trends in prevalence of childhood overweight and malnutrition in a large Chinese ethnic minority population from 1991 to 2010. In the Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health from 1991 to 2010, multistage stratified sampling was conducted in the series of cross-sectional studies. Participants were 7–18-year-old students randomly selected by sex and region, and included Han and 26 ethnic minorities. During the survey period, the overall prevalence of overweight increased from 5.8% to 13.5%, and malnutrition trend increased from 3.6% to 4.1% in ethnic minority children and adolescents. Moreover, Korean and Mongol children were more likely than Han children to be obese (Korean: RR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.48–1.56; Mongol: RR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.20–1.28). Among these minorities, the Dongxiang and Li children were more likely to be malnourished (Li: RR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.37–1.57; Dongxiang: RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.34–1.58). Shui, Khalkhas, Lisu, and Monguor children were less likely to be overweight and malnourished compared with the Hans. The prevalence of overweight among ethnicities increased yearly while that for malnutrition has fluctuated over the past few decades. PMID:27881845

  20. Prevalence and associated factors of dental erosion in children and adolescents of a private dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahás Pires Corrêa, Maria Salete; Nahás Pires Corrêa, Fernanda; Nahás Pires Corrêa, José Paulo; Murakami, Christiana; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2011-11-01

    BaCKGROUND. The prevalence of dental erosion seems to be rising in young populations, particularly among individuals of higher socioeconomic status. AIM. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental erosion in children and adolescents of a private dental practice. DESIGN. A total of 232 participants, aged 2-20 years, were examined. Dietary habits, oral hygiene, and medical data were collected from dental records. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS. Dental erosion prevalence was of 25.43% and was highest on the occlusal surfaces (76%). Associated factors were: frequent consumption of soft drinks (OR = 2.33; 95% CI = 1.01-5.38) and candies (OR = 3.23; 95% CI = 1.25-8.32); and interaction between these two factors (OR = 3.95; 95% CI = 1.60-9.75). On anterior teeth, associated factors were: frequent consumption of fruits (OR = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.09-5.91); and age (OR = 1.07 95% CI = 1.01-1.14). Milk consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of dental erosion (OR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.17-0.94). CONCLUSIONS.  A relatively high prevalence of erosion was found in association with frequent intake of soft drinks, candies, and fruits. The consumption of milk seemed to protect against dental erosion on anterior teeth. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among an urban population in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduka, Lydia U; Kombe, Yeri; Kenya, Eucharia; Kuria, Elizabeth; Bore, John K; Bukania, Zipporah N; Mwangi, Moses

    2012-04-01

    Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition accompanied by increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) linked to urbanization and lifestyle modifications. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of CVD risk factors whose extent in Kenya remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and factors associated with its occurrence among an urban population in Kenya. This was a household cross-sectional survey comprising 539 adults (aged ≥18 years) living in Nairobi, drawn from 30 clusters across five socioeconomic classes. Measurements included waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAGs), fasting glucose, and blood pressure. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.6% and was higher in women than in men (40.2 vs. 29%; P Kenya. The Kenyan government needs to create awareness, develop prevention strategies, and strengthen the health care system to accommodate screening and management of CVDs.

  2. Acne vulgaris: prevalence and clinical forms in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagatin, Ediléia; Timpano, Denise Lourenço; Guadanhim, Lilia Ramos dos Santos; Nogueira, Vanessa Mussupapo Andraus; Terzian, Luiz Roberto; Steiner, Denise; Florez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acne is a common disease in adolescents, but there are no epidemiological data for acne in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence and degree of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo and study socio-demographic factors, family history and lifestyle, associated with the disease. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 452 adolescents aged between 10 and 17 (mean=13.3 years), students from elementary and high school, examined by 3 independent evaluators. RESULTS 62.4% were female, 85.8% white and 6.4% were aged 14. The prevalence was 96.0% and increased with age - all students over 14 had acne. The most prevalent form of acne was comedonal (61.1%), followed by mild (30.6%) and moderate (7.6%) papular-pustular, which affected mostly the face (97.5%). About half of the adolescents reported family history for acne in mother or father, and 20.6% reported previous treatment for acne. There was a higher chance of presenting non-comedonal acne with increased age (pacne in adolescents varies widely due to the clinical features and diagnostic methods used. Adolescents whose brothers/sisters had acne (OR=1.7-p=0.027) and those over 13 (OR=8.3-pacne. CONCLUSION This study showed high prevalence of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo, predominantly the comedonal form on the face, with a higher chance of presenting non-comedonal acne with increased age. PMID:24937816

  3. Prevalence of Bulimic Behaviors and Trends in Eating Attitudes among Turkish Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun; Unver, Sibel; Sezgin, Emine; Unal, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    The eating attitudes and the prevalence of bulimic behaviors in a group of 300 late adolescents were investigated using the key questions from the Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE), and additional questions. Only four subjects (1.3%) scored above the cut-off point on the BITE, and prevalence rates of males and females were the same.…

  4. The prevalence of encopresis in a multicultural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, M F; Benninga, M A; Hirasing, R A

    2005-03-01

    Population-based studies on the prevalence of encopresis in children are scarce and generally outdated. Prevalence estimates based on clinical studies are unreliable because parents tend to be reticent to seek medical help for this problem. Professional help is necessary, however, because encopresis can lead to serious psychosocial health problems. The authors examined the prevalence of encopresis in children, the frequency of visits made to general practitioners for encopresis and the psychosocial health problems of encopretic children. This population-based study involved 13,111 parents and their 5- to 6-year-old children and 9,780 parents and their 11- to 12-year-old children, all residents of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The prevalence of encopresis was 4.1% in the 5-to-6 age group and 1.6% in the 11-to-12 age group. Encopresis was more frequent among boys and children from the very depressed areas of the city. Encopresis was less frequent among Moroccan and Turkish children. A defecation frequency of less than three per week was found in 3.8% of the 5- to 6-year-olds and 10.1% of the 11- to 12-year-olds with encopresis. Only 37.7% of the 5- to 6-year-olds and 27.4% of the 11- to 12-year-olds who had encopresis had ever been taken to see a doctor for this problem. Psychosocial problems were far more common among children with encopresis than among normal children. Encopresis is a common condition that is often associated with psychosocial health disorders but only a small proportion of the children with encopresis are taken to a general practitioner to discuss their problem.

  5. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study

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    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in seven Arab countries using similar reference standard. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in seven cities in Arab countries, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and United Arab Emirates. A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used. The total sample included was 4698 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years (2240 males, 2458 females. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF reference standard was used to classify the adolescents as nonobese, overweight, and obese. Results. Among males, overweight was highest among Kuwaiti adolescents (25.6%, followed by Jordanian (21.6%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. Among females, the highest prevalence of overweight was reported in Libyan adolescents (26.6%, followed by Kuwaiti (20.8%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. As for obesity, Kuwaiti adolescents showed the highest prevalence of obesity for both males (34.8% and females (20.6%. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to establish a plan of action to combat obesity in schoolchildren in these countries.

  6. Prevalence of Mobile Phone Dependence in Secondary School Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikhita, Chimatapu Sri; Jadhav, Pradeep R; Ajinkya, Shaunak A

    2015-11-01

    Mobile phones have become an essential part of modern human life. They have many attributes which makes them very attractive to both young and old. There has been an increasing trend of use of mobile phones among students. Data has now started emerging with respect to the negative physical and psychological consequences of excessive use of mobile phones. New research has shown excessive use of mobile phones leading to development of symptoms suggestive of dependence syndrome. To study the prevalence of Mobile Phone Dependence (MPD) in secondary school adolescents. Cross-sectional, observational study conducted in secondary section of English-medium schools at Navi Mumbai (India). Four hundred and fifteen students studying in 8(th), 9(th) and 10(th) standards of schools at Navi Mumbai (India) having personal mobile phone were randomly included in the study. Participant information like age, gender, family type, phone type, duration of use per day and years of mobile phone usage was recorded. They were administered an MPD questionnaire based upon the dependence syndrome criteria as per ICD-10. According to their responses, participants who fulfilled three or more of the diagnostic criteria were rated as having MPD. Mobile Phone Dependence was found in 31.33% of sample students. It was significantly associated with gender (p=0.003, OR=1.91, CI: 1.23-2.99), family type (p=0.0012), type of mobile phone used (pphone (pphone usage (p =0.004, OR=2.4, CI: 1.31-4.55). Mobile Phone Dependence has been found to be an emerging public health problem. There is need to recognize and identify early the growing trends and negative consequences of inappropriate mobile phone use in young users so as to generate awareness, and plan educational and treatment interventions, if need be, so as to prevent a major public health concern.

  7. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome in an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Mehravaran, Shiva; Shariati, Mohammad; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2014-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of dry eye syndrome in the general 40- to 64-year-old population of Shahroud, Iran. Population-based cross-sectional study. Through cluster sampling, 6311 people were selected and 5190 participated. Assessment of dry eye was done in a random subsample of 1008 people. Subjective assessment for dry eye syndrome was performed using Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire. In addition, the following objective tests of dry eye syndrome were employed: Schirmer test, tear break-up time, and fluorescein and Rose Bengal staining using the Oxford grading scheme. Those with an Ocular Surface Disease Index score ≥23 were considered symptomatic, and dry eye syndrome was defined as having symptoms and at least one positive objective sign. The prevalence of dry eye syndrome was 8.7% (95% confidence interval 6.9-10.6). Assessment of signs showed an abnormal Schirmer score in 17.8% (95% confidence interval 15.5-20.0), tear break-up time in 34.2% (95% confidence interval 29.5-38.8), corneal fluorescein staining (≥1) in 11.3% (95% confidence interval 8.5-14.1) and Rose Bengal staining (≥3 for cornea and/or conjunctiva) in 4.9% (95% confidence interval 3.4-6.5). According to the Ocular Surface Disease Index scores, 18.3% (95% confidence interval 15.9-20.6) had dry eye syndrome symptoms. The prevalence of dry eye syndrome was significantly higher in women (P = 0.010) and not significantly associated with age (P = 0.291). The objective dry eye syndrome signs significantly increased with age. Based on the findings, the prevalence of dry eye syndrome in the studied population is in the mid-range. The prevalence is higher in women. Also, objective tests tend to turn abnormal at higher age. Pterygium is associated with dry eye syndrome and increased its symptoms. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  8. [Smoking among adolescents: population study on parental and school influences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, A M; López, R; Serra-Batlles, J; Roger, N; Arnau, A; Roura, P

    2006-01-01

    Smoking represents a public health problem, one which begins during adolescence. The main objective of this study was to analyze the association between smoking and parental and school factors. The study sample consisted of the students from the 20 secondary schools in the region of Osona, Barcelona, Spain. A self-report questionnaire was used to obtain information on the following variables: smoking habit, age of initiation, frequency, type of school (state school or private-subsidized), sex, age, persons living in the home, town, whether the student had lunch at school, whether the student often had lunch or dinner alone at home. A total of 2280 students participated in the study (91%). Mean age was 15.5 years. Of the participants, 20% said they were smokers; 5%, ex-smokers; 34% had tried smoking at least once, and 41% had never smoked. Factors significantly associated with smoking in the multivariate analysis were age, rural town, state school, single parent family, eating alone, and not lunching at school. Smoking prevalence is high among adolescents in our society and there is no gender difference. Our results show that family structure and dynamics can influence smoking in adolescents. Smoking is less prevalent among adolescents who have lunch at school.

  9. Association between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche in different geographic latitudes

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    Mihas Constantinos

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age at menarche is considered a reliable prognostic factor for idiopathic scoliosis and varies in different geographic latitudes. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence has also been reported to be different in various latitudes and demonstrates higher values in northern countries. A study on epidemiological reports from the literature was conducted to investigate a possible association between prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche among normal girls in various geographic latitudes. An attempt is also made to implicate a possible role of melatonin in the above association. Material-methods 20 peer-reviewed published papers reporting adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and 33 peer-reviewed papers reporting age at menarche in normal girls from most geographic areas of the northern hemisphere were retrieved from the literature. The geographic latitude of each centre where a particular study was originated was documented. The statistical analysis included regression of the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche by latitude. Results The regression of prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche by latitude is statistically significant (p Conclusion Late age at menarche is parallel with higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Pubarche appears later in girls that live in northern latitudes and thus prolongs the period of spine vulnerability while other pre-existing or aetiological factors are contributing to the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A possible role of geography in the pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis is discussed, as it appears that latitude which differentiates the sunlight influences melatonin secretion and modifies age at menarche, which is associated to the prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis.

  10. Prevalence of developmental odontogenic cysts in children and adolescents with emphasis on dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst (keratocystic odontogenic tumor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nannan; Gao, Xing; Xu, Ziyuan; Chen, Zhuo; Zhu, Laikuan; Wang, Jinrui; Liu, Wei

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the incidence and prevalence of developmental odontogenic cysts in children and adolescents and compare the features of the two most common types, dentigerous cyst and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). A retrospective review in a series of 369 patients with all histological diagnoses of developmental odontogenic cysts in children (≤12 years) and adolescents (13-18 years) was conducted. Among these, 361 (97.8%) patients were diagnosed as dentigerous cyst (n = 281) and KCOT (n = 80), with the male-to-female ratios of dentigerous cyst and KCOT both being 2:1. The average age of the patients with KCOT was older than that of those with dentigerous cyst (14.7 years vs 11.8 years, p < 0.001). Dentigerous cyst (59.1%) was more common in children, but KCOT (78.8%) was more common in adolescents (p < 0.001). Dentigerous cyst (57.6%) predominantly located on the maxilla, but KCOT (60.3%) predominantly located on the mandible (p = 0.010). Adolescent patients with lesions located on the mandible would favor KCOT over dentigerous cyst. This study aids in better knowledge of the prevalence of developmental odontogenic cysts in a large pediatric population, and shows that a well-supported early diagnosis is indispensable for a more adequate treatment.

  11. The prevalence of weight – controlling attitude and eating disorders and their association with anthropometric indices in female adolescent students

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    mohamad hasan Eftekhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Adolescence is one of the most critical growth periods in the human's life. Eating disorder is one of the most common nutritional-psychological disorders in this period, which can lead to acute and chronic physical and mental problems. Therefore, regarding the importance of the topic, the present study was designed to determine the prevalence of weight – controlling attitude and eating disorders, and their association with anthropometric indices in female adolescent school students. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional descriptive analytical study. 594 high school adolescent girls were selected using multi-stage random sampling method. Nutritional attitude was assessed by use of a nutritional attitude questionnaire. Another specific questionnaire was used to gather demographic and anthropometric information. Data analysis was done using SPSS software, independent t- test and Chi-square (P˂0.05. Results: The information shows that 80% of the studied population are at risk of eating disorders. The number of the obese , over weight and underweight students were significantly more in the group with nutritional attitude disorders. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of eating disorders in adolescent girls, and the concomitant obesity and underweight with these disorders, the correction of these attitude could be mentioned as a health priority in this city

  12. The prevalence of dental anomalies in an Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, H Q; Constantine, S; Anderson, P J

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies within an Australian paediatric population using panoramic radiographs. This was a prospective review of 1050 panoramic radiographs obtained as part of a school dental screening program in suburban and rural New South Wales, Australia. Fifty-four (5.14%) patients had a dental anomaly present. Agenesis was noted to have occurred 69 times across 45 patients (4.28%), along with seven cases of impaction (0.6%) and three cases of supernumerary teeth (0.28%). Dental anomalies rarely occur in the Australian population, which possesses a wide-ranging multiethnic cohort. Despite their rarity, they can be incidentally discovered so identification and management by dental practitioners are important. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  13. Prevalence of Haemoglobine s in Araraquara-SP Population.

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    Bruno Rocha de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sickle Cell Anemia is a genetic hemoglobionopathy, characterized by an alteration in the hemoglobin molecule struture (HbA1, called hemoglobin S (HbS, which causes a distortion in the erythocytes structure, changing from spherical shape to sickle shape (sickle-cell, a sickling phenomenon, which leads to severe anemia in homozygous, while sickle cell trait (heterozygote leads to pain crisis, according to pathophysiology, in low O2 blood pressure situations. The most specific and sensitive test used to diagnose this anemia is the hemoglobin eletrophoresis test, which is, however, hard to be incorporated in routine laboratories, due to its high cost. The objective of this work was to estimate the sickle cell trait prevalence in Araraquara - SP population. The prevalence of asymptomatic individuals with the sickle cell trait was 1.5%. Considering the study of race prevalence, 0,6% of sickle cell trait in white individuals and 15,4% in black ones were found.

  14. Prevalence of insomnia in the adult Norwegian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallesen, S; Nordhus, I H; Nielsen, G H; Havik, O E; Kvale, G; Johnsen, B H; Skjøtskift, S

    2001-11-01

    A representative adult sample (18 years and above) of the Norwegian population, comprising 2001 subjects, participated in telephone interviews, focusing on the one-month point prevalence of insomnia and use of prescribed hypnotics. Employment of DSM-IV inclusion criteria of insomnia yielded a prevalence rate of 11.7%. Logistic regression analysis performed on the different insomnia symptoms revealed that somatic and psychiatric health were the strongest predictors of insomnia, whereas gender, age, and socioeconomic status showed a more inconsistent relationship. Use of prescribed hypnotic drugs was reported by 6.9% and was related to being female, elderly, and having somatic and emotional problems. Sleep onset problems and daytime impairment were more common during winter compared to summer. Use of hypnotics was more common in the southern (rather than the northern) regions of Norway. For sleep onset problems a Season x Region interaction was found, indicating that the prevalence of sleep onset problems increased in southern Norway from summer to winter, while the opposite pattern was found in the northern regions. The importance of clinically adequate criteria and seasonal variation in the evaluation of insomnia is briefly discussed.

  15. The Prevalence of Obesity in a Nigerian Military Population

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    Ezekiel Taiwo Adebayo Obashina Ayodele Ogunbiyi Ishiaku Baba Abdulkareem Nurudeen Ayoola Hussain

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Worldwide, obesity is increasing in prevalence, nearing epidemic proportions in the United States of America. Also, there are reports of rising prevalence in Africa. Obesity is an important aetiological factor for many non-communicable diseases. Recent anecdotal reports indicate that the prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and bronchial asthma is increasing among Nigerian military personnel; however, the rate of possible aetiological factors such as obesity is not known. Obesity can be evaluated using the body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and waist to height ratio (WHR. However, for epidemiological convenience and study within populations, the BMI is satisfactory. Methodology: A cross sectional study. Data of Nigerian military personnel�s annual medical examination conducted between January and March 2010 were retrieved to compute body mass index using World Health Organisation (WHO criteria. Results: 39.6% of personnel were overweight or obese. Most of these were aged between 30 and 39 years. While there were differences in the BMI of males and females, this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: To manage weight problems, focused health education, increased physical activity and nutritional advice are necessary. Modalities such as waist circumference should be added to annual medical examination of military personnel to improve the predictive value of the examination. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 313-318

  16. The prevalence of substance use among adolescents and its correlation with social and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakić, Dušica B; Rakić, Branislava; Milošević, Zoran; Nedeljković, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    BACKROUND/AIM: Adolescence is the period of greatest risk of starting to use substances: cigarette smoking, alcohol and illicit drugs. In the first decade of this millennium substance use among adolescents has increased. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of substances use among adolescents and its correlation with social and demographic factors. The study was conducted among adolescents in Novi Sad during 2010-2011 and included 594 conveniently selected adolescents (275 male and 319 female), aged 15-19 years. A special questionnaire was used and statistical analysis performed in SPSS17. The correlation between parameters was evaluated by the Pearson correlation method and frequency differences were analysed using χ2 test and starting level was p pocket money (cigarette smoking p pocket money weekly and good school performance are protective factors in prevention of substances use among adolescents.

  17. Lower Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis and Allergic Sensitization among Children and Adolescents with a Two-Sided Migrant Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Schmitz, Roma; Thamm, Michael; Ellert, Ute

    2016-02-26

    In industrialized countries atopic diseases have been reported to be less likely in children and adolescents with a migrant background compared to non-migrants. This paper aimed at both examining and comparing prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis and allergic sensitization to specific IgE antibodies in children and adolescents with and without a migrant background. Using data of the population-based German Health Interview and Examination Survey for children and adolescents (KiGGS;n = 17,450; 0-17 years), lifetime and 12-month prevalence of atopic diseases and point prevalence of 20 common allergic sensitizations were investigated among migrants compared to non-migrants. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the association of atopic disease and allergic sensitization with migrant background. In multivariate analyses with substantial adjustment we found atopic dermatitis about one-third less often (OR 0.73, 0.57-0.93) in participants with a two-sided migrant background. Statistically significant associations between allergic sensitizations and a two-sided migrant background remained for birch (OR 0.73, 0.58-0.90), soybean (OR 0.72, 0.54-0.96), peanut (OR 0.69, 0.53-0.90), rice (OR 0.64, 0.48-0.87), potato (OR 0.64, 0.48-0.85), and horse dander (OR 0.58, 0.40-0.85). Environmental factors and living conditions might be responsible for the observed differences.

  18. Prevalence of silent gastrointestinal complications in maintenance renal transplant population

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    Teplitsky Susan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the prevalence of silent GI complications within a stable renal transplant population and to investigate whether the conversion to enteric-coated myco-phenolate sodium (EC-MPS, Myfortic; would improve symptom scores. This was a single-center, open-label, non-randomized, prospective study. Patients without any history of GI com-plaints were evaluated by means of the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS, with subse-quent switch to EC-MPS in a group of patients. Silent complications were defined as patients who voiced no GI complaints at clinic visits despite a score of ≥ 2 on GSRS scale. A total of 236 stable patients participated in the trial. The prevalence of baseline scores ≥ 2 was relatively high with abdominal pain 29.66%, reflux 37.28%, indigestion 50%, constipation 58.47% and diarrhea 33.4%. Of 236 patients, 80 were converted to EC-MPS. There was statistically significant improvement on all scales in the subgroup of patients with GSRS score ≥ 2 (P< 0.05. In conclusion, the GSRS scale identified a high percentage of silent gastrointestinal complications in this renal transplant population. The converted patients with higher GSRS scores reported a sustained improvement.

  19. Prevalence of Eye Disorders in Elderly Population of Tehran, Iran

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    Afsun Nodehi- Moghadam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The decline of visual function with increasing age is a significant concern in elderly. Despite previous work on prevalence of specific ophthalmic pathologies, there has not been enough valid data about overall eye disorders in Tehran yet, and it is poorly defined and not underpinned by strong evidence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the common eye disorders in the elderly population of Tehran. Methods: A total of 392 elderly community residents aged 60 to 96 were enrolled. The 278 older adults referred to Tehran’s Polyclinic of 6th Region of municipality and 114 older adults referred to the health centers of 9th Region of municipality between 2013 and 2014 were examined. All participants underwent an extensive ophthalmologic screening examination including cataract, diabetic retinopathy of optic nerve, macular degeneration, and glaucoma. The prevalence of various eye disorders was calculated as percentages of the total study population and categorized by age and sex. Results: Of the 392 participants, 152 subjects (38.8% had no eye disease. Common visual impairments in elderly were cataract (39.3%, macular degeneration (11.5%, diabetic retinopathy of optic nerve (5.6% and glaucoma (4.8%. It has also showed cataract prevalence increased with age from (6.3% in the 60-64 age group to (47.6% for the patients 85years of age and older. Conclusion: Cataract is the most frequent eye disease in community dwelling older adults that should be considered at a younger age by health officials to provide preventive programs. Improving accessibility to surgery for the treatment of cataract among the old people will help diminish of untreated cataract that lead to visual impairment.

  20. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among Latin American adolescents: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, A C F; Musso, C; Graffigna, M N; Soutelo, J; Migliano, M; Carvalho, H B; Berg, G

    2014-03-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) and obesity is a well-established major risk factor for stroke and coronary heart disease. However, the literatures are scarce about these informations in adolescents from low-and-middle income countries. This school-based survey was carried out among students from Maringá (Brazil) and Buenos Aires (Argentina) selected random sampling. We studied 991 Brazilian adolescents (54.5% girls) in the age range of 14-18 years. In Argentina, we studied 933 adolescents (45.9% female) in the age range of 11-17 years. The outcomes of this study are general obesity, abdominal obesity and HBP. The associated factors analysed were gender, age and health behaviours. The prevalence of obesity was 5.8% in Brazil and 2.8% in Argentina, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 32.7% in Brazil and 11.1% in Argentina, the prevalence of HBP was 14.9% in Brazil and 13.5% in Argentina. The multilevel analysis showed that older adolescents (>14 years old) have a little likelihood of being overweight, whereas male adolescents are more likely to be obese and have HBP. The abdominal obesity in both indicators were not associated with the independent variables. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is high in Latin American adolescents independent of each country, and was associated with male gender.

  1. Prevalence of Sexual Experience and Initiation of Sexual Intercourse Among Adolescents, Rakai District, Uganda, 1994-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santelli, John S; Song, Xiaoyu; Larsen Holden, Inge Kristine

    2015-01-01

    : Sexual experience was more common among adolescent women than men. The prevalence of sexual experience rose for most age-gender groups after 1994 and then declined after 2002. Factors associated with higher prevalence of sexual experience (without adjustment for other factors) included age, not enrolled......PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to identify risk factors and time trends for sexual experience and sexual debut in rural Uganda. METHODS: Using population-based, longitudinal data from 15- to 19-year olds in Rakai, Uganda, we examined temporal trends in the prevalence of sexual experience...... and potential risk factors for sexual experience (n = 31,517 person-round observations) using logistic regression. We then identified factors associated with initiation of sex between survey rounds, using Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR; n = 5,126 person-year observations). RESULTS...

  2. Prevalence of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Among Children and Adolescents From 2001 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabelea, Dana; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Saydah, Sharon; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Linder, Barbara; Divers, Jasmin; Bell, Ronny; Badaru, Angela; Talton, Jennifer W.; Crume, Tessa; Liese, Angela D.; Merchant, Anwar T.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Reynolds, Kristi; Dolan, Lawrence; Liu, Lenna L.; Hamman, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Despite concern about an “epidemic,” there are limited data on trends in prevalence of either type 1 or type 2 diabetes across US race and ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE To estimate changes in the prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in US youth, by sex, age, and race/ethnicity between 2001 and 2009. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Case patients were ascertained in 4 geographic areas and 1 managed health care plan. The study population was determined by the 2001 and 2009 bridged-race intercensal population estimates for geographic sites and membership counts for the health plan. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Prevalence (per 1000) of physician-diagnosed type 1 diabetes in youth aged 0 through 19 years and type 2 diabetes in youth aged 10 through 19 years. RESULTS In 2001, 4958 of 3.3 million youth were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for a prevalence of 1.48 per 1000 (95% CI, 1.44–1.52). In 2009, 6666 of 3.4 million youth were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for a prevalence of 1.93 per 1000 (95% CI, 1.88–1.97). In 2009, the highest prevalence of type 1 diabetes was 2.55 per 1000 among white youth (95% CI, 2.48–2.62) and the lowest was 0.35 per 1000 in American Indian youth (95% CI, 0.26–0.47) and type 1 diabetes increased between 2001 and 2009 in all sex, age, and race/ethnic subgroups except for those with the lowest prevalence (age 0–4 years and American Indians). Adjusted for completeness of ascertainment, there was a 21.1% (95% CI, 15.6%–27.0%) increase in type 1 diabetes over 8 years. In 2001, 588 of 1.7 million youth were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for a prevalence of 0.34 per 1000 (95% CI, 0.31–0.37). In 2009, 819 of 1.8 million were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for a prevalence of 0.46 per 1000 (95% CI, 0.43–0.49). In 2009, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 1.20 per 1000 among American Indian youth (95% CI, 0.96–1.51); 1.06 per 1000 among black youth (95% CI, 0.93–1.22); 0.79 per 1000 among Hispanic youth (95% CI, 0

  3. Prevalence of Childhood and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity from 2003 to 2010 in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Gee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An observational study of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC BMI coding distributions was conducted to ascertain the trends in overweight and obesity prevalence among KPNC members aged 2–19 between the periods of 2003–2005 and 2009-2010. A decrease in the prevalence of overweight (−11.1% change and obesity (−3.6% change and an increase in the prevalence of healthy weight (+2.7% change were demonstrated. Children aged 2–5 had the greatest improvement in obesity prevalence (−11.5% change. Adolescents aged 12–19 were the only age group to not show a decrease in obesity prevalence. Of the racial and ethnic groups, Hispanics/Latinos had the highest prevalence of obesity across all age groups. The KPNC prevalence of overweight and obesity compares favorably to external benchmarks, although differences in methodologies limit our ability to draw conclusions. Physician counseling as well as weight management programs and sociodemographic factors may have contributed to the overall improvements in BMI in the KPNC population. Physician training, practice tools, automated BMI reminders and performance feedback improved the frequency and quality of physician counseling. BMI screening and counseling at urgent visits, in addition to well-child care visits, increased the reach and dose of physician counseling.

  4. Prevalence of asthma and allergies in 13-14-year-old adolescents from Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrais, M; Lulua, O; Quifica, F; Rosado-Pinto, J; Gama, J M R; Taborda-Barata, L

    2017-06-01

    The few epidemiological studies on asthma and allergic diseases performed in Africa have shown that the prevalence of these diseases is high or increasing. No such studies have been performed in Angola. To determine the prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases in Angolan adolescents. This was a descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study in the province of Luanda, Angola, using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study methodology in adolescents aged 13 and 14 years. Twenty-three (12%) public schools were randomly selected. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22.0 software. A total of 3128 adolescents were included. The prevalence of asthma (wheezing in the previous 12 months) was 13.4%. The prevalence of rhinitis (sneezing, runny or blocked nose in the previous 12 months) was 27% and that of eczema (itchy skin lesions in the previous 12 months) was 20%; both were more prevalent in girls. Rhinitis was associated with a greater number of episodes of night cough in adolescents with asthma. Rhinitis and eczema, a split-type air conditioning system, and frequent intake (more than once per month) of paracetamol were associated with a higher risk of having asthma. Asthma and related allergic diseases are a public health problem in adolescents from Luanda. Preventive and control measures should be implemented.

  5. Prevalência e fatores associados ao sobrepeso e à obesidade em adolescentes Prevalence and factors associated to overweight and obesity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Gomes Terres

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e os fatores associados ao sobrepeso e à obesidade em adolescentes de zona urbana. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional, realizado no município de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, de 2001 a 2002. Adolescentes entre 15 e 18 anos de idade foram medidos, pesados e responderam a questionário auto-aplicável. De 90 setores sorteados, foram visitados 86 domicílios em cada setor, totalizando 960 adolescentes. A prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade foi definida a partir do índice de massa corporal, mediante a utilização dos pontos de corte, ajustados à idade e ao sexo. Realizou-se análise multivariada com regressão de Poisson, considerando um modelo hierárquico das variáveis associadas ao sobrepeso e à obesidade. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sobrepeso e de obesidade foi 20,9% e 5%, respectivamente. A relação entre a obesidade e idade e escolaridade do adolescente foi inversa. Verificou-se associação de sobrepeso e obesidade com o relato de obesidade dos pais (p=0,03 e maturação sexual do adolescente (p=0,01. Os hábitos de fazer dieta e omitir refeições foram associados à obesidade, com riscos de 3,98 (IC 95%: 1,83-8,67 e 2,54 (IC 95%: 1,22-5,29, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade na região são preocupantes a despeito do comportamento dos adolescentes para prevenir a obesidade. É necessária a implantação de campanhas mais eficazes, direcionadas a orientar melhor os adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and factors associated to overweight and obesity in urban area adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in the municipality of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, between 2001 and 2002. Adolescents between 15 and 18 years old were weighed, measured and asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. Of 90 areas drawn, 86 dwellings were visited in each area, comprising a total of 960 adolescents

  6. Period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication usage among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Keith A; Sikirica, Vanja; Hodgkins, Paul; Zhou, Zhou; Xie, Jipan; DeLeon, Anthony; Erder, M Haim; Wu, Eric Q

    2014-06-01

    Stimulants are recommended as a first-line treatment for attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, a subset of the patient population augments their stimulant treatment with other medications. The objective of this study was to estimate the 1 year period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication use among children and adolescents with ADHD during 2009. Patients 6-17 years of age with one or more primary ADHD diagnoses between July 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009 and one or more stimulant prescription fills during 2009 were identified from a large United States commercial claims database. Concomitant psychotropic medication use, defined as 30 days of continuous medication supply overlap between the augmenting agent and stimulant, was evaluated for 14 distinct psychotropic medication categories (6 with a United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indication for ADHD, 8 without an indication for ADHD). The 1 year period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication use (both overall and within each medication category) was calculated and compared between patients with and without psychiatric or neurologic comorbidities. Children (6-12 years) and adolescents (13-17 years) were evaluated separately. A total of 71,201 children and 49,959 adolescents met the inclusion criteria. The 1 year period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication use among children and adolescents was 20.3% and 23.4%, with 5.7% and 6.7% augmenting with two or more medication categories, respectively. The most common concomitant medication categories were selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (children: 6.2%; adolescents: 11.4%), atypical antipsychotics (5.8%; 6.8%) and clonidine immediate release (5.4%; 2.9%). Children and adolescents with psychiatric or neurologic comorbidities had higher rates of augmentation than did those without comorbidities (all p<0.001). This epidemiologic study found that the prevalence of concomitant psychotropic

  7. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in adolescent inpatients diagnosed with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modan-Moses, Dalit; Levy-Shraga, Yael; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Kochavi, Brigitte; Enoch-Levy, Adi; Vered, Iris; Stein, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies assessing vitamin D status in adolescents with eating disorders showed inconsistent results. The aim of the current study was to assess vitamin D status in a large cohort of adolescent inpatients with eating disorders and its relation to bone mineral density (BMD) and depression. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels as well as BMD and depression were assessed on admission in 87 inpatients (aged 16 ± 2 years, females = 81) with eating disorders [anorexia nervosa (AN) = 64; bulimia nervosa (BN) = 5; eating disorders not otherwise specified-binge/purge type (EDNOS-B/P) = 18]. Mean 25OHD levels were 24.1 ± 7.5 ng/ml (25.0 ± 7.6, 25.4 ± 9.9, and 22.0 ± 9.9 ng/ml in patients with AB, BN, and EDNOS-B/P, respectively). Vitamin D deficiency (32 ng/ml, considered optimal by some experts. No associations were found between 25OHD levels and BMD or comorbid depression. 25OHD levels during winter were significantly lower than summer levels (p EDNOS-B/P type was low (-1.5 ± 1.1) and correlated with body mass index standard deviation score (p = .03). Adolescents with eating disorders show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Given the risk of osteoporosis in this population, 25OHD levels found in this group may not offer optimal bone protection. Vitamin D levels should be routinely checked and supplementation should be administered as required. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Prevalence of helmet use in children and adolescents in Germany and preventable bicycle-related head injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsche, J; Hintzpeter, B; Neuhauser, H; Schlaud, M

    2011-08-01

    Head injuries are the main cause of death in bicycle-related accidents among children and adolescents. According to a Cochrane Review, the risk of head injury (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.26-0.37) or brain injury (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.23-0.42) decreases by 69% if a helmet is worn. This study presents the prevalence of helmet use in cycling children and adolescents in Germany and the proportion of head injuries that could be prevented by wearing helmets. The potential effects of increased helmet wearing rates on the population attributable risk percentage for head injuries (PAR%) are demonstrated. The prevalence of helmet use in children aged 3-17 years was analysed using data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). The percentage of head injuries preventable by helmet use in this group is estimated by calculating PAR%. Prevalence rates of helmet use and odds ratios from a Cochrane Review about the effectiveness of bicycle helmets for the prevention of head injuries were used for analysis. The potential effect of increased helmet use is shown in 3 scenarios by means of differences of PAR% values in the most relevant age groups. The older the children, the less likely they are to wear a helmet: 89.5% (95% CI 88.0%-90.8%) of the 3- to 6-year-old children wear a helmet when cycling but only 11.0% (95% CI 9.3%-12.9%) of 14- to 17-year-old adolescents do. In the youngest group (3-6 years) 19% of bicycle-related head injuries are attributable to the non-use of helmets, but this proportion rises to 67% in the oldest group (14-17 years). The PAR% of head injuries associated with not wearing a helmet may be reduced by more than a third by increasing the helmet wearing rate to 67% (2 out of 3) among adolescents, and may be reduced to half if 75% of adolescents wore a helmet. Particularly older children and adolescents hardly use bicycle helmets, hence the rate of preventable head injury is high. Efforts towards increasing helmet use

  9. Prevalence of habit of tobacco and its deleterious effects in general population of Jaipur District, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vela Desai

    2012-01-01

    Materials and methods: A total of 552 patients who visited Outpatient Department of Jaipur Dental College, Jaipur, were studied. Complete information regarding presence of smoking and other forms of tobacco was recorded in case history proforma and any of tobacco-related oral lesions among these patients were examined. Results: In age group of 0.05 in 12.84% subjects, oral cancer was reported in 33 patients (p-value = 0.001 whereas smoker′s palate in 25 patients and OSMF being the most common. Awareness level about ill effects of tobacco was 51.10 %. Conclusion: High incidence of tobacco usage in smokeless form is seen in Jaipur population especially in adolescents. There were no significant findings found between males and females. Of all lesion examined, OSMF was found to be more prevalent. Therefore, it is important to take immediate steps to curb the habit.

  10. Prevalence of Weak D Antigen In Western Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi Sadaria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discovery of Rh antigens in 1939 by Landsteiner and Weiner was the revolutionary stage in blood banking. Of these antigens, D, which decides Rh positivity or negativity, is the most antigenic. A problem is encountered when an individual has a weakened expression of D (Du, i.e., fewer numbers of D antigens on red cell membrane. Aims and Objectives: To know the prevalence of weak D in Indian population because incidence varies in different population. To determine the risk of alloimmunization among Rh D negative patients who receives the blood of weak D positive donors. Material and Methods: Rh grouping of 38,962 donors who came to The Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion of Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from 1st January 2013 to 30th September 2014 was done using the DIAGAST (Automated Grouping. The samples that tested negative for D antigen were further analysed for weak D (Du by indirect antiglobulin test using blend of Ig G and Ig M Anti D. This was done using Column agglutination method in ID card (gel card. Results: The total number of donors studied was 38,962. Out of these 3360(8.6% were tested Rh D negative. All Rh D negative donors were tested for weak D (Du. 22 (0.056% of total donors and 0.65% of Rh negative donors turned out to be weak D (Du positive. Conclusion: The prevalence of weak D (Du in Western Indian population is 0.056 %, So the risk of alloimmunization in our setting due to weak D (Du antigen is marginal. But, testing of weak D antigen is necessary in blood bank because weak D antigen is immunogenic and can produce alloimmunization if transfused to Rh D negative subjects.

  11. Autism phenotype versus registered diagnosis in Swedish children: prevalence trends over 10 years in general population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Sebastian; Reichenberg, Abraham; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Gillberg, Christopher

    2015-04-28

    To compare the annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype and of registered diagnoses for autism spectrum disorder during a 10 year period in children. Population based study. Child and Adolescent Twin Study and national patient register, Sweden. 19, 993 twins (190 with autism spectrum disorder) and all children (n=1,078,975; 4620 with autism spectrum disorder) born in Sweden over a 10 year period from 1993 to 2002. Annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype (that is, symptoms on which the diagnostic criteria are based) assessed by a validated parental telephone interview (the Autism-Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities inventory), and annual prevalence of reported diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder in the national patient register. The annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype was stable during the 10 year period (P=0.87 for linear time trend). In contrast, there was a monotonic significant increase in prevalence of registered diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder in the national patient register (Pautism symptom phenotype has remained stable in children in Sweden while the official prevalence for registered, clinically diagnosed, autism spectrum disorder has increased substantially. This suggests that administrative changes, affecting the registered prevalence, rather than secular factors affecting the pathogenesis, are important for the increase in reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorder. © Lundström et al 2015.

  12. Prevalência de asma em adolescentes na cidade de Fortaleza, CE Prevalence of asthma among adolescents in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Gomes de Luna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de asma em adolescentes (13-14 anos na cidade de Fortaleza, CE. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal utilizando o questionário do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood e envolvendo 3.015 adolescentes de escolas públicas e privadas entre 2006 e 2007. RESULTADOS: As prevalências de "sibilos alguma vez na vida", "sibilos nos últimos doze meses" (asma ativa e "asma alguma vez na vida" (asma diagnosticada foram, respectivamente, 44,1%, 22,6% e 11,6%. As prevalências de "sibilos alguma vez na vida" (p = 0,001, "1-3 crises de sibilos nos últimos 12 meses" (p = 0,001; asma ativa (p = 0,002; "sono interrompido por sibilos menos que uma vez por semana" (p OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of asthma among adolescents (13-14 years of age in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 3,015 adolescents at public and private schools between 2006 and 2007. The participants completed the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalences of "wheezing ever", "wheezing within the last 12 months" (active asthma and "asthma ever" (physician-diagnosed asthma were 44.1%, 22.6% and 11.6%, respectively. The prevalences of "wheezing ever" (p = 0.001, "1-3 wheezing attacks within the last 12 months" (p = 0.001, active asthma (p = 0.002, "sleep disturbed due to wheezing less than one night per week" (p < 0.001 and "dry cough at night" (p < 0.001 were higher among girls. Private school students presented higher prevalences of "wheezing ever", active asthma, "1-3 wheezing attacks within the last 12 months", "4-12 wheezing attacks within the last 12 months" and physician-diagnosed asthma (p < 0.001 for all, as well as of "exercise-induced wheezing" (p = 0.032. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of asthma and asthma-related symptoms in students aged 13-14 years in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil, was high, predominantly among girls and private

  13. Prevalence and predictors of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in adolescent ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longworth, Brooke; Fary, Robyn; Hopper, Diana

    2014-09-01

    To determine any differences between the prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in ballet dancers who are girls compared with age-matched nondancers, and to establish if any relations exist between the presence of scoliosis and generalized joint hypermobility, age of menarche, body mass index (BMI), and the number of hours of dance training per week. Cross-sectional, matched pair study. Dance school. Dancers (n=30) between the ages of 9 and 16 years were recruited from a certified dance school in Western Australia; each dancer provided a consenting age-matched nondancer (n=30). Not applicable. Measurements were taken for angle of trunk rotation using a scoliometer (presence of scoliosis) and for height and weight to produce generalized joint hypermobility using Beighton criteria and an age-adjusted BMI, respectively. A subjective questionnaire regarding age of menarche and participation in dance and other sports was completed. Thirty percent of dancers tested positive for scoliosis compared with 3% of nondancers. Odds ratio calculations suggest that dancers were 12.4 times more likely to have scoliosis than nondancers of the same age. There was a higher rate of hypermobility in the dancer group (70%) compared with the nondancers (3%); however, there were no statistically significant relations between scoliosis and hypermobility, age of menarche, BMI, or hours of dance per week. Adolescent dancers, similar to adult dancers, are at significantly higher risk of developing scoliosis than nondancers of the same age. Vigilant screening and improved education of dance teachers and parents of dance students may be beneficial in earlier detection and, consequently, reducing the risk of requiring surgical intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acanthosis nigricans in obese adolescents: prevalence, impact, and management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng HY

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hak Yung Ng Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Tseung Kwan O Hospital, Tseung Kwan O, Hong Kong, China Abstract: Obesity in adolescence is a public health priority because it usually tracks into adulthood, resulting in enormous medical and social costs. This underscores the importance of early identification and intervention. Acanthosis nigricans (AN was once considered a rare paraneoplastic dermatosis, but is now frequently observed in obese adolescents. Current understanding suggests that it is associated with insulin resistance and has a unique role in secondary prevention. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide a comprehensive overview of AN in obese adolescents, covering its history, current knowledge on the condition, its clinical significance, management challenges, and the direction of future research. Keywords: Differential diagnosis, screening, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolically healthy obesity, behavioral weight management, pharmacotherapy, bariatric surgery

  15. Factors influencing the prevalence of animal cruelty during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, M.; Currie, Candace Evelyn; Lawrence, A.

    2018-01-01

    Adolescents’ interactions with animals are of increasing interest and their beneficial developmental outcomes are well known. However, negative interactions such as perpetrating cruelty toward animals during childhood and adolescence have been related with child abuse, domestic violence, and later interpersonal violence. Cruelty toward animals by adolescents has been reported predominately in criminal and clinical samples, and links have been made between animal cruelty and interpersonal viol...

  16. A STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF ANXIETY RELATED DISORDERS AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN RURAL KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Manuel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric problem in school going children worldwide. OBJECTIVE This study was done to find the prevalence and risk factors for anxiety disorders in adolescents in rural Kerala. METHODS A school based survey was done among children of 10 to 13 years using SCARED anxiety scale. Specific items in the SCARED scale were used to assess panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder and school avoidance, detailed assessments of various sociodemographic variables were also done. RESULTS A total of 250 children were studied – 147 girls and 103 boys. Anxiety disorders were found to be highly prevalent in the study population (45.6% affected and girls were disproportionately more affected (53.4% vs. 40.1%, p = 0.0389. It was present among all socio-economic strata. CONCLUSION These findings call for urgent remedial measures involving the students, parents, teachers, school management, policy makers and the media.

  17. Lifetime prevalence of sexual intercourse and contraception use at last sex among adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Kevin M; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Ash, Jerry; Zaidi, Ali N; Garg, Vidu; McBride, Kim L; Fitzgerald-Butt, Sara M

    2015-04-01

    Because of the increased risks associated with unplanned pregnancy for males and females with congenital heart disease (CHD), we investigated sexual intercourse and contraception use in these adolescents and young adults (AYA) and compared the same with national and state population data. We recruited 337 AYA with structural CHD aged 15-25 years (Mage = 19 years, standard deviation = 3.1; 53% male, 84% white) from an outpatient cardiology clinic to participate in a larger study assessing genetic knowledge and health behaviors. Cumulative lifetime prevalence of adolescent (aged 15-18 years) sexual intercourse was compared with the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System and the 2007 Ohio Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Cumulative lifetime prevalence of young adult (aged 19-25 years) sexual intercourse and contraception use at last sex were compared with the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth. Reported rates of ever having sexual intercourse, 26% of adolescents and 74% of young adults with CHD, were significantly lower than general population rates (47% and 86% respectively; p contraception at last intercourse, whereas 25% used dual effective methods and 23% used no effective method. Lower rates of ever having sexual intercourse in this population suggest that the psychosexual development of AYA with CHD may lag behind their peers. As nearly one in four participants reported using no effective method of contraception, health care providers should increase discussions of contraception with males and females with CHD. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in a county in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, I M; Simonsson, B; Brantefor, B; Ringqvist, I

    2001-06-01

    Overweight among young people in Sweden is increasing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of overweight and obesity based on body mass index (BMI) values among children and adolescents. Overweight was defined as a BMI value > or = 91st percentile and obesity as a BMI value > 98th percentile on an international reference BMI curve. The study population included boys and girls from four age groups: 9, 12, 15 and 18 y. The data consisted of self-reported measures of height and weight that were obtained from questionnaires used in a cross-sectional study in December 1997. A validation study was performed using a part of the study population. A total of 7011 (81.7%) participants completed the questionnaire. The correlation between self-reported estimations and objective measures of height and weight was high in the oldest age groups (0.88-0.98), but lower in the 9-y-old age groups (0.37-0.72). These self-reported estimations in the 9-y-olds were excluded from further analysis. It was found that 12.3%, 11.6% and 11.4% of the boys in the 12-, 15- and 18-y-old age groups and 6.8%, 5.5% and 4.8% of the girls in the same age groups were overweight and 7.9%, 8.9% and 7.3% of the boys and 5.1%, 4.2% and 3.9% of the girls were obese. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be high in the study population and is a serious public health problem. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher (p old boys living in rural areas than in city and town dwellers of the same age.

  19. [Diabetes and autoimmune diseases: prevalence of celiac disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mont-Serrat, Camila; Hoineff, Claudio; Meirelles, Ricardo M R; Kupfer, Rosane

    2008-12-01

    Determine the prevalence of celiac disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) in attendance in Instituto Estadual de Diabetes e Endocrinologia Luiz Capriglione (IEDE). Blood samples were analyzed in 120 children and adolescents with DM1 from IEDE Diabetes Clinic for the IgA antitissue-transglutaminase antibody and dosage of the seric IgA. Those with positive serology were guided for upper endoscopy with small-bowel biopsy to confirm the celiac disease. The antibody was positive in 3 of the 120 patients. The small-bowel biopsy was confirmatory in all of the positive patients, leading to a prevalence of celiac disease of 2.5% in the studied group. The prevalence of celiac disease is increased in children and adolescents with DM1 when compared with normality. As most are asymptomatic, it is recommended periodical screening of celiac disease in children with DM1.

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with depression symptoms among school-going adolescents in Central Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Nalugya-Sserunjogi, Joyce; Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Ovuga, Emilio; Kiwuwa, Steven M.; Musisi, Seggane; Nakimuli-Mpungu, Etheldreda

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression in adolescents constitutes a global public health concern. However, data on its prevalence and associated factors are limited in low income countries like Uganda. Methods Using a cross-sectional descriptive study design, 519 adolescent students in 4 secondary schools in Mukono district, Uganda, were randomly selected after meeting study criteria. The 4 school types were: boarding mixed (boys and girls) school; day mixed school; girls? only boarding school; and, boys? onl...

  1. [Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of public and private schools. Salta City, Argentina, 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelf, Susana Judith; Jubany, Lilian Laura

    2010-10-01

    South America is now at a stage of epidemiological transition, changing the condition of high prevalence of underweight and stunting, to a scene marked by increases in obesity that accompanies chronic diseases, such us cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Surveillance of risk factors associated with them is considered a priority. To establish the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in adolescents in public and private schools in the city of Salta, and observe the socioeconomic characteristics and presence of cardiovascular risk factors in parents. Cross-sectional design, adolescents aged 16 to 20 years of public and private schools. Anthropometric, biochemical, food, social, lifestyle and family history variables. Adolescents of private schools had higher average values of cholesterol, LDL and glucose. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in public schools was 15% and 14.2% in private, and of hypertension 11.3% and 12.2%, respectively. It was noted higher consumption of sweets, sodas and juices; 35.1% and 42.5% of adolescents in public and private schools, did not perform physical activity, 14.2% and 27.1% smoked and 66.2% and 54.7%, respectively, consumed alcohol at weekend. The prevalence of obesity in mothers of public school students was significantly higher. There is evidence of the emergence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in adolescents with different characteristics as belonging to public or private schools, but both groups involved in an unhealthy family environment.

  2. Differences in development and the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents in different socioeconomic status districts in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Shu-Rong

    2012-07-01

    There are wide-ranging differences in human growth, not only between ethnic groups but also between regions. Shandong is one of the most populous provinces in China, with inequalities of regional economic status. However, no studies on the differences in development among children and adolescents in different districts have been reported. This study assessed the differences in height, weight and prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents of different socioeconomic status (SES) districts in Shandong, China. Data for this study were obtained from a large cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren. A total of 42 286 students (21 222 boys and 21 064 girls) aged 7-18 years from 16 districts participated in this study. Height and weight of all subjects were measured and BMI was calculated from their height and weight. Prevalence rates of obesity and overweight were determined by comparing calculated BMIs (kg/m(2)) to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs. Each of the 16 districts was assigned an SES ranking (low, moderate, high) based on per capita GDP and income in urban and rural areas. Comparisons of height, weight and the prevalence of overweight and obesity among different groups were made. Significant differences between SES groups were observed for height, weight and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Boys and girls from high SES group were taller, heavier and more likely to be obese than their peers from moderate and low SES groups. The prevalences of combined overweight and obesity in the three SES groups were 18.46%, 21.08% and 27.31% in boys and 10.43%, 12.42% and 15.18% in girls, respectively. There have been obvious regional variations in development and the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents in Shandong, China, These variations in development and prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents among different SES districts being related to the local SES, process of urbanization, living environments, nutritional

  3. Prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in rural areas of District Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh

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    Vaibhav Jain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It is a phase of life marked by special attributes including rapid physical growth and development; physical, social and psychological maturity. Aims & Objectives: The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in a rural area of District Muzaffarnagar. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 210 adolescent girls and boys (10-19 years old selected using multistage random sampling technique. The subjects were interviewed & detailed information was collected on a structured and pre-tested questionnaire after taking consent from the subject/ parents. The clinical diagnosis was generated as per the criteria laid down in ICD-10. The data was entered in Epi Info statistical software package Version 3.4.3 and suitable statistical methods were applied. Results: The overall prevalence of psychosocial problems amongst adolescent was found to be 41.43%. Most of them had conduct disorder (40.51% males & 35.88% females followed by depression (30.38% males & 26.72% females. Conclusions: There are significant psychosocial problems amongst the adolescents. So, enough emphasis should be given to this component of adolescent health and thus it is recommended that a holistic approach to the underlying causes of psychosocial problems of adolescents should be undertaken.

  4. Prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in rural areas of District Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Jain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It is a phase of life marked by special attributes including rapid physical growth and development; physical, social and psychological maturity. Aims & Objectives: The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in a rural area of District Muzaffarnagar. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 210 adolescent girls and boys (10-19 years old selected using multistage random sampling technique. The subjects were interviewed & detailed information was collected on a structured and pre-tested questionnaire after taking consent from the subject/ parents. The clinical diagnosis was generated as per the criteria laid down in ICD-10. The data was entered in Epi Info statistical software package Version 3.4.3 and suitable statistical methods were applied. Results: The overall prevalence of psychosocial problems amongst adolescent was found to be 41.43%. Most of them had conduct disorder (40.51% males & 35.88% females followed by depression (30.38% males & 26.72% females. Conclusions: There are significant psychosocial problems amongst the adolescents. So, enough emphasis should be given to this component of adolescent health and thus it is recommended that a holistic approach to the underlying causes of psychosocial problems of adolescents should be undertaken.

  5. Contrasting adolescent female and male sexual aggression: a selfreport study on prevalence and predictors of sexual aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotboom, A.; Hendriks, J.; Verbruggen, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigated the prevalence of sexual aggression as reported by adolescent males and females in the Netherlands. Data were collected from a low-risk school-based sample (n= 219; 119 adolescent females and 100 adolescent males), a medium-risk school-based sample (vocational training)

  6. Comparative study of the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Imamura, Fumi; Chiba, Yasuhiko; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2009-04-01

    The present study examined the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents aged 15-17 years. Results showed that delinquent adolescents, particularly girls, more frequently reported histories of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse than non-delinquent adolescents.

  7. Underweight and overweight among children and adolescents in Tuscany (Italy). Prevalence and short-term trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, G; Rossi, S; Pammolli, A; Pilato, V; Pozzi, T; Giacchi, M V

    2008-03-01

    The recent increase in both childhood obesity and adolescent anorexia nervosa in developed countries has underlined the important consequences that these trends may have on public health, as there is an increased risk that these conditions may become chronic diseases in adulthood. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor prevalence rates and trends in thinness and overweight (including obesity) among children and adolescents at different levels: international, national and sub-national. Since 2001/2002, a nutritional surveillance system has been implemented in the Tuscany Region to estimate the nutritional status and lifestyles of children and adolescents. The main objectives were to assess the prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity among Tuscan children and adolescents and to provide baseline information on the prevalence of thinness, for the first time calculated according to the new international definitions, for geographical comparisons and descriptions of time trends. Independent cross-sectional sample surveys were conducted in 2002, 2004 and 2006 in Tuscany, North-Central Italy. Data were collected from stratified two-stage cluster samples of children aged 9 years (n = 3,048 in 2002 and n = 1,430 in 2006) and of adolescents aged 11-13-15 years (n = 1,066, n = 1185 and n = 1,160 in 2004 and n = 1,189, n = 1,211 and n = 1,178 in 2006, respectively). Weights and heights of primary school children were measured by means of standardized methods, while those of adolescents were self-reported. Decimal age was calculated from the date of birth to the date of measurement. Body Mass Index classes were calculated according to the International Obesity Task Force standards. Instead of the term underweight in children, we used the term thinness, which the World Health Organization uses to mean low Body Mass Index for age in adults and adolescents. According to Cole's recently published cut-offs for thinness, we divided our Body Mass Index values below 18.5 into three

  8. THE PREVALENCE OF DENTAL ANOMALIES IN A TURKISH POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Aren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies in a Turkish population according to the gender and age. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed using panoramic radiographs of 2025 patients (885 males and 1140 females ranging in age from 9 to 35 (mean age 25.61±10.04 years attending Department of Oral Radiology, University of Istanbul, Faculty of Dentistry. These patients were examined to determine the presence of developmental dental anomalies involving hypodontia, hyperdontia, microdontia, taurodontism and other root anomalies. The incidence of these anomalies were assessed according to the gender and age. Results: Among the 2025 subjects, a total of 96 individuals (42 males and 54 females showed at least one of the selected dental anomalies (4.74%. Tooth agenesis was the most common dental abnormality (1.77% followed by taurodontism (1.18%, hyperdontia (0.79%, microdontia (0.54% and root anomalies (0.44%, respectively. Conclusion: Tooth agenesis is the most common developmental dental anomaly in the studied Turkish population followed by taurodontism.

  9. The prevalence of dental anomalies in a turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aren, Gamze; Guven, Yeliz; Guney Tolgay, Ceren; Ozcan, Ilknur; Bayar, Ozlem Filiz; Kose, Taha Emre; Koyuncuoglu, Gulhan; Ak, Gulsum

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies in a Turkish population according to the gender and age. A retrospective study was performed using panoramic radiographs of 2025 patients (885 males and 1140 females) ranging in age from 9 to 35 (mean age 25.61±10.04) years attending Department of Oral Radiology, University of Istanbul, Faculty of Dentistry. These patients were examined to determine the presence of developmental dental anomalies involving hypodontia, hyperdontia, microdontia, taurodontism and other root anomalies. The incidence of these anomalies were assessed according to the gender and age. Among the 2025 subjects, a total of 96 individuals (42 males and 54 females) showed at least one of the selected dental anomalies (4.74%). Tooth agenesis was the most common dental abnormality (1.77%) followed by taurodontism (1.18%), hyperdontia (0.79%), microdontia (0.54%) and root anomalies (0.44%), respectively. Tooth agenesis is the most common developmental dental anomaly in the studied Turkish population followed by taurodontism.

  10. [Trends in educational inequalities in smoking among adolescents in Germany : Evidence from four population-based studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Benjamin; Waldhauer, Julia; Moor, Irene; Rathmann, Katharina; Richter, Matthias; Orth, Boris; Piontek, Daniela; Kraus, Ludwig; Zeiher, Johannes; Lampert, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In Germany, smoking prevalence among adolescents has significantly declined since the early 2000s. However, data show that adolescent smoking rates considerably differ between different types of secondary schools. The aim of our study was to examine how educational inequalities in adolescent smoking behaviour have developed over time. Data were used from four population-based studies (each consisting of repeated cross-sectional surveys from 2001-2015): the representative surveys of the Federal Centre for Health Education, the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents, the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study, and the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. Each study comprised different age groups (within the age range of 11-17 years) and used different smoking measures. Adolescents' educational status was based on the attended type of secondary school. Absolute and relative educational inequalities were presented as prevalence differences and prevalence ratios, respectively. Despite methodical differences, all four studies similarly reveal that adolescent smoking rates have significantly declined in all educational groups. However, lower smoking rates among secondary school students attending higher educational tracks could be observed. While absolute educational inequalities tended to decrease over time, relative inequalities between educational groups remained rather stable or even increased. Declining adolescent smoking rates suggest that smoking may have lost some of its attractiveness for young people. Our findings further emphasize the importance of tobacco control measures such as raising cigarette taxes, smoking bans, and increasing minimum legal age for tobacco purchase. As relative educational inequalities in adolescent smoking rates did not diminish over time, setting- and target group-specific interventions should focus more on students in middle and lower secondary school tracks.

  11. Prevalence of Discoid Meniscus During Arthroscopy for Isolated Lateral Meniscal Pathology in the Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Henry B; Wise, Kelsey; LaMont, Lauren; Copley, Lawson; Wilson, Philip

    2017-06-01

    Meniscus tears in the young patient are becoming more prevalent. Knowledge of presenting characteristics and morphology can affect treatment decisions. The purpose of this study was to review and evaluate all the isolated lateral meniscus pathology that required arthroscopic treatment in a pediatric sports medicine practice and compare presenting characteristics between those with a discoid meniscus and those with normal meniscal morphology. We performed a retrospective review of all isolated lateral meniscus arthroscopic procedures from 2003 to 2012 in a high-volume pediatric sports practice. Presentation, radiographs, and intraoperative findings were reviewed. The prevalence and clinical findings of a discoid meniscus in this population and among all age groups were compared with those with a meniscus tear occurring in a normal meniscus. Two hundred and sixty-one arthroscopies were performed for symptomatic isolated lateral menisci pathology. Of these, 75% were discoid in nature; the remainder was tears occurring in normal menisci. Ninety-six of 99 patients (97%) with lateral meniscus pathology under the age of 13 had a discoid meniscus and 66% presented with no injury. There was a transition within the population at 14 years of age, with a rise in the incidence of normal meniscal body tears. Even after this transition point, meniscal pathology incidence remained notable; 59% of isolated lateral meniscus pathology in patients between the ages of 14 and 16 years old were a discoid meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging criteria for discoid meniscus (3 consecutive sagittal cuts or coronal mid-compartment measure) were unreliable after the age of 13 years old. The ratio of complete to incomplete discoids in all age groups was 4 to 3. In conclusion, discoid menisci have a high prevalence in isolated lateral meniscus pathology requiring knee arthroscopy. Clinical presentation, imaging, characteristics, and treatment may be different among different age groups. In the

  12. E-Cigarette Prevalence and Correlates of Use among Adolescents versus Adults: A Review and Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2014-01-01

    Perceived safer than tobacco cigarettes, prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing. Analyses of cartridges suggest that e-cigarettes may pose health risks. In light of increased use and the potential for consequences, we searched Google Scholar and Pubmed in July of 2013 using keywords, such as e-cigarette and vaping, to compare differences and similarities in prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette use among adolescents (grades 6-12) versus adults (aged ≥18 years). ...

  13. Prevalence of overall and central obesity among adolescent girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... overall obesity determination was obtained between ... adolescents based on age and sex. Obesity ... general characteristics was obtained by a self- adminis- ... percentile for age and sex, 17WHR>0.80 or WHtR ≥. 0.50.18.

  14. Prevalence of overall and central obesity among adolescent girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no universally accepted criterion for classification of overall weight status and central obesity in adolescents. Several criteria have been used which include that recommended by Centre for Disease control, World Health Organization and the International Obesity Task Force. Aim: The study compared various ...

  15. Prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish populations: A reanalysis of dementia prevalence surveys, 1990-2008

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    Boix Raquel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish elderly. Methods We identified screening surveys, both published and unpublished, in Spanish populations, which fulfilled specific quality criteria and targeted prevalence of dementia in populations aged 70 years and above. Surveys covering 13 geographically different populations were selected (prevalence period: 1990-2008. Authors of original surveys provided methodological details of their studies through a systematic questionnaire and also raw age-specific data. Prevalence data were compared using direct adjustment and logistic regression. Results The reanalyzed study population (aged 70 year and above was composed of Central and North-Eastern Spanish sub-populations obtained from 9 surveys and totaled 12,232 persons and 1,194 cases of dementia (707 of Alzheimer's disease, 238 of vascular dementia. Results showed high variation in age- and sex-specific prevalence across studies. The reanalyzed prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in women; increased with age, particularly for Alzheimer's disease; and displayed a significant geographical variation among men. Prevalence was lowest in surveys reporting participation below 85%, studies referred to urban-mixed populations and populations diagnosed by psychiatrists. Conclusion Prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Central and North-Eastern Spain is higher in females, increases with age, and displays considerable geographic variation that may be method-related. People suffering from dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Spain may approach 600,000 and 400,000 respectively. However, existing studies may not be completely appropriate to infer prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in Spain until surveys in Southern Spain are conducted.

  16. The prevalence and correlates of suicidal behaviours (ideation, plan and attempt among adolescents in senior high schools in Ghana

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    Kwaku Oppong Asante

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is recognised as the third leading cause of death among adolescents globally. There is however limited data on the prevalence and factors associated with suicide particularly in Ghana. To explore the prevalence and risk and protective factors associated with suicide in Ghana, a nationwide Global School-based Student Health Survey data collected among senior high school adolescents in Ghana was used. The prevalence of suicidal behaviours was 18.2%, 22.5% and 22.2% for suicidal ideation, suicidal plan and suicidal attempt respectively. In the final analysis, anxiety increases the odds of suicidal behaviour, even after controlling for other variables. Loneliness increases the odds of suicidal behaviour but after adjusting for other factors the odds remained for only suicidal plan. Being bullied, physically attacked, involved in a physical fight and food insecurity remained risk factors for suicidal behaviour (i.e. ideation, plan and attempt after adjusting for other factors. Truancy was found as a risk factor for both suicidal ideation and plans but such effect diminished for suicidal plan after adjusting for other variables. Increasing number of close friends remained a risk factor for both suicidal plan and attempt but such effect diminished for suicidal ideation after adjusting for other variables. Parental understanding of adolescents’ problems and worries remained a significant protective factor for all the indices of suicidal behaviour after adjusting for other variables. Parental respect for privacy was protective of suicidal attempt but was not significant after adjusting for other variables. Early identification and intervention for at-risk adolescents in senior high schools, for example those experiencing different forms of physical abuse, drug and substance use and hunger can potentially reduce the prevalence of suicide among this population in Ghana.

  17. Prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among tea garden and general population in Dibrugarh, Assam, India

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    Tulika G. Mahanta

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: High prevalence of modifiable risk factors like tobacco consumption, high salt intake and high prevalence of hypertension indicates the need for early implementation of preventive actions in this population.

  18. [Prevalence of dyslipidemia in the rural population of Gueoul (Senegal)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiombiano, L P; Mbaye, A; Sarr, S A; Ngaide, A A; Kane, Ab; Diao, M; Kane, Ad; Ba, S A

    2016-04-01

    The cardiovascular risk factors are clearly increasing in developing countries. Among these factors, dyslipidemia is often found, this due to the change in behavioral and dietary habits (OMS, 2006). Dyslipidemia is a "primary or secondary pathological changes in serum lipids". It is a chronic and metabolic abnormality, characterized by persistently elevated TG, LDL-c, and a decrease in HDL (Attias et al., 2013-2014). The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia, and give the lipid profile of the population in Gueoul. We performed a comprehensive observational study, cross-sectional descriptive on Senegalese aged 35 or over, living in Gueoul for at least 6 months. Lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol) was systematically after 12hours of fasting. Dyslipidemia was found in 61.3 % of cases with 50 % pure hypercholesterolemia (n=705). Only 20 subjects (2.3 %) knew they had dyslipidemia. The detection rate was 59.8 % (n=844). The type most represented was hypoHDLemia (45.6 %) followed by hyperLDLemia (28.8 %). Triglycerides were increased in only 2.8 % of cases. The prevalence of dyslipidemia is very high in our regions. It is often associated with female gender, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Its main causes are physical inactivity, change in lifestyle and eating habits. It is often misunderstood and its management is limited in most cases to low-calorie diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. PREVALENCE AND GENDER CHARACTERISTICS OF OBESITY IN ADOLESCENTS IN THE CITY OF PERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Ahmedova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, there is a well-publicised worldwide increase in obese patients. The origins of adult obesity, in the majority of cases, are in children. Objective: Our aim was to study the prevalence and gender features of excess weight and obesity in adolescents in Perm. Methods: The study included adolescents aged 13–14, living in the city of Perm. Medical examinations were compared in statistics from 2005 and 2013. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured on all children. Body mass index was calculated, as was a standard deviation coefficient. Sexual development was evaluated according to the criteria of Tanner. Results: 828 adolescents were viewed (444 in 2005 and 384 in 2013. The prevalence of overweight adolescents in 2005 was 12.5%, including 3.1% who were obese. In 2013, 20.3% of adolescents were diagnosed as overweight, with 5.5% being diagnosed as obese. Abdominal obesity to type was diagnosed in 52.4% of obese children. Over the past 8 years, the number of adolescents who are overweight and obese has increased by more than half. A statistically significant increase has beenrecorded for overweight adolescents (ᵪ2 = 5,16; p = 0,023. In adolescents with excess body weight, growth rates were higher than in those children with either normal body weight or obesity; these differences were statistically significant in boys (p = 0.016. The total score of puberty in boys who were overweight was statistically significantly higher than adolescents with normal body weight orobesity (p = 0.0116. Conclusion: The percentage of children who are overweight and obese hasincreased by 74% and 67%, respectively over an 8-year period, resulting ina statistically significant increase in relation to overweight children. There was a significant increase in the number of teenage girls who are overweight.

  20. Prevalence rates of ADIPOQ polymorphisms in Indian population and a comparison with other populations

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    Sandhya Kiran Pemmasani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The adiponectin gene, ADIPOQ, encodes an adipocytokine, known as adiponectin hormone. This hormone is known to be associated with insulin sensitization, fat metabolism, immunity, and inflammatory response. Polymorphisms in ADIPOQ gene lower the adiponectin levels, increasing the risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Aims: The study aimed to calculate the prevalence rates of ADIPOQ polymorphisms in Indian population and to compare those prevalence rates with that of other populations. Subjects and Methods: Microarray-based genotypic data of 14 ADIPOQ polymorphisms from 703 individuals of Indian origin were used. Statistical Analysis Used: Frequency estimation, identity-by-descent, Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, Chi-square test of significance were used for statistical analysis. Results: Allelic and genotypic frequencies of ADIPOQ polymorphisms, Chi-square tests of significance for allelic and genotypic frequencies across various populations. Conclusions: East Asians are very different from Indians in terms of allelic and genotypic frequencies of ADIPOQ polymorphisms. Europeans have similar genotypic and allelic patterns with Indians. Admixture Americans and Africans also showed significant differences with polymorphisms of the Indian population.

  1. Depressive symptoms among children and adolescents in western china: An epidemiological survey of prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifei; Feng, Zhengzhi; Yang, Guoyu; Yang, Yaling; Wang, Kaifa; Dai, Qin; Zhao, Mengxue; Hu, Chaobing; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Keyu; Guang, Yu; Xia, Fan

    2016-12-30

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in a school-based sample of 7-17-year-old children and adolescents in west-central China. A large cross-sectional sample survey of 10657 children and adolescents was conducted in Chongqing, a municipality in west-central China. Data were collected from the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist (ASLEC) and social-demographic variables which were evaluated with a structured scale. The total prevalence of depression risk was 23.9%. The risk factors for depressive symptoms included age older than 12 years, grade lower than 10, having unmarried parents, being taken care of by people other than two parents (single parent, grandparent(s), other relatives, or others), and living in a low-income family. The pressures of health and adaptation, interpersonal relationship, and study were also strong predictors of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among children and adolescents in Chongqing of China is relatively high compared with most figures reported in other cities. There is an urgent need to develop efficacious interventions aimed at the prevention and early recognition of childhood and adolescent depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children and adolescents in Chennai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadesan, Sonya; Harish, Ranjani; Miranda, Priya; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Chennai, India, using national and international age- and sex- specific body mass index (BMI) cut-off points. The Obesity Reduction and Awareness and Screening of Non communicable diseases through Group Education in Children and Adolescents (ORANGE) project is a cross-sectional study carried out on 18,955 children (age 6-11 years) and adolescents (age 12-17 years) across 51 schools (31 private and 20 government) of Chennai. Overweight and obesity was classified by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF 2000) and Khadilkars criteria (2012), and Hypertension by the IDF criteria (in children ≥10 years and adolescents). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was significantly higher in private compared to government schools both by the IOTF criteria [private schools: 21.4%, government schools: 3.6%, (OR: 7.4, 95% CI:6.3-8.6; POverweight/obesity was higher among girls (IOTF: 18%, Khadilkar: 21.3%) compared to boys (IOTF: 16.2%, Khadilkar: 20.7%) and higher among adolescents (IOTF: 18.1%, Khadilkar: 21.2%) compared to children (IOTF: 15.5%, Khadilkar: 20.7%). Prevalence of hypertension was 20.4% among obese/overweight and 5.2% among non-obese (OR 4.7, 95%CI: 4.2-5.3, Poverweight and obesity is high among private schools in Chennai, and hypertension is also common.

  3. Prevalence of pathological internet use among adolescents in Europe: demographic and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkee, Tony; Kaess, Michael; Carli, Vladimir; Parzer, Peter; Wasserman, Camilla; Floderus, Birgitta; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Barzilay, Shira; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Cotter, Padraig; Despalins, Romain; Graber, Nadja; Guillemin, Francis; Haring, Christian; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Mandelli, Laura; Marusic, Dragan; Mészáros, Gergely; Musa, George J; Postuvan, Vita; Resch, Franz; Saiz, Pilar A; Sisask, Merike; Varnik, Airi; Sarchiapone, Marco; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Danuta

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of pathological internet use (PIU) and maladaptive internet use (MIU) among adolescents in 11 European countries in relation to demographic, social factors and internet accessibility. Cross-sectional survey. The 7th Framework European Union (EU) funded project, Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE), is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating interventions for risk behaviours among adolescents in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain, with Sweden serving as the coordinating centre. A total of 11 956 adolescents (female/male: 6731/5225; mean age: 14.9 ± 0.89) recruited from randomly selected schools within the 11 study sites. Internet users were classified by gender into three categories: adaptive, maladaptive and pathological, based on their score in the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction (YDQ). The overall prevalence of PIU was 4.4%; it was higher among males than females (5.2% versus 3.8%) and differed between countries (χ(2)  = 309.98; d.f. = 20; P Internet Addiction yields a prevalence of 'pathological internet use' of 4.4% among adolescents, but varies by country and gender; adolescents lacking emotional and psychological support are at highest risk. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Prevalence of headache in adolescents and association with use of computer and videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Michelle Katherine Andrade; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Silva, Georgia Rodrigues Reis; Oliveira, Valéria Mayaly Alves de; Beltrão, Natália Barros; Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato de

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of headache in adolescents and its association with excessive use of electronic devices and games. The sample comprised 954 adolescents of both sexes (14 to 19 years) who answered a questionnaire about use of computers and electronic games, presence of headache and physical activity. The binary and multinomial logistic regression, with significance level of 5% was used for inferential analysis. The prevalence of headache was 80.6%. The excessive use of electronics devices proved to be a risk factor (OR = 1.21) for headache. Subjects aged between 14 and 16 years were less likely to report headache (OR = 0.64). Regarding classification, 17.9% of adolescents had tension-type headache, 19.3% had migraine and 43.4% other types of headache. The adolescents aged form 14 to 16 years had lower chance (OR ≤ 0.68) to report the tension-type headache and other types of headache. The excessive use of digital equipment, electronic games and attending the third year of high school proved to be risk factors for migraine-type development (OR ≥ 1.84). There was a high prevalence of headache in adolescents and high-time use of electronic devices. We observed an association between excessive use of electronic devices and the presence of headache, and this habit is considered a risk factor, especially for the development of migraine-type.

  5. Resident and parental perceptions of adolescent problems and family communications in a low socioeconomic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, L E; Shear, C L; Stark, A M; Goodman, P R

    1984-11-01

    This cross-sectional survey of a low socioeconomic patient group was designed to determine the prevalence and severity of parentally perceived behavioral problems in adolescents as well as to investigate the correlation between such problems and single parenting, family communications, and medical care delivered. The sample population consisted of 79 parents and 121 teenagers selected from a family practice center. The medical record and telephone interview were the sources of information. Results include a parental perception of a high prevalence of problems with school grades (48 percent), school attendance (38 percent), and household problems (chores and sibling rivalry). Of low prevalence but high severity were perceived problems related to suicidal ideation, running away, sexual activity, and gang membership. Single-parent homes had a threefold higher incidence of behavioral problems, a greater degree of communication, and a lower use of community resources than two-parent families. None of the approximately 400 perceived behavioral problems listed by parents was found in the family physicians' master problem list. The results indicate the need for physician education of low socioeconomic and single-parent patients with regard to communication and coping style. In addition, it appears that training programs should provide more education in the care of adolescents.

  6. Prevalence of xerostomia in an adolescent inpatient psychiatric clinic: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manvir; Himadi, Elaine; Chi, Donald L

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents with psychiatric conditions may be at risk for xerostomia. In this preliminary study, we estimated xerostomia prevalence in adolescents ages 9 to 17 years from an inpatient psychiatric clinic (N = 25) and examined whether: (1) gender and age were associated with xerostomia and (2) xerostomia was associated with self-reported cavities. We used a modified 11-item Xerostomia Index to identify xerostomia (no/yes) and asked if adolescents ever had or currently have cavities (no/yes). The mean age was 14 years (SD = 2.3) and 72% were male. Sixty percent reported xerostomia (SD = 50). There were no significant associations between xerostomia and gender (p = 0.99) or age (p = 0.66), or between xerostomia and past (p = 0.26) or current cavities (p = 0.11). Larger proportions of adolescents with xerostomia reported previous and current cavities. Sixty percent of adolescents from an inpatient psychiatric clinic reported having xerostomia, which may lead to increased caries risk over time. Additional research should examine the prevalence and consequences of xerostomia in high-risk adolescents. © 2015 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The prevalence of self-reported deliberate self harm in Irish adolescents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morey, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self harm is major public health problem, in particular among young people. Although several studies have addressed the prevalence of deliberate self harm among young people in the community, little is known about the extent to which deliberate self harm comes to the attention of medical services, the self harm methods used and the underlying motives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the methods, motives and help seeking behaviour associated with this behaviour. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was administered in 39 schools in the Southern area of the Health Service Executive, Ireland. Of the 4,583 adolescents aged 15-17 years who were invited to participate in the survey, 3,881 adolescents took part (response: 85%). RESULTS: A lifetime history of DSH was reported by 9.1% (n = 333) of the adolescents. DSH was more common among females (13.9%) than males (4.3%). Self cutting (66.0%) and overdose (35.2%) were the most common DSH methods. A minority of participants accessed medical services after engaging in DSH (15.3%). CONCLUSION: DSH is a significant problem in Irish adolescents and the vast majority do not come to the attention of health services. Innovative solutions for prevention and intervention are required to tackle DSH in adolescents.

  8. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and its predictors among school going adolescents of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgesh Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarettes smoking is a common mode of consuming tobacco in India. This habit usually starts in adolescence and tracks across the life course. Interventions like building decision making skills and resisting negative influences are effective in reducing the initiation and level of tobacco use. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of adolescent current cigarette smoking behavior and to investigate the individual and social factors, which influence them both to and not to smoke. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out among school going adolescents in Shimla town of North India. After obtaining their written informed consent, a questionnaire was administered. Results: The overall prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 11.8%. The binary logistic regression model revealed that parents′ and peers′ smoking behavior influence adolescent smoking behavior. Individual self-harm tendency also significantly predicted cigarette smoking behavior. Parental active participation in keeping a track of their children′s free time activities predicted to protect adolescents from taking this habit. Conclusion: Our research lends support to the need for intervention on restricting adolescents from taking up this habit and becoming another tobacco industries′ addicted customer. Parents who smoke should quit this habit, which will not only restore their own health, but also protect their children. All parents should be counseled to carefully observe their children′s free time activities.

  9. Social Phobia and Subtypes in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement: Prevalence, Correlates, and Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; He, Jian-Ping; Kattan, Gabriela; Albano, Anne Marie; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Social phobia typically develops during the adolescent years, yet no nationally representative studies in the United States have examined the rates and features of this condition among youth in this age range. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) present the lifetime prevalence, sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and…

  10. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Blantyre City, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, A S

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive airways disease and several cancers. There is little data about the prevalence and determinants of smoking among adolescents in southern Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Blantyre City, Malawi. Cross-sectional data were obtained from school-going adolescents in Blantyre in 2001 using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey data collection instrument. Data were analysed to determine prevalence of current and ever cigarette smoking, and predictors of smoking. The prevalence of current smoking and ever smoking were 3.0% and 15.6%, respectively. Predictors of current tobacco smoking included male gender, having friends or parents who smoked, having been exposed to advertisements about tobacco brands on television and having seen a lot of advertisements in newspapers and magazines. School programmes that included being taught about smoking in class and a class discussion on the dangers of tobacco were not associated with reduced current smoking. Intervention programmes aiming to curb tobacco smoking among adolescents should focus on dealing also with parental smoking, peer influence and pay special attention toward male gender. School-based programmes to prevent smoking should be evaluated as some may have little impact in influencing current smoking status.

  11. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in adolescents and association with computer and videogame use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Rodrigues Reis Silva

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: A high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in adolescents, as well as an increased amount of time using digital devices was observed. However, it was only possible to observe an association between the increased use of these devices and the presence of cervical and low back pain.

  12. Prevalence and predictors of severe hypoglycemia in Danish children and adolescents with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Kanijo, B; Fredheim, S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of severe hypoglycemia in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to pinpoint predictors of this acute complication in children on modern treatment modalities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study is based on data from DanDiabKids...

  13. Behavior change stages related to physical activity in adolescents from Santa Catarina: prevalence and associated factors

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    Jaqueline Aragoni da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Verify the prevalence and sociodemographic and economic factors associated with behavior change stages for habitual physical activity practice in adolescents from Santa Catarina. Methods: Secondary analysis of a study on the Behavior of Adolescents from Santa Catarina (CompAC 2. Cross-sectional school-based study of 6,529 high-school students (males, n=2,903 from the state of Santa Catarina public education system in 2011, aged 15 to 19 years. Multinomial logistic regression (crude and adjusted was used to measure the association. Results: The highest and lowest prevalence rates were found in the maintenance (43.9% and precontemplation stages (7.0%, respectively. The stages of action, preparation and contemplation showed similar results: 16.2%; 17.0% and 15.6%; respectively. Male adolescents show higher prevalence in the maintenance stage in relation to females and these show a higher prevalence in preparation, contemplation and precontemplation. All the assessed variables (gender, age, area of residence, employment status, family income, maternal education and school grade, with the exception of school shift, were associated with at least one of the stages. Conclusions: A large proportion of adolescents are in the pre-adoption stages and most of these have the intention to start regular physical activity. With the exception of school shift, the assessed variables were associated with stages in different ways, showing different profiles in relation to sociodemographic and economic characteristics in each subgroup.

  14. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among preparatory school adolescents in Urban Sharkia Governorate, Egypt

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    Mohamed A Talat

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: This study found a relatively high prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents aged 12–15 years in urban Sharkia Governorate. Risk factors of overweight and obesity were low level of parent education, faulty feeding habits and physical inactivity.

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Dating Violence among Adolescent Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge of dating violence behaviors among adolescent victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), first, by determining the prevalence of psychological and physical dating violence and the reciprocity of violence, and second, by investigating the influence of certain CSA characteristics to dating violence.…

  16. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Anemia in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chien, Wu-Chien; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Wu, Chia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Anemia is known to be a significant public health problem in many countries. Most of the available information is incomplete or limited to special groups such as people with intellectual disability. The present study aims to provide the information of anemia prevalence and associated risk factors of children and adolescents with intellectual…

  17. Prevalence and Predictors of PTSD and Depression among Adolescent Victims of the Spring 2011 Tornado Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zachary W.; Sumner, Jennifer A.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Grös, Kirstin; Paul, Lisa A.; Welsh, Kyleen E.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relatively few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episode (MDE) in disaster-affected adolescents. Fewer still have administered diagnostic measures or studied samples exposed to tornadoes, a common type of disaster. Further, methodologic problems limit the…

  18. Comorbid Depression and Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: Prevalence and Implications for Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Elizabeth K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Comorbid conditions are common in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and can raise issues for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning. Methods: First, reported prevalence rates for depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with AN were reviewed. Diagnostic issues and current understanding of the temporal onset and…

  19. The Prevalence of Cyberbullying among Adolescents: A Case Study of Middle Schools in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic-Citic, Branislava; Djuric, Sladjana; Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Cyberbullying has become widespread, and is generating growing concerns as it affects students and school climates in general. The objective of this article is to investigate the prevalence of cyberbullying among Serbian adolescents. Special emphasis was placed on gender differences regarding different forms of cyberbullying and victimization. In…

  20. Trend Analysis of Bullying Victimization Prevalence in Spanish Adolescent Youth at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Queija, Inmaculada; García-Moya, Irene; Moreno, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Background: We analyze trends in bullying victimization prevalence in a representative sample of Spanish adolescent schoolchildren in 2006, 2010, and 2014. Methods: We distinguish between reported bullying, which is assessed via the global question in the Revised Bully/Victim Questionnaire by Olweus, and observed bullying, which is a measure…

  1. Higher Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Adolescent and Young Adult Girls Belonging to Different Indian Tribes with Varied Socio-Sexual Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kirti; Kathait, Atul; Jain, Asha; Kujur, Karmila; Raghuwanshi, Shirish; Bharti, Alok Chandra; Saklani, Asha Chandola; Das, Bhudev Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer in Indian women, no study has been done in tribal populations whose socio-sexual lifestyle is different. Therefore, HPV screening has been carried out in pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adult tribal girls using self-collected urine samples. Methods 20–35 ml self-collected midstream urine samples were obtained from a total of 2278 healthy tribal girls (9–25 years) comprising pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adults from three Indian states: Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. β-globin positive 2034 samples were employed for HPV detection and genotyping. Results The overall prevalence of HPV infection in tribal girls was 12.9% (262/2034). More than 65% (172/262) of them were infected with HR-HPV types of which HPV16 was the most predominant type (54%). Young adult girls aged 18–25 years showed a significantly higher prevalence of HPV infection (19.2%; OR = 3.36; 95% CI 2.97–6.34, P<0.001) as compared to that in adolescent (11.4%; OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.20–2.76, P<0.01) or pre-adolescent girls (6.6%). Conclusion This is a first study showing significantly a very high prevalence of HPV infection in adolescent and young adult tribal girls possibly due to different socio-sexual behavior, indicating a serious health concern for Indian tribal women. PMID:25954813

  2. Body weight status of school adolescents in Terengganu, Malaysia: a population baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aryati; Zulaily, Nurzaime; Abdul Manan, Nor Saidah; Shahril, Mohd Razif; Syed Saadun Tarek Wafa, Sharifah Wajihah Wafa; Mohd Amin, Rahmah; Syed Abdullah, Engku Fadzli Hasan; Ahmed, Amran

    2017-01-05

    Body weight is highly associated with overall health status. Being severely thin or obese may impose the risk of many health problems. Early detection of body mass index (BMI) status may help to reduce the associated comorbidities. Although many studies in the literature have investigated the BMI of school adolescents in Malaysia, the data on status of body weight among school adolescents in suburban states like Terengganu is limited. This study aimed to describe the body weight status of the whole population of school adolescents in all seven districts in Terengganu, Malaysia. Using a cross-sectional study design, body weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated and classified using WHO BMI-for-age Z-score. Data was obtained using the National Fitness Standard (SEGAK) assessment, which was uploaded in a specific Health Monitoring System (HEMS). From a total of 62,567 school adolescents, 50.7% were boys and 49.3% were girls. Girls had significantly higher BMI than boys in age groups of 13 to 15 and 16 to 17 years old. Among boys and girls, there were significant differences in mean BMI of school adolescents between rural and urban school locations in all age groups (p < 0.001). There were also significant differences in BMI between boys and girls in all districts in Terengganu, except Kemaman and Kuala Terengganu, for all age groups (p < 0.001). Overall, the prevalence of thinness, normal, overweight and obesity were 8.4, 64.6, 15.0 and 12.0%, respectively. There were significant differences between BMI categories and genders in total participants, and within rural and urban school locations (p < 0.05). In all districts except Marang and Dungun, significant difference was also found between BMI categories and genders. The prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity in Terengganu were substantial. In this study, BMI category was associated with gender, age, school location and district. However, the actual effects of these factors on the

  3. Body weight status of school adolescents in Terengganu, Malaysia: a population baseline study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body weight is highly associated with overall health status. Being severely thin or obese may impose the risk of many health problems. Early detection of body mass index (BMI status may help to reduce the associated comorbidities. Although many studies in the literature have investigated the BMI of school adolescents in Malaysia, the data on status of body weight among school adolescents in suburban states like Terengganu is limited. This study aimed to describe the body weight status of the whole population of school adolescents in all seven districts in Terengganu, Malaysia. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, body weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated and classified using WHO BMI-for-age Z-score. Data was obtained using the National Fitness Standard (SEGAK assessment, which was uploaded in a specific Health Monitoring System (HEMS. Results From a total of 62,567 school adolescents, 50.7% were boys and 49.3% were girls. Girls had significantly higher BMI than boys in age groups of 13 to 15 and 16 to 17 years old. Among boys and girls, there were significant differences in mean BMI of school adolescents between rural and urban school locations in all age groups (p < 0.001. There were also significant differences in BMI between boys and girls in all districts in Terengganu, except Kemaman and Kuala Terengganu, for all age groups (p < 0.001. Overall, the prevalence of thinness, normal, overweight and obesity were 8.4, 64.6, 15.0 and 12.0%, respectively. There were significant differences between BMI categories and genders in total participants, and within rural and urban school locations (p < 0.05. In all districts except Marang and Dungun, significant difference was also found between BMI categories and genders. Conclusion The prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity in Terengganu were substantial. In this study, BMI category was associated with gender, age, school location and

  4. Bulimia nervosa in adolescents: prevalence and treatment challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hail, Lisa; Le Grange, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) is a serious psychiatric illness that typically develops during adolescence or young adulthood, rendering adolescents a target for early intervention. Despite the increasing research devoted to the treatment of youth with anorexia nervosa (AN) and adults with BN, there remains a dearth of evidence for treating younger individuals with BN. To date, there have been four published randomized controlled trials comparing psychosocial treatments, leaving significant room to improve treatment outcomes. Family-based treatment is the leading treatment for youth with AN, while cognitive-behavioral therapy is the leading intervention for adults with BN. Involving caregivers in treatment shows promising results, however, additional research is needed to investigate ways in which this treatment can be adapted further to achieve higher rates of recovery. PMID:29379324

  5. ANTERIOR KNEE PAIN AND LOWER EXTREMITY FUNCTIONS IN INDIAN ADOLESCENT POPULATION

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    Riddhi Shroff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Purpose - Anterior knee pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal complain seen in Indian adolescent population with high incidence among those who are active in sports and recreation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the age of onset of anterior knee pain, to find its effect on sports participation and also to find the activities which are maximally affected due to anterior knee pain in Indian population. Method- A questionnaire based survey was conducted among 50 subjects using three outcome measures namely self made demographic questionnaire, anterior knee pain scale and lower extremity functional scale. Result- Maximally affected activities are running, jumping & squatting and maximally affected functions are squatting, running on uneven ground, making sharp turns while running and hopping with increase incidence of anterior knee pain among those who participate daily in sports. Conclusion- The study concluded, that in adolescent age group of 11-17 years, anterior knee pain is more prevalent in adolescent girls with the age of onset being around 13 years for girls & 14.5 years in boys and it also showed moderate positive correlation between anterior knee pain and lower extremity functions.

  6. Child maltreatment in Germany: prevalence rates in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Andreas; Brown, Rebecca C; Plener, Paul L; Brähler, Elmar; Fegert, Jörg M

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment and its consequences are considered a major public health problem. So far, there is only one study from Germany reporting prevalence rates on different types of maltreatment. A representative sample of the German general population was examined for experiences of child maltreatment using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) between September and November 2016. A total of 2510 (53.3% female) participants between 14 and 94 years (M = 48.8 years) were enrolled. Besides the CTQ, a range of sociodemographic information was collected. The interrelatedness of different types of maltreatment was examined using configuration analysis and predictors for maltreatment were identified by performing binary logistic regression analyses. Overall, 2.6% (f: 3.9%, m: 1.2%) of all participants reported severe emotional abuse, 3.3% (f: 3.4%, m: 3.3%) severe physical abuse, 2.3% (f: 3.7%, m: 0.7%) severe sexual abuse, 7.1% (f: 8.1%, m: 5.9%) severe emotional neglect and 9% (f: 9.2%, m: 8.9%) severe physical neglect. Women were more likely to report at least moderate sexual and emotional abuse than men. The largest difference between age groups was reported for physical neglect, with participants aged over 70 years reporting the highest rates. Participants who reported childhood maltreatment were more likely to be unemployed or have lower educational outcomes. The most common combination of maltreatment types were physical and emotional neglect, all five types of maltreatment combined and physical and emotional neglect and physical abuse combined. Child maltreatment, especially physical neglect is common in the German population. Women seem to be at greater risk for sexual and emotional abuse than men. Knowledge about different types of maltreatment based on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) can help to put findings of future studies into an epidemiological and societal context.

  7. Social Anxiety Disorder in Swedish Adolescents : Prevalence, Victimization & Development

    OpenAIRE

    Green-Landell, Malin

    2010-01-01

    Human beings are social creatures. Accordingly, fear of social situations can be severely disabling. Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by excessive fear of negative evaluation in social or performance situations. SAD has an early onset and often goes undetected an untreated. Descriptive studies on non‐clinical samples are required in order to find ways to prevent SAD and associated consequences. This thesis aimed at examining epidemiological variables of SAD in adolescence which ...

  8. Prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorders: a chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tybor David J

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The condition of obesity has become a significant public health problem in the United States. In children and adolescents, the prevalence of overweight has tripled in the last 20 years, with approximately 16.0% of children ages 6–19, and 10.3% of 2–5 year olds being considered overweight. Considerable research is underway to understand obesity in the general pediatric population, however little research is available on the prevalence of obesity in children with developmental disorders. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of overweight among a clinical population of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Methods Retrospective chart review of 140 charts of children ages 3–18 years seen between 1992 and 2003 at a tertiary care clinic that specializes in the evaluation and treatment of children with developmental, behavioral, and cognitive disorders. Diagnostic, medical, and demographic information was extracted from the charts. Primary diagnoses of either ADHD or ASD were recorded, as was information on race/ethnicity, age, gender, height, and weight. Information was also collected on medications that the child was taking. Body mass index (BMI was calculated from measures of height and weight recorded in the child's chart. The Center for Disease Control's BMI growth reference was used to determine an age- and gender-specific BMI z-score for the children. Results The prevalence of at-risk-for-overweight (BMI >85th%ile and overweight (BMI > 95th%ile was 29% and 17.3% respectively in children with ADHD. Although the prevalence appeared highest in the 2–5 year old group (42.9%ile, differences among age groups were not statistically significant. Prevalence did not differ between boys and girls or across age groups (all p > 0.05. For children with ASD, the overall prevalence of at-risk-for-overweight was 35.7% and prevalence of overweight

  9. PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC CO-RELATES OF ADOLESCENT HYPERTENSION IN DISTRICT GHAZIABAD

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    Gajendra Kumar Gupta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a chronic condition of concern due to its role in the causation of coronary heart disease, stroke and other  complications. It is one of the major risk factors for cardio-vascular mortality accounting for 20-50% of all deaths. Children with higher blood pressure tend to maintain those levels during adulthood also. Objectives:  Assess the prevalence of hypertension in adolescents (11-18 years, its risk factors and their socio-demographic co-relates. Material and Method:  Prevalence of adolescent hypertension in previous studies was 7% and the sample size accordingly came to be 1314 with a relative precision of 20%. Multistage sampling technique was used. Half each of the sample size was covered in urban and rural areas . Households in the selected colonies in the urban areas and villages were randomly selected and the adolescents interviewed and examined. Their responses were recorded on a pretested questionnaire and results drawn. Data were analysed using Epi-info and SPSS and chi-square test applied. Results:   Prevalence of adolescent hypertension was found to be 5.3% (72 out of 1340; significantly associated with type of family (P<0.001, educational status (P<0.001, occupation (P<0.001, BMI (P<0.01, and smoking habit (P<0.05. However, no relationship of hypertension was found with salt intake, type of diet, exercise, alcohol consumption, stress and family history of hypertension. Conclusion: Socio-demographic factors certainly influence the prevalence and probability of occurrence of adolescent hypertension but the effect of established risk factors (for adult hypertension needs to be further evaluated for adolescent hypertension and more studies are required in this area.

  10. Prevalence and geographic variations in asthma symptoms in children and adolescents in Galicia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Silvarrey-Varela, Angel; Pértega-Díaz, Sonia; Rueda-Esteban, Santiago; Sánchez-Lastres, Juan Manuel; San-José-González, Miguel Angel; Sampedro-Campos, Manuel; Pérez-Castro, Teresa; Garnelo-Suárez, Luciano; Bamonde-Rodríguez, Luis; López-Silvarrey-Varela, Javier; González-Barcala, Javier

    2011-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and geographic variations of the symptoms associated with asthma in Galician children and adolescents. A cross-sectional epidemiological study following ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) methodology, and using a written questionnaire distributed in schools. The study sample included 10,371 6-7 year-old children and 10,372 13-14 year-old adolescents, all of them from Galician Health Areas. A logistic regression model was used to analyse geographic variations. In the 6-7 year-old group, wheezing in the last 12 months varied from 11.4% (Santiago) to 15.7% (Vigo) and in the adolescents varied from 8.8% (Ourense) to 18.8% (Vigo). The distribution by gender showed a predominant significance in 6-7 year-old males (Pchildren and 2.39 (95% CI, 1.82-3.13) for adolescents. The estimated prevalence of asthma in the Autonomous Community of Galicia was 13.6% in younger children and 12.2% in adolescents. The prevalence of wheezing in the last 12 months in the different areas of Galicia is considerably higher than the rest of Spanish ISAAC cities in the 6-7 years group and very similar in the 13-14 years group, except in Vigo where it is considerably higher. We found a clearly defined geographic pattern in the adolescent group, with higher prevalences in coastal areas than in the interior. Copyright © 2010 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. The prevalence of substance use among adolescents and its correlation with social and demographic factors

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    Rakić Dušica B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround/Aim. Adolescence is the period of greatest risk of starting to use substances: cigarette smoking, alcohol and illicit drugs. In the first decade of this millennium substance use among adolescents has increased. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of substances use among adolescents and its correlation with social and demographic factors. Methods. The study was conducted among adolescents in Novi Sad during 2010-2011 and included 594 conveniently selected adolescents (275 male and 319 female, aged 15-19 years. A special questionnaire was used and statistical analysis performed in SPSS17. The correlation between parameters was evaluated by the Pearson correlation method and frequency differences were analysed using χ2 test and starting level was p < 0.05. Results. The prevalence of substance use was statistically higher in males. Cigarettes were smoked daily by 21.45% males and 15.67% females (p < 0.01, alcohol was consumed by 81.6% males and 69.11% females (p < 0.001 and illicit drugs were used by 13.65% males and 8.30% females (p < 0.05. There was a positive correlation between smoking cigarettes and alcohol consumption, but negative between smoking cigarettes and the use of illicit drugs (p < 0.01. The prevalence of substance use was statistically higher among adolescents with poor achievement in school (p < 0.01, who lived in a broken home (illicit drugs p < 0.01 and who had more pocket money (cigarette smoking p < 0.01, and alcohol consumption p < 0.5. Conclusion. Stable family, lower amount of pocket money weekly and good school performance are protective factors in prevention of substances use among adolescents.

  12. Prevalence of Ocular Morbidity Among School Adolescents of Gandhinagar District, Gujarat

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    Prakash Prajapati,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of ocular morbidity (abnormal condition and various factors affecting it among school attending adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to study abnormal ocular conditions like refractive errors, vitamin A deficiency, conjunctivitis, trachoma, ocular trauma, blephritis, stye, color blindness and pterygium among school adolescents of 10-19 years age in rural and urban areas of Gandhinagar district from January to July, 2009. Systematic sampling was done to select 20 schools having 6th to 12th standard education including 12 schools from rural and 8 from urban areas. Six adolescents from each age year (10-19 were selected randomly to achieve sample size of 60 from each school. In total, 1206 adolescents including 691 boys and 515 girls were selected. Information was collected from selected adolescents by using proforma. Visual acuity was assessed using a Snellen’s chart and all participants underwent an ophthalmic examination carried out by a trained doctor. Results: Prevalence of ocular morbidity among school adolescents was reported 13% (7.8% in boys, 5.6% in girls; with 5.2% have moderate visual impairment. Refractive error was most common ocular morbidity (40% both among boys and girls. Almost 30% of boys and girls reported vitamin A deficiency in various forms of xerophthalmia. Prevalence of night blindness was 0.91% and of Bitot`s spot 1.74%. Various factors like, illiterate or lower parents’ education, lower socio-economic class and malnutrition were significantly associated with ocular morbidity. Conclusion: Ocular morbidity in adolescents is mainly due to refractive error, moderate visual impairment and xerophthalmia.

  13. Dissociative identity disorder among adolescents: prevalence in a university psychiatric outpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Onder, Canan; Kilincaslan, Ayse; Zoroglu, Süleyman S; Alyanak, Behiye

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dissociative identity disorder (DID) and other dissociative disorders among adolescent psychiatric outpatients. A total of 116 consecutive outpatients between 11 and 17 years of age who were admitted to the child and adolescent psychiatry clinic of a university hospital for the 1st time were evaluated using the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale, adolescent version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and McMaster Family Assessment Device. All patients were invited for an interview with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D) administered by 2 senior psychiatrists in a blind fashion. There was excellent interrater reliability between the 2 clinicians on SCID-D diagnoses and scores. Among 73 participants, 33 (45.2%) had a dissociative disorder: 12 (16.4%) had DID, and 21 (28.8%) had dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. There was no difference in gender distribution, childhood trauma, or family dysfunction scores between the dissociative and nondissociative groups. Childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction correlated with self-reported dissociation. Of the dissociative adolescents, 93.9% had an additional psychiatric disorder. Among them, only separation anxiety disorder was significantly more prevalent than in controls. Although originally designed for adults, the SCID-D is promising for diagnosing dissociative disorders in adolescents, its modest congruence with self-rated dissociation and lack of relationship between diagnosis and childhood trauma and family dysfunction suggest that the prevalence rates obtained with this instrument originally designed for adults must be replicated. The introduction of diagnostic criteria for adolescent DID in revised versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, would refine the assessment of dissociative disorders in this age group.

  14. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  15. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  16. A Study Of Prevalence Of Obesity In Adult Punjabi Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Goyal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally with more than 1 billion overweight, Atleast 300 million of them are clinically obese and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability (1. Long considered a buy product of modern life in rich, developed contries, obesity is spreading to developing contries as well. Two critical factors that have influenced this explosion are changes in dietary patterns and levels of physical activity. The latest list of morbidity associated with obesity includes about forty diseases. Though, prevalence of co-morbidities of obesity is quite high among adults in India yet there are relatively less reliable and representative data available. Hence, this study was carried out. Material & Methods : It was a community based, cross sectional study conducted in field practice areas at Rural Health Centre (RHC, Pohir and Urban Health Centre (UHC, Kirti Nagar attached to the department of Community Medicine, DMC & Hospital Ludhiana. Field practice area of RHC is composed of 10 villages serving a total population of 20,450. The Urban health Centre covers ten colonies having a total populaation of 20.645.

  17. Prevalence of spinocerebellar ataxia 36 in a US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Juliana M; Diaz, Tatyana; Petty, Lauren E; Quintáns, Beatriz; Yáñez, Zuleima; Boerwinkle, Eric; Muzny, Donna; Akhmedov, Dmitry; Berdeaux, Rebecca; Sobrido, Maria J; Gibbs, Richard; Lupski, James R; Geschwind, Daniel H; Perlman, Susan; Below, Jennifer E; Fogel, Brent L

    2017-08-01

    To assess the prevalence and clinical features of individuals affected by spinocerebellar ataxia 36 (SCA36) at a large tertiary referral center in the United States. A total of 577 patients with undiagnosed sporadic or familial cerebellar ataxia comprehensively evaluated at a tertiary referral ataxia center were molecularly evaluated for SCA36. Repeat primed PCR and fragment analysis were used to screen for the presence of a repeat expansion in the NOP56 gene. Fragment analysis of triplet repeat primed PCR products identified a GGCCTG hexanucleotide repeat expansion in intron 1 of NOP56 in 4 index cases. These 4 SCA36-positive families comprised 2 distinct ethnic groups: white (European) (2) and Asian (Japanese [1] and Vietnamese [1]). Individuals affected by SCA36 exhibited typical clinical features with gait ataxia and age at onset ranging between 35 and 50 years. Patients also suffered from ataxic or spastic limbs, altered reflexes, abnormal ocular movement, and cognitive impairment. In a US population, SCA36 was observed to be a rare disorder, accounting for 0.7% (4/577 index cases) of disease in a large undiagnosed ataxia cohort.

  18. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Sexually Transmitted Infections among Korean Adolescents under Probation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Ju; Seo, Yu Bin; Jeong, Sookyung; Lee, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    There is limited research on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents in Korea. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for STIs among Korean adolescents under probation. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in one juvenile-delinquent center and five probation offices in Korea to determine the prevalence of STIs caused by the following pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Treponema pallidum, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum. Of the 237 (208 male and 29 female) participating adolescents, 152 (64.1%) had a history of coitus. Overall, 133 (56.1%) subjects tested positive for at least one microorganism in their genitourinary tract. The most prevalent pathogen was U. urealyticum (24.7%, n = 65), followed by U. parvum (24.1%, n = 57), M. hominis (17.3%, n = 41), C. trachomatis (13.9%, n = 33), N. gonorrhoeae (1.7%, n = 4), T. vaginalis (0.8%, n = 2), and HSV (0.8%, n = 2). The prevalence of syphilis was 0.8% (n = 2). There were no reported cases of HIV infection. Fifty-four participants (35.5%) were positive with more than two pathogens. We did not find any significant difference between STIs and socioeconomic factors, behavioral factors or sexual practices. In conclusion, the prevalence of STIs among adolescents under probation was high. Systematic screening programs, more practical sexual education, and adequate provision of treatment are essential for the prevention and management of STIs among adolescents, especially those under probation. Copyright © 2017 Korean Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. [Prevalence of anemia in Mexican children and adolescents: Results from three national surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Villalpando, Salvador; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of anemia in Mexican children and adolescents from ENSANUT 2012. Data had the power to make distinctions at the national, regional and rural/urban dwelling. Hemoglobin was measured by Hemocue. Descriptions were made by adjusted frequencies and 95%CI. Confounders were tested in a logistic regression models. The prevalence of anemia in 2012 was: in children 1-4 y, 23.3%; 5-11y, 10.1%, and 12-19 y, 5.6%. The prevalence in female adolescents was 7.7% and 3.6% in males. Reductions in the prevalence of anemia from 1999 was 8.3pp in <5y, 5.1pp in children 5-11y and 3.6pp from 2006 in adolescents. Despite the decrease in the prevalence of anemia in children 1-4 y in the last 13 years, it still is of great concern. There is a need of awareness among social and medical communities about this, to extend the distribution of micronutrient supplements in children <3y, and to promote nutritional education to incentive mothers to provide foods rich in iron.

  20. Prevalence of periodontitis among the adolescents aged 15-18 years in Mangalore City: An epidemiological and microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pallavi Nanaiah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is a group of inflammatory diseases affecting the supporting tissues of the tooth. Both aggressive periodontitis (AP and chronic periodontitis (CP have a multifactorial etiology, with dental plaque as the initiating factor. However, the initiation and progression of periodontitis are influenced by other factors including microbiologic, social and behavioral and systemic and genetic factors. The prevalence of periodontal diseases varies in different regions of the world according to the definition of periodontitis and the study population, and there are indications that they may be more prevalent in developing than in developed countries. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the adolescents of 15-18 years of age in Mangalore City. One thousand one hundred students aged 15-18 years were selected for the study from the schools and colleges in Mangalore City using a convenient sampling method. The prevalence of AP and CP were assessed in the study using a community periodontal index. Students who were diagnosed clinically and radiographically were subjected to microbiological examination to confirm AP. Results: A high prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis was found in students belonging to the lower socioeconomic status group compared with the higher socioeconomic groups, which were associated with poor oral hygiene habits. The prevalence of AP was found to be 0.36% and that of CP was found to be 1.5%. Conclusion: Oral diseases have a significant impact on the social and psychological aspects of an individual′s life. Exposure to risk factors, such as age, low socio-economic status, poor education, low dental care utilization, poor oral hygiene levels, smoking, psychosocial stress and genetic factors are significantly associated with an increased risk of periodontitis among adolescents. Although genetic factors play a major role in periodontitis, the treatment outcome will still be

  1. Prevalences of asthma and rhinitis among adolescents in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil: temporal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Maria de Fátima Gomes de; Fischer, Gilberto Bueno; Luna, João Rafael Gomes de; Silva, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos da; Almeida, Paulo César de; Chiesa, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    To describe the prevalences of asthma and rhinitis in adolescents (13-14 years of age) in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil, in 2010, comparing the results with those obtained in a prevalence survey conducted in 2006-2007. This was a cross-sectional study involving probabilistic samples of 3,015 and 3,020 adolescents in surveys conducted in 2006-2007 and 2010, respectively. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol was used on both occasions. Comparing the two periods, there were no significant differences regarding cumulative wheezing, active asthma, four or more wheezing attacks within the last year, sleep disturbed by wheezing more than one night per week, and speech-limiting wheezing. The prevalences of exercise-induced wheezing, dry cough at night, and physician-diagnosed asthma were significantly higher in 2010 than in the 2006-2007 period (p school students than in public school students (p school students.

  2. Prevalence variation of colpocytological abnormalities in adolescents and adults in the years 2000 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina M. P. A. Coelho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer of the cervix is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and the frequency of precancerous lesions is increasing among adolescents. Objective: To study and compare the frequency of epithelial abnormalities in cervical cytology exams in adolescents and adults. Materials and methods: Retrospective study based on analysis of reports of cytology exams performed in the years 2000 and 2010 in adolescents (12-18 years old and in adult women. The frequency of cytological alterations was explored, stratifying them into high-grade/carcinoma and low-grade lesions. Results: In 2000, rates of epithelial abnormalities were 3.08% in adolescents and 1.39% in adult females, and were 4.76% and 1.83% in 2010, respectively. The high-grade lesions/carcinomas were more common among adults in both years. Discussion: There was an increase in prevalence of epithelial abnormalities in the last decade, both in adolescents and in adults. Proportionally, the increase was higher among adolescents (6.7% than in adults (2.2%. However, the rate of high-grade lesions/carcinoma was higher among adult women in the two analyzed years. Conclusion: It was observed that the frequency of cervical epithelial abnormalities was higher among adolescents than adults and increased between 2000 and 2010.

  3. Prevalence of suicidal behaviour and associated factors in a large sample of Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X C; Chen, H; Liu, Z Z; Wang, J Y; Jia, C X

    2017-10-12

    Suicidal behaviour is prevalent among adolescents and is a significant predictor of future suicide attempts (SAs) and suicide death. Data on the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of suicidal behaviour in Chinese adolescents are limited. This study was aimed to examine the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors of suicidal behaviour, including suicidal thought (ST), suicide plan (SP) and SA, in a large sample of Chinese adolescents. This report represents the first wave data of an ongoing longitudinal study, Shandong Adolescent Behavior and Health Cohort. Participants included 11 831 adolescent students from three counties of Shandong, China. The mean age of participants was 15.0 (s.d. = 1.5) and 51% were boys. In November-December 2015, participants completed a structured adolescent health questionnaire, including ST, SP and SA, characteristics of most recent SA, demographics, substance use, hopelessness, impulsivity and internalising and externalising behavioural problems. The lifetime and last-year prevalence rates were 17.6 and 10.7% for ST in males, 23.5 and 14.7% for ST in females, 8.9 and 2.9% for SP in males, 10.7 and 3.8% for SP in females, 3.4 and 1.3% for SA in males, and 4.6 and 1.8% for SA in females, respectively. The mean age of first SA was 12-13 years. Stabbing/cutting was the most common method to attempt suicide. Approximately 24% of male attempters and 16% of female attempters were medically treated. More than 70% of attempters had no preparatory action. Female gender, smoking, drinking, internalising and externalising problems, hopelessness, suicidal history of friends and acquaintances, poor family economic status and poor parental relationship were all significantly associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviour. Suicidal behaviour in Chinese adolescents is prevalent but less than that previously reported in Western peers. While females are more likely to attempt suicide, males are more likely to use lethal methods

  4. Prevalence of Celiac Disease Autoimmunity Among Adolescents and Young Adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Juanli; Zhou, Chunyan; Gao, Jinyan; Li, Jingjing; Yu, Fenglian; Lu, Jun; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaozhong; Tong, Ping; Wu, Zhihua; Yang, Anshu; Yao, Yonghong; Nadif, Sarah; Shu, Heng; Jiang, Xu; Wu, Yujie; Gilissen, Luud; Chen, Hongbing

    2017-10-01

    In China, epidemiologic information on celiac disease autoimmunity is scarce and fragmented. We investigated the prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity in the general Chinese population. In a cross-sectional prospective study, 19,778 undiagnosed Chinese adolescents and young adults (age, 16-25 y) were recruited from consecutive new students who underwent routine physical examinations at 2 universities in Jiangxi, China, from September 2010 through October 2013; the students were from 27 geographic regions in China. All subjects were tested for serum IgG, IgG against deamidated gliadin peptides (IgG anti-DGP), and IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (IgA anti-tTG). We also analyzed HLA genotypes in subgroups of participants with different results from tests for serum markers of celiac disease. A total of 434 students (2.19%) tested positive for serum markers for celiac disease (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99%-2.41%), 0.36% of the students tested positive for anti-tTG IgA (95% CI, 0.28%-0.46%), and 1.88% tested positive for anti-DGP IgG (95% CI, 1.70%-2.09%). The prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity (positive results in assays for anti-tTG IgA and anti-DGP-IgG) was 0.06% (95% CI, 0.03%-0.10%). Celiac disease autoimmunity was associated with the consumption of wheat and female sex. The prevalence in the Shandong province in north China, where wheat is a staple in the diet, was 0.76% (95% CI, 0.21%-1.95%). The frequencies of the HLA-DQ2/-DQ8 genotypes associated with celiac disease were higher in subjects with celiac disease autoimmunity, based on detection of both serum markers, than in subjects with positive results from a single test (P celiac disease. The prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity in the Shandong province in north China, where wheat is a staple in the diet, was 0.76%. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The prevalence of atopic diseases and the patterns of sensitization in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Fomsgaard Kjær, Henrik; Eller, Esben

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases are among the most common chronic diseases in adolescents, and it is uncertain whether the prevalence of atopic diseases has reached a plateau or is still increasing. The use of the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood) questionnaire has provided......: The children were examined eight times from birth to 14 years. Visits included questionnaire-based interviews, clinical examination, skin prick test, and specific IgE. RESULTS: Follow-up rate at 14 years was 66.2%. The 12-month prevalence of any atopic disease was high (40.3%) mostly due to a high prevalence...... comparable prevalence rates from many countries, whereas studies including clinical examinations and strict diagnostic criteria are scarce. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of atopic diseases, the pattern of sensitization, and comorbidities at 14 years in a prospective birth cohort. METHODS...

  6. Rural Asthma: Current Understanding of Prevalence, Patterns, and Interventions for Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Robin Dawson; Ownby, Dennis R

    2017-06-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness of children and adolescents in the USA. While asthma has been understood to disproportionately affect urban dwellers, recent investigations have revealed rural pediatric asthma prevalence to be very similar to urban and to be more closely correlated with socioeconomic and environmental factors than geographic location or population density. Rural children experience factors unique to location that impact asthma development and outcomes, including housing quality, cigarette smoke exposure, and small/large-scale farming. Additionally, there are challenging barriers to appropriate asthma care that frequently are more severe for those living in rural areas, including insurance status, lack of primary care providers and pulmonary specialists, knowledge deficits (both patient and provider), and a lack of culturally tailored asthma interventions. Interventions designed to address rural pediatric asthma disparities are more likely to be successful when targeted to specific challenges, such as the use of school-based services or telemedicine to mitigate asthma care access issues. Continued research on understanding the complex interaction of specific rural environmental factors with host factors can inform future interventions designed to mitigate asthma disparities.

  7. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in scholars from Bucaramanga, Colombia: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camacho Paul A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and metabolic syndrome are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, thus the increasing trend in their prevalence among children and adolescents from developing countries requires a further understanding of their epidemiology and determinants. Methods and design A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 6–10 year-old children from Bucaramanga, Colombia. A two-stage random-cluster (neighborhoods, houses sampling process was performed based on local city maps and local statistics. The study involves a domiciliary survey; including a comprehensive socio-demographic, nutritional and physical activity characterization of the children that participated in the study, followed by a complete clinical examination; including blood pressure, anthropometry, lipid profile determination, fasting glucose and insulin levels. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome will be determined using definitions and specific percentile cut-off points for this population. Finally, the association between components of metabolic syndrome and higher degrees of insulin resistance will be analyzed through a multivariable logistic regression model. This study protocol was designed in compliance with the Helsinki declaration and approved by the local ethics board. Consent was obtained from the children and their parents/guardians. Discussion A complete description of the environmental and non-environmental factors underlying the burden of metabolic syndrome in children from a developing country like Colombia will provide policy makers, health care providers and educators from similar settings with an opportunity to guide primary and secondary preventive initiatives at both individual and community levels. Moreover, this description may give an insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms mediating the development of cardio-metabolic diseases early in life.

  8. The prevalence of mental disorders among children, adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To provide estimates of the prevalence of selected mental disorders in the Western Cape, based on the consensus achieved by a working group established for this purpose. Method: An expert working group was established to provide technical expertise for the project. Potential risk factors likely to influence local ...

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Sexting Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Maziarz, Lauren; Ward, Britney

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexting among sixth through twelfth grade students and its correlations with other risk behaviors. The survey was conducted in 35 different schools in a midwestern state. Overall, 17% of students engaged in sexting, which varied significantly by age (3% of 12-year-olds to 32% of…

  10. Prevalence and tracking of back pain from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Per; Wedderkopp, Niels; Korsholm, Lars

    2011-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that back pain (BP) is a common condition already in childhood. However, the development until early adulthood is not well understood and, in particular, not the individual tracking pattern. The objectives of this paper are to show the prevalence estimates of BP, low ...

  11. [Prevalence of violent events and post-traumatic stress disorder in the Mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Mora Icaza, Maria Elena; Borges-Guimaraes, Guilherme; Lara, Carmen; Ramos-Lira, Luciana; Zambrano, Joaquín; Fleiz-Bautista, Clara

    2005-01-01

    To report the rate of exposure to different violent events, their demographic correlates, the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and the impact on quality of life. The National Survey of Psychiatric Epidemiology is representative of the Mexican urban population aged 18 to 65. The survey was undertaken in 2001 and 2002 using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI- 15) computerized version. The statistical analyses take into account the multistage, stratified, and weighted sample design. Kaplan-Meier and logistic regressions were performed. Sixty-eight percent of the population has been exposed to at least one stressful life event. Exposure varies by sex (rape, harassment, and sexual abuse are more frequent in women; accidents and being a victim of burglary among men) and by age (more frequent in children, adolescents, young adult women, and the elderly). By sex, 2.3% of women and 0.49% of men present PTSD. Rape, harassment, kidnapping, and sexual abuse are the events most associated with PTSD. The results suggest the need to increase treatment coverage to attend the consequences of violence, taking into consideration the important gender and age variations.

  12. Attempted suicide among adolescents in Mexico: prevalence and associated factors at the national level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Solórzano, Elisa Hidalgo; Iñiguez, Mariana Mojarro; Burgos, Leticia Ávila; Gómez Hernández, Hugo; Martínez González, Ángela

    2017-07-27

    To determine the prevalence and associated factors of attempted suicide (AS) in a sample of Mexican adolescents between 10 and 19 years of age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012 by its initials in Spanish). Based on multi-stage stratified probability sampling, ENSANUT 2012 canvassed 50 528 households including 21 519 adolescents. A logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with AS. The model was selected based on the maximum likelihood test. Lifetime prevalence of AS amounted to 2.7% and was heterogeneously distributed across Mexico. Women showed significantly higher risk for AS than men (OR A (adjusted OR)) 6.3, 95% confidence interval CI 4.94 to 8.06), and individuals who experienced damage to health caused by violence over the last 12 months were 4.35 times (OR A 4.35, 95% CI 3.27 to 5.80) more likely to engage in AS than those who did not. The likelihood of engaging in AS was 1.5 times higher (OR A 1.5 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.01)) among subjects with mild and 4.22 times higher (95% CI 3.21 to 5.54) among subjects with moderate eating disorders compared to those with no eating disorders. Other AS-associated factors included age, smoking, consuming alcohol and living with relatives other than parents. Awareness of the risk factors associated with AS can help identify the populations who are exposed to injury or death by suicide. This can orient the actions of the health sector towards those who are most vulnerable. Actions must be matched by more qualitative and quantitative research on the subject. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Nairobi public secondary schools: association with perceived maladaptive parental behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasakhala, L I; Ndetei, D M; Mutiso, V; Mbwayo, A W; Mathai, M

    2012-03-01

    Depression in adolescents is a matter of concern because of its high prevalence, potential recurrence and impairment of functioning in the affected individual. The study sought to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Nairobi (Kenya) public secondary schools; make a comparison between day and boarding students; and identify associated factors in this population. A random sample of school going adolescents was taken from a stratified sample of 17 secondary schools out of the 49 public secondary schools in Nairobi province. The sample was stratified to take into account geographical distribution, day and boarding schools, boys only, girls only and mixed (co-education) schools in the capital city of Kenya. Self administered instruments (EMBU and CDI) were used to measure perceived parental behaviour and levels of depression in a total of 1,276 students excluding those who had no living parent. The prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms was 26.4%. The occurrence was higher in girls than it was in boys p<0.001. Students in boarding schools had more clinically significant depressive symptoms compared to day students (p=0.01). More girls exhibited suicidal behaviour than boys (p<0.001). There was a significant correlation between depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviour (p<0.001). CDI scores correlated positively with age (p<0.001) with an increase in CDI score with unit increase in age among students 14-17 years old, perceived rejecting maternal parenting behaviour (p<0.001), perceived no emotional attachment paternal behaviour (p<0.001), perceived no emotional attachment maternal behaviour (p<0.001), and perceived under protective paternal behaviour (p=0.005). Perceived maladaptive parental behaviours are substantially associated with the development of depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviour in children.

  14. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Fissure Sealants in a Portuguese Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Nélio J.; Pereira, Carlos M.; Ferreira, Paula C.; Correia, Ilidio J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of dental caries and the DMFT index, as well as the distribution pattern of pit and fissure sealants on permanent teeth in a Portuguese sample of adolescents, and to assess whether the existing usage of sealants and socio-demographic factors are correlated to caries prevalence on the examined sample. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was designed with a sample of 447 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old, attending a public school in Sátão, Portugal. A self-administered questionnaire with questions about oral health behaviours and socio-economic status was answered by adolescents in the classroom. Clinical examination of oral health status and assessment of fissure sealants were accomplished by only one trained member of the research team. Results We obtained a DMFT index of 3.32 (2.92), which indicates a moderate level of prevalence of dental caries. When considering a DMFT = 0, we found significant statistical differences between the parents´ level of education (≤ 4th grade = 26.3 vs 5th–12th grade = 18.8 vs Portuguese adolescents. The establishment of a more targeted preventive program with better and more effective oral health education is essential, having into account socio-demographic aspects. PMID:25803849

  15. Prevalence and Social Correlates of Sexual Intercourse among School-Going Adolescents in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent sexuality is a relevant public health issue, as it affects risk to contract HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. The assessment of prevalence of sexual intercourse among adolescents may guide policies and programmes aimed at reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted infections among this age group. Using data from the Thailand Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS 2008, we assessed the prevalence of sexual intercourse in the last 12 months and its associated factors among adolescents (=2758. Overall the prevalence of sexual intercourse in the past 12 months was 11.0% (14.6% males and 7.6% females. Variables positively associated with the outcome in multivariable analysis were male gender (OR=1.66; 95% CI 1.14–242, older age, ≥15 years (OR=2.60, 1.80–3.74, current alcohol use (OR=2.22, 1.46–3.36, psychosocial distress (OR=2.11, 1.44–3.09 and among females current smoking (OR=5.47, 1.62–18.48, lifetime drug use (AOR=4.35, 1.04–18.3 and lack of parental or guardian bonding (AOR=0.51, 0.27–0.97. Efforts to control unhealthy lifestyles (substance use and psychosocial distress may impact on adolescents' sexual activity.

  16. Bulimia nervosa in adolescents: prevalence and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hail L

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lisa Hail, Daniel Le Grange Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: Bulimia nervosa (BN is a serious psychiatric illness that typically develops during adolescence or young adulthood, rendering adolescents a target for early intervention. Despite the increasing research devoted to the treatment of youth with anorexia nervosa (AN and adults with BN, there remains a dearth of evidence for treating younger individuals with BN. To date, there have been four published randomized controlled trials comparing psychosocial treatments, leaving significant room to improve treatment outcomes. Family-based treatment is the leading treatment for youth with AN, while cognitive-behavioral therapy is the leading intervention for adults with BN. Involving caregivers in treatment shows promising results, however, additional research is needed to investigate ways in which this treatment can be adapted further to achieve higher rates of recovery. Keywords: eating disorders, youth, family-based treatment, cognitive behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, psychopharmacological treatment, evidence based treatment

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of the Perpetration of Cyber Dating Abuse among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Shegog, Ross; Temple, Jeff R; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Addy, Robert C; Hernandez, Belinda; Cuccaro, Paula; Gabay, Efrat K; Thiel, Melanie; Emery, Susan Tortolero

    2017-02-01

    Much is known about the prevalence and correlates of dating violence, especially the perpetration of physical dating violence, among older adolescents. However, relatively little is known about the prevalence and correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse, particularly among early adolescents. In this study, using a predominantly ethnic-minority sample of sixth graders who reported ever having had a boyfriend/girlfriend (n = 424, 44.2 % female), almost 15 % reported perpetrating cyber dating abuse at least once during their lifetime. Furthermore, using a cross-sectional design, across multiple levels of the socio-ecological model, the individual-level factors of (a) norms for violence for boys against girls, (b) having a current boyfriend/girlfriend, and (c) participation in bullying perpetration were correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse. Collectively, the findings suggest that dating violence interventions targeting these particular correlates in early adolescents are warranted. Future studies are needed to establish causation and to further investigate the relative importance of correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse among early adolescents that have been reported among older adolescents.

  18. The association between paternal and adolescent depressive symptoms: evidence from two population-based cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gemma; Neary, Martha; Polek, Ela; Flouri, Eirini; Lewis, Glyn

    2017-12-01

    Incidence of depression increases markedly around age 13 years, and nearly three-quarters of adults report that their mental health problems started in adolescence. Although maternal depression is a risk factor for adolescent depression, evidence about the association between paternal and adolescent depression is inconclusive, and many studies have methodological limitations. We aimed to assess the association between paternal and adolescent depressive symptoms in two large population-based cohort studies. We used data for two-parent families from two representative prospective cohorts in Ireland (Growing up in Ireland [GUI]) and the UK (Millennium Cohort Study [MCS]). Parental depressive symptoms were measured with the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale in the GUI cohort when children were 9 years old, and the Kessler six-item psychological distress scale in the MCS cohort when children were 7 years old. Adolescent depressive symptoms were measured with the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) at age 13 years in the GUI cohort and age 14 years in the MCS cohort. We analysed data using linear regression models, before and after adjustment for confounders, in both multiply imputed and complete case samples. There were 6070 families in GUI and 7768 in MCS. After all adjustments, a 1 SD (three-point) increase in paternal depressive symptoms was associated with an increase of 0·24 SMFQ points (95% CI 0·03-0·45; p=0·023) in the GUI cohort and 0·18 SMFQ points (0·01-0·36; p=0·041) in the MCS cohort. This association was independent of, and not different in magnitude to, the association between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms (Wald test p=0·435 in the GUI cohort and 0·470 in the MCS cohort). Our results show an association between depressive symptoms in fathers and depressive symptoms in their adolescent offspring. These findings support the involvement of fathers as well as mothers in early interventions to reduce the

  19. Ocular injury: Prevalence in different rural population of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A K

    2013-12-01

    This population based cross-sectional study was conducted on 8283 persons of all ages in five districts, selected conveniently, to assess the magnitude of ocular injuries, their causes and consequences in rural Bangladesh. Six Upazilas from five districts and from each Upazila one Union was selected randomly. One village, the ultimate cluster, was then selected conveniently from each Union. All people (n = 8283) in the 8 villages were then surveyed. Out of 8283 population (ranging from 1-120 years) surveyed, 167(2%) had history and/or evidence of past ocular trauma with a yearly incidence of 6.2 per 1000 per year. Study demonstrated a female predominance with male to female ratio being roughly 4:5. Majority (82%) had at least one episode of trauma in their life-time with mean age at 1st trauma being 20 years. Nearly 40% of the traumas were caused by blunt objects followed by penetrating object (22.3%) and sharp instrument (18.1%) with home being the primary place of occurrence (55.1%). Evidence of ocular trauma was found on eye-lid (15%), conjunctiva (11.4%) and cornea (10.2%) as scars. The older participants (≥ 30 years), females, illiterates, agriculture labors, housewives and household workers were more likely to receive trauma. Majority (86.8%) of the subjects received treatment following injury. The median time lapsed between injuries and receiving first treatment was 5 days and that between injury and visiting an eye-specialist was 18 days. Self-treatment and treatment from over-the-counter comprised 45% and 42.1% respectively followed by eye-specialists (25.5%), village quack (22.8%), graduate doctors (19.3%) and traditional healers (6.9%). About 87% received conservative management, with 12.4% needing hospitalization. Most of the injured (92.8%) and non-injured (95.2%) eyes had normal vision before trauma as informed by the respondents. Following trauma, 18% had impaired, 10.7% severely impaired vision and about 6% were blind. Job abstinence due to trauma

  20. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S.; Chilmeran, Saba K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population in Mosul, according to the different recommended criteria. The study was carried out from October 2003 to April 2004, with 871 apparently healthy volunteers (413 males, 458 females) aged 20-70 year ([mean+- SD] 41.2+-13.8 year). Fasting blood specimens were collected from all subjects for measurement of serum lipid profile including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and ratios of cholesterol such as TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, and TG:HDL-C. Classification was carried out according to the different cut-off levels as recommended by the 2001 American National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) III using thresholds of TG>150mg/dl (2.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>100 mg/dl (2.6 mmol/L), LDL-C 130mg/dl (3.37 mmol/L). The criteria of the 1998 British Hyperlipidemia Association (BHA) were also followed using thresholds of TG>180mg/dl (2.4mmol/L), TC>194mg/dl (5.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>116mg/dl (3.0mmol/L), HDL-C 5.0, HDL-C: DL-C>2.5 and TG: HDL-C>3.0. Based on the American NCEPIII criteria, the dyslipidemic states were noted with high TG (41.6%), high LDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high HDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high non-HDL-C (56.8%) from the subjects. Based on BHA criteria, high TG24.5%), high TC (32.7%), high HDL-C (37.8%), high TC: HDL-C (30.9%), high LDL-C HDL-C (55.7%) and high TG: HDL-C (58.3%) were noted. Dyslipidemia is common in Iraqi population, and this was identified at different recommendation criteria. (author)

  1. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S [Dept. of Chemical Pathology, Royal Hospital, Muscat (Oman); Chilmeran, Saba K [Dept. of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Univ. of Mosul (Iraq)

    2007-07-01

    Objective was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population in Mosul, according to the different recommended criteria. The study was carried out from October 2003 to April 2004, with 871 apparently healthy volunteers (413 males, 458 females) aged 20-70 year ([mean+- SD] 41.2+-13.8 year). Fasting blood specimens were collected from all subjects for measurement of serum lipid profile including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and ratios of cholesterol such as TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, and TG:HDL-C. Classification was carried out according to the different cut-off levels as recommended by the 2001 American National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) III using thresholds of TG>150mg/dl (2.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>100 mg/dl (2.6 mmol/L), LDL-C<40mg/dl (1.04mmol/L) and non-HDL-C>130mg/dl (3.37 mmol/L). The criteria of the 1998 British Hyperlipidemia Association (BHA) were also followed using thresholds of TG>180mg/dl (2.4mmol/L), TC>194mg/dl (5.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>116mg/dl (3.0mmol/L), HDL-C<45mg/dl (1.15mmol/L), TC: HDL-C>5.0, HDL-C: DL-C>2.5 and TG: HDL-C>3.0. Based on the American NCEPIII criteria, the dyslipidemic states were noted with high TG (41.6%), high LDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high HDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high non-HDL-C (56.8%) from the subjects. Based on BHA criteria, high TG24.5%), high TC (32.7%), high HDL-C (37.8%), high TC: HDL-C (30.9%), high LDL-C HDL-C (55.7%) and high TG: HDL-C (58.3%) were noted. Dyslipidemia is common in Iraqi population, and this was identified at different recommendation criteria. (author)

  2. Exercise-induced dyspnea is a problem among the general adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, H; Norlander, K; Hedenström, H; Janson, C; Nordang, L; Nordvall, L; Emtner, M

    2014-06-01

    Respiratory symptoms during exercise are common and might limit adolescents' ability to take part in physical activity. To estimate the prevalence, determinants and consequences of exercise-induced dyspnea (EID) on daily life in a general population of 12-13 year old adolescents. A letter was sent to the parents of all 12-13 year old adolescents in the city of Uppsala (n = 3838). Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire together with their child on EID, asthma and allergy, consequences for daily life (wheeze, day time- and nocturnal dyspnea) and physical activity. The response rate was 60% (n = 2309). Fourteen percent (n = 330) reported EID, i.e. had experienced an attack of shortness of breath that occurred after strenuous activity within the last 12 months. Female gender, ever-asthma and rhinitis were independently associated with an increased risk of EID. Ever-asthma was reported by 14.6% (n = 338), and 5.4% (n = 128) had both EID and ever-asthma. Sixty-one percent (n = 202) of the participants with EID did not have a diagnosis of asthma. In addition to rhinitis, participants with EID reported current wheeze and day-time as well as nocturnal dyspnea more often than the group without EID. No difference was found in the level of physical activity between participants with and without EID. Adolescents with undiagnosed exercise-induced dyspnea have respiratory symptoms and are affected in daily life but have the same level of physical activity as adolescents without exercise-induced respiratory symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Caesar de Andrade, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital. Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents, 20 to 59 years old (adults and 60 years old or over (older adults. Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R. The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups.

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of intended adolescent pregnancy: an analysis of the Canadian maternity experiences survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekharan, Vineeth S; Kim, Theresa H M; Oulman, Elizaveta; Tamim, Hala

    2015-11-05

    There is limited research focusing on adolescent women who intended to become pregnant, as majority of research examines unintended adolescent pregnancies. The objective was to examine the prevalence and characteristics of Canadian adolescent women who intended to become pregnant. The analysis was based on the national 2006 Maternity Experiences Survey consisting of women who had a singleton live birth. The sample was restricted to adolescent women between 15 to 19 years of age. The main outcome of this study was the adolescent woman's pregnancy intention. A variety of sociodemographic, maternal, and pregnancy related factors were examined using a multivariable logistic regression. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were reported for all variables. The sample size was 290, weighted to represent 2224 adolescent women. Based on the adjusted model, the odds of experiencing an intended pregnancy were increased if the adolescent woman was between 18-19 years old (OR 2.62, 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57), had a partner (OR 2.37, 95 % CI 1.12, 4.99), experienced no violence/abuse (OR 3.08, 95 % CI 1.38, 6.86), and consumed no alcohol before pregnancy (OR 3.17, 95 % CI 1.56, 6.45). Additionally, adolescent women who reported drug use prior to pregnancy were more likely to have an intended pregnancy (OR 0.39, 95 % CI 0.16, 0.95). The findings from this study can be used as the basis for future research to investigate the characteristics and needs represented by this group of adolescents and to aid in the development of effective policies and programs.

  5. Study of School Environment and Prevalence of Obesity & Its Predictors among Adolescent (10-13 Years) Belonging to a Private School in an Urban Indian City

    OpenAIRE

    Mehan Meenakshi, Munshi Aparna, Surabhi Somila, Bhatt Trushna, Kantharia Neha

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent shift in lifestyle and behavioral patterns in population have caused an obesity epidemic during formative years. Present study evaluated existing health and nutrition policies in a private school in an urban Indian city and assessed prevalence of obesity in adolescent children & their association if any, with predictive behaviors of obesity. Methods: A private coeducational school located in an urban Indian city was selected and its existing health policies were eva...

  6. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated factors in children and adolescents with obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Aguirre-Salas, Liuba Marina; Álvarez-Román, Yussani Arelhi; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar Manuel; Casillas-Toral, Erika; Fonseca-Reyes, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children in Mexico are high, as well as the complications associated with their presence. The objective of this work was to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents attending a Hospital Clinic and identify the associated factors. Cross sectional design with 120 children and adolescents; of either sex, with exogenous obesity and BMI > 2.0 standard deviations. Personal and family history was collected, blood pressure was measured and determination of serum glucose, insulin, lipoprotein HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were performed. The presence of metabolic syndrome with the ATPIII, WHO and International Diabetes Federation criteria was identified. The association of metabolic syndrome with different variables was identified with chi square test and calculation of odds ratio. Mean age was 10.6 ± 2.7 years. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.5% to 54.5% depending on the criteria used. The presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with a history of large birth weight (OR= 2.21 [1.01-4.82]), and insulin resistance (OR= 6.53 [2.40-18.2]). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high in this group of children and adolescents with obesity. The history of large birth weight and the presence of insulin resistance should alert us to the presence of the disease.

  7. New contributions to the prevalence of eating disorders in Spanish adolescents: detection of false negatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; Beato-Fernández, Luis; Belmonte-Llario, Antonia

    2005-03-01

    Although the epidemiology of Eating Disorders (ED) has been highly developed in Spain, further research considering false negatives and also the prevalence of these disorders in males are needed. They were the aims of the present study. One thousand and seventy six adolescents (500 males and 576 females) participated in a two-stage survey. At the age of 13, apart from exploring numerous clinical and psychosocial variables, they were assessed by means of self-administered screening instruments, the eating attitude test (EAT), bulimic investigatory test Edinburgh (BITE), and body shape questionnaire (BSQ). The subjects were interviewed again 2 years later. Afterwards, 159 probable cases and 150 controls were interviewed by means of the structured interview SCAN. Prevalence of ED in adolescents was 3.71% (95% CI 2.58-4.83; 6.4% of females, 0.6% of males): anorexia nervosa 0.1%, bulimia nervosa 0.75%, eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) = 2.88%. The rate of false negative was 2.6% of the control group and most of them were EDNOS. The prevalence of ED obtained in our study, higher than others found in previous Spanish research, and a relatively high percentage of false negatives both indicate that up to now the prevalence of ED in Spanish adolescents could be underestimated.

  8. High prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Peruvian adolescents living in a peri-urban shantytown: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbs, Elizabeth S; Viñoles, José; Alarcón, Jorge O; Johnson, Heather M; Zunt, Joseph R

    2017-05-22

    Adults of the peri-urban Peruvian shantytown of Lomas de Zapallal have a high prevalence of risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD)-likely due to behavioral choices established during childhood and adolescence. To guide the development of community-based risk reduction programs, we assessed the prevalence of risk factors for developing CVD among adolescents. We collected cross sectional data from adolescents of Peruvian peri-urban shantytown to evaluate four domains of CVD risk factors: (1) clinical (blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and blood lipids), (2) anthropometric (height, weight, and waist circumference), (3) behavioral (physical activity, diet, and substance abuse), and (4) psychosocial (mental health and violence). We enrolled 275 adolescents (56.4% female, mean age 14 years). Prevalence of overweight or obese status was 27.8%. High blood pressure was more common in males (37.4%) than females (20.5%) (p = 0.002). Total cholesterol was elevated (>170 mg/dL) in nearly half (45.5%) of the adolescents, and 71% had impaired fasting blood glucose (>100 mg/dL). Females were less likely to exercise daily (95.4%) than males (84.2%) (p = 0.002) but reported higher rates of depression (66.4%), anhedonia (67.6%), and self-harm behavior (37.9%) (all p < 0.01). Adolescents living in the peri-urban population of Puente Piedra had high prevalence of risk factors for future development of CVD; preventative efforts focused on improving nutrition, increasing physical inactivity, and addressing mental health conditions could reduce such risk factors.

  9. Factors Associated with Variations in Population HIV Prevalence across West Africa: Findings from an Ecological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudden, Holly J.; Beattie, Tara S.; Bobrova, Natalia; Panovska-Griffiths, Jasmina; Mukandavire, Zindoga; Gorgens, Marelize; Wilson, David; Watts, Charlotte H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Population HIV prevalence across West Africa varies substantially. We assess the national epidemiological and behavioural factors associated with this. Methods National, urban and rural data on HIV prevalence, the percentage of younger (15–24) and older (25–49) women and men reporting multiple (2+) partners in the past year, HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs), men who have bought sex in the past year (clients), and ART coverage, were compiled for 13 countries. An Ecological analysis using linear regression assessed which factors are associated with national variations in population female and male HIV prevalence, and with each other. Findings National population HIV prevalence varies between 0 4–2 9% for men and 0 4–5.6% for women. ART coverage ranges from 6–23%. National variations in HIV prevalence are not shown to be associated with variations in HIV prevalence among FSWs or clients. Instead they are associated with variations in the percentage of younger and older males and females reporting multiple partners. HIV prevalence is weakly negatively associated with ART coverage, implying it is not increased survival that is the cause of variations in HIV prevalence. FSWs and younger female HIV prevalence are associated with client population sizes, especially older men. Younger female HIV prevalence is strongly associated with older male and female HIV prevalence. Interpretation In West Africa, population HIV prevalence is not significantly higher in countries with high FSW HIV prevalence. Our analysis suggests, higher prevalence occurs where more men buy sex, and where a higher percentage of younger women, and older men and women have multiple partnerships. If a sexual network between clients and young females exists, clients may potentially bridge infection to younger females. HIV prevention should focus both on commercial sex and transmission between clients and younger females with multiple partners. PMID:26698854

  10. Factors Associated with Variations in Population HIV Prevalence across West Africa: Findings from an Ecological Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly J Prudden

    Full Text Available Population HIV prevalence across West Africa varies substantially. We assess the national epidemiological and behavioural factors associated with this.National, urban and rural data on HIV prevalence, the percentage of younger (15-24 and older (25-49 women and men reporting multiple (2+ partners in the past year, HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs, men who have bought sex in the past year (clients, and ART coverage, were compiled for 13 countries. An Ecological analysis using linear regression assessed which factors are associated with national variations in population female and male HIV prevalence, and with each other.National population HIV prevalence varies between 0 4-2 9% for men and 0 4-5.6% for women. ART coverage ranges from 6-23%. National variations in HIV prevalence are not shown to be associated with variations in HIV prevalence among FSWs or clients. Instead they are associated with variations in the percentage of younger and older males and females reporting multiple partners. HIV prevalence is weakly negatively associated with ART coverage, implying it is not increased survival that is the cause of variations in HIV prevalence. FSWs and younger female HIV prevalence are associated with client population sizes, especially older men. Younger female HIV prevalence is strongly associated with older male and female HIV prevalence.In West Africa, population HIV prevalence is not significantly higher in countries with high FSW HIV prevalence. Our analysis suggests, higher prevalence occurs where more men buy sex, and where a higher percentage of younger women, and older men and women have multiple partnerships. If a sexual network between clients and young females exists, clients may potentially bridge infection to younger females. HIV prevention should focus both on commercial sex and transmission between clients and younger females with multiple partners.

  11. Prevalence of postoperative pain in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and the association with preoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrom, Tracey P; Marks, Michelle C; Yaszay, Burt; Newton, Peter O

    2013-10-01

    Review of a prospective database registry of surgical patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of postoperative pain and its impact on patient-reported postoperative outcomes using the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 outcomes questionnaire. Although reportedly rare, postoperative pain can be a devastating situation for the patient with AIS. Most recent studies examining outcomes in AIS surgical treatment use the SRS Pain domain score to assess pain in this population. A prospectively enrolled multicenter database was queried. Patients with minimum 2-year follow-up and 2-year SRS scores were included. Postoperative pain after the acute phase of recovery when reported by the patient to the treating surgeon/clinical team in follow-up is recorded as a complication in the database. Patients included in this series were grouped as either reporting pain or not to the surgeon/clinical team postoperatively. Pre- and postoperative SRS scores were then compared between these 2 groups using analysis of variance (P imaging). These 41 patients had significantly decreased 2-year SRS scores in the domains of Pain, Self-image, Mental health, and Total score (P 0.05). Unexplained pain after the 6-month postoperative period occurred in 7% of the cohort. The results indicate that patients reporting pain to their surgeons/clinical team postoperatively have lower pain scores on a subjective outcome instrument thus further validating the SRS-22 outcome tool. This reported pain seems to be associated with decreases in other SRS-22 domains. Interestingly, these patients also have lower preoperative pain scores than those without postoperative pain. Study into causes of pain in AIS and whether preoperative education and expectations targeted at this population would positively impact outcomes is warranted, especially because on average patients after AIS surgery have less pain. 3.

  12. Prevalence of hepatitis C in the general population in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slavenburg, S.; Verduyn-Lunel, F.M.; Hermsen, J.T.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Drenth, J.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted by blood-blood contact and this leads to high HCV prevalence in risk populations such as haemophilia patients and intravenous drug users. The prevalence in the general Dutch population is unknown, although it appears to be very low in

  13. The Prevalence of Antithyroid Autoantibodies in Normal Korean Population*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Shik; Lee, Dong Soo; Han, Jin Suk; Cho, Bo Youn; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Munho

    1986-01-01

    The prevalence of antithyroid autoantibodies and the relationship between the presence of autoantibodies and thyroid functions were studied in 848 apparently normal Korean adults with tanned red cell agglutination technique. Results are summarized as follows: 1) The prevalence of antimicrosimal antibody (MCHA) and antithyroglobulin antibody (TGHA) were 4.4% and 1.9% in 458 males, and 12.4% and 5.0% in 390 females, respectively. Both autoantibodies were more prevalent in female (pantithyroid autoantibody of high titer (⩾1:1002) was related to alteration of thyroid functions suggesting the existence of “subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis” state. PMID:15759373

  14. Mental health in Dutch adolescents: a TRAILS report on prevalence, severity, age of onset, continuity and co-morbidity of DSM disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, J; Raven, D; van Oort, F; Hartman, C A; Reijneveld, S A; Veenstra, R; Vollebergh, W A M; Buitelaar, J; Verhulst, F C; Oldehinkel, A J

    2015-01-01

    With psychopathology rising during adolescence and evidence suggesting that adult mental health burden is often due to disorders beginning in youth, it is important to investigate the epidemiology of adolescent mental disorders. We analysed data gathered at ages 11 (baseline) and 19 years from the population-based Dutch TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) study. At baseline we administered the Achenbach measures (Child Behavior Checklist, Youth Self-Report) and at age 19 years the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) to 1584 youths. Lifetime, 12-month and 30-day prevalences of any CIDI-DSM-IV disorder were 45, 31 and 15%, respectively. Half were severe. Anxiety disorders were the most common but the least severe whereas mood and behaviour disorders were less prevalent but more severe. Disorders persisted, mostly by recurrence in mood disorders and chronicity in anxiety disorders. Median onset age varied substantially across disorders. Having one disorder increased subjects' risk of developing another disorder. We found substantial homotypic and heterotypic continuity. Baseline problems predicted the development of diagnosable disorders in adolescence. Non-intact families and low maternal education predicted externalizing disorders. Most morbidity concentrated in 5-10% of the sample, experiencing 34-55% of all severe lifetime disorders. At late adolescence, 22% of youths have experienced a severe episode and 23% only mild episodes. This psychopathology is rather persistent, mostly due to recurrence, showing both monotypic and heterotypic continuity, with family context affecting particularly externalizing disorders. High problem levels at age 11 years are modest precursors of incident adolescent disorders. The burden of mental illness concentrates in 5-10% of the adolescent population.

  15. The problematic internet entertainment use scale for adolescents: prevalence of problem internet use in Spanish high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Honrubia-Serrano, Maria Luisa

    2013-02-01

    Many researchers and professionals have reported nonsubstance addiction to online entertainments in adolescents. However, very few scales have been designed to assess problem Internet use in this population, in spite of their high exposure and obvious vulnerability. The aim of this study was to review the currently available scales for assessing problematic Internet use and to validate a new scale of this kind for use, specifically in this age group, the Problematic Internet Entertainment Use Scale for Adolescents. The research was carried out in Spain in a gender-balanced sample of 1131 high school students aged between 12 and 18 years. Psychometric analyses showed the scale to be unidimensional, with excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.92), good construct validity, and positive associations with alternative measures of maladaptive Internet use. This self-administered scale can rapidly measure the presence of symptoms of behavioral addiction to online videogames and social networking sites, as well as their degree of severity. The results estimate the prevalence of this problematic behavior in Spanish adolescents to be around 5 percent.

  16. Validity of partial protocols to assess the prevalence of periodontal outcomes and associated sociodemographic and behavior factors in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Marco A; Peres, Karen G; Cascaes, Andreia M; Correa, Marcos B; Demarco, Flávio F; Hallal, Pedro C; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Menezes, Ana B

    2012-03-01

    Most studies comparing prevalence of periodontal disease and risk factors by using partial protocols were performed in adult populations, with several studies being conducted in clinical settings. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of partial protocols in estimating the prevalence of periodontal outcomes in adolescents and young adults from two population-based birth cohorts from Pelotas, Brazil, and to assess differences in the estimation and strength of the effect measures when partial protocols are adopted compared to full-mouth examination. Gingival bleeding at probing among adolescents (n = 339) and young adults (n = 720) and dental calculus and periodontal probing depth among young adults were assessed using full-mouth examinations and four partial protocols: Ramfjord teeth (RT), community periodontal index (CPI), and two random diagonal quadrants (1 and 3, 2 and 4). Socioeconomic, demographic, and periodontal health-related variables were also collected. Sensitivity, absolute and relative bias, and inflation factors were calculated. Prevalence ratio for each periodontal outcome for the risk factors was estimated. Two diagonal quadrants showed better accuracy; RT had the worst, whereas CPI presented an intermediate pattern when compared to full-mouth examination. For bleeding assessment in adolescence, RT and CPI underestimated by 18.4% and 16.2%, respectively, the true outcome prevalence, whereas among young adults, all partial protocols underestimated the prevalence. All partial protocols presented similar magnitude of association measures for all investigated periodontal potential risk factors. Two diagonal quadrants protocol may be effective in identifying the risk factors for the most relevant periodontal outcomes in adolescence and in young adulthood.

  17. Prevalence of thinness in children and adolescents in the Seychelles: comparison of two international growth references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Pascal; Kizirian, Nathalie; Madeleine, George; Blössner, Monika; Chiolero, Arnaud

    2011-06-09

    Thinness in children and adolescents is largely under studied, a contrast with abundant literature on under-nutrition in infants and on overweight in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of thinness using two recently developed growth references, among children and adolescents living in the Seychelles, an economically rapidly developing country in the African region. Weight and height were measured every year in all children of 4 grades (age range: 5 to 16 years) of all schools in the Seychelles as part of a routine school-based surveillance program. In this study we used data collected in 16,672 boys and 16,668 girls examined from 1998 to 2004. Thinness was estimated according to two growth references: i) an international survey (IS), defining three grades of thinness corresponding to a BMI of 18.5, 17.0 and 16.0 kg/m2 at age 18 and ii) the WHO reference, defined here as three categories of thinness (-1, -2 and -3 SD of BMI for age) with the second and third named "thinness" and "severe thinness", respectively. The prevalence of thinness was 21.4%, 6.4% and 2.0% based on the three IS cut-offs and 27.7%, 6.7% and 1.2% based on the WHO cut-offs. The prevalence of thinness categories tended to decrease according to age for both sexes for the IS reference and among girls for the WHO reference. The prevalence of the first category of thinness was larger with the WHO cut-offs than with the IS cut-offs while the prevalence of thinness of "grade 2" and thinness of "grade 3" (IS cut-offs) was similar to the prevalence of "thinness" and "severe thinness" (WHO cut-offs), respectively.

  18. Prevalence of thinness in children and adolescents in the Seychelles: comparison of two international growth references

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    Madeleine George

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thinness in children and adolescents is largely under studied, a contrast with abundant literature on under-nutrition in infants and on overweight in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of thinness using two recently developed growth references, among children and adolescents living in the Seychelles, an economically rapidly developing country in the African region. Methods Weight and height were measured every year in all children of 4 grades (age range: 5 to 16 years of all schools in the Seychelles as part of a routine school-based surveillance program. In this study we used data collected in 16,672 boys and 16,668 girls examined from 1998 to 2004. Thinness was estimated according to two growth references: i an international survey (IS, defining three grades of thinness corresponding to a BMI of 18.5, 17.0 and 16.0 kg/m2 at age 18 and ii the WHO reference, defined here as three categories of thinness (-1, -2 and -3 SD of BMI for age with the second and third named "thinness" and "severe thinness", respectively. Results The prevalence of thinness was 21.4%, 6.4% and 2.0% based on the three IS cut-offs and 27.7%, 6.7% and 1.2% based on the WHO cut-offs. The prevalence of thinness categories tended to decrease according to age for both sexes for the IS reference and among girls for the WHO reference. Conclusion The prevalence of the first category of thinness was larger with the WHO cut-offs than with the IS cut-offs while the prevalence of thinness of "grade 2" and thinness of "grade 3" (IS cut-offs was similar to the prevalence of "thinness" and "severe thinness" (WHO cut-offs, respectively.

  19. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Abdominal Obesity among Urban Saudi Adolescents: Gender and Regional Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abahussain, Nada A.; Al-Sobayel, Hana I.; Qahwaji, Dina M.; Alsulaiman, Nouf A.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nutrition transition with associated lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases has rapidly reached many developing countries, including Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity among Saudi adolescents. This school-based multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010 in three major cities in Saudi Arabia: Al-Khobar, Jeddah, and Riyadh. Participants included 2,908 students of secondary schools (1,401 males and 1,507 females) aged 14 to 19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster-sampling technique. Weight, height, and waist-circumference were measured; prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined using age- and sex-specific BMI cutoff reference standards of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Abdominal obesity was determined using waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cutoffs (above 0.5). The prevalence of overweight was 19.5% in males and 20.8% in females while that of obesity was 24.1% in males and 14% in females. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in males and females was 35.9% and 30.3% respectively. Higher prevalence of obesity was observed among adolescents in private schools. Across all ages, overweight and obesity ranged from 39.9% to 45.6% in males and from 30.4% to 38.7% in females. ANCOVA, controlling for age, showed significant interaction effects (city by gender). It is concluded that the proportions of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity, observed among Saudi adolescents were remarkably high. Such high prevalence of overweight and obesity is a major public-health concern. PMID:25895197

  20. The Rise of Concussions in the Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Alan L; Sing, David C; Rugg, Caitlin M; Feeley, Brian T; Senter, Carlin

    2016-08-01

    Concussion injuries have been highlighted to the American public through media and research. While recent studies have shown increased traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) diagnosed in emergency departments across the United States, no studies have evaluated trends in concussion diagnoses across the general US population in various age groups. To evaluate the current incidence and trends in concussions diagnosed across varying age groups and health care settings in a large cross-sectional population. Descriptive epidemiological study. Administrative health records of 8,828,248 members of a large private-payer insurance group in the United States were queried. Patients diagnosed with concussion from years 2007 through 2014 were stratified by year of diagnosis, age group, sex, classification of concussion, and health care setting of diagnosis (eg, emergency department vs physician's office). Chi-square testing was used for statistical analysis. From a cohort of 8,828,248 patients, 43,884 patients were diagnosed with a concussion. Of these patients, 55% were male and over 32% were in the adolescent age group (10-19 years old). The highest incidence of concussion was seen in patients aged 15 to 19 years (16.5/1000 patients), followed by those aged 10 to 14 years (10.5/1000 patients), 20 to 24 years (5.2/1000 patients), and 5 to 9 years (3.5/1000 patients). Overall, there was a 60% increase in concussion incidence from 2007 to 2014. The largest increases were in the 10- to 14-year (143%) and 15- to 19-year (87%) age groups. Based on International Classification of Disease-9th Revision classification, 29% of concussions were associated with some form of loss of consciousness. Finally, 56% of concussions were diagnosed in the emergency department and 29% in a physician's office, with the remainder in urgent care clinics or inpatient settings. The incidence of concussion diagnosed in the general US population is increasing, driven largely by a substantial rise in the adolescent

  1. Prevalence and correlates of conduct disorder and problem behavior in Caribbean and Filipino immigrant adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Cécile; Hassan, Ghayda; Measham, Toby; Lashley, Myrna

    2008-08-01

    This study investigates the prevalence and subtypes of conduct disorder (CD) and behavioral problems among youth in two communities characterized by prolonged parent-child separation upon immigration. CD and problem behaviors were assessed in 252 Caribbean-Canadian and Filipino-Canadian adolescents (12-19-year-old) using the DISC-C, the YSR and the CBCL cross-informant construct. Adolescents reported less problem behaviors than their host country peers, despite immigrant background or parent-child separation. The high adolescent-onset CD rate supports the hypothesis that psychosocial stressors play a role in the emergence of the disorder. Specifically, high levels of perceived racism and low collective self-esteem predicted problem behaviors in these youngsters.

  2. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

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    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  3. [Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents from an urban district of Lima, Peru 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Rojas, Gaudi; Cabello-Morales, Emilio; Hernádez-Diaz, Herminio; Loza-Munarriz, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity according to the criteria of the WHO and CDC in adolescents from an urban district of Lima, Peru 2012. This cross-sectional study included 1,743 school children of 12 to 17 years of age selected from ten public and private educational institutions, using a randomized and stratified sample of "conglomerados" (neighborhoods). In the selected schools, weight and height were measured. For the diagnosis of overweight and obesity, criteria from the WHO and CDC were used. For data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. According to the WHO criteria, the prevalence of overweight was 33.7% (95% CI 31.5-36.0) and obesity was 14.4% (95% CI 12.8-16.1). According to CDC criteria, the prevalence of overweight was 26.5% (95% CI 24.4-28.6) and obesity was 13.9% (95% CI 12.3-15.6). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher in males aged 12 and 13 years old and private educational institutions (poverweight and obesity. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, predominantly in male students between 12 and 13 years and private educational institutions. It is necessary to initiate intervention measures that can contribute to the prevention of chronic diseases in adulthood, secondary to obesity in adolescence.

  4. The prevalence of dyslipidemia and associated factors in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Tuba; Demirel, Fatma; Metin, Ayşe

    2017-02-01

    Dyslipidemia increases the frequency and severity of micro and macrovascular complications of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The present study aims to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with clinical and laboratory findings in diabetic children and adolescents. The study included 202 children and adolescents with T1D. Demographic data and laboratory findings were obtained from patients files. Dyslipidemia prevalence was found to be 26.2%. Hypercholesterolemia (15.8%) and hyperglyceridemia (12.9%) were most common findings. Age, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c (A1C) and poor metabolic control were significantly higher in cases with dyslipidemia. Smoking rate was 14.1% in the pubertal group. Poor metabolic control and dyslipidemia was found higher among smokers (pdyslipidemia in patients with T1D. Smoking-related risks should be a part of patient education in the pubertal period.

  5. Social and dental status along the life course and oral health impacts in adolescents: a population-based birth cohort

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    Menezes Ana MB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful social conditions in early life might predispose individuals to dental status which in turn may impact on adolescents' quality of life. Aims To estimate the prevalence of oral health impacts among 12 yr-old Brazilian adolescents (n = 359 and its association with life course socioeconomic variables, dental status and dental services utilization in a population-based birth cohort in Southern Brazil. Methods Exploratory variables were collected at birth, at 6 and 12 yr of age. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (OIDP was collected in adolescence and it was analyzed as a ranked outcome (OIDP from 0 to 9. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance was performed guided by a theoretical determination model. Results The response rate was of 94.4% (n = 339. The prevalence of OIDP = 1 was 30.1% (CI95%25.2;35.0 and OIDP ≥ 2 was 28.0% (CI95%23.2;32.8. The most common daily activity affected was eating (44.8%, follow by cleaning the mouth and smiling (15.6%, and 15.0%, respectively. In the final model mother schooling and mother employment status in early cohort participant's life were associated with OIDP in adolescence. As higher untreated dental caries at age 6 and 12 years, and the presence of dental pain, gingival bleeding and incisal crowing in adolescence as higher the OIDP score. On the other hand, dental fluorosis was associated with low OIDP score. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of adolescent's early life social environmental as mother schooling and mother employment status and the early and later dental status on the adolescent's quality of life regardless family income and use of dental services.

  6. Impact of malocclusion and dentofacial anomalies on the prevalence and severity of dental caries among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Dos Santos Dullius, Angela Isabel; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Scapini, Annarosa; Busato, Adair Luiz Stefanello; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the association between malocclusion/dentofacial anomalies and dental caries among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 509 adolescents aged 11 to 14 years enrolled at public schools in the city of Osório in southern Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a structured questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic variables. A trained examiner recorded the presence of malocclusion (Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI]), traumatic dental injury, and dental caries. Data analysis involved the chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for the multivariable analysis. A total of 44.8% of the adolescents had dental caries (mean DFMT  =  1.33 ± 1.84). The DAI index ranged from 15 to 77 (mean  =  29.0 ± 7.9); 43.6% of the sample had severe malocclusion and 11.6% had traumatic dental injury. The prevalence and severity of dental caries were significantly greater among adolescents with severe malocclusion. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that adolescents with severe or handicapping malocclusion had a 31% greater probability of having dental caries (prevalence ratio: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.02-1.67), independently of demographic, socioeconomic, or clinical aspects. The orthodontic characteristics associated with the occurrence and severity of caries were maxillary irregularity ≥3 mm (P  =  .021) and abnormal molar relationship (P  =  .021). Handicapping malocclusion, maxillary irregularity, and abnormal molar relationship were associated with the occurrence and severity of dental caries. The findings suggest that the prevention and treatment of these conditions can contribute to a reduction in dental caries among adolescents.

  7. Dysmenorrhea in a multiethnic population of adolescent Asian girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2010-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea, its impact, and the treatment-seeking behavior of adolescent Asian girls. A cross-sectional study with 1092 girls from 15 public secondary schools and 3 ethnic groups in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Overall, 74.5% of the girls who had reached menarche had dysmenorrhea; 51.7% of these girls reported that it affected their concentration in class; 50.2% that it restricted their social activities; 21.5% that it caused them to miss school; and 12.0% that it caused poor school performance. Ethnicity and form at school were significantly associated with the poor concentration, absenteeism, and restriction of social and recreational activities attributed to dysmenorrhea. Only 12.0% had consulted a physician, and 53.3% did nothing about their conditions. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence, impact, and management of dysmenorrhea. There is a need for culture-specific education regarding menstruation-related conditions in the school curriculum. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of obesity and its correlates in school going adolescents of Haldwani, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India

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    Shantanu Aggarwal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: With a rising trend of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs in the present world, overweight and obesity has gained importance as it is not only a disease in itself but also risk factor for majority of other NCDs. A dramatic increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescent has raised the concern of various public health physicians especially in developing country like India. Aims & Objective: To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity & its correlates among school going adolescents of Haldwani block. Material & Methods: School based cross sectional study was done among the adolescents of 8th to 12th standard. To calculate the maximum sample size prevalence of obesity was assumed to be 50%, taking absolute error of 5%, design effect of 2 and 10% non-response rate the sample was calculated to be 880, rounded off to 900. Samples were collected from 30 clusters/schools using simple random sampling. Data was collected using a pre-designed, semi-structured and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 13% (CI = 10.8 - 15.2%. Overweight and obesity was found to be significantly associated with urban area, private school, Socio-economic class I, non-vegetarian diet, physical inactivity and playing videogames, working on laptops and computer on univariate analysis. On applying binary logistic regression factors like private schools, socioeconomic class I, non-vegetarian diet and physical inactivity were again found to be significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Prevalence of obesity was found to be more in adolescents having modifiable risk factors. 

  9. Prevalence of obesity and its correlates in school going adolescents of Haldwani, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu Aggarwal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: With a rising trend of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs in the present world, overweight and obesity has gained importance as it is not only a disease in itself but also risk factor for majority of other NCDs. A dramatic increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescent has raised the concern of various public health physicians especially in developing country like India. Aims & Objective: To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity & its correlates among school going adolescents of Haldwani block. Material & Methods: School based cross sectional study was done among the adolescents of 8th to 12th standard. To calculate the maximum sample size prevalence of obesity was assumed to be 50%, taking absolute error of 5%, design effect of 2 and 10% non-response rate the sample was calculated to be 880, rounded off to 900. Samples were collected from 30 clusters/schools using simple random sampling. Data was collected using a pre-designed, semi-structured and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 13% (CI = 10.8 - 15.2%. Overweight and obesity was found to be significantly associated with urban area, private school, Socio-economic class I, non-vegetarian diet, physical inactivity and playing videogames, working on laptops and computer on univariate analysis. On applying binary logistic regression factors like private schools, socioeconomic class I, non-vegetarian diet and physical inactivity were again found to be significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Prevalence of obesity was found to be more in adolescents having modifiable risk factors.  

  10. Prevalence of Anxiety Disorders among Children and Adolescents in Iran: A Systematic Review.

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    Hadi Zarafshan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to conduct a review to investigate the prevalence of anxiety disorders among Iranian children and adolescents.We systematically reviewed the literature up to June 2014. We searched three Persian databases (Magiran, IranMedex and SID and three English databases: PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO. All original studies that investigated the current prevalence of anxiety in a sample of Iranian children and adolescents were entered into the study. All studies conducted on special samples or in special settings were excluded. By searching English databases, we obtained 124 original studies. After removing duplicate papers, 120 articles remained. In the next step, we screened the articles based on their title. In sum, 95 Persian and English articles had relevant titles. After screening based on the abstract and full text, 26 studies remained. After screening based on the full text, all selected studies were qualitatively assessed by two evaluators separately.Twenty five studies were eligible and reported different types of anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobias and panic disorder. The samples varied from 81 to 2996 among studies and their age range was 5 to 18 years. These studies were conducted in different cities of Iran. SCL-90 is a frequently used questionnaire. All anxiety disorders were mostly investigated with the prevalence rates ranging from 6.8% in Saravan to 85% in Bandar Abbas. OCD was the second common study with prevalence rates ranging from 1% in Tabriz to 11.9% in Gorgan.Our findings revealed considerable amount of anxiety disorder among Iranian children and adolescents. Given the fact that anxiety disorder has negative effects on the well-being and function of individuals and can lead to severe problems, this disorder should be considered in mental health programs designed for children and adolescents.

  11. A STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF ANXIETY RELATED DISORDERS AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN RURAL KERALA

    OpenAIRE

    Davis Manuel; Mini John; Rekha N. S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric problem in school going children worldwide. OBJECTIVE This study was done to find the prevalence and risk factors for anxiety disorders in adolescents in rural Kerala. METHODS A school based survey was done among children of 10 to 13 years using SCARED anxiety scale. Specific items in the SCARED scale were used to assess panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social anxiety dis...

  12. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents from an urban district of Lima, Peru 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano-Rojas, Gaudi; Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Medico endocrinólogo pediatra; Cabello-Morales, Emilio; Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Medico endocrinólogo pediatra magíster en Salud Pública; Hernádez-Diaz, Herminio; Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico pediatra; Loza-Munarriz, Cesar; Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico nefrólogo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity according to the criteria of the WHO and CDC in adolescents from an urban district of Lima, Peru 2012. Materials and methods. This cross-sectional study included 1,743 school children of 12 to 17 years of age selected from ten public and private educational institutions, using a randomized and stratified sample of “conglomerados” (neighborhoods). In the selected schools, weight and height were measured. For the diagnosis of ove...

  13. Screen-based behaviour in Czech adolescents is more prevalent at weekends

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    Zdenek Hamrik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the main reasons for recent scientific interest in screen-based behaviour (SB is the relationship between SB and risk of being overweight or obese. The primary mechanism for overweight and obesity is an imbalance of energy intake versus energy expenditure and one reason for the interest in SB is its association with reduced energy expenditure relative to other activities. Objective: The aim of this study is to provide a basic overview of the level and structure of SB in Czech adolescents on the basis of age and gender while taking into account the differences between weekday and weekend screen based activities. Methods: Data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study conducted in May-June 2010 in the Czech Republic were used. The sample consisted of 4365 Czech pupils (48.5% boys; age 11, n = 1406; age 13, n = 1446; age 15, n = 1513. Binomial logistic regression and Chi-square test of independence were used to provide basic comparison on the basis of gender and age groups. Results: The prevalence of SB rise with growing age with the most visible increase in prevalence is between ages 11 and age 13. SB is significantly more prevalent among adolescent boys compared with adolescent girls. Czech adolescents are more likely to not meet the recommendation of 2 hours for watching TV at weekends compared to weekdays. Playing computer games is more common among boys contrary to chatting online, which is more common among girls. The overall patterns of playing computer games and chatting online during weekends were similar to those at weekdays but increased. Conclusions: Most children in the Czech Republic do not meet the limit for total SB time of 4 or fewer hours while the prevalence of SB rises with growing age and at weekends. Interventions and strategies aiming at reducing SB in children focusing on the family and school environment in the Czech Republic are required.

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W. C.; Ho, Rainbow T. H.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in ...

  15. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and associated features in German adolescents: A self-report survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möllmann, Anne; Dietel, Fanny A; Hunger, Antje; Buhlmann, Ulrike

    2017-08-01

    Prior research has not yet investigated the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in adolescents and young adults based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). In the current study, the point prevalence of BDD, comorbid symptoms, and associated features, such as appearance-related suicidality, level of insight or history of plastic surgeries, were examined in a non-clinical sample of German adolescents and young adults (n=308), between 15 and 21 years old, using self-report measures. Eleven participants (3.6%; 95% CI=[1.9, 5.8]) met DSM-5 criteria for BDD. Self-reported BDD (vs. no-BDD) was related to respondents showing significantly more obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and lower degrees of insight regarding appearance concerns. Significantly more adolescents and young adults with vs. without self-reported BDD (36.4% vs. 8.8%) reported appearance-related suicidal ideation. In conclusion, body dysmorphic symptoms are common in adolescents and young adults and are associated with high rates of comorbid symptoms and suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION TO PREVALENCE OF SKIN DISEASES AMONG ADOLESCENTS

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    Toraub Kawshar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pattern of skin diseases in any community is influenced by genetic constitution, climate, socioeconomic status, occupation, education, hygienic standards, customs and quality of medical care. The burden of skin disease also has an impact on the Quality of Life of adolescents. This study aims to investigate the level of awareness and assess the prevalence of different types of skin diseases among adolescents in Mauritius. Material and Methods: 500 adolescents and young adults of both sexes and aged between 11-23 years were recruited. A questionnaire was used to elicit information and to assess the knowledge status of skin diseases and to determine possible risk factors. In addition, a validated questionnaire based on Quality of Life Index was used to determine the psychosocial effect of adolescents suffering from skin diseases. Data was analysed using IBM Statistics SPSS version 20 and Microsoft Excel 2007. Results: Incidence of skin diseases was 22.9% in males and 24.7% females respectively. Acne was the most common skin problems in both gender followed by fungal infection (2.9% in males and eczema (2.4% in females. Climatic conditions (e.g summer, consumption of oily and spicy foods, sports practice and familial history were correlated positively with prevalence of skin diseases. Conclusion: Acne, eczema and fungal infection were the most common skin diseases identified. The findings also indicate that more respondents between 15-19 years old were more prone to skin diseases.

  17. Bullying Victimization (Being Bullied) Among Adolescents Referred for Urgent Psychiatric Consultation: Prevalence and Association With Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nazanin; Roberts, Nasreen; Sutton, Chloe; Axas, Nicholas; Repetti, Leanne

    2015-10-01

    To examine the prevalence of bullying victimization among adolescents referred for urgent psychiatric consultation, to study the association between bullying victimization and suicidality, and to examine the relation between different types of bullying and suicidality. A retrospective chart review was conducted for all adolescents referred to a hospital-based urgent consultation clinic. Our study sample consisted of adolescents with a history of bullying victimization. The Research Ethics Board of Queen's University provided approval. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS (IBM SPSS Inc, Armonk, NY). Chi-square tests were used for sex, suicidal ideation, history of physical and sexual abuse, and time and type of bullying, and an independent sample t test was used for age. The prevalence of bullying victimization was 48.5% (182 of 375). There was a significant association between being bullied and suicidal ideation (P = 0.01), and between sex and suicidal ideation (P ≤ 0.001). Victims of cyberbullying reported more suicidal ideation than those who experienced physical or verbal bullying (P = 0.04). Bullying victimization, especially cyberbullying, is associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation among adolescents referred for psychiatric risk assessment. The detailed history of the type and duration of bullying experienced by the victims should be considered when conducting a psychiatric risk assessment.

  18. Low prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in the Seychelles population aged 50 to 65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerly, Patrick; Madeleine, George; Riesen, Walter; Bovet, Pascal

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and its risk factors are well known in Western countries but few data are available from low- and middle- income countries. We are not aware of systematically collected population- based data on AAA in the African region. We evaluated the prevalence of AAA in a population- based cardiovascular survey conducted in the Republic of Seychelles in 2004 (Indian Ocean, African region). Among the 353 participants aged 50 to 64 years and screened with ultrasound, the prevalence of AAA was 0.3% (95% CI: 0- 0.9) and the prevalence of ectatic dilatations of the abdominal aorta was 1.5% (95% CI: 0.2- 2.8). The prevalence of AAA in the general population seemed lower in Seychelles than in Western countries, despite a high prevalence in Seychelles of risk factors of AAA, such as smoking (in men), high blood pressure and hypercholesterolaemia.

  19. Prevalence and causes of blindness in a tropical African population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has a population of about 2, 654, 244 using the population growth rate of 3.0 percent per year. Egbedore LGA has a population of 49,555 being the projected estimate of the local census done in 1991. Study design: The study was in accordance with World Health Organisation recommendations. 3204 rural dwellers were ...

  20. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in Danish infants, children and adolescents--are we still on a plateau?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Morgen, Camilla; Rokholm, Benjamin; Sjöberg Brixval, Carina

    2013-01-01

    After the worldwide steep increase in child and adolescent overweight and obesity during the last decades, there is now evidence of a levelling off in the prevalence in many countries in the Western world.......After the worldwide steep increase in child and adolescent overweight and obesity during the last decades, there is now evidence of a levelling off in the prevalence in many countries in the Western world....

  1. Prevalence of Temporomandibular Disorder in Children and Adolescents from Public Schools in Southern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghelli, Beatriz; Cardoso, Iara; Porfírio, Melani; Gonçalves, Roberta; Cascalheiro, Sabina; Barreto, Vera; Soeiro, Andreia; Almeida, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in children and adolescents is in the range of 6-68% and can be triggered or aggravated by emotional stress. Aim: The study was to investigate the prevalence of TMD in Portuguese children and adolescents and its association with emotional stress. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 3,260 students aged 5-19 years. The questionnaire was used to assess the presence of TMD, and was applied in a single moment. Results: TMD was observed in 821 (25.2%) students. The most common symptoms of TMD were: if considered tense or nervous (52%), have headaches (36.8%), and habit of clenching or grinding teeth (27.3%). The girls had a 1.36 higher probability of developing TMD than boys (95% CI: 1.14-1.63; p < 0.001); moreover, students from the older age group had a 2.31 higher probability of developing the disorder (95% CI: 1.85-2.89; p < 0.001). Students who considered themselves tense or nervous presented 8.74 higher probability (95% CI: 7.03-10.86; p < 0.001) of developing TMD. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of TMD in children and adolescents in southern Portugal, and revealed a significant association between this dysfunction and the levels of emotional stress. Female students, older students, and those considered tense or nervous have a higher probability of developing TMD. PMID:24741551

  2. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

  3. Clustering of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in Brazilian adolescents: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; Duarte, Paola; dos Santos, Daniela Lopes; Reichert, Felipe Fossati

    2014-07-01

    Few studies have investigated the prevalence and correlates of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases among Brazilian adolescents. We evaluated the clustering of risk factors and their associations with sociodemographic variables. We used a cross-sectional study carried out in 2011 comprising 1132 students aged 14-19 years from Santa Maria, Brazil. The cluster index was created as the sum of the risk factors. For the correlates analysis, a multinomial logistic regression was used. Furthermore, the observed/expected ratio was calculated. Prevalence of individual risk factors studied was as follows: 85.8% unhealthy diets, 53.5% physical inactivity, 31.3% elevated blood pressure, 23.9% overweight, 22.3% excessive drinking alcohol, and 8.6% smoking. Only 2.8% of the adolescents did not present any risk factor, while 21.7%, 40.9%, 23.1%, and 11.5% presented 1, 2, 3, and 4 or more risk factors, respectively. The most prevalent combination was between unhealthy diets and physical inactivity (observed/expected ratio =1.32; 95% CI: 1.16-1.49). Clustering of risk factors was directly associated with age and inversely associated with socioeconomic status. Clustering of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases is high in Brazilian adolescents. Preventive strategies are more likely to be successful if focusing on multiple risk factors, instead of a single one.

  4. Dental erosion: Prevalence and severity among 16-year-old adolescents in Troms, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulic, A; Fredriksen, Ø; Jacobsen, I D; Tveit, A B; Espelid, I; Crossner, C G

    2016-09-01

    To study the prevalence, distribution and severity of dental erosion among 16-year-old adolescents in the Troms region of Norway. Study design: The participants were recruited through the Tromsø-study ("Fit Futures"), and 392 16-year-olds were examined for dental erosion using clinical intraoral photographs. Three calibrated clinicians used the Visual Erosion Dental Examination (VEDE) system to register and grade the dental erosive wear. More than one third (38%) of the participants showed dental erosion on at least one tooth surface, 18% were limited to the enamel, while 20% of the adolescents showed erosive wear extending into the dentine. The occlusal surfaces of the lower first molars, and the palatal surfaces of the maxillary incisors were the most often and most severely affected. Of the participants showing dental erosion, 93% exhibited "cuppings" on the molars, with 48% limited to the enamel and 52% extending into the dentine. The highest prevalence of "cuppings" (73%) was found on the first lower molars, especially the mesiobuccal cusp of the teeth. The prevalence and severity of dental erosion was found to be higher in male than in female participants (p dental erosion among adolescents in Troms and stress the importance of information, early and effective diagnostics and implementation of prevention strategies.

  5. Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Other Clinically Significant Body Image Concerns in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, Jennifer; Kittler, Jennifer; Phillips, Katharine A.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study assessed prevalence and clinical correlates of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders (ED), and other clinically significant body image concerns in 208 consecutively admitted adolescent inpatients. It was hypothesized that adolescents with BDD would have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidality.…

  6. Recognizing Internet Addiction: Prevalence and Relationship to Academic Achievement in Adolescents Enrolled in Urban and Rural Greek High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Alexandraki, Kiriaki; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2013-01-01

    This study aims: a) to estimate the prevalence of internet addiction among adolescents of urban and rural areas in Greece, b) to examine whether the Internet Addiction Test cut-off point is applicable to them and c) to investigate the phenomenon's association with academic achievement. Participants were 2090 adolescents (mean age 16, 1036 males,…

  7. Prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymetry in children and adolescents with interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajnsztejn, Alessandra Bernardes Caturani; Bianco, Bianca; Barbosa, Caio Parente

    2016-01-01

    To describe clinical and epidemiological features of children and adolescents with interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder and to investigate the prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry in this population group. Cross-sectional study including children and adolescents referred for interdisciplinary assessment with learning difficulty complaints, who were given an interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder. The following variables were included in the analysis: sex-related prevalence, educational system, initial presumptive diagnoses and respective prevalence, overall non-verbal learning disorder prevalence, prevalence according to school year, age range at the time of assessment, major family complaints, presence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry, arithmetic deficits, visuoconstruction impairments and major signs and symptoms of non-verbal learning disorder. Out of 810 medical records analyzed, 14 were from individuals who met the diagnostic criteria for non-verbal learning disorder, including the presence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry. Of these 14 patients, 8 were male. The high prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry suggests this parameter can be used to predict or support the diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder. Descrever as características clínicas e epidemiológicas de crianças e adolescentes com transtorno de aprendizagem não verbal, e investigar a prevalência de assimetria inter-hemisférica neste grupo populacional. Estudo transversal que incluiu crianças e adolescentes encaminhados para uma avaliação interdisciplinar, com queixas de dificuldades de aprendizagem e que receberam diagnóstico interdisciplinar de transtorno de aprendizagem não verbal. As variáveis avaliadas foram prevalência por sexo, sistema de ensino, hipóteses diagnósticas iniciais e respectivas prevalências, prevalência de condições em relação à amostra total, prevalência geral do transtorno de aprendizagem não verbal

  8. Prevalence of Spondylolysis and Its Relationship with Low Back Pain in Selected Population

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Sang-Bong; Lee, Sang-Wook

    2011-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of spondylolysis in a selected population and evaluate the association of spondylolysis with low back pain (LBP). Spondylolysis is widespread in the general population but the prevalence of spondylolysis and its relationship with LBP in the Korean population is controversial. Methods A sample of 855 participants (age, 20 to 86 years) from our medical center who underwent multidetector computed tomography (CT) imaging to assess abdominal and urological le...

  9. Prevalence of alcohol and drug consumption and knowledge of drug/alcohol-related sexual assaults among Italian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Villa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol is the most widely used substance among adolescents, exceeding the use of tobacco and illicit drugs. The study aims at investigating the prevalence of alcohol and drug use and prevalence and knowledge of Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault (DFSA among Italian adolescents. Methods: The study population was a sample of 512 students of secondary education (high school from 3 public schools in Milan, Italy. Two hundred and fourty-nine boys and 263 girls aged 15 to 21 years old (M = 16.2, SD = 2.1 answered a specially structured anonymous questionnaire. Results: Recent problem drinking (‘every day’ or ‘once a week’ was reported from 9% (‘wine’ up to 28% (‘beer’ of students. Cannabis and rave drugs usage (ranged from ‘every day’ to ‘once only in a while’ were reported by up to 38% (‘cannabis’ and 2% (‘rave drugs’ of students. Beer was the most popular type of alcoholic beverage (81% with respect to wine (62% and hard liquor (66%. Only a small percentage of participants stated that they were informed about the possible addiction to alcohol (5% and its negative social consequences (3%. Nevertheless, almost all the students (92% declared that alcohol consumption was less dangerous than other psychoactive substances. Finally, most students stated to know DFSA phenomenon (77% and were victims or witness (13% of a DFSA event. Conclusion: Psychoactive substances consumption remains a serious problem among Italian adolescents. For a successful alcohol strategy there is a need to implement preventive measures and counseling approaches in school. Increasing the knowledge of the negative effects of alcohol/drugs use might also lead to a better prevention of the DFSA phenomenon.

  10. Prevalência de hipertensão pulmonar avaliada por ecocardiografia Doppler em uma população de pacientes adolescentes e adultos com fibrose cística Prevalence of pulmonary hypertension evaluated by Doppler echocardiography in a population of adolescent and adult patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Maria Eidt Rovedder

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de hipertensão pulmonar (HP em pacientes com fibrose cística (FC, comparar características clínicas, escore radiológico, função pulmonar e parâmetros ecocardiográficos nos grupos com e sem HP e correlacionar achados ecocardiográficos com características clínicas, escore radiológico e função pulmonar. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal prospectivo em pacientes clinicamente estáveis (idade > 16 anos atendidos por um programa de adultos para FC. Os pacientes foram submetidos a avaliação clínica, ecocardiografia Doppler, testes de função pulmonar e exame radiológico do tórax. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se a velocidade de regurgitação tricúspide (VRT em 37 dos 40 pacientes estudados. A prevalência de HP foi de 49% com um ponte de corte da VRT de 2,5 m/s (18 pacientes e de 30% com um ponte de corte da VRT de 2,8 m/s (11 pacientes. Os valores de saturação periférica de oxigênio (SpO2 em repouso, escore clínico, volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 e capacidade vital forçada (CVF foram significativamente menores no grupo com HP. A VRT correlacionou-se significativamente com SpO2 em repouso (p OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, to compare clinical characteristics, radiographic scores, pulmonary function, and echocardiographic parameters in patients with and without PH, and to correlate echocardiographic findings with clinical characteristics, radiographic scores, and pulmonary function. METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study involving clinically stable patients (aged 16 or older enrolled in an adult CF program. The patients were submitted to clinical evaluation, Doppler echocardiography, pulmonary function tests, and chest X-rays. RESULTS: Tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV was obtained in 37 of the 40 patients studied. The prevalence of PH was 49% with a TRV cut-off of 2.5 m/s (18 patients

  11. How prevalent and morbid are subthreshold manifestations of major depression in adolescents? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrellas, Nicholas W; Biederman, Joseph; Uchida, Mai

    2017-03-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) among youth is a public health concern. Our aim was to examine the current body of knowledge to better characterize the prevalence and morbidity associated with subthreshold forms of MDD among youth. Given that MDD tends to develop gradually over time, we hypothesized a high prevalence and considerable impairment associated with youth suffering from depressive symptoms that fall short of full, syndromic status. A literature search was conducted using PubMed exclusively to identify studies assessing the prevalence and clinical characteristics of subthreshold MDD in adolescents. Six scientific papers that met our priori inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified. All papers sampled adolescents. The prevalence of subthreshold MDD ranged from 5% over the past year, to 29% over the two weeks prior to screening. These papers reported clinically significant morbidity associated with subthreshold MDD among adolescents, with evidence for elevated rates of psychiatric comorbidities, impaired functioning in social and familial domains, increased suicidality, and frequent mental health service utilization. Though we examined a sizeable and diverse sample, we only identified six cross-sectional informative studies for this review. Variability of subthreshold MDD and major outcome definitions across studies, likely limits the specificity of findings. Subthreshold MDD is prevalent among youth, and is associated with emotional and social impairments that reach the level of obtaining clinical care. These findings could lead to early intervention efforts aimed at mitigating the adverse outcomes associated with subthreshold MDD as well as the progression to full syndrome MDD. Our review documents that regardless of whether progression to full diagnostic status occurs, this condition is morbid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents: A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiande; Dong, Yonghai; Chen, Xiaodan; Liu, Yun; Ma, Dongyang; Liu, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Ruizhi; Mao, Xiangqun; Chen, Ting; He, Wei

    2015-08-01

    According to World Health Organization, for every committed suicide there were 20 suicide attempts at least. In the last decade, despite the increasing awareness on suicide attempts among adolescents in China, there has been no comprehensive system reporting vital statistics. Consequently, the prevalence of suicide attempts reported in some studies ranged variedly. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide the first meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies of suicide attempts to fill this gap. Two reviewers independently screened potentially relevant cross-sectional studies of suicide attempts through PubMed-Medline, Embase, Wanfang Data, Chongqing VIP and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases using the core terms 'suicid*'/'suicide attempt*'/'attempted suicide' and 'adolescen*'/'youth'/'child*'/'student*' and 'China'/'Chinese' in the article titles, abstracts and keywords. Chi-square based Q test and I(2) statistic assessed the heterogeneity. Forest plot was used to display results graphically. Potential publication bias was assessed by the funnel plot, Begg's and Egger's test. In total, 43 studies with 200,124 participants met the eligibility criteria. The pooled prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents was 2.94% (95% CI: 2.53%-3.41%). Substantial heterogeneity in prevalence estimates was revealed. Subgroup analyses showed that the prevalence for males was 2.50% (95% CI: 2.08%-3.01%), and for females was 3.17% (95% CI: 2.56%-3.91%). In sum, abstracting across the literatures, the prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents was moderate compared with other countries around the world. Necessary measures should be set out prevent them in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The prevalence of neck pain in the world population: a systematic critical review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejer, René; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of neck pain (NP) in the world population and to identify areas of methodological variation between studies. A systematic search was conducted in five databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, OSH-ROM, and PsycINFO), followed by a screening...... prevalence, Scandinavian countries reported more NP than the rest of Europe and Asia. Prevalence estimates were not affected by age, quality score, sample size, response rate, and different anatomical definitions of NP. NP is a common symptom in the population. As expected, the prevalence increases...

  14. Prevalence and comorbidity of eating disorders among a community sample of adolescents: 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Arribas, Pilar; Plumed, Javier; Gimeno, Natalia; García-Blanco, Ana; Vaz-Leal, Francisco; Luisa Vila, María; Livianos, Lorenzo

    2015-05-30

    The previous literature about comorbidity between eating disorders (ED) and other DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in adolescence has employed cross-sectional studies with clinical samples, where the comorbid disorders were diagnosed retrospectively. The present study aims to overcome these limitations by the analysis of comorbidity in a community population during 2-year follow-up. A semi-structured interview was applied to a teenager sample. Firstly, a cross-sectional and non-randomized study on psychiatric morbidity was conducted with 993 teenagers between the ages of 12 and 16 from five schools. Secondly, 326 students between 14 and 17 years old of one school were reassessed 2 years later in order to detect ED new cases and find associations with previous psychiatric disorders. The ED prevalence was 3.6%. Cross-sectional analysis revealed that 62.9% of individuals with an ED had comorbid disorders: anxiety disorders (51.4%), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (31.4%), oppositional defiant disorder (11.4%), and obsessive compulsive disorder (8.6%). Prospective longitudinal analysis showed an ED incidence rate of 2.76% over the course of 2 years. 22.2% of new cases had received previous psychiatric diagnoses, of which all were anxiety disorders. Thus, ED exhibited a high comorbidity rate among adolescent populations and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon.

  16. Prevalence of odontogenic cysts and tumors among UAE population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natheer Hashim Al-Rawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Odontogenic cysts and tumors are lesions that tend to arise from the tooth apparatus or its remnants. Odontogenic cysts and tumors constitute an important aspect of oral maxillofacial pathology as they can be diagnosed in general dental practice. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of odontogenic cysts and tumors diagnosed in the UAE and to compare the results with findings in the literature. Materials and Methods: Data of odontogenic cysts diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 were collected from the files of the Oral Pathology Laboratory and Oral Surgery Department of Tawam Hospital, UAE. Results: Most of the prevalent odontogenic cysts are radicular cysts (69.1% - followed by dentigerous cysts (7.9%. Among the odontogenic tumors, the most prevalent is odontoma (12.2% followed by ameloblastoma (2.9%. The middle and posterior mandible was the most common anatomic site for the formation of cysts and tumors. In fact, 93.4% of patients over 40 years presented with odontogenic cysts, whereas 6.3% presented with odontogenic tumor. Odontoma as odontogenic tumor was seen mostly in the first and second decades of life. Conclusion: The prevalence of odontogenic cysts was similar to that reported in the literature, with inflammatory cysts occurring most frequently.

  17. Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderstrom, Irina R.

    2007-01-01

    Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

  18. Prevalence of Substance Use in a Rural Teenage Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Wade H.

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed all secondary school students (n=1,175) in rural county school system to assess prevalence rates of substance use for teenagers and their parents. Age, sex, and race were related to frequency and type of substance abuse. Lifestyle variables such as music preferences, sexual activity, and choice of friends also related to substance use.…

  19. Prevalence and predictors of cigarette smoking among Greek urban adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasia Liozidou

    2015-10-01

    Greek adolescents report lower smoking rates than previously reported, yet it is a population experimenting with tobacco products. Electronic cigarette emerged as the third most likely product of experimentation. The social origin of smoking behavior is confirmed, as well as the imperative need to encourage tobacco-free school policies and bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship.

  20. Meeting sexual partners online: associated sexual behaviour and prevalent chlamydia infection among adolescents in Norway: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravningen, Kirsten; Aicken, Catherine Rh; Schirmer, Henrik; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-03-01

    Evidence is mixed as to whether meeting sexual partners online ('internet-partners') is associated with risky sexual behaviour and/or sexually transmitted infection transmission. Accordingly, we sought to estimate the prevalence of reporting various online romantic and sexual activities among Norwegian adolescents, including internet-partners, and the reason for meeting them and to examine differences in sexual behaviour, partnership characteristics and chlamydia infection prevalence among those reporting internet-partners versus those reporting only offline partners. Population-based cross-sectional survey among sexually experienced girls and boys, 15-20 years, using electronic questionnaires and collecting urine samples for Chlamydia trachomatis PCR testing (79% provided both, n=1023). We used logistic regression to examine associations, adjusting for potentially confounding variables. Overall, 30% of both genders reported internet-partners (ever). Boys (but not girls) with internet-partners had higher chlamydia prevalence than those reporting meeting sexual partners only offline (8.1%, 95% CI 4.3% to 13.7% vs 1.6%, 0.5% to 3.7%). Two-thirds of girls and 37% of boys reported meeting their most recent internet-partner to start a romantic relationship, while the remainder did so with the specific intention of having sex. Among both genders, reporting sexual (vs romantic) reasons for meeting their most recent internet-partners was associated with reporting several risky sexual behaviours, including multiple recent sex partners (adjusted OR girls: 3.27, boys: 2.48) and three-fold higher chlamydia prevalence. This population-based study suggests that internet-partners are common among adolescents in Norway, and the reason for meeting them was more strongly associated with additionally reporting sexual risk behaviours and prevalent chlamydia infection than the internet itself as a meeting venue. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  1. Motivos e prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal em adolescentes Reasons and prevalence of body image dissatisfaction in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edio Luiz Petroski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar os motivos e a prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal (IC em adolescentes. Métodos: Participaram do estudo 641 adolescentes de 11 a 17 anos. A imagem corporal foi autoavaliada através da escala de nove silhuetas corporais. Resultados: A prevalência de insatisfação com a IC foi de 60,4% (masculino = 54,5%, feminino = 65,7%; p OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of body image (BI dissatisfaction in adolescents. The study enrolled 641 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the town of Saudades, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of BI dissatisfaction was 60.4% (males = 54.5%, females = 65.7%; p < 0.05. Boys were more likely to wish to increase the size of their body silhouette (26.4% while girls wished to reduce theirs (52.4%. Adolescents from urban areas manifested greater prevalence of BI dissatisfaction and were more likely to want to reduce their body silhouette. The reasons given by these adolescents for why they were dissatisfied with their body images were similar for both sexes (p = 0.156. When analyzed by neighborhood the urban adolescents said that their dissatisfaction was esthetic, whereas the rural adolescents said it was based on self-esteem. An association was detected between perceived BI and the reasons for dissatisfaction. Conclusions: Esthetics, self-esteem and health were the most common reasons for BI dissatisfaction among these adolescents. More than half of them were dissatisfied with their body silhouettes. Therefore, there is a need for interventions by health services and professionals in this age range in order to avoid possible future problems with eating disorders (anorexia, bulimia and vigorexia.

  2. Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome in obese Kuwaiti adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boodai SA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shurooq A Boodai,1 Lynne M Cherry,2 Naveed A Sattar,2 John J Reilly3 1University of Glasgow School of Medicine, Yorkhill Hospitals, Glasgow, Scotland; 2Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland; 3University of Strathclyde Physical Activity for Health Group, School of Psychological Sciences and Health, Glasgow, Scotland Background: Childhood and adolescent obesity is associated with insulin resistance, abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation, liver disease, and compromised vascular function. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MetS in a sample of obese Kuwaiti adolescents, as prevalence data might be helpful in improving engagement with obesity treatment in future. Methods: Eighty obese Kuwaiti adolescents (40 males with a mean (standard deviation age of 12.3 years (1.1 years participated in the present study. All participants had a detailed clinical examination and anthropometry, blood pressure taken, and assessment of fasting levels of C-reactive protein, intracellular adhesion molecule, interleukin-6, fasting blood glucose, insulin, liver function tests (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lipid profile (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment, and adiponectin. MetS was assessed using two recognized criteria modified for use in younger individuals. Results: The cardiometabolic risk factors with highest prevalence of abnormal values included aspartate aminotransferase (88.7% of the sample and insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (67.5%, intracellular adhesion molecule (66.5%, fasting insulin (43.5%, C-reactive protein (42.5%, low

  3. Menstrual pattern and prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school going adolescent girls in a rural block of Haryana: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Sangwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The World Health Organization (WHO has defined adolescence as the age group of 10-19 years. Adolescents in India comprise 19.3% of the total Indian population. Adolescence is a transition phase through which a child becomes an adult. It is characterized by rapid growth and development; physiologically, psychologically and socially. This period is marked by the onset of menarche. Menstruation is a natural, normal biological process experienced by all adolescent girls and women in reproductive age. Objectives To study the menstrual pattern and prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school going adolescent girls in a rural block of Haryana. Methods There were 18 government high and senior secondary schools in block Lakhanmajra. Out of these 5 were exclusively girls’ schools, 10 were co-ed schools and 3 were exclusively boys’ schools. All the 5 schools meant exclusively for girls were included in the study. All girls studying in 6th to 12th classes from these schools, after applying the exclusion criteria were included in the study. Results The mean age at menarche was 12.83±1.326 years. The inter-menstrual interval was 21 to 35 days in majority (80.1% of the adolescent girls and the duration of menstruation was more than 7 days in 9.4% of the girls. Majority of the girls (52.1% reported the duration of menstruation to be 2-3 days.

  4. Determination of the obesity prevalence and affecting risk factors, of eating habits among adolescents

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    Demet Aktas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and the affecting risk factors of obesity and the eating habits among adolescents. Methods: The study is a descriptive in design. The research was carried out between December 2013 and February 2014 at a private university in Ankara. This study was conducted with 260 students. The data were presented as frequencies, mean, standard deviations and were analyzed by test of chi-square, Pearson correlation analysis and logistic regression analysis. Data were collected using an Interview Questionnaire, the Eating Habits Index and anthropometric measurements were performed. Results: The mean age of students was 20.87+/-2.29. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among students were 23.1% and 6.5% respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was related with male gender (p<0.05, family history of obesity (95% CI: 2.22-2.43, fast eating habit (p<0.05, and healthy dietary habits (95% CI: 1.02-2.85. The percents of moderate grade and high grade risk groups of students according to Eating Habits Index were 56.5 and 30.8 respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in this study was determined to be high. The prevention and control of obesity is urgently needed. In this content, comprehensive strategies of intervention propose periodical monitoring, education on pattern of nutrition, and healthy dietary behaviors. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 406-412

  5. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in the paediatric population.

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    Habiballah, Laila; Tubaishat, Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    A paucity of research related to the problem of pressure ulcers in paediatrics is found, with a variety of reported prevalence rates. To record the prevalence, location and categories of PU in the inpatient paediatric wards, and to identify the characteristics of pressure ulcer patients. A descriptive point prevalence study. All paediatric inpatient wards in two hospitals in Jordan. One of which is a university-affiliated hospital and the other a paediatric public hospital. Isolation, burn and emergency units, outpatients' clinics and psychiatric wards were excluded. One sixty six paediatric patients aged from one day up to 18 years from both hospitals. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were included and examined for the existence of pressure ulcers on one day in each hospital by the primary investigator. The European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel classification system was used to categorise each identified ulcer. The characteristics of ulcers were collected as well. Sixteen ulcers were identified in 11 patients, giving a prevalence rate of 6.6%.When Category I ulcers were excluded, the prevalence rate dropped to 2.4%. All except one of the PU patients were being treated in critical care units (n = 10, 90.9%), and most of the ulcers were category one (n = 7, 63.6%) and caused by devices (n = 7, 63.6). The face was the most frequently reported location of PUs (n = 6, 54.5%), followed by the occiput (n = 2, 18.2%). Most PU patients were male (n = 6, 54.5%), and less than 12 months old (n = 8, 72.7%). PU patients had experienced longer hospital stays than patients free from PU (U = 499.0, p = 0.02). Jordanian paediatric patients do have pressure ulcers, with a prevalence rate congruent with previously reported international rates. Most of the ulcers found were caused by devices used in critical care units. This should encourage nurses to pay extra attention to their paediatric patients when they are connected to medical devices. Copyright

  6. Prevalence of dental erosion among 18-year-old adolescents in the borderland districts of Lviv (Ukraine) and Lublin (Poland).

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    Bachanek, Teresa; Hendzel, Barbara; Wolańska, Ewa; Szybinsky, Volodymir; Ogonovsky, Roman; Hrynovets, Volodymir; Samborski, Dariusz; Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Chałas, Renata

    2018-03-14

    Recent epidemiological studies have shown an association between dental erosion occurrence and changes in lifestyle and dietary habits in both developed and developing countries, and now affects different regions of the world. Furthermore, in current literature, studies have shown that the prevalence of erosive tooth wear has increased particularly among the younger population. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and severity of erosive tooth wear among 18-year-old adolescents in the districts of Lviv (Ukraine) and Lublin (Poland). College students (254 subjects) aged 18, living in the Lviv and Lublin districts were examined. Erosive lesions presented in the teeth were assessed on the basis of the BEWE (Basic Erosive Wear Examination) index. Among the 137 patients living in the Lublin district, 70 were females and 67 were males, while in the Lviv district, 60 women and 57 men were examined. In both districts, the following numbers of rural patients were examined: 66 in Lublin district and 56 in Lviv district; for urban inhabitants, the numbers were 71 in Lublin and 61 in Lviv. Analysing the BEWE values, it was noted that higher BEWE values, and resulting from them significant differences were observed in both male and female groups living in Lublin, compared with Lviv inhabitants. Based on clinical examination and statistical analysis, the occurrence of lesions of an erosive character in at least one sextant were observed in 59.85% of patients from Lublin district, and in 42.74% of patients from Lviv district. On the basis of the conducted study in the Polish and Ukrainian groups of 18-year-old adolescents living on the borderland, it can be stated that dental erosion is a problem noticeable in both groups of cohorts, but with higher prevalence in the Lublin district.

  7. Application of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) in a rural, Zulu speaking, adolescent population in South Africa

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    Szabo, Christopher P; Allwood, Clifford W

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken as part of an exploration of the potential risk for future eating disorders in the black female population of South Africa. Previous research has documented eating attitudes suggesting that such a risk exists in urban populations. A translated version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied in a Zulu speaking, rural population (n=361). A prevalence of 3% for abnormal eating attitudes was established. In keeping with the hypothesis, the findings suggest that the risk for developing an eating disorder in a rural population is somewhat lower. In this regard, there does appear to be an urban-rural divide, which may have implications for the prevention of the emergence of eating disorders in black, South African adolescents. However, the validity of the EAT-26 in this population is a consideration in interpreting the data. PMID:16633489

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of depressive disorders in early adolescents in central Norway

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    Larsson Bo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of depressive disorders among adolescents has varied across studies. The present study aims to assess current and lifetime prevalence and characteristics of adolescent Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Dysthymia and Depression NOS among adolescents in Central Norway in addition to socio-demographics and use of mental health care. Method In the Youth and Mental Health Study a representative sample of 2432 junior high school students (mean age 14.9 years, SD = 0.6 from two counties in Central Norway were screened with the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ. A subset of 345 of these adolescents (72.5% girls, 220 high scorers (MFQ = > 26, 74 middle scorers (MFQ 7-25, and 50 low scorers (MFQ Results Almost one in four subjects (23% had life-time depression. Prevalences of current Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Dysthymia and "Double depression" were 2.6%, 1.0% and 0.6%, respectively, and for Depression NOS 6.3%. All depressive disorders were characterized by long duration of episodes with large variations, and for any depressive disorder onset before 12 years of age. In multivariate analyses MDD and Dysthymia were most strongly associated with gender and not living with both biological parents. There was no gender difference for Depression NOS. Although a considerable number of depressed subjects had received mental health care, the reason for contact with services was seldom due to affective symptoms. Less than 20% had been in contact with specialist mental health services. Conclusion High rates of Depression NOS, early onset of depressive episodes, long duration, and low use of specialized services point to the need for improved diagnostic assessment and treatment for young individuals.

  9. Prevalence and severity of DSM-5 eating disorders in a community cohort of adolescents.

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    Smink, Frédérique R E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Hoek, Hans W

    2014-09-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes a considerably revised eating disorder section. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence and severity of eating disorders based on the new DSM-5 criteria in a community cohort of adolescents. This study is part of TRAILS (TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey), a Dutch cohort study on mental health and social development from preadolescence into young adulthood. At baseline, the participants (n = 2,230) were about 11 years old. Body mass index was measured at all four assessment waves. At age 19, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to 1,584 of the participants. A two-stage screening approach was used to estimate the prevalence of DSM-5 eating disorders. Adolescents at high risk for eating disorders (n = 312) were selected for an additional interview administered by eating disorder experts. Of the high-risk group n = 296 (95%) could be interviewed. Among the women, the lifetime prevalence of DSM-5 anorexia nervosa was 1.7%, of bulimia nervosa 0.8% and of binge eating disorder 2.3%. Eating disorders were relatively rare among the men. The severity of most cases was mild to moderate and detection and treatment rates depended on the level of severity. The most common DSM-5 eating disorder diagnoses in adolescents in the community are anorexia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Severity ratings for eating disorders seem valid in terms of both the distribution in the community and the correlation with detection and treatment by health care services. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. High Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Adolescents Undergoing Bariatric Surgery.

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    Xanthakos, Stavra A; Jenkins, Todd M; Kleiner, David E; Boyce, Tawny W; Mourya, Reena; Karns, Rebekah; Brandt, Mary L; Harmon, Carroll M; Helmrath, Michael A; Michalsky, Marc P; Courcoulas, Anita P; Zeller, Meg H; Inge, Thomas H

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among severely obese adolescents or factors that determine its development. We investigated the prevalence of NAFLD in a multicenter cohort of adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery and the factors associated with it. We enrolled 242 adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery between March 2007 and February 2012 at 5 tertiary care centers into a multicenter, prospective observational cohort study. Intraoperative core liver biopsies were collected from 165 subjects; 17 were excluded because of insufficient liver tissue or use of hepatotoxic medications, so 148 remained in the study (mean age, 16.8 ± 1.6 years; median body mass index = 52 kg/m(2)). Liver tissues were analyzed by histology using validated criteria. Hepatic gene expression was analyzed in 67 samples. NAFLD was present in 59% of this predominantly female (72%), white (68%), non-Hispanic (91%) cohort. Of subjects with NAFLD, 24% had borderline and 10% had definite nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Mild fibrosis (stage 2 or lower) was observed in 18% of liver biopsies and stage 3 was observed in 0.7%, but cirrhosis was not detected. Dyslipidemia was present in 78% of subjects, hypertension in 44%, and diabetes in 14%. More severe NAFLD was associated with increasing levels of alanine aminotransferase, fasting glucose level, hypertension (each P adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery in this cohort had NAFLD, yet the prevalence of severe or fibrotic NASH was low. Increasing severity of NAFLD was associated with level of alanine aminotransferase and cardiometabolic risk factors, but not body mass index. Based on gene expression analysis, borderline and definite NASH were associated with abnormal immune function, intestinal cholesterol absorption, and lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Back and neck pain prevalence and their association with physical inactivity domains in adolescents.

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    Scarabottolo, Catarina Covolo; Pinto, R Z; Oliveira, C B; Zanuto, E F; Cardoso, J R; Christofaro, D G D

    2017-09-01

    Back pain affects people of all ages. This may be associated with physical inactivity, and in the case of physical activity in different domains, the relationship with back pain is not clear in the literature. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of low back and neck pain and investigate their association in different domains of physical inactivity. 1011 randomly selected students participated in this study. Neck and back pain were assessed using the Nordic questionnaire, whereas the Baecke Physical Activity questionnaire was used to measure physical activity domains. Separate Binary Logistic Regression models were performed to investigate the association of physical activity domains with neck or back pain. 17.4% of the students reported cervical pain, while 18.0% reported low back pain. Older adolescents had a higher prevalence of cervical pain (24.4%) than younger adolescents (11.9%) (p value pain, being 25.1% in older adolescents and 12.4% in younger (p value pain in the cervical region [OR 0.67 (0.44-0.99)] or back pain [OR 0.60 (0.40-0.91)]. Being inactive in occupational activities was associated with cervical pain [OR 1.49 (1.06-2.10)]. Being inactive in the sports environment presented a marginal relationship with pain in the cervical region [OR 1.41 (0.99-2.02)]. The prevalence of neck and low back pain was higher in older adolescents and physical inactivity in the sporting context and occupational activities could be a risk factor to increase the chances of back pain.

  12. Prevalence of rubella-specific IgG antibodies in unimmunized young female population

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    Jayakrishnan Thayyil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Rubella is a mild self-limiting disease all over the world; nevertheless, it is of significant public health importance due to its teratogenic effect of congenital rubella syndrome. Rubella vaccine is currently not included in the national immunization program in India. Rubella-specific IgG in the unvaccinated population is a marker of previous rubella infection. Rubella IgG estimation in children will provide data for initiation and necessary modification to the immunization strategy. Aims: In this background, this study was conducted with an aim to know the age-specific susceptibility of acquiring rubella infections and future risk of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS among girls. Settings and Design: This was a community-based, observational study. Participants and Methods: The study was conducted at a randomly selected rural area Mavoor Panchayath of Kozhikode District, Kerala, among adolescent girls. The estimation of rubella-specific IgG antibody was done by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. IgG titer value of >15 IU was taken positive, 8-15 IU as equivocal, and <8 IU as negative. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical program for Social science version 16 for Windows. Chi-square test was applied to find out significant difference and Fisher′s exact test wherever applicable. Results: The data and blood sample collection was done from 250 girls. The mean IgG titer was 151.93 ± 128.78 IU, and as per the criteria, 68.3% were positive, 28.5% were negative, and 3.2% were equivocal. At this age, majority (68.3% of the girls get protection by natural infection without any vaccine. Some girls (32% may remain susceptible to infection during adulthood and pregnancy. Conclusions: Natural rubella infection was widely prevalent among child population and at this age. An immunization policy recommending rubella-containing vaccine is highly desirable to prevent rubella and CRS.

  13. Prevalence of overweight misperception and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the United States

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    Kathleen S. Talamayan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight perceptions and weight control behaviors have been documented with underweight and overweight adolescents, yet limited information is available on normal weight adolescents. This study investigates the prevalence of overweight misperceptions and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the U.S. by sociodemographic and geographic characteristics. We examined data from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. A total of 9,714 normal weight U.S. high school students were included in this study. Outcome measures included self-reported height and weight measurements, overweight misperceptions, and weight control behaviors. Weighted prevalence estimates and odds ratios were computed. There were 16.2% of normal weight students who perceived themselves as overweight. Females (25.3% were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than males (6.7% (p < 0.05. Misperceptions of overweight were highest among white (18.3% and Hispanic students (15.2% and lowest among black students (5.8%. Females (16.8% outnumbered males (6.8% in practicing at least one unhealthy weight control behavior (use of diet pills, laxatives, and fasting in the past 30 days. The percentage of students who practiced at least one weight control behavior was similar by ethnicity. There were no significant differences in overweight misperception and weight control behaviors by grade level, geographic region, or metropolitan status. A significant portion of normal weight adolescents misperceive themselves as overweight and are engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These data suggest that obesity prevention programs should address weight misperceptions and the harmful effects of unhealthy weight control methods even among normal weight adolescents.

  14. The prevalence of chronic and episodic migraine in children and adolescents.

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    Ozge, A; Saşmaz, T; Buğdaycı, R; Cakmak, S E; Kurt, A Ö; Kaleağası, S H; Siva, A

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is the most important cause of headache leading to a decrease in the quality of life in children and adolescents. The prevalence of episodic (EM) and chronic migraine (CM) increases with increasing age, which especially focused in recent years. To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of migraine in children and adolescents, we performed this school-based epidemiological study. First part of the study was performed in 2001 that included 5562 children. Second part of the study was performed in 2007 in adolescents including 1155 young. After the main reports published, we made a new analysis in the database that focused on migraine. Totally, 10.4% of the children, predominantly the girls, received the diagnosis of migraine when they grew older (1.7% CM, 8.6% EM). CM frequency increased with increasing ages (doubled at 12 years, P = 0.035). The significant risk factors for having CM were found to be age, gender, and father and sibling headache histories. Most of the clinical characteristics of migraine are far from classical knowledge in children with CM. In adolescents, 18.6% were diagnosed as migraine (1.5%CM, 17.1%EM) with a predominance of girls without age difference. When they reached puberty after 6 years, double the number of cases with CM was headache free. Most of the young changed their headache characteristics during the follow-up period independent from management strategies. Our results showed that CM is an important cause of headache in both children and adolescents with some defining headache characteristics and risk factors concentrated in different age-groups. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  15. Dental erosion, prevalence and risk factors among a group of adolescents in Stockholm County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalsky Jarkander, M; Grindefjord, M; Carlstedt, K

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of dental erosion (DE) among a group of adolescents in Stockholm County. This cross sectional cohort study was conducted at three clinics of the Public Dental Service in Stockholm County. Fifteen and 17 year old adolescents (1335) who scheduled their regular dental health examination were asked to participate. After drop-outs a sample of 1071 individuals, 547 males and 524 females were enrolled in the study. Presence of erosive wear was diagnosed (yes/no) on marker teeth by trained dentists/dental hygienists and photographs were taken. The adolescents answered a questionnaire regarding oral symptoms, dietary and behavioural factors. Two calibrated specialist dentists performed evaluation of the photographs for severity of DE using a modified version of the Simplified Erosion Partial Recording System (SEPRS). DE was clinically diagnosed in 28.3% of 15 years old and 34.3% of 17 years old. Severe erosive wear (grade 3 and 4 according to SEPRS) was found in 18.3% of the adolescents based upon the intra-oral photographs. DE was more prevalent and severe among males than females. Clinically diagnosed erosive lesions correlated significantly with soft drink consumption (p < 0.001), the use of juice or sport drinks as a thirst quencher after exercise (p = 0.006) and tooth hypersensitivity when eating and drinking (p = 0.012). Furthermore, self-assessed gastric reflux was a factor strongly associated with DE (p < 0.001). The study indicated that DE was common among adolescents in Stockholm County and associated with both internal and external risk factors.

  16. Gambling Disorder and Minority Populations: Prevalence and Risk Factors.

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    Okuda, Mayumi; Liu, Weiwei; Cisewski, Jodi A; Segura, Luis; Storr, Carla L; Martins, Silvia S

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies demonstrate disparities in health and health services including gambling disorders (GD) among ethnic and racial minority groups. In this review, we summarize studies examining the prevalence of GD across different ethnic and racial minorities. We describe the sociodemographic subgroup variations at heightened risk for GD and factors associated with GD in racial and ethnic minority groups including gambling availability, comorbid substance use, psychiatric conditions, stress, acculturation, and differences in cultural values and cognitions. We found that research of GD among minority groups is scant, and the prevalence of GD among these groups is at a magnitude of concern. Racial and ethnic minority status in it of itself is not a risk factor for GD but may be a proxy for underlying potential risk factors. The need for prevention and treatment programs for different cultural group remains unmet.

  17. Prevalence of somatoform pain complaints in the German population

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    Hessel, Aike; Beutel, Manfred; Geyer, Michael; Schumacher, Jörg; Brähler, Elmar

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of somatoform pain complaints was assessed in a representative sample of 2050 persons in Germany in the age range from 18 to 92 years by the Screening for Somatoform Symptoms questionnaire [57]. A high percentage of the study participants turned out to complain of serious somatoform pains. Most frequently, back pain (30.5%), joint pain, pain in the arms and/or legs (19.9%) and headache or facial pain (19.5%) were reported. Women complained of more somatoform pain symptoms than men. Pain was higher with an increasing age, lower education, lower income, rural residency, and residency in Eastern Germany. While the prevalence of somatoform pain is high, the majority of patients does not receive adequate psychotherapeutic care but is inadequately treated by somatic treatments. PMID:19742064

  18. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study shows increased prevalence of primary recurrent headaches among adolescents over a four-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsena, Brit A; Dyb, Grete; Hagen, Knut; Stovner, Lars J; Holmen, Turid L; Zwart, John-Anker

    2017-12-29

    Objective Earlier epidemiological studies have shown that headaches are frequent among adolescents, especially girls. In particular, recurrent primary headache disorders such as migraine and tension-type headaches are common complaints in this age group. Headaches are increasingly being recognized as a significant health problem in adolescents and can lead to significant disabilities by affecting their lives, their school performance and their social lives. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of primary headaches among adolescents aged 16-20 years in Norway in two periods. Very few replicate studies have re-evaluated the prevalence of primary headaches in this age range and it is uncertain whether the prevalence is increasing. Methods Two cross-sectional, population-based studies were conducted in Norway from 1995 to 1997 (Young-HUNT 1) and from 1999 to 2001 (Young-HUNT 2). In Young-HUNT 1, 2594 adolescents in 2nd and 3rd grade in upper secondary school (aged 16-20 years) completed a comprehensive questionnaire including one question regarding headache during the last 12 months. In addition, 1730 of the students were interviewed about their headache complaints. In Young-HUNT 2, 2373 adolescents aged 16-20 years completed the same questionnaire and 1655 were interviewed in the same way as the earlier survey. The interviews were performed by trained nurses, and respondents were asked if they had experienced recurrent headache during the last year. If so, the headache was classified as migraine (MI), tensiontype headache (TTH) or non-classifiable headache (NCH). Headache frequency during the past year was recorded according to the following categories: Less than 1 day per month (less than monthly), 1-3 days per month (monthly), 1-5 days per week (weekly), or more than 5 days per week (daily). Results The participation rate was 88% in Young-HUNT 1 and 81% in Young-HUNT 2. The overall prevalence of having had headaches during the last 12 months did not

  19. Association between Dental Erosion and Diet in Brazilian Adolescents Aged from 15 to 19: A Population-Based Study

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    Yêska Paola Costa Aguiar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental erosion is a pathological condition resulting from the irreversible dissolution of the mineralized portion of the teeth, being recognized in modern society as an important cause of loss of tooth structure. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and its association with diet in Brazilian adolescents of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil. A population-based study was conducted on a stratified sample of 675 adolescents aged from 15 to 19 of both sexes using the index proposed by O'Sullivan. Dental examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists (kappa = 0.82. The significance level adopted was 5%. The prevalence of dental erosion was 21%, and the upper central incisors and lateral incisors were the most affected elements, with 50.5% and 40.2%, respectively. The buccal surface showed greater impairment (51.4% and 67.8% of teeth with dental erosion had more than half of the surface of affected area. Most damage was on the enamel (93.5%. There were no statistically significant differences between the occurrence of dental erosion and gender, age, socioeconomic status, self-reported ethnicity, and diet. There was high prevalence of dental erosion in its early stages among adolescents and there were no significant differences in the frequency of the consumption of foods and beverages and the presence of dental erosion.

  20. Association between dental erosion and diet in Brazilian adolescents aged from 15 to 19: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Yêska Paola Costa; dos Santos, Fábio Gomes; Moura, Eline Freitas de Farias; da Costa, Fernanda Clotilde Mariz; Auad, Sheyla Marcia; de Paiva, Saul Martins; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2014-01-01

    Dental erosion is a pathological condition resulting from the irreversible dissolution of the mineralized portion of the teeth, being recognized in modern society as an important cause of loss of tooth structure. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and its association with diet in Brazilian adolescents of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil. A population-based study was conducted on a stratified sample of 675 adolescents aged from 15 to 19 of both sexes using the index proposed by O'Sullivan. Dental examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists (kappa = 0.82). The significance level adopted was 5%. The prevalence of dental erosion was 21%, and the upper central incisors and lateral incisors were the most affected elements, with 50.5% and 40.2%, respectively. The buccal surface showed greater impairment (51.4%) and 67.8% of teeth with dental erosion had more than half of the surface of affected area. Most damage was on the enamel (93.5%). There were no statistically significant differences between the occurrence of dental erosion and gender, age, socioeconomic status, self-reported ethnicity, and diet. There was high prevalence of dental erosion in its early stages among adolescents and there were no significant differences in the frequency of the consumption of foods and beverages and the presence of dental erosion.

  1. Epidemiology of uninvestigated gastrointestinal symptoms in adolescents: a population-based study applying the Rome II questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Sahand; Nouraie, Mehdi; Khademi, Hooman; Baghizadeh, Somayyeh; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2010-07-01

    : Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in early life contribute to a lower quality of life and more persistent GI symptoms during the rest of life. Epidemiologic data on adolescence GI disorders are scarce. We aimed to perform a population-based study to assess the prevalence of GI symptoms in adolescents and their relation to sex, age, and socioeconomic status. : A multistage random sample of Tehran middle and high school students (ages 14-19 years) was selected. A validated Persian version of the Rome II questionnaire was used to measure the frequency of different GI disorders as well as demographic socioeconomic variables. : A total of 1436 participants were enrolled in the study, 736 (51.3%) of whom were men. Mean (SD) age was 16.9 (1.8) years. The frequency of at least 1 GI symptom was 32.4%. The 4 most prevalent GI symptoms were bloating (16.9%), heartburn (4.9%), incontinence (4.3%), and irritable bowel syndrome (4.1%). Bloating, irritable bowel syndrome, and proctalgia fugax were significantly more common in girls (P < 0.05). Incontinence was significantly more prevalent in lower socioeconomic status levels (P = 0.01). In logistic regression, age was a risk factor for abdominal bloating and dysphagea and a protective factor for incontinence. : Our study indicates that GI symptoms are common among adolescents. Girls are more prone to these disorders. Special psychological and medical interventions are necessary for high-risk groups.

  2. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

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    Lindfors Pirjo L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey. The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%; and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%. Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying

  3. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey). The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%); and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%). Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying exposure differed between

  4. Annual Research Review: A Meta-Analysis of the Worldwide Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Salum, Giovanni A.; Sugaya, Luisa S.; Caye, Arthur; Rohde, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature on the prevalence of mental disorders affecting children and adolescents has expanded significantly over the last three decades around the world. Despite the field having matured significantly, there has been no meta-analysis to calculate a worldwide-pooled prevalence and to empirically assess the sources of…

  5. Prevalence and Mental Health Correlates of Witnessed Parental and Community Violence in a National Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi; Hanson, Rochelle; Smith, Daniel; Saunders, Benjamin; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although research suggests that witnessed violence is linked to adverse mental health outcomes among adolescents, little is known about its prevalence or its significance in predicting psychiatric symptoms beyond the contribution of co-occurring risk factors. The purpose of this study was to identify the national prevalence of…

  6. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with Down syndrome-prevalence, determinants, consequences, and interventions: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertapelli, Fabio; Pitetti, Ken; Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2016-10-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) are more likely to be overweight or obese than the general population of youth without DS. To review the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their determinants in youth with DS. The health consequences and the effectiveness of interventions were also examined. A search using MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, and COCHRANE was conducted. From a total of 4280 studies, we included 45 original research articles published between 1988 and 2015. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity varied between studies from 23% to 70%. Youth with DS had higher rates of overweight and obesity than youths without DS. Likely determinants of obesity included increased leptin, decreased resting energy expenditure, comorbidities, unfavorable diet, and low physical activity levels. Obesity was positively associated with obstructive sleep apnea, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and gait disorder. Interventions for obesity prevention and control were primarily based on exercise-based programs, and were insufficient to achieve weight or fat loss. Population-based research is needed to identify risk factors and support multi-factorial strategies for reducing overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with DS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High Prevalence of Inadequate Calcium and Iron Intakes by Mexican Population Groups as Assessed by 24-Hour Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; López-Olmedo, Nancy; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; García-Guerra, Armando; Rivera, Juan A; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    A National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) conducted in Mexico in 1999 identified a high prevalence of inadequate mineral intakes in the population by using 24-h recall questionnaires. However, the 1999 survey did not adjust for within-person variance. The 2012 ENSANUT implemented a more up-to-date 24-h recall methodology to estimate usual intake distributions and prevalence of inadequate intakes. We examined the distribution of usual intakes and prevalences of inadequate intakes of calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc in the Mexican population in groups defined according to sex, rural or urban area, geographic region of residence, and socioeconomic status (SES). We used dietary intake data obtained through the 24-h recall automated multiple-pass method for 10,886 subjects as part of ENSANUT 2012. A second measurement on a nonconsecutive day was obtained for 9% of the sample. Distributions of usual intakes of the 4 minerals were obtained by using the Iowa State University method, and the prevalence of inadequacy was estimated by using the Institute of Medicine's Estimated Average Requirement cutoff. Calcium inadequacy was 25.6% in children aged 1-4 y and 54.5-88.1% in subjects >5 y old. More than 45% of subjects >5 y old had an inadequate intake of iron. Less than 5% of children aged 12 y had inadequate intakes of magnesium, whereas zinc inadequacy ranged from <10% in children aged <12 y to 21.6% in men aged ≥20 y. Few differences were found between rural and urban areas, regions, and tertiles of SES. Intakes of calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc are inadequate in the Mexican population, especially among adolescents and adults. These results suggest a public health concern that must be addressed. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance among obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Ghergherechi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Robabeh Ghergherechi1, Ali Tabrizi21Department of Pediatrics Endocrinology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Students’ Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranPurpose: Obesity is one of the most important nutritional disorders in the world which has an obvious relationship with the incidence of metabolic diseases. Obesity prevalence has increased among children and adolescents during recent decades, leading to a rise in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM II prevalence in these two age brackets. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, and gather metabolic findings in obese children and adolescents.Methods and materials: We studied 110 obese children and adolescents (body mass index > 95th percentile for age and gender 4–18 years of age referred to the endocrine clinic of the Children’s Hospital at Tabriz University in a descriptive cross-sectional study. ­Fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in all subjects were determined. Oral glucose tolerance test after eating 75 g/kg glucose was performed. Homeostatic model assessment was used to ­estimate insulin resistance.Results: Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance prevalence in 68 obese adolescents was 14.7% and 31.8%, respectively. Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was not seen in 23.8% of 42 obese children. No case of DM II was seen. There was a significant statistical difference in glucose (P = 0.003 and insulin (P < 0.001 level at minute 120 in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance compared to obese children and adolescents without impaired glucose tolerance. Rate of insulin resistance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance was greater and had a significant statistical difference (P = 0.03.Conclusion: Obesity has a close relationship with increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in children and adolescents. Oral glucose

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with depression symptoms among school-going adolescents in Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalugya-Sserunjogi, Joyce; Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Ovuga, Emilio; Kiwuwa, Steven M; Musisi, Seggane; Nakimuli-Mpungu, Etheldreda

    2016-01-01

    Depression in adolescents constitutes a global public health concern. However, data on its prevalence and associated factors are limited in low income countries like Uganda. Using a cross-sectional descriptive study design, 519 adolescent students in 4 secondary schools in Mukono district, Uganda, were randomly selected after meeting study criteria. The 4 school types were: boarding mixed (boys and girls) school; day mixed school; girls' only boarding school; and, boys' only boarding school. The 519 participants filled out standardized questionnaires regarding their socio-demographic characteristics and health history. They were then screened for depression using the Children Depression Inventory (CDI) and those with a cut-off of 19 were administered the Mini International Neuro-Psychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents 2.0 (MINI-KID), to ascertain the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM IV) diagnostic types of depression and any co morbidity. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with significant depression symptoms (a score of 19 or more on the CDI). There were 301 (58 %) boys and 218 (42 %) girls with age range 14-16 years and a mean age of 16 years (SD 2.18). Of 519 participants screened with the CDI, 109 (21 %) had significant depression symptoms. Of the 109 participants with significant depression symptoms, only 74 were evaluated with the MINI-KID and of these, 8 (11 %) met criteria for major depression and 6 (8 %) met criteria for dysthymia. Therefore, among participants that were assessed with both the CDI and the MINI-KID (n = 484), the prevalence of depressive disorders was 2.9 %. In this sample, 15 (3.1 %) reported current suicidal ideation. In the logistic regression analyses, significant depression symptoms were associated with single-sex schools, loss of parents and alcohol consumption. This is a cross-sectional study therefore, causal relationships are difficult to

  10. The epidemiology of contact allergy in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Linneberg, Allan; Menné, Torkil

    2007-01-01

    1966 and 2007. The most prevalent contact allergens were nickel, thimerosal, and fragrance mix. The median nickel allergy prevalence was 8.6% (range 0.7-27.8%) and demonstrates that nickel was an important cause of contact allergy in the general population and that it was widespread in both men...

  11. Prevalence of double incontinence, risk and influence on quality of life in a general female population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slieker- ten Hove, Marijke; Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Eijkemans, MJ; Steegers-Theunissen, R. P M; Burger, CW; Vierhout, ME

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) and anal incontinence (AI) are complaints with impact on quality of life (QOL). Few data are available on prevalence of double incontinence (DI) in the general female population. OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of UI, AI, and DI, their associations with age,

  12. Prevalence, comorbidities, and cofactors associated with alcohol consumption among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Mala A; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta B; Abdul Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Bt; Kamaruddin, Rozanim Bt; Sabtu, Mohd Yusoff B

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol is deleterious to physical and mental health as well as social well-being. This study aims to examine the prevalence of alcohol consumption and factors associated with its use among school-going Malaysian adolescents. The Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 employed 2-stage clustering design to Malaysian secondary school respondents aged 12 to 17 years. The prevalence of current alcohol usage was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8-10.07) overall, 11.2% (95% CI: 9.80-12.80) among males, and 23.4 (95% CI: 21.40-25.50) among Chinese students. Multivariate logistic regression showed that adolescents who had used alcohol were more likely to have used substance (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.39; 95% CI: 2.33-4.99), experienced injury (aOR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.20-1.95), and engaged in sexual behaviors (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.12-1.79), and fights (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.08-1.41). The current national policies on alcohol should be strengthened to curb alcohol consumption among adolescents. © 2014 APJPH.

  13. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in adolescents and association with computer and videogame use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Georgia Rodrigues Reis; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Xavier, Michele Katherine Andrade; Correia-Júnior, Marco Aurélio Valois; De Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms in high school adolescents from public schools and its association with electronic device use. The sample consisted of 961 boys and girls aged 14-19 years who answered a questionnaire regarding the use of computers and electronic games, and questions about pain symptoms and physical activity. Furthermore, anthropometric assessments of all volunteers were performed. The chi-squared test and a multiple logistic regression model were used for the inferential analysis. The presence of musculoskeletal pain symptoms was reported by 65.1% of the adolescents, being more prevalent in the thoracolumbar spine (46.9%), followed by pain in the upper limbs, representing 20% of complaints. The mean time of use for computers and electronic games was 1.720 and 583 minutes per week, respectively. The excessive use of electronic devices was demonstrated to be a risk factor for cervical and lumbar pain. Female gender was associated with the presence of pain in different body parts. Presence of a paid job was associated with cervical pain. A high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in adolescents, as well as an increased amount of time using digital devices was observed. However, it was only possible to observe an association between the increased use of these devices and the presence of cervical and low back pain. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in adolescents and association with computer and videogame use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Rodrigues Reis Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This study investigated the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms in high school adolescents from public schools and its association with electronic device use. Methods: The sample consisted of 961 boys and girls aged 14–19 years who answered a questionnaire regarding the use of computers and electronic games, and questions about pain symptoms and physical activity. Furthermore, anthropometric assessments of all volunteers were performed. The chi-squared test and a multiple logistic regression model were used for the inferential analysis. Results: The presence of musculoskeletal pain symptoms was reported by 65.1% of the adolescents, being more prevalent in the thoracolumbar spine (46.9%, followed by pain in the upper limbs, representing 20% of complaints. The mean time of use for computers and electronic games was 1.720 and 583 minutes per week, respectively. The excessive use of electronic devices was demonstrated to be a risk factor for cervical and lumbar pain. Female gender was associated with the presence of pain in different body parts. Presence of a paid job was associated with cervical pain. Conclusion: A high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in adolescents, as well as an increased amount of time using digital devices was observed. However, it was only possible to observe an association between the increased use of these devices and the presence of cervical and low back pain.

  15. Prevalence, comorbidities and outpatient treatment of anorexia and bulimia nervosa in German children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaite, Charlotte; Hoffmann, Falk; Glaeske, Gerd; Bachmann, Christian J

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed at investigating the prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity and outpatient treatment in a sample of German children and adolescents with eating disorders (EDs). Data of a large German statutory health insurance company were analysed and outpatients aged between 10 and 21 years with an ED diagnosis in 2009 were identified. Of 248,558 insured children and adolescents, 1,404 patients (79.9 % females, mean age: 16.7; SD: 3.3 years) matched the inclusion criteria. The large majority of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) were females (94.7 and 92.7 %), on which we focus in the following analyses. The prevalence in females was 0.28 % (AN) and 0.20 % (BN). Psychiatric comorbidity was diagnosed in 59.8 % (AN) and 64.1 % (BN) of patients, respectively. Most patients were treated with psychotherapy (AN: 75.7 %, BN: 78.5 %), 16.4 % (AN) and 20.2 % (BN) of our patients received pharmacotherapy with either antidepressants or antipsychotics. 23.5 % (AN) and 21.1 % (BN) received no treatment with psychotherapy, antidepressants or antipsychotics. This naturalistic study suggests that in young ED outpatients, EDs seem to be underdiagnosed and treatment does not necessarily comply with current guidelines. Therefore, dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge on diagnosis and treatment in children and adolescents with EDs constitutes an important educational goal.

  16. [Prevalence and trend of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Guangdong province, 2002-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, G Y; Dun, Z J; Jiang, Q; Wen, J; Wang, P; Huang, R; Chen, Z H; Li, Z H; Ma, W J; Zhang, Y H

    2016-09-10

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and trend of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents aged 6-17 years between 2002 and 2012 in Guangdong province. Methods: A total of 7 075 children and adolescents aged 6-17 years were selected in Guangdong for nutritional survey in 2002 and a total of 2 319 children and adolescents aged 6-17 years were selected in nine counties/districts of Guangdong for nutritional survey during 2009-2012 through multi-stage random cluster sampling. The body height and weight of all the children and adolescents were measured. Results: The result of 2009-2012 survey indicated the average prevalence of overweight and obesity in the children and adolescents surveyed were 7.3% and 4.5 %, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were higher in boys (8.9% and 6.5%) than in girls (5.3% and 2.2%), in rural area (9.3% and 5.6%) than in urban area (4.7% and 3.2%). Children and adolescents aged 9-11 years had a higher overweight and obesity rates compared with other age groups. Compared with 2002, except for obesity rate in urban girls, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents obviously increased. The increase rate was higher in rural area than urban area and in boys than in girls. Conclusions: Compared with 2002, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Guangdong obviously increased. The prevalence was much higher in boys, those living in rural area and those aged 9-11 years, thus more attention should be paid to them.

  17. Population prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors: What electronic medical records tell us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantxa Catalán-Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Hypertension was the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factor in the Catalan population attended at primary care centers. About two thirds of individuals with hypertension or DM2 were adequately controlled; hypercholesterolemia control was particularly low.

  18. Prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in healthy children and adolescents in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Figueira-Silva Cecília M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and age distribution of Epstein-Barr virus infection varies in different populations and there is little information about the epidemiology of this infection in Brazil. We studied the prevalence of EBV antibodies in a sample of 283 children and adolescents between 1 and 21 years old. The sample was taken from two neighborhoods in Vitória (capital city of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The São Pedro (SP neighborhood represented an area with lower socioeconomic status and the Praias (P neighborhood represented an area with higher SES. Anti-VCA (Virus Capsid Antigen antibodies were detected by ELISA and anti-EBNA (Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen antibodies were detected by an anti-complement immunofluorescence method, both using commercial kits. The results showed an overall prevalence rates of anti-VCA and anti-EBNA of 71% and 54% respectively. The prevalence for both anti-EBV antibodies was higher and probably the infection occurred earlier in the SP neighborhood. Among the various socioeconomic factors studied only low family income and maternal education level were significantly correlated with a higher frequency of positive serology for anti-VCA. These results demonstrate that there is a high prevalence of EBV antibodies in children and adolescents living in Vitória, that occurs more frequently at a younger age in children from families with low socioeconomic status. In addition, the results demonstrate an intermediate age distribution pattern between those reported in developed and underdeveloped countries.

  19. Prevalence of Diabetes and Associated Factors in the Uyghur and Han Population in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Haiying; Pa, Lize; Wang, Ke; Mu, Hebuli; Dong, Fen; Ya, Shengjiang; Xu, Guodong; Tao, Ning; Pan, Li; Wang, Bin; Shan, Guangliang

    2015-10-14

    To estimate the prevalence of diabetes and identify risk factors in the Uyghur and Han population in Xinjiang, China. A cross-sectional study in urban and rural areas in Xinjiang, including 2863 members of the Uyghur population and 3060 of the Han population aged 20 to 80 years, was conducted from June 2013 to August 2013. Data on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and personal history of diabetes were used to estimate the prevalence of diabetes. Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, and lipid profiles were collected to identify risks factors using the multivariate logistic regression model. In urban areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 8.21%, and the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was higher in the Uyghur population (10.47%) than in the Han population (7.36%). In rural areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 6.08%, and it did not differ significantly between the Uyghur population (5.71%) and the Han population (6.59%). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older age, obesity, high triglycerides (TG), and hypertension were all associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur and Han population. Urban residence and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur population. Being an ex-drinker was associated with an increased risk of diabetes and heavy physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of diabetes in the Han population. Our study indicates that diabetes is more prevalent in the Uyghur population compared with the Han population in urban areas. Strategies aimed at the prevention of diabetes require ethnic targeting.

  20. Prevalence of Diabetes and Associated Factors in the Uyghur and Han Population in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Gong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of diabetes and identify risk factors in the Uyghur and Han population in Xinjiang, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study in urban and rural areas in Xinjiang, including 2863 members of the Uyghur population and 3060 of the Han population aged 20 to 80 years, was conducted from June 2013 to August 2013. Data on fasting plasma glucose (FPG and personal history of diabetes were used to estimate the prevalence of diabetes. Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, and lipid profiles were collected to identify risks factors using the multivariate logistic regression model. Results: In urban areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 8.21%, and the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was higher in the Uyghur population (10.47% than in the Han population (7.36%. In rural areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 6.08%, and it did not differ significantly between the Uyghur population (5.71% and the Han population (6.59%. The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older age, obesity, high triglycerides (TG, and hypertension were all associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur and Han population. Urban residence and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C were associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur population. Being an ex-drinker was associated with an increased risk of diabetes and heavy physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of diabetes in the Han population. Conclusions: Our study indicates that diabetes is more prevalent in the Uyghur population compared with the Han population in urban areas. Strategies aimed at the prevention of diabetes require ethnic targeting.

  1. [Childhood Experiences of Adolescents in Boarding Schools. A Comparison with Adolescents in Residential Care and with the General Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Thea; Ohlert, Jeannine; Fegert, Jörg M; Andresen, Sabine; Pohling, Andrea; Allroggen, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Childhood Experiences of Adolescents in Boarding Schools. A Comparison with Adolescents in Residential Care and with the General Population Various studies indicate that students in boarding schools experience a lot of violence during their accommodation. However, it is not proved whether adolescents in boarding schools are also a burdensome group regarding early childhood experiences such as neglect and abuse. The aim of the study was to find out more about the experiences of adolescents in boarding schools and to determine whether there are differences between adolescents in residential care and between the general population. Furthermore, it should be examined whether boys and girls differ in their experiences. In the study, adolescents of boarding schools and of residential care all over Germany, starting at the age of 15 (n = 322), were asked regarding physical and emotional neglect/abuse, light/severe parent violence, negative/positive educational behavior of the parents. The results show that students in boarding schools were less likely to be affected by childhood maltreatment and more likely to have experienced positive parental behavior compared to children in residential care. Compared to the general population, students in boarding schools were more often and more severely affected by parental violence. Moreover, girls had experienced parental violence more often than boys. The results indicate that in boarding schools there is a need for support offers for adolescents with a history of violent experiences and that the risk group should be identified directly at the admission to the school.

  2. Prevalence and predictors of suicidal ideations among school going adolescents in a hilly state of India

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    Durgesh Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent suicide is an important public health issue. Suicidal ideations are often the precursor of suicide and can be targeted by appropriate and timely interventions. Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence of suicide ideation and to study its predictive factors among school going adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in selected senior secondary schools in Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh, India. A pre-validated, self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using Epi info software for windows (CDC Atlanta software for windows. Results: A total of 218 study subjects (30.9%; confidence interval = 27.6–34.5% had suicide ideation. Discussing problems with parents (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.5, having good relations with school teachers (AOR = 0.6 and helpful classmates (AOR = 0.6 lowered the odds of having suicidal ideations. On the contrary, adolescents having worrying issues in family (AOR = 2.5, verbally or physically abused (AOR = 2.8 and body image conscious (AOR = 1.8 had increased odds of suicidal ideations. Conclusions: Suicidal ideation is a common experience among adolescents residing in Shimla district of North India. The supportive environment at home and in school decrease its vulnerability.

  3. Prevalence of migraine in the Canadian household population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage-Morin, Pamela L; Gilmour, Heather

    2014-06-01

    Based on data from the 2010 and 2011 Canadian Community Health Surveys and the 2011 Survey of Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada, this article provides information about migraine among people living in private households. In 2010/2011, an estimated 8.3% of Canadians (2.7 million) reported that they had been diagnosed with migraine by a health professional. Females were more likely than males to report migraine: 11.8% versus 4.7%. Migraine prevalence was highest among people in their 30s and 40s: 17.0% for women and 6.5% for men. Compared with the national figure, the prevalence of migraine was lower in Quebec (6.8%) and higher in Manitoba (9.5%), Nova Scotia (9.1%) and Ontario (8.8%). Among people who reported a migraine diagnosis, 42% took prescription medication for their condition, and 56% incurred medication-related out-of-pocket expenses. Migraine was highly comorbid with depression and affected many aspects of daily life including education, work, sleep, and driving.

  4. Prevalence of co-morbid depression in diabetic population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, K.; Malik, I.; Shehzadi, A.; Mir, K.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is common among diabetic patients and is linked with worse outcomes. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and determinants of depression in patients with established type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: In this cross sectional study, patients with established T2DM were examined consecutively for depression by administering the nine-item PHQ-9. A sample of 112 participants was purposively selected. Differences in characteristics between participants were tested with independent t-test at 5% significance level. Results: One hundred-twelve patients were evaluated, including 41 (36.6%) males, 71 females (63.4%). The mean age of participants was 49.5 ± 12.1 years, with the mean duration of diabetes 8. 7.3 years. Mean PHQ-9 score was 11.9 ± 6.9, with 67 cases (59.8%) achieving the diagnosis of clinically significant depression. Depression was found to be more in females (13.14 ± 6.73) as compared to males (9.97 ± 6.92, p=0.02). A positive correlation was observed between depression and duration of diabetes, whereas a weak positive correlation was noticed between depression and age. However, no significant relationship was observed between depression and type of medication (p=0.094).Conclusions: The study showed high prevalence of depression in patients with T2DM, with higher occurrence in females as compared to males. The risk factors of depression were age and duration of diabetes. (author)

  5. Prevalence of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Riahi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often associated with other psychological problems. Objectives The present study aimed to study the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD who admitted to Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods This was a descriptive/analytic cross-sectional study carried out on 118 outpatient children and adolescents who were selected by convenient sampling. The data were collected using the questionnaire, designed by authors, and were analyzed through descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results The prevalence of comorbid disorders were as follows: anxiety disorders (48.3%; depression (20.33%; bipolar disorder (17.79%; obsessive-compulsive (47.45%; tic and tourette (35.59%, oppositional defiant disorder (43.22%; conduct disorder (11.01%; urinary incontinence (58.47%; communication disorder (9.32%; and learning disorder (21.18%. There was no significant difference between females and males with respect to the prevalence of comorbid disorders. Conclusions Similar to previous studies, we found some comorbid psychiatric disorders with ADHD. The treatment of the disorder can be improved, by more attention to comorbid psychiatric disorders, early diagnosis of them, and using distinct and specific treatment for everyone.

  6. Social anxiety disorder in Saudi adolescent boys: Prevalence, subtypes, and parenting style as a risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazwani, Jaafar Y; Khalil, Shamsun N; Ahmed, Razia A

    2016-01-01

    Available information on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents in Saudi Arabia is limited. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, severity, and subtypes of SAD, and parenting style risk factors associated with SAD in the adolescent. This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools for boys in Abha, Saudi Arabia during the Academic year 2013. To collect the data, a questionnaire eliciting information on background characteristics and parenting style as well as the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Test (LSAS), for the evaluation of SAD, were used. A total of 454 students participated in the study. The age of the participants ranged between 15 and 20 years with a mean of 17.4 years. The prevalence of SAD was 11.7%. Around 36% and 11.4% of the students respectively had severe and more severe forms of SAD. Parenting style such as parental anger, criticism particularly in front of others, exaggerated protection, maltreatment and family provocation emerged as a significant risk factor for SAD. The independent predictors of SAD were a parental provocation and physical or emotional maltreatment by the parent (odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90-8.31 and OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 3.17-5.19, respectively). The prevalence of SAD in secondary school students at Abha is high. Parenting style risk factors for SAD are modifiable. In this context, a national program to improve mental health in this age group is crucial.

  7. Prevalence of eating disorders in female and male adolescents (14-15 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelsås, Einar; Bjørnstrøm, Christian; Götestam, K Gunnar

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to establish the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) in adolescents of both genders. To our knowledge, such data have not previously been published using both DSM-IV and DSM-III-R criteria. The study sample consisted of 1960 adolescents (1026 girls and 934 boys), 14-15 years of age. The participants completed the Survey for Eating Disorders (SEDs), including DSM-III-R and DSM-IV diagnoses for all subcategories of ED. Lifetime prevalence of any ED among girls was 17.9% anorexia nervosa (AN) 0.7%, bulimia nervosa (BN) 1.2%, binge eating disorder (BED) 1.5%, and EDs not otherwise specified (EDNOS) 14.6%. Corresponding numbers for boys for any ED is 6.5%, AN 0.2%, BN 0.4%, BED 0.9%, and EDNOS 5.0%. Our prevalence rates on AN, BN, and BED largely support previous school/community-based studies, while our figures on EDNOS were rather high. Generally, we found high numbers for boys with ED.

  8. Trend Analysis of Bullying Victimization Prevalence in Spanish Adolescent Youth at School.

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    Sánchez-Queija, Inmaculada; García-Moya, Irene; Moreno, Carmen

    2017-06-01

    We analyze trends in bullying victimization prevalence in a representative sample of Spanish adolescent schoolchildren in 2006, 2010, and 2014. We distinguish between reported bullying, which is assessed via the global question in the Revised Bully/Victim Questionnaire by Olweus, and observed bullying, which is a measure developed from the answers that the adolescents gave to specific items that refer to different types of bullying that have been codified as physical, verbal, and relational bullying. For 2006 and 2010/2014, the results show stability in the assessment of reported bullying and an increase in observed bullying, analyzed both globally and within the 3 categories: physical, verbal, and relational. A valid, reliable, and accurate measure to detect cases of bullying is necessary, as is the importance of continuing efforts devoted to raising awareness and the prevention of this phenomenon. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  9. Prevalence of autism and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in Down syndrome: a population-based study.

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    Oxelgren, Ulrika Wester; Myrelid, Åsa; Annerén, Göran; Ekstam, Bodil; Göransson, Cathrine; Holmbom, Agneta; Isaksson, Anne; Åberg, Marie; Gustafsson, Jan; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a population-based group of children and adolescents with Down syndrome, and to relate the findings to level of intellectual disability and to medical conditions. From a population-based cohort of 60 children and adolescents with Down syndrome, 41 individuals (29 males, 12 females; mean age 11y, age range 5-17y) for whom parents gave consent for participation were clinically assessed with regard to ASD and ADHD. The main instruments used were the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham-IV Rating Scale, and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II. High rates of ASD and ADHD were found: 17 (42%) and 14 (34%) of the 41 children met DSM criteria for ASD and ADHD respectively. Children with Down syndrome and coexisting neurodevelopmental/neuropsychiatric disorders in addition to intellectual disability and medical disorders constitute a severely disabled group. Based on the results, we suggest that screening is implemented for both ASD and ADHD, at the age of 3 to 5 years and early school years respectively, to make adequate interventions possible. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  10. Constipation and Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Children and Adolescents: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Clara; Sousa, Ariane Sampaio; Fraga, Luis Gustavo A; Veiga, Maria Luiza; Bastos Netto, José Murillo; Barroso, Ubirajara

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between constipation and lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and nocturnal enuresis in a population-based study. This is a cross-sectional study. The criteria for inclusion were children and adolescents of between 5 and 17 years and who agreed to sign the informed consent form. The study excluded students with neurological problems or who had documented abnormalities of the urinary tract. To identify the presence and severity of LUTD, we used the Voiding Dysfunction Symptom Score (DVSS). To evaluate the presence of constipation, Rome III questionnaire was used. We interviewed 829 children and adolescents, of which 416 (50.18%) were male. The mean (SD) age was 9.1 (±2.9) years. The overall prevalence of LUTD was 9.1%, predominantly in girls (15 versus 3.1%, p  urinary symptoms that are independent predictors of the presence of constipation. The presence of infrequent urination ( p  = 0.004) and holding maneuvers ( p  urinary symptoms, infrequent voiding and holding maneuvers are independent factors of urinary expressions in constipated children. Children with more severe constipation have more prominent urinary symptoms. The presence of enuresis was not associated with constipation.

  11. Prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among children and adolescents in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Wang, Tingting; Liu, Kaihua; Li, Zhanzhan; Xu, Yang; Liu, Yuan; Shi, Wenpei; Chen, Lizhang

    2017-01-19

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the most common childhood neurobehavioural disorder, can produce a series of negative effects on children, adolescents, and even adults as well as place a serious economic burden on families and society. However, the prevalence of ADHD is not well understood in China. The goal of this study was to estimate the pooled prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents in China using a systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, CNKI, Wanfang, Weipu and CBM databases, and relevant articles published from inception to March 1, 2016, that provided the prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents in China were reviewed. The risk of bias in individual studies was assessed using the Risk of Bias Tool for prevalence studies. Pooled-prevalence estimates were calculated with a random-effects model. Sources of heterogeneity were explored using subgroup analyses. Sixty-seven studies with a total of 275,502 individuals were included in this study. The overall pooled-prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents in China was 6.26% (95% CI: 5.36-7.22%) with significant heterogeneity (I 2  = 99.0%, P China is generally consistent with the worldwide prevalence and shows that ADHD affects quite a large number of people under 18 years old. However, a nationwide study is needed to provide more accurate estimations.

  12. Harm Reduction or Harm Introduction? Prevalence and Correlates of E-Cigarette Use Among French Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Laura J; Bazillier-Bruneau, Cécile; Rouëssé, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes are marketed as a tool to give up or reduce cigarette smoking, and their use has risen sharply in recent years. There is concern that use is increasing particularly among adolescents and that they are not being used as a cessation tool but as a novel experience in their own right. The present research assessed prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of e-cigarette use and standard cigarette use and also explored the extent to which e-cigarettes appear to be used as a cessation tool. This was assessed using a questionnaire administered to 1,486 French adolescents aged 16 years. Prevalence of e-cigarette experimentation was high (54%) and comparable to that for standard cigarettes (55%). Furthermore, 20% of those who had experimented with e-cigarettes had never tried standard cigarettes, and among regular smokers of standard cigarettes, intentions to quit were not associated with e-cigarette usage frequency. Experimentation with both e-cigarettes and standard cigarettes was significantly predicted by higher age, higher socioeconomic status, and parental smoking of standard cigarettes (in particular the father). Being male marginally predicted e-cigarette use, whereas being female significantly predicted standard cigarette use. These findings give cause for concern: e-cigarette usage experimentation is extremely high, and is not associated with attempts to quit smoking standard cigarettes. Rather, it is exposing adolescents to a highly addictive drug (nicotine) and may pave the way for a future cigarette habit. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of insufficient physical activity in school adolescents in Peru.

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    Sharma, Bimala; Chavez, Rosemary Cosme; Nam, Eun Woo

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and correlates of insufficient physical activity in adolescents in Peru. METHODS We used a self-administered questionnaire developed from Global school-based Student Health Survey to collect information from secondary school students in North Lima and Callao in 2015. We carried out Poisson regression with robust variance using generalized linear models to estimate the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of insufficient physical activity for its correlates. RESULTS We have found that 78% of the adolescents did not meet the global recommendation of the World Health Organization on physical activity in the last week before the survey. Female respondents (APR = 1.13, 95%CI 1.04-1.21), respondents who perceived themselves as overweight (APR = 1.10, 95%CI 1.03-1.18), and respondents who consumed insufficient vegetables and fruits [no vegetables (APR = 1.30, 95%CI 1.06-1.59), no fruits (APR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.00-1.31) as compared to those who consumed ≥ 2 servings every day in the last seven days] were more likely to report insufficient physical activity. Adolescents who worked after school (APR = 0.92, 95%CI 0.84-0.99), had physical education classes five times per week (APR = 0.94, 95%CI 0.88-0.99), and had parental supervision (APR = 0.92, 95%CI 0.87-0.98) were less likely to report insufficient physical activity. CONCLUSIONS Sex, work after school, perceived body weight, physical education class, parental support, and healthy dietary behaviors were associated with insufficient physical activity. Attempts to improve physical activity should look for ways to enhance leisure-time physical activity, parental support, physical education classes, healthy dietary behaviors, and normal body weight maintenance in adolescents with integrated efforts from the family and school.

  14. [Prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and other eating disorders in adolescent girls in Reus (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesti Baiges, M; Piñol Moreso, J L; Martín Vergara, N; de la Fuente García, M; Riera Solé, A; Bofarull Bosch, J Maria; Ricomá de Castellarnau, G

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by changes in eating patterns associated with a series of psychosocial conflicts, low self-esteem and poor empathy, and an obsession with slimming. The aims of the present study were: 1. To determinate the prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and other eating disorders in a representative sample of adolescent girls between the ages of 12 and 21 living in the city of Reus (Spain). 2. To evaluate the association between eating disorders and alterations on the Eating Attitudes Test-40 (EAT-40), Body Attitudes Test (BAT), and the Aesthetic Body Shape Questionnaire (CIMEC). We performed a cross-sectional observational study in a random sample of adolescent girls aged between 12 and 21 years old. Information was gathered from a structured questionnaire on demographic and anthropometric factors (age, place of birth, education, etc.), clinical examination, clinical interview, DMS-IV diagnostic criteria, and three self-administered tests: EAT-40, BAT and CIMEC. A total of 551 adolescents were analyzed. The mean age was 17.6+/-2.5 years. Diagnostic criteria of anorexia nervosa were found in 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4-2.4), bulimia nervosa in 2.9% (95% CI: 1.7-4.7), and other eating disorders in 5.3% (95% CI: 3.6-7.5). The test showing the greatest alterations was the CIMEC (38%), followed by the BAT (27.1%) and EAT-40 (23.1%). All the adolescents that met the diagnostic criteria of anorexia nervosa showed alterations in all three tests. The high prevalence of eating disorders indicates the need for greater direct involvement among health professionals. The EAT-40, BAT and CIMEC are effective screening instruments for these disorders.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of overweight/obesity among adolescents in an Urban City of North India

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    Ravi Rohilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Obesity and overweight is a growing pandemic affecting millions of adolescents in developed as well as developing countries. Obesity is associated with the onset of major chronic diseases leading to complications and also psychosocial problems in adolescents. The greater concern is that the risks of obesity during childhood will persist into adolescence and adulthood. The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of being overweight and obesity and to study the associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: 1900 adolescents in the age group of 10-19 years were included in the study. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire which included the variables such as going to school by bus or cycle, eating habits, playing video/computer games or outdoor games and sibling count were recorded. Body weight and height were recorded in subjects for calculating body mass index (BMI. International Obesity Task Force (IOTF classification was used for the estimation of being overweight and obese. Results: The mean age of the study subjects was 14.84 years (SD = 2.81. Mean weight increased from 34.7 to 55.09 kg from the age group 10-13 to 17-19 years. Mean height also increased from 1.34 to 1.57 m from the age group 10-13 to 17-19 years. Similarly, the mean body mass index was 19.23 at 10-13 years, followed by 21.11 at 14-16 years and 22.46 at 17-19 years. On binary logistic regression analysis, female gender, bus as a mode of transport, not playing games, and single sibling were found to have independent association with prevalence of being overweight.

  16. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome components in children, adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Levek-Motola, Noa; Kaidar, Kfir; Boyko, Valentina; Tisch, Efrat; Mazor-Aronovitch, Kineret; Graf-Barel, Chana; Landau, Zohar; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Frumkin Ben-David, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children, adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and to assess the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components. The study cohort comprised 326 (168 women) consecutive patients aged 5 to 30 years diagnosed with T1DM and followed up in the Juvenile Diabetes Clinic, Maccabi Health Care Services. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, presence of additional diseases, other medications, HbA1c , triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were obtained. The mean age in the study group was 18.5 ± 6.0 years, and the mean diabetes duration was 8.7 ± 5.0 years. Mean HbA1c level was 8.1 ± 1.3%. Nineteen per cent of the study population was overweight (85th > body mass index obese (body mass index ≥ 95th percentile). Female patients aged 15 ≤ 18 and 18 ≤ 25 years were significantly overweight compared with healthy Israeli women in the same age groups, 33.3% versus 12.7% and 26.3% versus 7.8%, respectively, p 1. There were no obese female patients in the 15 ≤ 18 age group. Among the men in all age groups, there was no difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity compared with healthy men in the general population. There was no difference in the age of onset, disease duration, HbA1c levels, treatment with anti-depressants and associated morbidities between the normal weight, overweight and obese groups. Obese patients had lower levels of HDL and increased prevalence of hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Overweight but not obesity was more prevalent in women with T1DM. Metabolic syndrome and its components were more prevalent among overweight and obese individuals with T1DM than among normal weight individuals. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Prevalence of Internet addiction and its association with social support and other related factors among adolescents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Jing; Li, Yi-Feng; Bi, Linda; Qian, Zhen-Zhong; Lu, Shan-Shan; Feng, Fang; Hu, Cai-Yun; Gong, Feng-Feng; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2016-10-01

    A cross-sectional study design was applied amongst a random sample (n = 10158) of Chinese adolescents. Self-completed questionnaires, including demographic characteristics, Internet use situation, Youth Internet Addiction Test, Youth Social Support Rating Scale and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale were utilized to examine the study objectives. Among the study population, the prevalence rate of Internet addiction was 10.4%, with 1038 (10.2%) moderately and 21 (0.2%) severely addicted to the Internet. Results from the multivariate logistic regression analyses suggested that a variety of related factors have significant effects on Internet addiction (parental control, per capita annual household income, academic performance, the access to Internet, online activities). The correlation coefficients showed that Internet addiction was negatively correlated with social support and positively associated with depression. Social support had a significant negative predictive effect on Internet addiction. The mediating effect of depression between social support and Internet addiction was remarkable. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Parent and adolescent reports in assessing adolescent sleep problems: results from a large population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Yaqoot; Doi, Suhail A R; O'Callaghan, Michael; Williams, Gail; Najman, Jake M; Mamun, Abdullah Al

    2016-09-01

    To compare parent and adolescent reports in exploring adolescent sleep problems and to identify the factors associated with adolescent sleep problem disclosures. Parent (n = 5185) and adolescent reports (n = 5171, age=13.9 ± 0.3 years), from a birth cohort were used to explore adolescent sleep problems. Kappa coefficients were used to assess the agreement, whereas, conditional agreement and disagreement ratios were used to identify the optimal informant. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors affecting adolescent sleep problem disclosure. Parental reports identified only about one-third of the sleep problems reported by adolescents. Whereas adolescent reports identified up to two-thirds of the sleep problems reported by parents. Combined reports of parents and adolescent did not show any considerable difference from the adolescent report. Adolescent and parent health, maternal depression, and family communication were significantly associated with adolescents sleep problem disclosures. Adolescent reports could be used as the preferred source to explore adolescent sleep problems. Parental reports should be used when parents as observers are more reliable reporters, or where adolescents are cognitively unable to report sleep problems. Additionally, the impact of poor health, maternal depression and family communication on sleep problems disclosure should be considered for adolescent sleep problem diagnosis. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in a community sample of Iranian population: Iranian PCOS prevalence study

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    Hosseinpanah Farhad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the heavy burden and impact of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS in reproduction and public health, estimates regarding its prevalence at community levels are limited. We aimed to ascertain prevalence of PCOS in a community based sample using the National Institute of Health (NIH, the Rotterdam consensus (Rott. and the Androgen Excess Society (AES criteria. Methods Using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method, 1126 women were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women of different geographic regions of Iran. PCOS were diagnosed using universal assessment of ultrasonographic parameters, hormonal profiles and clinical histories. Results The mean +/- SD of age of study population was 34.4 +/- 7.6 years. Estimated prevalence of idiopathic hirsutism was 10.9% (95% CI: 8.9-12.9%; 8.3% of women had only oligo/anovulation and 8.0% had only polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS was 7.1% (95% CI: 5.4-8.8% using the NIH definition, 11.7% (95% CI: 9.5-13.7% by AES criteria and 14.6% (95% CI: 12.3-16.9% using the Rott definition. Conclusions At community level, widespread screening of Rotterdam criteria will increase the estimated prevalence of PCOS over twofold. Establishing an explicit and contemporaneous method for definition and screening of each PCOS criteria has important investigational implications and increase the comparability of published research.

  20. Prevalence of insulin resistance and its association with metabolic syndrome criteria among Bolivian children and adolescents with obesity

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    Rodriguez Susana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a one of the most common nutritional disorder worldwide, clearly associated with the metabolic syndrome, condition with implications for the development of many chronic diseases. In the poorest countries of Latin America, malnourishment is still the most prevalent nutritional problem, but obesity is emerging in alarming rates over the last 10 years without a predictable association with metabolic syndrome. The objective of our study was to determine the association between insulin-resistance and components of the metabolic syndrome in a group of Bolivian obese children and adolescents. The second objective was determining the relation of acanthosis nigricans and insulin-resistance. Methods We studied 61 obese children and adolescents aged between 5 and 18 years old. All children underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and fasting blood sample was also obtained to measure insulin, HDL, LDL and triglycerides serum level. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III criteria adapted for children. Results Metabolic syndrome was found in 36% of the children, with a higher rate among males (40% than females (32.2% (p = 0.599. The prevalence of each of the components was 8.2% in impaired glucose tolerance, 42.6% for high triglyceride level, 55.7% for low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and 24.5% for high blood pressure. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR > 3.5 was found in 39.4% of the children, with a higher rate in males (50% than females (29%. A strong correlation was found between insulin resistance and high blood pressure (p = 0.0148 and high triglycerides (p = 0.002. No statistical significance was found between the presence of acanthosis nigricans and insulin resistance. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome has a prevalence of 36% in children and adolescent population in the study. Insulin resistance was very common among

  1. Development of a self-report questionnaire designed for population-based surveillance of gingivitis in adolescents: assessment of content validity and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    QUIROZ, Viviana; REINERO, Daniela; HERNÁNDEZ, Patricia; CONTRERAS, Johanna; VERNAL, Rolando; CARVAJAL, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The major infectious diseases in Chile encompass the periodontal diseases, with a combined prevalence that rises up to 90% of the population. Thus, the population-based surveillance of periodontal diseases plays a central role for assessing their prevalence and for planning, implementing, and evaluating preventive and control programs. Self-report questionnaires have been proposed for the surveillance of periodontal diseases in adult populations world-wide. Objective This study aimed to develop and assess the content validity and reliability of a cognitively adapted self-report questionnaire designed for surveillance of gingivitis in adolescents. Material and Methods Ten predetermined self-report questions evaluating early signs and symptoms of gingivitis were preliminary assessed by a panel of clinical experts. Eight questions were selected and cognitively tested in 20 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years from Santiago de Chile. The questionnaire was then conducted and answered by 178 Chilean adolescents. Internal consistency was measured using the Cronbach’s alpha and temporal stability was calculated using the Kappa-index. Results A reliable final self-report questionnaire consisting of 5 questions was obtained, with a total Cronbach’s alpha of 0.73 and a Kappa-index ranging from 0.41 to 0.77 between the different questions. Conclusions The proposed questionnaire is reliable, with an acceptable internal consistency and a temporal stability from moderate to substantial, and it is promising for estimating the prevalence of gingivitis in adolescents. PMID:28877279

  2. Development of a self-report questionnaire designed for population-based surveillance of gingivitis in adolescents: assessment of content validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana QUIROZ

    Full Text Available Abstract The major infectious diseases in Chile encompass the periodontal diseases, with a combined prevalence that rises up to 90% of the population. Thus, the population-based surveillance of periodontal diseases plays a central role for assessing their prevalence and for planning, implementing, and evaluating preventive and control programs. Self-report questionnaires have been proposed for the surveillance of periodontal diseases in adult populations world-wide. Objective This study aimed to develop and assess the content validity and reliability of a cognitively adapted self-report questionnaire designed for surveillance of gingivitis in adolescents. Material and Methods Ten predetermined self-report questions evaluating early signs and symptoms of gingivitis were preliminary assessed by a panel of clinical experts. Eight questions were selected and cognitively tested in 20 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years from Santiago de Chile. The questionnaire was then conducted and answered by 178 Chilean adolescents. Internal consistency was measured using the Cronbach’s alpha and temporal stability was calculated using the Kappa-index. Results A reliable final self-report questionnaire consisting of 5 questions was obtained, with a total Cronbach’s alpha of 0.73 and a Kappa-index ranging from 0.41 to 0.77 between the different questions. Conclusions The proposed questionnaire is reliable, with an acceptable internal consistency and a temporal stability from moderate to substantial, and it is promising for estimating the prevalence of gingivitis in adolescents.

  3. Prevalence of factors related to active reproductive health behavior: a cross-sectional study Indonesian adolescent

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    Tantut Susanto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Complex and diverse factors are related to reproductive health (RH behavior among adolescents according to the social and cultural context of each countries. This study examined the prevalence of active RH and factors related to active RH behavior among Indonesian adolescents. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,040 of students who were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was developed, including the World Health Organization Illustrative Questionnaire for Interview-Surveys with Young People, pubertal development scale, and sexual activity scale, modified in accordance to the Indonesian context. The data were analyzed using descriptive and comparative statistics, as well as logistic regression analyses. RESULTS The prevalence of active RH behavior were more higher in boys (56.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 50.6% to 62.6% than in girls (43.7%; 95% CI, 37.6% to 49.8%. Negative attitudes towards RH were a factor related to active RH behavior in both boys and girls. Smoking and kind relationship envisioned before marriage (pacaran [courtship] and nikah siri [non-registered marriage] were factors related to active RH behavior in boys; whereas the absence of access to information on substance abuse was an additional factor in girls. Moreover, an interaction was found between access to information on development and smoking (boys and attitudes on RH (girls as independent variables associated with active RH behavior. CONCLUSIONS Sex education for adolescents in Indonesia, particularly in the context of a health promotion program, should be developed based on prevalent social, cultural, and religious values to prevent active RH behavior. Such programs should focus on the kind of relationship envisioned before marriage and smoking for boys and access to information on subtance abuse for girls.

  4. Population and antenatal-based HIV prevalence estimates in a high contracepting female population in rural South Africa

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    Barnighausen Till

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To present and compare population-based and antenatal-care (ANC sentinel surveillance HIV prevalence estimates among women in a rural South African population where both provision of ANC services and family planning is prevalent and fertility is declining. With a need, in such settings, to understand how to appropriately adjust ANC sentinel surveillance estimates to represent HIV prevalence in general populations, and with evidence of possible biases inherent to both surveillance systems, we explore differences between the two systems. There is particular emphasis on unrepresentative selection of ANC clinics and unrepresentative testing in the population. Methods HIV sero-prevalence amongst blood samples collected from women consenting to test during the 2005 annual longitudinal population-based serological survey was compared to anonymous unlinked HIV sero-prevalence amongst women attending antenatal care (ANC first visits in six clinics (January to May 2005. Both surveillance systems were conducted as part of the Africa Centre Demographic Information System. Results Population-based HIV prevalence estimates for all women (25.2% and pregnant women (23.7% were significantly lower than that for ANC attendees (37.7%. A large proportion of women attending urban or peri-urban clinics would be predicted to be resident within rural areas. Although overall estimates remained significantly different, presenting and standardising estimates by age and location (clinic for ANC-based estimates and individual-residence for population-based estimates made some group-specific estimates from the two surveillance systems more predictive of one another. Conclusion It is likely that where ANC coverage and contraceptive use is widespread and fertility is low, population-based surveillance under-estimates HIV prevalence due to unrepresentative testing by age, residence and also probably by HIV status, and that ANC sentinel surveillance over

  5. Article Title: Physical activity in adolescents. Is there scientific evidence of how physical exercise affects sleep in the adolescent population?

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    Joaquín Reverter-Masia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Insomnia is a very common pediatric condition that causes a serious impact on psychophysical performance. The present paper, based on the scientific literature, aims to analyze some questions about how physical activity affects sleep in the adolescent population. Finally, some general and useful recommendations are established for professionals working in this population group.

  6. The relation of parental alcoholism to the prevalence of suicide attempts among hospitalized psychiatric adolescents

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    Katarzyna Krajewska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is the third cause of death at the age group 10–19 in the world. There are inter multiple risk factors of suicidal behaviours. In the case of children of alcoholics the increased number of suicide attempts is explained by genetic predisposition and accumulation of environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to check whether parental alcoholism is associated with the number and repetition of suicide attempts and the age at which the first suicide attempt occurred among hospitalized psychiatric adolescents. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis – based on medical documentation – of 119 patients aged 13–18, treated during 2013–2014 at the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry in Łódź for: schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders, mood disorders, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, behavioural and emotional disorders according to ICD-10. The exclusion criteria were other psychiatric diagnoses, incomplete family history and lack of information about intended self-harm behaviours. The patients were selected at random. The number and repetition of suicide attempts, the age at which the first suicide attempt occurred, parental alcoholism and family history of suicidal behaviours were examined. Analyses were carried out using Statistica 9.1. Results: Parental alcoholism did not statistically significantly affect (p > 0.05the prevalence or repetition of suicide attempts among psychiatrically treated adolescents. The first suicide attempts were not made by adolescents – also considering the gender, diagnosis, and familial suicidal behaviours. Conclusions: In almost half of the examined psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents at least one parent met the parental alcoholism criteria. Suicide attempts occurred in over 50% of the examined patients, with somewhat higher incidence in girls whose parents met the parental alcoholism criteria, as compared to those without parental alcoholism

  7. Trends in Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Danish Infants, Children and Adolescents – Are We Still on a Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt Morgen, Camilla; Rokholm, Benjamin; Sjöberg Brixval, Carina; Schou Andersen, Camilla; Geisler Andersen, Lise; Rasmussen, Mette; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Due, Pernille; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background After the worldwide steep increase in child and adolescent overweight and obesity during the last decades, there is now evidence of a levelling off in the prevalence in many countries in the Western world. Aim To examine whether there still is a plateau in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Danish children and adolescents, or whether the prevalence is decreasing or rising again. Methods The trends in the prevalence rates were based on three data sets providing comparable repeated estimates: 1) the Danish Health Visitors Child Health Database (DHVCHD) with measurements on infant and childhood height and weight from 2002 to 2011 (n up to 39,984), 2) the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) with maternal reports of measured infant and childhood height and weight from 1998 to 2010 (n up to 56,826) and 3) the Danish part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (HBSC) with self-reported information on adolescent height and weight from the years 2002 to 2010 (n = 16,557). Overweight and obesity were categorized according to WHO growth standards. Trends were assessed by repeated point estimates and linear regression analyses providing regression coefficients for changes in per cent per year with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity for infants, children and adolescents showed a mixed pattern of decline, stability and increase (ranging from -1.10 through 0.29 per cent per year with CI’s from -3.10 through 2.37). Overall, there were no consistent statistically significant trends upwards or downwards, although some significant downward trends in childhood and adolescence were observed. Conclusion This study, based on data from 1998 through 2011, showed that the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity among Danish infants, children and adolescents were largely still on a plateau with tendencies for a decline among children and adolescents. PMID:23894553

  8. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in danish infants, children and adolescents--are we still on a plateau?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Schmidt Morgen

    Full Text Available After the worldwide steep increase in child and adolescent overweight and obesity during the last decades, there is now evidence of a levelling off in the prevalence in many countries in the Western world.To examine whether there still is a plateau in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Danish children and adolescents, or whether the prevalence is decreasing or rising again.THE TRENDS IN THE PREVALENCE RATES WERE BASED ON THREE DATA SETS PROVIDING COMPARABLE REPEATED ESTIMATES: 1 the Danish Health Visitors Child Health Database (DHVCHD with measurements on infant and childhood height and weight from 2002 to 2011 (n up to 39,984, 2 the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC with maternal reports of measured infant and childhood height and weight from 1998 to 2010 (n up to 56,826 and 3 the Danish part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (HBSC with self-reported information on adolescent height and weight from the years 2002 to 2010 (n = 16,557. Overweight and obesity were categorized according to WHO growth standards. Trends were assessed by repeated point estimates and linear regression analyses providing regression coefficients for changes in per cent per year with 95% confidence intervals (CI.The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity for infants, children and adolescents showed a mixed pattern of decline, stability and increase (ranging from -1.10 through 0.29 per cent per year with CI's from -3.10 through 2.37. Overall, there were no consistent statistically significant trends upwards or downwards, although some significant downward trends in childhood and adolescence were observed.This study, based on data from 1998 through 2011, showed that the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity among Danish infants, children and adolescents were largely still on a plateau with tendencies for a decline among children and adolescents.

  9. Prevalence of fragrance sensitivity in the American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, Stanley M; Steinemann, Anne C

    2009-03-01

    This study determined the percentages of individuals who report adverse effects from exposure to fragranced products in the U.S. population and in subpopulations of those with asthma or chemical sensitivity. Data were collected through telephone interviews from two geographically weighted, random samples of the continental U.S. in two surveys during 2002-2003 and 2005-2006 (1,057 and 1,058 cases, respectively). Respondents were asked if they find being next to someone wearing a scented product irritating or appealing; if they have headaches, breathing difficulties, or other problems when exposed to air fresheners or deodorizers; and if they are irritated by the scent from laundry products, fabric softeners, or dryer sheets that are vented outside. Results aggregated from both surveys found that 30.5% of the general population reported scented products on others irritating, 19% reported adverse health effects from air fresheners, and 10.9% reported irritation by scented laundry products vented outside. This study reveals that a considerable percentage of the U.S. population reports adverse health effects or irritation from fragranced products, with higher percentages among those with asthma and chemical sensitivity.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of truancy among adolescents in Swaziland: findings from the Global School-Based Health Survey

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    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Educational attainment is an important determinant of diverse health outcomes. Truancy among adolescents jeopardizes chances of achieving their educational goals. Truant behaviors are also associated with various psychosocial problems. There is however limited data on the prevalence and factors associated with truancy among adolescents in Africa. Methods We used data from the Swaziland Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS conducted in 2003 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported truancy within the last 30 days among adolescents. We also assessed the association between self-reported truancy and a selected list of independent variables using logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 7341 students participated in the study. In analysis of available data, 2526 (36.2% and 4470 (63.8% were males and females respectively. The overall prevalence of truancy within the last 30 days preceding the study was 21.6%. Prevalence of truancy was 27.4% (605 and 17.9% (723 in males and females respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, being a male, having been bullied, lower school grades, and alcohol use were positively associated with truancy. Adolescents who perceived themselves as having parental support were less likely to have reported being truant. Conclusion Truancy among adolescents in Swaziland should be regarded as an important social problem as it is relatively prevalent. The design and implementation of intervention programs aimed to reduce truant behaviours should incorporate our knowledge of the factors identified as associated with bullying.

  11. Chronic widespread pain prevalence in the general population: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, P; Steultjens, M; Riskowski, J

    2018-01-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a significant burden in communities. Understanding the impact of population-dependent (e.g., age, gender) and contextual-dependent (e.g. survey method, region, inequality level) factors have on CWP prevalence may provide a foundation for population-based strategies to address CWP. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate the global prevalence of CWP and evaluate the population and contextual factors associated with CWP. A systematic review of CWP prevalence studies (1990-2017) in the general population was undertaken. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine CWP prevalence, and study population data and contextual factors were evaluated using a meta-regression. Thirty-nine manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. Study CWP prevalence ranged from 1.4% to 24.0%, with CWP prevalence in men ranging from 0.8% to 15.3% and 1.7% to 22.1% in women. Estimated overall CWP prevalence was 9.6% (8.0-11.2%). Meta-regression analyses showed gender, United Nations country development status, and human development index (HDI) influenced CWP prevalence, while survey method, region, methodological and reporting quality, and inequality showed no significant effect on the CWP estimate. Globally CWP affects one in ten individuals within the general population, with women more likely to experience CWP than men. HDI was noted to be the socioeconomic factor related to CWP prevalence, with those in more developed countries having a lower CWP prevalence than those in less developed countries. Most CWP estimates were from developed countries, and CWP estimates from countries with a lower socioeconomic position is needed to further refine the global estimate of CWP. This systematic review and meta-analysis updates the current global CWP prevalence by examining the population-level (e.g. age, gender) and contextual (e.g. country development status; survey style; reporting and methodologic quality) factors associated with CWP prevalence. This analyses

  12. Study of prevalence of depression in adolescent students of a public school

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    Vivek Bansal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Three to nine per cent of teenagers meet the criteria for depression at any one time, and at the end of adolescence, as many as 20% of teenagers report a lifetime prevalence of depression. Usual care by primary care physicians fails to recognize 30-50% of depressed patients. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional one-time observational study using simple screening instruments for detecting early symptoms of depression in adolescents. Two psychological instruments were used: GHQ-12 and BDI. Also socio-demographic data (e.g. academic performance, marital harmony of parents, bullying in school, etc was collected in a separate semi-structured performa. Statistical analysis was done with Fisher′s Exact Test using SPSS17. Results: 15.2% of school-going adolescents were found to be having evidence of distress (GHQ-12 score e"14; 18.4% were depressed (BDI score e"12; 5.6% students were detected to have positive scores on both the instruments. Certain factors like parental fights, beating at home and inability to cope up with studies were found to be significantly (P < 0.05 associated with higher GHQ-12 scores, indicating evidence of distress. Economic difficulty, physical punishment at school, teasing at school and parental fights were significantly (P < 0.05 associated with higher BDI scores, indicating depression. Conclusion: The study highlights the common but ignored problem of depression in adolescence. We recommend that teachers and parents be made aware of this problem with the help of school counselors so that the depressed adolescent can be identified and helped rather than suffer silently.

  13. Menstrual disorders and premenstrual symptoms in adolescents: prevalence and relationship to serum calcium and vitamin D concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Afsane; Bahrami-Taghanaki, Hamidreza; Afkhamizadeh, Mozhgan; Avan, Amir; Mazloum Khorasani, Zahra; Esmaeili, Habibollah; Amin, Bahareh; Jazebi, Samine; Kamali, Delaram; Ferns, Gordon A; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2018-03-21

    There have been several studies evaluating the association between vitamin and mineral status and menstrual disturbance. In the present study, we aimed to assess the relationship between the menstrual bleeding pattern and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and calcium levels in adolescent girls. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 897 high school girls from northeastern Iran. The prevalence of hypocalcaemia, normal serum calcium and hypercalcaemia was 27.1, 59.8 and 13.1%, respectively. The menstrual flow of participants differed significantly between the calcium status groups (p = .005). There was no significant association between the symptoms of PMS, as assessed by the questionnaire and serum vitamin D status, or serum calcium concentrations, apart from the irritability. There appears to be an association between serum calcium, menstrual blood loss and irritability in adolescent girls. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Several studies have evaluated the association of vitamin and mineral status with menstrual disturbance, although these relationships are not consistent, specifically among calcium and vitamin D levels with a menstrual bleeding pattern. What do the results of this study add? In the present study, we investigated the correlation of menstrual bleeding patterns and PMS with calcium and vitamin D levels in a large population in adolescent girls. We found that the level of calcium was associated with the level of menstrual blood loss and irritability. However, no significant association was observed between the menstrual bleeding pattern or the PMS symptoms with a vitamin D status. What are the implications of these findings for future clinical practise/research? Further studies are required to assess the value of a calcium adequate intake or a calcium supplementation for the amelioration of PMS and a better understanding the role of calcium in PMS.

  14. Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD symptomatology and psychiatric comorbidity among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in childhood

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    Stephen Walker

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Given the paucity of research on adolescent ADHD, this study aimed to establish the prevalence of DSM-IV ADHD in a cohort of South African adolescents who had been diagnosed with the disorder in childhood. It also aimed to establish the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities and adjustment difficulties in this sample. Method: Data regarding age of diagnosis, current ADHD status, current ADHD-related pharmacological management, current psychopathology and current adjustment were gathered from 64 adolescents and their guardians via self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated with regard to current ADHD status, comorbid psychopathology and adjustment difficulties, as well as current ADHD-related medication. Results: According to parent reports, 59.38% of the sample met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD Inattentive subtype, while 37.50% met the criteria for ADHD Hyperactive/Impulsive subtype. Approximately sixty-four percent (64.06% of the adolescents were still using stimulant medication. Based on the adolescent self-report, 43.75% of the sample reported clinically significant symptoms of psychopathology or maladjustment. Furthermore, 39.28% of the adolescents met the diagnostic criteria for at least one psychiatric comorbidity. Conclusion: ADHD did persist into adolescence in the current sample. A significant psychopathological and maladjustment load appears evident amongst adolescents previously diagnosed with ADHD despite continuous pharmacological management of the condition.

  15. Internet addiction disorder: prevalence in an Italian student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Roberto; Agrimi, Emilia

    2012-02-01

    Internet addiction is one of the latest forms of addiction that has attracted the attention of popular media and researchers in these last few years. Several authors think Internet addiction is a separate disorder that merits inclusion in DSM-V. There is considerable controversy about this opinion. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Internet addiction in a representative sample of high school students attending secondary institutions in the district of Cremona and to assess any difference concerning variables such as gender, age, place of residence and kind of school attended. The Italian version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) has been administered to a sample of 2533 students from different kinds of school. The survey also required social and demographic data. The majority of respondents were classified as normal users of the Internet (n = 2386, 94.19%), with 127 (5.01%) moderately addicted and 20 (0.79%) seriously addicted. Significant differences in gender and in kinds of school were found. No statistical differences were revealed in age and urban or rural conditions. Our study has confirmed the general use of the Internet among youngest people, the emergence of Internet addiction and the male preponderance of this phenomenon.

  16. Prevalence of Contact Allergy to p-Phenylenediamine in the European General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, Thomas L.; Naldi, Luigi; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Ofenloch, Robert; Svensson, Ake

    Population-based studies on contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of contact allergy to PPD and its risk factors in the general population of 5 European countries. A total of 10,425 subjects were interviewed, and a

  17. Back pain in the working population: Prevalence rates in Dutch trades and professions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrandt, V.H.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of three health surveys in the Dutch working population is described, aimed at the identification of Dutch trades and professions with relative high and low prevalence rates of back pain. The sample was representative of the working population in the Netherlands and consisted of 5840 men

  18. Prevalence and correlates of current cigarette smoking among adolescents in East Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziya, S; Muula, A S; Rudatsikira, E

    2008-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates for current cigarette smoking. Secondary analysis of the East Timor-Leste Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in 2006. Public and private schools registered with the Ministry of Education. A two-stage cluster sample of 1790 students in Grades 7 to 9. Schools were selected with probability proportional to enrolment size, and classes were randomly selected in each school. All students in selected classes were eligible to participate in the survey. The school and student response rates were 96.0% and 84.5%, respectively. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking. Out of 1790 adolescents, 52.1% were of ages less than 15 years, 51.8% were males, 42.8% reported having some pocket money in a month, and 72.7% had at least a parent who was a smoker. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 40.3%. Current smokers also reported having bought cigarettes from peddlers (32.4%), someone bought for them (16.7%), got from someone older (13.7%), borrowed (13.3%), and stole (3.4%). Males were more likely to be smokers than females (59.0% versus 19.3%). Factors positively associated with current smoking were: parental smoking; closest friend smoking; amount of pocket money; and exposure t