WorldWideScience

Sample records for adolescent population living

  1. Adolescents' lived experience of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Pernilla Garmy; Sivberg, Bengt

    2003-02-01

    To improve the well-being of adolescents with epilepsy, research is needed on how adolescents cope. In this study, Lazarus' model of stress and coping and Antonovsky's Theory of Sense of Coherence were used as the theoretical framework. The aim was to describe the lived experience of adolescents with epilepsy and their coping skills. The participants were 13-19 years old with an epilepsy diagnosis but without mental retardation or cerebral palsy. The study was performed in southern Sweden at the pediatric department of a university hospital. Semistructured and open-ended interviews were conducted with 13 adolescents. The transcripts were analyzed with manifest and latent content analysis. All the adolescents had developed strategies to cope with the emotional strains caused by epilepsy. They experienced strains from the seizures, limitation of leisure activities, side effects of medication, and feelings of being different. The coping strategies described were finding support, being in control, and experimenting.

  2. Transitional Living Programs for Homeless Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Sara V.; Robertson, Robert M., Jr.

    This report presents a conceptual framework for developing, reviewing, and evaluating transitional living programs (TLPs) for homeless adolescents. It is designed to be used by those in the field who are or will be developing such programs. All TLPs share basic elements and each of these is described so that TLP providers can understand what their…

  3. What Is Adolescence?: Adolescents Narrate Their Lives in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsui, Amy O.; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the lives of Peruvian adolescents in a low-income human settlement outside of Lima. Twenty 12-17 year olds were asked to narrate their own life stories using the life history narrative research method. Holistic content analysis was coupled with a grounded-theory approach to explore these data. Intergenerational responsibility,…

  4. Using Adolescent Literature To Develop Student Pride in Rural Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Lisa A.

    1997-01-01

    Learning activities that promote student pride in rural living include examining the misconceptions and prejudices associated with rural living, exploring the variables of a rural lifestyle, student research of their town's history, and reading books that positively portray rural living. Includes a bibliography of 69 adolescent books with rural…

  5. Supporting the Social Lives of Adolescents Who Are Blind: Research to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Katrina; Lieberman, Lauren; James, Alisa

    2014-01-01

    Seven adolescents who are blind and seven of their parents were interviewed about the adolescents' social lives. Adolescent and parent perspectives are reviewed, followed by implications for teachers to support the social connections of students who are blind.

  6. Adolescents' and Young Adults' Lived Experiences Following Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højen, Anette Arbjerg; Dreyer, Pia S; Lane, Deirdre A;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term, mental well-being of adolescence and young adults diagnosed with venous thromboembolism (VTE) as experienced by the patients has received little attention. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the essential meaning of adolescents' and young adults' lived...... experiences following VTE to gain an in-depth understanding of their long-term, mental well-being. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 Danish patients who were diagnosed with VTE in adolescence or young adulthood. Interviews were analyzed according to a phenomenological hermeneutical...... approach inspired by the French philosopher Paul Ricœur's theory of interpretation. RESULTS: Four themes emerged. Participants described an experience of a creeping loss of youth immortality, a perception of being different, to live with a body in a state of alarm, and feel symptom management insecurity...

  7. Interwoven Lives: Adolescent Mothers and Their Children. Research Monographs in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Thomas L.; Borkowski, John G.; Keogh, Deborah A.; Weed, Keri

    This monograph details the Notre Dame Parenting Project, a comprehensive longitudinal study of the lives of adolescent mothers and their children from pregnancy through the first 8 years of life, describing how their respective developmental trajectories are interwoven and linked to the social contexts in which they live. A total of 281…

  8. Living with type 1 diabetes is challenging for Zambian adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hapunda, Given; Abubakar, Amina; van de Vijver, Fons

    2015-01-01

    by adolescents living with Type 1 Diabetes in Zambia. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were carried out. Three groups of participants involving adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes (n = 10), caregivers (n = 8) and health practitioners (n = 4) were interviewed. Transcripts were analyzed using a thematic approach...... life expectancy, low socioeconomic status and poor social participation. Findings show that there is an urgent need for a strong response from all stakeholders (governments, patients, organizations and companies) to improve diabetes care and living conditions for young people with type 1 diabetes......BACKGROUND: Psychosocial problems are common in patients with diabetes. However, data on psychosocial issues affecting patients with diabetes in Zambia are scarce. The present study explored sources of stress, stress coping strategies, stigma and perceived quality of life and care as experienced...

  9. The Lived Experience of the Adolescent Sex Offender: A Phenomenological Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard-Burnham, Beth; Underwood, Lee A; Speck, Kathryn; Williams, Cyrus; Merino, Carrie; Crump, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for adolescents with sexually maladaptive behaviors is a continuing intervention that is changing and developing as greater understanding about this population of adolescents is obtained. The majority of treatment programs for adolescent sexually maladaptive behavior contain programming components that include cognitive distortions/thinking errors. Interviews including a conceptual mapping exercise were conducted with four adolescents adjudicated to a secure care program for sexual behaviors. All four boys completed an interview and a conceptual map of their perceived experiences as an adolescent with sexual maladaptive behaviors. All interviews were audio recorded. Analysis of the interviews and conceptual mappings yielded five themes present in the boys' experience as well as a consideration of the role early trauma may have in the establishment of cognitive distortion development. Contributing environmental and familial factors also play an important part in sustaining cognitive distortion. Main themes include: loss of responsible father or father figure, inability to regulate emotion, lack of personal and parental boundaries, and early exposure to pornography. The contributing influence of responsible male father figures may play an even greater role in the lives of young males than originally thought. How the adolescent inaccurately perceives his environment--in essence what he tells himself and continues to tell himself to make sense of his world--are building blocks in the development and continuation of thinking errors/cognitive distortions used to commit and justify sexual offending behaviors.

  10. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Sabina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on ‘universal human rights’ are often removed from the reality of adolescent women’s everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women’s understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and ‘rights’ exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on

  11. Persistence of the Intuitive Conception of Living Things in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babai, Reuven; Sekal, Rachel; Stavy, Ruth

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated whether intuitive, naive conceptions of "living things" based on objects' mobility (movement = alive) persist into adolescence and affect 10th graders' accuracy of responses and reaction times during object classification. Most of the 58 students classified the test objects correctly as living/nonliving, yet they demonstrated significantly longer reaction times for classifying plants compared to animals and for classifying dynamic objects compared to static inanimate objects. Findings indicated that, despite prior learning in biology, the intuitive conception of living things persists up to age 15-16 years, affecting related reasoning processes. Consideration of these findings may help educators in their decisions about the nature of examples they use in their classrooms.

  12. Do Adolescents Who Live or Go to School Near Fast Food Restaurants Eat More Frequently From Fast Food Restaurants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Ann; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    This population-based study examined whether residential or school neighborhood access to fast food restaurants is related to adolescents’ eating frequency of fast food. A classroom-based survey of racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (n=2,724) in 20 secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota was used to assess eating frequency at five types of fast food restaurants. Black, Hispanic, and Native American adolescents lived near more fast food restaurants than white and Asian adolescents and also ate at fast food restaurants more often. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographics, adolescent males living near high numbers fast food restaurants ate more frequently from these venues compared to their peers. PMID:23064515

  13. Alternative Schooling Strategies and the Religious Lives of American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E

    2008-12-01

    I analyze the effects of Catholic schooling, Protestant schooling, and homeschooling on adolescents' religious lives and test three mechanisms through which these schooling strategies might influence religiosity: friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors. Data from Wave 1 of the National Survey of Youth and Religion suggest that Catholic schoolers attend religious services more frequently and value their faith more highly than public schoolers, but attend religious education classes and youth group less often. Protestant schoolers' involvement in their local congregation is similar to public schoolers', but their faith plays a more salient role in their life and they are more active in private religious activities. Homeschoolers do not differ significantly from public schoolers on any outcome considered. Moreover, friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors play a very limited role in mediating the relationships between schooling strategies and adolescent religiosity. Interpretations of these findings are presented and discussed.

  14. Hepatitis B vaccination in adolescents living in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo Francisco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Viral hepatitis is an important public health problem in Brazil and around the world.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vaccination coverage against hepatitis B in adolescents and to identify the associated factors and reasons for non-adherence.METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study with sampling by clusters and in two stages, carried out from records of 702 adolescents aged 11 to 19 years old, non-institutionalized, living in an urban area of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, in 2008/2009. The data were obtained from the Health Survey in the city of Campinas (ISACamp.RESULTS: The prevalence of vaccination (3 doses was 72.2%. An independent and negative association with the vaccine was observed for the adolescents who were not born in the municipality. The orientation of a health care provider was positively and significantly associated with vaccination. The main reasons for non-adherence were the lack of orientation and not considering the vaccine necessary. Socioeconomic factors, health behaviors and conditions did not restrict the access to vaccination, but the coverage was below the target established by the Ministry of Health in Brazil.CONCLUSION: Health education programs, addressing the importance of vaccination to prevent the disease; strategies to actively reach out adolescents that did not complete the schedule; as well as orientation from the health care professional about the benefits of the vaccine to the adolescents, parents and guardians can extend the vaccination coverage.

  15. Group Therapy for Adolescents Living With an Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Downey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Group models are commonly used to treat eating disorders; however, research in this area remains largely underdeveloped. Interest in group work is likely to increase due to the demands on the public health system and the cost-effectiveness of group modalities. This scoping review sought to explore the evidence underpinning group therapy for adolescents living with an eating disorder. A literature search of 10 academic databases and four gray literature databases was undertaken in 2013. Selected Internet resources were searched and the author consulted professionals from Eating Disorders Victoria, the Butterfly Foundation, and the University of Melbourne. A total of 11 peer-reviewed articles published between 2003 and 2013 were included for review. There was an overall lack of research with no randomized-controlled trials available. Six program evaluations and five program descriptions were found, and they reported on a range of eating disorders and group modalities. The program evaluations suggested the utility of group therapy for promoting weight restoration in underweight individuals living with an eating disorder. Cognitive behavioral therapy groups were found to be more effective for bulimia nervosa and multifamily group therapy showed promise for anorexia nervosa. More rigorous research is needed to establish the effectiveness of group therapy for adolescents living with an eating disorder.

  16. Oxidative stress in adolescent passive smokers living in urban and rural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Roberto; Bellisario, Valeria; Romanazzi, Valeria; Pirro, Valentina; Piccioni, Pavilio; Pazzi, Marco; Bugiani, Massimiliano; Vincenti, Marco

    2014-03-01

    Purpose of this study was to study the oxidative stress status through the urinary 15-F(2t)-isoprostane (15-F(2t)-isoP) among a group of 168 adolescents, differently exposed to passive tobacco smoke. Subjects were enrolled, with written informed consent, between two populations of students living and attending school in two areas with different levels of urbanization in Piedmont Region, North-Western Italy. A general linear model (GLM) analysis was performed to evaluate the role of air pollution, dependent from selected degree of urbanization and of passive exposure to tobacco smoke, quantified through cotinine, in the synthesis of 15-F(2t)-isoP, measured with ELISA technique. Formaldehyde (FA) concentration in air was also evaluated as a primary confounding factor in oxidative stress but no significant differences between the two sites were found. Conversely, direct relationship between oxidative stress status and residence of adolescents was found: oxidative stress level was 31% higher for adolescents living in Chivasso (urban site) than for those living in Casalborgone (countryside area). Furthermore, also passive tobacco smoke exposure proved to play another important direct role in the distribution of 15-F(2t)-isoP levels (psmoke passively breathed could provide new and useful knowledge for the appraisal of preventive strategies, particularly for young subjects.

  17. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents living in Mthatha, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekokotla, Morongwe Annah; Goswami, Nandu; Sewani-Rusike, Constance Rufaro; Iputo, Jehu Erapu; Nkeh-Chungag, Benedicta Ngwenchi

    2017-01-01

    Objective Metabolic syndrome (MetS), defined as the clustering of three of five risk factors (hypertension, obesity, triglyceridemia, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia), is being increasingly mentioned among children and adolescents despite there being no consensus on how it should be defined in this set of population. Furthermore, very few studies have focused on MetS in children and adolescents in sub-Saharan populations. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the prevalence of the MetS and contributing risk in adolescents living in Mthatha, South Africa. Research design and methods Four hundred and ten adolescents (age range: 13–18 years, both sexes) were recruited into this cross-sectional study. In addition to a lifestyle questionnaire being administered, anthropometric measurements (weight, height and waist circumferences) were carried out for each participant. Fasting venous blood was collected for lipid profile and blood glucose assessments. Blood pressure was also measured. MetS was assessed using appropriate diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents. Results Complete data sets were collected from 371 participants. Females showed an elevation in the risk factors for MetS. Of the 371 participants, 40.2% were overweight/obese (47.5% females; 22.5% males). MetS was diagnosed in 3.1% female participants compared with 6.0% in male participants. Conclusions More risk factors for the MetS are seen among the overweight/obese as compared to lean adolescents. Given the fact that childhood overweight/obesity often continues into adulthood, it is important to address the causes of increased risk for MetS earlier in life to prevent the development of disease in adult life.

  18. Prevalence and comorbidity of mental disorders among adolescents living in residential youth care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefiak, Thomas; Kayed, Nanna Sønnichsen; Rimehaug, Tormod; Wormdal, Anne Kristine; Brubakk, Ann Mari; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Most adolescents are placed in residential youth care (RYC) because of severe psychosocial strains and child maltreatment, which represent risk factors for developing mental disorders. To plan RYC units and ensure that residents receive evidence-based psychiatric interventions, it is necessary to obtain reliable and valid prevalence estimates of mental disorders in this population. However, there is a lacuna of research on diagnoses derived from standardized clinical interviews. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and comorbidity of mental disorders applying diagnostic interviews in an entire population of adolescents living in RYC in Norway. All young people in RYC were invited to participate in the study. Eighty-six RYC institutions with 601 eligible adolescents were included and 400 adolescents, 12-20 years old, participated in the study, yielding a response rate of 67 %. Anonymous Child Behaviour Checklist scores for 141 (70 %) of the declining residents were also available, allowing diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) for 541 youths to be estimated. Diagnoses were assessed by trained interviewers with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment interview (CAPA). Seventy-six point two per cent (71.5-80.8 CI 95 %) of adolescents received at least one 3-month DSM-IV diagnosis. Prevalence rates for internalizing psychiatric disorders were higher than for behavioural disorders. Comorbidity was high between these two groups. Mental disorders were prevalent among children and youth in RYC. Our results create major concerns and challenge the existing organization of the RYC system.

  19. Musculoskeletal symptoms in an adolescent athlete population: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Legault, Élise P; Descarreaux, Martin; Cantin, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain, symptoms or injuries are prevalent in the adolescent athlete population as well as in the general adolescent population, and often have significant consequences on their future musculoskeletal health. However, differences between these two populations in regards to their musculoskeletal health are not known and have not yet been explored. Therefore, the main objectives of this study are to 1) compare the 6-month prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and their...

  20. Psychosocial Correlates of Insomnia in an Adolescent Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomos, Konstantinos E.; Avagianou, Penelope-Alexia; Floros, Georgios D.; Skenteris, Nikolaos; Mouzas, Odysseas D.; Theodorou, Kyriaki; Angelopoulos, Nikiforos V.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the nature of the relationship between psychosocial factors and insomnia complaints in an adolescent non-clinical population. It is a cross-sectional study of a stratified sample of 2,195 Greek adolescent high-school students. Subjects were given the Athens insomnia scale, the Symptom Checklist scale (SCL-90-R) and a…

  1. The Role of Social Networking Sites in Early Adolescents' Social Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antheunis, Marjolijn L.; Schouten, Alexander P.; Krahmer, Emiel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of social networking sites (SNSs) in early adolescents' social lives. First, we investigated the relation between SNS use and several aspects of early adolescents' social lives (i.e., friendship quality, bridging social capital, and bonding social capital). Second, we examined whether there are…

  2. Adolescent Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    As with school age children, it is difficult to make conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments for adolescents because of the differences in instruments, research designs, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  3. Determining the relationship between body compositions and nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Gümüş

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was planned and implemented with the purpose of determining the relationship between the nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages in Ankara and their body compositions. Material and Methods: Research implemented by taking permission from Ethic Council of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine. 198 adolescents (115 boys, 83 girls within the age group 13-18 living in orphanages, constitute the population of the study. Data’s were collected in three stages; in the first stage, the question set developed to determine the nutritional status and habits. In the second stage, food consumption and physical activities of adolescents were recorded. In the third stage, anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: It was found that 69.6% boys and 91.6% of girls skipped meals, and among those skipping meals, 34.8% of boys and 61.4% of girls skipped breakfast most. More than half of boys (63.0% and girls (65.0% were pickers as regards what they eat, 17.2% of adolescents never consumed milk, and 40.9% never consumed red meat. When daily mean energy and nutrient intakes of adolescents were evaluated according to Nutrition Guide Unique for Turkey, boys ate diets insufficient in vitamin A, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium and magnesium, girls ate diets insufficient in energy, vitamin A, Vitamin B1, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Anthropometric measurements of adolescents were within normal limits; however, their activity levels were below those recommended. Conclusion: HEI score for 15.7% of adolescent boys (n=18 were evaluated as “bad” for 80.9% (n=86 as “medium” and for 3.5% (n=6 as “good”. It is recommended that implementing a training program for correcting the diet habits and the knowledge in nutrition of adolescents living in orphanages.

  4. Alternative Schooling Strategies and the Religious Lives of American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E.

    2011-01-01

    I analyze the effects of Catholic schooling, Protestant schooling, and homeschooling on adolescents’ religious lives and test three mechanisms through which these schooling strategies might influence religiosity: friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors. Data from Wave 1 of the National Survey of Youth and Religion suggest that Catholic schoolers attend religious services more frequently and value their faith more highly than public schoolers, but attend religious education classes and youth group less often. Protestant schoolers’ involvement in their local congregation is similar to public schoolers’, but their faith plays a more salient role in their life and they are more active in private religious activities. Homeschoolers do not differ significantly from public schoolers on any outcome considered. Moreover, friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors play a very limited role in mediating the relationships between schooling strategies and adolescent religiosity. Interpretations of these findings are presented and discussed. PMID:21709822

  5. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents living in Mthatha, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekokotla MA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Morongwe Annah Sekokotla,1 Nandu Goswami,2 Constance Rufaro Sewani-Rusike,1 Jehu Erapu Iputo,3 Benedicta Ngwenchi Nkeh-Chungag4 1Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa; 2Gravitational Physiology and Medicine Research Unit, Institute of Physiology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria; 3Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, 4Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa Objective: Metabolic syndrome (MetS, defined as the clustering of three of five risk factors (hypertension, obesity, triglyceridemia, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, is being increasingly mentioned among children and adolescents despite there being no consensus on how it should be defined in this set of population. Furthermore, very few studies have focused on MetS in children and adolescents in sub-Saharan populations. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the prevalence of the MetS and contributing risk in adolescents living in Mthatha, South Africa.Research design and methods: Four hundred and ten adolescents (age range: 13–18 years, both sexes were recruited into this cross-sectional study. In addition to a lifestyle questionnaire being administered, anthropometric measurements (weight, height and waist circumferences were carried out for each participant. Fasting venous blood was collected for lipid profile and blood glucose assessments. Blood pressure was also measured. MetS was assessed using appropriate diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents.Results: Complete data sets were collected from 371 participants. Females showed an elevation in the risk factors for MetS. Of the 371 participants, 40.2% were overweight/obese (47.5% females; 22.5% males. MetS was diagnosed in 3.1% female participants compared with 6.0% in male participants.Conclusions: More risk

  6. STANDARD OF LIVING OF THE POPULATION OF THE KUBAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prishchepa L. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is a pressing problem in the scale of the national economy, and within regions. In agricultural regions a large proportion of the population is engaged in agricultural production, where the pay is low. In such regions the scale of poverty are significant. Poverty also has negative social potential. Low standard of living remains one of the main obstacles to increasing the birth rate and to the solution to the population problem. One of the main indicators of quality of life is the size of per capita income. This indicator allows us to compare the standard of living of the populations in the same region and between subjects. To assess the level of material security in Russia we often use two indicators: a living wage and the minimum consumer budget. The concept of “poverty” and “living wage” used in the world as equivalent. The dimensions of these parameters are determined by the value of the minimum allowable limits of use below which normal human development is impossible. The author conducts an analysis of selected indicators of living standards of the population of the Krasnodar region. One of the areas of analysis appears characteristic of households with wealth lower than subsistence minimum. Poverty is directly related to the unequal distribution of income and property. The article analyzes the socio-economic differentiation of the population of the Kuban region

  7. Examining Ethnic Identity among Mexican-Origin Adolescents Living in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Fine, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to test a model of ethnic identity development among 513 Mexican-origin adolescents living in the United States. The model examined the influence of ecological factors, familial ethnic socialization, and autonomy on adolescents' ethnic identity achievement. Findings indicated that lower percentages of…

  8. Global impact of asthma on children and adolescents' daily lives : The room to breathe survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildhaber, Johannes; Carroll, William D.; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish children and adolescents' perspectives regarding their asthma and its impact upon their daily lives. Design: A 14-item questionnaire. Setting: Canada, Greece, Hungary, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and South Africa. Participants: Children/adolescents (aged 8-15 years)

  9. Jealousy in adolescents' daily lives: How does it relate to interpersonal context and well-being?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennarz, H.K.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Finkenauer, C.; Granic, I.

    2017-01-01

    Past studies have shown that jealousy peaks in adolescence. However, little is known about how and when adolescents experience jealousy in their daily lives. The current study aimed to examine the relation between state jealousy, the more general propensity to feel jealous, the interpersonal context

  10. A Model for Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence: Need Satisfaction and Reasons for Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is as important for adolescents as it is in other stages of life. This study thus aims to develop a model for subjective well-being, which is limited to need satisfaction in adolescence and reasons for living, and to test the validity of the model. Participants were a total of 227 individuals, 120 females and 107 males. Data…

  11. Smoking Stages in an Iranian Adolescent Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Fotouhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is determining the prevalence of smoking stages in adolescents of Tabriz city (northwest of Iran and identifying the personal, environmental, and psychological factors relating to cigarette smoking. Fifty-seven high schools were randomly selected, and 4903 students were completed a self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking and the related risk factors. The association of independent variables with cigarette smoking was evaluated using the ordinal logistic regression model. In total, 17.3% of the participants were experimenters (95% CI: 15.8-18.9 and 5.0% were regular smokers (95% CI: 3.7-6.2. The results showed that the male gender (OR=2.92; CI: 1.94-4.77, age (OR=1.27; CI: 1.02-1.64, having general risk taking behavior (OR=1.50; CI: 1.02-2.21, presence of a cigarette smoker in the family (OR=1.78; CI: 1.23-2.54, friendship with close cigarette smoker friends (OR=2.52; CI: 1.65-3.86, substance abuse experience (OR=8.27; CI: 2.61-25.61, attitude toward cigarette smoking (OR=1.22; CI: 1.10-1.27 and positive thinking about cigarette smoking (OR=1.05; CI: 1.01-1.14 are associated to cigarette smoking in adolescents. The cigarette smoking prevalence is minimal in Tabriz city adolescents, especially in girls; but the experimenter prevalence is considerable. Findings of this study justifies adopting more serious measures in the pre-adolescence and adolescence period.

  12. Adolescents with lesbian mothers describe their own lives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gartrell, N.; Bos, H.M.W.; Peyser, H.; Deck, A.; Rodas, C.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical research on the everyday life experiences of adolescents reared by lesbian mothers is limited. The current study gathered self-report descriptive data from 78 adolescents enrolled in the largest, longest-running, prospective longitudinal study of planned lesbian families, with a 93% retent

  13. Reasons for Living in Homosexual and Heterosexual Older Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jameson K.; Ellis, Jon B.

    Suicide rates among older adolescents is a major concern for researchers. A homosexual lifestyle, with its additional stresses, may erode one's adaptive characteristics. This study sought to identify and compare suicidal behavior and adaptive characteristics in homosexual and heterosexual adolescents. Sixty-two individuals were divided into two…

  14. Dying to Live: Mourning, Melancholia and the Adolescent Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polmear, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The author reviews the main points in Freud's 1917 paper "Mourning and Melancholia" and relates them to the process of both normal and troubled adolescent development. Using clinical examples she illustrates the ways in which the processes Freud describes in melancholia operate in some disturbed adolescents such that instead of mourning the lost…

  15. The Use of Safety Plans with Children and Adolescents Living in Violent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Adamson, Nicole A.; Paylo, Matthew J.; DeMarco, Carrie; Bradley, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Counselors are regularly confronted with children and adolescents who reside in violent or potentially violent living environments. In this article, safety plans are presented as a tool that counselors can use to promote the safety of children living in unsafe family situations. Ethics-related counseling issues that should be considered when…

  16. Levels of Heavy Metals in Adolescents Living in the Industrialised Area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Northern Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Interdonato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area, the presence of industrial plants and the oil refinery make local residents concerned for their health. For this reason, we evaluated the levels of heavy metals in 226 children aged 12–14 years, living in the 7 municipalities of the area. A control age-matched population (n=29 living 45 km far from the industrial site was also enrolled. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, nickel, and vanadium were analysed in 24 h urine samples, while lead concentration was evaluated in blood samples. A questionnaire regarding life style and risk perception was also administered. Adolescents from Milazzo-Valle del Mela had cadmium levels significantly higher compared to either controls  (P<0.0001 or the reference values of the European Germany Environmental Survey (GerES-IV and the American National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Furthermore, children had higher perception of living in a high-risk environment. The present data, for the first time, clearly indicate that adolescents living in Milazzo-Valle del Mela have increased body concentration of cadmium, which may be harmful to human health. These results deserve particular attention by the local and regional government to initiate prevention programmes in this susceptible population.

  17. The lived experiences of resilience in Iranian adolescents living in residential care facilities: A hermeneutic phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Nourian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resilience is one of the main factors affecting human health, and perceiving its meaning for high-risk adolescents is of particular importance in initiating preventive measures and providing resilience care. Objectives: This qualitative study was conducted to explain the meaning of resilience in the lived experiences of Iranian adolescents living in governmental residential care facilities. Materials and methods: This study was conducted using the hermeneutic phenomenological method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight adolescents aged 13–17 living in governmental residential care facilities of Tehran province affiliated to the Welfare Organization of Iran who articulated their experiences of resilience. Sampling lasted from May 2014 to July 2015 and continued until new themes were no longer emerging. The researchers analyzed the verbatim transcripts using Van Manen's six-step method of phenomenology. Results: The themes obtained in this study included “going through life's hardships,” “aspiring for achievement,” “self-protection,” “self-reliance,” and “spirituality.” Conclusion: Our study indicates that the meaning of resilience coexists with self-reliance in adolescents’ lived experiences. Adolescents look forward to a better future. They always trust God in the face of difficulties and experience resilience by keeping themselves physically and mentally away from difficulties. Adverse and bitter experiences of the past positively affected their positive view on life and its difficulties and also their resilience. The five themes that emerged from the findings describe the results in detail. The findings of this study enable nurses, health administrators, and healthcare providers working with adolescents to help this vulnerable group cope better with their stressful life conditions and improve their health through increasing their capacity for resilience.

  18. Determining the relationship between nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages and their health and body compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Gümüş

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was planned and implemented with the purpose of determining the relationship between the nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages in Ankara and their health and body compositions. Material and Methods: Research implemented by taking permission from Ethic Council of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine. 198 adolescents (115 boys, 83 girls within the age group 13-18 living in orphanages, constitute the population of the study. Data's were collected in three stages; in the first stage, the question set developed to determine the nutritional status and habits. In the second stage, food consumption and physical activities of adolescents were recorded. In the third stage, anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: It was found in the study that 13.9% of boys and 31.3% of girls had health problems. It was also found that 69.6% boys and 91.6% of girls skipped meals, and among those skipping meals, 34.8% of boys and 61.4% of girls skipped breakfast most. More than half of boys (63.0% and girls (65.0% were pickers as regards what they eat, 17.2% of adolescents never consumed milk, and 40.9% never consumed red meat. When daily mean energy and nutrient intakes of adolescents were evaluated according to Nutrition Guide Unique for Turkey, boys ate diets insufficient in vitamin A, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium and magnesium, girls ate diets insufficient in energy, vitamin A, Vitamin B1, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Anthropometric measurements of adolescents were within normal limits; however, their activity levels were below those recommended. Conclusion: HEI (Healthy eating index score for 15.7% of adolescent boys (n=18 were evaluated as "bad" for 80.9% (n=86 as "medium" and for 3.5% (n=6 as "good". It is recommended that implementing a training program for correcting the diet habits and the knowledge in nutrition of adolescents living in

  19. Rights-based services for adolescents living with HIV: adolescent self-efficacy and implications for health systems in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Gitau; Hodgson, Ian; Teltschik, Anja; Ram, Mala; Haamujompa, Choolwe; Bajpai, Divya; Mutali, Beatrice

    2013-05-01

    A rights-based approach in HIV service delivery for adults is increasingly taking root in sub-Saharan Africa in the context of greater availability of antiretroviral therapy. Yet there has been comparatively little progress in strengthening a rights-based approach to adolescent HIV services, which we learned during a qualitative study in 2010 among 111 adolescents living with HIV, 21 parents and 38 health providers in three districts in Zambia. Adolescents in the study expressed a range of information and support needs and wanted locally relevant interventions to meet those needs. They wanted greater access to HIV, sexual and reproductive health information, information on how to protect themselves, privacy and confidentiality in service sites, skills training so as to be able to earn money, and better control over disclosure of their HIV status to others. Both health workers and parents acknowledged that information and services needed to be improved to meet those needs far better. This paper provides examples of successful programmes in Zimbabwe, Uganda, Tanzania, Botswana and South Africa and calls for adolescent services to be linked to both paediatric and adult services, peer networks to be established to increase adolescents' ability to collectively voice their concerns and support each other, interventions supporting adolescents' control over self-disclosure, and lastly that adolescent health should become a training specialty in sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. Barriers and facilitators adolescent females living with HIV face in accessing contraceptive services: a qualitative assessment of providers’ perceptions in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill M Hagey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Avoiding unintended pregnancies is important for the health of adolescents living with HIV and has the additional benefit of preventing potential vertical HIV transmission. Health facility providers represent an untapped resource in understanding the barriers and facilitators adolescents living with HIV face when accessing contraception. By understanding these barriers and facilitators to contraceptive use among adolescent females living with HIV, this study aimed to understand how best to promote contraception within this marginalized population. Methods: We conducted structured in-depth interviews with 40 providers at 21 Family AIDS Care & Education Services - supported clinics in Homabay, Kisumu and Migori counties in western Kenya from July to August 2014. Our interview guide explored the providers’ perspectives on contraceptive service provision to adolescent females living with HIV with the following specific domains: contraception screening and counselling, service provision, commodity security and clinic structure. Transcripts from the interviews were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Results: According to providers, interpersonal factors dominated the barriers adolescent females living with HIV face in accessing contraception. Providers felt that adolescent females fear disclosing their sexual activity to parents, peers and providers, because of repercussions of perceived promiscuity. Furthermore, providers mentioned that adolescents find seeking contraceptive services without a male partner challenging, because some providers and community members view adolescents unaccompanied by their partners as not being serious about their relationships or having multiple concurrent relationships. On the other hand, providers noted that institutional factors best facilitated contraception for these adolescents. Integration of contraception and HIV care allows easier access to contraceptives by removing the stigma of coming

  1. Days of Their Lives: Reflections on Adolescent Girls and Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Susan M.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature on issues of sexuality for adolescent girls, interweaving quotes from adolescent mothers. Information comes from the author's work educating teenage parents. The article focuses on the relationship of social pressures to sexuality, femininity, the body, silence and rebellion, adolescent motherhood, and sexual abuse. (SM)

  2. Perceptions of Health among adolescents in Ethiopian immigrant families living in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Merja Nikkonen; Paivi Kankkunen; Jembere Berhanu

    2010-01-01

    Aims: From the developmental perspectives children acquire and widen their perceptions of health as they mature and grow up. The main purpose of this study was to describe health through the eyes of adolescents in immigrant Ethiopian families living in Finland.Methods: Ten boys and five girls participated. The adolescents’ ages ranged from 12 to17. Theme interviews were used in data collection. Snowball sampling technique was used. Consent was obtained from the adolescents and adolescents’ pa...

  3. Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students

    OpenAIRE

    Alaine Souza Lima; Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo; Gomes, Mayra Ruana de A.; Ludmila Remígio de Almeida; Souza, Gabriely Feitosa F. de; Samara Barreto Cunha; Pitangui, Ana Carolina R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL) in female adolescent students. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified acc...

  4. Factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral therapy among adolescents living with HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudelson, Carly; Cluver, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are disproportionately burdened by the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. Maintaining medication adherence is vital to ensuring that adolescents living with HIV/AIDS receive the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART), although this group faces unique challenges to adherence. Knowledge of the factors influencing adherence among people during this unique developmental period is needed to develop more targeted and effective adherence-promoting strategies. This systematic review summarizes the literature on quantitative observational studies examining correlates, including risk and resilience-promoting factors, of ART adherence among adolescents living with HIV/AIDS in LMICs. A systematic search of major electronic databases, conference-specific databases, gray literature, and reference lists of relevant reviews and documents was conducted in May 2014. Included studies examined relationships between at least one factor and ART adherence as an outcome and were conducted in primarily an adolescent population (age 10-19) in LMICs. The search identified 7948 unique citations from which 15 studies fit the inclusion criteria. These 15 studies identified 35 factors significantly associated with ART adherence representing a total of 4363 participants across nine different LMICs. Relevant studies revealed few consistent relationships between measured factors and adherence while highlighting potentially important themes for ART adherence including the impact of (1) adolescent factors such as gender and knowledge of serostatus, (2) family structure, (3) the burdensome ART regimens, route of administration, and attitudes about medication, and (4) health care and environmental factors, such as rural versus urban location and missed clinic appointments. Rates of adherence across studies ranged from 16% to 99%. This review identifies unique factors significantly related to ART adherence among adolescents living in LMICs. More

  5. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in South Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, H.; Pavithra, U. S.; Abraham, R

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To record prevalence of malocclusion among 2,400 adolescents in Karnataka state, India and to define difference in malocclusion status in urban and rural population. Design: Randomized cross-sectional study. Setting: School students of Karnataka state, 24 August 2011 to 30 March 2012. Participants: School students in the age group of 13-17 years. Materials and Methods: Each individual was assessed for occlusal traits - sagittal occlusion, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diaste...

  6. Short communication: Patterns of dairy consumption in free-living children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benjamin P; Turner, Louise; Stevenson, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-06-01

    According to national survey data, dairy food consumption has fallen in recent years and declines further with age, especially from childhood to adolescence. Dietary surveys typically rely on retrospective dietary assessment methods and use broad age groupings (4-10 yr; 11-18 yr), making it challenging to differentiate between middle-childhood and adolescence. Consequently, there is a need to assess dairy food consumption during middle-childhood and adolescence using more robust dietary assessment tools. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe and compare patterns of dairy consumption throughout middle-childhood and adolescence. Dairy food consumption was assessed during school term-time over 4 consecutive days, including 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days, in a sample of free-living children (9-11 yr, n=40) and adolescents (15-18 yr, n=35). For children, free-living dairy intake was evaluated through parental-weighed food records, and for adolescents, a combined weighed self-reported food record and 24-h dietary recall technique was utilized. Food records were explored to determine types, amounts, and frequency of dairy food consumption, and were analyzed for differences between middle-childhood and adolescence using a between group 2×2 (age×sex) ANOVA. Descriptive data suggested that milk was the most popular dairy product consumed by both children and adolescents. Statistical analysis revealed a main effect for sex on total milk consumption (mL) and number of daily milk portions consumed. No interaction or main effect was present for any other variable. The present study indicates that independent of age, boys consumed greater amounts of milk compared with girls. Contrary to existing literature, findings suggest no difference in milk-based dairy consumption between middle-childhood and adolescence.

  7. Adolescent sexuality in Asia: new focus for population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, B

    1989-09-01

    As the age at marriage continues to rise in East and Southeast Asia, the fertility behavior of unmarried teenagers is receiving more attention from population policymakers. In addition to fertility reduction through family planning, Asian societies today consider population planning strategies in relation to national needs and social goals, including such matters as the population's growth rate, age structure, educational quality and skills. The number of single youth in Asia is growing much more rapidly than the total youth population. By the year 2010, for example, India is projected to have nearly 70 million single teenagers, aged 15-19, 188% more than in 1980. In many developing countries today, such as the Philippines and Korea, the rising age at marriage has combined with rapid urbanization, improved status for women, and more educational opportunity to alter both the behavioral norms of young people and the traditional means of social control over youth. Studies of contemporary adolescent sexuality have been conducted in 4 Asian countries. In the Philippines an overt independent youth homosexual culture was found to exist in urban and to some extent rural areas. In Thailand research revealed little conservative resistance to family planning or to contraceptives for young unmarried people. Surveys in Taiwan indicate that behavior related to dating and choice of spouse has become more liberal, and a survey in Hong Kong revealed a higher level of premarital sex and use of prostitutes among Chinese men than expected. Population policy perspectives that need to be considered in these changing times include: 1) issues of access to family planning services by unmarried people below the legal age of maturity; 2) the development of social institutions, such as exist in Thailand and the Philippines, to guide adolescents' behavior; 3) more extensive study of adolescent sexuality; 4) establishment of the scope of family policy.

  8. Idiopathic Adolescent Scoliosis: Living with a Physical Deformity

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A qualitative, phenomenological, hermeneutical study with the aim of explaining the experience of having a body deformity diagnosed as idiopathic adolescent scoliosis. A semistructured interview conducted with scoliosis patients admitted to the unit of spinal cord at the Vall d’Hebron Hospital was used. The youth defined their scoliosis based on how they perceived their deformity. They spoke of pain and deformity as characteristic symptoms of suffering, and explained how this symptom affected...

  9. Father Knows Best: Paternal Presence and Sexual Debut in African-American Adolescents Living in Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Cheri

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents found within single-parent families without a residential father have reported higher levels of sexual debut and higher levels of reported pregnancy. Using data from the Mobile Youth Survey, the purpose of this study is to determine the impact of the presence of a father figure on the sexual debut of African-American adolescents living in poverty and to determine if gender moderates the relationship between the presence of a father figure and sexual debut. Additionally, this study will examine the family processes in which the presence of a father figure can affect the sexual debut of African-American adolescents who live within economically and socially disadvantaged communities. The results revealed that African-American adolescents reporting a father figure had lower rates of sexual debut than those youth reporting no father figure. Gender was not found to be a significant moderator in the relationship between father figure presence and sexual debut. However, existing curfews and family rules did account for some of the effects of presence of a father figure and sexual debut. The results suggest that when adolescents have a father figure in their lives, it may reduce the possibility of early sexual debut.

  10. Perceptions of Health among adolescents in Ethiopian immigrant families living in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merja Nikkonen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: From the developmental perspectives children acquire and widen their perceptions of health as they mature and grow up. The main purpose of this study was to describe health through the eyes of adolescents in immigrant Ethiopian families living in Finland.Methods: Ten boys and five girls participated. The adolescents’ ages ranged from 12 to17. Theme interviews were used in data collection. Snowball sampling technique was used. Consent was obtained from the adolescents and adolescents’ parents. Inductive content analysis technique was used to analyse the data.Results: Adolescents indicated that health is the wellbeing of all dimensions that make us intact and complete. Adolescents believed relaxation, physical activity, good hygiene, good social relationship, avoiding consumption of poison substances, green nature, hygienic environment and peace are health supportive elements. On the contrary adolescents said insufficient resting, violent behaviors, difficulty, irritation, being inactive physically, addiction to alcohol and smoking, eating fatty food, not respecting meal time and use of drugs are health damaging behaviors. Adolescents consumed soft drink and alcohol frequently ,were physical inactive, practiced unhealthy eating habits, felt lazy to go and grab food from food store, faced financial difficulty to pay for Gym and healthy food that threatened their health. Adolescents used sport, socialization, moderate alcohol intake, avoid eating unhealthy food and smoking as their strategies to enhance their health.Conclusions: Adolescents were able to identify unhealthy lifestyles and healthy lifestyles. However adolescents were engaged in healthy and unhealthy lifestyles simultaneously. Thus family, school, neighbours and health care workers should work together and vigilant in assessing and removing factors that prevent adolescents from adopting healthy lifestyles.

  11. [SURPS French version validation in a Quebec adolescent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay-Jolin, Laura; Perrier-Ménard, Eveline; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Garel, Patricia; Séguin, Jean R; Conrod, Patricia J

    2013-09-01

    Objective: The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) has been developed to screen personality risk factors for substance misuse. This scale assesses 4 high-risk personality traits using a 23-item, self-report questionnaire. SURPS helps guiding targeted approaches to prevention of substance abuse and misuse. It has been validated in the United Kingdom, English Canada, Sri Lanka, and China. This study aims to validate this scale in a sample of French-speaking adolescents from Quebec as well as its sensitivity in a clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Two hundred two 15-year-old youths from a community sample completed a French version of SURPS as well as other measures of personality and substance use. This study reports the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the scale, as well as a factor analysis of items. Further, 40 youths (mean age 15.7 years) from a clinical population completed SURPS and their scores were compared with those of the community sample. Results: SURPS French translation has good internal consistency and demonstrated a 4-factor structure very similar to the original scale. The 4 subscales show good concurrent validity, and 3 of the subscales were found to correlate with measures of substance use. Finally, 95% of the clinical sample was identified at high risk for substance misuse according to SURPS cut-off scores. Conclusion: SURPS French translation seems to be a valid and sensitive scale that can be used in a French-speaking adolescent population from Quebec.

  12. The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) : Design, Current Status, and Selected Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Sijtsema, Jelle; van Oort, Floor; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Verhulst, Frank C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on conti

  13. Factors Associated with Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among Adolescents Living in Sicily, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Grosso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13–16 years attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score to assess adolescents’ adherence to the MD. A higher adherence to the MD was associated with high socioeconomic status (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03–2.26 and high physical activity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02–1.70, whereas lower adherence was associated with living in an urban environment (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44–0.97 and being obese (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37–0.94. The adolescents’ KIDMED scores were inversely associated with adolescents’ intake of sweets, fast foods, fried foods, and sugary drinks, and directly with fruit, vegetables, pasta, fish, and cheese intakes. Urban-living adolescents were less likely to eat fruit and more prone to consume meat, sugary drinks, and fast food than rural-living adolescents. The latter were more likely to eat sweets and snacks. A general poor quality of food consumption in Italian adolescents away from the MD was reported, especially among those living in urban areas.

  14. The Role of Smoking in the Lives of Low-Income Pregnant Adolescents: A Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Erma Jean

    1994-01-01

    Examined role of cigarette smoking in lives of low-income, pregnant adolescents (n=20). Findings indicated that subjects smoked to cope with increased weight gain; to deliver smaller infants which in turn would decrease duration of labor and reduce pain of delivery; and to establish identity separate from their parents' and peers' drug abuse.…

  15. Adolescent Mothers in a Transitional Living Facility: An Exploratory Study of Support Networks and Attachment Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann E.; McRoy, Ruth G.; Downs, A. Chris

    2004-01-01

    Most of the research literature on attachment and adolescent transitions has addressed youth in family settings. This article explores these issues with a sample of 25 pregnant and parenting teens living in a transitional shelter. Using case records and interview data as well as results of standardized measures of depression, self-esteem, child…

  16. ESCAP holds expert group meeting on population issues facing adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes the activities at the ESCAP Population Division Expert Group Meeting on Adolescents that was held during September-October 1997 in Bangkok, Thailand. The meeting was a follow-up to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The meeting considered 1) the ICPD recommendations; 2) the recommendations contained in the Jakarta Plan of Action on Human Resource Development; and 3) the Proposals for Action on Human Resources Development for Youth in Asia and the Pacific. Participants included about 25 people from Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The conference relied on 8 invited experts, two resource persons, advisors from the UNFPA Country Support Team for East and Southeast Asia, and representatives of UNFPA, the Population Council, and the East-West Center. A concern was the declining age of menarche of girls in the ESCAP region and the increasing age of marriage. During the time of menarche and marriage, girls are migrating and moving away from their family and community in rural areas. Family structure and relationships are changing. Increases are observed in adolescent premarital sexual activity, the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, substance abuse, teenage pregnancy, and abortion. The mass media and information technologies have both a positive and a negative influence on adolescents. Parent-child communication exchanges and teacher-student exchanges are "less than ideal." Old traditions and practices change slower than people change. Boys and girls are affected differently by the sociocultural and economic environment. The societal norms set expectations for behavior that may conflict with individual beliefs and practices. Changes brought by globalization and rapid economic growth provide greater opportunity for young girls and women to obtain employment and autonomy.

  17. Cohort Profile Update. The Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, AJ.; Rosmalen, J.G.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Hoek, H.; Ormel, J..; Raven, D.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Veenstra, R.; Verhulst, F.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Hartman, C.

    2015-01-01

    TRAILS consists of a population cohort (N = 2230) and a clinical cohort (N = 543), both of which were followed from about age 11 years onwards. To date, the population cohort has been assessed five times over a period of 11 years, with retention rates ranging between 80% and 96%. The clinical cohort

  18. Epidemiological determinants of obesity in adolescent population Maharashtra, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Chincholikar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For establishing effective intervention, it is important to identify major determinants in an early stage of life. Effective prevention of adult obesity will require prevention and management of childhood obesity. Aims & Objectives: To study the epidemiological determinants of obesity in adolescent girls. Material & Methods: All adolescent school going boys and girls in the age group between 10 to 19 years were included as per definition of adolescent. 585 students were selected by systematic sample i.e. every 3rd student was included in the study sample. A pretested standardized questionnaire which consisted of questions related to sociodemographic data was used to screen the population for obesity. Results: When body mass index was correlated with various socioeconomic variables, it was found that prevalence of obesity was more in   males (overweight- 20.84%;obese-5.43% as compared to females (overweight- 16.92%; obese-3.14%,more  in the upper socioeconomic status (27.27% as compared to lower socioeconomic status(15%,more in  subjects with more frequency of junk food(30.97% as compared to having occasional junk food (20.93,more in  subjects with more frequency of eating sweets ( 25.73% as compared to occasional sweet eaters(13.59%. Conclusion: The dietary habits like more frequency of junk food, more sweet consumption, and socioeconomic status had a major impact on body mass index of children.

  19. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Assumpção

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.

  20. Self-reported health, self-management, and the impact of living with inflammatory bowel disease during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfred, Helene; Saalman, Robert; Nilsson, Staffan; Sparud-Lundin, Carina; Lepp, Margret

    2012-06-01

    Perceptions of living with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during adolescence were explored in a cross-sectional study with a multimethod design. The adolescents as a group described general well-being and ability to handle the disease, which was related to their self-reported self-esteem. However, a subgroup of adolescents with a severe disease course reported a more negative view of the impact of IBD in their daily lives. Encouraging adolescents to communicate in different ways may help professionals to identify vulnerable subgroups with impaired health and to provide more appropriate support and treatment for those most in need.

  1. Long-lived population inversion in isovalently doped quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahad, Ohr; Meir, Noga; Pinkas, Iddo; Oron, Dan

    2015-01-27

    Optical gain from colloidal quantum dots has been desired for several decades since their discovery. While gain from multiexcitations is by now well-established, nonradiative Auger recombination limits the lifetime of such population inversion in quantum dots. CdSe cores isovalently doped by one to few Te atoms capped with rod-shaped CdS are examined as a candidate system for enhanced stimulated emission properties. Emission depletion spectroscopy shows a behavior characteristic of 3-level gain systems in these quantum dots. This implies complete removal of the 2-fold degeneracy of the lowest energy electronic excitation due to the large repulsive exciton-exciton interaction in the doubly excited state. Using emission depletion measurements of the trap-associated emission from poorly passivated CdS quantum dots, we show that 3-level characteristics are typical of emission resulting from a band edge to trap state transition, but reveal subtle differences between the two systems. These results allow for unprecedented observation of long-lived population inversion from singly excited quantum dots.

  2. Isolated thoughts and feelings and unsolved concerns. Adolescents' and parents' perspectives on living with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castensøe-Seidenfaden, Pernille; Teilmann, Grete; Kensing, Finn

    2016-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore and describe the experiences of adolescents and their parents living with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), to identify their needs for support to improve adolescents' self-management skills in the transition from child- to adulthood. BACKGROUND: Adolescents with T1DM often...... experience deteriorating glycemic control and distress. Parents are important in adolescents' ability to self-manage T1DM, but they report anxiety and frustrations. A better understanding of the challenges adolescents and parents face, in relation to the daily self-management of T1DM, is important to improve...

  3. Improving validated depression screen among adolescent population in primary care practice using electronic health records (EHR).

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent depression, has been identified as one of the important risk factors for adolescent safety. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends screening the adolescent population for depression with a validated screening tool at least once a year. Given the time constraints in primary care, many physicians tend to rely more on clinical questioning to screen depression.This has the potential to miss many adolescents who may have mild to moderate depression which may prove detriment...

  4. Alternative Schooling Strategies and the Religious Lives of American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Uecker, Jeremy E.

    2008-01-01

    I analyze the effects of Catholic schooling, Protestant schooling, and homeschooling on adolescents’ religious lives and test three mechanisms through which these schooling strategies might influence religiosity: friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors. Data from Wave 1 of the National Survey of Youth and Religion suggest that Catholic schoolers attend religious services more frequently and value their faith more highly than public schoolers, but attend religious education cla...

  5. Living with pain: the experience of children and adolescents in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Camila Amaral; Rossato, Lisabelle Mariano; Damião, Elaine Buchhorn Cintra; Guedes, Danila Maria Batista; Silva, Ellen Maria Reimberg da; Barbosa, Silvia Maria de Macedo; Polastrini, Rita Tiziana

    2014-08-01

    A qualitative study was conducted with semi-structured interviews with the aim of understanding the experience of children and adolescents under palliative care when managing pain daily and how they describe the intensity, quality and location of pain. We used Piaget's theory of cognitive development as a theoretical framework and oral history as a methodological framework. We found four themes: describing pain; seeking a life closer to normality, despite pain and disease; using a variety of alternatives for pain control; and living with damaged physical appearance. Although pain is a limiting factor in the lives of children and adolescents, we found that they faced their daily pain and still had a life beyond pain and illness. In addition, we highlight the relevance of nurses' understanding that effective management of pain in children is essential for a normal life and less suffering.

  6. Living with pain: the experience of children and adolescents in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Amaral Borghi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative study was conducted with semi-structured interviews with the aim of understanding the experience of children and adolescents under palliative care when managing pain daily and how they describe the intensity, quality and location of pain. We used Piaget’s theory of cognitive development as a theoretical framework and oral history as a methodological framework. We found four themes: describing pain; seeking a life closer to normality, despite pain and disease; using a variety of alternatives for pain control; and living with damaged physical appearance. Although pain is a limiting factor in the lives of children and adolescents, we found that they faced their daily pain and still had a life beyond pain and illness. In addition, we highlight the relevance of nurses’ understanding that effective management of pain in children is essential for a normal life and less suffering.

  7. Living at home or in institution: adolescents' optimal experience and life theme building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Delle Fave

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of family relationships on adolescents' behavior and development has been widely investigated. This study examines the relationship between family structure and a adolescents' quality of experience in daily activities and social contexts b adolescents' perceived life influences, challenges and goals. To achieve this aim, Flow Questionnaire and Life Theme Questionnaire were administered to 50 Italian girls (15-21 years of age, 25 living in two-parent families, 25 entrusted to Institutions for Custody of Minors. The findings suggest tha adolescents' perception of a positive and supportive family enviroment fosters the active search for challenges and enjoyment in daily activities, and the involvement in productive and social contexts. On the contrary , negative family perception is related to lack of engagement and motivation, and to the prevalence of low-challenge activities as sources of enjoyment and satisfaction. Although the sample size does not allow us to draw conclusions about causality, the results confirm the crucial role of family in influencing adolescents' psychological and behavioral development.

  8. Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaine Souza Lima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL in female adolescent students.METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05.RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001; interference in ADL (p<0.001; medication use (p<0.001; age (p=0.045 and seek for medical care (p<0.022.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance.

  9. Where We Live: The Unexpected Influence of Urban Neighborhoods on the Academic Performance of African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Samantha; Overstreet, Stacy; Cunningham, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents who live in low-income neighborhoods face numerous unique challenges. Examining their resilience in multiple contexts sheds light on what contributes to the diverse outcomes of these youth. The current study examines how adolescents' reports of structural and experiential neighborhood characteristics buffered the impact of exposure to…

  10. Distinct short-lived and long-lived antibody-producing cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, F; Lortan, J E; MacLennan, I C; Khan, M

    1986-10-01

    This report analyzes the life span of Ig-containing cells (IgCC) in different sites of antibody production. The experimental approach was based upon the observations that most IgCC are derived from proliferating precursors while IgCC themselves are mainly nondividing end cells. Rats were given a continuous infusion of [3H] thymidine via an osmotic pump inserted in the peritoneal cavity. At intervals of 1, 3, 5 or 10 days after starting infusions, tissues were taken and analyzed by a combination of immunohistology and autoradiography to identify the proportions of IgCC which had gone through S phase of the cell cycle during the period of infusion. After 3 days infusion the median and (range) percent-labeled IgCC in the medullary cords of mesenteric and cervical lymph nodes and the red pulp of the spleen were, respectively, 88 (81-90), 75 (66-77) and 88 (82-93). Conversely that for IgCC in bone marrow was only 13 (11-17) and that in the lamina propria of the jejunum 47 (33-68). The rate of increase in labeling of bone marrow IgCC with length of infusion was approximately linear. Extrapolation of this slope suggests that bone marrow IgCC have a life span in excess of 3 weeks. The slopes of increase in IgCC labeled with time for lymph nodes and spleen were clearly biphasic suggesting that while most IgCC in these tissues have a life span of less than 3 days, there is also a minor population of long-lived IgCC. The lamina propria appears to have approximately equal proportions of long and short-lived IgCC. The life span of IgCC, with the exception of IgMCC, appears to be a feature of the site of antibody production rather than the Ig class produced. Almost all IgM-containing cells were found to be short lived.

  11. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindfors Pirjo L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey. The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%; and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%. Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying

  12. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey). The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%); and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%). Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying exposure differed between

  13. Psychoactive substances use experience and addiction or risk of addiction among by Polish adolescents living in rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pawłowska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the similarities and differences between adolescents with psychoactive substances use experience living in urban and rural areas as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms as well as the evaluation of prevalence of psychoactive substances use among adolescents depending on the place of residence. The examined group consisted of 1 860 people (1 320 girls and 540 boys their average age being 17 years. In the study the following research methods were used: the Sociodemographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire by Potembska, the Internet Addiction test by Young, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (KBUI designed by Pawłowska and Potembska. Statistically significant differences were found as regards the prevalence of psychoactive substances use by the adolescents living in urban and rural areas and as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms in adolescents, both from the urban and rural areas, who use and do not use illegal drugs. Significantly more adolescents living in urban areas as compared to their peers living in rural areas use psychoactive substances, mainly marihuana. The adolescents who use psychoactive substances, as compared to the adolescents with no experience using illegal drugs, living both in urban and rural areas significantly more often play online violent games and use web pornography. The adolescents living in rural areas who use psychoactive substances significantly more often as compared to the adolescents who do not use these substances claim that it is only thanks to the interactions established on the Internet that they can get acceptance, understanding and appreciation.

  14. Psychoactive substances use experience and addiction or risk of addiction among by Polish adolescents living in rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska, Beata; Zygo, Maciej; Potembska, Emilia; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Dreher, Piotr; Kędzierski, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the similarities and differences between adolescents with psychoactive substances use experience living in urban and rural areas as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms as well as the evaluation of prevalence of psychoactive substances use among adolescents depending on the place of residence. The examined group consisted of 1 860 people (1 320 girls and 540 boys) their average age being 17 years. In the study the following research methods were used: the Sociodemographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire by Potembska, the Internet Addiction test by Young, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (KBUI) designed by Pawłowska and Potembska. Statistically significant differences were found as regards the prevalence of psychoactive substances use by the adolescents living in urban and rural areas and as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms in adolescents, both from the urban and rural areas, who use and do not use illegal drugs. Significantly more adolescents living in urban areas as compared to their peers living in rural areas use psychoactive substances, mainly marihuana. The adolescents who use psychoactive substances, as compared to the adolescents with no experience using illegal drugs, living both in urban and rural areas significantly more often play online violent games and use web pornography. The adolescents living in rural areas who use psychoactive substances significantly more often as compared to the adolescents who do not use these substances claim that it is only thanks to the interactions established on the Internet that they can get acceptance, understanding and appreciation.

  15. Adherence to dietary recommendations among Spanish and immigrant adolescents living in Spain: the AFINOS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Esteban-Gonzalo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study compares the adherence of immigrant and Spanish adolescents residing in the Madrid region (Spain to national dietary recommendations. The factors compared were the consumption of items from the eight basic food groups (vegetables, fruits, bread/cereals, meat, eggs, fish, legumes and milk/dairy products, including the excessive or deficient consumption of eggs, meat and fish. In addition, the evaluation of excessive sweet foods or soft drinks in the diet was also considered. Subsequently, the influence of length of residence on dietary habits was examined. Materials and methods: Self-reported data were collected in a cross-sectional survey conducted over the period November 2007 to February 2008. The study participants were a representative sample of adolescents aged 13 to 17 years (n = 2,081, 1,055 girls living in the Madrid region. Participants were recruited from secondary schools (grades 7th to 10th randomly selected according to the geographic distribution of adolescents in the region. Results: Immigrant adolescents showed a greater likelihood of not fulfilling recommendations for the consumption of meat, fish, eggs, legumes, bread/cereals, and milk/dairy products. Their diets were also more likely to lack sufficient fish and they also consumed more eggs and more sweet foods and soft drinks than their native counterparts. Spanish adolescents were more likely not to meet recommendations for the intake of vegetables. Length of residence weakly affected dietary habits, with both negative and positive effects observed. Conclusion: The likelihood of not fulfilling dietary recommendations was higher among the immigrant adolescents with the exception of the intake of fruits and vegetables.

  16. Quality of Primary Health Care for children and adolescents living with HIV 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Leticia; de Paula, Cristiane Cardoso; Magnago, Tania Solange Bosi de Souza; Padoin, Stela Maris de Mello; Harzheim, Erno; da Silva, Clarissa Bohrer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to evaluate the quality of health care for children and adolescents living with HIV, among the different types of Primary Health Care services of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. Method: cross-sectional study, developed with 118 Primary Health Care professionals. The Primary Care Evaluation Instrument, Professional version, was used. For verification of the variables associated with the high score, Poisson Regression was used. Results: the professionals of the Family Health Strategy, when compared to those of the Primary Health Units, obtained a greater degree of orientation to primary care, both for the overall score and for the derived attributes score, as well as for the integrality and community orientation attributes. A specialization in Primary Health Care, other employment and a statutory work contract were associated with quality of care. Conclusion: the Family Health Strategy was shown to provide higher quality health care for children and adolescents living with HIV, however, the coverage is still low. The need was highlighted to expand this coverage and invest in vocational training directed toward Primary Care and making the professionals effective, through public selection procedure, as well as an improvement program that recognizes the care requirements, in these settings, of children and adolescents infected with HIV. PMID:27579927

  17. Factors associated with the process of adaptation among Pakistani adolescent females living in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuwaja, Salma A; Selwyn, Beatrice J; Mgbere, Osaro; Khuwaja, Alam; Kapadia, Asha; McCurdy, Sheryl; Hsu, Chiehwen E

    2013-04-01

    This study explored post-migration experiences of recently migrated Pakistani Muslim adolescent females residing in the United States. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirty Pakistani Muslim adolescent females between the ages of 15 and 18 years living with their families in Houston, Texas. Data obtained from the interviews were evaluated using discourse analysis to identify major reoccurring themes. Participants discussed factors associated with the process of adaptation to the American culture. The results revealed that the main factors associated with adaptation process included positive motivation for migration, family bonding, social support networks, inter-familial communication, aspiration of adolescents to learn other cultures, availability of English-as-second-language programs, participation in community rebuilding activities, and faith practices, English proficiency, peer pressure, and inter-generational conflicts. This study provided much needed information on factors associated with adaptation process of Pakistani Muslim adolescent females in the United States. The results have important implications for improving the adaptation process of this group and offer potential directions for intervention and counseling services.

  18. Nutritional and physical activity behaviours and habits in adolescent population of Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević-Nikić Marina; Dopsaj Milivoj; Vesković Ana

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Proper nutrition and regular physical activity are essential parts of a adolescent's overall health. The aim of this research was to evaluated eating and physical activity behaviours and habits, nutritional and food knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy related to diet and health of the adolescents of the city of Belgrade, Serbia. Methods. A dietary questionnaire previously constructed and tested in adolescent population from Italy was self-administrated. We evaluated eat...

  19. The Relationship between Autistic Symptomatology and Independent Living Skills in Adolescents and Young Adults with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Hall, Scott S.; Quintin, Eve-Marie; Chromik, Lindsay C.; Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between autistic symptomatology and competence in independent living skills in adolescents and young adults with fragile X syndrome (FXS). In this study, 70 individuals with FXS, aged 15-25 years, and 35 matched controls were administered direct measures of independent living skills and autistic…

  20. Are gifted adolescents more satisfied with their lives than their non-gifted peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergold, Sebastian; Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H; Steinmayr, Ricarda

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating the life satisfaction of intellectually gifted and non-gifted students are scarce and often suffer from methodological shortcomings. We examined the life satisfaction of gifted and non-gifted adolescents using a rather unselected sample of N = 655 German high-school students (n = 75 gifted), adequate comparison groups of non-gifted students, and a clear definition of giftedness (general intelligence g > 2 SD above the mean). There was no difference in life satisfaction between gifted and non-gifted adolescents (d giftedness but was instead found across the entire sample. Thus, gifted girls were not found to be especially unsatisfied with their lives. Our findings support previous research showing that giftedness is not a risk factor for impaired psycho-social well-being of boys or girls.

  1. How close do we live to water? A global analysis of population distance to freshwater bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Ward, Philip J; Varis, Olli

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, people have inhabited places with ready access to fresh water. Today, over 50% of the global population lives in urban areas, and water can be directed via tens of kilometres of pipelines. Still, however, a large part of the world's population is directly dependent on access to natural freshwater sources. So how are inhabited places related to the location of freshwater bodies today? We present a high-resolution global analysis of how close present-day populations live to surface freshwater. We aim to increase the understanding of the relationship between inhabited places, distance to surface freshwater bodies, and climatic characteristics in different climate zones and administrative regions. Our results show that over 50% of the world's population lives closer than 3 km to a surface freshwater body, and only 10% of the population lives further than 10 km away. There are, however, remarkable differences between administrative regions and climatic zones. Populations in Australia, Asia, and Europe live closest to water. Although populations in arid zones live furthest away from freshwater bodies in absolute terms, relatively speaking they live closest to water considering the limited number of freshwater bodies in those areas. Population distributions in arid zones show statistically significant relationships with a combination of climatic factors and distance to water, whilst in other zones there is no statistically significant relationship with distance to water. Global studies on development and climate adaptation can benefit from an improved understanding of these relationships between human populations and the distance to fresh water.

  2. Physical Growth, Biological Age, and Nutritional Transitions of Adolescents Living at Moderate Altitudes in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cossio-Bolaños

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peru is experiencing a stage of nutritional transition where the principal characteristics are typical of countries undergoing development. Objectives: The objectives of this study were the following: (a compare physical growth patterns with an international standard; (b determine biological age; and (c analyze the double nutritional burden of adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. Design: Weight, standing height, and sitting height were measured in 551 adolescents of both sexes (12.0 to 17.9 years old from an urban area of Arequipa, Peru (2328 m. Physical growth was compared with the international standard of the CDC-2000. Biological age was determined by using a non-invasive transversal technique based on years from age at peak height velocity (APHV. Nutritional state was determined by means of weight for age and height for age. Z scores were calculated using international standards from the CDC-2000. Results: Body weight for both sexes was similar to the CDC-2000 international standards. At all ages, the girls’ height (p < 0.05 was below the standards. However, the boys’ height (p < 0.05 was less at ages, 15, 16, and 17. Biological age showed up in girls at age 12.7 years and for boys at 15.2 years. Stunted growth (8.7% boys and 18.0% girls and over weight (11.3% boys and 8.8% girls occurred in both groups. A relationship existed in both sexes between the categories of weight for the age and stunted growth by sex. Conclusions: Adolescents living at a moderate altitude exhibited stunted linear growth and biological maturation. Furthermore, adolescents of both sexes showed the presence of the double nutritional burden (stunted growth and excessive weight.

  3. Physical Growth, Biological Age, and Nutritional Transitions of Adolescents Living at Moderate Altitudes in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Flores, Antonio Viveros; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Olivares, Pedro R.; Garcia-Rubio, Javier; de Arruda, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peru is experiencing a stage of nutritional transition where the principal characteristics are typical of countries undergoing development. Objectives: The objectives of this study were the following: (a) compare physical growth patterns with an international standard; (b) determine biological age; and (c) analyze the double nutritional burden of adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. Design: Weight, standing height, and sitting height were measured in 551 adolescents of both sexes (12.0 to 17.9 years old) from an urban area of Arequipa, Peru (2328 m). Physical growth was compared with the international standard of the CDC-2000. Biological age was determined by using a non-invasive transversal technique based on years from age at peak height velocity (APHV). Nutritional state was determined by means of weight for age and height for age. Z scores were calculated using international standards from the CDC-2000. Results: Body weight for both sexes was similar to the CDC-2000 international standards. At all ages, the girls’ height (p < 0.05) was below the standards. However, the boys’ height (p < 0.05) was less at ages, 15, 16, and 17. Biological age showed up in girls at age 12.7 years and for boys at 15.2 years. Stunted growth (8.7% boys and 18.0% girls) and over weight (11.3% boys and 8.8% girls) occurred in both groups. A relationship existed in both sexes between the categories of weight for the age and stunted growth by sex. Conclusions: Adolescents living at a moderate altitude exhibited stunted linear growth and biological maturation. Furthermore, adolescents of both sexes showed the presence of the double nutritional burden (stunted growth and excessive weight). PMID:26404334

  4. Evaluation of An Activities of Daily Living Scale for Adolescents and Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenner, Matthew J; Smith, Leann E; Hong, Jinkuk; Makuch, Renee; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2012-01-01

    Background Activity limitations are an important and useful dimension of disability, but there are few validated measures of activity limitations for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. Objective/Hypothesis To describe the development of the Waisman Activities of Daily Living (W-ADL) Scale for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities, and systematically evaluate its measurement properties according to an established set of criteria. Methods The W-ADL was administered among four longitudinally-studied groups of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities: 406 with autism; 147 with fragile-X syndrome; 169 with Down syndrome, and 292 with intellectual disability of other or unknown origin. The W-ADL contains 17 activities and each is rated on a 3-point scale (0=“does not do at all”, 1=“does with help”, 2=“independent”), and a standard set of criteria were used to evaluate its measurement properties. Results Across the disability groups, Cronbach’s alphas ranged from 0.88 to 0.94, and a single-factor structure was most parsimonious. The W-ADL was reliable over time, with weighted kappas between 0.92 and 0.93. Criterion and construct validity were supported through substantial associations with the Vineland Screener, need for respite services, caregiving burden, and competitive employment. No floor or ceiling effects were present. There were significant group differences in W-ADL scores by maternally-reported level of intellectual disability (mild, moderate, severe, profound). Conclusions The W-ADL exceeded the recommended threshold for each quality criterion the authors evaluated. This freely-available tool is an efficient measure of activities of daily living for surveys and epidemiological research concerning adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. PMID:23260606

  5. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  6. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

    2015-01-01

    Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.

  7. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A. ALFaris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design: In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results: Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.

  8. Understanding the gap between cognitive abilities and daily living skills in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders with average intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Amie W; Bishop, Somer L

    2015-01-01

    Daily living skills standard scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2nd edition were examined in 417 adolescents from the Simons Simplex Collection. All participants had at least average intelligence and a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regressions were used to examine the prevalence and predictors of a "daily living skills deficit," defined as below average daily living skills in the context of average intelligence quotient. Approximately half of the adolescents were identified as having a daily living skills deficit. Autism symptomatology, intelligence quotient, maternal education, age, and sex accounted for only 10% of the variance in predicting a daily living skills deficit. Identifying factors associated with better or worse daily living skills may help shed light on the variability in adult outcome in individuals with autism spectrum disorder with average intelligence.

  9. Adolescents' and children's knowledge about rights: some evidence for how young people view rights in their own lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, M D; Keating, D P; Abramovitch, R; Koegl, C

    1998-06-01

    The present study examined the development of knowledge about rights from childhood to adolescence. One hundred and sixty-nine 8-16-year-olds participated in individual semi-structured interviews assessing knowledge and importance of rights both generally and in children's and adolescents' lives. Detailed content analyses indicated that a global stage account may not capture key features of the development of young people's knowledge about rights. Even the oldest adolescents consistently "defined" rights in concrete rather than abstract terms. In contrast, by 10 years of age the majority of subjects were aware of the universal nature of rights. These results suggest that what adolescents and children think about rights appears to be influenced by how they view rights in their own lives. The findings are discussed in terms of developmental theory and in relation to practical implications for children's rights.

  10. Variations de maintien de l'équilibre dynamique entre une population d'adolescents atteints de scoliose idiopathique et une population d'adolescents non scioliotiques

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La scoliose idiopathique de l’adolescent (SIA) progresse durant la période de croissance. L’une des déficiences fréquemment observée chez les adolescents atteints de SIA est une perturbation du contrôle postural, qui influence le maintien de l’équilibre. Il n’existe, cependant, aucun consensus concernant ce sujet. L’objectif de ce travail consiste à déterminer quelles sont les variations de maintien de l’équilibre dynamique entre une population atteinte de SIA et une population d...

  11. Phantoms never die: Living with unreliable population data

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, A. J. G.; D. Blake; Dowd, K.; Kessler, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society) Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Royal Statistical Society. The analysis of national mortality trends is critically dependent on the quality of the population, exposures and deaths data that underpin death rates. We develop a framework that allows us to assess data reliability and to identify anomalies, illustrated, by way of example, using England and Wales population data. First, we propose a set o...

  12. Effects of living environment on the postoperative Scoliosis Research Society-24 results in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Misterska, Ewa; Głowacki, Maciej; Panek, Sławomir; Ignyś-O’Byrne, Anna; Głowacki, Jakub; Ignyś, Iwona; Krauss, Hanna; Piątek, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background There are many factors influencing postoperative health-related quality of life of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, including the degree of the deformity, culture, differences in geography, rural versus urban living environments, and social factors. The objective of this study was to analyze the significance of geographic factors and their differences influencing the postoperative quality of life in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis residing in urban and...

  13. Parental Monitoring and Adolescent Alcohol Risk in a Clinic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Boyle, Jennifer R.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the association between parental monitoring and adolescent alcohol risk. Surveys of adolescents in a managed care setting examined alcohol involvement and forms of parent influence. Frequent monitoring related to less likelihood of being engaged in a variety of alcohol risk behaviors or other risk situations. Choosing to share alcohol…

  14. Biological Aspects of the Development and Self-Concept in Adolescents Living in Single-Parent Families

    OpenAIRE

    Veček, Andrea; Vidović, Vesna; Miličić, Jasna; Špoljar-Vržina, Sanja; Veček, Nenad; Arch-Veček, Branka

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigate whether there are differences between adolescents who grow up in single-parent families and those who grow up in nucleus families. We have decided that there are no differences in the physical development between the adolescents who are growing up in single parent families and those growing up in nucleus families. There is no difference in the self-concept between these two groups, except in the ethical and moral self-image of adolescents living with one parent. A...

  15. Living with infertility : Experiences among urban slum populations in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papreen, N; Sabin, K; Begum, L; Ahsan, SK; Baqui, AH

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the perceived causes of infertility, treatment-seeking for infertility and the consequences of childlessness, particularly for women, among a predominantly Muslim population in urban slums of Dhaka in Bangladesh. In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 women and GO men randoml

  16. Simulating living organisms with populations of point vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    The author has found that time-averaged images of small populations of point vortices can exhibit motions suggestive of the behavior of individual organisms. As an example, the author shows that collections of point vortices confined in a box and subjected to heating can generate patterns that are broadly similar to interspecies defense in certain sea anemones. It is speculated that other simple dynamical systems can be found to produce similar complex organism-like behavior.

  17. Do eating habits of the population living in Roma settlements differ from those of the majority population in Slovakia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijová, Emília; Gecková, Andrea Madarasová; Babinská, Ingrid

    2014-03-01

    Living in Roma settlements is associated with worse health in comparison with the majority population; this might be partially explained by socioeconomic disadvantages as well as cultural differences, including lifestyle. Eating habits represent an important part of lifestyle closely related to primary causes of morbidity and mortality, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases or cancers. The eating habits of the population living in Roma settlements in comparison with those of the majority population were explored using the cross-sectional epidemiological HepaMeta study conducted in 2011. A representative sample of Roma (n = 452, mean age = 34.7; 35.2% men) and non-Roma (n = 403, mean age = 33.5; 45.9% men) aged 18-55 years living in the Kosice region were asked about breakfasting and recent consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, meat products, meat, farinaceous dishes, and soft drinks. A logistic regression model was used separately for male and female participants. The population living in Roma settlements reported the recent consumption of fruit, vegetables and dairy products significantly less frequently in comparison with the majority population. Moreover, Roma females, in comparison with non-Roma females, reported significantly more frequently the consumption of meat and soft drinks. No differences were found between Roma and non-Roma in the consumption of meat products and farinaceous dishes. The population living in Roma settlements reported more frequently unhealthy eating habits in comparison with the majority population; this might contribute to worse health status of this population. The differences might be attributed to cultural differences between ethnic as well as socioeconomic groups, reduced availability of certain food items due to segregation or poverty and lower health literacy.

  18. Non-specific neck pain in preadolescent to adolescent populations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Neck pain is a common health problem globally. In addition to individual suffering, it causes a huge burden on societies. Some evidence suggests that neck pain in adolescence predicts frequent neck symptoms also in adulthood. A steady increase in prevalence of frequent and persistent neck pain among Finnish adolescents was observed in the 1990s, which might predict an increasing amount of adults with chronic neck pain in the near future. Thus, better understanding neck pain in children and ad...

  19. Length of residence and risk of eating disorders in immigrant adolescents living in Madrid: the AFINOS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Esteban-Gonzalo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to compare the risk of having an eating disorder (ED among immigrant and native adolescents living in Madrid and to determine the possible influence of length of residence (LOR on the risk of the immigrants. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from november 2007 to february 2008 in a representative sample of adolescents aged 13 to 17 years (n = 2,077, 1,052 girls living in the Madrid region. Data were collected using the Spanish version of the SCOFF Eating Disorders Questionnaire. Further factors considered were country of birth, LOR and several biological, sociodemographic, lifestyle and health-related variables. Results: According to the three logistic regression models constructed, female immigrant adolescents on the whole showed a greater ED risk (OR = 1.95; 95%CI 1.292.95; p = 0.001 than native adolescents. Moreover, the likelihood of ED was higher among female immigrants living in Spain for <6 years than for Spanish native females (OR = 2.44; 95%CI 1.42-4.18; p = 0.001, while no significant differences were found when female natives were compared with female immigrants living in this country for ≥ 6 years. Similarly, no differences were observed in the ED risk recorded for male native and immigrant adolescents, both as a whole and by length of residence in Spain. Conclusions: The immigrant status and the length of Spanish residence are relevant factors in regard to the ED risk in adolescents living in Madrid.

  20. [The population of India and the standard of living].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, G

    1983-01-01

    In 1951 the Indian population arrived at the end of its period of slow growth associated with British colonial rule. The mortality rate was still high at 27-31/1000; with a birth rate of 41-43/1000, the annual rate of growth was 1.2-1.3%. In the following decade, mortality declined appreciably due to progress in medicine and public health, but after 1961 the mortality decline slowed. Fertility began to decline, but much more slowly than hoped. The rate of urbanization was more moderate than in many developing countries, and the sex ratio for reasons not well understood continued to favor males. The rate of increase in several states slowed between 1961-71, and it appeared plausible that declining natality was a factor. The proportion literate increased from 24.03% in 1961 to 36.17% in 1981. In 1981, 46.74% of men and 24.88% of women were literate. Between 1951-81, mortality declined from 27-31/1000 to 13/1000 while fertility declined from 41-43/1000 to 34/1000. The effects of the future fertility decline will be partially offset by declining mortality. Although India has had some kind of family planning program since the 5-Year Plan of 1951-56, progress has been slow and uneven. Concern about overpopulation is increasing among the population, but available methods of contraception are imperfect, many programs are poorly administered, and skilled personnel are in short supply. The age at marriage has increased somewhat but not enough to have a major impact on fertility. Despite the extreme difficulty of establishing the caloric intake and real incomes of the poorest classes, it is known that wide disparities of income existed before independence and that population growth began to outpace increases in agricultural production long ago in some regions. However, after independence food production in the country as a whole increased by 114.3% while population increased by 93.7%. Growth of agricultural productivity has subsequently slowed. Improvements have been unevenly

  1. Factors influencing social self-disclosure among adolescents living with HIV in Eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Bakeera-Kitaka, Sabrina; Buyze, Jozefien; Loos, Jasna; Buvé, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) face many psychosocial challenges, including HIV disclosure to others. Given the importance of socialization during the adolescent transition process, this study investigated the psychological and social factors influencing self-disclosure of own HIV status to peers. We examined social HIV self-disclosure to peers, and its relationship to perceived HIV-related stigma, self-efficacy to disclose, self-esteem, and social support among a sample of n = 582 ALHIV aged 13-17 years in Kampala, Uganda, and Western Kenya. Data were collected between February and April 2011. Among them, 39% were double orphans. We conducted a secondary data analysis to assess the degree of social disclosure, reactions received, and influencing factors. Interviewer-administered questionnaires assessed medical, socio-demographic, and psychological variables (Rosenberg self-esteem scale; self-efficacy to disclose to peers), HIV-related stigma (10-item stigma scale), and social support (family-life and friends). Descriptive, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were performed with social self-disclosure to peers with gender as covariates. Almost half of ALHIV had told nobody (except health-care providers) about their HIV status, and about 18% had disclosed to either one of their friends, schoolmates, or a boy- or girlfriend. Logistic regression models revealed that having disclosed to peers was significantly related to being older, being a paternal orphan, contributing to family income, regular visits to the HIV clinic, and greater social support through peers. Low self-efficacy to disclose was negatively associated to the outcome variable. While social self-disclosure was linked to individual factors such as self-efficacy, factors relating to the social context and adolescents' access to psychosocial resources play an important role. ALHIV need safe environments to practice disclosure skills. Interventions should enable them to make optimal use of

  2. Living Adolescence in Family” parenting program: Adaptation and implementation in social and school contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Rodríguez-Gutiérreza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a developmental period that implies a series of rapid changes that might complicate the role of parents. This study evaluates changes in parental monitoring and the strategies to solve family conflicts reported by parents who participated in the "Living Adolescence in Family" program in local social services and school centers. In addition, the study analyses the moderating role of family and facilitator variables that may affect the final results. The participants were 697 parents attending the social services (438 in the intervention group and 259 in the control group and 1283 parents from school centers (880 in the intervention group and 403 in the control group. The results showed that families from local social services decreased the amount of control and improved monitoring in education and leisure spheres as well as self-disclosure whereas the families coming from school centers improved supervision in leisure and in self-disclosure. In addition, both groups of families improved their strategies for solving family conflicts, increasing the use of integrative strategies and decreasing the use of dominant strategies. There were differences across contexts: the results of the program in the social services context differed according to the participant and professional profiles whereas program results were more homogeneous in the school context. In sum, the program appears to be an efficient work tool, both for the professionals who work with at-risk families with adolescents and for the teachers who make use of the program for families with children at risk of early school dropout.

  3. Understanding the Gap between Cognitive Abilities and Daily Living Skills in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Average Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Amie W.; Bishop, Somer L.

    2015-01-01

    Daily living skills standard scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2nd edition were examined in 417 adolescents from the Simons Simplex Collection. All participants had at least average intelligence and a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regressions were used to examine the prevalence and…

  4. The Association between Weapon-Carrying and the Use of Violence among Adolescents Living in or around Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, Robert H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines social and psychological factors associated with frequency of weapon-carrying by black adolescents living in a community where there is extensive poverty and a high level of violent crime. Weapon carrying was significantly associated with exposure to violence and victimization, age, corporal punishment scale, depression, family conflict,…

  5. Understanding the Lived Experience of a Sioux Indian Male Adolescent: Toward the Pedagogy of Hermeneutical Phenomenology in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a resurgence of interests in phenomenology in education. This article sheds light on the importance of hermeneutical phenomenology in teaching and learning based on the lived experience of a Sioux Indian adolescent boy, elicited from an ethnographic case study conducted at an alternative high school in the US. Employing…

  6. Family circumstance, sedentary behaviour and physical activity in adolescents living in England: Project STIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorely Trish

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of non-modifiable correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth contributes to the development of effective targeted intervention strategies. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between family circumstances (e.g. socio-economic status, single vs. dual parent household, presence/absence of siblings and leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviours in adolescents. Methods A total of 1171 adolescents (40% male; mean age 14.8 years completed ecological momentary assessment diaries every 15 minutes for 3 weekdays outside of school hours and 1 weekend day. Analysed behaviours were sports/exercise, active travel, TV viewing, computer use, sedentary socialising (hanging-out, using the telephone, sitting and talking and total sedentary behaviour. Linear regression was employed to estimate levels of association between individual family circumstance variables and each behaviour. Results Compared to girls from higher socioeconomic status (SES groups, girls from low SES groups reported higher weekend TV viewing and higher weekday total sedentary behaviour. For boys, single parent status was associated with greater total sedentary behaviour compared to those from dual parent households. Boys and girls from low socio-economic neighbourhoods reported lower participation in sports/exercise compared to those living in higher socio-economic neighbourhoods. Conclusion Associations were not consistent across behaviours or between genders. Overall, findings indicate that boys from single parent households and girls from low socio-economic families may be at increased risk of high sedentary behaviour. Those living in low socioeconomic neighbourhoods may be at increased risk of reduced participation in sports and exercise.

  7. Future Time Perspective: Adolescents' Predictions of Their Interpersonal Lives in the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinn, Lynn M.; Pike, Gary

    1989-01-01

    Investigated adolescent future time perspective in adolescents (N=125) aged 15 to 20 years. Found adolescents did not perceive divorce in their future although periods of singlehood, widowhood, and nuclear family life were perceived as extremely likely, particularly among female adolescents. (Author/ABL)

  8. Parents’ experiences of living with, and caring for children, adolescents and young adults with Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Somanadhan, S.; Larkin, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many rare diseases of childhood are life-threatening and chronically debilitating, so living with a rare disease is an on-going challenge for patients and their families. MPS is one of a range of rare inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) that come under category 3 of life-limiting conditions, where there is no curative treatment available at present. Although the study of rare diseases is increasingly novel, and of clinical importance to the population, the lack of empirical data i...

  9. Social correlates of cigarette smoking among Icelandic adolescents: A population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allegrante John P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that between 80 and 90 percent of adult smokers report having started smoking before 18 years of age. Several studies have revealed that multiple social factors influence the likelihood of smoking during adolescence, the period during which the onset of smoking usually occurs. To better understand the social mechanisms that influence adolescent smoking, we analyzed the relationship and relative importance of a broad spectrum of social variables in adolescent smoking in Iceland, a Nordic country with high per-capita income. Methods We used cross-sectional data from 7,430 14- to 16 year-old students (approximately 81% of all Icelanders in these age cohorts in the 2006 Youth in Iceland study. The Youth in Iceland studies are designed to investigate the role of several cognitive, behavioral, and social factors in the lives of adolescents, and the data collected are used to inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs that are being developed by Icelandic social scientists, policy makers, and practitioners. Results Our analysis revealed that friends' smoking behavior and attitude toward smoking were strongly associated with adolescent smoking and other tobacco use, as well as alcohol consumption during the previous 30 days. Main protective factors were parent's perceived attitude toward smoking, the quantity of time spent with parents, absence of serious verbal conflict between parents and adolescents, and participation in physical activity. Family structure was related to adolescent smoking to a small extent, but other background factors were not. Conclusion We conclude that multiple social factors are related to adolescent smoking. Parents and other primary preventive agents need to be informed about the complicated nature of the adolescent social world in order to maximize their impact.

  10. Breast tumours of adolescents in an African population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umanah Ivy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumours of the breast are uncommon in childhood and adolescence. Patients in this age group often require a different approach to diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this study is to highlight the clinicopathologic features of breast tumours in adolescents in a Nigerian city. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four breast tumour materials from patients aged 10-19 years were analyzed over a 10-year period at the Department of Pathology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH, Benin City, Edo State, Benin City, Nigeria. Results: A majority of the breast tumours were benign. Fibroadenoma was the most common tumour with 46 cases (54.8%, followed by fibrocystic changes with 15 cases (17%. Malignancy was extremely rare in this group, with only one case (1.2% of an invasive ductal carcinoma. Histologically, most tumours were indistinguishable from the adult types. Conclusion: Fibroadenoma is the most common breast tumour in adolescents in Benin City, Nigeria. Breast cancer and male breast tumours are rare in this age group. Routine complete physical examination of children and adolescents should include breast examination.

  11. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms : An adolescent population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvanie, Irma J.; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A. M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. I

  12. Prevalence of different forms of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Chang, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Fetzer, Susan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2015-04-01

    Reported cases of child maltreatment are increasing in Taiwan. Yet, comprehensive epidemiological characteristics of adolescents' exposure over the wide spectrum of violence are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and magnitude of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents. A population-based study was conducted with 5,276 adolescents aged 12-18 from 35 schools in 17 cities and townships to determine the prevalence of five forms of child maltreatment in Taiwan. A total of 5,236 adolescents completed anonymous, self-report, structured questionnaires. Most adolescents (91%, n=4,788) experienced at least one form of maltreatment with 83% (n=4,347) exposed during the previous year. Violence exposure was the most common type of child maltreatment experienced, followed by psychological abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse. Adolescents reported an average of 7.4 (SD=5.87) victimizations over their lifetime and 4.8 (SD=4.82) victimizations during the past year. Females reported a higher rate of neglect, while males reported a higher rate of sexual abuse. Most of the sexual abuse perpetrators were known by their victims. Adolescents' victimization and polyvictimization from child maltreatment in Taiwan deserves a review and modification of national control and prevention policies.

  13. Population income and longitudinal trends in living kidney donation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jagbir; Dong, Jianghu; Gill, John

    2015-01-01

    Living kidney donation is declining in the United States. We examined longitudinal trends in living donation as a function of median household income and donor relation to assess the effect of financial barriers on donation in a changing economic environment. The zip code-level median household income of all 71,882 living donors was determined by linkage to the 2000 US Census. Longitudinal changes in the rate of donation were determined in income quintiles between 1999 and 2004, when donations were increasing, and between 2005 and 2010, when donations were declining. Rates were adjusted for population differences in age, sex, race, and ESRD rate using multilevel linear regression models. Between 1999 and 2004, the rate of growth in living donation per million population was directly related to income, increasing progressively from the lowest to highest income quintile, with annualized changes of 0.55 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.14 to 1.05) for Q1 and 1.77 (95% CI, 0.66 to 2.77) for Q5 (Pincome with longitudinal changes also varied by donor relationship. In conclusion, changes in living donation in the past decade varied by median household income, resulting in increased disparities in donation between low- and high-income populations. These findings may inform public policies to support living donation during periods of economic volatility.

  14. Daily hassles in a population of Romanian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nemeş

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is aimed to identify the most important long-term stressors for Romanian adolescents. Material and Methods: 1143 randomly selected Romanian subjects were considered. Mean age in the study sample was 15.02, with a standard deviation (SD of 0.371. About 65.4% of subjects were females. Daily hassles related to the family environment, physical state, psychological status, financial status of the family and interpersonal relationships were covered Results: 22.7% of the subjects reported daily hassles related to their familial environment, 7.8% reported daily hassles related to their physical state, 59.6% reported daily hassles related to their psychological state, 41.9% reported financial difficulties of their families and 4.4% of adolescent reported being bullied. Conclusion: Stressors that appear to be most relevant for adolescents in north-western Romania are: financial difficulties of the family and psychological difficulties. There are no differences in reporting bullying between genders and that this phenomenon is less frequent in Romania. A greater attention should be paid to the effects of workforce migration.

  15. The Living Planet Index: using species population time series to track trends in biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, Jonathan; Green, Rhys E; Ricketts, Taylor; Lamoreux, John; Jenkins, Martin; Kapos, Valerie; Randers, Jorgen

    2005-01-01

    The Living Planet Index was developed to measure the changing state of the world's biodiversity over time. It uses time-series data to calculate average rates of change in a large number of populations of terrestrial, freshwater and marine vertebrate species. The dataset contains about 3000 population time series for over 1100 species. Two methods of calculating the index are outlined: the chain method and a method based on linear modelling of log-transformed data. The dataset is analysed to ...

  16. In the face of war: examining sexual vulnerabilities of Acholi adolescent girls living in displacement camps in conflict-affected Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Sheetal H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent girls are an overlooked group within conflict-affected populations and their sexual health needs are often neglected. Girls are disproportionately at risk of HIV and other STIs in times of conflict, however the lack of recognition of their unique sexual health needs has resulted in a dearth of distinctive HIV protection and prevention responses. Departing from the recognition of a paucity of literature on the distinct vulnerabilities of girls in time of conflict, this study sought to deepen the knowledge base on this issue by qualitatively exploring the sexual vulnerabilities of adolescent girls surviving abduction and displacement in Northern Uganda. Methods Over a ten-month period between 2004–2005, at the height of the Lord’s Resistance Army insurgency in Northern Uganda, 116 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions were held with adolescent girls and adult women living in three displacement camps in Gulu district, Northern Uganda. The data was transcribed and key themes and common issues were identified. Once all data was coded the ethnographic software programme ATLAS was used to compare and contrast themes and categories generated in the in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Results Our results demonstrated the erosion of traditional Acholi mentoring and belief systems that had previously served to protect adolescent girls’ sexuality. This disintegration combined with: the collapse of livelihoods; being left in camps unsupervised and idle during the day; commuting within camp perimeters at night away from the family hut to sleep in more central locations due to privacy and insecurity issues, and; inadequate access to appropriate sexual health information and services, all contribute to adolescent girls’ heightened sexual vulnerability and subsequent enhanced risk for HIV/AIDS in times of conflict. Conclusions Conflict prevention planners, resettlement programme developers, and

  17. Living alone and antidepressant medication use: a prospective study in a working-age population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkki-Råback Laura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing proportion of the population lives in one-person households. The authors examined whether living alone predicts the use of antidepressant medication and whether socioeconomic, psychosocial, or behavioral factors explain this association. Methods The participants were a nationally representative sample of working-age Finns from the Health 2000 Study, totaling 1695 men and 1776 women with a mean age of 44.6 years. In the baseline survey in 2000, living arrangements (living alone vs. not and potential explanatory factors, including psychosocial factors (social support, work climate, hostility, sociodemographic factors (occupational grade, education, income, unemployment, urbanicity, rental living, housing conditions, and health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, obesity, were measured. Antidepressant medication use was followed up from 2000 to 2008 through linkage to national prescription registers. Results Participants living alone had a 1.81-fold (CI = 1.46-2.23 higher purchase rate of antidepressants during the follow-up period than those who did not live alone. Adjustment for sociodemographic factors attenuated this association by 21% (adjusted OR = 1.64, CI = 1.32-2.05. The corresponding attenuation was 12% after adjustment for psychosocial factors (adjusted OR = 1.71, CI = 1.38-2.11 and 9% after adjustment for health behaviors (adjusted OR = 1.74, CI = 1.41-2.14. Gender-stratified analyses showed that in women the greatest attenuation was related to sociodemographic factors and in men to psychosocial factors. Conclusions These data suggest that people living alone may be at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The public health value is in recognizing that people who live alone are more likely to have material and psychosocial problems that may contribute to excess mental health problems in this population group.

  18. SEXUALITY IN THE OPINION OF ADOLESCENTS LIVING IN THE AREA OF COVERAGE IN DR FÁBIO CUIABÁ CITY, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Junior Henrique Duarte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative study aimed to know the understanding of adolescents about their sexuality and how the exercises for further intervention by the health team. We administered a structured questionnaire in a sample of 43 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years living in the area covered by the Family Health Unit Dr. Fabio I and II. The data were tabulated in the spreadsheet program Microsoft Office Excel 2007, allowing for a descriptive treatment, keeping a confidence interval of 95%. The results show that 32.5% of participants had first intercourse between 12 and 16, and 50% of them admit they have used a condom at last intercourse. In addition, 4.6% have had some kind of sexually transmitted disease. The study indicates the need for educational activities in sexual and reproductive health to adolescents facing the neighborhoods studied, with a view to promoting health.

  19. The Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Unwanted Sexual Contact among Boys and Girls Living in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Elya E.; Romaniuk, Helena; Olsson, Craig A.; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Carlin, John B.; Patton, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with both short- and long-term adverse mental and physical health consequences, yet there remains considerable controversy about the prevalence of CSA in the general population. There is also little prospective data on unwanted sexual contact (USC) collected during adolescence. Methods: Data…

  20. The standard of living of the population and its diversity in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the comparison standard of living for Poland and other European Union countries (based on specific diagnostic features that describe different groups of the population's needs. In the study of the spatial diversity of life taxonomic methods were used – classical TOPSIS method.

  1. Tinea capitis: study of asymptomatic carriers and sick adolescents, adults and elderly who live with children with the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERGSON Christiane Loureiro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection that occurs mainly in childhood; there are few reports, in Brazil, in adolescents and adults. The detection of asymptomatic carriers is of great importance in the disease control. From February 1998 to February 1999, a study was performed at the outpatient Dermatologic Unit of Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil to verify the frequency of asymptomatic carriers and tinea capitis between 79 adolescents, adults and elderly who lived in the same household of 56 children (0-12 years with tinea capitis. Of these, one female and one male adults (2.5% were asymptomatic carriers and the cultures revealed Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum canis respectively. One female adolescent and two female adults (3.8% had tinea capitis and all cultures revealed Trichophyton tonsurans. The study has shown that adolescents and adults who live in the same household of children with tinea capitis may be sick or asymptomatic carriers.

  2. Nutritional and physical activity behaviours and habits in adolescent population of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević-Nikić Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Proper nutrition and regular physical activity are essential parts of a adolescent's overall health. The aim of this research was to evaluated eating and physical activity behaviours and habits, nutritional and food knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy related to diet and health of the adolescents of the city of Belgrade, Serbia. Methods. A dietary questionnaire previously constructed and tested in adolescent population from Italy was self-administrated. We evaluated eating habits, physical activity, meaning of healthy and unhealthy dietary habits and food, self-efficacy, barriers affecting food choices, nutritional and food safety, and body mass index (BMI of the adolescents. The sample included 707 adolescents, the mean age of 15,8 ± 2 years enrolled in the first grade at several high schools in Belgrade. Results. Only 27% of the adolescents had satisfactory eating habits; 31% have a very active lifestyle; 7% good nutritional knowledge and 6- 12% satisfactory food safety knowledge and hygiene practices. Conclusion. Significant deviations from recommendations for healthy lifestyle was noted in adolescents’ habits, knowledge and practice. It is therefore necessary to develop and organize programs for promotion of healthy behaviours adapted to the adolescents’ needs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47015

  3. Consumption patterns of sweet drinks in a population of Australian children and adolescents (2003–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Britt W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intake of sweet drinks has previously been associated with the development of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the consumption pattern of sweet drinks in a population of children and adolescents in Victoria, Australia. Methods Data on 1,604 children and adolescents (4–18 years from the comparison groups of two quasi-experimental intervention studies from Victoria, Australia were analysed. Sweet drink consumption (soft drink and fruit juice/cordial was assessed as one day’s intake and typical intake over the last week or month at two time points between 2003 and 2008 (mean time between measurement: 2.2 years. Results Assessed using dietary recalls, more than 70% of the children and adolescents consumed sweet drinks, with no difference between age groups (p = 0.28. The median intake among consumers was 500 ml and almost a third consumed more than 750 ml per day. More children and adolescents consumed fruit juice/cordial (69% than soft drink (33% (p Conclusion The proportion of Australian children and adolescents from the state of Victoria consuming sweet drinks has been stable or decreasing, although a high proportion of this sample consumed sweet drinks, especially fruit juice/cordial at both time points.

  4. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marise Fagundes Silveira; Rafael Silveira Freire; Marcela Oliveira Nepomuceno; Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima Martins; Luiz Francisco Marcopito

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761) was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2), and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopte...

  5. Social differences in smoking and snuff use among Norwegian adolescents: A population based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovengen Ragnhild

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A change in pattern of tobacco use has been observed in the last decade in Norway. Snuff use and occasional smoking have to some degree replaced daily smoking among adolescents and young adults. Daily smoking is known to be negatively associated with social background factors, but little is known about these associations for other types of tobacco use. Our aim was to study different types of tobacco use among adolescents according to gender, educational ambitions, family background factors, and urbanization. Methods Cross-sectional, school-based study with 15 931 participants and response-rate 87%, conducted among 15 and 16 year olds during 2000–2004. Results More girls (33.8% than boys (26.4% were daily or occasional smokers, while more boys (21.4% than girls (3.5% were daily or occasional snuff users. Daily smoking was more common among adolescents planning vocational education, with single parents or poor family economy. Occasional smoking and snuff use (daily or occasionally showed a similar, but less pronounced pattern regarding education and single parent families. Adolescents with parents from foreign countries were less likely to use tobacco. One exception was boys with parents from Muslim majority countries who had an increased risk of daily smoking. A typical combination user of both tobacco types was a Norwegian boy with divorced parents and ambitions to complete vocational studies or only one year of upper secondary school. Conclusion Tobacco use in adolescents is mainly associated with low educational ambitions and less affluent self-reported family economy. Adolescents with divorced parents use more tobacco than those living with both parents. Public health initiatives to avoid or reduce tobacco use should mainly target adolescents in vocational studies and those leaving school early.

  6. A Comparison of Two Motion Sensors for the Assessment of Free-Living Physical Activity of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Cuberek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed and compared the daily step counts recorded by two different motion sensors in order to estimate the free-living physical activity of 135 adolescent girls. Each girl concurrently wore a Yamax pedometer and an ActiGraph accelerometer (criterion measure every day for seven consecutive days. The convergent validity of the pedometer can be considered intermediate when used to measure the step counts in free-living physical activity; but should be considered with caution when used to classify participants’ step counts into corresponding physical activity categories because of a likelihood of ‘erroneous’ classification in comparison with the accelerometer.

  7. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Fagundes Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761 was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2, and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopted. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the intraoral examinations and interviews in households. The dependent variable (severity of malocclusion was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI. The independent variables were grouped into five blocks: demographic characteristics, socioeconomic condition, use of dental services, health-related behavior and oral health subjective conditions. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion. RESULTS We interviewed and examined 736 adolescents (91.5% response rate, 69.9% of whom showed no abnormalities or slight malocclusion. Defined malocclusion was observed in 17.8% of the adolescents, being severe or very severe in 12.6%, with pressing or essential need of orthodontic treatment. The probabilities of greater severity of malocclusion were higher among adolescents who self-reported as black, indigenous, pardo or yellow, with lower per capita income, having harmful oral habits, negative perception of their appearance and perception of social relationship affected by oral health. CONCLUSIONS Severe or very severe malocclusion was more prevalent among socially disadvantaged adolescents, with reported harmful habits and perception of compromised esthetics and social relationships. Given that malocclusion can interfere with the self-esteem of adolescents, it is essential to improve public policy for the inclusion of orthodontic treatment among

  8. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Nepomuceno, Marcela Oliveira; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761) was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2), and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopted. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the intraoral examinations and interviews in households. The dependent variable (severity of malocclusion) was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). The independent variables were grouped into five blocks: demographic characteristics, socioeconomic condition, use of dental services, health-related behavior and oral health subjective conditions. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion. RESULTS We interviewed and examined 736 adolescents (91.5% response rate), 69.9% of whom showed no abnormalities or slight malocclusion. Defined malocclusion was observed in 17.8% of the adolescents, being severe or very severe in 12.6%, with pressing or essential need of orthodontic treatment. The probabilities of greater severity of malocclusion were higher among adolescents who self-reported as black, indigenous, pardo or yellow, with lower per capita income, having harmful oral habits, negative perception of their appearance and perception of social relationship affected by oral health. CONCLUSIONS Severe or very severe malocclusion was more prevalent among socially disadvantaged adolescents, with reported harmful habits and perception of compromised esthetics and social relationships. Given that malocclusion can interfere with the self-esteem of adolescents, it is essential to improve public policy for the inclusion of orthodontic treatment among health care

  9. Live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine in children, adolescents and adults in a dengue endemic country: randomized controlled phase I trial in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeding, Rosario Z; Luna, Imelda A; Bomasang, Emily; Lupisan, Socorro; Lang, Jean; Forrat, Remi; Wartel, Anh; Crevat, Denis

    2011-05-17

    A recombinant live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV) is safe and immunogenic in adults and children in dengue-naïve populations. Data are needed in dengue endemic populations. In a phase I, randomized, controlled, blind-observer study in the Philippines, groups of participants aged 2-5, 6-11, 12-17, and 18-45 years received either three TDV vaccinations at months 0, 3.5, and 12 (TDV-TDV-TDV group) or licensed typhoid vaccination at month 0 and TDV at months 3.5 and 12 (TyVi-TDV-TDV group) and were followed for safety (including biological safety and vaccine virus viremia) and immunogenicity. No serious adverse vaccine related events and no significant trends in biological safety parameters were reported. Injection site pain, headache, malaise, myalgia, fever, and asthenia were reported most frequently, as mild to moderate in most cases and transient. Reactogenicity did not increase with successive vaccinations and was no higher in children than in adults and adolescents. Low levels of vaccinal viremia were detected in both groups after each TDV vaccination. After three TDV vaccinations, the seropositivity rates against serotypes 1-4 were: 91%, 100%, 96%, 100%, respectively, in 2-5 year-olds; 88%, 96% 96%, 92% in 6-11 year-olds; 88%, 83%, 92%, 96% in adolescents; and 100% for all serotypes in adults. A similar response was observed after two doses for the TyVi-TDV-TDV group. The safety profile of TDV in a flavivirus endemic population was consistent with previous reports from flavivirus naïve populations. A vaccine regimen of either three TDV vaccinations administered over a year or two TDV vaccinations given more than 8 months apart resulted in a balanced antibody response to all four dengue serotypes in this flavivirus-exposed population, including children.

  10. The contribution of genetic diversity to subdivide populations living in the silk road of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    Full Text Available There are several indigenous ethnic populations along the silk road in the Northwest of China that display clear differences in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different linguistic traditions. However, extensive trade and other interactions probably facilitated the admixture of different gene pools between these populations over the last two millennia. To further explore the evolutionary relationships of the 13 ethnic populations residing in Northwest China and to reveal the features of population admixture, the 9 most-commonly employed CODIS loci (D3S1358, TH01, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, CSF1PO, vWA, TPOX, FGA were selected for genotyping and further analysis. Phylogenetic tree and principal component analysis revealed clear pattern of population differentiation between 4 populations living in Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region and other 9 populations dwelled in the upper regions of Silk Road. R matrix regression showed high-level gene flow and population admixture dose exist among these ethic populations in the Northwest region of China. Furthermore, the Mantel test suggests that larger percent of genetic variance (21.58% versus 2.3% can be explained by geographic isolation than linguistic barriers, which matched with the contribution of geographic factors to other world populations.

  11. The Contribution of Genetic Diversity to Subdivide Populations Living in the Silk Road of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Hongsheng; Yuan, Zuyi; Li, Shengbin

    2014-01-01

    There are several indigenous ethnic populations along the silk road in the Northwest of China that display clear differences in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different linguistic traditions. However, extensive trade and other interactions probably facilitated the admixture of different gene pools between these populations over the last two millennia. To further explore the evolutionary relationships of the 13 ethnic populations residing in Northwest China and to reveal the features of population admixture, the 9 most-commonly employed CODIS loci (D3S1358, TH01, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, CSF1PO, vWA, TPOX, FGA) were selected for genotyping and further analysis. Phylogenetic tree and principal component analysis revealed clear pattern of population differentiation between 4 populations living in Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region and other 9 populations dwelled in the upper regions of Silk Road. R matrix regression showed high-level gene flow and population admixture dose exist among these ethic populations in the Northwest region of China. Furthermore, the Mantel test suggests that larger percent of genetic variance (21.58% versus 2.3%) can be explained by geographic isolation than linguistic barriers, which matched with the contribution of geographic factors to other world populations. PMID:24828511

  12. The contribution of genetic diversity to subdivide populations living in the silk road of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Wei, Shuguang; Gui, Hongsheng; Yuan, Zuyi; Li, Shengbin

    2014-01-01

    There are several indigenous ethnic populations along the silk road in the Northwest of China that display clear differences in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different linguistic traditions. However, extensive trade and other interactions probably facilitated the admixture of different gene pools between these populations over the last two millennia. To further explore the evolutionary relationships of the 13 ethnic populations residing in Northwest China and to reveal the features of population admixture, the 9 most-commonly employed CODIS loci (D3S1358, TH01, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, CSF1PO, vWA, TPOX, FGA) were selected for genotyping and further analysis. Phylogenetic tree and principal component analysis revealed clear pattern of population differentiation between 4 populations living in Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region and other 9 populations dwelled in the upper regions of Silk Road. R matrix regression showed high-level gene flow and population admixture dose exist among these ethic populations in the Northwest region of China. Furthermore, the Mantel test suggests that larger percent of genetic variance (21.58% versus 2.3%) can be explained by geographic isolation than linguistic barriers, which matched with the contribution of geographic factors to other world populations.

  13. Living situation affects adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adolescents in Rwanda: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe R Mutwa

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART is vital for HIV-infected adolescents for survival and quality of life. However, this age group faces many challenges to remain adherent. We used multiple data sources (role-play, focus group discussions (FGD, and in-depth interviews (IDI to better understand adherence barriers for Rwandan adolescents. Forty-two HIV positive adolescents (ages 12-21 and a selection of their primary caregivers were interviewed. All were perinatally-infected and received (cART for ≥ 12 months. Topics discussed during FGDs and IDIs included learning HIV status, disclosure and stigma, care and treatment issues, cART adherence barriers. RESULTS: Median age was 17 years, 45% female, 45% orphaned, and 48% in boarding schools. We identified three overarching but inter-related themes that appeared to influence adherence. Stigma, perceived and experienced, and inadvertent disclosure of HIV status hampered adolescents from obtaining and taking their drugs, attending clinic visits, carrying their cARTs with them in public. The second major theme was the need for better support, in particular for adolescents with different living situations, (orphanages, foster-care, and boarding schools. Lack of privacy to keep and take medication came out as major barrier for adolescents living in congested households, as well the institutionalization of boarding schools where privacy is almost non-existent. The third important theme was the desire to be 'normal' and not be recognized as an HIV-infected individual, and to have a normal life not perturbed by taking a regimen of medications or being forced to disclose where others would treat them differently. CONCLUSIONS: We propose better management of HIV-infected adolescents integrated into boarding school, orphanages, and foster care; training of school-faculty on how to support students and allow them privacy for taking their medications. To provide better care and

  14. Variation in the local population dynamics of the short-lived Opuntia macrorhiza (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, C V; Keeler, Kathleen H; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2015-03-01

    Spatiotemporal variation in demographic rates can have profound effects for population persistence, especially for dispersal-limited species living in fragmented landscapes. Long-term studies of plants in such habitats help with understanding the impacts of fragmentation on population persistence but such studies are rare. In this work, we reanalyzed demographic data from seven years of the short-lived cactus Opuntia macrorhiza var. macrorhiza at five plots in Boulder, Colorado. Previous work combining data from all years and all plots predicted a stable population (deterministic log lamda approximately 0). This approach assumed that all five plots were part of a single population. Since the plots were located in a suburban-agricultural interface separated by highways, grazing lands, and other barriers, and O. macrorhiza is likely dispersal limited, we analyzed the dynamics of each plot separately using stochastic matrix models assuming each plot represented a separate population. We found that the stochastic population growth rate log lamdaS varied widely between populations (log lamdaS = 0.1497, 0.0774, -0.0230, -0.2576, -0.4989). The three populations with the highest growth rates were located close together in space, while the two most isolated populations had the lowest growth rates suggesting that dispersal between populations is critical for the population viability of O. macrorhiza. With one exception, both our prospective (stochastic elasticity) and retrospective (stochastic life table response experiments) analysis suggested that means of stasis and growth, especially of smaller plants, were most important for population growth rate. This is surprising because recruitment is typically the most important vital rate in a short-lived species such as O. macrorhiza. We found that elasticity to the variance was mostly negligible, suggesting that O. macrorhiza populations are buffered against large temporal variation. Finally, single-year elasticities to means

  15. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in twins: a population-based survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel O; Thomsen, Karsten; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A questionnaire-based identification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients in a twin cohort. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to establish a scoliosis twin cohort to provide data on the heritability of AIS. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The etiology of AIS is still...... environmental factors. METHODS: All 46,418 twins registered in the Danish Twin Registry born from 1931 to 1982 were sent a questionnaire, which included questions about scoliosis. A total of 34,944 (75.3%) representing 23,204 pairs returned the questionnaire. RESULTS: A subgroup of 220 subjects considered...... to have AIS was identified, thus giving a prevalence of 1.05%. The concordant twin pairs were all monozygotic. Pairwise, the concordance rate was 0.13 for monozygotic and zero for dizygotic twin pairs; proband-wise concordance was 0.25 for monozygotic and zero for dizygotic pairs. The concordance...

  16. Obsessive compulsive phenomenology in a sample of Egyptian adolescent population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rady

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Obsessive symptoms among children and adolescent age groups are increasing, an observation made by mental health professionals working with this age group. Our epidemiological study targeted secondary school students to estimate the prevalence of obsessive symptoms, obsessive compulsive disorder and their different obsessive compulsive contents. Methods: The study is cross sectional carried on 1299 secondary school students, the sample size was chosen based on an estimated Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD prevalence of 2% in literature. Equal samples were recruited from the 3 educative zones in Alexandria Governorate. Obsessive compulsive symptoms were assessed by the Arabic version of Lyeton obsessive inventory child version LOI-CV. Students scoring above 35 were subjected to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children MINI-KID Arabic. OCD patient students detected by MINI-KID were assessed by psychiatric interview to confirm fulfilling criteria of OCD according to DSM IV-TR criteria. Different obsessive compulsive symptoms were assessed by a standardized questionnaire. Results: Among the studied sample (n = 1299, 201 students scored > 35 on LOI-CV i.e. 15.5% of the total sample have OCS. The prevalence of OCD among studied sample was 2.2% as 29 students from the OCS students were fulfilling diagnostic criteria for OCD according to DSM-IV TR. Common obsessive symptoms were of excessive conscience 65.5%, blasphemous 55.2%, repeated words 51.7% and sexual obsessions 48.2%. Conclusions: The prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms is high among adolescent age group. Cultural impact should be considered to better understand obsessive phenomenology, raising the importance of OCD study from a transcultural perspective.

  17. Living with Difference: Exploring the Social Self of Adolescents with Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A Forgeron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic pain negatively affects an adolescent’s life; however, little is known about the social impact of chronic pain for adolescents. More is known about the general peer relationships of adolescents with chronic pain than their close friendships. Close friendships begin to take on more importance during adolescence as these relationships facilitate the development of an adolescent’s sense of personal identity and increasing independence from family influences. Thus, chronic pain may create friendship challenges for adolescents beyond those typically experienced during this developmental trajectory, which may negatively impact their abilities to secure social support.

  18. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with a population based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangerud, Wenche Langfjord; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use by diagnostic category in 566 adolescent psychiatric patients, comparing this sample with 8173 adolescents from the general population in Norway who completed the Young-HUNT 3 survey. Frequencies of current alcohol use were high in both samples but were lower among psychiatric patients. Compared with adolescents in the general population, adolescents in the clinical sample had a higher prevalence of current smoking and over four times higher odds of having tried illicit drugs. In the clinical sample, those with mood disorders reported the highest frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use, whereas those with autism spectrum disorders reported the lowest frequencies. Our results show an increased prevalence of risky health behaviors among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with the general population. The awareness of disorder-specific patterns of smoking and substance use may guide preventive measures.

  19. Sleep and academic performance in later adolescence: results from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Harvey, Allison G; Linton, Steven J; Askeland, Kristin G; Sivertsen, Børge

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the association between sleep duration and sleep patterns and academic performance in 16-19 year-old adolescents using registry-based academic grades. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland-survey, surveyed 7798 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls). The survey was linked with objective outcome data on school performance. Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep deficit and bedtime differences between weekday and weekend. School performance [grade point average (GPA)] was obtained from official administrative registries. Most sleep parameters were associated with increased risk for poor school performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic information, short sleep duration and sleep deficit were the sleep measures with the highest odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile). Weekday bedtime was associated significantly with GPA, with adolescents going to bed between 22:00 and 23:00 hours having the best GPA. Also, delayed sleep schedule during weekends was associated with poor academic performance. The associations were somewhat reduced after additional adjustment for non-attendance at school, but remained significant in the fully adjusted models. In conclusion, the demonstrated relationship between sleep problems and poor academic performance suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted when adolescents are underperforming at school. Future studies are needed on the association between impaired sleep in adolescence and later functioning in adulthood.

  20. The Longitudinal Relation between Childhood Autistic Traits and Psychosexual Problems in Early Adolescence: The Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Linda P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autistic traits are considered to be prone to develop psychosexual problems due to their limited social skills and insight. This study investigated the longitudinal relation between autistic traits in childhood (T1; age 10-12 years) and parent-reported psychosexual problems in early adolescence (T2; age 12-15 years). In a general…

  1. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannelli, Andrea M; Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Pinto, Liana Wenersbach

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  2. Health behaviour in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared to a representative reference population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kummer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We provide a population-based overview of health behaviours of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in comparison to the general population, and analyse their relevance for glycaemic control and self-rated health status. METHODS: Data from questionnaires of 11- to 17-year-old children and adolescents with diabetes (n = 629 were compared to a representative sample (n = 6,813. RESULTS: Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes had a significantly increased odds of infrequent physical activity (adjusted OR 1.56, short overall duration of physical activity per week (OR 1.55, difference -1.3 hours/week, and high daily computer use (OR 2.51. They had a lower odds of active and passive smoking (OR 0.31 and OR 0.29, and high daily television time (OR 0.68. The odds of an at least good and excellent self-rated health status was increased with intense physical activity, and decreased with active smoking and prolonged daily use of computer and television. Active smoking and prolonged daily use of computer were associated with higher HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes showed a different profile of health behaviour. Their overall health may improve if their education stresses specifically frequent physical activity with longer overall duration and less frequent television or computer use.

  3. When a girl's decision involves the community: the realities of adolescent Maya girls' lives in rural indigenous Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Heather; Tum, Silvia Ester

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent Maya girls are among the most vulnerable, marginalized sub-populations in Guatemala, a country that is largely young, indigenous and poor. Adolescent Maya girls have limited access to secondary schooling, opportunities to work or earn an income, and sexual and reproductive health information and services. This article explores the extent to which adolescent Maya girls are able to adopt what they have learned in a community-based skills-building and sex education programme in isolated rural, indigenous Guatemalan communities. This is presented through an interview between the authors, who met and worked together in the Population Council's programme Abriendo Oportunidades (Opening Opportunities) for girls aged 8-19 years. The interview discusses what can be done so that indigenous adolescents not only obtain the sexual health information they need, but develop the skills to make decisions, communicate with their peers and parents, and exercise their rights. Much culturally and linguistically sensitive work must be done, using a community-based participatory approach, so that young people who do want to use condoms for protection or contraceptive methods not only have access to the methods, but the support of their families and communities, and government-sponsored sex education programmes, to use them.

  4. Adolescent Spiritual Exemplars: Exploring Spirituality in the Lives of Diverse Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Pamela Ebstyne; Clardy, Casey E.; Ramos, Jenel Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to develop theory about psychological constructs relevant to spiritual development in diverse adolescents. Exemplar and Consensual Qualitative Research methods were used to explore 30 interviews of adolescents aged 12 to 21 years ("M" = 17.73 years) representing eight religions and six countries from around…

  5. Substance abuse In Middle Eastern adolescents living in two different countries: spiritual, cultural, family and personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Taha, Asma; Dee, Vivien

    2014-08-01

    It is estimated that the percentage of students using illicit substances by sixth grade has tripled over the last decade not only in developed countries but in developing countries as well probably due to the transition to a more Western society. Although much has been done to understand the mechanisms underlying substance abuse, few studies have been conducted with minority ethnic and religious groups such as Middle Eastern Youth. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether there are differences in factors contributing to substance abuse in adolescents from Lebanon versus the U.S.A. and to decipher the role of spirituality, religion, and culture among other factors that may influence substance abuse. A correlational cross-sectional design was used with adolescents living in two different countries: Los Angeles, California and Beirut, Lebanon. Muslim adolescents had significantly less rates of alcohol and substance use than Christians in both Lebanon and Los Angeles. More years lived in the U.S.A. increases the likelihood of abuse for both Muslims and Christians. Attachment to God and family was negatively associated with substance abuse. These results among others facilitate a better understanding of the influence of culture, religion, family and personal factors on substance abuse. Culturally sensitive interventions could benefit from the findings of this pilot study.

  6. Detection of Only Viable Bacterial Spores Using a Live/Dead Indicator in Mixed Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Stam, Christina N.; Smiley, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This method uses a photoaffinity label that recognizes DNA and can be used to distinguish populations of bacterial cells from bacterial spores without the use of heat shocking during conventional culture, and live from dead bacterial spores using molecular-based methods. Biological validation of commercial sterility using traditional and alternative technologies remains challenging. Recovery of viable spores is cumbersome, as the process requires substantial incubation time, and the extended time to results limits the ability to quickly evaluate the efficacy of existing technologies. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) have shown promise for improving time to detection for a wide range of applications. Recent real-time PCR methods are particularly promising, as these methods can be made at least semi-quantitative by correspondence to a standard curve. Nonetheless, PCR-based methods are rarely used for process validation, largely because the DNA from dead bacterial cells is highly stable and hence, DNA-based amplification methods fail to discriminate between live and inactivated microorganisms. Currently, no published method has been shown to effectively distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores. This technology uses a DNA binding photoaffinity label that can be used to distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores with detection limits ranging from 109 to 102 spores/mL. An environmental sample suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead vegetative cells and bacterial endospores is treated with a photoaffinity label. This step will eliminate any vegetative cells (live or dead) and dead endospores present in the sample. To further determine the bacterial spore viability, DNA is extracted from the spores and total population is quantified by real-time PCR. The current NASA standard assay takes 72 hours for results. Part of this procedure requires a heat shock step at 80 degC for 15 minutes before the

  7. 'Everyone has a secret they keep close to their hearts' : Challenges faced by adolescents living with HIV infection at the Kenyan coast Infectious Disease epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abubakar, Amina; Van De Vijver, Fons J R; Fischer, Ronald; Hassan, Amin S.; Gona, Joseph K.; Dzombo, Judith Tumaini; Bomu, Grace; Katana, Khamis; Newton, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The upsurge in the uptake of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a significant increase in the survival of vertically acquired HIV infected children, many of whom are currently living into adolescence and early adulthood. However little if anything is known of the lived experiences a

  8. Childhood family income, adolescent violent criminality and substance misuse : a quasi-experimental total population study

    OpenAIRE

    Sariaslan, Amir; Larsson, Henrik; D’Onofrio, Brian; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low socioeconomic status in childhood is a well-known predictor of subsequent criminal and substance misuse behaviors but the causal mechanisms are questioned. Aims: To investigate if the associations between childhood family income and subsequent adolescent criminality and substance misuse are explained by unobserved familial risk factors. Method: Swedish population-based quasi-experimental, family-based study following cohorts born 1989-1993 (ntotal=529,428; ncousins...

  9. Religiosity of Muslim Adolescents from Single Parent Families Living in Government-Subsidised Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariza, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a phase of emotionl turmoil and stress. If not balanced with religious practice, it may cause adolescents to fall into moral and social problems such as breach of school discipline, delinquency, drug addiction and sexual permissiveness. Religiosity is one way for adolescents to deal with challenges in life thereby avoiding immoral activities. This is because religiosity may help to balance adolescent emotional, cognitive and social developments.The purpose of this study is to identify the behaviour and level of religiosity among 30 adolescents from single parents families who settle in government-subsidised area of residence, namely known as the Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA. The area is located in the state of Pahang, situated on the eastern part of Malaysia. These adolescents have been selected as research respondents. This research was conducted as a survey using questionnaire as the research instrument. It was constructed based on the guidelines of Islamic Practice Instrument (IPI (Fariza, 2012 and has already been verified in terms of its validity and reliability. The data analysis has adopted the method of descriptive statistics explained in table form. The research results have found that religiosity or religious behaviour that the adolescents most frequently abide by are staying away from gambling, having good thoughts and expectations of Allah, feeling awed and fear of Allah’s power (taqwa, staying away from fornication (zina and supplication (doa to Allah facing the direction of Qibla. The level of religiosity is medium for most adolescents. This factor explains why not many respondents are involved in moral and disciplinary problems at school. This research finds that generally, religiosity protects adolescents from being involved in immoral activities and other vices.

  10. Allergy from infancy to adolescence. A population-based 18-year follow-up cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aromaa Minna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxious parents have many concerns about the future health of their atopic infants. Paediatricians and primary care practitioners need to seek knowledge on long-term outcomes in order to cope with the increasing caseload of suspected allergy and the concerns of parents. The aim of the study was to assess suspected and diagnosed allergy in infancy as predictors of allergy and asthma in adolescence. Methods Families expecting their first baby and making their first visit to a maternity health care clinic in 1986 were selected as the study population in a random sample. There were 1278 eligible study families. The data were provided of the children at the ages of 9 and 18 months and 3, 5, 12, 15 and 18 years by health care professionals, parents, and adolescents (themselves. Results At the age of 9 months, the prevalence of allergy suspicions was distinctly higher than that of allergy diagnoses. At the age of five years suspected allergy approaches were nil, and the prevalence of diagnosed allergy was about 9%. During the adolescence, the prevalence of self-reported allergy increases steadily up to the age of 18 years, and that of asthma remains at approximately 5%. Suspected allergy at the age of 9 or 18 months and at the 5 years of age does not predict allergy at adolescence. Compared with non-allergic children, children with definite allergy at the age of 5 were over 8 times more likely to have allergy and nearly 7 times more likely to have asthma in adolescence. Conclusion An early ascertained diagnosis of allergy, but not suspicions of allergy, predicts prevailing allergy in adolescence. Efforts need to be focused on accurate diagnosis of early childhood allergies.

  11. Determinants of graft survival in pediatric and adolescent live donor kidney transplant recipients: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Husseini, Amr A; Foda, Mohamed A; Shokeir, Ahmed A; Shehab El-Din, Ahmed B; Sobh, Mohamed A; Ghoneim, Mohamed A

    2005-12-01

    To study the independent determinants of graft survival among pediatric and adolescent live donor kidney transplant recipients. Between March 1976 and March 2004, 1600 live donor kidney transplants were carried out in our center. Of them 284 were 20 yr old or younger (mean age 13.1 yr, ranging from 5 to 20 yr). Evaluation of the possible variables that may affect graft survival were carried out using univariate and multivariate analyses. Studied factors included age, gender, relation between donor and recipient, original kidney disease, ABO blood group, pretransplant blood transfusion, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching, pretransplant dialysis, height standard deviation score (SDS), pretransplant hypertension, cold ischemia time, number of renal arteries, ureteral anastomosis, time to diuresis, time of transplantation, occurrence of acute tubular necrosis (ATN), primary and secondary immunosuppression, total dose of steroids in the first 3 months, development of acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension. Using univariate analysis, the significant predictors for graft survival were HLA matching, type of primary urinary recontinuity, time to diuresis, ATN, acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension. The multivariate analysis restricted the significance to acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension. The independent determinants of graft survival in live-donor pediatric and adolescent renal transplant recipients are acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension.

  12. Sleep patterns and insomnia among adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Pallesen, Ståle; Stormark, Kjell M; Lundervold, Astri J; Sivertsen, Børge

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine sleep patterns and rates of insomnia in a population-based study of adolescents aged 16-19 years. Gender differences in sleep patterns and insomnia, as well as a comparison of insomnia rates according to DSM-IV, DSM-V and quantitative criteria for insomnia (Behav. Res. Ther., 41, 2003, 427), were explored. We used a large population-based study in Hordaland county in Norway, conducted in 2012. The sample included 10,220 adolescents aged 16-18 years (54% girls). Self-reported sleep measurements included bedtime, rise time, time in bed, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, rate and frequency and duration of difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep and rate and frequency of tiredness and sleepiness. The adolescents reported short sleep duration on weekdays (mean 6:25 hours), resulting in a sleep deficiency of about 2 h. A majority of the adolescents (65%) reported sleep onset latency exceeding 30 min. Girls reported longer sleep onset latency and a higher rate of insomnia than boys, while boys reported later bedtimes and a larger weekday-weekend discrepancy on several sleep parameters. Insomnia prevalence rates ranged from a total prevalence of 23.8 (DSM-IV criteria), 18.5 (DSM-V criteria) and 13.6% (quantitative criteria for insomnia). We conclude that short sleep duration, long sleep onset latency and insomnia were prevalent in adolescents. This warrants attention as a public health concern in this age group.

  13. The influence of maternal vulnerability and parenting stress on chronic pain in adolescents in a general population sample : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darlington, A-S. E.; Verhulst, F. C.; De Winter, A. F.; Ormel, J.; Passchier, J.; Hunfeld, J. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Investigating possible psychosocial predictors of unexplained chronic pain in adolescents is crucial in understanding its development and prevention. A general population sample of adolescents (n = 2230) from the TRAILS cohort study was investigated longitudinally to assess the influence of maternal

  14. Living bacteria rheology: population growth, aggregation patterns and cooperative behaviour under different shear flows

    CERN Document Server

    Patricio, P; Portela, R; Sobral, R G; Grilo, I R; Cidade, T; Leal, C R

    2014-01-01

    The activity of growing living bacteria was investigated using real-time and in situ rheology -- in stationary and oscillatory shear. Two different strains of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus -- strain COL and its isogenic cell wall autolysis mutant -- were considered in this work. For low bacteria density, strain COL forms small clusters, while the mutant, presenting deficient cell separation, forms irregular larger aggregates. In the early stages of growth, when subjected to a stationary shear, the viscosity of both strains increases with the population of cells. As the bacteria reach the exponential phase of growth, the viscosity of the two strains follow different and rich behaviours, with no counterpart in the optical density or in the population's colony forming units measurements. While the viscosity of strain COL keeps increasing during the exponential phase and returns close to its initial value for the late phase of growth, where the population stabilizes, the viscosity of the mutant strain ...

  15. Struggles, strengths, and strategies: an ethnographic study exploring the experiences of adolescents living with an ostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Theresa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents with IBD requiring ostomy surgery experience perioperative needs that may exceed those of patients experiencing other major abdominal surgery 1. This procedure requires ongoing and vigilant daily care and management. Gastrointestinal symptoms and complications impose psychological and social stresses on young patients 2, and the procedure results in body image changes and daily regimens of self-care. This study aimed to explore adolescents' experiences and quality of life following ostomy surgery. Methods Ethnographic interviews and a subsequent focus group were conducted with 20 adolescents with an ostomy or j-pouch being treated at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to theme generation. Results Findings suggest that adolescents are profoundly affected by their ostomy. Adolescents convey strength as well as adjustment struggles. Identified impacts include body intrusion and body image changes, decreased independence, secrecy about the ostomy, adjustment over time, challenges for the family, and strategies for constructively moving forward. Conclusion Implications address the importance of ensuring meaningful opportunities to understand and reframe the stresses of illness. An ongoing clinical challenge involves the promotion of a healthy self-esteem and psychosocial adjustment for these adolescents and their families. Finding effective ways to minimize stress and embarrassment and reframe personal shame, constitute important clinical priorities. Opportunities for peer support and family dialogue may assist in clarifying worries and easing the burden carried by these young persons. Flexible and adequately funded resources are advocated in fostering quality of life.

  16. Clinical and Histopathological Profiles of Pediatric and Adolescent Oral and Maxillofacial Biopsies in a Persian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Saravani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The frequency of pediatric and adolescent oral and maxillofacial lesions is various in different societies. The present study aimed at investigating the frequency of oral and maxillofacial pediatric and adolescent biopsies in Zahedan (southeast Iran, and compare the results with other epidemiologic studies.Methods and Materials This retrospective study reviewed oral and maxillofacial lesions in patients with 0-18 years old referring to the treatment centers of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences during 12-years period. Patients’ demographic information including age, gender and location of the lesion were collected and statistically analyzed.ResultsIn general, among 1112 oral and maxillofacial lesions, 154 (13.9% cases were related to children and adolescents younger than 18 years old. The average age of patients was 11.4 ± 4.9, 53.2% and 46.8% of them were boys and girls, respectively. The most frequent sites of lesions were the gingiva and lip. The most prevalent lesions included inflammatory/reactive, cystic and neoplastic lesions, respectively. Benign and malignant tumors comprised 12.3% and 4.5% of cases. Moreover, pyogenic granuloma and peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG were the most frequent lesions.ConclusionThe most prevalent oral and maxillofacial lesions in patients under 18 years old were inflammatory/reactive lesions in gingiva and in the 13-18 age range. Determining the characteristics of these lesions in the children and adolescents population provides a firm groundwork for proper diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Validation of dental impact on daily living questionnaire among tribal population of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C V Deepan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral conditions are known to affect various aspects of quality of life. Similarly, the social consequence of the quality of life in the day to day living is also equally important. Several studies have quantified the social consequences of diseases through activity limitations in people's daily living. The instruments which cover a broad spectrum of life are proposed to be compared with the clinical oral hygiene status of people from different social classes. Aim: To assess the validity of dental impact on daily living (DIDL questionnaire measuring subjective dental problems and their impact in the day to day life among tribes of Wayanad. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Materials and Methods: DIDL questionnaire developed by Leao and Sheiham was used. We recorded the clinical oral health status using decayed, missing, filled, simplified oral hygiene index, and community periodontal index indices, to correlate the subjective findings of dental impact tribe to obtain construct validity of the questionnaire. Analysis: Descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation using IBM SPSS software version 20. Results: In the study population of 250 participants, the majority of the participants were from the age group between 36 and 50 years (40% and females were in the majority (64%. The clinical status of the participants was poor in the majority while their perceived impact in their day to day living was found to be relatively satisfied. The study results show the DIDL tool had weak validity in relation to the clinical status with relevance to the social status of Indian tribal population. Conclusion: The study result shows that there was insignificant and weak validity between the DIDL tool and the oral health status among these tribes who were from a low social class. This might be because their priority in life which is different from what a person from high social class. So the dental problem is ignored at the level of individual

  18. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Caesar de Andrade, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital. Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents, 20 to 59 years old (adults and 60 years old or over (older adults. Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R. The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups.

  19. Population Pressure, Global Living Standards, and the Promise of Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, John K., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    What many sincere environmentalists advocate: (severe restrictions on energy use, to reduce global warming), may actually end up being very harmful to the environment. Since 85 percent of the global energy use is derived from carbon based fossil fuels, this may seem to be a reasonable position. However, the proponents of energy use restrictions are ignoring some very important relationships. The greatest damage to the environment, in terms of species loss, is loss and/or human modification of habitat. The two greatest threats to habitat seem to be (1) population pressure and (2) logging. Logging does not necessarily permanently occupy the land, while either default squatter occupation or "colonization by policy" is often permanent. Increased population degrades the land by causing over- farming, and also creates an ever greater demand for raw materials and food resources. Poor people have no time nor money to think about or help save the environment. Therefore the greatest threat to species survival is human population growth and its frequent companion: poverty. There is an existing way to reduce population growth, and thus to reduce pressure on habitats, called "raising the standard of living". Wherever it succeeds, population growth slows rapidly. In many European countries, there would be a negative population growth if not for immigration. Personal energy use is closely correlated with living standards, and it is impossible to have a higher living standard without a higher degree of personal energy use. It would seem, however, that extending high living standards to the developing world would create an even greater demand for the use of fossil fuels. The solution to this dilemma can only be found in the use of very high capacity sources of non- fossil energy that do not significantly damage the environment. Are there sources of clean, economical energy with a large enough combined capacity to provide high living standards for the whole world, including those

  20. College students as facilitators in reducing adolescent obesity disparity in Southern Appalachia: Team Up for Healthy Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawson, Deborah Leachman; Dalton, William T; Dula, Taylor McKeehan; Southerland, Jodi; Wang, Liang; Littleton, Mary Ann; Mozen, Diana; Relyea, George; Schetzina, Karen; Lowe, Elizabeth F; Stoots, James M; Wu, Tiejian

    2015-07-01

    The proportion of obese adolescents in Southern Appalachia is among the highest in the nation. Through funding from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities--National Institutes of Health, the Team Up for Healthy Living project was a cluster-randomized trial targeting obesity prevention in adolescents through a cross-peer intervention. The specific aims of the project were to: 1) develop a peer-based health education program focusing on establishing positive peer norms towards healthy eating and physical activity (PA) among high school students, 2) test program efficacy, and 3) explore mechanisms underlying the program. The study was guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior, which presupposes that human behavior is primarily driven by attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and social support. To deliver the intervention, undergraduate students from the disciplines of public health, nutrition, and kinesiology were hired as peer facilitators. Ten area high schools were invited to participate, were matched on demographics and then randomized to intervention or control. The primary outcomes of the study included body mass status, dietary behaviors, PA, and sedentary behaviors which were assessed at baseline and at three and twelve months post baseline. Intervention schools received Team Up for Healthy Living curriculum, which consists of eight 40-minute sessions. The curriculum focused on improving nutrition awareness, PA, leadership and communication. Control schools received their regularly scheduled Lifetime Wellness curriculum. The long-term goal of the study was to establish an effective academia-community partnership program to address adolescent obesity disparity in Southern Appalachia.

  1. [Immune status of adult population of the Bryansk region living in territory polluted by radionuclides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oradovskaia, I V; Fadeeva, I D; Ul'ianova, N V; Nikonova, M F; Litvina, M M; Lavdovskaia, M V; Chernetsova, L F; Khoroshilova, N V

    1995-01-01

    Clinical and immunological investigation with immune status evaluation of three groups of adult population of Bryansk Region was performed. The first group included 165 persons living in Vyshkov (settlement of town type in Bryansk Region) contaminated with radionuclides as a result of Chernobyl accident. The second group included 68 persons living in Vyshkov, immunological monitoring of those was performed. The third group consisted of 114 persons living on the "clean" area of Pochep (Bryansk Region). On both areas (contaminated Vyshkov and "clean" Pochep) the large percent of persons (three quarters of all investigated ones) had clinical manifestations of immune deficiency. The immune status of Vyshkov inhabitants was characterized by T-helper/inductor activation. That was expressed in significant increase of CD4+, CD4+/CD8+ in comparison of control group of primary donors and to "clean" Pochep inhabitants and in stable decrease of average values of serum IgG in comparison to control group, IgG and IgM in comparison to Pochep group. Maximum high values of T-helpers under lowest T-suppressor/killer values were observed at clinical symptoms which may be stipulated by radiation factor (loss of hair and teeth, surplus weight, predisposition to bleedings) and in persons working in cattle-breeding.

  2. Physical activity of Polish adolescents and young adults according to IPAQ: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergier, Józef; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Biliński, Przemysław; Paprzycki, Piotr; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The alarming problem of a decline in physical activity among children and adolescents and its detrimental effects on public health has been well recognised worldwide. Low physical activity is responsible for 6% of deaths worldwide and 5-10% of deaths in the countries of the WHO European Region, according to country. Within the last decade, many initiatives have been launched to counteract this phenomenon. The objective of presented study was analysis of the level of physical activity among adolescents and young adults in Poland, according to the IPAQ questionnaire. The study group covered 7,716 adolescents: 5,086 children attending high school and secondary schools and 2,630 university students. Low physical activity was noted among 57% of schoolchildren and 20.84% of students. Analysis of the level of physical activity according to the IPAQ indicated that it was lower among girls, compared to boys. An additional analysis, with the consideration of the place of residence, showed that the highest percentage of the population with low physical activity was noted in the rural areas (29.30%), while among the urban inhabitants of cities with a population above 100,000 it was on the level of 23.69% and 20.57%. Median for weekly physical activity by respondents" gender was on the level of 1,554.00 MET*min. weekly among females, and 2,611.00 MET*min. weekly among males (ptowns with a population less than 100,000, whereas among the rural population and inhabitants of large cities with a population of over 100,000 the weekly physical activity was on a similar level (1,830.50 and 1,962.00 respectively). An extended analysis of respondents' physical activity showed that during the day students spend significantly more time in a sedentary position, compared to schoolchildren. The presented results of studies indicate the necessity to continue and intensify actions to promote various forms of physical activity among students and schoolchildren. A constant decrease in physical

  3. Population ecology and conservation of beetles and pseudoscorpions living in hollow oaks in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranius, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at giving a summary of recent research on the habitat requirements and population structure of beetles and pseudoscorpions living in old, hollow oaks in Sweden. An inventory of old oaks in pasture woodlands revealed that the species richness of beetles is higher at sites that are originally open and are still grazed. The trees in these plots are preferred for two reasons: they are more sun-exposed and have a larger trunk diameter. Many species are harmed by forest regrowth and, thus, to preserve the rarer saproxylic fauna it is important to continue the management of areas with old oaks. In four of thirteen species (Osmoderma eremita, Tenebrio opacus, Elater ferrugineus and Larca lata, the occupancy per tree were found to be significantly positively correlated with the number of trees in the stand. This finding is noteworthy as there is little scientific evidence available to support that saproxylic beetles suffer from habitat fragmentation. The population dynamics were investigated on a certain study species, O. eremita. The results suggest that the individuals of each tree could be seen as a local population, and the populations in all occupied trees in a stand together form a metapopulation.

  4. Impact of a pioneer diabetes camp experience on glycemic control among children and adolescents living with type 1 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dehayem, Mesmin Y; Takogue, Rémy; Choukem, Siméon-Pierre; Donfack, Olivier T. S.; Katte, Jean-Claude; Sap, Suzanne; Sobngwi, Eugène; Mbanya, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Background The metabolic impact of participating in a diabetes camp is little known among children and adolescents living with type 1 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to assess the changes in glycemic control and insulin doses in a group of children and adolescents living with type 1 diabetes in Cameroon during and after camp attendance. Methods During a 5-day camp, we collected data on insulin doses, HbA1c, weight and blood glucose at least six times per day in a group of children an...

  5. Using Visual Literacy to Help Adolescents Understand How Images Influence Their Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambo, Debby M.

    2009-01-01

    Students with physical disabilities face challenges because of the way they look, communicate, or behave. What children see--the visual--is often central to what they think, and in today's world the thinking of adolescents is being influenced by images more than ever before. Both still and moving images are capturing the attention of adolescents…

  6. The Intertwined Nature of Adolescents' Social and Academic Lives: Social and Academic Goal Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Eliyahu, Adar; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Putallaz, Martha

    2017-01-01

    The relations of academic and social goal orientations to academic and social behaviors and self-concept were investigated among academically talented adolescents (N = 1,218) attending a mastery-oriented academic residential summer program. Results supported context effects in that academic mastery goal orientations predicted academic (in-class…

  7. Examining the Role of Peer Relationships in the Lives of Gay and Bisexual Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Stuart L.

    2015-01-01

    School social workers can serve as valuable supporters of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youths in the public school system by providing services aimed to improve school climates for all students. This article describes a qualitative study that examined gay and bisexual adolescent experiences with peer support using a…

  8. Citizenship in Young People's Daily Lives: Differences in Citizenship Competences of Adolescents in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geijsel, Femke; Ledoux, Guuske; Reumerman, Rene; ten Dam, Geert

    2012-01-01

    The results of a nationwide study of the citizenship competences of adolescents in the Netherlands are presented from the perspective of democratic citizenship in this article. Citizenship competences are defined as the knowledge, skills, attitudes and reflection needed by young people in a democratic and multicultural society to adequately fulfil…

  9. Social living environment of population in the surveillance area of Rivne nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilipko, V A; Ozerova, Iu Iu; Morozova, M M; Shevchenko, K K

    2014-09-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the key factors of social well-being of the population in surveillance zone Rivne NPP. Materials and methods. Sociological, hygienic and mathematical methods i.e. comparison of generalized performance characteristics such as relative and average values, expression of interactions between factors using a pairwise correlation (r) were used in the paper. A questionnaire was developed for the public opinion polls with independent blocks of issues: the study of living environment/conditions through the assay of adequacy of ten major areas of life, assessment of satisfaction with the quality of life in household sphere and components and cost items of family budget, satisfaction level of medical care, "Integral Index of Social Well-being" Test (IISW). The sample was representative by age and gender for population of the surveillance zone of Rivne NPP (n=220, 6.7% sampling error). Results. According to opinion polls there is a negative impact on social well-being of low sufficiency in issues of socio-political life, social security and social relations. More than a half of population feels no any socio-economic compensation for the risk of Rivne NPP function in their daily lives. The overall satisfaction index in recreational and cultural sphere is close to the national average value, which may indirectly indicate to a positive impact of subventions to the social infrastructure of surveillance zone. However, satisfaction of population in the required medical care is extremely low, as is the case throughout Ukraine, due to several factors, such as lack of specialists, poor providing with essential medicines, and high cost of medicines. Conclusions. The list of benefits and compensations associated with living near the functioning NPP needs improvement and coordination with opinion of local communities. Their implementation at that needs a permanent information support. Some links are established between areas that are

  10. Self-esteem and social anxiety in an adolescent female eating disorder population: age and diagnostic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Nicole; Buchholz, Annick; Boerner, Katelynn E; Henderson, Katherine A; Norris, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study explored symptoms of social anxiety and multidimensional self-esteem in a clinical, adolescent female eating disorder population. Using self-report measures, data from 344 females revealed significant negative relationships between dimensions of self-esteem and social anxiety. A diagnostic difference emerged, with the restricting subgroup reporting significantly higher perceived physical appearance and global self-worth than those with binge/purge symptoms or bulimia nervosa. No significant age differences or age by diagnosis interaction effects emerged. These findings suggest that in clinical samples of adolescent eating disorders, self-esteem and social anxiety share a significant inverse relationship and seem to remain fairly constant across adolescence.

  11. Decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in the rural adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpier, Terry; Giordana, Sheri; Wedin, Bitsy M

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased drastically with detrimental effects such as weight gain, weakened bones, dental caries, and associated higher levels of type II diabetes in this population. While in the clinical setting, rural family nurse practitioner (FNP) students, using Kellogg-funded Smart Phones, screened adolescents aged 13 to 17 years for SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Adolescents initially were provided with a pamphlet and related oral teaching concerning SSBs by the FNP students, as well as a water bottle to encourage healthy fluid intake. Screening SSB information was loaded onto Smart Phones, which resulted in immediate access by the primary investigator sometimes even hundreds of miles distant. After 30 days, FNP students completed follow-up phone interviews to reassess SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Results concerning decreased SSB consumption were statistically significant. Additionally, Smart Phones were instrumental in high-speed data transfer. Both advantages and disadvantages were encountered when using this evolving technology.

  12. Impact of actions of food and nutrition education program in a population of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Garcia BALDASSO

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate changes in food intake after adolescents attended a food and nutrition education program at a non-profit institution. Methods: Fifty-four adolescents aged 16 to 19 years, of low socioeconomic level, enrolled in an non-governmental organization in São Paulo, underwent a nutritional intervention of six months consisting of six meetings with dieticians, as well as strategic communication and relationship actions. Body weight, height, body mass index, questionnaire on knowledge on nutrition and feeding practices, 24-hour recall, and diet quality assessment using the Diet Quality Index associated with the Digital Food Guide were collected at baseline and after the intervention. Dietary pattern improvement was defined as an increase of at least 5 points in Diet Quality Index associated with the Digital Food Guide. Results: Understanding of food labels increased, and the dietary patterns on weekdays and weekends improved by 33 and 37%, respectively. The intake of legumes, milk, dairy products, fruits, and vegetables increased (adequacy components. However, intakes of nuts and whole grains were low, and intake of moderation components was high. Conclusion: The program improved the dietary patterns of adolescents, making it a viable and inexpensive method to prevent disease and improve health and quality of life. In addition, the Diet Quality Index associated with the Digital Food Guide has proven to be a good nutritional tool for assessing changes in food intake and for guiding future counseling and nutritional intervention actions for this population.

  13. Impact of Malocclusion on the Quality of Life of Brazilian Adolescents: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luciana Freitas Gomes E; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Freitas, Heloiza Viana; Pereira, Alex Luiz Pozzobon; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Alves, Cláudia Maria Coelho

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of malocclusion on the quality of life (QOL) of adolescents in Brazil. We carried out a cross-sectional study in a sample population of 1015 schoolchildren aged 12 to 15 years from São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. The explanatory variable was malocclusion, evaluated on the basis of the normative need or the adolescent's self-perceived need for dental treatment. Normative need for dental treatment was determined by professional diagnosis, made on the basis of Angle's classification, the Dental Aesthetic Index, and other morphological deviations (e.g., posterior crossbite, posterior open bite, and deep overbite). We analyzed the impact of malocclusion on the QOL using the Portuguese version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14. Associations were estimated by using the prevalence ratio (PR) in Poisson regression analysis, with hierarchized modeling. An alpha of 5% was adopted as the criterion for statistical significance. The QOL of adolescents was impacted by malocclusion, classified by a normative need for treatment according to the Dental Aesthetic Index (PR = 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.56) or by the self-perceived need for treatment (PR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.81-3.56). Certain sociodemographic variables, including the head of the family (PR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.02-2.23), greater educational level of the head of the family (PR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.17-0.61), and female sex (PR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.05-1.89), had negative associations with QOL. We conclude that malocclusion has a negative impact on the QOL of adolescents, associated with socioeconomic conditions and the cosmetic effects of malocclusion.

  14. Population-based evaluation of the 'LiveLighter' healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B; Niven, P; Dixon, H; Swanson, M; Szybiak, M; Shilton, T; Pratt, I S; Slevin, T; Hill, D; Wakefield, M

    2016-04-01

    The Western Australian (WA) 'LiveLighter' (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ('why' change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier ('how' to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25-49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N= 2012) and following the two media waves (N= 2005 and N= 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The 'why' message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than 'how' messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour.

  15. Separation and reunification: the experiences of adolescents living in transnational families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapiro, Naomi A; Kools, Susan M; Weiss, Sandra J; Brindis, Claire D

    2013-03-01

    There are increasing numbers of mothers as well as fathers who engage in long-term migration to support their children and other family members in their home countries. In this article, the current state of the literature about children and adolescents left at home in these transnational families is surveyed and reviewed. The article reviews the effects on children of the process of separation from parents, the impact of gifts and remittances home, communication with distant parents and the quality of life with their substitute caregivers. The effects of immigration in late childhood or adolescence on these separated children are examined, as well as what is known about the processes of adaptation and family reunification, including migration traumas, impact of gender, and educational outcomes. Suggestions are given for pediatric clinicians working with reunifying families. Gaps in the literature are highlighted and the need for research into factors that promote successful family re-engagement and overall adaptation upon reunification.

  16. Internet in the lives of children and adolescents: problems and resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokina A.B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a problem of training and personality development of adolescents as regular Internet-users and, namely , social networkers. It discusses two commonly studied questions, concerning the use of data resources: children and young people in social networks and online technologies in teaching. The main aspects discussed in the article are: the issues related to modalities of development of communication skills, security, risk of adolescents’ Internet addiction and the role of social networking in training.

  17. Optimizing drugs to reach treatment targets for children and adolescents living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Penazzato

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As the global community makes progress towards the 90-90-90 targets by 2020, a key challenge is ensuring that antiretroviral drugs for children and adolescents are suitable to the context of resource-limited settings. Drug optimization aims to support the expanded use of more simplified, less toxic drug regimens with high barriers to drug resistance that require minimal clinical monitoring while maintaining therapeutic efficacy. This manuscript summarizes the progress made and outlines further critical steps required to ensure that the right drugs are available to start children and adolescents on treatment and to keep them virologically suppressed. Discussion: Building upon previous work in drug optimization, several important steps were taken in 2014 to ensure alignment between WHO dosing recommendations and the requirements of regulatory bodies, to accelerate drug development, to reduce intellectual property barriers to generic production of combined formulations and rationalize drug selection in countries. The priority for the future is to improve access to antiretroviral therapy (ART at the two ends of the paediatric age spectrum – infants and adolescents – where the treatment gap is greatest, and optimize drug sequencing with better use of available medicines for second- and third-line ART. Future efforts in this area will require continuous collaboration and coordination, and the promotion of innovative approaches to accelerate access to new drugs and formulations. Conclusions: While significant progress has been made, additional efforts are needed to ensure that treatment targets are reached by 2020.

  18. Clinical disease, immunity and protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in populations living in endemic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L

    1998-01-01

    Malaria remains one of the biggest health problems in large parts of the world. In sub-Saharan Africa alone, it is currently estimated that there are more than 150 million clinical cases annually, and that about 2 million people die from the disease every year. The bulk of malaria-related morbidity...... and mortality in an endemic setting (malaria is regularly found) is concentrated in children below the age of five years, and the increasing resistance to infection and disease with age is conventionally thought to reflect a slow and gradual acquisition of protective immunity. Many recent and comprehensive...... reviews of malarial immunity exist; rather than attempting to add another, this review summarises some of the recent evidence on how protective immunity is acquired in humans and what precipitates clinical disease, specifically as it relates to populations living in areas where the disease is endemic...

  19. All-Cause Mortality of Low Birthweight Infants in Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence: Population Study of England and Wales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W John Watkins

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Low birthweight (LBW is associated with increased mortality in infancy, but its association with mortality in later childhood and adolescence is less clear. We investigated the association between birthweight and all-cause mortality and identified major causes of mortality for different birthweight groups.We conducted a population study of all live births occurring in England and Wales between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2011. Following exclusions, the 12,355,251 live births were classified by birthweight: 500-1,499 g (very LBW [VLBW], n = 139,608, 1,500-2,499 g (LBW, n = 759,283, 2,500-3,499 g (n = 6,511,411, and ≥3,500 g (n = 4,944,949. The association of birthweight group with mortality in infancy (<1 y of age and childhood/adolescence (1-18 y of age was quantified, with and without covariates, through hazard ratios using Cox regression. International Classification of Diseases codes identified causes of death. In all, 74,890 (0.61% individuals died between birth and 18 y of age, with 23% of deaths occurring after infancy. Adjusted hazard ratios for infant deaths were 145 (95% CI 141, 149 and 9.8 (95% CI 9.5, 10.1 for the VLBW and LBW groups, respectively, compared to the ≥3,500 g group. The respective hazard ratios for death occurring at age 1-18 y were 6.6 (95% CI 6.1, 7.1 and 2.9 (95% CI 2.8, 3.1. Male gender, the youngest and oldest maternal age bands, multiple births, and deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation score also contributed to increased deaths in the VLBW and LBW groups in both age ranges. In infancy, perinatal factors, particularly respiratory issues and infections, explained 84% and 31% of deaths in the VLBW and LBW groups, respectively; congenital malformations explained 36% and 23% in the LBW group and ≥2,500 g groups (2,500-3,499 g and ≥3,500 g groups combined, respectively. Central nervous system conditions explained 20% of deaths in childhood/adolescence in the VLBW group, with deaths from neoplasms and

  20. Testing the "Sexually Abused-Abuser Hypothesis" in Adolescents: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Landolt, Markus A; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Schnyder, Ulrich; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

    2015-11-01

    A long-standing belief in the literature on sex offenders is that sexually victimized youths are at increased risk of becoming sex offenders themselves. The present study tested the link between past sexual abuse, either with or without contact, and sexually offending behavior in a representative sample of male and female adolescents while controlling for other types of abuse, mental health problems, substance use, and non-sexual violent behaviors. Self-reported data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 6,628 students attending 9th grade public school in Switzerland (3,434 males, 3,194 females, mean age = 15.50 years, SD = 0.66 years). Exposure to contact and non-contact types of sexual abuse was assessed using the Child Sexual Abuse Questionnaire and sexually offending behavior by the presence of any of three behaviors indicating sexual coercion. Two-hundred-forty-five males (7.1 %) and 40 females (1.2 %) reported having sexually coerced another person. After controlling for non-sexual abuse, low parent education, urban versus rural living, mental health problems, substance use, and non-sexual violent behavior, male adolescents who were victims of contact sexual abuse and non-contact sexual abuse were significantly more likely to report coercive sexual behaviors. Females who experienced contact or non-contact sexual abuse were also found at increased risk of committing sexual coercion after controlling for covariates. The present findings demonstrate a strong relationship between past sexual abuse, with and without physical contact, and sexual-offending behavior in male and female adolescents. Reducing exposure to non-contact sexual abuse (like Internet-based sexual exploitation) should become a new area of sexual violence prevention in youths.

  1. The Living Astronomy and People of the Mayan World Today: Engaging Hispanic Populations in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Tapia, F.

    2008-06-01

    From long ago, the Maya civilizations of Mesoamerica have been keenly attuned to the cycles of nature. The Maya have always been careful observers, and more than a thousand years ago, they recorded the motion of the planets, the Sun, and the Moon, and predicted eclipses. These observations were used to create a complex calendar to organize the events of their world. The Maya built great cities containing buildings aligned with the Sun, Moon, and the stars to mark important times of the year. Many astronomical traditions are still practiced today by the Maya of the Yucatán peninsula, Southern states in México, and other areas in Mesoamerica. Traditional farming communities time the cultivation of corn by observing the sky. The living culture of the Mayan people in the Yucatan integrates science and astronomy with every other aspect of their culture. Yucatec Maya, the language spoken by more than 1 million people in the Yucatán today, still carries through oral histories the ancient knowledge of nature. Our hope is that you'll increase your interest and knowledge of the Mayan people and of the enduring wisdom reflected in the daily lives of Mayan families. We present the results of education and public outreach efforts that position astronomy within its cultural context as an effective means of capturing the interest and enabling authentic participation of under-represented populations in science.

  2. The most significant deficiencies in macro and micro nutrients in adolescents living with HIV/AIDS in antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bissigo Pereira

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate macro and micronutrients intake of adolescents living with HIV/AIDS in use of antiretroviral therapy and compare it to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Methodology: Cross-sectional study conducted with adolescents of both genders with HIV/AIDS, assessing the dietary composition of macro and micronutrients, using the 24h dietary recall. Results: 39 adolescents, average age of 15 years, 51.3% males. The participants intake of total calories, total fiber (g/d, liposoluble vitamins (A, D, E, K, vitamin B5 (mg/d, vitamin B9 (mg/d, vitamin C (mg/d, calcium (mg/d, phosphorus (mg/d, potassium (mg/d, and magnesium (mg/d was lower than recommended. The percentages of intake lower than recommended were 79.5% for calories, 82.1% for total fibers, 89.7% for vitamin A, 100% for vitamin D, 87.2% for vitamin E, 100% for vitamin K, 71.8% for vitamin B5, 82.1% for vitamin B9, 76.9% for vitamin C, 92.3% for calcium, 61.5% for phosphorus, 97.4% for potassium, and 76.9% for magnesium. The participants ingested more carbohydrates (g, proteins (g, vitamins B2 (mg/d, B3 (mg/d, B8 (mg/d and sodium (g/d than recommended, the percentages above the recommendations being 92.3% for carbohydrates, 64.1% for proteins and vitamin B2, 56.4% for vitamin B3, 82.1% for vitamin B8, and 59% for sodium. The remaining nutrients were within the amounts recommended by the DRIs. Conclusion: Food intake was inadequate as compared to the recommendations of the International Nutrition Guidelines.

  3. Structural Determinants of Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV Care Attendance, and Viral Suppression among Adolescents and Young Adults Living with HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoshana Y Kahana

    Full Text Available The authors examined associations between structural characteristics and HIV disease management among a geographically diverse sample of behaviorally and perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and young adults in the United States.The sample included 1891 adolescents and young adults living with HIV (27.8% perinatally infected; 72.2% behaviorally infected who were linked to care through 20 Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions Units. All completed audio computer-assisted self-interview surveys. Chart abstraction or blood draw provided viral load data. Geographic-level variables were extracted from the United States Census Bureau (e.g., socioeconomic disadvantage, percent of Black and Latino households, percent rural and Esri Crime (e.g., global crime index databases as Zip Code Tabulation Areas. AIDSVu data (e.g., prevalence of HIV among youth were extracted at the county-level. Using HLM v.7, the authors conducted means-as-outcomes random effects multi-level models to examine the association between structural-level and individual-level factors and (1 being on antiretroviral therapy (ART currently; (2 being on ART for at least 6 months; (3 missed HIV care appointments (not having missed any vs. having missed one or more appointments over the past 12 months; and (4 viral suppression (defined by the corresponding assay cutoff for the lower limit of viral load at each participating site which denoted nondetectability vs. detectability.Frequencies for the 4 primary outcomes were as follows: current ART use (n = 1120, 59.23%; ART use for ≥6 months (n = 861, 45.53%; at least one missed HIV care appointment (n = 936, 49.50; and viral suppression (n = 577, 30.51%. After adjusting for individual-level factors, youth living in more disadvantaged areas (defined by a composite score derived from 2010 Census indicators including percent poverty, percent receiving public assistance, percent of female, single-headed households, percent

  4. Adolescent girls and young women: key populations for HIV epidemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael C Dellar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At the epicentre of the HIV epidemic in southern Africa, adolescent girls and young women aged 15–24 contribute a disproportionate ~30% of all new infections and seroconvert 5–7 years earlier than their male peers. This age–sex disparity in HIV acquisition continues to sustain unprecedentedly high incidence rates, and preventing HIV infection in this age group is a pre-requisite for achieving an AIDS-free generation and attaining epidemic control. Discussion: Adolescent girls and young women in southern Africa are uniquely vulnerable to HIV and have up to eight times more infection than their male peers. While the cause of this vulnerability has not been fully elucidated, it is compounded by structural, social and biological factors. These factors include but are not limited to: engagement in age-disparate and/or transactional relationships, few years of schooling, experience of food insecurity, experience of gender-based violence, increased genital inflammation, and amplification of effects of transmission co-factors. Despite the large and immediate HIV prevention need of adolescent girls and young women, there is a dearth of evidence-based interventions to reduce their risk. The exclusion of adolescents in biomedical research is a huge barrier. School and community-based education programmes are commonplace in many settings, yet few have been evaluated and none have demonstrated efficacy in preventing HIV infection. Promising data are emerging on prophylactic use of anti-retrovirals and conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention in these populations. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to meet the HIV prevention needs of adolescent girls and young women, particularly those who are unable to negotiate monogamy, condom use and/or male circumcision. Concerted efforts to expand the prevention options available to these young women in terms of the development of novel HIV-specific biomedical, structural and behavioural

  5. The Living Planet Index: using species population time series to track trends in biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Jonathan; Green, Rhys E; Ricketts, Taylor; Lamoreux, John; Jenkins, Martin; Kapos, Valerie; Randers, Jorgen

    2005-02-28

    The Living Planet Index was developed to measure the changing state of the world's biodiversity over time. It uses time-series data to calculate average rates of change in a large number of populations of terrestrial, freshwater and marine vertebrate species. The dataset contains about 3000 population time series for over 1100 species. Two methods of calculating the index are outlined: the chain method and a method based on linear modelling of log-transformed data. The dataset is analysed to compare the relative representation of biogeographic realms, ecoregional biomes, threat status and taxonomic groups among species contributing to the index. The two methods show very similar results: terrestrial species declined on average by 25% from 1970 to 2000. Birds and mammals are over-represented in comparison with other vertebrate classes, and temperate species are over-represented compared with tropical species, but there is little difference in representation between threatened and non-threatened species. Some of the problems arising from over-representation are reduced by the way in which the index is calculated. It may be possible to reduce this further by post-stratification and weighting, but new information would first need to be collected for data-poor classes, realms and biomes.

  6. Living bacteria rheology: population growth, aggregation patterns, and collective behavior under different shear flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício, P; Almeida, P L; Portela, R; Sobral, R G; Grilo, I R; Cidade, T; Leal, C R

    2014-08-01

    The activity of growing living bacteria was investigated using real-time and in situ rheology-in stationary and oscillatory shear. Two different strains of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus-strain COL and its isogenic cell wall autolysis mutant, RUSAL9-were considered in this work. For low bacteria density, strain COL forms small clusters, while the mutant, presenting deficient cell separation, forms irregular larger aggregates. In the early stages of growth, when subjected to a stationary shear, the viscosity of the cultures of both strains increases with the population of cells. As the bacteria reach the exponential phase of growth, the viscosity of the cultures of the two strains follows different and rich behaviors, with no counterpart in the optical density or in the population's colony-forming units measurements. While the viscosity of strain COL culture keeps increasing during the exponential phase and returns close to its initial value for the late phase of growth, where the population stabilizes, the viscosity of the mutant strain culture decreases steeply, still in the exponential phase, remains constant for some time, and increases again, reaching a constant plateau at a maximum value for the late phase of growth. These complex viscoelastic behaviors, which were observed to be shear-stress-dependent, are a consequence of two coupled effects: the cell density continuous increase and its changing interacting properties. The viscous and elastic moduli of strain COL culture, obtained with oscillatory shear, exhibit power-law behaviors whose exponents are dependent on the bacteria growth stage. The viscous and elastic moduli of the mutant culture have complex behaviors, emerging from the different relaxation times that are associated with the large molecules of the medium and the self-organized structures of bacteria. Nevertheless, these behaviors reflect the bacteria growth stage.

  7. Rising population cost for treating people living with HIV in the UK, 1997-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundhiya Mandalia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of people living with HIV (PLHIV is increasing in the UK. This study estimated the annual population cost of providing HIV services in the UK, 1997-2006 and projected them 2007-2013. METHODS: Annual cost of HIV treatment for PLHIV by stage of HIV infection and type of ART was calculated (UK pounds, 2006 prices. Population costs were derived by multiplying the number of PLHIV by their annual cost for 1997-2006 and projected 2007-2013. RESULTS: Average annual treatment costs across all stages of HIV infection ranged from £17,034 in 1997 to £18,087 in 2006 for PLHIV on mono-therapy and from £27,649 in 1997 to £32,322 in 2006 for those on quadruple-or-more ART. The number of PLHIV using NHS services rose from 16,075 to 52,083 in 2006 and was projected to increase to 78,370 by 2013. Annual population cost rose from £104 million in 1997 to £483 million in 2006, with a projected annual cost between £721 and £758 million by 2013. When including community care costs, costs increased from £164 million in 1997, to £683 million in 2006 and between £1,019 and £1,065 million in 2013. CONCLUSIONS: Increased number of PLHIV using NHS services resulted in rising UK population costs. Population costs are expected to continue to increase, partly due to PLHIV's longer survival on ART and the relative lack of success of HIV preventing programs. Where possible, the cost of HIV treatment and care needs to be reduced without reducing the quality of services, and prevention programs need to become more effective. While high income countries are struggling to meet these increasing costs, middle- and lower-income countries with larger epidemics are likely to find it even more difficult to meet these increasing demands, given that they have fewer resources.

  8. Living on the edge: the current phenomenon of self-mutilation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouin, Anne; Bravender, Terrill

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share current knowledge about adolescent self-mutilation (SM), and to discuss treatment approaches for affected teens and young adults. One in eight American teenagers experiences depression or anxiety. The growing phenomenon of SM is a particularly worrisome coping mechanism used by teens and young adults to deal with stress and sadness. The incidence of SM is increasing, and might be fueled by current trends in music and media that highlight violent and self-injurious behaviors. SM represents a "cry for help" by adolescents who are suffering. Self-mutilators who repeatedly cut themselves with razors, scissors, knives, or sharp glass are not attempting suicide, but are seeking to relieve extreme anxiety, tension, or pain. Medical literature regarding SM is limited, and evidence-based treatment approaches have not been documented; however, early discovery of SM and the development of a multifaceted treatment approach that incorporates the child, family, and trusted practitioners could be instrumental in managing SM. There is hope that antidepressant medications may also be beneficial. Research is needed to identify successful treatment approaches, and to discover the best ways to educate teens, families, educators, and community leaders about the prevalence of SM in our youth.

  9. AIDS and discrimination: Points of view of a group of adolescents and persons that live with the human immune-deficiency virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Molina Gómez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the beginnings of the Infection with HIV, mankind has been greatly concerned. This disease emerged with a series of stigmata, injuring personal integrity of those who suffer from it. Methods: A descriptive study made in Cienfuegos, in which 120 adolescents and 29 PVHIV were inquired and also conferences about this illness were given. Results and Conclusions: The 120 inquired affirmed they knew about the disease and was receiving information regarding it. The majority identifies blood, vaginal secretions, semen, sharing contaminated needles and syringes as main ways of transmission, they also consider that keeping a stable mate friend is the best way to protect themselves. The 50,8% think the names of the infected should be informed to population, and the 15,% is worried about sharing their working or scholar life with them. The 26% think the infected people should live isolated in a sanatorium. On the other hand, 16 PVHIV said they have felt sometimes discriminated, and 11 stated that at the time of asking for medical help, the personnel have attended them in a despicable manner. 3 of them felt the familiar rejection, and 7 stated that the community and his very friends were getting away from them.

  10. Consequences of extreme life history traits on population persistence: do short-lived gobies face demographic bottlenecks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Carine D.; Nash, Kirsty L.; González-Cabello, Alonso; Bellwood, David R.

    2016-06-01

    The majority of coral reef goby species are short-lived, with some highly abundant species living less than 100 d. To understand the role and consequences of this extreme life history in shaping coral reef fish populations, we quantitatively documented the structure of small reef fish populations over a 26-month period (>14 short-lived fish generations) at an inshore reef on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Most species with life spans >1 yr, such as pomacentrids, exhibited a peak in recruitment during the austral summer, driving seasonal changes in the small fish community composition. In contrast, there were no clear changes in goby community composition, despite the abundance of short-lived, high turnover species. Species of Eviota, the most abundant gobiid genus observed, showed remarkably similar demographic profiles year-round, with consistent densities of adults as well as recently recruited juveniles. Our results demonstrate ongoing recruitment of these small cryptic fishes, which appears to compensate for an exceptionally short life span on the reef. Our results suggest that gobiid populations are able to overcome demographic limitations, and by maintaining reproduction, larval survival and recruitment throughout the year, they may avoid population bottlenecks. These findings also underline the potential trophodynamic importance of these small species; because of this constant turnover, Eviota species and other short-lived fishes may be particularly valuable contributors to the flow of energy on coral reefs, underpinning the year-round trophic structure.

  11. Roles of Media and Media Literacy Education: Lives of Chinese and American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Guofang; Gut, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Background: Along with media saturation in society, concerns and issues arise about children's media uses and the roles of media in their lives; both China and USA have the most media and Internet users in the world, but neither has formal media literacy education in the school curriculum. To decide how important media literacy education is for…

  12. Insomnia, Sleepiness, and Depression in Adolescents Living in Residential Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Vincent; Belanger, Lynda; Begin, Gilles; Morin, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to document sleep patterns and disturbances reported by youths temporarily living in residential care facilities. A secondary objective was to examine the relationships between sleep disturbances and mood and daytime sleepiness. A self-reported questionnaire on sleep patterns and habits assessing duration,…

  13. Longing for belonging: Adolescents' experiences of living with HIV in different types of families in Swaziland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shabalala, F.S.

    2017-01-01

    This study illuminates adolescents’ everyday life experiences of living with HIV in different family contexts in the Manzini region in Swaziland, and the tactics they used to navigate the social and health system environments in their management of the HIV illness and disease. A significant proporti

  14. "My Journey of Hope and Peace": Learning From Adolescent Refugees' Lived Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mary Amanda

    2015-01-01

    This article details a project with students who are refugees who read and wrote about the refugee experience to give the instructor important information about their lives. The high school students first read various texts about the refugee experience that guided their class discussions, journal writing, and graphic illustrations of their…

  15. Rehabilitation needs for older adults with stroke living at home: perceptions of four populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viscogliosi Chantal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people who have suffered a stroke require rehabilitation to help them resume their previous activities and roles in their own environment, but only some of them receive inpatient or even outpatient rehabilitation services. Partial and unmet rehabilitation needs may ultimately lead to a loss of functional autonomy, which increases utilization of health services, number of hospitalizations and early institutionalization, leading to a significant psychological and financial burden on the patients, their families and the health care system. The aim of this study was to explore partially met and unmet rehabilitation needs of older adults who had suffered a stroke and who live in the community. The emphasis was put on needs that act as obstacles to social participation in terms of personal factors, environmental factors and life habits, from the point of view of four target populations. Methods Using the focus group technique, we met four types of experts living in three geographic areas of the province of Québec (Canada: older people with stroke, caregivers, health professionals and health care managers, for a total of 12 groups and 72 participants. The audio recordings of the meetings were transcribed and NVivo software was used to manage the data. The process of reducing, categorizing and analyzing the data was conducted using themes from the Disability Creation Process model. Results Rehabilitation needs persist for nine capabilities (e.g. related to behaviour or motor activities, nine factors related to the environment (e.g. type of teaching, adaptation and rehabilitation and 11 life habits (e.g. nutrition, interpersonal relationships. The caregivers and health professionals identified more unmet needs and insisted on an individualized rehabilitation. Older people with stroke and the health care managers had a more global view of rehabilitation needs and emphasized the availability of resources. Conclusion Better

  16. Population dynamics of free living, nitrogen fixing bacteria Azospirillum in Manakkudi mangrove ecosystem, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, S; Gnanadesigan, M; Ignatiammal, S Thadedus Maria; Sumaya, S

    2012-05-01

    Seasonal variations of population dynamics of free living nitrogen fixing bacteria, Azospirillum in relation to chemical parameters in Manakkudi mangrove ecosystem was assessed in root and rhizosphere soil samples of mangroves and mangrove associated plants. In rhizosphere soil and root samples, the counts of Azospirillum were recorded maximum in Acrostichum aureum as 8.63 +/- 0.92 x 10(4) and 115.48 +/- 17.36 x 10(4) CFU g(-1), respectively. The counts of Azospirillum in non-rhizosphere soil varied from 0.01 +/- 0.001 x 10(4) to 5.77 +/- 0.92 x 10(4) CFU g(-1) and found maximum in February and minimum in March and September. Azospirillum counts in water samples were found maximum (2.24 x 10(4) CFU l(-1)) in February. During seasonal variations maximum counts of Azospirillum were recorded during southwest monsoon season in Avicennia officinalis (1.40 x 10(4) CFU g(-1)) followed by Rhizophora mucronata (1.07 x 10(4) CFU g(-1)). The average maximum population density of Azospirillum counts was found during non monsoon season (9.73 x 10(4) CFU g(-1)) and the average maximum population density of Azospirillum counts was found with the mangrove associated root samples (13.73 x 10(4) CFU g(-1)). Of the selected isolates Azospirillum lipoferum (60%) was found to be predominant followed by Azospirillum brasilense (25%), Azospirillum irakense (5%), Azospirillum halopraeferens (5%) and Azospirillum amazonense (5%). Of the isolated species, A. halopraeferens exhibited better growth at 35 g l(-1) NaCl. The level of Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were varied from 0.91 to 15.93 ppm. The level of Mn (12.13 ppm) was found maximum during non-monsoon of rhizosphere soil sample. Highest rainfall (192.80 mm) and atmospheric temperature (25.10 degrees C) were recorded during south west monsoon and non monsoon seasons. The increased population density was greatly influenced by the pH (r = +0.686). The present finding provides enough information on the nitrogen flow through biological process in

  17. Childhood Gender-Typed Behavior and Adolescent Sexual Orientation: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gu; Kung, Karson T F; Hines, Melissa

    2017-02-20

    Lesbian and gay individuals have been reported to show more interest in other-sex, and/or less interest in same-sex, toys, playmates, and activities in childhood than heterosexual counterparts. Yet, most of the relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies or from prospective studies of clinically referred, extremely gender nonconforming children. In addition, findings are mixed regarding the relation between childhood gender-typed behavior and the later sexual orientation spectrum from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively lesbian/gay. The current study drew a sample (2,428 girls and 2,169 boys) from a population-based longitudinal study, and found that the levels of gender-typed behavior at ages 3.5 and 4.75 years, although less so at age 2.5 years, significantly and consistently predicted adolescents' sexual orientation at age 15 years, both when sexual orientation was conceptualized as 2 groups or as a spectrum. In addition, within-individual change in gender-typed behavior during the preschool years significantly related to adolescent sexual orientation, especially in boys. These results suggest that the factors contributing to the link between childhood gender-typed behavior and sexual orientation emerge during early development. Some of those factors are likely to be nonsocial, because nonheterosexual individuals appear to diverge from gender norms regardless of social encouragement to conform to gender roles. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. A population-based study of anxiety as a precursor for depression in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Bree Marianne BM

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Anxiety and depression co-occur in children and adolescents with anxiety commonly preceding depression. Although there is some evidence to suggest that the association between early anxiety and later depression is explained by a shared genetic aetiology, the contribution of environmental factors is less well examined and it is unknown whether anxiety itself is a phenotypic risk factor for later depression. These explanations of the association between early anxiety and later depression were evaluated. Methods Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed longitudinally in a U.K. population-based sample of 676 twins aged 5–17 at baseline. At baseline, anxiety and depression were assessed by parental questionnaire. Depression was assessed three years later by parental and adolescent questionnaire. Results Shared genetic effects between early anxiety and later depression were found. A model of a phenotypic risk effect from early anxiety on later depression provided a poor fit to the data. However, there were significant genetic effects specific to later depression, showing that early anxiety and later depression do not index entirely the same genetic risk. Conclusions Anxiety and depression are associated over time because they share a partly common genetic aetiology rather than because the anxiety phenotype leads to later depression.

  19. Reliability and validity of the modifiable activity questionnaire for an Iranian urban adolescent population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Delshad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability on the Persian translation of the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ in a sample of Tehranian adolescents. Methods: Of a total of 52 subjects, a sub-sample of 40 participations (55.0% boys was used to assess the reliability and the validity of the physical activity questionnaire. The reliability of the two MAQs was calculated by intraclass correlation coefficients, and validation was evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients to compare data between mean of the two MAQs and mean of four physical activity records. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the reliability between two MAQs and the results of leisure time physical activity over the past year were 0.97. Pearson correlation coefficients between mean of two MAQs and mean of four physical activity records were 0.49 (P < 0.001, for leisure time physical activities. Conclusions: High reliability and relatively moderate validity were found for the Persian translation of the MAQ in a Tehranian adolescent population. Further studies with large sample size are suggested to assess the validity more precisely.

  20. Does body satisfaction influence self-esteem in adolescents' daily lives? An experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Skouteris, Helen; Richardson, Ben; Nihill, Kristy; Watson, Brittany; Solomon, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    This study examined, within the context of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model, state-based associations between self-esteem and body satisfaction using the experience sampling method. One hundred and forty-four adolescent girls (mean age = 14.28 years) completed up to 6 assessments per day for one week using Palm Digital Assistants, in addition to baseline measures of trait body satisfaction and self-esteem. Results showed considerable variation in both state-based constructs within days, and evidence of effects of body satisfaction on self-esteem, but not vice versa. Although these state-based associations were small in size and weakened as the time lag between assessments increased for the sample as a whole, individual differences in the magnitude of these effects were observed and predicted by trait self-esteem and body satisfaction. Collectively, these findings offer support for key tenets of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model.

  1. Resilience and Its Association with Depression, Emotional and Behavioural Problems, and Mental Health Service Utilisation among Refugee Adolescents Living in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Ziaian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite the frequency of traumatic or stressful events experienced by refugee children and adolescents prior to migration and following resettlement, the majority do not experience mental health problems emphasising the critical nature of resilience. While a host of factors deemed to be protective of mental health in young refugees have been identified, there has been little research exploring the role of resilience as a distinct psychological construct. This study aimed to explore the nature of psychological resilience in refugee adolescents and the relationship between resilience and depression, other emotional and behavioural problems, and mental health service uptake. Method. One hundred and seventy multiethnic refugee adolescents aged 13–17 from South Australia were administered a survey comprising the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Results. Females tended to have higher resilience, as did those adolescents who had been living in Australia longer. Adolescents suffering from depressive symptoms or other emotional or behavioural problems had lower resilience. There was little evidence of an association between resilience scores and exposure to trauma or service utilisation. Discussion. Fostering resilience may be critical to efforts to prevent or reduce mental health problems in refugee adolescents.

  2. Prevalence of psychotic symptoms in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, I

    2012-09-01

    Psychotic symptoms occur more frequently in the general population than psychotic disorder and index risk for psychopathology. Multiple studies have reported on the prevalence of these symptoms using self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews but there is a lack of consensus about the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among children and adolescents.

  3. Physical activity and onset of depression in adolescents : A prospective study in the general population cohort TRAILS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavrakakis, N.; Roest, A. M.; Verhulst, F.; Ormel, J.; de Jonge, P.; Oldehinkel, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although it has often been suggested that physical activity and depression are intertwined, only few studies have investigated whether specific aspects of physical activity predict the incidence of major depression in adolescents from the general population. Therefore the aim of this study was to in

  4. Living alone and alcohol-related mortality: a population-based cohort study from Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Throughout most of human history, people have lived in tight-knit communities where there was likely to be someone to turn to for help, advice, or company. But the modern way of life in industrialized countries is greatly reducing the quantity and quality of social relationships. Instead of living in extended families, many people now live miles away from their relatives, often living and working alone. Others commute long distances to work, which leaves little tim...

  5. Effective Treatment of Depressive Disorders in Medical Clinics for Adolescents and Young Adults living with HIV: A controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry K.; Kennard, Betsy D.; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Whiteley, Laura B.; Bethel, James; Xu, Jiahong; Thornton, Sarah; Tanney, Mary R.; Hawkins, Linda A.; Garvie, Patricia A.; Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Worrell, Carol J.; Stoff, Laura W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Preliminary test of a manualized, measurement-guided treatment for depression for adolescents and young adults in care at four sites of the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN). Design The U.S. sites were randomly assigned to either a 24-week, combination cognitive behavioral therapy and medication management algorithm (COMB) tailored for youth living with HIV (YLWH) or to treatment as usual (TAU). Methods Youth at TAU sites had access to therapists and medication management as needed. COMB site clinicians were trained in the manualized intervention and participated in supervision calls to monitor intervention fidelity. Results Over the course of the study with 44 participants, those in COMB, compared to those in TAU, reported fewer depressive symptoms, p<0.01 (as measured by the Quick Inventory for Depression Symptomatology) and were more likely to be in remission, p<0.001, (65% vs.10% at week 24 end of treatment, and 71% vs. 7% at week 48 final follow-up). A greater proportion of COMB participants received psychotherapy (95% vs. 45%, p<0.001) and attended more sessions (12.6 vs. 5, p<0.001) than those in TAU. Viral load decreased in both groups and was associated (p<0.05) with reduction in depressive symptoms. Conclusions A 24-week manualized, measurement-guided psychotherapy and medication management algorithm tailored for YLWH was more effective in achieving and sustaining remission from depression than treatment as usual at HIV care clinic sites. Given observed treatment efficacy, this structured combination treatment could be disseminated to medical clinics in order to successfully treat YLWH, who are at particular risk for depression. PMID:26761270

  6. Dietary Intake, Anthropometric Characteristics, and Iron and Vitamin D Status of Female Adolescent Ballet Dancers Living in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kathryn L; Mitchell, Sarah; Foskett, Andrew; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R

    2015-08-01

    Ballet dancing is a multifaceted activity requiring muscular power, strength, endurance, flexibility, and agility; necessitating demanding training schedules. Furthermore dancers may be under aesthetic pressure to maintain a lean physique, and adolescent dancers require extra nutrients for growth and development. This cross-sectional study investigated the nutritional status of 47 female adolescent ballet dancers (13-18 years) living in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants who danced at least 1 hr per day 5 days per week completed a 4-day estimated food record, anthropometric measurements (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and hematological analysis (iron and vitamin D). Mean BMI was 19.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 and percentage body fat, 23.5 ± 4.1%. The majority (89.4%) of dancers had a healthy weight (5th-85th percentile) using BMI-for-age growth charts. Food records showed a mean energy intake of 8097.3 ± 2155.6 kJ/day (48.9% carbohydrate, 16.9% protein, 33.8% fat, 14.0% saturated fat). Mean carbohydrate and protein intakes were 4.8 ± 1.4 and 1.6 ± 0.5 g/kg/day respectively. Over half (54.8%) of dancers consumed less than 5 g carbohydrate/kg/day, and 10 (23.8%) less than 1.2 g protein/kg/day. Over 60% consumed less than the estimated average requirement for calcium, folate, magnesium and selenium. Thirteen (28.3%) dancers had suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin (SF) ballet dancers are at risk for iron deficiency, and possibly inadequate nutrient intakes.

  7. Exposure of Secondary School Adolescents from Argentina and Mexico to Smoking Scenes in Movies: a Population-based Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALGADO, MARÍA V.; PÉREZ, ADRIANA; ABAD-VIVERO, ERIKA N.; THRASHER, JAMES F.; SARGENT, JAMES D.; MEJÍA, RAÚL

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking scenes in movies promote adolescent smoking onset; thus, the analysis of the number of images of smoking in movies really reaching adolescents has become a subject of increasing interest. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the level of exposure to images of smoking in movies watched by adolescents in Argentina and Mexico. Methods First-year secondary school students from Argentina and Mexico were surveyed. One hundred highest-grossing films from each year of the period 2009-2013 (Argentina) and 2010-2014 (Mexico) were analyzed. Each participant was assigned a random sample of 50 of these movies and was asked if he/she had watched them. The total number of adolescents who had watched each movie in each country was estimated and was multiplied by the number of smoking scenes (occurrences) in each movie to obtain the number of gross smoking impressions seen by secondary school adolescents from each country. Results Four-hundred and twenty-two movies were analyzed in Argentina and 433 in Mexico. Exposure to more than 500 million smoking impressions was estimated for adolescents in each country, averaging 128 and 121 minutes of smoking scenes seen by each Argentine and Mexican adolescent, respectively. Although 15, 16 and 18-rated movies had more smoking scenes in average, movies rated for younger teenagers were responsible for the highest number of smoking scenes watched by the students (67.3% in Argentina and 54.4% in Mexico) due to their larger audience. Conclusion At the population level, movies aimed at children are responsible for the highest tobacco burden seen by adolescents. PMID:27354756

  8. ADHD Is Associated with a "Western" Dietary Pattern in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Amber L.; Robinson, Monique; Smith, Grant J.; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Piek, Jan P.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between dietary patterns and ADHD in a population-based cohort of adolescents. Method: The Raine Study is a prospective study following 2,868 live births. At the 14-year follow-up, the authors collected detailed adolescent dietary data, allowing for the determination of major dietary patterns using factor…

  9. cytogenetic effects in populations of amphibians Rana arvalis living on the radio-contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushkova, E.; Bodnar, I.; Zainullin, V. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The study of the features reactions of the animals a differing complicated individual development (metamorphosis) and living in conditions of radioactive contamination is an important trend in the modern radio-ecology. This information is of interest not only from the point of view of detection the mechanisms of radiobiological effects (hyper-radiosensitivity, hormesis, radio-adaptation, etc.) but also viewpoint of predicting delayed radiation effects that is necessary at account the normalization of technogeneous loading on natural ecosystems. An assessment of the level of cytogenetic damages (single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks) in the blood cells of tadpoles of Rana arvalis living in areas contaminated of wastes radium production (Russia, Komi Republic, Ukhta district) was conducted. Using this biological matter as a bioindicator due to the fact that development amphibian is carried out by metamorphosis and includes larval stage. At this stage post-embryonic development of an individual are the most sensitive to anthropogenic impact. To exclude the effects of other factors (temperature, age-specific peculiarities, overpopulation, etc.) on the formation of DNA damages from the studied reservoirs were taken laying eggs of amphibians (12-15 egg laying from the area) which afterwards are contain in strictly controlled laboratory conditions using water, belt silt, plants of native pond. The reaction of amphibians on the contamination was assessed by the level of DNA damage by method Comet assay was determined. With each egg laying were selected for 7 even-aged individuals. Total for cytogenetic analysis was used 189 individuals. It is shown that in animals that develop on the radio-contaminated area the level of single-strand DNA (alkaline pH version of the Comet assay) was higher than in the control area. According an estimate to the level of double-strand DNA (neutral pH version of the Comet assay) significant differences not was found. The high variability

  10. Thyroid gland status among population living around the semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, Z. [Semipalatinsk State Medical Academy (Kazakstan); Land, C.; Hartshorne, M. [and others

    2000-05-01

    From 1949-1962, regions of Kazakstan near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were contaminated with high levels of radioactive fallout from atomic bomb tests carried out at the SNTS. The effective-dose is a principal criterion for the evaluation of the effect of radioactive fallout upon population. Thyroid disease prevalence may be ascertained, as a biomarker of radiation exposure and because it is of interest in itself. Some features from three studies of thyroid gland status among population living around SNTS will be reported. The first study is a case review of pathological findings of 7,271 patients from three regions adjacent to the SNTS, who were surgically treated during 1966-96; the second is a thyroid screening study of a cohort of 3000 village residents who were <20 years of age at the time of major fallout events in the Semipalatinsk region; the third is a complex molecular, morphological investigation and some approaches to rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities. Our first study revealed that there is a significant trend for the proportion of thyroid cancer to increase over time in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakstan 20-29 years after onset of testing in 1949, which might be related to radiation exposure. There are many ethnic groups in this region. Our research among two main ethnic groups (native Kazakh and European extraction) detected that the initial level of thyroid abnormalities and thyroid cancer was higher among residents of European extraction. The total number of surgical cases increased among both ethnic groups over the years, but the numbers of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer increased dramatically among ethnic Kazakhs. Overall, papillary and follicular cancers predominated, but it should be noted the relatively high percentage of follicular cancers after 1982 in the Semipalatinsk region. The primary screening outcome measure was the prevaleance of thyroid nodules as determined by

  11. THE DYNAMICS OF FOOD RATIONS OF BRYANSK REGION POPULATION LIVING IN THE TERRITORIESCONTAMINATED AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Travnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the years passed after the Chernobyl accident we are carrying out monitoring of the radiation situation in the Sough-Western territories of the Bryansk region, contaminated with the long-living radionuclides which includes 137Сs concentration measurements in agricultural and natural foodstuffs, surveys of local populations on the structure and composition of the diet accompanied with 137Сs content measurements in the human body. In the article the obtained data is systematized on the food rations of the adult population of theBryansk region, on food rations dynamics in the first and following years after the accident, which is necessary for the correct estimation of internal exposure doses of the population living on the contaminated territories.

  12. Cancer risk in children and adolescents with birth defects: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo D Botto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Birth defects are an increasing health priority worldwide, and the subject of a major 2010 World Health Assembly Resolution. Excess cancer risk may be an added burden in this vulnerable group of children, but studies to date have provided inconsistent findings. This study assessed the risk for cancer in children and young adolescents with major birth defects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This retrospective, statewide, population-based, cohort study was conducted in three US states (Utah, Arizona, Iowa. A cohort of 44,151 children and young adolescents (0 through 14 years of age with selected major, non-chromosomal birth defects or chromosomal anomalies was compared to a reference cohort of 147,940 children without birth defects randomly sampled from each state's births and frequency matched by year of birth. The primary outcome was rate of cancer prior to age 15 years, by type of cancer and type of birth defect. The incidence of cancer was increased 2.9-fold (95% CI, 2.3 to 3.7 in children with birth defects (123 cases of cancer compared to the reference cohort; the incidence rates were 33.8 and 11.7 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. However, the excess risk varied markedly by type of birth defect. Increased risks were seen in children with microcephaly, cleft palate, and selected eye, cardiac, and renal defects. Cancer risk was not increased with many common birth defects, including hypospadias, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, or hydrocephalus. CONCLUSION: Children with some structural, non-chromosomal birth defects, but not others, have a moderately increased risk for childhood cancer. Information on such selective risk can promote more effective clinical evaluation, counseling, and research.

  13. Accuracy of robot-assisted pedicle screw placement for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, Jeremy J; Woo, Raymund; Varich, Laura

    2016-06-01

    This is a retrospective review of pedicle screw placement in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients under 18 years of age who underwent robot-assisted corrective surgery. Our primary objective was to characterize the accuracy of pedicle screw placement with evaluation by computed tomography (CT) after robot-assisted surgery in AIS patients. Screw malposition is the most frequent complication of pedicle screw placement and is more frequent in AIS. Given the potential for serious complications, the need for improved accuracy of screw placement has spurred multiple innovations including robot-assisted guidance devices. No studies to date have evaluated this robot-assisted technique using CT exclusively within the AIS population. Fifty patients were included in the study. All operative procedures were performed at a single institution by a single pediatric orthopedic surgeon. We evaluated the grade of screw breach, the direction of screw breach, and the positioning of the patient for preoperative scan (supine versus prone). Of 662 screws evaluated, 48 screws (7.2 %) demonstrated a breach of greater than 2 mm. With preoperative prone position CT scanning, only 2.4 % of screws were found to have this degree of breach. Medial malposition was found in 3 % of screws, a rate which decreased to 0 % with preoperative prone position scanning. Based on our results, we conclude that the proper use of image-guided robot-assisted surgery can improve the accuracy and safety of thoracic pedicle screw placement in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This is the first study to evaluate the accuracy of pedicle screw placement using CT assessment in robot-assisted surgical correction of patients with AIS. In our study, the robot-assisted screw misplacement rate was lower than similarly constructed studies evaluating conventional (non-robot-assisted) procedures. If patients are preoperatively scanned in the prone position, the misplacement rate is further

  14. Population-level consequences of herbivory, changing climate, and source-sink dynamics on a long-lived invasive shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Klinken, R D; Pichancourt, J B

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived plant species are highly valued environmentally, economically, and socially, but can also cause substantial harm as invaders. Realistic demographic predictions can guide management decisions, and are particularly valuable for long-lived species where population response times can be long. Long-lived species are also challenging, given population dynamics can be affected by factors as diverse as herbivory, climate, and dispersal. We developed a matrix model to evaluate the effects of herbivory by a leaf-feeding biological control agent released in Australia against a long-lived invasive shrub (mesquite, Leguminoseae: Prosopis spp.). The stage-structured, density-dependent model used an annual time step and 10 climatically diverse years of field data. Mesquite population demography is sensitive to source-sink dynamics as most seeds are consumed and redistributed spatially by livestock. In addition, individual mesquite plants, because they are long lived, experience natural climate variation that cycles over decadal scales, as well as anthropogenic climate change. The model therefore explicitly considered the effects of both net dispersal and climate variation. Herbivory strongly regulated mesquite populations through reduced growth and fertility, but additional mortality of older plants will be required to reach management goals within a reasonable time frame. Growth and survival of seeds and seedlings were correlated with daily soil moisture. As a result, population dynamics were sensitive to rainfall scenario, but population response times were typically slow (20-800 years to reach equilibrium or extinction) due to adult longevity. Equilibrium population densities were expected to remain 5% higher, and be more dynamic, if historical multi-decadal climate patterns persist, the effect being dampened by herbivory suppressing seed production irrespective of preceding rainfall. Dense infestations were unlikely to form under a drier climate, and required net

  15. The role of important non-parental adults (VIPs) in the lives of older adolescents: a comparison of three ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Eileen; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The present study compared VIPs of 355 Hispanic, Asian, and European American older adolescents (age range = 17-19 years; M = 18.7 years; 62% female). Results indicated that, despite ethnic differences in their social capital, VIPs' psychological characteristics (e.g., warmth and acceptance, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were similar. VIPs were perceived to have more positive psychological profiles than parents and peers, and in some cases, romantic partners. Moreover, with a few exceptions, the associations between VIP characteristics and adolescent adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were largely similar across ethnic groups. Finally, VIPs made unique contributions to adolescents' self-esteem and problem behaviors even after the effects of romantic partners were considered. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  16. Social and dental status along the life course and oral health impacts in adolescents: a population-based birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Ana MB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful social conditions in early life might predispose individuals to dental status which in turn may impact on adolescents' quality of life. Aims To estimate the prevalence of oral health impacts among 12 yr-old Brazilian adolescents (n = 359 and its association with life course socioeconomic variables, dental status and dental services utilization in a population-based birth cohort in Southern Brazil. Methods Exploratory variables were collected at birth, at 6 and 12 yr of age. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (OIDP was collected in adolescence and it was analyzed as a ranked outcome (OIDP from 0 to 9. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance was performed guided by a theoretical determination model. Results The response rate was of 94.4% (n = 339. The prevalence of OIDP = 1 was 30.1% (CI95%25.2;35.0 and OIDP ≥ 2 was 28.0% (CI95%23.2;32.8. The most common daily activity affected was eating (44.8%, follow by cleaning the mouth and smiling (15.6%, and 15.0%, respectively. In the final model mother schooling and mother employment status in early cohort participant's life were associated with OIDP in adolescence. As higher untreated dental caries at age 6 and 12 years, and the presence of dental pain, gingival bleeding and incisal crowing in adolescence as higher the OIDP score. On the other hand, dental fluorosis was associated with low OIDP score. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of adolescent's early life social environmental as mother schooling and mother employment status and the early and later dental status on the adolescent's quality of life regardless family income and use of dental services.

  17. CDC Grand Rounds: Adolescence - Preparing for Lifelong Health and Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banspach, Stephen; Zaza, Stephanie; Dittus, Patricia; Michael, Shannon; Brindis, Claire D; Thorpe, Phoebe

    2016-08-05

    Approximately 42 million adolescents aged 10-19 years, representing 13% of the population, resided in the United States in 2014 (1). Adolescence is characterized by rapid and profound physical, intellectual, emotional, and psychological changes (2), as well as development of healthy or risky behaviors that can last a lifetime. Parents have strong influence on their adolescent children's lives, and family-based programs can help parents support healthy adolescent development. Because schools are natural learning environments, implementing and improving school-based policies and programs are strategic ways to reinforce healthy behaviors and educate adolescents about reducing risky behaviors. Health care during adolescence should be tailored to meet the changing developmental needs of the adolescent while providing welcoming, safe, and confidential care. Parents, educators, care providers, public health officials, and communities should collaborate in fostering healthy environments for all adolescents, now and into the future.

  18. Genetic analysis of eight population groups living in Taiwan using a 13 X-chromosomal STR loci multiplex system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Lee, James Chun-I; Chang, Yih-Yuan; Yin, Hsiang-Yi; Chen, Ya-Hui; Tseng, Li-Hui; Su, Yi-Ning; Ko, Tsang-Ming

    2011-01-01

    A 13 X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system (DXS6807, DXS8378, DSX9902, DXS7132, DXS9898, DXS6809, DXS6789, DXS7424, DXS101, GATA172D05, HPRTB, DXS8377, and DXS7423) was tested on 1,037 DNA samples from eight population groups currently living in Taiwan. Different distributions of the allelic frequencies in different populations were presented. DXS8377 and DXS101 were the two most polymorphic loci in these eight populations, whereas DXS7423 was the least informative marker in most of the populations studied. The genetic distances between the populations and the constructed phylogenetic tree revealed a long genetic distance between Asian and Caucasian populations as well as isolation of the Tao population. The phylogenetic tree grouped populations into clusters compatible with their ethnogeographic relationships. This 13 X-chromosomal short tandem repeat multiplex system offers a considerable number of polymorphic patterns in different populations. This system can be useful in forensic identification casework and ethnogeographic research.

  19. Twenty years after International Conference on Population and Development: where are we with adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Fogstad, Helga; Say, Lale; Girard, Françoise; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994 laid out a bold, clear, and comprehensive definition of reproductive health and called for nations to meet the educational and service needs of adolescents to enable them to deal in a positive and responsible way with their sexuality. In the context of the ongoing review of the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action and the considerations for a post-2015 development agenda, this article summarizes the findings of the articles presented in this volume and identifies key challenges and critical answers that need to be tackled in addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights. The key recommendations are to link the provision of sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services; build awareness, acceptance, and support for youth-friendly SRH education and services; address gender inequality in terms of beliefs, attitudes, and norms; and target the early adolescent period (10-14 years). The many knowledge gaps, however, point to the pressing need for further research on how to best design effective adolescent SRH intervention packages and how best to deliver them.

  20. Living with Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HFI Summits Newsletter Our Stories Calendar of Events Advertise RESOURCES Health Savings Card Links Webinars YOUR LIVER Overview Adults Children & Adolescents Nutrition & Health Lifestyle RESEARCH DVDs Overview Live- ...

  1. An examination of race and poverty for populations living near industrial sources of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, S A; Sexton, K; Wong, D W

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the sociodemographic characteristics of people living near industrial sources of air pollution in three areas of the United States: (1) the Kanawha Valley in West Virginia: (2) the Baton Rouge-New Orleans corridor in Louisiana: and (3) the greater Baltimore metropolitan area in Maryland. Using data from the 1990 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and the 1990 Census, we analyze relationships between variables assumed to be independent, such as location of single or multiple industrial emission sources, and the dependent variables of race (black/white) and poverty status (above/below poverty level). Results from all three study areas are consistent and indicate that African Americans and those living in households defined to be below the established poverty level are more likely, on average, to live closer to the nearest TRI facility and to live within 2 miles of multiple TRI facilities. Conversely, whites and those living in households above the poverty level are more likely, on average, to live farther from the nearest TRI facility and to live within 2 miles of fewer facilities, compared to African Americans and poor people.

  2. Barriers to live donor kidney transplants in the pediatric population: A single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Shibany P; Galloway, Matthew P; Jain, Amrish

    2017-03-01

    A decrease in live donor pediatric kidney transplants has occurred in the United States. This study investigates barriers that may influence access to live donor kidney transplants in children. Retrospective chart review was conducted for 91 children (69% male, mean age 11.9 years) who underwent pretransplant workup from 2005 to 2015 at an urban pediatric hospital. Fifty-four percent were African American, 32% Caucasian, 8% Arabic, 3% Hispanic, and 3% Others. Government-sponsored insurance (Medicaid/Medicare) was utilized by 73%, and 54% had dual caregivers. Only nine of 68 kidney transplants were live donor transplants. Live donor transplants (11%) were significantly (P=.008) lower than deceased donor transplants (59%) in African Americans. Private insurance was reported by 56% of live donor recipients and 25% of deceased donor recipients. Among live donor recipients, 78% were from dual caregiver families. Caregiver, health-related, financial, and religious/cultural barriers to live donor transplants were reported, several of which may be amenable to positive intervention.

  3. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a National Sample of Adolescent Population in the Middle East and North Africa: The CASPIAN III Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Khashayar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence of different combinations of the metabolic syndrome (MetS risk factors among a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA. Methods. The study sample, obtained as part of the third study of the school-based surveillance system entitled CASPIAN III, was representative of the Iranian adolescent population aged from 10 to 18 years. The prevalence of different components of MetS was studied and their discriminative value was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results. The study participants consisted of 5738 students (2875 girls with mean age of 14.7±2.4 years living in 23 provinces in Iran; 17.4% of participants were underweight and 17.7% were overweight or obese. Based on the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation for the adolescent age group, 24.2% of participants had one risk factor, 8.0% had two, 2.1% had three, and 0.3% had all the four components of MetS. Low HDL-C was the most common component (43.2% among the overweight/obese versus 34.9% of the normal-weight participants, whereas high blood pressure was the least common component. The prevalence of MetS was 15.4% in the overweight/obese participants, the corresponding figure was 1.8% for the normal-weight students, and 2.5% in the whole population studied. Overweight/obese subjects had a 9.68 increased odds of (95% CI: 6.65–14.09 the MetS compared to their normal-weight counterparts. For all the three risk factors, AUC ranged between 0.84 and 0.88, 0.83 and 0.87, and 0.86 and 0.89 in waist circumference, abdominal obesity, and BMI for boys and between 0.78 and 0.97, 0.67 and 0.93, and 0.82 and 0.96 for girls, respectively. Conclusion. The findings from this study provide alarming evidence-based data on the considerable prevalence of obesity, MetS, and CVD risk factors in the adolescent age group. These results are confirmatory

  4. Adolescent Understanding and Acceptance of the HPV Vaccination in an Underserved Population in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Blumenthal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. HPV vaccination may prevent thousands of cases of cervical cancer. We aimed to evaluate the understanding and acceptance of the HPV vaccine among adolescents. Methods. A questionnaire was distributed to adolescents at health clinics affiliated with a large urban hospital system to determine knowledge pertaining to sexually transmitted diseases and acceptance of the HPV vaccine. Results. 223 adolescents completed the survey. 28% were male, and 70% were female. The mean age for respondents was 16 years old. Adolescents who had received the HPV vaccine were more likely to be female and to have heard of cervical cancer and Pap testing. Of the 143 adolescents who had not yet been vaccinated, only 4% believed that they were at risk of HPV infection and 52% were willing to be vaccinated. Conclusions. Surveyed adolescents demonstrated a marginal willingness to receive the HPV vaccine and a lack of awareness of personal risk for acquiring HPV.

  5. Enuresis and Hyperactivity-Inattention in Early Adolescence: Findings from a Population-Based Survey in Tokyo (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Kanata

    Full Text Available Enuresis (9% at age 9.5 negatively affects children's psychosocial status. Clinically-diagnosed enuresis (2% at the age is associated with hyperactivity-inattention, and common neural bases have been postulated to underlie this association. It is, however, unclear whether this association is applicable to enuresis overall among the general population of early adolescents when considered comorbid behavioral problems. We aimed to examine whether enuresis correlates with hyperactivity-inattention after controlling for the effects of other behavioral problems.Participants were 4,478 children (mean age 10.2 ± 0.3 years old and their parents from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey (T-EAS, a population-representative cross-sectional study conducted in Tokyo, Japan conducted from 2012 to 2015. Children's enuresis and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity-inattention (as measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, were examined using parent-reporting questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore whether enuresis predicts hyperactivity-inattention.The hyperactivity-inattention score was significantly higher in the enuretic group than the non-enuretic group (enuretic: M (SD = 3.8 (2.3, non-enuretic: M (SD = 3.0 (2.1, Hedge's g = 0.39, p < .001. This association remained significant even after controlling for other behavioral problems and including sex, age, intelligence quotient (IQ, low birth weight and parents' education (β = .054 [95% CI: .028-.080], p < .001.Enuresis was independently associated with hyperactivity-inattention in early adolescents among general population even when other behavioral problems were considered. These results suggest that, as with clinically-diagnosed cases, enuresis may predict need for screening and psychosocial support for hyperactivity-inattention.

  6. Association between plasma leptin and blood pressure in two population-based samples of children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kynde, Iben

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined the association between leptin and blood pressure in a population-based study of Danish and Norwegian children and adolescents. Because of the putative bidirectional relationship between leptin and adiposity we formally tested (i) the mediating effect of body mass index...... in the association between leptin and blood pressure, and (ii) the mediating effect of leptin in the association between body mass index and blood pressure....

  7. Acne scars in 18-year-old male adolescents: a population-based study of prevalence and associated factors*

    OpenAIRE

    Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar

    2016-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional stud...

  8. Oral health status of intellectually disabled school children and adolescents, in a Chilean population, 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Garcés

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the oral health status of intellectually disabled (ID children and adolescents from state schools, Valdivia, Chile, 2012. Design: Descriptive study. A sample of students from state schools was assessed for caries history (Decayed, Missing, Filled permanent Teeth (DMFT/decayed, extracted, filled temporal teeth (deft, quality of oral hygiene (Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, OHI-S and gingival health (Gingival Index, GI. In addition, questions were asked about dental care habits, degree of ID, presence of systemic disease and medicine use. Results: 195 students with slight to moderate ID and aged from 6 to 21 years were assessed. The average DMFT/deft was 2.19/1.33 for female students and 1.59/1.93 for male students. The OHI-S in 75.9% of participants was moderate, with poorer oral hygiene found in participants with moderate ID. Only 2.6% showed code 0 for GI, reflecting poor oral hygiene. Most participants possessed their own toothbrush (88.2% and could clean their teeth unaided (96.4%.Conclusion: The state of oral health in the assessed population is deficient. The quality of oral hygiene is normal or poor, which leads to poor gingival health.

  9. Life style and risk of development of dental caries in a population of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Krawczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Oxygen is an essential element for sustaining the life of aerobes; however, in certain conditions it may be toxic for these organisms. This is due to so-called reactive oxygen species – ROS. Factors which cause the production of free radicals include ionizing radiation, UV radiation, high temperature, and hazardous substances, such as phenols, carbon monoxide, e.g. in smokers, also air pollution and drugs. Objective. The objective of the study was analysis of the total antioxidant status (TAS in stimulated and unstimulated saliva, according to the number of active carious lesions in generally healthy non-smokers aged 15–17. Materials and method. The study covered 113 adolescents aged 15–17 in whom the state of dentition was evaluated using the DMFT (Decayed-Missing-Filled index, and oral hygiene assessed based on the OHI-S (Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified index. TAS in saliva was determined by means of a Randox Labolatories Ltd. test kit, by the spectrophotometric method. Results. Based on the results of the study, it was found that in the population examined an increase in the number of carious lesions was accompanied by a significant decrease in the TAS, both in stimulated and unstimulated saliva. Conclusions. A health-promoting life style, maintenance of basic principles of oral hygiene and care of general health through the elimination of harmful habits decrease the risk of dental caries.

  10. ASSERT--the Autism Symptom SElf-ReporT for adolescents and adults: bifactor analysis and validation in a large adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posserud, Maj-Britt; Breivik, Kyrre; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J

    2013-12-01

    With a view to developing a brief screening instrument for autism symptoms in a general population of adolescents, seven items from the Asperger syndrome (and high-functioning autism) diagnostic interview were adapted for use as self-report in an online questionnaire for youths aged 16-19 years (N=10,220). The selected items target lack of social understanding (4 items) and rigid and repetitive behavior and interests (RRBI; 3 items). Factor analyses were performed, and the seven items were also validated against self-reported ASD diagnosis. Best statistical model fit was found for a bifactor model with one general factor and two domain specific factors tied to social difficulties and RRBI. Both the general and the domain specific factors were associated with self-reported ASD diagnoses. The scale (referred to as the Autism Symptom SElf-ReporT for Adolescents and Adults--ASSERT) had good screening properties with a receiver operating curve-area under the curve (ROC-AUC) of 0.87 and a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 15.8. Applying a modified scoring of the scale further improved the screening properties leading to a ROC-AUC of 0.89 and a DOR of 24.9. The ASSERT holds promise as a brief self-report screen for autism symptoms in adolescents, and further studies should explore its usefulness for adults.

  11. Analysis of the life-style and dietary habits of a population of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio González-Jiménez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study were: (i to ascertain whether the nutritional status of a population of secondary school students had improved after an educational intervention; (ii to analyze whether students had adopted healthier eating and exercise habits after participating in a health education intervention; (iii to discover whether the students spent less time on sedentary leisure activities after the intervention. Sample and methodology: The population of the sample consisted of 138 adolescents, age range was between 14-19 years old: 67 males (48.6% and 71 females (51.4%. They were students at two public secondary schools in the city of Almería (Spain. In the first phase (15-30 september 2011 of this three-phase study, the nutritional status of the students was assessed by means of anthropometry. In the second phase (1 october 2012-15 june 2012, the students participated in an educational intervention that fomented awareness of the benefits derived from healthy eating habits and physical exercise. In the third and final phase (16-31 june 2012, the effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated. Results: After the intervention, statistically significant differences (p < 0.000 were found in relation to the nutritional status of all the students evaluated, regardless of their sex. In reference to the adoption of healthy habits after the intervention, statistical significant differences were observed in the Krece Plus test (p < 0.000 and in the practice of physical exercise (p = 0.006. In the case of sedentary leisure activities, there was also a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.000 in the number of hours spent watching television for both male and female subjects. Conclusion: The results of this study show the effectiveness of the contents, activities, and duration of this health education intervention to encourage the subjects to modify their dietary and exercise habits.

  12. Adolescent Gambling Behaviour and Attitudes: A Prevalence Study and Correlates in an Australian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alun C.; Dowling, Nicki; Thomas, Shane A.; Bond, Lyndal; Patton, George

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that a range of risk factors are associated with adolescent problem gambling. Using a representative sample of 2,788 eighth grade students in Victoria, Australia, the primary aim of this study was to examine the degree to which these risk factors are associated with different levels of adolescent gambling…

  13. Strategies and Models for Promoting Adolescent Vaccination for Low-Income Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Katherine M.; Martin, Laurie T.; Lurie, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, Sanofi Pasteur asked RAND Health, a division of the RAND Corporation, to study the current climate for adolescent immunization in the United States, to recommend broad strategies for immunizing low-income adolescents (through age 18), and to identify promising "on the ground" practices consistent with the proposed strategic framework. To…

  14. Loneliness in the Daily Lives of Adolescents: An Experience Sampling Study Examining the Effects of Social Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine state levels of loneliness in adolescence. Both concurrent associations and temporal dynamics between social contexts and state levels of loneliness were examined. Data were collected from 286 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 14.19 years, 59% girls) by using the Experience Sampling Method. Results…

  15. Individual Variation and Family-Community Ties: A Behavioral Genetic Analysis of the Intergenerational Closure in the Lives of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, H. Harrington; Crosnoe, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Intergenerational closure refers to parents' knowing the parents of their adolescents' friends. This study treated intergenerational closure - as reported by the parents of adolescent twins - as the dependent variable in a behavioral genetic analysis. The sample consisted of identical and fraternal twin pairs in the National Longitudinal Study of…

  16. Neighborhood income inequality, social capital and emotional distress among adolescents: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Arndis; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2016-08-01

    Theory holds that income inequality may harm adolescent mental health by reducing social capital within neighborhood communities. However, research on this topic has been very limited. We use multilevel data on 102 public schools and 5958 adolescents in Iceland (15 and 16 years old) to examine whether income inequality within neighborhoods is associated with emotional distress in adolescents. Moreover, we test whether indicators of social capital, including social trust and embeddedness in neighborhood social networks, mediate this contextual effect. The findings show that neighborhood income inequality positively influences emotional distress of individual adolescents, net of their personal household situations and social relations. However, although the indicators of social capital negatively influence emotional distress, they do not mediate the contextual effect of neighborhood income inequality. The study illustrates the role of economic disparities in adolescent mental health, but calls for more research on the underlying social and social-psychological mechanisms.

  17. Assistive devices in activities of daily living used by persons with age-related macular degeneration: a population study of 85-year-olds living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin Ivanoff, S; Sonn, U

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the overall use of assistive devices among persons with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and how it is related to dependence in daily activities. This was a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional population study of 85-year-olds. The most common category of assistive devices was bathing devices followed by mobility devices. The overall use of assistive devices was 82%, and around 80% of the device users were independent in activities of daily living. They were multiple device users (57%) and used more mobility devices and personal assistance in mobility. In conclusion, the ARMD group comprises very frequent users of assistive devices and uses assistive devices to remain independent. This implies that health services should provide assistive devices at an early stage in the disablement process to avoid the development of dependence and should consider the likelihood of multiple health problems when assessing the needs of assistive devices among persons with ARMD.

  18. Physical Activity Level and Sport Participation in Relation to Musculoskeletal Pain in a Population-Based Study of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guddal, Maren Hjelle; Stensland, Synne Øien; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Johnsen, Marianne Bakke; Zwart, John-Anker; Storheim, Kjersti

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among adolescents is high, and pain in adolescence increases the risk of chronic pain in adulthood. Studies have shown conflicting evidence regarding associations between physical activity and musculoskeletal pain, and few have evaluated the potential impact of sport participation on musculoskeletal pain in adolescent population samples. Purpose: To examine the associations between physical activity level, sport participation, and musculoskeletal pain in the neck and shoulders, low back, and lower extremities in a population-based sample of adolescents. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence 4. Methods: Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (Young-HUNT3) were used. All 10,464 adolescents in the Nord-Trøndelag county of Norway were invited, of whom 74% participated. Participants were asked how often they had experienced pain, unrelated to any known disease or acute injury, in the neck and shoulders, low back, and lower extremities in the past 3 months. The associations between (1) physical activity level (low [reference], medium or high) or (2) sport participation (weekly compared with no/infrequent participation) and pain were evaluated using logistic regression analyses, stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, socioeconomic status, and psychological distress. Results: The analyses included 7596 adolescents (mean age, 15.8 years; SD, 1.7). Neck and shoulder pain was most prevalent (17%). A moderate level of physical activity was associated with reduced odds of neck and shoulder pain (OR = 0.79 [95% CI, 0.66-0.94]) and low back pain (OR = 0.75 [95% CI, 0.62-0.91]), whereas a high level of activity increased the odds of lower extremity pain (OR = 1.60 [95% CI, 1.29-1.99]). Participation in endurance sports was associated with lower odds of neck and shoulder pain (OR = 0.79 [95% CI, 0.68-0.92]) and low back pain (OR = 0.77 [95% CI, 0.65-0.92]), especially among girls. Participation in technical

  19. Social adversity in adolescence increases the physiological vulnerability to job strain in adulthood: a prospective population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Westerlund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been argued that the association between job strain and health could be confounded by early life exposures, and studies have shown early adversity to increase individual vulnerability to later stress. We therefore investigated if early life exposure to adversity increases the individual's physiological vulnerability job strain in adulthood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a population-based cohort (343 women and 330 men, 83% of the eligible participants, we examined the association between on the one hand exposure to adversity in adolescence, measured at age 16, and job strain measured at age 43, and on the other hand allostatic load at age 43. Adversity was operationalised as an index comprising residential mobility and crowding, parental loss, parental unemployment, and parental physical and mental illness (including substance abuse. Allostatic load summarised body fat, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, glucose, blood lipids, and cortisol regulation. There was an interaction between adversity in adolescence and job strain (B = 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16 after adjustment for socioeconomic status, particularly psychological demands, indicating that job strain was associated with increased allostatic load only among participants with adversity in adolescence. Job strain was associated with lower allostatic load in men (β = -0.20, 95% CI -0.35 to -0.06. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Exposure to adversity in adolescence was associated with increased levels of biological stress among those reporting job strain in mid-life, indicating increased vulnerability to environmental stressors.

  20. FUTURE ESTIMATION OF CONVENIENCE LIVING FACILITIES WITHDRAWAL DUE TO POPULATION DECLINE ALL OVER JAPAN FROM 2010 TO 2040 - FOCUS ON SUPERMARKETS, CONVENIENCE STORES AND DRUGSTORES

    OpenAIRE

    NISHIMOTO, Yuka; Akiyama, Yuki; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-01-01

    Population explosion is considered to be one of the most crucial problems in the world. However, in Japan, the opposite problem: population decline has become serious now. Japanese population is estimated to decrease by twenty millions in 2040. This negative situation will cause to increase areas where many residents cannot make a daily living all over Japan because many convenience living facilities such as supermarkets, convenience stores and drugstores will be difficult to maintai...

  1. The social and ecological integration of captive-raised adolescent male African elephants (Loxodonta africana into a wild population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Evans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A rapid rise in the number of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana used in the tourism industry in southern Africa and orphaned elephants in human care has led to concerns about their long-term management, particularly males. One solution is to release them into the wild at adolescence, when young males naturally leave their herd. However, this raises significant welfare concerns: little is known about how well released elephants integrate into wild populations and whether they pose a greater threat to humans than wild elephants. We document the release of three captive-raised adolescent male African elephants in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Despite having been part of a herd of working elephants for at least eight years, the three males progressively integrated into the complex fission-fusion society of wild bull elephants. In the three years following release, they showed no tendency to be closer to human habitation, and there were no significant differences between wild and captive-raised adolescent males in the total number of social interactions, size of ranges and habitat use. However, the captive-raised elephants sparred less and vocalised more, and spent more time alone and in smaller social groups. Thereafter the released elephants continued to expand their ranges and interact with both mixed-sex herds and males. One male was shot by farmers 94 months after release, along with ten wild elephants, on a ranch outside the protected area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that captive-raised adolescent male elephants can integrate into a wild population. Long-term studies are required to determine the longevity, breeding success, and eventual fate of released male elephants, but we identified no significant short-term welfare problems for the released elephants or recipient population. Release of captive-raised mammals with complex social systems is a husbandry option that should be

  2. Peruvians’ sleep duration: analysis of a population-based survey on adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained settings, will provide informative evidence on a potentially modifiable risk factor. The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of sleep duration in the Peruvian adult and adolescent population, together with its socio-demographic profile.Material and Methods. A total of 12,424 subjects, mean age 35.8 years (SD ±17.7, 50.6% males, were included in the analysis. This is a cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the Use of Time National Survey conducted in 2010. We used weighted means and proportions to describe sleep duration according to socio-demographic variables (area and region; sex; age; education attainment; asset index; martial and job status. We used Poisson regressions, taking into account the multistage sampling design of the survey, to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Main outcomes were short- (<6 h and long-sleep duration (≥ 9 h.Results. On average, Peruvians slept 7.7 h (95% CI [7.4–8.0] on weekdays and 8.0 h (95% CI [7.8–8.1] during weekends. The proportions of short- and long-sleep, during weekdays, were 4.3% (95% CI [2.9%–6.3%] and 22.4% (95% CI [14.9%–32.1%], respectively. Regarding urban and rural areas, a much higher proportion of short-sleep was observed in the former (92.0% vs. 8.0%; both for weekdays and weekends. On the multivariable analysis, compared to regular-sleepers (≥ 6 to <9 h, short-sleepers were twice more likely to be older and to have higher educational status, and 50% more likely to be currently employed. Similarly, relative to regular-sleep, long-sleepers were more likely to have a lower socioeconomic status as per educational attainment.Conclusions. In this

  3. Effects of climate change and variability on population dynamics in a long-lived shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Vindenes, Yngvild; Saether, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar; Ens, Bruno J.; Oosterbeek, Kees; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change affects both the mean and variability of climatic variables, but their relative impact on the dynamics of populations is still largely unexplored. Based on a long-term study of the demography of a declining Eurasian Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) population, we quantify the eff

  4. Live Fast, Die Young: Experimental Evidence of Population Extinction Risk due to Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvire Bestion

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has accumulated in recent decades on the drastic impact of climate change on biodiversity. Warming temperatures have induced changes in species physiology, phenology, and have decreased body size. Such modifications can impact population dynamics and could lead to changes in life cycle and demography. More specifically, conceptual frameworks predict that global warming will severely threaten tropical ectotherms while temperate ectotherms should resist or even benefit from higher temperatures. However, experimental studies measuring the impacts of future warming trends on temperate ectotherms' life cycle and population persistence are lacking. Here we investigate the impacts of future climates on a model vertebrate ectotherm species using a large-scale warming experiment. We manipulated climatic conditions in 18 seminatural populations over two years to obtain a present climate treatment and a warm climate treatment matching IPCC predictions for future climate. Warmer temperatures caused a faster body growth, an earlier reproductive onset, and an increased voltinism, leading to a highly accelerated life cycle but also to a decrease in adult survival. A matrix population model predicts that warm climate populations in our experiment should go extinct in around 20 y. Comparing our experimental climatic conditions to conditions encountered by populations across Europe, we suggest that warming climates should threaten a significant number of populations at the southern range of the distribution. Our findings stress the importance of experimental approaches on the entire life cycle to more accurately predict population and species persistence in future climates.

  5. Population regulation in group-living birds : predictive models of the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridley, J; Komdeur, J; Sutherland, WJ; Sutherland, William J.

    2003-01-01

    1. A major challenge for population ecology is to predict population responses to novel conditions, such as habitat loss. This frequently involves understanding dispersal decisions, in terms of their consequences for fitness. However, this approach requires detailed data, and is thus often inappropr

  6. Live Fast, Die Young: Experimental Evidence of Population Extinction Risk due to Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestion, Elvire; Teyssier, Aimeric; Richard, Murielle; Clobert, Jean; Cote, Julien

    2015-10-01

    Evidence has accumulated in recent decades on the drastic impact of climate change on biodiversity. Warming temperatures have induced changes in species physiology, phenology, and have decreased body size. Such modifications can impact population dynamics and could lead to changes in life cycle and demography. More specifically, conceptual frameworks predict that global warming will severely threaten tropical ectotherms while temperate ectotherms should resist or even benefit from higher temperatures. However, experimental studies measuring the impacts of future warming trends on temperate ectotherms' life cycle and population persistence are lacking. Here we investigate the impacts of future climates on a model vertebrate ectotherm species using a large-scale warming experiment. We manipulated climatic conditions in 18 seminatural populations over two years to obtain a present climate treatment and a warm climate treatment matching IPCC predictions for future climate. Warmer temperatures caused a faster body growth, an earlier reproductive onset, and an increased voltinism, leading to a highly accelerated life cycle but also to a decrease in adult survival. A matrix population model predicts that warm climate populations in our experiment should go extinct in around 20 y. Comparing our experimental climatic conditions to conditions encountered by populations across Europe, we suggest that warming climates should threaten a significant number of populations at the southern range of the distribution. Our findings stress the importance of experimental approaches on the entire life cycle to more accurately predict population and species persistence in future climates.

  7. DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 eating disorders in adolescents: prevalence, stability, and psychosocial correlates in a population-based sample of male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Oddy, Wendy H; Crosby, Ross D

    2013-08-01

    The current study aimed to compare the prevalence, stability, and psychosocial correlates of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 eating disorders, in a population-based sample of male and female adolescents followed prospectively from 14 to 20 years of age. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective, population-based cohort study that has followed participants from prebirth to young adulthood. Detailed self-report questionnaires were used to assess eating disorder symptoms when participants were aged 14, 17, and 20 years. Comparisons between DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 were conducted using McNemar chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests. Changes in eating disorder prevalence over time were considered using generalized estimating equations. Eating disorder prevalence rates were significantly greater when using DSM-5 than DSM-IV-TR criteria, at all time points for females and at age 17 only for males. "Unspecified"/"other" eating disorder diagnoses were significantly less common when applying DSM-5 than DSM-IV-TR criteria, but still formed 15% to 30% of the DSM-5 cases. Diagnostic stability was low for all disorders, and DSM-5 binge eating disorder or purging disorder in early adolescence predicted DSM-5 bulimia nervosa in later adolescence. Cross-over from binge eating disorder to bulimia nervosa was particularly high. Regardless of the diagnostic classification system used, all eating disorder diagnoses were associated with depressive symptoms and poor mental health quality of life. These results provide further support for the clinical utility of DSM-5 eating disorder criteria, and for the significance of binge eating disorder and purging disorder.

  8. Genetic differentiation among Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) populations living on different host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-García, Ninfa M; Sarmiento-Benavides, Sandra L; Villegas-Mendoza, Jesús M; Hernández-Delgado, Sanjuana; Mayek-Pérez, Netzahualcoyotl

    2010-06-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) is a dangerous pest that damages a wide variety of agricultural, horticultural, and forestry crops. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints were used to characterize the genetic variation of 11 M. hirsutus populations infesting three plant species in Nayarit, Mexico. Analysis was carried out using four primers combinations, producing 590 polymorphic bands. Cluster analysis, as well as bootstrap dendrogram and nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis, grouped M. hirsutus populations according to their host plant. The estimated F(ST) values indicated a high differentiation in M. hirsutus populations among the three host plant species. These results were also supported by a Bayesian analysis, which indicated a population clustering robustness according to their host plant. Genetic variation among populations is not caused by geographic distances, as shown by a Mantel test.

  9. Population-based biochemistry, immunologic and hematological reference values for adolescents and young adults in a rural population in Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Zeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is need for locally-derived age-specific clinical laboratory reference ranges of healthy Africans in sub-Saharan Africa. Reference values from North American and European populations are being used for African subjects despite previous studies showing significant differences. Our aim was to establish clinical laboratory reference values for African adolescents and young adults that can be used in clinical trials and for patient management. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A panel of 298, HIV-seronegative individuals aged 13-34 years was randomly selected from participants in two population-based cross-sectional surveys assessing HIV prevalence and other sexually transmitted infections in western Kenya. The adolescent (<18 years-to-adults (≥ 18 years ratio and the male-to-female ratio was 1∶1. Median and 95% reference ranges were calculated for immunohematological and biochemistry values. Compared with U.S-derived reference ranges, we detected lower hemoglobin (HB, hematocrit (HCT, red blood cells (RBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, neutrophil, glucose, and blood urea nitrogen values but elevated eosinophil and total bilirubin values. Significant gender variation was observed in hematological parameters in addition to T-bilirubin and creatinine indices in all age groups, AST in the younger and neutrophil, platelet and CD4 indices among the older age group. Age variation was also observed, mainly in hematological parameters among males. Applying U.S. NIH Division of AIDS (DAIDS toxicity grading to our results, 40% of otherwise healthy study participants were classified as having an abnormal laboratory parameter (grade 1-4 which would exclude them from participating in clinical trials. CONCLUSION: Hematological and biochemistry reference values from African population differ from those derived from a North American population, showing the need to develop region-specific reference values. Our data also show variations in hematological

  10. Serological survey on immunity status against polioviruses in children and adolescents living in a border region, Apulia (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti Annamaria

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1988 the World Health Assembly adopted the goal to eradicate poliomyelitis by routine immunization using Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV. On 21 June 2002 the WHO European Region was declared polio-free. In 2008 poliomyelitis is still endemic in 4 countries (Nigeria, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan, where 1201 new cases were registered in 2007; 107 sporadic cases were also notified in countries where poliovirus is not endemic. The aim of this work was to verify the level of antipoliomyelitis immunity status in children and adolescents in the Apulia region (south of Italy, which may be considered a border region due to its position. Methods 704 blood specimens from a convenience sample were collected in six laboratories. The age of subjects enrolled was 0–15 years. The immunity against poliomyelitis was evaluated by neutralizing antibody titration in tissue culture microplates. Results Seropositivity (neutralising antibodies titre ≥ 8 for polioviruses 1, 2 and 3 was detected in 100%, 99.8% and 99.4% of collected sera. Antibody titres were not lower in subjects who received either four doses of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV or a sequential schedule consisting of two doses of IPV and two of oral polio vaccine than in subjects who received four doses of OPV. Conclusion These results confirmed current data of vaccine coverage for poliomyelitis: during the last ten years in Apulia, the coverage in 24 months old children was more than 90%. The high level of immunization found confirms the effectiveness both of the sequential schedule IPV-OPV and of the schedule all-IPV. Apulia region has to face daily arrivals of refugees and remains subject to the risk of the importation of poliovirus from endemic areas. Surveys aimed at determining anti-polio immunity in subpopulations as well as in the general population should be carried out.

  11. Future Estimation of Convenience Living Facilities Withdrawal due to Population Decline all Over Japan from 2010 TO 2040 - Focus on Supermarkets, Convenience Stores and Drugstores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Yuka; Akiyama, Yuki; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-06-01

    Population explosion is considered to be one of the most crucial problems in the world. However, in Japan, the opposite problem: population decline has become serious now. Japanese population is estimated to decrease by twenty millions in 2040. This negative situation will cause to increase areas where many residents cannot make a daily living all over Japan because many convenience living facilities such as supermarkets, convenience stores and drugstores will be difficult to maintain their market area population due to future population decline. In our research, we used point data of convenience living facilities developed by address geocoding of digital telephone directory and point data of future population projection developed by distribution of Japanese official population projection data proportionally among the building volume of digital residential map, which can monitor building volumes all over Japan. In conclusion, we estimated that various convenience living facilities in Japan will shrink and close by population decline in near future. In particular, it is cleared that approximately 14.7% of supermarkets will be possible to withdraw all over Japan by 2040. In addition, it is cleared that over 40% of supermarkets in some countryside prefectures will be possible to withdraw by 2040. Thus, we estimated future distributions of convenience living facilities that cannot maintain their market area population due to future population decline. Moreover, we estimated the number of people that they will become inconvenience in buying fresh foods.

  12. Population genetics at three spatial scales of a rare sponge living in fragmented habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriz Maria J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rare species have seldom been studied in marine habitats, mainly because it is difficult to formally assess the status of rare species, especially in patchy benthic organisms, for which samplings are often assumed to be incomplete and, thus, inappropriate for establishing the real abundance of the species. However, many marine benthic invertebrates can be considered rare, due to the fragmentation and rarity of suitable habitats. Consequently, studies on the genetic connectivity of rare species in fragmented habitats are basic for assessing their risk of extinction, especially in the context of increased habitat fragmentation by human activities. Sponges are suitable models for studying the intra- and inter-population genetic variation of rare invertebrates, as they produce lecitotrophic larvae and are often found in fragmented habitats. Results We investigated the genetic structure of a Mediterranean sponge, Scopalina lophyropoda (Schmidt, using the allelic size variation of seven specific microsatellite loci. The species can be classified as "rare" because of its strict habitat requirements, the low number of individuals per population, and the relatively small size of its distribution range. It also presents a strong patchy distribution, philopatric larval dispersal, and both sexual and asexual reproduction. Classical genetic-variance-based methods (AMOVA and differentiation statistics revealed that the genetic diversity of S. lophyropoda was structured at the three spatial scales studied: within populations, between populations of a geographic region, and between isolated geographic regions, although some stochastic gene flow might occur among populations within a region. The genetic structure followed an isolation-by-distance pattern according to the Mantel test. However, despite philopatric larval dispersal and fission events in the species, no single population showed inbreeding, and the contribution of clonality to the

  13. Prevalence, comorbidity and heritability of hoarding symptoms in adolescence: a population based twin study in 15-year olds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volen Z Ivanov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hoarding Disorder (HD is often assumed to be an 'old age' problem, but many individuals diagnosed with HD retrospectively report first experiencing symptoms in childhood or adolescence. We examined the prevalence, comorbidity and etiology of hoarding symptoms in adolescence. METHODS: To determine the presence of clinically significant hoarding symptoms, a population-based sample of 15-year old twins (N = 3,974 completed the Hoarding Rating Scale-Self Report. Co-occurring Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD were estimated from parental report. Model-fitting analyses divided hoarding symptom scores into additive genetic, shared, and non-shared environmental effects. RESULTS: The prevalence of clinically significant hoarding symptoms was 2% (95% CI 1.6-2.5%, with a significantly higher prevalence in girls than boys. Exclusion of the clutter criterion (as adolescents do not have control over their environment increased the prevalence rate to 3.7% (95% CI 3.1-4.3%. Excessive acquisition was reported by 30-40% among those with clinically significant hoarding symptoms. The prevalence of co-occurring OCD (2.9%, ASD (2.9% and ADHD (10.0% was comparable in hoarding and non-hoarding teenagers. Model-fitting analyses suggested that, in boys, additive genetic (32%; 95% CI 13-44% and non-shared environmental effects accounted for most of the variance. In contrast, among girls, shared and non-shared environmental effects explained most of the variance, while additive genetic factors played a negligible role. CONCLUSIONS: Hoarding symptoms are relatively prevalent in adolescents, particularly in girls, and cause distress and/or impairment. Hoarding was rarely associated with other common neurodevelopmental disorders, supporting its DSM-5 status as an independent diagnosis. The relative importance of genetic and shared environmental factors for hoarding differed

  14. Automated image analysis to quantify the subnuclear organization of transcriptional coregulatory protein complexes in living cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ty C.; Demarco, Ignacio A.; Booker, Cynthia F.; Day, Richard N.

    2004-06-01

    Regulated gene transcription is dependent on the steady-state concentration of DNA-binding and coregulatory proteins assembled in distinct regions of the cell nucleus. For example, several different transcriptional coactivator proteins, such as the Glucocorticoid Receptor Interacting Protein (GRIP), localize to distinct spherical intranuclear bodies that vary from approximately 0.2-1 micron in diameter. We are using multi-spectral wide-field microscopy of cells expressing coregulatory proteins labeled with the fluorescent proteins (FP) to study the mechanisms that control the assembly and distribution of these structures in living cells. However, variability between cells in the population makes an unbiased and consistent approach to this image analysis absolutely critical. To address this challenge, we developed a protocol for rigorous quantification of subnuclear organization in cell populations. Cells transiently co-expressing a green FP (GFP)-GRIP and the monomeric red FP (mRFP) are selected for imaging based only on the signal in the red channel, eliminating bias due to knowledge of coregulator organization. The impartially selected images of the GFP-coregulatory protein are then analyzed using an automated algorithm to objectively identify and measure the intranuclear bodies. By integrating all these features, this combination of unbiased image acquisition and automated analysis facilitates the precise and consistent measurement of thousands of protein bodies from hundreds of individual living cells that represent the population.

  15. Living with the Sins of Their Fathers: An Analysis of Self-Representation of Adolescents Born of War Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erjavec, Karmen; Volcic; Zala

    2010-01-01

    Children born of war rape continue to be a taboo theme in many post-war societies, also in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). This study is based on in-depth interviews with eleven adolescents born of war rape in BH. The main goal is to present how these adolescents represent themselves and their life-situations. On the basis of the research we identify…

  16. Prediction of Areal Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in Children and Adolescents Living With HIV Based on Anthropometric Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de; Krug, Rodrigo de Rosso; Silva, Rosane Carla Rosendo da; Carvalho, Aroldo Prohmann de; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Back, Isabela de Carlos; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2016-10-01

    Children and adolescents living with HIV have low bone mass for age. There are reliable and accurate methods for evaluation of bone mass, however, alternative methods are necessary, especially, for application in limited-resource scenarios. Anthropometry is a noninvasive and low cost method that can predict bone mass in healthy youths. The aim of the study was to develop predictive equations for bone mineral content and bone mineral density in children and adolescents living with HIV based on anthropometric variables. Forty-eight children and adolescents of both sexes (24 females) from 7 to 17 years, living in greater Florianopolis area, Santa Catarina, Brazil, who were under clinical follow-up at "Hospital Infantil Joana de Gusmão", participated in the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate whole-body bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD). Height, body weight, bone diameters, arm circumference, and triceps skinfold were measured and the body mass index and arm muscle area were calculated. Multiple regression models were fitted to predict BMC and aBMD, using backward selection (p ≥ 0.05). Two predictive models with high R(2) values (84%-94%) were developed. Model 1 to estimate aBMD [Y = -0.1450124 + (height × 0.0033807) + (age × 0.0146381) + (body mass index × 0.0158838) + (skin color × 0.0421068)], and model 2 to estimate BMC [Y = 1095.1 + (body weight × 45.66973) + (age × 31.36516) + (arm circumference × -53.27204) + (femoral diameter × -9.594018)].The predictive models using anthropometry provided reliable estimates and can be useful to monitor aBMD and BMC in children and adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus where limited resources are available.

  17. Fifteen non-CODIS autosomal short tandem repeat loci multiplex data from nine population groups living in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Chang, Yih-Yuan; Lee, James Chun-I; Lin, Chun-Yen; Yin, Hsiang-Yi; Tseng, Li-Hui; Su, Yi-Ning; Ko, Tsang-Ming

    2012-07-01

    The analysis of autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci is a powerful tool in forensic genetics. We developed a multiplex system in which 15 non-Combined DNA Index System autosomal STRs (D3S1744, D4S2366, D8S1110, D10S2325, D12S1090, D13S765, D14S608, Penta E, D17S1294, D18S536, D18S1270, D20S470, D21S1437, Penta D, and D22S683) could be amplified in one single polymerase chain reaction. DNA samples from 1,098 unrelated subjects of nine population groups living in Taiwan, including Taiwanese Han, indigenous Taiwanese of Taiwan Island, Tao, mainland Chinese, Filipinos, Thais, Vietnamese, Indonesians, and Caucasians, were collected and analyzed using this system. The distributions of the allelic frequencies and the forensic parameters of each population group were presented. The combined discrimination power and the combined power of exclusion were high in all population groups tested in this study. A multidimensional scaling plot of these nine population groups based on the Reynolds' genetic distances calculated from 15 autosomal STRs was constructed, and the genetic substructure in this area was presented. In conclusion, this 15 autosomal STR multiplex system provides highly informative STR data and appears useful in forensic casework and parentage testing in different populations.

  18. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Xiphinema chambersi Population from Live Oak in Jekyll Island, Georgia, with Comments on Morphometric Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoo, Zafar A; Carta, Lynn K; Skantar, Andrea M; Subbotin, Sergei A; Fraedrich, Stephen W

    2016-03-01

    A population of Xiphinema chambersi from the root zone around live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) trees on Jekyll Island, GA, is described using both morphological and molecular tools and compared with descriptions of type specimens. Initially, because of a few morphological differences, this nematode was thought to represent an undescribed species. However, on further examination, the morphometrics of the nematodes from live oak tend to agree with most of the morphometrics in the original description and redescription of X. chambersi except for few minor differences in V% relative to body length, slightly shorter stylet length, different c value, and the number of caudal pores. We consider these differences to be part of the normal variation within this species and accordingly image this new population of X. chambersi and redescribe the species. The new population is characterized by having females with a body length of 2.1 to 2.5 mm; lip region slightly rounded and set off from head; total stylet length 170 to 193 µm; vulva at 20.4% to 21.8% of body length; a monodelphic, posterior reproductive system; elongate, conoid tail with a blunt terminus and four pairs of caudal pores, of which two pairs are subdorsal and two subventral. Sequence data from the D2-D3 region of the 28S rRNA molecule subjected to GenBank sequence comparison using BLAST showed that the sequence had 96% and 99% similarity with X. chambersi from Alabama and Florida, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships of X. chambersi with other xiphinematids based on analysis of this DNA fragment are presented. This finding represents a new location of X. chambersi in Georgia on live oak for this species.

  19. Mental health problems and resilience in international adoptees: Results from a population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions.

  20. Ambiguity Tolerance: Adolescents' Responses to Uncertainty in Life. Research Report, September 1996-December 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoycheva, Katya

    Adolescents today have to live with incoherence for longer periods than before, and that makes ambiguity tolerance a socially significant personality dimension. Studies of the development of ambiguity tolerance in adolescents are reported. The pilot study, "Adaptation of MAT-50 for Use with Bulgarian Population," involves translation and…

  1. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and smoking and drinking onset among adolescents: the longitudinal cohort TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims We examined within a prospective longitudinal study whether cortisol levels were associated with smoking or drinking behaviours, taking parental substance use into account. Design The influence of parental substance use on cortisol levels of their adolescent offspring at age 10-12 years was exa

  2. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and smoking and drinking onset among adolescents : the longitudinal cohort TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, Anja; Greaves-Lord, K.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims We examined within a prospective longitudinal study whether cortisol levels were associated with smoking or drinking behaviours, taking parental substance use into account. Design The influence of parental substance use on cortisol levels of their adolescent offspring at age 10-12 years was exa

  3. Cadmium exposure pathways in a population living near a battery plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstroem, Lennart [Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, County Council of Kalmar, Oskarshamn (Sweden) and Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden)]. E-mail: lennarth@ltkalmar.se; Persson, Bodil [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden); Brudin, Lars [Department of Clinical Physiology, County Council of Kalmar, Kalmar (Sweden); Grawe, Kierstin Petersson [Toxicology Division, RD Department, National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden); Oborn, Ingrid [Department of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Jaerup, Lars [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to assess the relative impact of different pathways of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure and to evaluate the contribution from locally produced vegetables and root crops to the total dietary intake of Cd. Methods: Cadmium in urine was determined for 492 individuals living near a closed down battery factory in Sweden. For each individual we created an environmental exposure-index based on Cd emissions to ambient air and number of years living at various distances from the plant. This information as well as dietary data were collected via questionnaires. Samples of soil, carrots and/or potatoes were collected from 37 gardens and analysed for Cd concentration. Results: Eating homegrown vegetables/potatoes, environmental Cd-exposure-index, female gender, age above 30 years and smoking more than one pack of cigarettes daily for at least 10 years were found to be significantly associated with increased urine concentrations of Cd (UCd > 1.0 nmol/mmol creatinine). We found a statistically significant relation between Cd in urine and environmental Cd-exposure-index in persons eating homegrown vegetables/potatoes regularly. Cd concentrations in homegrown carrots, potatoes and in garden soil were highest in the area closest to the factory. Daily consumption of potatoes and vegetables cultivated in the vicinity of the closed battery factory was estimated to increase Cd intake by 18-38%. Conclusion: The present study shows that consumption of locally grown vegetables and root crops was an important exposure pathway, in subjects living near a nickel-cadmium battery plant, whereas direct exposure via ambient air was less important.

  4. Vitamin D and parathyroid hormone status in a representative population living in Macau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, L; Mason, R S; Mpofu, E; Dibley, M; Li, Y; Brock, K E

    2015-04-01

    Associations between documented sun-exposure, exercise patterns and fish and supplement intake and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were investigated in a random household survey of Macau residents (aged 18-93). Blood samples (566) taken in summer were analyzed for 25OHD and PTH. In this Chinese population, 55% were deficient (25OHD Body Mass Index (β=0.07) and Ca supplement intake (β=-0.06). In this Macau population less documented sun exposure, fish and Ca supplement intake and exercise were associated with lower 25OHD levels, especially in the younger population, along with the interesting finding that more sitting was associated with both lower 25OHD and high PTH blood levels. In conclusion, unlike findings from Caucasian populations, younger participants were significantly more vitamin D deficient, in particular highly educated single females. This may indicate the desire of young females to be pale and avoid the sun. There are also big differences in lifestyle between the older generation and the younger, in particular with respect to sun exposure and PA. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  5. Predictors of Disordered Eating in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Population-Based, Longitudinal Study of Females and Males in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Dawit Shawel; Torgersen, Leila; Lien, Lars; Hafstad, Gertrud S.; von Soest, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    We investigated longitudinal predictors for disordered eating from early adolescence to young adulthood (12-34 years) across gender and different developmental phases among Norwegian young people. Survey data from a population-based sample were collected at four time points (T) over a 13-year time span. A population-based sample of 5,679 females…

  6. Chronic arthritis in children and adolescents in two Indian health service user populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanotte Diane

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High prevalence rates for rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthopathies, and systemic lupus erythematosus have been described in American Indian and Alaskan Native adults. The impact of these diseases on American Indian children has not been investigated. Methods We used International Classification of Diseases-9 (ICD-9 codes to search two Indian Health Service (IHS patient registration databases over the years 1998–2000, searching for individuals 19 years of age or younger with specific ICD-9-specified diagnoses. Crude estimates for disease prevalence were made based on the number of individuals identified with these diagnoses within the database. Results Rheumatoid arthritis (RA / juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA was the most frequent diagnosis given. The prevalence rate for JRA in the Oklahoma City Area was estimated as 53 per 100,000 individuals at risk, while in the Billings Area, the estimated prevalence was nearly twice that, at 115 per 100,000. These rates are considerably higher than those reported in the most recent European studies. Conclusion Chronic arthritis in childhood represents an important, though unrecognized, chronic health challenge within the American Indian population living in the United States.

  7. Efficacy of live feedback to improve objectively monitored compliance to prescribed, home-based, exercise therapy-dosage in 15 to 19 year old adolescents with patellofemoral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riel, Henrik; Matthews, Mark; Vicenzino, Bill;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain is one of the most frequent knee conditions among adolescents with a prevalence of 7 %. Evidence-based treatment consists of patient education combined with hip and quadriceps strengthening. Recent evidence suggests that a large proportion of adolescents does...... feedback from a sensor (BandCizer™) and an iPad will improve the ability of adolescents with PFP to perform exercises as prescribed. METHODS: This study is a randomized, controlled, participant-blinded, superiority trial with a 2-group parallel design. Forty 15 to 19 year old adolescents...... with patellofemoral pain will be randomized to receive either live visual and auditory feedback on time under tension or no feedback on time under tension during a 6-week intervention period. Adolescents will be instructed to perform three elastic band exercises. Feedback will be provided by BandCizer™ and an i...

  8. Social capital in relation to depression, musculoskeletal pain, and psychosomatic symptoms: a cross-sectional study of a large population-based cohort of Swedish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Starrin Bengt; Åslund Cecilia; Nilsson Kent W

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Social capital has lately received much attention in health research. The present study investigated whether two measures of subjective social capital were related to psychosomatic symptoms, musculoskeletal pain, and depression in a large population of Swedish adolescents. Methods A total of 7757 13-18 year old students anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2008 which included questions on sociodemographic background, neighbourhood social capit...

  9. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  10. Use of Social Networking Sites and Risk of Cyberbullying Victimization: A Population-Level Study of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Hamilton, Hayley A

    2015-12-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) have gained considerable popularity among youth in recent years; however, there is a noticeable paucity of research examining the association between the use of these web-based platforms and cyberbullying victimization at the population level. This study examines the association between the use of SNSs and cyberbullying victimization using a large-scale survey of Canadian middle and high school students. Data on 5,329 students aged 11-20 years were derived from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between the use of SNSs and cyberbullying victimization while adjusting for covariates. Overall, 19 percent of adolescents were cyberbullied in the past 12 months. Adolescents who were female, younger, of lower socioeconomic status, and who used alcohol or tobacco were at greater odds of being cyberbullied. The use of SNSs was associated with an increased risk of cyberbullying victimization in a dose-response manner (p-trend cyberbullied. Results from this study underscore the need for raising awareness and educating adolescents on effective strategies to prevent cyberbullying victimization.

  11. [The adaptive strategy of rodent populations living in conditions of radioactive and chemical environmental pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubashevskiĭ, N M; Starichenko, V I

    2010-01-01

    The comparative analysis of demographic, morphological and physiological processes in mouselike rodents in pollution zones (90Sr + 90Y, 137Cs) on East-Ural radioactive track (EURT) and (Cu + Cd + Pb + Zn + SO2) on a site near copper-smelting factory is carried out. The direct (not mediated) defeat of animals by an irradiation leads to inherited adaptation (density preservation, tolerance increase to pollution, migration decrease and so forth). The mediated defeat of animals at pollution by metals influences animals as a result of degradation of a vegetative cover, reducing a forage reserve, shelters and reproduction places. Population is decreasing, migration is increasing. Hence, population reacts onto direct defeat of animals or on inhabitancy locuses degradation, id est unspecifically, without dependence from the physical and chemical nature of pollution.

  12. Vertical distribution of the free-living amoeba population in soil under desert shrubs in the Negev desert, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Zaragoza, Salvador; Mayzlish, Einav; Steinberger, Yosef

    2005-04-01

    A field study was designed to examine the effect of desert shrubs on the dynamics of free-living amoebae in arid soil. Soil samples from 0- to 50-cm depths were collected at 10-cm intervals in each of the four seasons. The vertical distributions of the four main morphological types of amoebae, grouped according to their mobility, and of small flagellate populations were measured under the canopies of Hammada scoparia and Atriplex halimus, shrubs belonging to the chloride-absorbing xerohalophytes. The result obtained from the field study demonstrated that the total number of protozoa was significantly higher during the wet seasons (winter and spring) than during the dry seasons. The protozoan population was more diverse under the canopy of H. scoparia during the wet seasons, reaching 8,000 individuals per 1 g of dry soil, whereas during the dry seasons, the populations were higher under the canopy of A. halimus, with a mean of 250 individuals. The protozoan population in the deeper layers (40 to 50 cm) was found to be as active as that in the upper layers, demonstrating that, in the desert, soil columns below 20 cm are fertile and worth studying. The type 1 amoebae (e.g., Acanthamoeba and Filamoeba spp.) were the most abundant throughout the study period, and their numbers were significantly higher than those of the other amoeba types.

  13. [Live longer and better? Estimates of healthy life expectancy in the Brazilian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Gonzaga, Marcos Roberto

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzed differences in healthy life expectancy in the elderly based on three health dimensions in Brazil from 1998 to 2008: disability-free life expectancy, healthy life expectancy based on self-rated health, and chronic disease-free life expectancy. The Sullivan method was used, combining life tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and interval estimates of the prevalence of functional disability, self-rated health, and chronic diseases according to the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD, 1998 and 2008). Besides the increase in life expectancy, the study showed significant and similar increases in disability-free life expectancy and healthy life expectancy based on self-rated health at almost all ages. Women had higher life expectancies than men, but expected to live longer with poor health, regardless of the indicator used to measure health. Although the studies measured health differently (making comparisons difficult), women showed a consistent disadvantage in healthy life expectancy.

  14. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav; Shukurov, Nosir; Steinberger, Yosef

    2008-03-01

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices.

  15. Hypodontia: prevalence and pattern amongst the living Druze population - a Near Eastern genetic isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsoleihat, Firas; Khraisat, Ameen

    2014-06-01

    The Druze population is a small-sized Near Eastern genetic isolate with high rates of consanguineous marriages. The present study aimed at investigating prevalence, pattern and distribution of hypodontia in the permanent dentition, excluding wisdom teeth, amongst this population. Panoramic radiographs, dental casts, and anamnestic records of 85 un-admixed Druze schoolchildren (45 males, 40 females; age range=14-18 years, mean age=16 years, SD=0.5 years) were examined for evidence of hypodontia. Those with any type of facial clefts or craniofacial syndromes were excluded. Hypodontia prevalence was 11.8% (11.1% for males, 12.5% for females) with no statistically significant difference between sexes. The average number of missing teeth per child was 1.4 (1.2 for males, 1.6 for females). The majority (90%) of affected individuals exhibited minor hypodontia (one or two teeth missing). The most commonly missing teeth were upper lateral incisors and canines, followed by lower and upper second premolars. Asymmetrical hypodontia was more prevalent. Maxillary, left side, and anterior segment predominance were observed. The distinct features of hypodontia among the Druze population are the relatively high prevalence of minor hypodontia, and the upper lateral incisors and canines being the most commonly missing teeth.

  16. Diversity in the standard of living among populations in European post-comunist countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the general situation of populations of European post-communist countries 25 years after the collapse of communism in Europe. The study consists of two parts. The first one briefly discusses the processes that led to a significant diversification in the social, economic and political situations of the populations of the studied countries. In the second part the diversity of this situation is shown (using: the Legatum Prosperity Index, the Social Progress Index, and the Human Development Index. It was found that the best situations exist in the countries which quickly and effectively implemented reforms, and whether they were independent states, or parts of larger states, under communism is of secondary importance. It is symptomatic that these are countries situated in the north-western part of the area under consideration, which corresponds to the current situation in the EU-15, where the countries located in the south (the so-called PIGS have poor economic and partly social situations than those in the north. Furthermore, it was found that the situation with the population of Russia is worse than in many countries which were previously under the occupation of the USSR or were dependent on the authorities in Moscow.

  17. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  18. Beyond birth-weight: early growth and adolescent blood pressure in a Peruvian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie Sterling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Longitudinal investigations into the origins of adult essential hypertension have found elevated blood pressure in children to accurately track into adulthood, however the direct causes of essential hypertension in adolescence and adulthood remains unclear.Methods. We revisited 152 Peruvian adolescents from a birth cohort tracked from 0 to 30 months of age, and evaluated growth via monthly anthropometric measurements between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and blood pressure measurements 11–14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of infantile and childhood growth trends on blood pressure and central obesity in early adolescence.Results. In regression models adjusted for interim changes in weight and height, each 0.1 SD increase in weight for length from 0 to 5 months of age, and 1 SD increase from 6 to 30 months of age, was associated with decreased adolescent systolic blood pressure by 1.3 mm Hg (95% CI −2.4 to −0.1 and 2.5 mm Hg (95% CI −4.9 to 0.0, and decreased waist circumference by 0.6 (95% CI −1.1 to 0.0 and 1.2 cm (95% CI −2.3 to −0.1, respectively. Growth in infancy and early childhood was not significantly associated with adolescent waist-to-hip ratio.Conclusions. Rapid compensatory growth in early life has been posited to increase the risk of long-term cardiovascular morbidities such that nutritional interventions may do more harm than good. However, we found increased weight growth during infancy and early childhood to be associated with decreased systolic blood pressure and central adiposity in adolescence.

  19. Association between common variants near LBX1 and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis replicated in the Chinese Han population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is one of the most common spinal deformities found in adolescent populations. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS in a Japanese population indicated that three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs11190870, rs625039 and rs11598564, all located near the LBX1 gene, may be associated with AIS susceptibility [1]. This study suggests a novel AIS predisposition candidate gene and supports the hypothesis that somatosensory functional disorders could contribute to the pathogenesis of AIS. These findings warrant replication in other populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, we conducted a case-control study consisting of 953 Chinese Han individuals from southern China (513 patients and 440 healthy controls, and the three SNPs were all found to be associated with AIS predisposition. The ORs were observed as 1.49 (95% CI 1.23-1.80, P = 5.09E-5, 1.70 (95% CI 1.42-2.04, P = 1.17E-8 and 1.52 (95% CI 1.27-1.83, P = 5.54E-6 for rs625039, rs11190870 and rs11598564, respectively. Second, a case-only study including a subgroup of AIS patients (N = 234 was performed to determine the effects of these variants on the severity of the condition. However, we did not find any association between these variants and the severity of curvature. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the genetic variants near the LBX1 gene are associated with AIS susceptibility in Chinese Han population. It successfully replicates the results of the GWAS, which was performed in a Japanese population.

  20. Radiation risk and cancer mortality in exposed populations living near the Techa River in Southern Urals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Degteva, M.O.

    1992-06-01

    The appropriateness of applying risk coefficients calculated from short-term exposures at high doses for the assessment of radiation effects at low doses is currently much debated. The problem can be resolved on the basis of the data obtained from a long-term follow-up of the population exposed in the early 1950s when discharges of radioactive wastes from a radiochemical plant into the Techa River (southern Urals) occurred. This paper discusses the results of an analysis of cancer mortality during the period 1950-82. 10 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Mercury risk assessment combining internal and external exposure methods for a population living near a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chunyan; Xie, Han; Ye, Xuejie; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Maodian; Tong, Yindong; Ou, Langbo; Yuan, Wen; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2016-12-01

    Risk assessments for human health have been conducted for municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in many western countries, whereas only a few risk assessments have been performed for MSWIs in developing countries such as China where the use of waste incineration is increasing rapidly. To assess the mercury exposure risks of a population living near the largest MSWI in South China, we combined internal exposure and external exposure assessment with an individual-specific questionnaire. The mercury concentrations in air, soil, and locally collected food around the MSWI were assessed. The total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) of 447 blood samples from a control group, residential exposure group, and MSWI workers were measured. The internal and external exposures of the subject population were analyzed. Significant difference in MeHg concentrations was observed between the control group and the exposed group, between the control group and the MSWI workers, and between the exposed group and the MSWI workers (median levels: 0.70 μg/L, 0.81 μg/L, and 1.02 μg/L for the control group, exposed group, and MSWI workers, respectively). The MeHg/T-Hg ratio was 0.51 ± 0.19, 0.59 ± 0.17 and 0.58 ± 0.25, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that MeHg concentrations were positively correlated with the gaseous mercury in the air. Combining internal and external exposure assessment showed that the direct contribution of MSWI emissions was minor compared with the dietary contribution. The external and internal exposures were well matched with each other. This study also suggested that an integrated method combining internal and external exposure assessment with an individual-specific questionnaire is feasible to assess the risks for a population living near a MSWI.

  2. Extending physical chemistry to populations of living organisms. First step: measuring coupling strength

    CERN Document Server

    Di, Zengru

    2013-01-01

    For any system, whether physical or non-physical, knowledge of the form and strength of inter-individual interactions is a key-information. In an approach based on statistical physics one needs to know the interaction Hamiltonian. For non-physical systems, based on qualitative arguments similar to those used in physical chemistry, interaction strength gives useful clues about the macroscopic properties of the system. Even though our ultimate objective is the understanding of social phenomena, we found that systems composed of insects (or other living organisms) are of great convenience for investigating group effects. In this paper we show how to design experiments that enable us to estimate the strength of interaction in groups of insects. By repeating the same experiments with increasing numbers of insects, ranging from less than 10 to several hundreds, one is able to explore key-properties of the interaction. The data turn out to be consistent with a global correlation that is independent of distance (at l...

  3. Diversity and Dynamics of Soil Free-Living Nematode Populations in a Mediterranean Agroecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Wen-Ju; I.LAVIAN; S.PEN-MOURATOV; Y.STEINBERGER

    2005-01-01

    To determine the effect of agricultural management on the dynamics and functional diversity of soil nematode communities in a carrot field at Kibbutz Ramat Hakovesh, Israel, soil samples from 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depths were collected during the growing season of carrot. Indices were used to compare and assess the response of soil free-living nematode communities to agricultural management. Eighteen nematode families and 20 genera were observed during the growing period, with Cephalobus, Rhabditidae, Aphelenchus, Tylenchus, and Dorylaimus being the dominant genera/families.During the planting, mid-season and post-harvest periods the total number of nematodes at both depths was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the carrot treatment than in the control plots, while during the harvest period at both depths total nematodes and bacterivores were significantly higher in the treatment plots (P < 0.01). The values of the maturity index (MI) at both depths were found to be significantly lower in the treatment plots than in the control plots during the pre-planting period (P < 0.05). Overall, WI, MI and PPI were found to be more sensitive indicators than other ecological indices for assessing the response of nematode communities to agricultural management in a Mediterranean agroecosystem.

  4. Sexual and reproductive knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in a school going population of Sri Lankan adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksa-Hewageegana, Neelamani; Piercy, Hilary; Salway, Sarah; Samarage, Sarath

    2015-03-01

    The reproductive and sexual health of adolescents is an important health concern and a focus of global attention. In Sri Lanka, a lack of understanding about adolescent reproductive and sexual health needs is a matter of national concern. A survey was undertaken to examine the sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of school going adolescents in Sri Lanka. A random sample of schools was selected from one district. Data were collected by a self-completion questionnaire and analysed using SPSS. Response rate was 90%. 2020 pupils (26% boys, 74% girls) aged 16-19 years (mean=16.9) participated, the majority Sinhalese (97%). Most reported a good parent-child relationship (88%). A minority (34%) discussed sexual issues with parents. Health professionals were the preferred source of sexual information (32%) rather than parents (12.5%) or friends (5.6%). Less than 1% demonstrated satisfactory sexual and reproductive knowledge levels. 1.7% were sexually active (30 boys vs 5 girls), the majority with same age partners. 57% used contraception at first intercourse. There is an imperative to address the lack of sexual and reproductive knowledge. A minority of school going adolescents become sexually active. These individuals are potentially vulnerable and services need to be developed to meet their needs.

  5. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in a population-based sample of Norwegian children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kolle, Elin; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The objective of the study was to describe the distribution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and to evaluate the extent of clustering of CVD risk factors in Norwegian children and adolescents. Material and methods. A randomly selected cohort of 9-year-olds and 15-year...

  6. Clustering of health-compromising behavior and delinquency in adolescents and adults in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijzen, M. van; Junger, M.; Velderman, M.K.; Wiefferink, K.H.; Paulussen, T.W.G.M.; Hox, J.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the clustering of a broad range of health-compromising and delinquent behaviors. We examine whether these behaviors belong to a single but broad cluster, 'risk-taking behavior', and whether the nature and degree of clustering in adolescents differs from that in adu

  7. Clustering of health-compromising behavior and delinquency in adolescents and adults in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Junger, Marianne; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Wiefferink, Karin H.; Paulussen, Theo W. G. M.; Hox, Joop; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. This study investigates the clustering of a broad range of health-compromising and delinquent behaviors. We examine whether these behaviors belong to a single but broad cluster. 'risk-taking behavior', and whether the nature and degree of clustering in adolescents differs from that in adu

  8. Clustering of health-compromising behavior and delinquency in adolescents and adults in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijzen, van Maroesjka; Junger, Marianne; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Wiefferink, Karin H.; Paulussen, Theo W.G.M.; Hox, Joop; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the clustering of a broad range of health-compromising and delinquent behaviors. We examine whether these behaviors belong to a single but broad cluster, ‘risk-taking behavior’, and whether the nature and degree of clustering in adolescents differs from that in adu

  9. Young Adult Literature and Adolescent Identity across Cultures and Classrooms: Contexts for the Literary Lives of Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsup, Janet, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Taking a critical, research-oriented perspective, this exploration of the theoretical, empirical, and pedagogical connections between the reading and teaching of young adult literature and adolescent identity development centers around three key questions: (1) Who are the teens reading young adult literature?; (2) Why should teachers teach young…

  10. Living situation affects adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adolescents in Rwanda: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutwa, P.R.; Ilo van Nuil, J.; Asiimwe-Kateera, B.; Kestelyn, E.; Vyankandondera, J.; Pool, R.; Ruhirimbura, J.; Kanakuze, C.; Reiss, P.; Geleen, S.; van de Wijgert, J.; Boer, K.R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is vital for HIV-infected adolescents for survival and quality of life. However, this age group faces many challenges to remain adherent. We used multiple data sources (role-play, focus group discussions (FGD), and in-depth intervie

  11. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Maternal Depression and Problem Behaviors: A Prospective, Population-Based Study Using Risk-Set Propensity Scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison E Hipwell

    Full Text Available Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS. Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12-19 was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294 on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1. Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2; data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF LIVING CONDITIONS OF THE UKRAINIAN WORKING-AGE POPULATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazhak, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    -political instability in the country, corruption, and personal financial status. Half of the respondents considered their family’s financial status to be unsatisfactory whilst only 15% deemed that they had satisfactory finances for life, and one-third declared themselves to be at poverty level. The highest number...... support from other people and 9% - had the opposite opinion. 77% declared that could get physical support and 13% - could not. 69% of the respondents were optimistic with respect to financial support whereas 20% considered that they could not get financial support. Few of the respondents mentioned...... as many women performing the majority of the duties as men. About one-third of the respondents considered their profession to be prestigious, about half - average, a quarter – low prestige. Respondents: the working-age population of Ukraine – males aged 18-65, females aged 18-60. The sample is split up...

  13. Obesity and Malnutrition: Impact of Habitat and Living Conditions in Adult Urban Population in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Temporelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: malnutrition refers to imbalances (either deficit or excess in energy intake, protein and / or nutrients including underweight and obesity. The aim of this work is identify the contribution of individual factors, habits and life conditions in nutritional status. Material and methods: estimates of relative risk ratios are obtained from a multinomial logistic model using microdata from the National Survey of Risk Factors conducted in 2005 and 2009 in Argentinean‘ cities among adult population. Results: malnutrition is associated with constitutive and socioeconomic variables, while habits are also important in the obesity case. Discussion: both types of problems coexist in Argentine due to high heterogeneity in life styles, turning difficult the design of public interventions aimed to solve them. This complexity highlights the importance of a careful and specific multidimensional approach (medical, social, economical.

  14. Associations of Proatrial Natriuretic Peptide with Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents and Young Adults from the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goharian, Tina S; Goetze, Jens P; Faber, Jens

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In middle-aged and elderly populations, circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations are negatively associated with several components of the metabolic syndrome. Whether these negative associations are also present in healthy adolescents and young adults from the general population....... RESULTS: Among the young adults, MR-proANP was negatively associated with body mass index (BMI) (β = -0.10, P = 0.02), waist circumference (WC) (β = -0.14, P ... with triglycerides (β = -0.13, P = 0.01), diastolic BP (β = -0.12, P = 0.01) and systolic BP (β = -0.10, P = 0.10), although the latter association was of borderline significance. CONCLUSIONS: The young adults displayed significant negative associations between MR-proANP and several components of the metabolic...

  15. Identification and Characterization of Prodromal Risk Syndromes in Young Adolescents in the Community: A Population-Based Clinical Interview Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    While a great deal of research has been conducted on prodromal risk syndromes in relation to help-seeking individuals who present to the clinic, there is a lack of research on prodromal risk syndromes in the general population. The current study aimed first to establish whether prodromal risk syndromes could be detected in non-help-seeking community-based adolescents and secondly to characterize this group in terms of Axis-1 psychopathology and general functioning. We conducted in-depth clinical interviews with a population sample of 212 school-going adolescents in order to assess for prodromal risk syndromes, Axis-1 psychopathology, and global (social\\/occupational) functioning. Between 0.9% and 8% of the community sample met criteria for a risk syndrome, depending on varying disability criteria. The risk syndrome group had a higher prevalence of co-occurring nonpsychotic Axis-1 psychiatric disorders (OR = 4.77, 95% CI = 1.81-12.52; P < .01) and poorer global functioning (F = 24.5, df = 1, P < .0001) compared with controls. Individuals in the community who fulfill criteria for prodromal risk syndromes demonstrate strong similarities with clinically presenting risk syndrome patients not just in terms of psychotic symptom criteria but also in terms of co-occurring psychopathology and global functioning.

  16. Contrasting effects of grazing and hay cutting on the spatial and genetic population structure of Veratrum album, an unpalatable, long-lived, clonal plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, D.; Steinger, T.

    2002-01-01

    1 Vegetation change induced by large herbivores is driven by the effects of grazers on populations of individual plant species. Short-term experimental or demographic studies may be insufficient when investigating the population responses of long-lived clonal plant species. 2 We therefore examined t

  17. Temperament and character in the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS: comparison to the general population, and genetic structure analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS is an on-going, large population-based longitudinal twin study. We aimed (1 to investigate the reliability of two different versions (125-items and 238-items of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI used in the CATSS and the validity of extracting the short version from the long version, (2 to compare these personality dimensions between twins and adolescents from the general population, and (3 to investigate the genetic structure of Cloninger's model. METHOD: Reliability and correlation analyses were conducted for both TCI versions, 2,714 CATSS-twins were compared to 631 adolescents from the general population, and the genetic structure was investigated through univariate genetic analyses, using a model-fitting approach with structural equation-modeling techniques based on same-sex twin pairs from the CATSS (423 monozygotic and 408 dizygotic pairs. RESULTS: The TCI scores from the short and long versions showed comparable reliability coefficients and were strongly correlated. Twins scored about half a standard deviation higher in the character scales. Three of the four temperament dimensions (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Persistence had strong genetic and non-shared environmental effects, while Reward Dependence and the three character dimensions had moderate genetic effects, and both shared and non-shared environmental effects. CONCLUSIONS: Twins showed higher scores in character dimensions compared to adolescents from the general population. At least among adolescents there is a shared environmental influence for all of the character dimensions, but only for one of the temperament dimensions (i.e., Reward Dependence. This specific finding regarding the existence of shared environmental factors behind the character dimensions in adolescence, together with earlier findings showing a small shared environmental effects on character among young adults and no

  18. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Madhav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m of that observed in the core populations (15 m. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82 than in the peripheral (Nb = 48 populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short

  19. Biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in child populations living near contaminated sites in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ramírez, R; Pérez-Vázquez, F J; Rodríguez-Aguilar, M; Medellín-Garibay, S E; Van Brussel, E; Cubillas-Tejeda, A C; Carrizales-Yáñez, L; Díaz-Barriga, F

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a POP biomonitoring programme for children in high-risk areas. We evaluated 247 serum samples from children between the ages of 6 and 12years old from two zones in Mexico: (1) indigenous zones, which included Cuatlamayan (CUA), Tocoy (TOC), and Santa Maria Picula (SAM); and (2) industrial zones, which included Tercera Chica (TC), Industrial San Luis (IND) and Rincon de San Jose (SJR); Mundo Nuevo (MN); and Alpuyeca (ALP). Our results showed that α-endosulfan was similar to CUA, TOC, SAM, TC and MN (178.6-306.9ng/g lipid). β-Endosulfan levels were higher in ALP (901.5ng/g lipid), followed by CUA (139.9ng/g lipid) and TOC, SAM, TC and MN, which had similar levels (55.4-64.5ng/g lipid). For endosulfan sulfate, the ALP community had the highest concentration levels (1096.4ng/g lipid), whereas CUA and TOC (212.3 and 289ng/g lipid, respectively) had concentrations similar to those found in SAM and TC (99.5 and 119.1ng/g lipid, respectively). DDE levels were found in malaria-endemic areas of SAM, CUA and TOC (1782.2, 1358.3 and 57.0ng/g lipid), followed by MN (35.1ng/g lipid). HCB concentration levels were found to be higher in MN and SJR (691.8 and 575.4ng/g lipid, respectively), followed by CUA and TC (363.9 and 269.1ng/g lipid, respectively), with levels similar to those found in TOC and SAM (191.8 and 181.9ng/g lipid, respectively). Finally, PCB 101 concentration levels were found to be the highest in ALP (1032.7ng/g lipid), followed by similar levels of SJR and IND (567.5 and 327.3ng/g lipid, respectively) and TC and MN, with 109.1 and 144.5ng/g lipid, respectively. The evidence provided by this exploratory study indicates that the evaluation of the health risks posed to children living in contaminated areas is a high priority health issue.

  20. High prevalence of daily and multi-site pain -- a cross-sectional population-based study among 3000 Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Roos, Ewa M.; Olesen, Jens Lykkegaard

    2013-01-01

    Daily pain and multi-site pain are both associated with reduction in work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adults. However, no population-based studies have yet investigated the prevalence of daily and multi-site pain among adolescents and how these are associated with res......Daily pain and multi-site pain are both associated with reduction in work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adults. However, no population-based studies have yet investigated the prevalence of daily and multi-site pain among adolescents and how these are associated...

  1. Live cell imaging of SOS and prophage dynamics in isogenic bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Stefan; Pfeifer, Eugen; Krämer, Christina; Sachs, Christian Carsten; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Nöh, Katharina; Frunzke, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Almost all bacterial genomes contain DNA of viral origin, including functional prophages or degenerated phage elements. A frequent but often unnoted phenomenon is the spontaneous induction of prophage elements (SPI) even in the absence of an external stimulus. In this study, we have analyzed SPI of the large, degenerated prophage CGP3 (187 kbp), which is integrated into the genome of the Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of fluorescent reporter strains grown in microfluidic chips revealed the sporadic induction of the SOS response as a prominent trigger of CGP3 SPI but also displayed a considerable fraction (∼30%) of RecA-independent SPI. Whereas approx. 20% of SOS-induced cells recovered from this stress and resumed growth, the spontaneous induction of CGP3 always led to a stop of growth and likely cell death. A carbon source starvation experiment clearly emphasized that SPI only occurs in actively proliferating cells, whereas sporadic SOS induction was still observed in resting cells. These data highlight the impact of sporadic DNA damage on the activity of prophage elements and provide a time-resolved, quantitative description of SPI as general phenomenon of bacterial populations.

  2. The Health Profile of Populations Living in Contaminated Sites: Sentieri Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Pirastu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available SENTIERI project (Epidemiological Study of Residents in Italian Contaminated Sites studied mortality in the sites of national interest for environmental remediation (National Priority Contaminated Sites—NPCSs. SENTIERI described mortality of residents in NPCSSs, and it specifically focused on causes of death for which environmental exposure is suspected or ascertained to play an etiologic role. The epidemiological evidence of the causal association was classified a priori into one of these three categories: Sufficient (S, Limited (L, and Inadequate (I. Mortality in the period 1995−2002 was studied for 63 single or grouped causes at the municipal level by computing: crude rate, standardized rate, standardized mortality ratios (SMR, and SMR adjusted for an ad hoc deprivation index. Regional populations were used as references for SMR calculations and 90% CI accompanied SMR values. The deprivation index was constructed using 2001 national census variables for the following socioeconomic domains: education, unemployment, dwelling ownership, and overcrowding. SENTIERI results will allow the priorities setting in remediation intervention so as to prevent adverse health effects from environmental exposure. This paper’s objective is to present the rationale, methods, advantages, and limitations underlying SENTIERI project and to describe data and resources required to apply a similar approach in other countries.

  3. Analysis of dentition of a living wild population of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) from Beza Mahafaly, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauther, M L; Cuozzo, F P; Sussman, R W

    2001-03-01

    Detailed descriptions of the dentition of many strepsirhine primate taxa are rare, despite their importance in understanding primate evolutionary biology. While several researchers have provided detailed morphological descriptions of ring-tailed lemur dentition (e.g., Schwartz and Tattersall [1985] Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Anthropol. Pap. 60:1-100; Tattersall and Schwartz [1991] Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Anthropol. Pap. 69:2-18), there are few studies (e.g., Eaglen [1986] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 71:185-201) that present quantitative data on the dentition of this species. Furthermore, prior analyses were based on museum specimens from various populations and locations. We present here quantitative and morphological data on the dentition of a population of wild Lemur catta from Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar. Measurements were made on dental casts (n = 39) taken from living members of this L. catta population. Our analysis indicates that no significant (P > 0.05) sexual dimorphism exists for the 30 dental measurements collected. These data support the generalizations (e.g., Plavcan and van Schaik [1994] Evol. Anthropol. 2:208-214; Kappeler [1996] J. Evol. Biol. 9:43-65) that little sexual dimorphism in dentition exists among Malagasy strepsirhines. In addition, the overall patterns of metric variation in this sample compare favorably with patterns seen among other primates, e.g., premolar measurements varying more than molars (e.g., Gingerich [1974] J. Paleontol. 48:895-903). However, there is a degree of intraspecific morphological variation indicated, with one of the morphological traits discussed in other studies as being species-specific for L. catta (absence of P(4) metaconids) observed to vary between specimens. Because the patterns of variation seen in this sample are from a known breeding population, the data presented here provide an important reference for interpreting and understanding the fossil record.

  4. Monitoring metals in the population living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: concentrations in autopsy tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocio, Ana; Nadal, Martí; Garcia, Francisco; Domingo, Jose L

    2005-07-01

    This study is a part of a monitoring program for the determination of metals in various human tissues of the population living in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Constantí (Tarragona County, Spain). Concentrations of arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl), and vanadium (V) were determined in brain, bone, kidney, liver, and lung autopsy samples collected in 2003 from 22 individuals who had been living for at least 10 yr in the area under evaluation. Results were compared with the metal levels obtained in a baseline study, which was performed during the construction of the HWI (1996--1998). In the present survey, As, Be, Tl, and V levels were not detected in any of the analyzed tissues, while Cr concentrations were very close to the limit of detection. The highest levels of Cd and Hg were found in kidney (17.46 microg/g and 0.23 microg/g, respectively), those of Mn in liver (1.07 microg/g), and those of Ni, Pb, and Sn in bone (1.16 microg/g, 2.11 microg/g, and 0.34 microg/g, respectively). In comparison to the results of the baseline study, a general reduction of most metal concentrations was observed in the current survey.

  5. Breastfeeding practices in relation to country of origin among women living in Denmark: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busck-Rasmussen, Marianne; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe breastfeeding practices and to compare the risk of suboptimal breastfeeding of women living in Denmark according to country of origin, and further to examine how socio-economic position and duration of stay in the country affected this risk. Information on breastfeeding of 42,420 infants born 2002-2009 and living in eighteen selected Danish municipalities was collected from the Danish Health Visitor's Child Health Database. The data was linked with data on maternal socio-demographic information from Danish population-covering registries. Suboptimal breastfeeding was defined as country of origin, and taking maternal age and parity, and a variety of parental socio-economic measures into account. Suboptimal breastfeeding was more frequent among non-Western migrant women than among women of Danish origin. Women who were descendants of Turkish and Pakistani immigrants had a higher risk of suboptimal breastfeeding as compared to the group of women who had migrated from the same countries, suggesting that acculturation did not favor breastfeeding. For all but the group of women who had migrated from Pakistan, adjustment for socio-demographic indicators (age, parity, education, attachment to labour market, and income) eliminated the increased risk of suboptimal breastfeeding. There was no evidence for differences in the breastfeeding support provided at hospital level according to migrant status. Suboptimal breastfeeding was more frequent among women who were non-Nordic migrants and descendants of migrants than among women with Danish origin.

  6. Adverse Neonatal Outcomes Among Women Living With HIV: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Erin M; Ng, Ryan; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Raboud, Janet; Brophy, Jason; Masinde, Khatundi-Irene; Tharao, Wangari E; Yudin, Mark H; Loutfy, Mona R; Glazier, Richard H; Antoniou, Tony

    2015-04-01

    Contexte : Peu d’études en population générale ont décrit le risque d’issues néonatales indésirables chez les femmes vivant avec le VIH au Canada. Par conséquent, nous avons comparé les risques d’accouchement préterme (APT), de faible poids de naissance (FPN) et d’hypotrophie fœtale (HF) chez des Ontariennes de 18-49 ans vivant ou non avec le VIH. Méthodes : Nous avons mené une étude en population générale au moyen de données administratives sur la santé en Ontario. Des équations d’estimation généralisées comptant une fonction Logit ont été utilisées pour en venir à des rapports de cotes corrigés (RCc) et à des intervalles de confiance à 95 % en ce qui concerne l’association entre l’infection au VIH et des issues néonatales indésirables. Résultats : Entre 2002–2003 et 2010–2011, 1 113 874 naissances vivantes issues de grossesses monofœtales étaient disponibles aux fins de l’analyse, 615 (0,06 %) desquelles mettaient en jeu des femmes vivant avec le VIH. La proportion de naissances issues de grossesses monofœtales qui présentaient une HF (14,6 % vs 10,3 %; P VIH que chez les femmes n’étant pas infectées par ce dernier. À la suite d’une correction multivariée, les risques d’APT (RCc, 1,76; IC à 95 %, 1,38 - 2,24), d’HF (RCc, 1,43; IC à 95 %, 1,12 - 1,81) et de FPN (RCc, 1,90; IC à 95 %, 1,47 - 2,45) étaient plus élevés chez les femmes vivant avec le VIH que chez les femmes n’étant pas infectées par ce dernier. Conclusion : Les femmes vivant avec le VIH sont exposées à des risques d’issues néonatales indésirables plus élevés que les femmes séronégatives pour le VIH. La tenue d’autres recherches s’avère requise pour que l’on puisse élaborer des interventions préconceptionnelles et prénatales qui pourraient atténuer le fardeau supplémentaire que doivent assumer les femmes vivant avec le VIH en matière de piètres issues de grossesse.

  7. Consumption patterns of sweet drinks in a population of Australian children and adolescents (2003-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B. W.; Nichols, M.; Allender, S.

    2012-01-01

    : Data on 1,604 children and adolescents (4-18 years) from the comparison groups of two quasi-experimental intervention studies from Victoria, Australia were analysed. Sweet drink consumption (soft drink and fruit juice/cordial) was assessed as one day's intake and typical intake over the last week...... and almost a third consumed more than 750 ml per day. More children and adolescents consumed fruit juice/cordial (69%) than soft drink (33%) (p fruit juice/cordial: 500 ml and soft drink: 375 ml). Secular changes in sweet drink consumption were observed......, although a high proportion of this sample consumed sweet drinks, especially fruit juice/cordial at both time points....

  8. Agreement between parents and adolescents on dental fluorosis: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Eneide Leitão de; Teixeira, Ana Karine Macedo; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Paiva, Saul Martins; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and compared the reports from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with those of their parents regarding the perceptions and concerns arising from this disease. The study was conducted in the cities of Viçosa and Sobral and the District of Rafael Arruda (Sobral), Ceará. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011, with 891 students examined and 780 parents or guardians interviewed. Dental fluorosis was measured using the Dean's Index, and the Child's and Parent's Questionnaire about Teeth Appearance was used to assess the reports from parents and adolescents. A chi-squared test for trends was used to compare the opinions of parents and adolescents about fluorosis, and the agreement was measured using the weighted kappa. For the dichotomous variables, we used the unweighted kappa coefficient. The prevalence of fluorosis was 29.7%, but in the District of Rafael Arruda, evidence of very mild and mild fluorosis was found in 32.5% of the subjects, and moderate and severe fluorosis was found in 28.7%. There was poor agreement between the data reported by the adolescents and their parents or guardians regarding areas of concern and their perceived satisfaction with the appearance and color of their teeth. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was high in one of the communities studied, but the clinical diagnosis of this condition should not necessarily equate with concern and dissatisfaction with aesthetic appearances among teenagers and their parents.

  9. Agreement between parents and adolescents on dental fluorosis: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eneide Leitão de Almeida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and compared the reports from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with those of their parents regarding the perceptions and concerns arising from this disease. The study was conducted in the cities of Viçosa and Sobral and the District of Rafael Arruda (Sobral, Ceará. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011, with 891 students examined and 780 parents or guardians interviewed. Dental fluorosis was measured using the Dean's Index, and the Child's and Parent's Questionnaire about Teeth Appearance was used to assess the reports from parents and adolescents. A chi-squared test for trends was used to compare the opinions of parents and adolescents about fluorosis, and the agreement was measured using the weighted kappa. For the dichotomous variables, we used the unweighted kappa coefficient. The prevalence of fluorosis was 29.7%, but in the District of Rafael Arruda, evidence of very mild and mild fluorosis was found in 32.5% of the subjects, and moderate and severe fluorosis was found in 28.7%. There was poor agreement between the data reported by the adolescents and their parents or guardians regarding areas of concern and their perceived satisfaction with the appearance and color of their teeth. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was high in one of the communities studied, but the clinical diagnosis of this condition should not necessarily equate with concern and dissatisfaction with aesthetic appearances among teenagers and their parents.

  10. Lifestyle, Overweight and Obesity in a Population of Adolescents From Havana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Macías-Matos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The high prevalence of overweight and obesity is a health problem in Cuba, and there is a lack of information on adolescents. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between excessive weight and adiposity with physical activity, hours of television (TV, and eating habits in adolescents.Material and methods: A total of 604 adolescents (12 years from Havana were studied. The variables analysed included, body mass index, body composition, history of obesity in infancy, physical activity, hours watching television, eating habits and dietary preferences. A descriptive and correlation analysis was performed. In the logistic regression analysis, excess weight and adiposity were used as dependent variables.Results: Excess body weight was more common in boys. There was high prevalence of excess adiposity, 49.8% in girls and 37.8% in boys. The boys (61.7% were more active than the girls (33.6%. Just under half (46.7% of the boys, and 55.9% of the girls spent more than 2 hours/day watching television, which increased to more than 75% for both sexes on Saturdays and Sunday. Making less than 5-6 meals/day doubled the risk of being overweight. Body overweight in infancy was also a risk factor. Not having breakfast increased the risk of adiposity by almost double.Conclusions: Excess weight, and particularly excess adiposity, may be considered a health problem in the adolescents studied. A very high consumption of sugar, an excessive time watching TV, and insufficient physical activity was observed.

  11. Living with Malignant Wound in Cancer Patients and Adolescents with Non- Cancer Diagnosis: a Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Mansourzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Malignant wound causes a devastating physical and psychological condition in cancer patients. This study presents a review which can provide better insights into the life of cancer patients living with malignant wound. The aim of this meta-synthesis was to analyze and synthesize findings from qualitative studies of the lived experiences of patients with malignant wound. Materials and Methods This meta-synthesis followed the Sandelowski and Barroso’s guideline and was designed to synthesize findings from previous qualitative studies. Variety of biomedical archives were searched, including PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane library, and ProQuest and Persian data bases such as Magiran, SID, Iran.doc, IranMedex, and  recently published articles and books on the lived experience of persons living with malignant wound were reviewed. In this article, the literature searches covering from January,1, 1990 to march,15, 2016 resulted in eight relevant studies which fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the review. Results Findings from all these studies were categorized into three main themes: "distortion of lived body", "symptomatic suffering", and "compatible living with wound". Our findings showed that the meanings of patients’ experiences living with malignant wound are important for the construction of multidisciplinary palliative care in these individuals. Conclusion: Gaining insights from analysis of qualitative studies is integral issue for developing new palliative care services for patients with malignant wound.

  12. Type D personality is a risk factor for psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescents: a cross-sectional study of a large population-based cohort of Swedish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Condén Emelie; Leppert Jerzy; Ekselius Lisa; Åslund Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Type D personality, or the “distressed personality”, is a psychosocial factor associated with negative health outcomes, although its impact in younger populations is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Type D personality and the associations between Type D personality and psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescences. Methods A population-based, self-reported cross-sectional study conducted in Västmanland, Sweden wit...

  13. Routine clinical measures of adiposity as predictors of visceral fat in adolescence: a population-based magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Goodwin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Visceral fat (VF increases cardiometabolic risk more than fat stored subcutaneously. Here, we investigated how well routine clinical measures of adiposity, namely body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (waist, predict VF and subcutaneous fat (SF in a large population-based sample of adolescents. As body-fat distribution differs between males and females, we performed these analyses separately in each sex. DESIGN AND METHODS: VF and SF were measured by magnetic resonance imaging in 1,002 adolescents (482 males, age 12-18 years. Relationships of BMI and waist with VF and SF were tested in multivariable analyses, which adjusted for potentially confounding effects of age and height. RESULTS: In both males and females, BMI and waist were highly correlated with VF and SF, and explained 55-76% of their total variance. When VF was adjusted for SF, however, BMI and waist explained, respectively, only 0% and 4% of VF variance in males, and 4% and 11% of VF variance in females. In contrast, when SF was adjusted for VF, BMI and waist explained, respectively, 36% and 21% of SF variance in males, and 48% and 23% of SF variance in females. These relationships were similar during early and late puberty. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: During adolescence, routine clinical measures of adiposity predict well SF but not VF. This holds for both sexes and throughout puberty. Further longitudinal studies are required to assess how well these measures predict changes of VF and SF over time. Given the clinical importance of VF, development of cost-effective imaging techniques and/or robust biomarkers of VF accumulation that would be suitable in everyday clinical practice is warranted.

  14. Predictors for adolescent visits to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine in a total population (the Young-HUNT Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslak Steinsbekk

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the factors predicting adolescent visits to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study conducted in an adolescent total population in Central Norway (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Studies (HUNT. In Young-HUNT 1, all inhabitants aged 13 to 19 years (N = 8944, 89% response rate were invited to participate, and the youngest group (13 to 15 year olds was surveyed again 4 years later (Young-HUNT 2, N = 2429, 82% response rate. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire on health and life style which included a question regarding visits to a CAM practitioner in the last 12 months. RESULTS: One in eleven (8.7%, 95%CI 7.6-9.8% had visited a CAM practitioner, an increase of 26% in 4 years (1.8% points. The final multivariable analysis predicted increased odds of an adolescent becoming a CAM visitor four years later (p<0.05 if she or he had previously visited a CAM practitioner (adjOR 3.4, had musculoskeletal pain (adjOR 1.5, had migraine (adjOR 2.3, used asthma medicines (adjOR 1.8 or suffered from another disease lasting more than three months (adjOR 2.1. Being male predicted reduced odds of visiting a CAM practitioner in the future (adjOR 0.6. CONCLUSION: We can conclude from this study that future visits to a CAM practitioner are predicted by both predisposing factors (being female, having visited a CAM practitioner previously and medical need factors (having had musculoskeletal pain, migraine, used asthma medicines or experienced another disease lasting more than three months. None of the specific variables associated with CAM visits were predictive for CAM visits four years later.

  15. Geno- and immunotoxic effects on populations living near a mine: a case study of Panasqueira mine in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Patrícia Clara dos Santos; García-Lestón, Julia; Silva, Susana Pinho E; da Costa, Carla Sofia Trindade; da Costa, Solange Cristina Bastos; Coelho, Marta Isabel Correia; Lage, Blanca Laffon; Mendez, Eduardo Pásaro; Teixeira, João Paulo Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    Mining industry is a vital economic sector for many countries but it is also one of the most hazardous activities, both occupationally and environmentally. Existing studies point to several adverse effects on communities' health living near mines, effects such as mesothelioma and respiratory illnesses. Results achieved in a geochemical sampling campaign undertaken in the vicinity of São Francisco de Assis village showed an anomalous distribution of some heavy metals in soils and waters. To evaluate the effects of mining activities on human health produced by these conditions, a group of 28 individuals from São Francisco de Assis village was examined for some biological endpoints. A nonexposed group (30 individuals) with the same demographic characteristics without exposure to genotoxic compounds was also studied and data obtained from both groups compared. Results of the T-cell receptor mutation assay and micronucleus (MN) test showed significant increases in the frequencies of both mutations and MN in exposed subjects compared to controls. Data obtained in the analysis of the different lymphocyte subsets demonstrated significant decreases in percentages of CD3+ and CD4+ cells, and a significant increase in percentage of CD16/56+ cells, in exposed individuals. The results of the present study indicate an elevated risk of human environmental contamination resulting from mining activities, emphasizing the need to implement preventive measures, remediation, and rehabilitation plans. This would lead to a reduction in cancer risk not only for this particular population but for all populations exposed under similar conditions.

  16. Biomonitoring of cadmium, chromium, nickel and arsenic in general population living near mining and active industrial areas in Southern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlifi, Rim; Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando; Feki-Tounsi, Molka; Hammami, Bouthaina; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2014-02-01

    The human health impact of the historic and current mining and industrial activities in Tunisia is not known. This study assessed the exposure to metals in the population of Southern Tunisia, using biomonitoring. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate metal exposure on 350 participants living near mining and active industrial areas in the South of Tunisia. Blood specimens were analyzed for metals (Cd, Cr, As, and Ni) by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer equipped with Zeeman background correction and AS-800 auto sampler by graphite furnace and graphite tubes with integrated L'vov platform. The sample population was classified according to different age groups, sex, smoking habit, sea food and water drinking consumption, occupational exposure, amalgam fillings and place of residence. The blood As, Cd, Cr and Ni values expressed as mean ± SD were 1.56 ± 2.49, 0.74 ± 1.15, 35.04 ± 26.02 and 30.56 ± 29.96 μg/l, respectively. Blood Cd and Ni levels in smokers were 2 and 1.2 times, respectively, higher than in non-smokers. Blood Cd levels increase significantly with age (p = 0.002). As, Cd and Ni were significantly correlated with gender and age (p Tunisia reveals a substantial exposure to several metals. The pathways of exposure and health significance of these findings need to be further investigated.

  17. The effects of a prenatal course including PREP for effective family living on self-esteem and parenting attitudes of adolescents: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, R D; Nystul, M S

    1994-01-01

    Nine adolescent females were enrolled in a prenatal course that included the PREP for Effective Family Living Program (the treatment group). Two comparison groups were utilized in this study; one attended the prenatal group without the PREP program, and the second did not attend either the prenatal course or the PREP program. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Attitude Toward the Freedom of Children Scale (a parental attitude scale) was administered to all participants. No significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of self-concept. A significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of parental attitudes, with the treatment group scoring higher on democratic parenting attitudes than did the two comparison groups.

  18. Estimating Trends of Population Decline in Long-Lived Marine Species in the Mediterranean Sea Based on Fishers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynou, Francesc; Sbrana, Mario; Sartor, Paolo; Maravelias, Christos; Kavadas, Stefanos; Damalas, Dimitros; Cartes, Joan E.; Osio, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    We conducted interviews of a representative sample of 106 retired fishers in Italy, Spain and Greece, asking specific questions about the trends they perceived in dolphin and shark abundances between 1940 and 1999 (in three 20 year periods) compared to the present abundance. The large marine fauna studied were not target species of the commercial fleet segment interviewed (trawl fishery). The fishers were asked to rank the perceived abundance in each period into qualitative ordinal classes based on two indicators: frequency of sightings and frequency of catches (incidental or intentional) of each taxonomic group. The statistical analysis of the survey results showed that both incidental catches and the sighting frequency of dolphins have decreased significantly over the 60+ years of the study period (except for in Greece due to the recent population increase). This shows that fishers' perceptions are in agreement with the declining population trends detected by scientists. Shark catches were also perceived to have diminished since the early 1940s for all species. Other long-lived Mediterranean marine fauna (monk seals, whales) were at very low levels in the second half of the 20th century and no quantitative data could be obtained. Our study supports the results obtained in the Mediterranean and other seas that show the rapid disappearance (over a few decades) of marine fauna. We show that appropriately designed questionnaires help provide a picture of animal abundance in the past through the valuable perceptions of fishers. This information can be used to complement scientific sources or in some cases be taken as the only information source for establishing population trends in the abundance of sensitive species. PMID:21818268

  19. Clinical Effectiveness and Changes in Care Utilization Derived from a Military Adolescent Multi-Disciplinary Headache Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-07

    clinics. Chronic headaches within the adolescent population have ben shown to have great morbidity on patient lives, including but no limited to missed...school/work days, and loss of parental work time getting to appointments. Some studies have been completed regarding chronic adolescent headaches , but at...this time nothing has been published regarding multi-disciplinary chronic headache clinics for adolescent children of military personnel. The purpose

  20. Mediterranean Diet and Its Correlates among Adolescents in Non-Mediterranean European Countries: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Štefan, Lovro; Prosoli, Rebeka; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Milanović, Ivana; Radisavljević-Janić, Snežana

    2017-02-22

    Little is known about the factors which might influence the adherence to a Mediterranean diet in non-Mediterranean European countries. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic, psychological, and physical factors on a Mediterranean diet. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 14-18-year-old adolescents (N = 3071) from two non-Mediterranean countries: Lithuania (N = 1863) and Serbia (N = 1208). The dependent variable was Mediterranean diet, and was assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents questionnaire. Independent variables were gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, socioeconomic status, psychological distress, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed by using logistic regression. Results showed that higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with higher self-rated health, socioeconomic status, and physical activity, yet low adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with being female, having higher body-mass index, psychological distress, and sedentary behavior. Our findings suggest that future studies need to explore associations between lifestyle habits-especially in target populations, such as primary and secondary school students.

  1. Online Positive Interventions to Promote Well-being and Resilience in the Adolescent Population: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Rosa M; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Mira, Adriana; Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Botella, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown an alarming prevalence of depression, anxiety, and behavior disorders in youth. Thus, prevention of psychological problems in this population becomes crucial. According to the World Health Organization (1), prevention should also include the promotion and development of the individual's strengths in order to reduce vulnerability to suffering from mental disorders. In addition, other key elements of prevention are the reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of interventions. The information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, have much to offer in terms of the prevention and promotion of positive mental health in adolescents. This paper reviews these fields of research-prevention, positive psychology, Internet, and adolescents-and discusses the potential of positive interventions delivered over the Internet as effective and sustainable health promotion tools. The paper provides a brief description of the systems developed so far and a summary of selected features of the studies detected in the literature review. The overall conclusions are that there is a need for more controlled studies with long-term follow-ups, the interventions should be designed considering the specific features of the target users and the specific contexts where the interventions will be delivered, and they could be enhanced by the use of other technologies, such as smartphones, sensors, or social networks.

  2. Mediterranean Diet and Its Correlates among Adolescents in Non-Mediterranean European Countries: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Štefan, Lovro; Prosoli, Rebeka; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Milanović, Ivana; Radisavljević-Janić, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the factors which might influence the adherence to a Mediterranean diet in non-Mediterranean European countries. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic, psychological, and physical factors on a Mediterranean diet. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 14–18-year-old adolescents (N = 3071) from two non-Mediterranean countries: Lithuania (N = 1863) and Serbia (N = 1208). The dependent variable was Mediterranean diet, and was assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents questionnaire. Independent variables were gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, socioeconomic status, psychological distress, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed by using logistic regression. Results showed that higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with higher self-rated health, socioeconomic status, and physical activity, yet low adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with being female, having higher body-mass index, psychological distress, and sedentary behavior. Our findings suggest that future studies need to explore associations between lifestyle habits—especially in target populations, such as primary and secondary school students. PMID:28241432

  3. Are computer and cell phone use associated with body mass index and overweight? A population study among twin adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkkinen Lea

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight in children and adolescents has reached dimensions of a global epidemic during recent years. Simultaneously, information and communication technology use has rapidly increased. Methods A population-based sample of Finnish twins born in 1983–1987 (N = 4098 was assessed by self-report questionnaires at 17 y during 2000–2005. The association of overweight (defined by Cole's BMI-for-age cut-offs with computer and cell phone use and ownership was analyzed by logistic regression and their association with BMI by linear regression models. The effect of twinship was taken into account by correcting for clustered sampling of families. All models were adjusted for gender, physical exercise, and parents' education and occupational class. Results The proportion of adolescents who did not have a computer at home decreased from 18% to 8% from 2000 to 2005. Compared to them, having a home computer (without an Internet connection was associated with a higher risk of overweight (odds ratio 2.3, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.8 and BMI (beta coefficient 0.57, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.98. However, having a computer with an Internet connection was not associated with weight status. Belonging to the highest quintile (OR 1.8 95% CI 1.2 to 2.8 and second-highest quintile (OR 1.6 95% CI 1.1 to 2.4 of weekly computer use was positively associated with overweight. The proportion of adolescents without a personal cell phone decreased from 12% to 1% across 2000 to 2005. There was a positive linear trend of increasing monthly phone bill with BMI (beta 0.18, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.30, but the association of a cell phone bill with overweight was very weak. Conclusion Time spent using a home computer was associated with an increased risk of overweight. Cell phone use correlated weakly with BMI. Increasing use of information and communication technology may be related to the obesity epidemic among adolescents.

  4. Prediction of insulin resistance with anthropometric measures: lessons from a large adolescent population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedin WK

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available William K Wedin,1 Lizmer Diaz-Gimenez,1 Antonio J Convit1,21Department of Psychiatry, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY, USAObjective: The aim of this study was to describe the minimum number of anthropometric measures that will optimally predict insulin resistance (IR and to characterize the utility of these measures among obese and nonobese adolescents.Research design and methods: Six anthropometric measures (selected from three categories: central adiposity, weight, and body composition were measured from 1298 adolescents attending two New York City public high schools. Body composition was determined by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA. The homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR, based on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, was used to estimate IR. Stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to predict HOMA-IR based on the six selected measures, while controlling for age.Results: The stepwise regression retained both waist circumference (WC and percentage of body fat (BF%. Notably, BMI was not retained. WC was a stronger predictor of HOMA-IR than BMI was. A regression model using solely WC performed best among the obese II group, while a model using solely BF% performed best among the lean group. Receiver operator characteristic curves showed the WC and BF% model to be more sensitive in detecting IR than BMI, but with less specificity.Conclusion: WC combined with BF% was the best predictor of HOMA-IR. This finding can be attributed partly to the ability of BF% to model HOMA-IR among leaner participants and to the ability of WC to model HOMA-IR among participants who are more obese. BMI was comparatively weak in predicting IR, suggesting that assessments that are more comprehensive and include body composition analysis could increase detection of IR during adolescence, especially among those who are lean, yet insulin-resistant.Keywords: BMI, bioelectrical impedance

  5. Dietary habits and body image perception among Polish adolescents and young adults - a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Bergier, Barbara; Diatczyk, Julia; Niedźwiecka, Joanna; Biliński, Przemysław; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of nutritional behaviours shaped in childhood and during the period of adolescents are mostly continued in adult life, and on these patterns, to a great degree, depends the risk of development of many chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between dietary habits and body image perception among Polish adolescents and young adults. The study group covered 14,511 adolescents/young adults: 10,081 children attending high schools and secondary schools, and 4,428 university students. More than 87% of schoolchildren and students admitted that that they snacked between meals everyday, and 1/3 of them mentioned that they consumed meals at night. As many as 41.40% of schoolchildren, and 46.70% of students experienced the feeling of overeating at least several times a week. Analysis of the respondents BMI showed that in the group of students there were considerably more respondents obese or overweight, compared to the group of schoolchildren. Fear of gaining weight was mentioned by 9.90% of respondents, including 6.90% of those with normal body structure, 1.40% with underweight or overweight, and 0.40% of those obese. As many as 54.60% of the total number of respondents described their body structure as remaining within the normal, 23.7% - as slim, 13.9% reported that they were overweight, 6% - thin, while 1.7% considered themselves as obese. A comprehensive analysis of the data available, including attempts at dieting or gaining weight, indicated that approximately ¾ of obese respondents had undertaken attempts in the past to reduce their body weight. The importance of physical activity and healthy eating habits should be given due attention not only to prevent obesity but also other eating disorder.

  6. HPA-axis activity and externalizing behavior problems in early adolescents from the general population : the role of comorbidity and gender The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, Rianne; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    Contradictory findings on the relationship between hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and externalizing behavior problems could be due to studies not accounting for issues of comorbidity and gender. In a population-based cohort of 1768 (10- to 12-year-old) early adolescents, we used

  7. Population-based cohort study of anti-infective medication use before and after the onset of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C; van der Vorst, Marja M J; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; de Boer, Anthonius; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2014-01-01

    A population-based cohort study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO database to investigate prevalence and patterns of anti-infective medication use in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) before and after the onset of this disease. All patients <19 years with at least 2 insulin prescri

  8. A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Physical Activity in an Overweight/Obese Population Sample of Adolescents from Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lubans, David R.; Costigan, Sarah A.; McCargar, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explaining physical activity (PA) intention and behavior among a large population sample of overweight and obese adolescents (Alberta, Canada), using a web-based survey. Secondary objectives were to examine the mediating effects of the TPB constructs and moderating effects…

  9. Cognitive dysfunction in young men following head injury in childhood and adolescence: a population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction among young men who had suffered a head injury during childhood or adolescence, in particular focusing upon the effects of age and the severity of the injury. METHODS: By cross linkage of Danish national registers for hospital.......0, irrespective of age at injury. For cases of two concussions, all odds ratios were > 1.4 but were not significant for all age groupings. CONCLUSIONS: For milder forms of single head injury before age 12 there is no evidence of enduring cognitive dysfunction. The apparent effect at later ages may reflect...

  10. “The sky is the limit”: adhering to antiretroviral therapy and HIV self-management from the perspectives of adolescents living with HIV and their adult caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Denison

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Worldwide, HIV-related mortality among adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV increased by 50% from 2005 to 2012 and is attributed in part to a lack of support for adolescent retention to care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART. This vulnerability reinforces the need to better understand incomplete ART adherence among ALHIV, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of the world's 2.1 million ALHIV reside. Methods: From December 2011 to February 2012, we conducted in-depth interviews with 32 ALHIV (aged 15 to 18 and 23 of their adult caregivers in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia. Interviews were transcribed and translated. An iterative qualitative process was used to code and analyze the data and main themes were summarized regarding the barriers to and facilitators of ART adherence. Results: More than a quarter of ALHIV reported missing a day or more of ART (ranging from one day to six months. Barriers to ART adherence included fear of disclosure and anticipated stigma. Few youth were willing to take their drugs outside of the home, which led to missed doses of ART. Similarly, families tended to manage HIV within the home only. As a result, although caregivers and families were often the greatest source of emotional and instrumental support, they coped with HIV in isolation of other potential support from their communities, schools or churches. Factors that supported ART adherence included attending clinic-sponsored youth groups, wanting to maintain one's health and using phone and clock alarms. Involvement of adult caregivers in HIV management varied greatly and was often based on the age and health status of the youth. Some caregivers struggled with letting the adolescents assume responsibility for their medication, and ALHIV had few self-management skills and tools to help them regularly take ART. Conclusions: These data highlight the importance of families and home environments in supporting adherence to

  11. Acne scars in 18-year-old male adolescents: a population-based study of prevalence and associated factors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar

    2016-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken during presentation for military service, which is compulsory for all 18-year-old males. A questionnaire was applied, covering topics like diet, smoking habits, ethnicity, family structure, socio-economic level, as well as specific questions about active acne and resulting scars. Dermatologists conducted the clinical examination. Results A total of 2,201 male adolescents were interviewed and examined. The overall prevalence of acne scarring was 22%. The malar region was the most frequently involved, present in 80% of affected individuals, followed by the frontal region (31.5%), back (17%), anterior chest (8.2%) and mentonian region (6.4%). Correlation between the intensity of clinical acne and the presence of scars was found, but no association was observed with educational level, smoking, ethnicity, obesity or socio-economic status. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of acne scars among this population. This is the first study to ascertain a correlation between acne scarring and factors such as socio-economic status and educational level. The direct relation between acne severity and scarring indicates that prompt and effective treatment is the best way to reduce scarring. PMID:27438194

  12. Association between exposure to HSV1 and cognitive functioning in a general population of adolescents. The TRAILS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Jonker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infections with different herpes viruses have been associated with cognitive functioning in psychiatric patients and healthy adults. The aim of this study was to find out whether antibodies to different herpes viruses are prospectively associated with cognitive functioning in a general adolescent population. METHODS: This study was performed in TRAILS, a large prospective general population cohort (N = 1084, 54% female, mean age 16.2 years (SD 0.6. At age 16, immunoglobulin G antibodies against HSV1, HSV2, CMV and EBV were measured next to high sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP. Two years later, immediate memory and executive functioning were assessed using the 15 words task and the self ordered pointing task. Multiple linear regression analysis with bootstrapping was performed to study the association between viral infections and cognitive function, adjusting for gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and cannabis use. RESULTS: Presence of HSV1 antibodies was associated with memory function ((B = -0.272, 95% CI = -0.556 to -0.016, p = 0.047, while the association with executive functioning did not reach statistical significance (B = 0.560, 95% CI is -0.053 to 1.184, p = 0.075. The level of HSV1 antibodies was associated with both memory function (B = -0.160, 95% CI = -0.280 to -0.039, p = 0.014 and executive functioning (B = 0.296, 95% CI = 0.011 to 0.578, p = 0.046. Other herpes viruses and hsCRP were not associated with cognitive functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Both presence and level of HSV1 antibodies are prospectively associated with reduced cognitive performance in a large cohort of adolescents.

  13. Contribution to the validation of the Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale (KADS-6 in a Portuguese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Quintão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The KADS-6 is a self-report assessment instrument known for its ease application in assessing depression in young people. This study aimed to contribute to the validation of the Portuguese version of this tool and analyze its psychometric characteristics in comparison with other self-report instruments for depression in adolescents, in Portugal. Two samples were collected, a non-clinical group of in school youth (n=773; 52.4% male and a clinical sample (n=134 youth; 44% male. Comparisons also used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI. Results: The factor analysis revealed the unidimensionality of the measure. The KADS-6 demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha in both clinical (.74 and school (.80 samples. Its convergent validity with the BDI-II and CDI was r=.44; r=.61, respectively in the clinical sample and r=.60; r=.57 in the school sample. The KADS-6, a short and time efficient instrument, showed good psychometric characteristics in terms of internal consistency and convergent validity in comparison with the BDI-II and the CDI. Given its ease of use and scoring, the KADS-6 could be considered for use in both school and clinical settings when addressing adolescent depression.

  14. Community patterns of stigma towards persons living with HIV: A population-based latent class analysis from rural Vietnam

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pharris, Anastasia

    2011-09-18

    Abstract Background The negative effects of stigma on persons living with HIV (PLHIV) have been documented in many settings and it is thought that stigma against PLHIV leads to more difficulties for those who need to access HIV testing, treatment and care, as well as to limited community uptake of HIV prevention and testing messages. In order to understand and prevent stigma towards PLHIV, it is important to be able to measure stigma within communities and to understand which factors are associated with higher stigma. Methods To analyze patterns of community stigma and determinants to stigma toward PLHIV, we performed an exploratory population-based survey with 1874 randomly sampled adults within a demographic surveillance site (DSS) in rural Vietnam. Participants were interviewed regarding knowledge of HIV and attitudes towards persons living with HIV. Data were linked to socioeconomic and migration data from the DSS and latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine stigma group sub-types and factors associated with stigma group membership. Results We found unexpectedly high and complex patterns of stigma against PLHIV in this rural setting. Women had the greatest odds of belong to the highest stigma group (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.42-2.37), while those with more education had lower odds of highest stigma group membership (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32-0.62 for secondary education; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.35 for tertiary education). Long-term migration out of the district (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.4-0.91), feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.66), having heard of HIV from more sources (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.3-0.66), and knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99) were all associated with lower odds of highest stigma group membership. Nearly 20% of the population was highly unsure of their attitudes towards PLHIV and persons in this group had significantly lower odds of feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.90) or of knowing

  15. Determination of a new uniform thorax density representative of the living population from 3D external body shape modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Celia; Choisne, Julie; Nérot, Agathe; Pillet, Hélène; Skalli, Wafa

    2016-05-03

    Body segment parameters (BSP) for each body׳s segment are needed for biomechanical analysis. To provide population-specific BSP, precise estimation of body׳s segments volume and density are needed. Widely used uniform densities, provided by cadavers׳ studies, did not consider the air present in the lungs when determining the thorax density. The purpose of this study was to propose a new uniform thorax density representative of the living population from 3D external body shape modeling. Bi-planar X-ray radiographies were acquired on 58 participants allowing 3D reconstructions of the spine, rib cage and human body shape. Three methods of computing the thorax mass were compared for 48 subjects: (1) the Dempster Uniform Density Method, currently in use for BSPs calculation, using Dempster density data, (2) the Personalized Method using full-description of the thorax based on 3D reconstruction of the rib cage and spine and (3) the Improved Uniform Density Method using a uniform thorax density resulting from the Personalized Method. For 10 participants, comparison was made between the body mass obtained from a force-plate and the body mass computed with each of the three methods. The Dempster Uniform Density Method presented a mean error of 4.8% in the total body mass compared to the force-plate vs 0.2% for the Personalized Method and 0.4% for the Improved Uniform Density Method. The adjusted thorax density found from the 3D reconstruction was 0.74g/cm(3) for men and 0.73g/cm(3) for women instead of the one provided by Dempster (0.92g/cm(3)), leading to a better estimate of the thorax mass and body mass.

  16. Impact of socioeconomic status and living condition on latent tuberculosis diagnosis among the tribal population of Melghat: A cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Rajpal S; Nayak, Amit R; Husain, Aliabbas A; Shekhawat, Seema D; Satav, Ashish R; Jain, Ruchika K; Raje, Dhananjay V; Daginawala, Hatim F; Taori, Girdhar M

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To study socioeconomic status (SES) and living conditions (LC) as risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and their impact on QuantiFERON-TB gold (QFT-G) and tuberculin skin test (TST) outcome for determining a better diagnostic test for LTBI in the malnourished tribal population of Melghat. Settings and Design: Six hundred sixty nine participants matching the inclusion criteria were recruited from 10 tribal villages of Melghat region, India. Subjects and Methods: Complete information related to various risk factors and test outcome was obtained on 398 participants, which was analyzed as per predefined conceptual framework. Factors were classified based on their relevance either at individual or household level, and subsequently based on the possibility of intervention. Data were partitioned into concordant and discordant sets depending on test agreement. Results: In concordant set, the two tests revealed that LTBI was significantly associated with smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.64 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–6.79]), tobacco usage (aOR: 2.74 [95% CI: 1.50–4.99]), and malnourishment (aOR: 1.97 [95% CI: 1.12–3.48]) after basic adjustment. Inclusion of latent variable SES and LC in the model has mediating effect on the association of above factors with LTBI. Further, the association of SES and LC with LTBI in concordant set was unaltered in presence of other cofactors. From discordant set, results of QFT-G corroborated with that of concordant set. Conclusions: Poor SES and LC can be considered as strong risk factors linked with LTBI as compared to malnourishment, which is often targeted in such communities. Further, our study showed QFT-G test as a reliable tool in screening of LTBI in the tribal population of Melghat, India. PMID:27578928

  17. Emotion and the Moral Lives of Adolescents: Vagaries and Complexities in the Emotional Experience of Doing Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainryb, Cecilia; Recchia, Holly E.

    2012-01-01

    Far from being unthinking energies or irrational impulses that control or push people around, emotions are intricately connected to the way people perceive, understand, and think about the world. As such, emotions are also an inextricable part of people's moral lives. As people go about making moral judgments and decisions, they do not merely…

  18. Family Influences on Alcohol Abuse and Other Problem Behaviors among Black and White Adolescents in a General Population Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Grace M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    An ongoing longitudinal study of 699 adolescents and their parents, begun when the adolescents were ages 13 to 16, found that, although black families had more single-parent households and lower family incomes than white families, black adolescents had higher abstention rates and lower rates of alcohol abuse and other deviance than white…

  19. Living with a Red Dwarf: Rotation and X-ray and Ultraviolet Properties of the Halo Population Kapteyn's Star

    CERN Document Server

    Guinan, Edward F; Durbin, Allyn

    2016-01-01

    As part of Villanova's Living with a Red Dwarf program, we have obtained UV, X-ray and optical data of the Population II red dwarf -- Kapteyn's Star. Kapteyn's Star is noteworthy for its large proper motions and high RV of ~+245 km s^-1. As the nearest Pop II red dwarf, it serves as an old age anchor for calibrating Activity/Irradiance-Rotation-Age relations, and an important test bed for stellar dynamos and the resulting X-ray -- UV emissions of slowly rotating, near-fully convective red dwarf stars. Adding to the notoriety, Kapteyn's Star has recently been reported to host two super-Earth candidates, one of which (Kapteyn b) is orbiting within the habitable zone (Anglada-Escude et al. 2014a, 2015). However, Robertson et al. (2015) questioned the planet's existence since its orbital period may be an artifact of activity, related to the star's rotation period. Because of its large Doppler-shift, measures of the important, chromospheric H I Lyman-alpha 1215.67A emission line can be reliably made, because it is...

  20. Evaluation of properties of the Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (Brazilian version in an elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Ricci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL is considered an important subjective assessment to evaluate patients suffering from dizziness and imbalance. Although frequently used, its metric characteristics still require further investigation. Objective: This paper aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the VADL in an elderly population. Method: The sample comprises patients (≥65 years old with chronic dizziness resulting from vestibular disorders. For discriminant analysis, patients were compared to healthy subjects. All subjects answered the VADL-Brazil by interview. To examine the VADL validity, patients filled out the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI and the ABC scale and were tested on the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI. To evaluate the VADL responsiveness, 20 patients were submitted to rehabilitation. Results: Patients (n=140 had a VADL total score of 4.1±1.6 points. Healthy subjects scored significantly less than patients in all the subscales and in the VADL total score. The VADL-Brazil was weakly correlated with the DHI and moderately to the ABC scale and the DGI. Instead of the original 3 subscales, factor analysis resulted in 6 factors. The VADL was capable of detecting changes after rehabilitation, which means that the instrument has responsiveness. Conclusions: This study provided more data about the psychometric properties and usefulness of the VADL-Brazil. The use of such a reliable and valid instrument increases the knowledge about disability in patients with vestibular disorders.

  1. Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Large Population of Women Living in Spain: Implications for Preventative Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Ramos-Leví

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to establish a risk appraisal model for GDM by identifying modifiable factors that can help predict the risk of GDM in a large population of 2194 women living in Spain. They were recruited between 2009-2010 when screening for GDM was performed. Participants completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic, anthropomorphic and behavioral characteristics, and reproductive and medical history. A total of 213 (9.7% women were diagnosed as having GDM. Age, pregestational body weight (BW and body mass index (BMI, and number of events of medical, obstetric and family history were significantly associated with GDM. After logistic regression model, biscuits and pastries intake 30 minutes/day, and 30 minutes/day of sports at least 2 days/week, compared with opposite consumption, was associated with less GDM risk. Our study identified several pregestational modifiable lifestyle risk factors associated with an increase in the risk of developing GDM. This may represent a promising approach for the prevention of GDM and subsequent complications. Further intervention studies are needed to evaluate if this appraisal model of risk calculation can be useful for prevention and treatment of GDM.

  2. Novel multimetabolite prediction of walnut consumption by a urinary biomarker model in a free-living population: the PREDIMED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Llorach, Rafael; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Estruch, Ramon; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2014-07-03

    The beneficial impact of walnuts on human health has been attributed to their unique chemical composition. In order to characterize the dietary walnut fingerprinting, spot urine samples from two sets of 195 (training) and 186 (validation) individuals were analyzed by an HPLC-q-ToF-MS untargeted metabolomics approach, selecting the most discriminating metabolites by multivariate data analysis (VIP ≥ 1.5). Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to design a multimetabolite prediction biomarker model. The global performance of the model and each included metabolite in it was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves, using the area under the curve (AUC) values. Dietary exposure to walnuts was characterized by 18 metabolites, including markers of fatty acid metabolism, ellagitannin-derived microbial compounds, and intermediate metabolites of the tryptophan/serotonin pathway. The predictive model of walnut exposure included at least one compound of each class. The AUC (95% CI) for the combined biomarker model was 93.4% (90.1-96.8%) in the training set and 90.2% (85.9-94.6%) in the validation set. The AUCs for individual metabolites were ≤85%. As far as we know, this is the first study proposing a combination of biomarkers of walnut exposure in a population under free-living conditions, as considered in epidemiological studies examining associations between diet and health outcomes.

  3. Concordance Rates of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in a Danish Twin Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, Ane; Carreon, Leah Y; Højmark, Karen;

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Clinical, radiological and genetic determination of zygosity of twin pairs from the Danish Twin Registry who self-reported having Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS). OBJECTIVE: To establish concordance rates of AIS. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The aetiology of and the true mode...... of inheritance of AIS remains unclear. Studies on concordance in twin pairs provide a basis for analysing the influence of genetic versus environmental factors. In 2007, using self-report of AIS from the Danish Twin Registry, concordance rates of 0.13 in monozygotic twins and 0.00 in dizygotic twins were...... reported. METHODS: All 46,418 twins registered in the Danish Twin Registry born from 1931 to 1982 were sent a survey, which included questions about scoliosis. The survey was returned by 34,944 individuals (75.3%) representing 23,204 pairs. From this study, 548 individuals representing 274 complete twin...

  4. Management of Sport-Related Concussion in the Pediatric and Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provance, Aaron J; Engelman, Glenn H; Terhune, E Bailey; Coel, Rachel A

    2016-01-01

    Concussions make up nearly 10% of all high school athletic injuries. Recent changes in concussion management guidelines and legislation aim to make concussion care more standardized and safe but simultaneously pose a challenge for the primary care and sports medicine physician. Pediatric and adolescent concussions may cause anxiety for the treating physician due to concerns over return-to-play decisions, academic issues, and the potential for second impact syndrome. Determining when to refer a patient to an emergency department acutely, to an outpatient concussion clinic, or to other subspecialists may be a difficult decision for the primary care physician. The aim of this article is to review current evidence regarding concussion treatment and return-to-school and return-to-play recommendations to provide the primary care and sports medicine physician with practical guidelines for managing concussions.

  5. Low genetic diversity and local adaptive divergence of Dracaena cambodiana (Liliaceae) populations associated with historical population bottlenecks and natural selection: an endangered long-lived tree endemic to Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D-J; Xie, L-S; Zhu, J-H; Zhang, Z-L

    2012-09-01

    Historical population bottlenecks and natural selection have important effects on the current genetic diversity and structure of long-lived trees. Dracaena cambodiana is an endangered, long-lived tree endemic to Hainan Island, China. Our field investigations showed that only 10 populations remain on Hainan Island and that almost all have been seriously isolated and grow in distinct habitats. A considerable amount of genetic variation at the species level, but little variation at the population level, and a high level of genetic differentiation among the populations with limited gene flow in D. cambodiana were detected using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. No significant correlation was found between genetic diversity and actual population size, as the genetic diversities were similar regardless of population size. The Mantel test revealed that there was no correlation between genetic and geographic distances among the 10 populations. The UPGMA, PCoA and Bayesian analyses showed that local adaptive divergence has occurred among the D. cambodiana populations, which was further supported by habitat-private fragments. We suggest that the current genetic diversity and population differentiation of D. cambodiana resulted from historical population bottlenecks and natural selection followed by historical isolation. However, the lack of natural regeneration of D. cambodiana indicates that former local adaptations with low genetic diversity may have been genetically weak and are unable to adapt to the current ecological environments.

  6. Effect of air pollution and racism on ethnic differences in respiratory health among adolescents living in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Maynard, Maria J; Lenguerrand, Erik; Whitrow, Melissa J; Molaodi, Oarabile R; Harding, Seeromanie

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that stress can amplify the harm of air pollution. We examined whether experience of racism and exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) had a synergistic influence on ethnic differences in asthma and lung function across adolescence. Analyses using multilevel models showed lower forced expiratory volume (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and lower rates of asthma among some ethnic minorities compared to Whites, but higher exposure to PM2.5, PM10 and racism. Racism appeared to amplify the relationship between asthma and air pollution for all ethnic groups, but did not explain ethnic differences in respiratory health.

  7. Childbearing during adolescence and offspring mortality: findings from three population-based cohorts in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Fernando C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of young maternal age as a determinant of adverse child health outcomes is controversial, with existing studies providing conflicting results. This work assessed the association between adolescent childbearing and early offspring mortality in three birth cohort studies from the city of Pelotas in Southern Brazil. Methods All hospital births from 1982 (6,011, 1993 (5,304, and 2004 (4,287 were identified and these infants were followed up. Deaths were monitored through vital registration, visits to hospitals and cemeteries. The analyses were restricted to women younger than 30 years who delivered singletons (72%, 70% and 67% of the original cohorts, respectively. Maternal age was categorized into three groups ( Results There were no interactions between maternal age and cohort year. After adjustment for confounding, pooled ORs for mothers aged 12-19 years were 0.6 (95% CI = 0.4; 1.0 for fetal death, 0.9 (0.6; 1.3 for perinatal death, 1.0 (0.7; 1.6 for early neonatal death, 1.6 (0.7; 3.4 for late neonatal death, 1.8 (1.1; 2.9 for postneonatal death, and 1.6 (1.2; 2.1 for infant death, when compared to mothers aged 20-29 years. Further adjustment for mediating variables led to the disappearance of the excess of postneonatal mortality. The number of mothers younger than 16 years was not sufficient for most analyses. Conclusion The slightly increased odds of postneonatal mortality among children of adolescent mothers suggest that social and environmental factors may be more important than maternal biologic immaturity.

  8. Anaemia, its determinants and effect of different interventions amongst tea tribe adolescent girls living in Dibrugarh district of Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Goswami Mahanta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anaemia, one of the major public health problems in India is associated with lower productivity, higher sickness rate and absenteeism having inter-generational effect. Morbidity during adolescent has implication on future safe motherhood, optimum growth and development of foetus and children. Aims and Objective: To assess, prevalence and determinants of anaemia and effect of different interventions amongst tea tribe adolescent girls. Materials & Methods: A community based intervention study was conducted covering 16 tea estates of Dibrugarh District, Assam. Variables includes socio-demographic, environmental, anthropometry, history of present and past illness, clinical examination and laboratory investigation including haemoglobin, serum ferritin, haemoglobin typing and routine stool examination. Interventions given were weekly IFA supplementation, dietary diversification, health promotion by monthly NHED, cooking demonstration, cooking competition and kitchen garden promotion and counselling to improve IFA compliance and remove barriers was done. SPSS and EpiInfo software, used to calculate of rates, ratios, chi-square test, Fisher Exact test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Enrolments were 802, with mean age, 14.8 years. Anaemia prevalence was 96.3% with median serum ferritin, 22.9 ng/ml. Prevalence of Sickle cell anaemia was,12% and helminthiasis 84.20%.  History of passage of worms (9.1%, night blindness (5.6%, weakness (62.1%, loss of appetite (37.5%, gum bleeding (23.6%, loose motion (13%, loss of weight (9.9%, menstrual problem (19.3% was common. Following intervention mean haemoglobin difference was 1.48 gm/dl with 13.5% difference in prevalence. Associated morbidities showed significant reduction following active intervention. Conclusions: High anaemia prevalence requires urgent attention to avoid preventable morbidities. Implementation of different intervention in an integrated manner was

  9. Type D personality is a risk factor for psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescents: a cross-sectional study of a large population-based cohort of Swedish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condén Emelie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type D personality, or the “distressed personality”, is a psychosocial factor associated with negative health outcomes, although its impact in younger populations is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Type D personality and the associations between Type D personality and psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescences. Methods A population-based, self-reported cross-sectional study conducted in Västmanland, Sweden with a cohort of 5012 students in the age between 15–18 years old. The participants completed the anonymous questionnaire Survey of Adolescent Life in Västmanland 2008 during class hour. Psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain were measured through index measuring the presence of symptoms and how common they were. DS14 and its two component subscales of negative affectivity (NA and social inhibition (SI were measured as well. Results There was a difference depending on sex, where 10.4% among boys and 14.6% among girls (p =  Conclusions There was a strong association between Type D personality and both psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain where adolescent with a type D personality reported more symptoms. The present study contributes to the mapping of the influence of Type D on psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescents.

  10. "We're Not Going to Suffer Like This in the Mud": Educational Aspirations, Social Mobility and Independent Child Migration among Populations Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyden, Jo

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the association between formal education, social mobility and independent child migration in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam and draws on data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty and schooling. It argues that among resource-poor populations, child migration sustains kin relations…

  11. Assessing physical activity and sedentary lifestyle behaviours for children and adolescents living in a district of Poland. What are the key determinants for improving health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojtyła-Buciora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction.[/b] Adequate levels of physical activity throughout an individual’s life ensure an optimal state of health. Only 30% of adolescents and 10% of adults perform sufficient physical activity to facilitate proper physical, psychological/mental and emotional development. [b]Objective[/b]. Determining physical activity behaviour in children and adolescents through surveying the opinions of school pupils and parents, in order to lend support for optimised educational programmes designed to promote healthy lifestyle behaviour, as well as establishing consistent answers. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. A randomised survey was conducted on two groups of n=1100 pupil subjects, each attending elementary or secondary school, with the former in Classes 5 and 6, whereas the latter were aged between 16–19 years old; in both instances parents were also included in the survey. All subjects came from the Kalisz District in western-central Poland, and were divided into those living in the city of Kalisz and those in the surrounding rural areas. [b]Results[/b]. It was found that 87%, 96% and 89% of elementary, middle and secondary school pupils, respectively, participated in Physical Education (PE lessons. The numbers of pupils who daily, or almost daily, spent time on a computer, were 52%, 60% and 70%, respectively, for elementary, middle and secondary schools, and likewise 70%, 62% and 48% for watching TV. [b]Conclusions[/b]. It is vital that education programmes with a focus on a healthy lifestyle are introduced and targeted at teenagers in order to promote physical activity during the crucial time of the body’s development. The period of maturing into adulthood is particularly crucial for acquiring the right knowledge, convictions, skills and attitudes that help shape a pro-healthy lifestyle in later years.

  12. Working memory capacity and psychotic-like experiences in a general population sample of adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eZiermans

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM impairment is a common feature in individuals with schizophrenia and high-risk for psychosis and a promising target for early intervention strategies. However, it is unclear to what extent WM impairment parallels specific behavioral symptoms along the psychosis continuum. To address this issue, the current study investigated the relation of WM capacity with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs in a large Swedish population sample (N = 1012 of adolescents and young adults (M = 24.4 years, range 12-35. WM was assessed with two online computer tasks: A task where participants had to identify and remember the location of an odd shape and a task of remembering and following instructions. PLE scores were derived from a translated symptom questionnaire (Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences; CAPE, which includes positive, negative and depressive symptom scales. Positive and negative symptom scales were further subdivided into symptom clusters based on factor analyses. The results showed that low WM capacity was modestly associated with increased reports of bizarre experiences and depressive symptoms, after controlling for age, gender, and global symptom scores. Interestingly, when analyses were repeated for separate age groups, low WM was exclusively associated with a higher frequency of bizarre experiences for young adults (20 - 27 years and with depressive symptoms for older adults (28 - 35 years. These findings suggest that specific PLEs can be indicative of reduced WM capacity in early adulthood, which in turn may reflect an increased risk for psychosis and a greater need for targeted intervention. In contrast, during adolescence individual differences in cognitive development may influence the strength of the relationships and thereby mask potential vulnerabilities for psychopathology.

  13. People living with HIV travel farther to access healthcare: a population-based geographic analysis from rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam N Akullian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The availability of specialized HIV services is limited in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa where the need is the greatest. Where HIV services are available, people living with HIV (PLHIV must overcome large geographic, economic and social barriers to access healthcare. The objective of this study was to understand the unique barriers PLHIV face when accessing healthcare compared with those not living with HIV in a rural area of sub-Saharan Africa with limited availability of healthcare infrastructure. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 447 heads of household on Bugala Island, Uganda. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare travel time, cost and distance to access healthcare, and log binomial models were used to test for associations between HIV status and access to nearby health services. Results: PLHIV travelled an additional 1.9 km (95% CI (0.6, 3.2 km, p=0.004 to access healthcare compared with those not living with HIV, and they were 56% less likely to access healthcare at the nearest health facility to their residence, so long as that facility lacked antiretroviral therapy (ART services (aRR=0.44, 95% CI (0.24 to 0.83, p=0.011. We found no evidence that PLHIV travelled further for care if the nearest facility supplies ART services (aRR=0.95, 95% CI (0.86 to 1.05, p=0.328. Among those who reported uptake of care at one of two facilities on the island that provides ART (81% of PLHIV and 68% of HIV-negative individuals, PLHIV tended to seek care at a higher tiered facility that provides ART, even when this facility was not their closest facility (30% of PLHIV travelled further than the closest ART facility compared with 16% of HIV-negative individuals, and travelled an additional 2.2 km (p=0.001 to access that facility, relative to HIV-negative individuals (aRR=1.91, 95% CI (1.00 to 3.65, p=0.05. Among PLHIV, residential distance was associated with access to facilities providing

  14. Malnutrition and mortality patterns among internally displaced and non-displaced population living in a camp, a village or a town in Eastern Chad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Guerrier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Certain population groups have been rendered vulnerable in Chad because of displacement of more than 200,000 people over the last three years as a result of mass violence against civilians in the east of the country. The objective of the study was to assess mortality and nutritional patterns among displaced and non-displaced population living in camps, villages and a town in the Ouddaï and Salamat regions of Chad. METHODOLOGY: Between May and October 2007, two stage, 30-cluster household surveys were conducted among 43,900 internally displaced persons (IDPs living in camps in Ouaddai region (n = 898 households, among 19,400 non-displaced persons (NDPs living in 42 villages in Ouaddai region (n = 900 households and among 17,000 NDPs living in a small town in Salamat region (n = 901 households. Data collection included anthropometric measurements, measles vaccination rates and retrospective mortality. Crude mortality rate (CMR, mortality rate among children younger than 5 years (U5MR, causes of death and the prevalence of wasting (weight-for-height z score <-2 among children aged 6 to 59 months were the main outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: The CMR among the 4902 IDPs in Gozbeida camps, 4477 NDPs living in a village and 4073 NDPs living in a town surveyed was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.2-2.8, 0.3 (95% CI, 0.2-0.4, 0.3 (95% CI, 0.2-0.5 per 10,000 per day, respectively. The U5MR in a camp (n = 904, a village (n = 956 and a town (n = 901 was 4.1 (95% CI, 2.1-7.7, 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3-0.9 and 0.7 (95% CI, 0.4-1.4 per 10,000 per day, respectively. Diarrhoea was reported to be the main cause of death. Acute malnutrition rates (according to the WHO definition among 904 IDP children, 956 NDPs children living in a village, 901 NDP children living in a town aged 6 to 59 months were 20.6% (95% CI, 17.9%-23.3%, 16.4% (95% CI, 14.0%-18.8% and 10.1% (95% CI, 8.1%-12.2% respectively. The study found a high mortality rate among IDPs and an elevated prevalence of

  15. Thoracic spine pain in the general population: Prevalence, incidence and associated factors in children, adolescents and adults. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straker Leon M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thoracic spine pain (TSP is experienced across the lifespan by healthy individuals and is a common presentation in primary healthcare clinical practice. However, the epidemiological characteristics of TSP are not well documented compared to neck and low back pain. A rigorous evaluation of the prevalence, incidence, correlates and risk factors needs to be undertaken in order for epidemiologic data to be meaningfully used to develop evidence-based prevention and treatment recommendations for TSP. Methods A systematic review method was followed to report the evidence describing prevalence, incidence, associated factors and risk factors for TSP among the general population. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched to identify studies that reported either prevalence, incidence, associated factors (cross-sectional study or risk factors (prospective study for TSP in healthy children, adolescents or adults. Studies were evaluated for level of evidence and method quality. Results Of the 1389 studies identified in the literature, 33 met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The mean (SD quality score (out of 15 for the included studies was 10.5 (2.0. TSP prevalence data ranged from 4.0–72.0% (point, 0.5–51.4% (7-day, 1.4–34.8% (1-month, 4.8–7.0% (3-month, 3.5–34.8% (1-year and 15.6–19.5% (lifetime. TSP prevalence varied according to the operational definition of TSP. Prevalence for any TSP ranged from 0.5–23.0%, 15.8–34.8%, 15.0–27.5% and 12.0–31.2% for 7-day, 1-month, 1-year and lifetime periods, respectively. TSP associated with backpack use varied from 6.0–72.0% and 22.9–51.4% for point and 7-day periods, respectively. TSP interfering with school or leisure ranged from 3.5–9.7% for 1-year prevalence. Generally, studies reported a higher prevalence for TSP in child and adolescent populations, and particularly for females. The 1 month, 6 month, 1 year and 25 year incidences were 0

  16. Evaluation of a digital method to assess evening meal intake in a free-living adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dahl Lassen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years new applications of technologies, including digital images, to capture dietary behaviour in real time have been explored. Objectives: To validate a digital method for estimating evening meal intake in a free-living adult population, and to examine the feasibility of the method for recording evening meal intake over a prolonged period of time. Design: The digital method was compared against weighed records of 19 participants’ usual evening meals for five consecutive days. Two trained image analysts independently estimated the weight of individual foods within the meals into major food categories, and the nutrient content was calculated. A second study included interviews with 28 participants recording their evening meals on weekdays for three consecutive weeks to get their perspective on the feasibility of the method. Results: High correlation coefficients between the digital method and weighed records were found for all measured food categories and nutrients. Comparable means and acceptable limits of agreement (mean difference +/− 2 SD were found with regard to macronutrient distribution (e.g. fat content −5 to 6 E%, energy density (−75 to 91 kJ/100 g, and energy-adjusted foods (e.g. fruit and vegetable content −241 to 236 g/10 MJ. The majority of the participants expressed satisfaction with the method and were willing to record their evening meals for 1 month or more using the digital method. Conclusion: The digital method is valid and feasible for evening meal estimation in real-time where a prolonged recording period of participants’ meals is needed.

  17. Partial replacement of fossil fuel in a cement plant: risk assessment for the population living in the neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Mari, Montse; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2010-10-15

    In cement plants, the substitution of traditional fossil fuels not only allows a reduction of CO(2), but it also means to check-out residual materials, such as sewage sludge or municipal solid wastes (MSW), which should otherwise be disposed somehow/somewhere. In recent months, a cement plant placed in Alcanar (Catalonia, Spain) has been conducting tests to replace fossil fuel by refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from MSW. In July 2009, an operational test was progressively initiated by reaching a maximum of partial substitution of 20% of the required energy. In order to study the influence of the new process, environmental monitoring surveys were performed before and after the RDF implementation. Metals and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in soil, herbage, and air samples collected around the facility. In soils, significant decreases of PCDD/F levels, as well as in some metal concentrations were found, while no significant increases in the concentrations of these pollutants were observed. In turn, PM(10) levels remained constant, with a value of 16μgm(-3). In both surveys, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks derived from exposure to metals and PCDD/Fs for the population living in the vicinity of the facility were within the ranges considered as acceptable according to national and international standards. This means that RDF may be a successful choice in front of classical fossil fuels, being in accordance with the new EU environmental policies, which entail the reduction of CO(2) emissions and the energetic valorization of MSW. However, further long-term environmental studies are necessary to corroborate the harmlessness of RDF, in terms of human health risks.

  18. Frequency, risk factors and preventive approach to fall among aged population living in a nursing home in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Kibar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Increase in aged population in number brings along the risk of falls and fall-related injuries among elderly. It has been reported that almost 60% of falls occur in nursing homes and majority of admissions to emergency departments due to falls consist of elderly. The purpose of this study conducted in a nursing home in Ankara was to determine the frequency of falls and risk factors, and to clear out the opinions and views of the participants on planning and promoting interventions for prevention. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 60 years of age and older residents who lived in a nursing home. Data of the study was collected via face to face interviewing technique. The questionnaire consisted of four sections including socio-demographic characteristics, health status of the participants, healthy/risky behavior and fall related characteristics. RESULTS: Mean age of the 75 female and 59 male participants involved in the study was 73.99+/-7.18. Females were found to fall more in frequency than males (p>0.05. It was found that nearly half of the males (47.5% and more than half of the females (56.0% fell at least once within the previous year. Number of falls were higher among 75 years of age and older participants compared to the other age groups (p=0.003. Compared to the participants with fall background, aged people without fall background gave more correct answers in number to the questions which were asked to assess the knowledge on falls. Six out of 20 answers were statistically significantly correct (p <0.05. CONCLUSION: Individual and environmental interventions to be continued both inside and outside the institutions in order to prevent falls. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 23-32

  19. Epilepsy Among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiranta, Elina; Sourander, Andre; Suominen, Auli; Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Brown, Alan S.; Sillanpää, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The present population-based study examines associations between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The cohort includes register data of 4,705 children born between 1987 and 2005 and diagnosed as cases of childhood autism, Asperger's syndrome or pervasive developmental disorders--not otherwise specified. Each case was matched to…

  20. No distinctions between different types of anxiety symptoms in pre-adolescents from the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, RF; van Lang, NDJ; Ormel, J; Verhulst, FC

    2006-01-01

    Studies aimed at anxiety symptoms in children from the general population samples often make distinctions between symptoms of Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Panic Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Given the high comorbidity rates between these disorders, the usefulness of such distinct

  1. A community-based mixed methods approach to developing behavioural health interventions among indigenous adolescent populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.L. Tingey

    2016-01-01

    Native American and indigenous populations experience the greatest behavioural health disparities in the world. A constellation of factors impacting Native American Tribes contributes to high rates and co-morbidity of mental health disorders, substance use and sexually transmitted infection (STI), a

  2. Epilepsy Among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiranta, Elina; Sourander, Andre; Suominen, Auli; Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Brown, Alan S.; Sillanpää, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The present population-based study examines associations between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The cohort includes register data of 4,705 children born between 1987 and 2005 and diagnosed as cases of childhood autism, Asperger's syndrome or pervasive developmental disorders--not otherwise specified. Each case was matched to four…

  3. Care of adolescent parents and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Jorge L; Jones, Veronnie F

    2012-12-01

    Teen pregnancy and parenting remain an important public health issue in the United States and the world, and many children live with their adolescent parents alone or as part of an extended family. A significant proportion of teen parents reside with their family of origin, significantly affecting the multigenerational family structure. Repeated births to teen parents are also common. This clinical report updates a previous policy statement on care of the adolescent parent and their children and addresses medical and psychosocial risks specific to this population. Challenges unique to teen parents and their children are reviewed, along with suggestions for the pediatrician on models for intervention and care.

  4. Sintomatologia depressiva em adolescentes iniciais: estudo de base populacional Depressive symptomatology in early adolescents: population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência de sintomatologia depressiva em adolescentes entre 11 e 15 anos em Pelotas, RS, e identificar seus fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional com amostra representativa de adolescentes da zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas, RS. Dos 448 setores censitários existentes no município, 79 foram aleatoriamente sorteados. Os jovens entre 11 e 15 anos localizados nestes setores foram convidados a responder o questionário auto-aplicado que continha perguntas sobre: idade, sexo, vida escolar, religião, atividades físicas, entretenimento, tabaco, consumo de álcool, uso de outras drogas, relacionamentos sexuais e conduta. Além disso, a sintomatologia depressiva dos adolescentes foi avaliada por meio da escala Children's Depression Inventory (CDI, também presente no instrumento de pesquisa. Para a análise dos dados foi utilizada a regressão logística ajustada ao modelo hierárquico. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de depressão foi de 2,1%. Após a regressão logística ajustada ao modelo hierárquico, estiveram significativamente associados à depressão: baixa condição socioeconômica, histórico de fracasso acadêmico, ausência de prática religiosa, abuso de álcool nos últimos 30 dias e indicativo de transtorno de conduta. CONCLUSÃO: É evidenciada a necessidade de programas preventivos e integrados de política na adolescência para depressão e comportamentos de risco à saúde.AIM: Verify the prevalence of depressive symptomatology in adolescents aged between 11 and 15 in Pelotas, RS, and identify its associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional base-populational study with a representative sample of adolescents of urban area of Pelotas, RS. Among the 448 census tracts in the urban area of Pelotas, 79 were randomly selected. Youths between 11 and 15 years answered a confidential self-report questionnaire on issues such as: age, gender, school life, religion, physical activities

  5. Extremely low microsatellite diversity but distinct population structure in a long-lived threatened species, the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri (Dipnoi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jane M; Schmidt, Daniel J; Huey, Joel A; Real, Kathryn M; Espinoza, Thomas; McDougall, Andrew; Kind, Peter K; Brooks, Steven; Roberts, David T

    2015-01-01

    The Australian lungfish is a unique living representative of an ancient dipnoan lineage, listed as 'vulnerable' to extinction under Australia's Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. Historical accounts indicate this species occurred naturally in two adjacent river systems in Australia, the Burnett and Mary. Current day populations in other rivers are thought to have arisen by translocation from these source populations. Early genetic work detected very little variation and so had limited power to answer questions relevant for management including how genetic variation is partitioned within and among sub-populations. In this study, we use newly developed microsatellite markers to examine samples from the Burnett and Mary Rivers, as well as from two populations thought to be of translocated origin, Brisbane and North Pine. We test whether there is significant genetic structure among and within river drainages; assign putatively translocated populations to potential source populations; and estimate effective population sizes. Eleven polymorphic microsatellite loci genotyped in 218 individuals gave an average within-population heterozygosity of 0.39 which is low relative to other threatened taxa and for freshwater fishes in general. Based on FST values (average over loci = 0.11) and STRUCTURE analyses, we identify three distinct populations in the natural range, one in the Burnett and two distinct populations in the Mary. These analyses also support the hypothesis that the Mary River is the likely source of translocated populations in the Brisbane and North Pine rivers, which agrees with historical published records of a translocation event giving rise to these populations. We were unable to obtain bounded estimates of effective population size, as we have too few genotype combinations, although point estimates were low, ranging from 29 - 129. We recommend that, in order to preserve any local adaptation in the three distinct populations that

  6. Convivendo com a hospitalização do filho adolescente Conviviendo con la hospitalización de hijo adolescente Living with a hospitalized adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindalva Carvalho Armond

    2004-12-01

    , los sentimientos vividos por la familia y la adaptación al mundo hospitalario, la religiosidad y la presencia de amigos en el proceso de enfrentamiento de la hospitalización, las transformaciones del hijo. Al reflexionar sobre la experiencia de los padres, contemplo la necesidad de considerar al adolescente y a su familia como un ser ahí, siendo en el mundo y siendo en el mundo con los otros.This study aimed to understand the experience of parents living with a hospitalized adolescent. Fifteen parents of hospitalized adolescents were interviewed from August to October of 2002. Data were analyzed through Martin Heidegger's phenomenological approach. Four themes were identified: the impact of the illness on the family, the feelings of the family members and the adaptation to the hospital world, religiousness and the presence of friends in the process of coping with hospitalization; changes in the adolescent. The results showed the importance of seeing the adolescent and his/her family as a being there, being-in-the-world and being-in-the-world-with-others.

  7. Living in isolation - population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation of the endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus (Cheddar pink).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Christina M; Schmid, Christoph; Reisch, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    The endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus exhibits a highly fragmented distribution range comprising many isolated populations. Based upon this pattern of distribution, we selected a study region in Switzerland with a lower magnitude of isolation (Swiss Jura) and another study region in Germany with a higher degree of isolation (Franconian Jura). In each region, we chose ten populations to analyze population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation in a comparative approach. Therefore, we determined population density, cushion size, and cushion density to analyze population structure, investigated reproductive traits, including number of flowers, capsules, and germination rate, and analyzed amplified fragment length polymorphisms to study genetic variation. Population and cushion density were credibly higher in German than in Swiss populations, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were similar in both study regions. However, genetic variation among populations and isolation by distance were stronger in Germany than in Switzerland. Generally, cushion size and density as well as flower and capsule production increased with population size and density, whereas genetic variation decreased with population density. In contrast to our assumptions, we observed denser populations and cushions in the region with the higher magnitude of isolation, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were comparable in both regions. This corroborates the assumption that stronger isolation must not necessarily result in the loss of fitness and genetic variation. Furthermore, it supports our conclusion that the protection of strongly isolated populations contributes essentially to the conservation of a species' full evolutionary potential.

  8. Online Positive Interventions to Promote Well-being and Resilience in the Adolescent Population: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Rosa M.; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Mira, Adriana; Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Botella, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown an alarming prevalence of depression, anxiety, and behavior disorders in youth. Thus, prevention of psychological problems in this population becomes crucial. According to the World Health Organization (1), prevention should also include the promotion and development of the individual’s strengths in order to reduce vulnerability to suffering from mental disorders. In addition, other key elements of prevention are the reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of interventions. The information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, have much to offer in terms of the prevention and promotion of positive mental health in adolescents. This paper reviews these fields of research—prevention, positive psychology, Internet, and adolescents—and discusses the potential of positive interventions delivered over the Internet as effective and sustainable health promotion tools. The paper provides a brief description of the systems developed so far and a summary of selected features of the studies detected in the literature review. The overall conclusions are that there is a need for more controlled studies with long-term follow-ups, the interventions should be designed considering the specific features of the target users and the specific contexts where the interventions will be delivered, and they could be enhanced by the use of other technologies, such as smartphones, sensors, or social networks. PMID:28194117

  9. Living with a Red Dwarf: Rotation and X-Ray and Ultraviolet Properties of the Halo Population Kapteyn's Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.; Durbin, Allyn

    2016-04-01

    As part of Villanova's Living with a Red Dwarf program, we have obtained UV, X-ray, and optical data of the Population II red dwarf -- Kapteyn's Star. Kapteyn's Star is noteworthy for its large proper motions and high radial velocity of ∼+245 km s-1. As the nearest Pop II red dwarf, it serves as an old age anchor for calibrating activity/irradiance-rotation-age relations, and an important test bed for stellar dynamos and the resulting X-ray-UV emissions of slowly rotating, near-fully convective red dwarf stars. Adding to the notoriety, Kapteyn's Star has recently been reported to host two super-Earth candidates, one of which (Kapteyn b) is orbiting within the habitable zone. However, Robertson et al. questioned the planet's existence since its orbital period may be an artifact of activity, related to the star's rotation period. Because of its large Doppler-shift, measures of the important, chromospheric H i Lyα 1215.67 Å emission line can be reliably made, because it is mostly displaced from ISM and geo-coronal sources. Lyα emission dominates the FUV region of cool stars. Our measures can help determine the X-ray-UV effects on planets hosted by Kapteyn's Star, and planets hosted by other old red dwarfs. Stellar X-ray and Lyα emissions have strong influences on the heating and ionization of upper planetary atmospheres and can (with stellar winds and flares) erode or even eliminate planetary atmospheres. Using our program stars, we have reconstructed the past exposures of Kapteyn's Star's planets to coronal - chromospheric XUV emissions over time. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #13020. This work is also based on observations obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, a NASA science mission, program #13200633.

  10. Generalized Anxiety Symptoms and Identity Processes in Cross-Cultural Samples of Adolescents from the General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Hale, William W.; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Abubakar, Amina; Gao, Cheng Hai; Pesigan, Ivan Jacob Agaloos

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 20 % of adolescents around the world experience mental health problems, most commonly depression or anxiety. High levels of anxiety disorder symptoms can hinder adolescent development, persist into adulthood, and predict negative mental outcomes, such as suicidal ideation a

  11. Youth Mental Health in a Populous City of the Developing World: Results from the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Zambrano, Joaquin; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Background: Because the epidemiologic data available for adolescents from the developing world is scarce, the objective is to estimate the prevalence and severity of psychiatric disorders among Mexico City adolescents, the socio-demographic correlates associated with these disorders and service utilization patterns. Methods: This is a multistage…

  12. Class Average Score for Teacher Support and Relief of Depression in Adolescents: A Population Study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Akiko; Noda, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Mieko; Tatsumi, Asami; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors contributing to the relief of depression among adolescents have not been sufficiently revealed. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of teacher support on depression in adolescent students. Methods: We conducted a self-rating questionnaire survey among 2862 junior high school students and 93 homeroom teachers in…

  13. Generalized Anxiety Symptoms and Identity Processes in Cross-Cultural Samples of Adolescents from the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Hale, William W., III.; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Abubakar, Amina; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Agaloos Pesigan, Ivan Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 20% of adolescents around the world experience mental health problems, most commonly depression or anxiety. High levels of anxiety disorder symptoms can hinder adolescent development, persist into adulthood, and predict negative mental outcomes, such as suicidal ideation and attempts. Objectives: We analyzed generalized…

  14. Childhood and adolescent predictors of leisure time physical activity during the transition from adolescence to adulthood: a population based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKercher Charlotte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated factors that influence physical activity behavior during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. This study explores the associations of sociodemographic, behavioral, sociocultural, attitudinal and physical factors measured in childhood and adolescence with physical activity behavior during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Methods Childhood and adolescent data (at ages 7-15 years were collected as part of the 1985 Australian Health and Fitness Survey and subdivided into sociodemographics (socioeconomic status, parental education, behavioral (smoking, alcohol, sports diversity, outside school sports, sociocultural (active father, active mother, any older siblings, any younger siblings, language spoken at home, attitudinal (sports/recreational competency, self-rated health, enjoyment physical education/physical activity, not enjoying school sports and physical (BMI, time taken to run 1.6 km, long jump factors. Physical activity between the ages 15 and 29 years was reported retrospectively using the Historical Leisure Activity Questionnaire at follow-up in 2004-2006 by 2,048 participants in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study (CDAH. Australia's physical activity recommendations for children and adults were used to categorize participants as persistently active, variably active or persistently inactive during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Results For females, perceived sports competency in childhood and adolescence was significantly associated with being persistently active (RR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.39, 2.55. Smoking (RR = 0.31 CI = 0.12, 0.82 and having younger siblings (RR = 0.69 CI = 0.52, 0.93 were inversely associated with being persistently active after taking physical and attitudinal factors into account. For males, playing sport outside school (RR = 1.47 CI = 1.05, 2.08, having active fathers (RR = 1.25 CI = 1.01, 1.54 and not enjoying school sport

  15. [Video games: are the motivations and intensity of use changing with age? Comparison between a population of adolescent and adult gamers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillon, J; Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M

    2014-03-01

    Despite the popularity of video games, few studies have been conducted in France on their use. The objective of this study was to gather data from a sample of French video game players to learn more about this population. This approach also aimed to examine whether differences exist between adolescent and adult gamers in terms of their motivations to play and whether this practice met the criteria for problem video game playing. A questionnaire collecting sociodemographic data and assessing the problems associated with the use of video games, as well as motivations to play, was distributed during a video game festival and on the Internet. A total of 778 people responded to the questionnaire. The results showed that there were few differences between adolescent and adult gamers. Both groups had an intense video game habit. The majority of them sometimes had the feeling of losing control of their use and sacrificed other activities to play video games. This last dimension was most frequently cited by adults. The feeling of spending more time playing was most frequently cited by adolescents. Concerning motivations to play, the two groups differed only on the score of the "social" dimension, significantly higher among adolescents.

  16. Counting Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  17. Homeless but connected: the role of heterogeneous social network ties and social networking technology in the mental health outcomes of street-living adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Kurzban, Seth; Ray, Diana

    2012-12-01

    Although social integration tends to have positive effects on the mental health of housed adolescents, the role of homeless adolescents' social networks is more ambiguous. Social network data were collected from 136 homeless adolescents in Hollywood, California to examine how network ties are associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Face-to-face relationships with street-based peers were a risk factor for both anxiety and depression, while contacting home-based friends through social networking technology was found to be protective for depression. Community-based and public agencies serving homeless adolescents should consider facilitating the maintenance of these protective relationships by providing internet access.

  18. Positive and negative qualities of South African adolescents' parent and peer relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, Elmien; de Jager, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Parent and peer relationships are important social resources for adolescents. South African research on adolescents' relationships, however, underemphasises these relationships as potential positive resources. Studies also tend to use samples from urban populations, while rural and semi-rural adolescent populations are neglected. This study focused on White and Coloured adolescents living in one South African semi-rural community and their ratings of positive and negative relationship qualities in relationships with parents and peers. Using the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI), we found that mothers, best friends and romantic partners were relatively equal sources of social support. Mothers' high ratings for support, conflict and punishment may point to mothers bearing the primary responsibility for child care. Fathers' low support ratings raise concern as father involvement is important for adolescents' well-being. White participants overall rated their relationship higher for support and lower for negative qualities than the Coloured participants.

  19. Long-term trends and patterns of fatal traumatic brain injuries in the pediatric and adolescent population of austria in 1980-2012: analysis of 33 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdan, Marek; Mauritz, Walter; Rusnak, Martin; Brazinova, Alexandra; Rehorcikova, Veronika; Leitgeb, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are of special concern in the pediatric and adolescent population because of high incidence, mortality, and potential years of life lost (PYLL). Knowledge on causes and mortality trends is essential for effective prevention. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term trends and causes of TBI-related mortality between 1980 and 2012 in the pediatric and adolescent populations of Austria. Death certificate data on TBI-related deaths of children and adolescents 0-19 years of age and exact population numbers were obtained from the Austrian Statistical Office. Five age groups were created. Mortality trends and causes of TBI were analyzed. PYLL were used to indicate the public health impact. Of 5319 identified TBI-related deaths, 75% were male victims. The annual mortality rates per 100,000 between 1980 and 2012 decreased from 25 to 2.6 in males, from 8.5 to 1.0 in females, and from 16.9 to 1.8 in the total population. Those 15-19 years of age had the highest mortalities, followed by 0-2 years of age. Over 80% of deaths were caused by accidents, inflicted TBIs were most common in those 0-2 years of age, and traffic accidents in those 15-19 years of age. In the studied period, 295,793 PYLL could be attributed to TBIs. Measures to prevent traffic accidents contributed significantly to the decrease of mortality and PYLL, especially in 15- to 19-year-old men. Causes and trends of TBI-related mortality exhibit age-group-specific patterns, and this knowledge could contribute to planning further preventive action to reduce TBI fatalities in the studied population.

  20. The Videographic Requirements Gathering Method for Adolescent-Focused Interaction Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Peyton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel method for conducting requirements gathering with adolescent populations. Called videographic requirements gathering, this technique makes use of mobile phone data capture and participant creation of media images. The videographic requirements gathering method can help researchers and designers gain intimate insight into adolescent lives while simultaneously reducing power imbalances. We provide rationale for this approach, pragmatics of using the method, and advice on overcoming common challenges facing researchers and designers relying on this technique.

  1. Living on three time scales: the dynamics of plasma cell and antibody populations illustrated for hepatitis a virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraud, Mathieu; Lejeune, Olivier; Musoro, Jammbe Z; Ogunjimi, Benson; Beutels, Philippe; Hens, Niel

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms involved in long-term persistence of humoral immunity after natural infection or vaccination is challenging and crucial for further research in immunology, vaccine development as well as health policy. Long-lived plasma cells, which have recently been shown to reside in survival niches in the bone marrow, are instrumental in the process of immunity induction and persistence. We developed a mathematical model, assuming two antibody-secreting cell subpopulations (short- and long-lived plasma cells), to analyze the antibody kinetics after HAV-vaccination using data from two long-term follow-up studies. Model parameters were estimated through a hierarchical nonlinear mixed-effects model analysis. Long-term individual predictions were derived from the individual empirical parameters and were used to estimate the mean time to immunity waning. We show that three life spans are essential to explain the observed antibody kinetics: that of the antibodies (around one month), the short-lived plasma cells (several months) and the long-lived plasma cells (decades). Although our model is a simplified representation of the actual mechanisms that govern individual immune responses, the level of agreement between long-term individual predictions and observed kinetics is reassuringly close. The quantitative assessment of the time scales over which plasma cells and antibodies live and interact provides a basis for further quantitative research on immunology, with direct consequences for understanding the epidemiology of infectious diseases, and for timing serum sampling in clinical trials of vaccines.

  2. Do eating behaviors in the general population account for country variance in glycemic control among adolescents with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; de Beaufort, Carine; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab

    2013-01-01

    . The frequency of intake of fruit, vegetables, sweets, sugary soft drinks, and daily breakfast was compared between the two groups. The glycemic control of the adolescents in the HSG cohort was determined by measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). RESULTS: Across countries in the HSBC survey....... METHODS: The study involved adolescents from 18 countries from (i) the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study (HBSC) and (ii) the HSG. There were 94 387 participants from representative HBSC samples of 11-, 13- and 15-yr-olds and 1483 11- to 15-yr-old adolescents with diabetes from the HSG...

  3. Neutralizing Antibody Responses to Antigenically Drifted Influenza A(H3N2) Viruses among Children and Adolescents following 2014-2015 Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Judith M.; Gross, F. Liaini; Jefferson, Stacie; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Archibald, Crystal Ann; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Susick, Michael; Moehling, Krissy; Spencer, Sarah; Chung, Jessie R.; Flannery, Brendan; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2016-01-01

    Human influenza A(H3N2) viruses that predominated during the moderately severe 2014-2015 influenza season differed antigenically from the vaccine component, resulting in reduced vaccine effectiveness (VE). To examine antibody responses to 2014-2015 inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) and live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) among children and adolescents, we collected sera before and after vaccination from 150 children aged 3 to 17 years enrolled at health care facilities. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were used to assess the antibody responses to vaccine strains. We evaluated cross-reactive antibody responses against two representative A(H3N2) viruses that had antigenically drifted from the A(H3N2) vaccine component using microneutralization (MN) assays. Postvaccination antibody titers to drifted A(H3N2) viruses were higher following receipt of IIV (MN geometric mean titers [GMTs], 63 to 68; 38 to 45% achieved seroconversion) versus LAIV (MN GMT, 22; only 3 to 5% achieved seroconversion). In 9- to 17-year-olds, the highest MN titers were observed among IIV-vaccinated individuals who had received LAIV in the previous season. Among all IIV recipients aged 3 to 17 years, the strongest predictor of antibody responses to the drifted viruses was the prevaccination titers to the vaccine strain. The results of our study suggest that in an antigenically drifted influenza season, vaccination still induced cross-reactive antibody responses to drifted circulating A(H3N2) viruses, although higher antibody titers may be required for protection. Antibody responses to drifted A(H3N2) viruses following vaccination were influenced by multiple factors, including vaccine type and preexisting immunity from prior exposure. PMID:27558294

  4. Unmet adolescent and young adult cancer survivors information and service needs: A population-based cancer registry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y.; Kato, Ikuko; Kent, Erin E.; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; West, Michelle M.; Hamilton, Ann S.; Zebrack, Brad; Bellizzi, Keith M.; Smith, Ashley W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We described unmet information and service needs of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors (15-39 years of age) and identified sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with these unmet needs. Methods We studied 523 AYAs recruited from 7 population-based cancer registries, diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, germ cell cancer or sarcoma in 2007-08. Participants completed surveys a median of 11 months from diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate associations between unmet (information and service) needs and sociodemographic and health-related factors. Results More than half of AYAs had unmet information needs relating to their cancer returning and cancer treatments. AYAs needing services, but not receiving them, ranged from 29% for in-home nursing to 75% for a support group. The majority of AYAs who needed a pain management expert, physical/occupational therapist, mental health worker or financial advice on paying for health care did not receive services. In multivariable analyses, older participants, men, participants of non-White race/ethnicity, and participants who reported less than excellent general health, or fair/poor quality of care were more likely to report unmet information needs. Factors associated with both unmet service and information needs included physical health or emotional problems interfering with social activities or having ≥ 3 physical treatment-related symptoms. Conclusions Recently diagnosed AYA cancer survivors have substantial unmet information needs varying by demographic and health-related factors. Implications for Cancer Survivors We identified subgroups of AYA cancer survivors with high unmet needs that can be targeted for interventions and referrals. PMID:22457219

  5. Prevalence of smoking, alcohol and substance use among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Denmark compared with the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders G.; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk of alcohol and substance abuse in adulthood. An unequivocal reason for this association has not yet been identified but it has been shown that pharmacological treatment...... is likely to reduce this risk. Aims: To test whether adolescents with ADHD in pharmacological treatment have a higher prevalence of smoking and use of alcohol and drugs than a matched control group from the general population. The study will also analyse associations between smoking, alcohol and drug use......, drugs and alcohol and the self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results: 21% of ADHD probands vs. 16% controls were daily smokers (P = 0.326). Among alcohol users, 52% of ADHD probands vs. 70% controls confirmed monthly alcohol intake (P = 0.014); 4% of cases...

  6. Is the cardiovascular risk profile of people living in Roma settlements worse in comparison with the majority population in Slovakia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babinska, Ingrid; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Bobakova, Daniela; Pella, Daniel; Panico, Salvatore; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Jarcuska, Peter; Jarcuska, Pavol; Zezula, Ivan; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova

    2013-01-01

    Roma constitute a large minority in several Central European countries, with a mostly disadvantaged societal and health position. The aim of this study was to assess biological and other cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in people living in Roma settlements and to compare them with non-Roma

  7. "The Only 13-Year-Old on Planet Earth without a Cell Phone": Meanings of Cell Phones in Early Adolescents' Everyday Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Bethany L.; Fletcher, Anne C.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular telephones have become an increasingly prevalent feature of contemporary American life, with usage often beginning during early adolescence. With this in mind, twenty 7th graders and their mothers participated in separate qualitative interviews regarding early adolescents' use of cell phones as well as perceived risks and benefits of such…

  8. Incidence Patterns and Trends of non-Central Nervous System Solid Tumours in Children and Adolescents. A Collaborative Study of the Spanish Population Based Cancer Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Mª José; Ardanaz, Eva; Felipe, Saray; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Ramos, María; Carulla, Marià; Chirlaque, Mª Dolores; Argüelles, Marcial V.; Martos, Carmen; Mateo, Antonio; Peris-Bonet, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe incidence patterns and trends in children (0-14 years) and adolescents (15-19 age-range) with solid tumours, except those of central nervous system (CNS), in Spain. Methods: Cases were drawn from eleven Spanish population-based cancer registries. Incidence was estimated for the period 1983-2007 and trends were evaluated using Joinpoint regression analysis. Results: The studied tumour groups accounted for 36% of total childhood cancers and 47.6% of those diagnosed in adolescence with annual rates per million of 53.5 and 89.3 respectively. In children 0 to 14 years of age, Neuroblastoma (NB) was the commonest (7.8%) followed by Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) (6.3%), bone tumours (BT) (6.2%) and renal tumours (RT) (4.5%). NB was the most frequently diagnosed tumour before the 5th birthday, while STS and BT were the commonest at 5-9 years of age, and BT and Carcinoma and other epithelial tumours (COET) at 10-14. COET presented the highest incidence in adolescents, followed by germ-cell tumours (GCT), BT and STS. These four diagnostic groups accounted for 94% of total non-CNS solid tumours, in adolescents. Overall incidence rates increased significantly in children up to 1996 with an annual percentage change (APC) of 2.6% (95%CI: 1.7; 3.6). NB and COET showed significant time trend (APCs: 1.4% and 3.8% respectively) while other tumour groups such as RT, STS, BT or GCT had no significant changes over time. A significant increase was present in NB under the age of 5 and in BT and STS in children aged 10-14 years. In adolescents there were significant increases for all tumours combined (APC=2.7; 95%CI: 1.8-3.6) and for STS, GCT and COET (APCs: 3.2%, 4.4% and 3.5% respectively), while other tumour groups such as hepatic tumours, BT or thyroid carcinomas showed a decreasing trend or no increase. Conclusions: Overall, the incidence of the studied cancers in children increased along the period 1983-1996 with no posterior significant rise, while the incidence

  9. Health assessment of children and adolescents living in a residential area of production for the disposal of rocket fuel: according to the results of the medical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uiba V.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to determine the real prevalence separate nosological forms in the child population living in residential zone installations for the disposal of rocket fuel. Materials and methods. By mobile teams of pediatric physicians there was conducted a comprehensive medical examination of 1621 children in the area of the site location for disposal of rocket engines solid fuel. Results. The surveyed contingent of the most common diseases of the endocrine system, disorders of nutrition and metabolism (21.2% of diagnoses, diseases of the musculoskeletal and connective tissue (19.2 percent, as well as individual symptoms, signs and deviations from the norm by 14.4%. Conclusion. Data indicating the pronounced impact of adverse environmental factors, not identified.

  10. Parental divorce in late adolescence does not seem to increase mental health problems: a population study from Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Zeratsion, Henok; Dalsklev, Madeleine; Bjertness, Espen; Lien, Lars; Haavet, Ole R; Halvorsen, Jon A; Bjertness, Cecilie B; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    2013-01-01

    Background Former studies have shown increased mental health problems in adolescents after parental divorce all over the Western world. We wanted to see if that still is the case in Norway today when divorce turns to be more and more common. Methods In a prospective study design, two samples were constituted, adolescents at a baseline survey in 2001/02 (n = 2422) and those at follow-up in 2003/04 (n =...

  11. Association between depressive symptoms in adolescence and birth outcomes in early adulthood using a population-based sample

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Nkansah-Amankra; Grace Tettey

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescent female depressive symptomatology is an unrecognized mood disorder that impairs health in adolescence or adulthood. However, the long-term effects of pre-pregnancy depressive symptoms on birth outcomes in adulthood have not been given adequate empirical assessments. Method: In this study, we assessed the relationship between the life time duration of depressive symptoms over a 14-year period and birth outcomes (LBW and PTB) among a sample of 6023 female respondents wh...

  12. Potentially traumatic interpersonal events, psychological distress and recurrent headache in a population-based cohort of adolescents: the HUNT study

    OpenAIRE

    Stensland, Synne; Dyb, Grete; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Zwart, John-Anker

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Recurrent headache co-occurs commonly with psychological distress, such as anxiety or depression. Potentially traumatic interpersonal events (PTIEs) could represent important precursors of psychological distress and recurrent headache in adolescents. Our objective was to assess the hypothesised association between exposure to PTIEs and recurrent migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) in adolescents, and to further examine the potential impact of psychological distress on this rel...

  13. Patterns of population structure and dispersal in the long-lived "redwood" of the coral reef, the giant barrel sponge ( Xestospongia muta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Vincent P.; Bernard, Andrea M.; Feldheim, Kevin A.; Shivji, Mahmood S.

    2016-09-01

    Sponges are one of the dominant fauna on Florida and Caribbean coral reefs, with species diversity often exceeding that of scleractinian corals. Despite the key role of sponges as structural components, habitat providers, and nutrient recyclers in reef ecosystems, their dispersal dynamics are little understood. We used ten microsatellite markers to study the population structure and dispersal patterns of a prominent reef species, the giant barrel sponge ( Xestospongia muta), the long-lived "redwood" of the reef, throughout Florida and the Caribbean. F-statistics, exact tests of population differentiation, and Bayesian multi-locus genotype analyses revealed high levels of overall genetic partitioning ( F ST = 0.12, P = 0.001) and grouped 363 individuals collected from the Bahamas, Honduras, US Virgin Islands, Key Largo (Florida), and the remainder of the Florida reef tract into at minimum five genetic clusters ( K = 5). Exact tests, however, revealed further differentiation, grouping sponges sampled from five locations across the Florida reef tract (~250 km) into three populations, suggesting a total of six genetic populations across the eight locations sampled. Assignment tests showed dispersal over ecological timescales to be limited to relatively short distances, as the only migration detected among populations was within the Florida reef tract. Consequently, populations of this major coral reef benthic constituent appear largely self-recruiting. A combination of levels of genetic differentiation, genetic distance, and assignment tests support the important role of the Caribbean and Florida currents in shaping patterns of contemporary and historical gene flow in this widespread coral reef species.

  14. Development of lower limb range of motion from early childhood to adolescence in cerebral palsy: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauge-Pedersen Henrik

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decreasing range of joint motion caused by insufficient muscle length is a common problem in children with cerebral palsy (CP, often worsening with age. In 1994 a CP register and health care programme for children with CP was initiated in southern Sweden. The aim of this study was to analyse the development of the passive range of motion (ROM in the lower limbs during all the growth periods in relation to gross motor function and CP subtype in the total population of children with CP. Methods In total, 359 children with CP born during 1990-1999, living in the southernmost part of Sweden in the year during which they reached their third birthday and still living in the area in the year of their seventh birthday were analysed. The programme includes a continuous standardized follow-up with goniometric measurements of ROM in the lower limbs. The assessments are made by each child's local physiotherapist twice a year until 6 years of age, then once a year. In total, 5075 assessments from the CPUP database from 1994 to 1 January 2007 were analysed. Results The study showed a decreasing mean range of motion over the period 2-14 years of age in all joints or muscles measured. The development of ROM varied according to GMFCS level and CP subtype. Conclusion We found a decreasing ROM in children with CP from 2-14 years of age. This information is important for both the treatment and follow-up planning of the individual child as well as for the planning of health care programmes for all children with CP.

  15. Trace metals in blood and urine of newborn/mother pairs, adolescents and adults of the Flemish population (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeyens, Willy; Vrijens, Jan; Gao, Yue; Croes, Kim; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Sioen, Isabelle; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Nawrot, Tim; Nelen, Vera; Van Den Mieroop, Els; Morrens, Bert; Loots, Ilse; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Leermakers, Martine

    2014-11-01

    The Flemish Centre for Environment and Health started with human biomonitoring in 2002 (FLEHS I: 2002-2006). The main goal of the second human biomonitoring cycle (FLEHS II: 2007-2011), was to determine mean values for a large number of pollutants in a representative sample of the general Flemish population. Values for Cd and Pb were updated, and a group of previously undetermined metals and metalloids (As, Mn, Cu and Tl) were included in some of the age groups. In this human biomonitoring program, three different age groups of the general Flemish population were monitored: 255 newborns and their mothers, 210 adolescents aged 14-15, and 204 adults between 20 and 40 years old. Trace elements were determined in cord blood and maternal blood of the mothers, in blood and urine of adolescents and in urine of adults. Determinants of life-style and personal factors were taken into account. The levels of trace elements in cord blood and maternal blood were for most elements at the lower end of the range found in literature. For Pb, As and Tl, a strong correlation (respectively r=0.43, 0.55 and 0.33; p<0.05) was found between levels in cord blood (respectively 8.6, 0.54 and 0.017 μg/L) and maternal blood (11.1, 0.64 and 0.028 μg/L), indicating that they are transported via the placenta from mother to fetus. The levels found in the adolescents and adults were compared with results from international biomonitoring studies, and were found to be in the same ranges. With the exception of Pb, all trace elements increased with increasing age group population. Finally, the results also showed that the levels of Cd and Pb in blood for this campaign (e.g. for Pb 8.6 and 14.8 μg/L in neonates and adolescents respectively) were lower compared to the first campaign (e.g. for Pb 14.7 and 21.7 μg/L in neonates and adolescents respectively), indicating a decrease over time. However, differences in sampling strategies might partially explain this observed trend.

  16. Dietary patterns in the population living in the Sami core areas of Norway--the SAMINOR study

    OpenAIRE

    Brustad, Magritt; Parr, Christine L; Melhus, Marita; Lund, Eiliv

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify dietary patterns and to investigate their association with selected life-style and demographic factors, ethnicity and self-perceived health. Study design. Population-based cross-sectional design, using food frequency questionnaires. METHODS: A total of 12,811 subjects aged 36-79 years participated from the municipalities in Norway where more than 5-10% of the population reported to be Simi in the 1970 Census, in addition to some selected districts. The data were colle...

  17. Living in Living Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and overview of current and potential applications of living technology to urban problems. Living technology can be described as technology that exhibits the core features of living systems. These features can be useful to solve dynamic problems. In particular, urban problems concerning mobility, logistics, telecommunications, governance, safety, sustainability, and society and culture are presented, while solutions involving living technology are reviewed. Finally, the usefulness of describing cities as living systems is discussed.

  18. A Novel Automated High-Content Analysis Workflow Capturing Cell Population Dynamics from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Live Imaging Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerz, Maximilian; Folarin, Amos; Meleckyte, Ruta; Watt, Fiona M.; Dobson, Richard J.; Danovi, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Most image analysis pipelines rely on multiple channels per image with subcellular reference points for cell segmentation. Single-channel phase-contrast images are often problematic, especially for cells with unfavorable morphology, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Live imaging poses a further challenge, because of the introduction of the dimension of time. Evaluations cannot be easily integrated with other biological data sets including analysis of endpoint images. Here, we present a workflow that incorporates a novel CellProfiler-based image analysis pipeline enabling segmentation of single-channel images with a robust R-based software solution to reduce the dimension of time to a single data point. These two packages combined allow robust segmentation of iPSCs solely on phase-contrast single-channel images and enable live imaging data to be easily integrated to endpoint data sets while retaining the dynamics of cellular responses. The described workflow facilitates characterization of the response of live-imaged iPSCs to external stimuli and definition of cell line–specific, phenotypic signatures. We present an efficient tool set for automated high-content analysis suitable for cells with challenging morphology. This approach has potentially widespread applications for human pluripotent stem cells and other cell types. PMID:27256155

  19. Multiple estimates of effective population size for monitoring a long-lived vertebrate: an application to Yellowstone grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L; Haroldson, Mark A; Luikart, Gordon; Paetkau, David; Whitman, Craig; van Manen, Frank T

    2015-11-01

    Effective population size (N(e)) is a key parameter for monitoring the genetic health of threatened populations because it reflects a population's evolutionary potential and risk of extinction due to genetic stochasticity. However, its application to wildlife monitoring has been limited because it is difficult to measure in natural populations. The isolated and well-studied population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem provides a rare opportunity to examine the usefulness of different N(e) estimators for monitoring. We genotyped 729 Yellowstone grizzly bears using 20 microsatellites and applied three single-sample estimators to examine contemporary trends in generation interval (GI), effective number of breeders (N(b)) and N(e) during 1982-2007. We also used multisample methods to estimate variance (N(eV)) and inbreeding N(e) (N(eI)). Single-sample estimates revealed positive trajectories, with over a fourfold increase in N(e) (≈100 to 450) and near doubling of the GI (≈8 to 14) from the 1980s to 2000s. N(eV) (240-319) and N(eI) (256) were comparable with the harmonic mean single-sample N(e) (213) over the time period. Reanalysing historical data, we found N(eV) increased from ≈80 in the 1910s-1960s to ≈280 in the contemporary population. The estimated ratio of effective to total census size (N(e) /N(c)) was stable and high (0.42-0.66) compared to previous brown bear studies. These results support independent demographic evidence for Yellowstone grizzly bear population growth since the 1980s. They further demonstrate how genetic monitoring of N(e) can complement demographic-based monitoring of N(c) and vital rates, providing a valuable tool for wildlife managers.

  20. Regional structuring of genetic variation in short-lived rock pool populations of Branchipodopsis wolfi (Crustacea: Anostraca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendonck, L; De Meester, L; Riddoch, B J

    2000-06-01

    The genetic structure of three metapopulations of the southern African anostracan Branchipodopsis wolfi was compared by analysing allozyme variation at four loci (PGM, GPI, APK, AAT). In total, 17 local populations from three sites (metapopulations) were analysed from rock pools in south-eastern Botswana ranging from 0.2 to 21 m(2) in surface area. In three populations we found significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg (H-W) equilibrium at one or more loci due to heterozygote deficiencies. Genetic variability at one site was significantly lower than at the other sites, which may be linked to a greater incidence of extinction and recolonisation, as the basins at this site are shallower and have shorter hydrocycles. Across all local populations, a significant level of population differentiation was revealed. More than 90% of this variation was explained by differentiation among sites (metapopulations), although this differentiation did not correlate with geographic distance, or with environmental variables. Genetic differentiation among populations within metapopulations was low, but significant at all sites. At only one of the sites was a significantly positive association measured between genetic and geographic distance among local populations. Our data suggest that persistent stochastic events and limited effective long-range dispersal appear to dominate genetic differentiation among populations of B. wolfi inhabiting desert rock pools. The lack of association between geographic distance and genetic or ecological differences between rock pool sites is indicative of historical stochastic events. Low heterozygosity, the significant deviations from H-W equilibrium, and the large inter- but low intra-site differentiation are suggestive of the importance of short-range dispersal. Gene flow between metapopulations of B. wolfi appears to be seriously constrained by distances of 2 km or even less.

  1. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III

    2007-01-01

    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  2. First results from dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the population from Madeira Island, Portugal. Part 1. Biomonitoring in blood of the general population living near to a solid waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel; Sampaio, C. [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Lisbon (Portugal); J. Mauricio Melim [Public Health Regional Dept., Funchal (Portugal); Aguiar, P. [National School of Public Health, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    The present study is one of a series of papers describing selected results of the ongoing projects, designed to ultimately evaluate the potential impact on public health of the updated solid waste incinerator. Addressing dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, specific aims of this study were: (i) to determine whether living in the vicinity of the Meia Serra incinerator increases the dioxin body burden of the general population; (ii) to investigate other potential determinants of dioxin exposure in this population for prevention priorities; (iii) to provide data on the extent and pattern of exposure of the general population to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds by determining respective toxicity levels and congeners profile in blood samples.

  3. Living Planet Report 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, J; Wackernagel, M. (ed.)

    2004-01-01

    The Living Planet Report is WWF's periodic update on the state of the world's ecosystems. This is measured using 2 main indicators. The first indicator is the fact that the Living Planet Index is derived from trends over the past 30 years in populations of hundreds of species of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians and fish. The Living Planet Index (LPI) is an indicator of the state of the world's biodiversity: it measures trends in populations of vertebrate species living in terrestrial, fre...

  4. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Cifuentes, Mario Ferney; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Córdoba-Rodríguez, Diana Paola; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years). Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS) sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001). The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia. PMID:27669294

  5. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation, M (median, and S (coefficient of variation tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years. Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001. The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia.

  6. Pilot of Te Tomokanga: A Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service Evaluation Tool for an Indigenous Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahu McClintock

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe acceptability of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS to Indigenous peoples is little studied. There has been a lack of evaluation tools able to take account of the more holistic approach to the attainment of mental health that characterises Māori, the Indigenous population of Aotearoa (New Zealand. This study aimed to develop such an instrument and establish some of its psychometric properties. Then, to use the measure to establish whānau (family or caregiver views on desirable CAMHS characteristics.MethodA self-administered survey, Te Tomokanga, was developed by modifying a North American questionnaire, the Youth Services Survey for Families (YSS-F. The intent of the tool was to record whānau experiences and views on service acceptability.The Te Tomokanga survey is unique in that it incorporates questions designed to examine CAMHS delivery in light of the Whare Tapa Whā[1], a Māori comprehensive model of health with a focus on whānau involvement and culturally responsive services. This mail or telephone survey was completed by a cohort of 168 Māori whānau. Their children had been referred to one of the three types of CAMHS, mainstream, bicultural, and kaupapa Māori[2], of the District Health Board (DHBs in the Midland health region, Aotearoa. The Midland health region is an area with a large Māori population with high levels of social deprivation.ResultsThe Te Tomokanga instrument was shown to have a similar factor structure to the North American questionnaire from which it had been derived. It identified issues relevant to Māori whānau satisfaction with CAMHS. The work supports the concept that Māori desire therapeutic methods consistent with the Whare Tapa Whā, such as whānau involvement and the importance of recognising culture and spirituality.The participants were generally positive about the services they received from the three different CAMHS types, which shows good acceptability of CAMHS for

  7. Adolescent health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paula G; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Greenley, Rachel Neff

    2002-06-01

    In this article, a biopsychosocial model of adolescent development is used as an organizing framework for a review of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention research with adolescent populations. During adolescence many critical health behaviors emerge, affecting future disease outcomes in adulthood. In addition, most of the predominant causes of morbidity and mortality in adolescence are unique to this period of development, indicating that health-focused interventions must be tailored specifically to adolescents. Moreover, it is during adolescence that lifelong patterns of self-management of and adjustment to chronic health conditions are established. Thus, an increased focus on adolescence in health psychology research is important both to improve the health of adolescents per se and to optimize health trajectories into adulthood.

  8. [Adaptive reactions of lipid metabolism in native and alien female representatives of Tofalaria population living under extreme environmental conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, L I; Darenskaya, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Dolgikh, M I; Semenova, N V

    2014-01-01

    Peculiarities of the state of lipid metabolism and of processes of lipid peroxidation--the antioxidant protection have been considered in female representatives of the native and alien population of Tofalaria in the age aspects. The obtained data indicate specificity of changes of level of parameters lipid metabolism not only in response to duration of effect of climatic factors, but also depending on belonging to different ethnic groups. Thus, in girls of the natural population of Tofalaria there is noted activation of adaptational-compensatory processes as compared with the alien ones, which is expressed as a significant decrease of atherogenic blood fractions and the general activation of the system of antioxidant protection. However, with age, in both ethnic groups a change of character of reactions of lipid peroxidation and lipid metabolism is noted, which is more expressed in the alien population.

  9. Diagnostics of suicidal behavior risks of children and adolescents in educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova T.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main techniques used in empirical studies abroad for diagnostics of risks of suicidal behavior in children and adolescents in population sampling: Beck Self-Rating Depression Inventory, The Hopelessness Scale for Children, Inventory of Suicide Orientation, Self-Destructive Thought Assessment Scale, The Life-Attitudes Schedule, A measure of adolescent potential for suicide (MAPS, Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale in adolescent samples, PATHOS, The Reasons for Living Inventory, Suicide Probability Scale (SPS, Validity of the Self-Harm Behavior Questionnaire

  10. Noise Exposures of Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humann, Michael; Sanderson, Wayne; Flamme, Greg; Kelly, Kevin M.; Moore, Genna; Stromquist, Ann; Merchant, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This project was conducted to characterize the noise exposure of adolescents living in rural and agricultural environments. Methods: From May to October, 25 adolescents ages 13 through 17, living either on a farm or a rural nonfarm, were enrolled in the study. Subjects received training on the correct operation and use of personal noise…

  11. Is comorbidity in adolescence a predictor for adult low back pain? A prospective study of a young population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2006-01-01

    ). The predictor variables used in this study were LBP, headache, asthma and atopic disease at baseline; the outcome variable was persistent LBP (>30 days during the past year) at follow-up. Associations between morbidity in 1994 and LBP in 2002 were investigated. RESULTS: LBP, headache and asthma in adolescence...... associated with future LBP and there is a large clustering of LBP, headache and asthma in adolescence.......BACKGROUND: It has previously been shown that low back pain (LBP) often presents already in the teenage years and that previous LBP predicts future LBP. It is also well documented that there is a large degree of comorbidity associated with LBP, both in adolescents and adults. The objective...

  12. The demographic impact of extreme events: stochastic weather drives survival and population dynamics in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, M; Daunt, F; Harris, M P; Wanless, S

    2008-09-01

    1. Most scenarios for future climate change predict increased variability and thus increased frequency of extreme weather events. To predict impacts of climate change on wild populations, we need to understand whether this translates into increased variability in demographic parameters, which would lead to reduced population growth rates even without a change in mean parameter values. This requires robust estimates of temporal process variance, for example in survival, and identification of weather covariates linked to interannual variability. 2. The European shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis (L.) shows unusually large variability in population size, and large-scale mortality events have been linked to winter gales. We estimated first-year, second-year and adult survival based on 43 years of ringing and dead recovery data from the Isle of May, Scotland, using recent methods to quantify temporal process variance and identify aspects of winter weather linked to survival. 3. Survival was highly variable for all age groups, and for second-year and adult birds process variance declined strongly when the most extreme year was excluded. Survival in these age groups was low in winters with strong onshore winds and high rainfall. Variation in first-year survival was not related to winter weather, and process variance, although high, was less affected by extreme years. A stochastic population model showed that increasing process variance in survival would lead to reduced population growth rate and increasing probability of extinction. 4. As in other cormorants, shag plumage is only partially waterproof, presumably an adaptation to highly efficient underwater foraging. We speculate that this adaptation may make individuals vulnerable to rough winter weather, leading to boom-and-bust dynamics, where rapid population growth under favourable conditions allows recovery from periodic large-scale weather-related mortality. 5. Given that extreme weather events are predicted to become

  13. The association between use of electronic media and prevalence of headache in adolescents: results from a population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straube Andreas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of electronic media, i.e. mobile phones, computers, television, game consoles or listening to music, is very common, especially amongst adolescents. There is currently a debate about whether frequent use of these media might have adverse effects on health, especially on headaches, which are among the most-reported health complaints in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between frequent use of electronic media and the prevalence of different types of headache in adolescents. Methods Data were derived from a population-based sample (n = 1,025, ages 13-17 years. Type of headache (i.e. migraine, tension-type headache, unclassifiable headache was ascertained by standardized questionnaires for subjects reporting headache episodes at least once per month during the last six months. Duration of electronic media use was assessed during personal interviews. Associations were estimated with logistic regression models adjusted for age group, sex, family condition and socio-economic status. Results Most of the adolescents used computers (85%, watched television (90% or listened to music (90% daily, otherwise only 23% of the participants used their mobile phones and only 25% played with game consoles on a daily basis. A statistically significant association between listening to music and any headache (odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.1 for 30 minutes per day, 2.1; 1.2-3.7 for 1 to 2 hours per day; 2.0; 1.2-3.5 for 3 hours and longer listening to music per day was observed. When stratifying for type of headache, no statistically significant association was seen. Conclusions Apart from an association between listening to music on a daily basis and overall headache, no consistent associations between the use of electronic media and different types of headache were observed.

  14. "Going beyond the call of doula": a grounded theory analysis of the diverse roles community-based doulas play in the lives of pregnant and parenting adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Quinn M; Nolte, Kim M; Gonzalez, Ainka; Pearson, Magan; Ivey, Symeon

    2010-01-01

    This article presents some of the most salient qualitative results from a larger program evaluation of pregnant and parenting adolescents who participated in a community-based doula program. Using grounded theory analysis, seven problem-solving strategies emerged that doulas apply in helping pregnant and parenting adolescents navigate multiple social and health settings that often serve as barriers to positive maternal- and child-health outcomes. The ethnographic findings of this study suggest that the doulas provide valuable assistance to pregnant and parenting adolescents by addressing social-psychological issues and socio-economic disparities. "Diverse role-taking" results in doulas helping pregnant adolescents navigate more successfully through fragmented social and health service systems that are less supportive of low-income adolescents, who are often perceived to be draining scarce resources. The findings have implications for the roles of community-based doulas assigned to low-income adolescents of color seeking to overcome obstacles and attain better educational and economic opportunities.

  15. The passive yet successful way of planktonic life: genomic and experimental analysis of the ecology of a free-living polynucleobacter population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin W Hahn

    Full Text Available The bacterial taxon Polynucleobacter necessarius subspecies asymbioticus represents a group of planktonic freshwater bacteria with cosmopolitan and ubiquitous distribution in standing freshwater habitats. These bacteria comprise <1% to 70% (on average about 20% of total bacterioplankton cells in various freshwater habitats. The ubiquity of this taxon was recently explained by intra-taxon ecological diversification, i.e. specialization of lineages to specific environmental conditions; however, details on specific adaptations are not known. Here we investigated by means of genomic and experimental analyses the ecological adaptation of a persistent population dwelling in a small acidic pond.The investigated population (F10 lineage contributed on average 11% to total bacterioplankton in the pond during the vegetation periods (ice-free period, usually May to November. Only a low degree of genetic diversification of the population could be revealed. These bacteria are characterized by a small genome size (2.1 Mb, a relatively small number of genes involved in transduction of environmental signals, and the lack of motility and quorum sensing. Experiments indicated that these bacteria live as chemoorganotrophs by mainly utilizing low-molecular-weight substrates derived from photooxidation of humic substances.Evolutionary genome streamlining resulted in a highly passive lifestyle so far only known among free-living bacteria from pelagic marine taxa dwelling in environmentally stable nutrient-poor off-shore systems. Surprisingly, such a lifestyle is also successful in a highly dynamic and nutrient-richer environment such as the water column of the investigated pond, which was undergoing complete mixis and pronounced stratification in diurnal cycles. Obviously, metabolic and ecological versatility is not a prerequisite for long-lasting establishment of abundant bacterial populations under highly dynamic environmental conditions. Caution should be exercised

  16. Parental Protectiveness and Unprotected Sexual Activity among Latino Adolescent Mothers and Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Janna; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Huang, Rong; Takayanagi, Sumiko; Cumberland, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Latino pregnant and parenting adolescents living in inner cities are one of the populations at risk for acquiring HIV. Although teen parenthood has been predominantly looked at with a focus on potential adverse physical, emotional, and socioeconomic outcomes for the mother and child; a growing body of literature has documented the strengths and…

  17. [Analysis of the health and living conditions of the urban population of Botucatu, SP (Brazil). II. Knowledge and opinion of the population on symptoms of diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carandina, L; Magaldi, C

    1989-06-01

    It was verified the extent of the information of the urban population of Botucatu, SP (Brazil) on health questions. Knowledge and opinions about frequency and severity of thirteen symptoms and signs of disease were researched in 1005 families sampled. The answers were analyzed according to age, sex, level of education and socio-economic level. They showed a tendency compatible with scientific medical knowledge. In the comparison of the sexes, by age, (young adult) women gave more value to the frequency and severity of most of the symptoms than men. The high scores observed for severity showed a tendency to decrease with the increasing level of education for all the symptoms. There were variations among the symptoms in the appreciation of frequency according to the socio-economic level, with a tendency to a decrease in the high scores related to severity, according to the increase in socio-economic level. The degree of information observed in the population contradicts the prejudice, still existing in the medical area, about laymen's lack of knowledge. The hypothesis that the sample studied had access to several sources of information, among them the extensive local network of medical services, is put forward.

  18. What are the living conditions and health status of those who don’t report their migration status? a population-based study in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabieses Baltica

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Methods Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. Outcomes: any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables; and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables. Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income, and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality. Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. Results About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV. The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs’ chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as

  19. Association between the Hygiene Index Values of Live Fresh Aquatic Products and Food-Borne Diarrhea in the Population of the Ningbo Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the association of the hygiene index values of live fresh aquatic products and food-borne diarrhea in the population of the Ningbo area in China. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN, histamine (HIS, indole, tetrodotoxin (TTX, and paralytic, neurotoxic, amnesic and diarrhetic shellfish poisons (PSP, NSP, ASP, and DSP, respectively in the samples of live fresh aquatic products and food-borne diarrhea cases in six studied districts were analyzed. Results indicate that the incidence rate of food-borne diarrhea is related to the hygiene index values. Aside from VBN, the main risk factors related to food-borne diarrhea in edible aquatic products include DSP (in marine fish, shrimp, and other shellfishes, NSP, and ASP (in marine shrimp and crab. Hygiene index values among different species were significantly different. No significant difference in the monitoring index values was found among the six different studied districts. The reported cases of food-borne diarrhea were positively associated with VBN and DSP in aquatic products in Haishu, Jiangbei, Zhenhai, and Beilun, as well as VBN and NSP in aquatic products in Jiangdong and Yinzhou. In conclusion, VBN, DSP, NSP, and ASP are important risk factors for the occurring of food-borne diarrhea in the population of the Ningbo area in China.

  20. The genetic population structure of wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) living in continuous rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fünfstück, Tillmann; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Morgan, David B; Sanz, Crickette; Breuer, Thomas; Stokes, Emma J; Reed, Patricia; Olson, Sarah H; Cameron, Ken; Ondzie, Alain; Peeters, Martine; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Cipolletta, Chloe; Todd, Angelique; Masi, Shelly; Doran-Sheehy, Diane M; Bradley, Brenda J; Vigilant, Linda

    2014-09-01

    To understand the evolutionary histories and conservation potential of wild animal species it is useful to assess whether taxa are genetically structured into different populations and identify the underlying factors responsible for any clustering. Landscape features such as rivers may influence genetic population structure, and analysis of structure by sex can further reveal effects of sex-specific dispersal. Using microsatellite genotypes obtained from noninvasively collected fecal samples we investigated the population structure of 261 western lowland gorillas (WLGs) (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) from seven locations spanning an approximately 37,000 km(2) region of mainly continuous rain forest within Central African Republic (CAR), Republic of Congo and Cameroon. We found our sample to consist of two or three significantly differentiated clusters. The boundaries of the clusters coincided with courses of major rivers. Moreover, geographic distance detoured around rivers better-explained variation in genetic distance than straight line distance. Together these results suggest that major rivers in our study area play an important role in directing WLG gene flow. The number of clusters did not change when males and females were analyzed separately, indicating a lack of greater philopatry in WLG females than males at this scale.

  1. Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Quanchao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tarim Basin, located on the ancient Silk Road, played a very important role in the history of human migration and cultural communications between the West and the East. However, both the exact period at which the relevant events occurred and the origins of the people in the area remain very obscure. In this paper, we present data from the analyses of both Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA derived from human remains excavated from the Xiaohe cemetery, the oldest archeological site with human remains discovered in the Tarim Basin thus far. Results Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that the Xiaohe people carried both the East Eurasian haplogroup (C and the West Eurasian haplogroups (H and K, whereas Y chromosomal DNA analysis revealed only the West Eurasian haplogroup R1a1a in the male individuals. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the Xiaohe people were an admixture from populations originating from both the West and the East, implying that the Tarim Basin had been occupied by an admixed population since the early Bronze Age. To our knowledge, this is the earliest genetic evidence of an admixed population settled in the Tarim Basin.

  2. Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer View this video ... Fund for Young Adults Vital Options Teens and Adolescents CureSearch Starlight Children's Foundation Teens Living with Cancer ...

  3. Disruptive behaviors and HPA-axis activity in young adolescent boys and girls from the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sondeijker, Frouke E. P. L.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Veenstra, René; Tiemeier, H.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2007-01-01

    It is important to investigate associations between biological factors and disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents. Antisocial, aggressive, and criminal behaviors in adults often begin early in life. Disruptive behaviors are often thought to be associated with low activity of the hypothalam

  4. Gambling in Ethnic Adolescent Populations: An Exploratory Study of the Utility of Problem Behaviour Theory as an Explanatory Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangeneh, Masood; Mann, Robert E.; McCready, John; Oseni, Lola

    2010-01-01

    Problem gambling is a growing concern among adolescents today. According to recent studies, rates of problem gambling among youth are higher than those reported by adults. Though few in number, studies have also shown certain ethnic communities to be prone to gambling-related problems and related problematic behaviours. As yet, there is no…

  5. Suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and social function in adolescents with eczema: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Jon A; Lien, Lars; Dalgard, Florence; Bjertness, Espen; Stern, Robert S

    2014-07-01

    There are few studies on psychosocial problems in adolescents with eczema. We performed a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study to explore the relationship of suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and social functioning with eczema. A total of 4,744 adolescents (18-19 years) were invited for the study, of whom 3,775 (80%) participated. The overall prevalence of current eczema was 9.7%. Among those with current eczema, 15.5% reported suicidal ideation compared with 9.1% among those without eczema, significantly associated in a multivariate model (odds ratio 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.31-2.68). In a subgroup analyses, the prevalence of suicidal ideation in those with both eczema and itch was 23.8%, and was significantly associated, compared with those without eczema (3.57, 2.46-5.67). Eczema was associated with mental health problems assessed by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (1.72, 1.21-2.45) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10 (1.63, 1.23-2.16). Five questions assessed social function: feeling attached to family and friends; thriving at school; experiencing bullying; and romantic relationships. Boys with current eczema were less likely to have had romantic relationships (1.93, 1.21-3.08). Eczema in late adolescence is associated with suicidal ideation and mental health problems but rarely with social problems. Our findings point to the importance of addressing mental health issues in adolescents with eczema.

  6. Association between depressive symptoms in adolescence and birth outcomes in early adulthood using a population-based sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Nkansah-Amankra

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This study provides compelling evidence that effects of elevated depressive symptomatology on LBW or PTB appear to be linked to a specific development period in adolescence. National policies to address social inequalities and stratification particularly in health at all stages of human development, will provide an important step in reducing depressive symptoms prior to early adulthood and in pregnancy and childbirth.

  7. The use of the GBI in a population of adolescent offspring of parents with a bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichart, CG; van der Ende, J; Wals, M; Hillegers, MHJ; Ormel, J; Nolen, WA; Verhulst, FC

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the psychometric properties and the usefulness of the General Behavior Inventory (GBI) in the adolescent age range. Method: The GBI, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children, Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) and the Youth

  8. NUCLEAR AND PERIPHERAL LSGS OF ADJECTIVES IN THE LEXICON OF DIALECT SPEAKERS (BASED ON THE SPEECH OF RESIDENTS LIVING IN SETTLEMENTS WITH MIXED POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko Svetlana Yuryevna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to review the adjectives as a part of dialect speakers' lexicon. The author reveals the composition of lexical and semantic groups (LSGs of adjectives that make part of nuclear and peripheral zones of adjectival subfield of functional and semantic field of lexicon of residents living in settlements with mixed population in Volgograd region. The author shows the heterogeneity of nuclear and peripheral zones of the field and reveals the differences between the adjective groups attributed to the actual kernel, co-nuclear area, near and far periphery. The analysis of LSGs as research units is carried out according to the four criteria (syntagmatic, paradigmatic, epidigmatic and functional. It allows determining the component composition of each segment of the field. The author characterizes adjectives which constitute the lexicon of dialect speakers and are included into various lexical and semantic groups, from the standpoint of their inflectional and derivational relations, abilities of combination, formal semantic links, taking into account the regularity, specialization and frequency of use as well as the stylistic coloring. The article demonstrates the content of elements of different languages and dialects in the lexicon of dialect speakers living in settlements with mixed population. It is revealed that in the nuclear zone there are lexical and semantic groups of adjectives expressing the meaning of features in correlation to the perception of the world, substances and materials, social and public sphere, kin and family relations, universal concepts, meanings and relationships, a person as a living being, a person and their inner world. The co-nuclear area comprises the groups of adjectives expressing the features which correlate to wildlife and nations. The near periphery includes the LSGs of adjectives representing the features of inanimate nature, settlements, the social sphere of human life. The area of far periphery

  9. Social capital in relation to depression, musculoskeletal pain, and psychosomatic symptoms: a cross-sectional study of a large population-based cohort of Swedish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starrin Bengt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social capital has lately received much attention in health research. The present study investigated whether two measures of subjective social capital were related to psychosomatic symptoms, musculoskeletal pain, and depression in a large population of Swedish adolescents. Methods A total of 7757 13-18 year old students anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2008 which included questions on sociodemographic background, neighbourhood social capital, general social trust, and ill health. Results Low neighbourhood social capital and low general social trust were associated with higher rates of psychosomatic symptoms, musculoskeletal pain, and depression. Individuals with low general social trust had more than three times increased odds of being depressed, three times increased odds of having many psychosomatic symptoms, and double the odds of having many symptoms of musculoskeletal pain. Conclusions The findings make an important contribution to the social capital - health debate by demonstrating relations between social capital factors and self-reported ill health in a young population.

  10. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease, Thalassemia, Sickle-Cell Anemia, and Iron-Deficiency Anemia among the UAE Adolescent Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Barakat-Haddad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of high blood pressure, heart disease, and medical diagnoses in relation to blood disorders, among 6,329 adolescent students (age 15 to 18 years who reside in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Findings indicated that the overall prevalence of high blood pressure and heart disease was 1.8% and 1.3%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence for thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia was 0.9%, 1.6%, and 5%, respectively. Bivariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the prevalence of high blood pressure among the local and expatriate adolescent population in the Emirate of Sharjah. Similarly, statistically significant differences in the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia were observed among the local and expatriate population in Abu Dhabi city, the western region of Abu Dhabi, and Al-Ain. Multivariate analysis revealed the following significant predictors of high blood pressure: residing in proximity to industry, nonconventional substance abuse, and age when smoking or exposure to smoking began. Ethnicity was a significant predictor of heart disease, thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia. In addition, predictors of thalassemia included gender (female and participating in physical activity. Participants diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia and iron-deficiency anemia were more likely to experience different physical activities.

  11. A narrative synthesis of the applicability of the CaR-FA-X model in child and adolescent populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tracy M; Hunter, Simon C; Rhodes, Sinéad M

    2017-03-13

    The CaR-FA-X model [Williams, J. M. G., Barnhofer, T., Crane, C., Hermans, D., Raes, F., Watkins, E., … Dalgleish, T. (2007). Autobiographical memory specificity and emotional disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 122-148. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.122 ] is the most prominent and comprehensive model of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) and provides a framework for OGM. The model comprises of three mechanisms, capture and rumination, functional avoidance and impaired executive control. These can independently, or in interaction, account for OGM. This systematic review aims to evaluate the existing research on the CaR-FA-X model, and trauma exposure studies specific to child and adolescent populations. The following databases were searched: "PsychInfo", "PsychArticles", "PubMed", "Web of Science", "Medline", "SCOPUS" and "Embase" for English-language, peer-reviewed papers with samples child and adolescent populations. Recommendations, proposals for future research and plausible explanations for the mixed findings are discussed.

  12. Men's perception of the experience of parenting in adolescence: a bioecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Ana Cândida Lopes; Meincke, Sonia Maria Könzgen; Schwartz, Eda; Oliveira, Adriane Maria Netto de; Soares, Marilu Corrêa; Jardim, Vanda Maria da Rosa

    2016-03-01

    Objective to know the perception of men of the experience of parenting during adolescence. Method a qualitative study conducted with five men who experienced paternity during adolescence. Data were collected by means of in-depth interviews at the homes of the subjects in August 2013, in a city of southern Brazil. The data were analysed with the theoretical model of Urie Bronfenbrenner. Results paternity in adolescence was a coming of age experience that triggered reflection on the role of the father and his duties. The referenced microsystem was the family and it influenced the development of parenthood. Paternity has implications during adolescence and repercussions throughout the lives of the subjects. Conclusion it is important to introduce the topic of fatherhood in the health and education systems in order for adolescents to exercise parenting in a healthy manner. Nursing plays an important role because it can assist this population and target attention toward the singularities of parenthood.

  13. Arab American Adolescents' Perceived Stress and Bullying Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albdour, Maha; Lewin, Linda; Kavanaugh, Karen; Hong, Jun Sung; Wilson, Feleta

    2016-11-01

    In 2012, 20% of high school students were bullied in the United States. Bullying is more prevalent among minority populations. Arab American adolescents receive little research attention and are described as the invisible population. This descriptive qualitative study was conducted with 10 Arab American adolescent bullying victims to describe their bullying experiences and related stress. In addition to being bullied because of health problems or social disadvantages, Arab American adolescents reported that they were bullied because of their ethnic/racial background and religious affiliation. Victims described high stress levels and anxiety which compromised their ability to function. They reported feeling sad, angry, overwhelmed, helpless, and hurt when they were bullied. They also lost control over their lives and self-confidence. Family and friends were sources of support but school administrators and teachers were not supportive. Implications for practice and future research were discussed.

  14. Body Mass Index Percentile Curves for 7 To 18 Year Old Children and Adolescents; are the Sample Populations from Tehran Nationally Representative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Hosseini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The children’s body composition status is an important indicator of health condition evaluated through their body mass index (BMI. We aimed to provide standardized percentile curves of BMI in a population of Iranian children and adolescents. We assessed the nationally representative of sample populations from Tehran. Materials and Methods: A total sample of 14,865 children aged 7-18 years was gathered. The Lambda-Mu-Sigma method was used to derive sex-specific smoothed centiles for age via the Lambda-Mu-Sigma Chart Maker Program. Finally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity with 95% confidence interval (CI was calculated. Results: BMI percentiles obtained from Tehran’s population, except for the 10th percentile, seem to be very slightly greater than the urban boys from all over Iran. BMI percentiles have an increasing trend by age that is S-shaped with a slight slope. Only in the 90th and 97th percentiles of BMI for girls, this rising trend seems to stop. Boys generally have higher BMIs than girls. The exceptions are younger ages of 90th and 97th percentiles and older ages of 3rd and 10th percentiles. A total number of 1,008 (13.20%; 95% CI: 12.46-13.98 boys and 603 (8.34%; 95% CI: 7.72-9.00 girls were categorized as overweight and obese. Obesity were observed in 402 (5.27%; 95% CI: 4.79-5.79 boys and 274 (3.76%; 95% CI: 3.35-4.22 girls. Conclusion: We construct BMI percentile curves by age and gender for 7 to 18 years Iranian children and adolescents. It can be concluded that sample populations from Tehran are nationally representative.

  15. Book Review Who lives where. Habitability conditions of the population living in the great Andalusian cities / Reseña Del Libro Quién vive dónde. Las condiciones de habitabilidad de la población que vive en las grandes ciudades andaluzas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sánchez González

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Who lives where. Habitability conditions of the population living in the great Andalusian cities Reseña Del Libro Quién vive dónde. Las condiciones de habitabilidad de la población que vive en las grandes ciudades andaluzas

  16. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2011-05-15

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: {yields} Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. {yields} We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. {yields} The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  17. MHC-DRB3 variation in a free-living population of the European bison, Bison bonasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, J; Kawałko, A; Wójcik, J M; Babik, W

    2007-02-01

    MHC genes play a crucial role in pathogen recognition and are the most polymorphic genes in vertebrates. Loss of variation in these genes in bottlenecked species is thought to put their survival at risk. We examined variation at the MHC II DRB3 locus in the European bison, Bison bonasus, a species that has undergone an extreme bottleneck: the current population originated from only 12 founders. We also tested for the association of DRB3 genes with the incidence of posthitis, a disease affecting the reproductive organs of bulls and posing a new threat to the survival of the species. We found very limited MHC diversity, with only four alleles segregating in a sample of 172 individuals from a free-ranging Białowieza population. The alleles were highly divergent and revealed the hallmark of positive selection acting on them in the past, that is, a significant excess of nonsynonymous substitutions. This excess was concentrated in putative antigen-binding sites, suggesting that selection was driven by pathogens. However, we did not observe departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, an indicator of strong ongoing selection. Neither have we found a significant association between DRB3 alleles or genotypes and susceptibility to posthitis. Alleles conferring resistance to males may have been lost during the extreme bottleneck the species had undergone.

  18. Growth models and shell morphometrics of two populations of Melanoides tuberculata (Thiaridae living in hot springs and freshwater pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim S. ISMAIL

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Two morphologically different populations of snail, Melanoides tuberculata (Muller, 1774, were observed at Azraq Oasis, Jordan. Snails at the hot spring, where water temperature is higher than ambient, looked larger than those at the pools. The purpose of this study is to find out if there are differences in morphometrics, age, and growth due to the variation in water temperature and to quantify these differences. Snails were randomly collected from both sites, measured and statistically and mathematically analyzed for age, growth, and shell morphometric. Results indicate that snails from hot spring and pools may survive for five and four years, respectively. Theoretically, snails from the hot springs may reach 56.0 and snails from the pools may reach 28.0 mm in length. However, observed lengths reached 30.0 and 19.6 mm, respectively. The relationships of the shell length to shell and dry weights are curvilinear. However, the relationships of the shell length to shell width, aperture length, and aperture width are linear. There is an indication of an effect due to temperature difference on the age, growth and the morphometrics of the two populations of M. tuberculata.

  19. Monitoring metals in the population living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: levels in hair of school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Martí; Bocio, Ana; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, Jose L

    2005-06-01

    Hair samples of 134 school children (12-14 yr old) living in three residential zones in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) (Constanti, Tarragona County, Catalonia, Spain) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl), and vanadium (V) concentrations. These concentrations were compared with those obtained in a baseline survey performed in the same area during the period of construction of the HWI. Current mean concentrations ranged from values under the respective limit of detection (As, Be, Cd, Tl, and V) to 0.70 and 0.86 microg/g for Hg and Pb, respectively. In comparison to the baseline survey, the levels of Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Sn showed a significant reduction, whereas Hg concentrations were similar. No significant differences were observed according to the sex of the children. However, some differences were noted, especially for Pb and Cr, with respect to the specific zone of residence. In general terms, the current metal levels in hair of school children are similar or even lower than those recently reported for a number of industrial and residential areas of various regions and countries.

  20. Long-lived states of magnetically equivalent spins populated by dissolution-DNP and revealed by enzymatic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornet, Aurélien; Ji, Xiao; Mammoli, Daniele; Vuichoud, Basile; Milani, Jonas; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Jannin, Sami

    2014-12-15

    Hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP) offers a way of enhancing NMR signals by up to five orders of magnitude in metabolites and other small molecules. Nevertheless, the lifetime of hyperpolarization is inexorably limited, as it decays toward thermal equilibrium with the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time. This lifetime can be extended by storing the hyperpolarization in the form of long-lived states (LLS) that are immune to most dominant relaxation mechanisms. Levitt and co-workers have shown how LLS can be prepared for a pair of inequivalent spins by D-DNP. Here, we demonstrate that this approach can also be applied to magnetically equivalent pairs of spins such as the two protons of fumarate, which can have very long LLS lifetimes. As in the case of para-hydrogen, these hyperpolarized equivalent LLS (HELLS) are not magnetically active. However, a chemical reaction such as the enzymatic conversion of fumarate into malate can break the magnetic equivalence and reveal intense NMR signals.

  1. Long-Lived States of Magnetically Equivalent Spins Populated by Dissolution-DNP and Revealed by Enzymatic Reactions**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornet, Aurélien; Ji, Xiao; Mammoli, Daniele; Vuichoud, Basile; Milani, Jonas; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Jannin, Sami

    2014-01-01

    Hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (d-DNP) offers a way of enhancing NMR signals by up to five orders of magnitude in metabolites and other small molecules. Nevertheless, the lifetime of hyperpolarization is inexorably limited, as it decays toward thermal equilibrium with the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time. This lifetime can be extended by storing the hyperpolarization in the form of long-lived states (LLS) that are immune to most dominant relaxation mechanisms. Levitt and co-workers have shown how LLS can be prepared for a pair of inequivalent spins by d-DNP. Here, we demonstrate that this approach can also be applied to magnetically equivalent pairs of spins such as the two protons of fumarate, which can have very long LLS lifetimes. As in the case of para-hydrogen, these hyperpolarized equivalent LLS (HELLS) are not magnetically active. However, a chemical reaction such as the enzymatic conversion of fumarate into malate can break the magnetic equivalence and reveal intense NMR signals. PMID:25346515

  2. Adolescents and their music. Insights into the health of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E F; Hendee, W R

    During adolescence, teenagers are expected to develop standards of behavior and reconcile them with their perceptions of adult standards. In this context, music, a powerful medium in the lives of adolescents, offers conflicting values. The explicit sexual and violent lyrics of some forms of music often clash with the themes of abstinence and rational behavior promoted by adult society. Identification with rock music, particularly those styles that are rejected by adults, functions to separate adolescents from adult society. Some forms of rock music extend well beyond respectability in fulfilling this definitional role. Total immersion into a rock subculture, such as heavy metal, may be both a portrait of adolescent alienation and an unflattering reflection of an adolescent's perception of the moral and ethical duplicity of adult society. Physicians should be aware of the role of music in the lives of adolescents and use music preferences as clues to the emotional and mental health of adolescents.

  3. A pilot study examining the effects of consuming a high-protein vs normal-protein breakfast on free-living glycemic control in overweight/obese 'breakfast skipping' adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, L B; Reynolds, L J; Douglas, S M; Kearney, M L; Hoertel, H A; Shafer, R S; Thyfault, J P; Leidy, H J

    2015-09-01

    To examine whether the daily consumption of normal-protein (NP) vs higher-protein (HP) breakfasts improve free-living glycemic control in overweight/obese, 'breakfast skipping' adolescents. Twenty-eight healthy, but overweight, teens (age: 19±1 year; BMI: 29.9±0.8 kg m(-2)) completed a 12-week randomized parallel-arm study in which the adolescents consumed either a 350 kcal NP breakfast (13 g protein) or HP breakfast (35 g protein). Pre- and post-study 24-h blood glucose measures were assessed using continuous glucose monitoring. Although no main effects of time or group were detected, time by group interactions were observed. Post hoc pairwise comparisons assessing the post-pre changes revealed that the daily consumption of the HP breakfasts tended to reduce the 24-h glucose variability (s.d.) vs NP (-0.17±0.09 vs +0.09±0.10 s.d.; P=0.06) and tended to reduce the time spent above the high glucose limit (-292±118 vs -24±80 min; P=0.09). The consumption of the HP breakfasts also reduced the 24-h maximal (peak) glucose response (-0.94±0.36 vs +0.30±0.18 mmol l(-1); Pbreakfast, containing 35 g of high-quality protein, has better efficacy at improving free-living glycemic control compared with a NP breakfast in overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, 'breakfast skipping' adolescents.

  4. Recreational drug use among individuals living with HIV in Europe: review of the prevalence, comparison with the general population and HIV guidelines recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noe eGarin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDAdherence problems, interactions and higher rate of risk activities have been observed in HIV individuals using recreational drugs. Our aim was to describe recreational drug use in both HIV individuals and general population in Europe, and to assess at what extent HIV guidelines address this issue.METHODSData on recreational drug use across Europe were obtained from the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction for the general population, and through Pubmed search. for HIV patients. We assessed the incorporation of recreational drug issues in HIV treatment guidelines for the following topics: a recreational drugs; b adherence to antiretrovirals; c interactions; d transmission risk. Guidelines included: World Health Organization; European Aids Clinical Society; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; International Antiviral Society-USA; and seven European national guidelines.RESULTS29 countries reported recreational drug use in general population. The highest prevalences were observed for Cannabis (i.e. 8-10% in Spain, France and Czech Republic followed by cocaine, amphetamines and ecstasy. The 13 studies selected in the systematic review showed a great variability in recreational drug use on the HIV population. Apart from classical recreational drugs, we found a relevant use of new drugs including sexual experience enhancers. Polydrug consumption was about 50% in some studies. Most guidelines included general information about recreational drugs, showing great variability on the inclusion of the evaluated topics. We found more specific, evidence-based recommendations on interactions, followed by medication adherence and transmission risk.CONCLUSIONSAvailable data on the people living with HIV suggest a higher use of recreational drugs than in the general population, which is already relevant. However, recreational drug issues should be included or addressed more thoroughly in most guidelines.

  5. Label-free detection of neuronal differentiation in cell populations using high-throughput live-cell imaging of PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Weber

    Full Text Available Detection of neuronal cell differentiation is essential to study cell fate decisions under various stimuli and/or environmental conditions. Many tools exist that quantify differentiation by neurite length measurements of single cells. However, quantification of differentiation in whole cell populations remains elusive so far. Because such populations can consist of both proliferating and differentiating cells, the task to assess the overall differentiation status is not trivial and requires a high-throughput, fully automated approach to analyze sufficient data for a statistically significant discrimination to determine cell differentiation. We address the problem of detecting differentiation in a mixed population of proliferating and differentiating cells over time by supervised classification. Using nerve growth factor induced differentiation of PC12 cells, we monitor the changes in cell morphology over 6 days by phase-contrast live-cell imaging. For general applicability, the classification procedure starts out with many features to identify those that maximize discrimination of differentiated and undifferentiated cells and to eliminate features sensitive to systematic measurement artifacts. The resulting image analysis determines the optimal post treatment day for training and achieves a near perfect classification of differentiation, which we confirmed in technically and biologically independent as well as differently designed experiments. Our approach allows to monitor neuronal cell populations repeatedly over days without any interference. It requires only an initial calibration and training step and is thereafter capable to discriminate further experiments. In conclusion, this enables long-term, large-scale studies of cell populations with minimized costs and efforts for detecting effects of external manipulation of neuronal cell differentiation.

  6. [Selection and destruction--treatment of "unworthy-to-live" children in the Third Reich and the role of child and adolescent psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, M

    2001-03-01

    During the period of National Socialism in Germany, many "asocial", mentally retarded or disabled minors were persecuted. Several measures had been discussed theoretically before, but the National Socialists put the theoretical proposals into practice. As a result children and adolescents were separated, sterilized or killed. In concentration camps so-called "depraved" minors were selected to get special education. The object of this effort was to adapt minors to the ideology of national socialism. After passing the law to sterilize patients with "hereditary diseases" in 1933 about 375.000 people were sterilized unvoluntarily. In 193/span>9 sterilizations came to an end except for adolescents at "high risk of reproduction". During the second world war more than 160.000 adult psychiatric patients were murdered. In addition to that, also a large number of disabled and mentally retarded minors were killed. This campaign was called child "euthanasia". Physicians tried to determine children's "value of life" by economic criteria. Children with negative ratings (i.e. inability to work or insufficient mental maturing) were killed by fasting "cures" or by barbiturates. Beyond that children were also used as research subjects. Their death was an accepted consequence. Physicians were also very interested in brain research. Finally, the relation to German child and adolescent psychiatry will be analysed. In the special political and social context of the Third Reich the German child and adolescent psychiatry became more significant. As a result of this the German association of child and adolescent psychiatry and allied professions was founded 1940 in Vienna. On this conference, some speakers suggested to persecute "asocial" minors. This suggestion was realized consequently. Up to now, the role of the German child and adolescent psychiatry has not been thoroughly discussed.

  7. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4{+-}2.3 {mu}g/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0{+-}2.2 {mu}g/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  8. Does arsenic in soil contribute to arsenic urinary concentrations in a French population living in a naturally arsenic contaminated area?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillol, Clemence, E-mail: c.fillol@invs.sante.fr [Universite Paris Descartes, Laboratoire Sante Publique et Environnement, EA 4064, Paris (France); Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Departement Sante Environnement, Saint-Maurice (France); Dor, Frederic [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Departement Sante Environnement, Saint-Maurice (France); Clozel, Blandine [BRGM French Geological Survey, Service Geologique Regional Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Goria, Sarah [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Departement Sante Environnement, Saint-Maurice (France); Seta, Nathalie [Universite Paris Descartes, Laboratoire Sante Publique et Environnement, EA 4064, Paris (France); AP-HP, Hopital Bichat-Claude Bernard, Biochimie, Paris (France)

    2010-11-01

    A cross sectional study using environmental and biological samples was implemented to assess the association between arsenic (As) concentrations in the environment and urinary As levels of residents living in an area where the soil is naturally As rich. As was measured in drinking water, atmospheric particulate matter, and soil and a geographic information system was used to assign environmental concentrations closest to the participants' dwellings and the sum of inorganic As and metabolites in urine samples. The only potential source of As environmental contamination was from soil with a range of 13-131 mg As/kg of dry matter. As(V) was the only species present among As extracted from the analyzed soil samples. The chemical extraction showed a poor mobility of As soil. There was no difference between child and teenager, and adult urinary As concentrations, though men had higher urinary As concentrations than women (p < 0.001). Given the important differences in lifestyle between 7-18 year olds, men, and women, these groups were analyzed separately. Whilst we were unable to find a stable model for the 7-18 year old group, for the adult men group we found that seafood consumption in the 3 days prior to the investigation (p = 0.02), and beer (p = 0.03) and wine consumption in the 4 days before the study, were associated with As urinary levels ({mu}g/L). In adult women, creatinine was the only variable significantly associated with As urinary concentration ({mu}g/L). The concentrations we measured in soils were variable and although high, only moderately so and no link between As concentrations in the soil and urinary As concentrations could be found for either men or women. Some individual factors explained half of the variability of adult men urinary As levels. The unexplained part of the variability should be searched notably in As mobility in soil and uncharacterized human behavior.

  9. Prevalence and co-occurrence of psychiatric symptom clusters in the U.S. adolescent population using DISC predictive scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega William A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To estimate 12-month prevalence and co-occurrence of symptoms of specific mental problems among US adolescents (12–17 years by age, sex and racial/ethnic subgroups. Method Data from the 2000 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse (NHSDA adolescent sample are used to estimate prevalence and co-occurrence rates using the DISC predictive scales. Multiple logistic regressions were used to derive significant correlates of each domain of DPS-derived symptom cluster indicators of psychiatric problems and of severe comorbidity, with control of demographics and environmental factors. Setting The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA, a national household probability sample, includes a nationally representative sample of 12–17 year-old adolescents (N = 19,430, through in-home surveys. Results Three out of five adolescents screened positive for at least one DPS symptom cluster with estimates for specific symptom cluster ranging over 9.7% (substance use disorder, 13.4% (affective, 36.3% (disruptive-behavior, and 40.1% (anxiety. Co-occurrence was high with almost one-third of any DPS symptom cluster reporting multiple positive screens of four or more clusters. Blacks and younger females were most likely to report mental health problems and co-occurrence. Conclusion Mental health problems among U.S. youth may be far more common than previously believed, although these symptoms have not yet reached the point of clinical impairment. The data speak to important patterns of age, gender and racial/ethnic differences in mental health problems deserving of further study.

  10. Developing an Emotional Intelligence Program Training and Study Its Effectiveness on Emotional Intelligence of Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Problems That Living in Single Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Farzaneh; Ghobari-Bonab, Bagher; Beh-pajooh, Ahmad; Yekta, Mohsen Shokoohi; Afrooz, Gholam Ali

    2017-01-01

    Development of children and adolescents' personality is strongly affected by their parents, and absence of one of them has an undesirable effect on their development, and makes them vulnerable to later psychological disorders and behavioral problems. The purpose of this study was to develop an emotional intelligence training program and to…

  11. A mobile phone food record app to digitally capture dietary intake for adolescents in a free-living environment: Usability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies; hence, a food record application (FRapp) may be used as a tool to promote a better understanding of adolescent’s dietary intake and eating patt...

  12. Variations in linear body measurements and establishing prediction equations for live weight of indigenous sheep populations of southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aberra Melesse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to describe variations in morphometrical traits and determine the usefulness of some linear body measurements in predicting body weight (BW of indigenous sheep populations reared in KmabataTembaro-Hadiya (KTH, Wolaita (WOL, Gamogofa (GAG, Gurage-Silti (GUS and Sidama-Gedeo (SIG zones of Southern Region of Ethiopia. Data were obtained from 2712 sheep that were drawn from 928 households. The BW and height at withers (HW in WOL and SIG ewes aged 1-2 years was significantly high compared to others. High chest girth (CG values were obtained from SIG, GAG, and GUS ewes. Ewes of SIG, WOL, KTH and GAG had significantly high body length (BL. Significantly high CG values were obtained from SIG and GAG ewes. Rams of WOL, KTH and GUS had significantly high BW, BL and HW. Body weight of KTH, WOL and GAG ewes aged 1 year and above 2 years and rams is better estimated using CG alone. However, the best predictor for KTH, WOL and GAG ewes aged 1-2 years old were CG, HW and BL. In conclusion, CG was the primary variable to explain most of the variations in BW and can be used as reliable predictor for studied sheep types. SIG and WOL sheep had a relatively large body frame and emphasis may be given for their improvement.

  13. Complementary Medicine Health Literacy among a Population of Older Australians Living in Retirement Villages: A Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A. Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Older Australians are consumers of high levels of complementary medicines. The aim of this study was to examine health literacy in a population of older Australians related to their use of complementary medicine. Methods. A two-phase sequential mixed method design incorporating quantitative and qualitative methods was used in this study. The first phase consisted of a cross-sectional survey using a validated health literacy questionnaire and follow-up interviews with 11 residents of retirement villages. Interviews explored low scoring domains on the health literacy questionnaire. Results. Health literacy competencies scored higher for the domains of having sufficient information to manage their health; felt understood and supported by health care providers; actively managed their health; and having social support for health. Three health literacy domains scored low including appraisal of health information; ability to find good information; and navigating the health care system. The findings suggest that participants had different experiences navigating the health care system to access information and services relating to complementary medicines. Two themes of “trust” and “try and see” provide insight into how this group of older Australians appraised health information in relation to complementary medicines. Conclusions. With a focus on self-care there is a need for improved health literacy skills.

  14. Complementary Medicine Health Literacy among a Population of Older Australians Living in Retirement Villages: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline A; Chang, Esther; Brownhill, Suzanne; Barr, Kylie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Older Australians are consumers of high levels of complementary medicines. The aim of this study was to examine health literacy in a population of older Australians related to their use of complementary medicine. Methods. A two-phase sequential mixed method design incorporating quantitative and qualitative methods was used in this study. The first phase consisted of a cross-sectional survey using a validated health literacy questionnaire and follow-up interviews with 11 residents of retirement villages. Interviews explored low scoring domains on the health literacy questionnaire. Results. Health literacy competencies scored higher for the domains of having sufficient information to manage their health; felt understood and supported by health care providers; actively managed their health; and having social support for health. Three health literacy domains scored low including appraisal of health information; ability to find good information; and navigating the health care system. The findings suggest that participants had different experiences navigating the health care system to access information and services relating to complementary medicines. Two themes of "trust" and "try and see" provide insight into how this group of older Australians appraised health information in relation to complementary medicines. Conclusions. With a focus on self-care there is a need for improved health literacy skills.

  15. Complementary Medicine Health Literacy among a Population of Older Australians Living in Retirement Villages: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Esther; Brownhill, Suzanne; Barr, Kylie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Older Australians are consumers of high levels of complementary medicines. The aim of this study was to examine health literacy in a population of older Australians related to their use of complementary medicine. Methods. A two-phase sequential mixed method design incorporating quantitative and qualitative methods was used in this study. The first phase consisted of a cross-sectional survey using a validated health literacy questionnaire and follow-up interviews with 11 residents of retirement villages. Interviews explored low scoring domains on the health literacy questionnaire. Results. Health literacy competencies scored higher for the domains of having sufficient information to manage their health; felt understood and supported by health care providers; actively managed their health; and having social support for health. Three health literacy domains scored low including appraisal of health information; ability to find good information; and navigating the health care system. The findings suggest that participants had different experiences navigating the health care system to access information and services relating to complementary medicines. Two themes of “trust” and “try and see” provide insight into how this group of older Australians appraised health information in relation to complementary medicines. Conclusions. With a focus on self-care there is a need for improved health literacy skills. PMID:27429638

  16. Investigation on possible transmission of monkeys' Plasmodium to human in a populations living in the equatorial rainforest of the Democratic republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieudonné Makaba Mvumbi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodiums are protozoa that may infect various hosts. Only five species are now recognized as naturally parasitizing humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium knowlesi. This fifth species, P. knowlesi, previously identified as naturally parasitizing the monkey Macaca fascicularis, has been microscopically confused for a long time with P. malariae or P. falciparum and it was not possible to correctly differentiate them until the advent of molecular biology. To date, natural human infections with P. knowlesi only occur in Southeast Asia and a similar phenomenon of natural transmission of simian plasmodium to humans has not been reported elsewhere. This study was conducted to investigate a possible transmission of African small monkey's plasmodium to humans in populations living near the rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC where several species of non-human primates are living. Two successive real-time PCRs were identified in the literature and used in combination for purpose. Only P. falciparum was found in this study. However, studies with larger samples and with more advanced techniques should be conducted.

  17. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (kap) regarding influenza A (H1N1) among a population living along Thai-Myanmar border, Ratchaburi Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukmanee, Natefa; Yimsamran, Surapon; Rukmanee, Prasert; Thanyavanich, Nipon; Maneeboonyang, Wanchai; Puangsa-art, Supalarp; Wuthisen, Pitak; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Prommongkol, Sutthiporn; Chaimoongkun, Wuthichai; Pan-ngum, Wirichada

    2014-07-01

    The 2009 influenza A (H1N1) outbreaks in Thailand was successfully controlled, partly through the use of electronic media to educate the public. People living along the Thai-Myanmar border may have less access to this electronic media or might have health beliefs that differ from the general Thai population with potential to impact an influenza outbreak. We conducted a survey to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding influenza among people living along the Thai-Myanmar boder in Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. Of 110 house- holds surveyed, 96% were Karen ethnicity. Greater than 50% were uneducated and most had a low family income. Knowledge about influenza was low. Attitudes regarding infection were mostly negative among the elderly in this area. Practices regarding influenza were moderately good. Education level was associated with knowledge and practice. Income level and wealth indicators were associated with knowledge and having a radio or TV was associated with good practices. Preventive behavior was associated with good knowledge but not with attitudes about influenza. Health education campaigns are needed in these communities to help people adopt desired changes in behavior to improve personal hygiene.

  18. Prevalence of child abuse in child and adolescent clinical population referred to psychiatric facilities in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Gholamreza Nourazar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was ‎designed to evaluate the prevalence of child abuse in a child and adolescent psychiatric clinical population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a clinical population of children and adolescents aged 8-18 years. 80 out-patients and 94 in-patients were selected according to probability proportional to size sampling. Kiddie schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia questionnaire, a demographic questionnaire, and child abuse self-report scale were filled for each subject. Data were analyzed by using Stata software. Results: Among the out-patient subjects, 50 were male (62.5% and 30 were female (37.5%; for in-patient these subjects numbers were 76 (80.9% and 18 (19.1%, respectively. The mean age of subjects was 15.2 years in the in-patient group and 11.7 years in the out-patient group. In 66.1% of abuse cases the perpetrators were parents, 5.2% siblings, and 28.7% someone else. Among in-patient subjects, summed up prevalence rates of severe and very severe psychological abuse, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse were 11.7, 33.0, 2.1, and 0.0%, respectively; for out-patient subjects these values were 3.8, 11.2, 3.8, and 0.0%, respectively. Moreover, among in-patient subjects, prevalence rates of moderate psychological abuse, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse were 27.7, 27.7, 24.5, and 4.3%, respectively; and for out-patient subjects these values were 30.0, 27.5, 11.2, and 0.0%, respectively. Subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD suffered a higher rate of physical abuse, whereas, subjects with bipolar mood disorder (BMD suffered a higher rate of sexual abuse. Conclusion: The prevalence of child abuse is highly prevalent in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders. It is recommended that this population be screened routinely for child abuse.

  19. A STUDY ESTABLISHING THE IMPORTANCE OF BODY COMPOSITION ANALYSIS, REGULAR PHYSIOTHERAPY AND DIETARY MODIFICATIONS FOR INDEPENDENT AND HEALTHY LIVING AMONG GERIATRIC POPULATION: A DETAILED SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ARTICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Subhedar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This systematic review article aims towards comprehensive and elaborative collection of research articles related to the importance of body composition analysis, Physiotherapy and nutrition for independent geriatric lifestyle. The review article includes articles which suggest the importance of Body composition analysis, Physiotherapy interventions, specific exercises and a combination of fat free, fiber, fruit and fluid diet. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted using electronic databases Pub Med, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Research gate, ICMJE, DOAJ, DRJI, IOSR, WAME and many others. In Total 3714, Research papers were reviewed which reported, Age ≥50 years, changes in Body composition in elderly , effects of Diet &Exercises on Body composition and effects of regular Physiotherapy in Geriatric health and obesity. Literature search was restricted to the studies conducted during 1980-2015. Results: Finally 55 papers along with references in research proposal were included. Review shows that ageing, body composition, Physiotherapeutic intervention and nutrition play an interdependent role in providing independent and healthy living among geriatric population. Conclusion: Combined and comprehensive interventions in form of periodic Body Composition Analysis, Physiotherapy interventions with Exercise therapy sessions and Nutritional Supplementation, will be more effective in combating ageing and independent healthy living among Geriatric population. Finally with this review we shall conclude that achieving perfect geriatric health depends upon awareness among the geriatric community to periodically analyze their body composition and regularly comply with exercise therapy sessions, subjective Physiotherapy modality sessions and nutritional supplementation. These principles help in achieving physically fit, healthy, happy and independent geriatric Community.

  20. Mediating and Moderating Role of Depression, Conduct Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Developing Adolescent Substance Use Disorders: A Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouichi Yoshimasu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the mediating/moderating effects of common internalizing /externalizing disorders on the association between ADHD and adolescent substance use disorders (SUD in a population-based birth cohort.Among 5718 children in the birth cohort, 343 ADHD incident cases and 712 matched controls were identified. Psychiatric diagnoses prior to age 19 were classified into DSM-IV categories. The association between ADHD and SUD was summarized (hazard ratios (HR, 95% CI. The effect of depression, CD/ODD, anxiety was evaluated separately.Assessment of the joint effects of ADHD and each psychiatric disorder did not support a moderating effect of these disorders on SUD on additive scale. However, the association between ADHD and SUD was partially explained by a mediating role of these psychiatric disorders.For clinicians our results emphasize that depression (or CD/ODD confers greater risk for SUD than ADHD alone. Early detection/treatment of SUD among adolescents with depression (or CD/ODD is crucial regardless of ADHD.

  1. CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a Brazilian population living in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rossini

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (CYP is a superfamily of enzymes involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. CYP2A6 catalyzes the oxidation of nicotine and the activation of carcinogens such as aflatoxin B1 and nitrosamines. CYP2E1 metabolizes ethanol and other low-molecular weight compounds and can also activate nitrosamines. The CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 genes are polymorphic, altering their catalytic activities and susceptibility to cancer and other diseases. A number of polymorphisms described are ethnic-dependent. In the present study, we determined the genotype and allele frequencies of the main CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a group of 289 volunteers recruited at the Central Laboratory of Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto. They had been residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro for at least 6 months and were divided into two groups according to skin color (white and non-white. The alleles were determined by allele specific PCR (CYP2A6 or by PCR-RFLP (CYP2E1. The frequencies of the CYP2A6*1B and CYP2A6*2 alleles were 0.29 and 0.02 for white individuals and 0.24 and 0.01 for non-white individuals, respectively. The CYP2A6*5 allele was not found in the population studied. Regarding the CYP2E1*5B allele, we found a frequency of 0.07 in white individuals, which was statistically different (P < 0.05 from that present in non-white individuals (0.03. CYP2E1*6 allele frequency was the same (0.08 in both groups. The frequencies of CYP2A6*1B, CYP2A6*2 and CYP2E1*6 alleles in Brazilians are similar to those found in Caucasians and African-Americans, but the frequency of the CYP2E1*5B allele is higher in Brazilians.

  2. Cancer incidence and mortality in populations living near uranium milling and mining operations in grants, New Mexico, 1950-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, John D; Mumma, Michael T; Blot, William J

    2010-11-01

    In a previous cohort study of workers engaged in uranium milling and mining activities near Grants, Cibola County, New Mexico, we found lung cancer mortality to be significantly increased among underground miners. Uranium mining took place from early in the 1950s to 1990, and the Grants Uranium Mill operated from 1958-1990. The present study evaluates cancer mortality during 1950-2004 and cancer incidence during 1982-2004 among county residents. Standardized mortality (SMR) and incidence (SIR) ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed, with observed numbers of cancer deaths and cases compared to expected values based on New Mexico cancer rates. The total numbers of cancer deaths and incident cancers were close to that expected (SMR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07; SIR 0.97, 95% CI 0.92-1.02). Lung cancer mortality and incidence were significantly increased among men (SMR 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.21; SIR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18-1.64) but not women (SMR 0.97, 95% CI 0.85-1.10; SIR 1.01, 95% CI 0.78-1.29). Similarly, among the population of the three census tracts near the Grants Uranium Mill, lung cancer mortality was significantly elevated among men (SMR 1.57; 95% CI 1.21-1.99) but not women (SMR 1.12; 95% CI 0.75-1.61). Except for an elevation in mortality for stomach cancer among women (SMR 1.30; 95% CI 1.03-1.63), which declined over the 55-year observation period, no significant increases in SMRs or SIRs for 22 other cancers were found. Although etiological inferences cannot be drawn from these ecological data, the excesses of lung cancer among men seem likely to be due to previously reported risks among underground miners from exposure to radon gas and its decay products. Smoking, socioeconomic factors or ethnicity may also have contributed to the lung cancer excesses observed in our study. The stomach cancer increase was highest before the uranium mill began operation and then decreased to normal levels. With the exception of male lung cancer, this study provides no

  3. CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a Brazilian population living in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossini A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (CYP is a superfamily of enzymes involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. CYP2A6 catalyzes the oxidation of nicotine and the activation of carcinogens such as aflatoxin B1 and nitrosamines. CYP2E1 metabolizes ethanol and other low-molecular weight compounds and can also activate nitrosamines. The CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 genes are polymorphic, altering their catalytic activities and susceptibility to cancer and other diseases. A number of polymorphisms described are ethnic-dependent. In the present study, we determined the genotype and allele frequencies of the main CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a group of 289 volunteers recruited at the Central Laboratory of Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto. They had been residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro for at least 6 months and were divided into two groups according to skin color (white and non-white. The alleles were determined by allele specific PCR (CYP2A6 or by PCR-RFLP (CYP2E1. The frequencies of the CYP2A6*1B and CYP2A6*2 alleles were 0.29 and 0.02 for white individuals and 0.24 and 0.01 for non-white individuals, respectively. The CYP2A6*5 allele was not found in the population studied. Regarding the CYP2E1*5B allele, we found a frequency of 0.07 in white individuals, which was statistically different (P < 0.05 from that present in non-white individuals (0.03. CYP2E1*6 allele frequency was the same (0.08 in both groups. The frequencies of CYP2A6*1B, CYP2A6*2 and CYP2E1*6 alleles in Brazilians are similar to those found in Caucasians and African-Americans, but the frequency of the CYP2E1*5B allele is higher in Brazilians.

  4. Tobacco smoking in HIV-infected versus general population in france: heterogeneity across the various groups of people living with HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Tron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the various groups of people living with HIV (PLWHIV considerably differ regarding socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, their specificities regarding tobacco smoking have been poorly investigated. We aimed to assess patterns of tobacco consumption across the various groups of PLWHIV and to compare them to the general population, accounting for the specific socioeconomic profile of PLWHIV. METHODS: We used data of the ANRS-Vespa2 study, a national representative survey on PLWHIV conducted in France in 2011. Prevalence of past and current tobacco consumption, heavy smoking and strong nicotine dependence were assessed among the various groups of PLWHIV as defined by transmission category, gender and geographic origin, and compared to the French general population using direct standardization and multivariate Poisson regression models, accounting for gender, age, education and geographic origin. RESULTS: Among the 3,019 participants aged 18-85 years (median time since HIV diagnosis: 12 years, 37.5% were current smokers and 22.1% were past smokers, with marked differences across the various groups of PLWHIV. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of regular smoking was increased among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (aPRR: 1.19, 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1.07-1.32, French-native women (aPRR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.10-1.57, and heterosexual French-native men (although not significantly, aPRR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.98-1.45. Additionally, HIV-infected MSM were significantly less likely to be ex-smokers (aPRR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.64-0.82 than the general population and similar trends were observed among heterosexual French-native men (aPRR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.02 and women (aPRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.70-1.01. HIV-infected sub-Saharan African migrants were less likely to be regular smokers than the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking constitutes a major concern in various groups

  5. Adolescent development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  6. Seropositivity of Lyme borreliosis and associated risk factors: a population-based study in Children and Adolescents in Germany (KiGGS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Dehnert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lyme borreliosis (LB caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Data on the distribution and on risk factors in Germany are sketchy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood samples of a nationwide population-based cross-sectional study from 2003-2006 in children and adolescents aged 1 to 17 years in Germany (KiGGS were analysed (n = 12,614 to assess the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies. Data from standardized interviews were used to assess potential risk factors. First, sera were screened for anti-Borrelia antibodies by ELISA. The overall prevalence was 4.8% (95% confidence interval (CI 4.3-5.4%. Positive and borderline ELISA test results were confirmed by a line blot revealing a combined prevalence of 4.0% (95% CI 3.6-4.5%. Seroprevalence of ELISA was significantly higher in males (odds ratio (OR = 1.37; CI 1.15-1.63 and in the southern part of Germany (OR = 1.41; CI 1.09-1.83, but significantly lower in children and adolescents with migration background (OR = 0.33; CI 0.24-0.44. Study participants from households with cats had a higher chance of seropositivity (OR = 6.7; CI 5.6-8.0. In a multivariable model the odds of seropositivity increases by 11% for every year of age for boys and 6% for girls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This survey is the first nationwide, representative seroprevalence survey of LB in children and young adolescents. The study shows that infections with Borrelia burgdorferi are endemic in all parts of Germany despite regional differences. Even at a young age children are exposed to tick bites including seropositivity. Encouraging a thorough check for ticks and promptly removal of ticks are the key public health strategies to reduce the risk of LB and other tick-borne diseases in children and adolescents. Further epidemiological studies are warranted to better understand the burden of disease related to LB.

  7. Urban work profile among adolescents aged 14-15 years: a population-based study in southern Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Helen; Menezes,Ana Maria Batista; Bacchieri, Giancarlo; Dilélio,Alitéia Santiago; Bocanegra,Carlos Alberto Delgado; Castilhos, Eduardo Dickie de; Gallo, Erika Alejandra Giraldo; Fantinel, Everton José; Fiori, Nadia Spada; Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Carvalho, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this article was to describe the urban work patterns among 14 to 15-yearold youths from Southern Brazil. Child labor was characterized as any activity that resulted in retribution in the form of goods, services or money. The analyses were stratified by sex and economic level. Of the 4325 adolescents interviewed, the proportion of labor in the last year was 22.2%, namely 27.7% for the male sex, and 17% for the female sex. This proportion was also higher among the poorer stra...

  8. Is comorbidity in adolescence a predictor for adult low back pain? A prospective study of a young population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leboeuf-Yde Charlotte

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has previously been shown that low back pain (LBP often presents already in the teenage years and that previous LBP predicts future LBP. It is also well documented that there is a large degree of comorbidity associated with LBP, both in adolescents and adults. The objective of this study is to gain a deeper insight into the etiology of low back pain and to possibly develop a tool for early identification of high-risk groups. This is done by investigating whether different types of morbidity in adolescence are associated with LBP in adulthood. Methods Almost 10,000 Danish twins born between 1972 and 1982 were surveyed by means of postal questionnaires in 1994 and again in 2002. The questionnaires dealt with various aspects of general health, including the prevalence of LBP, classified according to number of days affected during the previous year (0, 1–7, 8–30, >30. The predictor variables used in this study were LBP, headache, asthma and atopic disease at baseline; the outcome variable was persistent LBP (>30 days during the past year at follow-up. Associations between morbidity in 1994 and LBP in 2002 were investigated. Results LBP, headache and asthma in adolescence were positively associated with future LBP. There was no association between atopic disease and future LBP. Individuals with persistent LBP at baseline had an odds ratio of 3.5 (2.8–4.5 for future LBP, while the odds ratio for those with persistent LBP, persistent headache and asthma was 4.5 (2.5–8.1. There was a large degree of clustering of these disorders, but atopic disease was not part of this pattern. Conclusion Young people from 12 to 22 years of age with persistent LBP during the previous year have an odds ratio of 3.5 persistent LBP eight years later. Both headache and asthma are also positively associated with future LBP and there is a large clustering of LBP, headache and asthma in adolescence.

  9. [Prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age: a population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Jansen, Karen; Godoy, Russélia Vanila; Souza, Luciano Dias Mattos; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2009-12-01

    This cross-sectional, population-based study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age (n = 960) in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Ninety of the city's 448 census tracts were selected, and 86 houses in each tract were visited. The statistical analysis used Poisson regression. Prevalence rates in the sample were 22.8% for involvement in fights with physical aggression and 9.6% for weapons possession in the previous 12 months. The study concluded that young males that use alcohol and/or illegal drugs and present minor psychiatric disorders show a higher probability of weapons possession and involvement in physical fights.

  10. Individual and parental psychiatric history and risk for suicide among adolescents and young adults in Denmark : A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Kirstina; Qin, Ping

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both individual and familial histories of mental illness are substantial risk factors for suicide in young people. AIM: To explore suicide risk among adolescents and young adults according to detailed aspects of individual and parental psychiatric admission history. METHODS: A nested...... case-control study was undertaken using data from Danish population registers to include 4,142 suicide cases and 82,840 matched controls aged 9-35 years. Data were analyzed with conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: A history of hospitalized psychiatric illness was a strong risk factor for suicide......, affective disorders or substance abuse disorders. At the same time, a parental psychiatric history constituted a substantial risk factor for suicide in young people, in particular, if having a mother admitted for psychiatric illness. The elevated risk associated with parental psychiatric history was greater...

  11. Use of cone-beam CT and live 3-D needle guidance to facilitate percutaneous nephrostomy and nephrolithotripsy access in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, C.M. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kukreja, Kamlesh [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Singewald, Timothy; Johnson, Neil D.; Racadio, John M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Minevich, Eugene; Reddy, Pramod [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Urology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Gaining access into non-dilated renal collecting systems for percutaneous nephrolithotripsy, particularly in patients with prohibitive body habitus and/or scoliosis, is often challenging using conventional techniques. To evaluate the feasibility of cone-beam CT for percutaneous nephrostomy placement for subsequent percutaneous nephrolithotripsy in children and adolescents. A retrospective review of percutaneous nephrostomy revealed use of cone-beam CT and 3-D guidance in 12 percutaneous nephrostomy procedures for 9 patients between 2006 and 2015. All cone-beam CT-guided percutaneous nephrostomies were for pre-lithotripsy access and all 12 were placed in non-dilated collecting systems. Technical success was 100%. There were no complications. Cone-beam CT with 3-D guidance is a technically feasible technique for percutaneous nephrostomy in children and adolescents, specifically for nephrolithotripsy access in non-dilated collecting systems. (orig.)

  12. Resilience and Its Association with Depression, Emotional and Behavioural Problems, and Mental Health Service Utilisation among Refugee Adolescents Living in South Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Tahereh Ziaian; Helena de Anstiss; Georgia Antoniou; Peter Baghurst; Michael Sawyer

    2012-01-01

    Background. Despite the frequency of traumatic or stressful events experienced by refugee children and adolescents prior to migration and following resettlement, the majority do not experience mental health problems emphasising the critical nature of resilience. While a host of factors deemed to be protective of mental health in young refugees have been identified, there has been little research exploring the role of resilience as a distinct psychological construct. This study aimed to explor...

  13. Research on the health state of the Sicilian population living in areas at environmental or natural risk: the experience of the Regional Department of Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achille Cernigliaro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: In Sicily, people live near areas characterized by the presence of environmental polluting substances derived from urbanization and industrialization. In the areas of Augusta-Priolo (SR,Gela (CL and Milazzo (ME, the increase of number of pathologies could be linked with environmental pollution. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the available data and studies to underline the importance of these sources to conduct epidemiological survey in Sicily, besides to the analysis of mortality and morbidity.

    Methods: An evaluation of the health status of the residential population was done comparing the mortality and morbidity of the local population with the mortality and morbidity of a reference population. Data was obtained from the Italian national office of statistics and Hospital Discharge Records. Standardized Mortality Ratios and Standardized Hospitalization Ratios were calculated.

    Results: In the area of Augusta-Priolo we observed, in for men, a significative increase in mortality and hospital admissions for colon-rectal, trachea, bronchus, lung and pleura cancers. In Biancavilla, we observed an increase in mortality for pleura cancer in men and women and an increase in morbidity in women only. In Gela, a significant increase in mortality in males and females was observed only for tumoral diseases. In Milazzo, we only found a significant increase in the incidence of larynx cancer and cardiovascular disease for men and in women of pulmonary disease for women.

    Conclusions: This first review allowed us to update previous analyses of mortality data conducted in the same areas. The results, even taking into account the differences between the areas,, highlights changes in health status related to some diagnostic groups. These could be linked with pollution. Now that the available health data has been revised and updated new studies must

  14. Emotion regulation, emotional eating and the energy-rich dietary pattern. A population-based study in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qingyun; Tao, Fangbiao; Hou, Fangli; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Ren, Ling-ling

    2016-04-01

    Research investigating the influence of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on emotional eating and diet among Chinese adolescents is scarce. The aim of this study was to test associations between two ER strategies (suppression/cognitive reappraisal), emotional eating, and an energy-rich dietary pattern. A total of 4316 adolescents from 10 high schools were surveyed. Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis. Bivariate correlations were analyzed to examine associations between ER strategies, emotional eating behavior and an energy-rich dietary pattern, by gender. The mediating effect of emotional eating in the relationship between ER and energy-rich food consumption by gender was estimated using structural equation modeling. A higher level of suppression, but no lack of cognitive reappraisal, was associated with emotional eating in boys and girls. A higher level of suppression and lack of cognitive reappraisal were associated with a greater intake of energy-rich foods in girls only. Emotional eating mediated the relationship between a higher level of suppression and a greater intake of energy-rich food in girls. This study revealed significant associations between two ER strategies and an energy-rich dietary pattern in girls, and provided evidence that higher levels of suppression may put girls at risk for emotional eating, potentially affecting the energy-rich dietary pattern.

  15. [Knowledge of condom among adolescents: a population-based study in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Juliana Mano; Cesar, Juraci A

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of lack of knowledge on condoms and to identify associated factors among teenagers in two municipalities (counties) in Piauí State, Brazil, in mid-2008. Standardized home interviews were conducted by trained interviewers with all the teenagers (13-19 years of age). The study investigated demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and knowledge on contraception and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The outcome variable was lack of knowledge on male condoms. The multivariate analysis used Poisson regression with robust variance. Of the 2,241 adolescents, 18.8% claimed ignorance of male condoms. Among individuals with at least 9 years of schooling, only 4% lacked knowledge on condoms. Meanwhile, among individuals who lacked knowledge on STDs, 74% lacked knowledge on condoms. In the adjusted analysis, female gender, younger age, low schooling, not having a girlfriend, and lack of knowledge on oral contraception and STDs increased the likelihood of lack of knowledge on condoms. The data showed the urgent need for awareness-raising interventions on condom use among adolescents in these municipalities.

  16. Adolescents as health agents and consumers: results of a pilot study of the health and health-related behaviors of adolescents living in a high-poverty urban neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Robert; Bluebond-Langner, Myra; Read, Nichole; Pittsley, Jerri; Hart, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Although there is a considerable literature on how adolescents make decisions which lead to risky behaviors (e.g., unprotected sex, drug use) and adversely affect the health and well-being of youth, little is known about the routine behaviors youth engage in which influence their health (e.g., having permanent teeth extracted, discontinuing antibiotics prematurely, delaying or going without treatment of subacute illnesses and minor injuries) and concomitantly the factors which influence these behaviors. In an effort to begin to fill this gap, we have undertaken a study of routine health behaviors and the factors which bear on them in adolescents from a high-poverty urban neighborhood. In this article, we present the results of the pilot phase of the study in which we documented the behavior of 10 adolescents from Camden, New Jersey, the fifth poorest city in the United States, and explored with them their perceptions of the decisions they made and the factors that gave rise to them. We found that participants had an insufficient understanding of their health problems and consequences of their health actions, problems in understanding and being understood by health care professionals, and reluctance to involve parents in routine health care decisions. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to improving the health of vulnerable youth.

  17. Effects of divorce on Dutch boys' and girls' externalizing behavior in Gene × Environment perspective: diathesis stress or differential susceptibility in the Dutch Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederhof, Esther; Belsky, Jay; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2012-08-01

    The effects of divorce on children's behavioral development have proven to be quite varied across studies, and most developmental and family scholars today appreciate the great heterogeneity in divorce effects. Thus, this inquiry sought to determine whether select dopaminergic genes previously associated with externalizing behavior and/or found to moderate diverse environmental effects (dopamine receptors D2 and D4, catechol-O-methyltransferase) might moderate divorce effects on adolescent self-reported externalizing problems; and, if so, whether evidence of gene-environment (G × E) interaction would prove consistent with diathesis-stress or differential-susceptibility models of environmental action. Data from the first and third wave of the Dutch Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (n = 1,134) revealed some evidence of G × E interaction reflecting diathesis-stress but not differential susceptibility. It is intriguing that some evidence pointed to "vantage sensitivity," which are benefits accruing to those with a specific genotype when their parents remained together, the exact opposite of diathesis-stress. The limits of this work are considered, especially with regard to the conditions for testing differential susceptibility, and future directions are outlined.

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Elizabeth Moreira Mascarenhas; Márcia Sacramento Cunha Machado; Bruno Fernando Borges da Costa e Silva; Rodrigo Fernandes Weyll Pimentel; Tatiana Teixeira Ferreira; Fernanda Maria Silva Leoni; Maria Fernanda Rios Grassi

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolesc...

  19. High-level activities of daily living and disease-specific mortality during a 12-year follow-up of an octogenarian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takata Y

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Yutaka Takata,1 Toshihiro Ansai,2 Inho Soh,2 Shuji Awano,2 Ikuo Nakamichi,1 Sumio Akifusa,3 Kenichi Goto,1 Akihiro Yoshida,2 Hiroki Fujii,1 Ritsuko Fujisawa,1 Kazuo Sonoki31Division of General Internal Medicine, 2Division of Community Oral Health Science, 3Department of Oral Health and Environment, School of Oral Health Science, Kyushu Dental University, Kitakyushu, JapanBackground: Little is known about the relationship between disease-specific mortality and high-level activities of daily living in the elderly. We examined whether mortality is associated with high-level activities of daily living in an octogenarian population.Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional and prospective cohort study in 693 older persons aged 80 years and living in Japan’s Fukuoka Prefecture. We then evaluated the association between 12-year disease-specific mortality and high-level functional capacity as measured by the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, which is a standardized multidimensional 13-item instrument; items 1 through 5 are classified as instrumental self-maintenance activity, items 6 through 9 as intellectual activity, items 10 through 13 as social roles activity, and all 13 items together yield total functional capacity.Results: By the 12-year follow-up of the 693 participants, 413 had died, 242 survived, and 38 were unable to be located. Of the 413 who died, 105 died of cardiovascular disease, 73 of respiratory tract disease, 71 of cancer, and 39 of senility. Of the other 125 deaths, 59 were due to other diseases, and the cause of death for 66 participants is not known. The hazard ratio (HR for all-cause mortality, adjusted for confounding factors with multivariate Cox analyses, fell by 6% (HR 0.937, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.899–0.978, P = 0.003 with each one-point increase in participants’ scores on the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of total functional capacity. With one

  20. Exposure assessment of PCDD/Fs for the population living in the vicinity of municipal waste incinerator: Additional exposure via local vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Yujie; Li, Tong; Wan, Yi; Dong, Zhaomin; Hu, Jianying

    2017-05-01

    While the exposure assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) for people living in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) has been investigated, indirect exposure to MSWI-emitted PCDD/Fs via consumption of local foods has not been well assessed. In this study, the PCDD/F concentration in the local vegetables grown near a MSWI located in Shenzhen, South China, was determined to be 0.92 ± 0.59 pg/g wet weight (ww), significantly higher than that (0.25 ± 0.35 pg/g ww) in commercial vegetables (p Ficus microcarpa) samples collected from 5 sampling sites at 1 km intervals from the MSWI were found to be significantly decreased with increasing distance, suggesting that the local plants would be impacted by emissions from the MSWI. The exposure assessment of PCDD/Fs for the population living in the vicinity of MSWI was carried out by simultaneously analyzing PCDD/Fs in other food groups that were commonly consumed by the residents. If only the local vegetables were consumed and other foods were acquired commercially, the total dietary intake for a general adult was 0.94 ± 0.41 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, of which consumption of local vegetables accounted for 52.3%. If all foods consumed including vegetables were from a commercial source, the total dietary intake was 0.56 ± 0.30 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, of which consumption of commercial vegetables accounted for 20.1%. The present study for the first time reported the additional human exposure to PCDD/Fs via consumption of local vegetables impacted by emissions from MSWI.

  1. Food consumption patterns of Balearic Islands' adolescents depending on their origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llull, Rosa; Bibiloni, Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade, the immigrant population of the Balearic Islands archipelago (Spain), in the Mediterranean, has risen to 22% of its total population. The aim of this study was to assess food consumption patterns among Balearic Islands' adolescents depending on their origin. A population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands (2007-2008; n = 1,231; 12-17 years old). Dietary assessment was based on a 145-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Food consumption differences between the adolescents' point of origin and time of arrival were been studied, as well as average daily meals and snacks. The adolescents' origin and number of years living in the Balearic Islands were also assessed. Native adolescents and immigrants from other Mediterranean countries showed healthier food consumption patterns than their peers from non-Mediterranean countries. Immigrant adolescents adapted their eating patterns to native dietary patterns increasingly, the longer they lived in the Balearic Islands.

  2. The influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure on the overall health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Bayard

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There remains limited evidence on how armed conflict affects overall physical and mental well-being rather than specific physical or mental health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on general physical and mental health in Southern Sudan which is emerging from 20 years of armed conflict. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1228 adults was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations and relative influence of variables in three models of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure, on general physical and mental health status. These models were run separately and also as a combined model. Data quality and the internal consistency of the health status instrument (SF-8 were assessed. Results The variables in the multivariate analysis (combined model with negative coefficients of association with general physical health and mental health (i.e. worse health, respectively, were being female (coef. -2.47; -2.63, higher age (coef.-0.16; -0.17, absence of soap in the household (physical health coef. -2.24, and experiencing within the past 12 months a lack of food and/or water (coef. -1.46; -2.27 and lack of medical care (coef.-3.51; -3.17. A number of trauma variables and cumulative exposure to trauma showed an association with physical and mental health (see main text for data. There was limited variance in results when each of the three models were run separately and when they were combined, suggesting the pervasive influence of these variables. The SF-8 showed good data quality and internal consistency. Conclusions This study provides evidence on the pervasive influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on the general physical and

  3. Sexual harassment victimization in adolescence: Associations with family background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-06-01

    Sexual harassment has been studies as a mechanism reproducing inequality between sexes, as gender based discrimination, and more recently, as a public health problem. The role of family-related factors for subjection to sexual harassment in adolescent has been little studied. Our aim was to study the role of socio-demographic family factors and parental involvement in adolescent's persona life for experiences of sexual harassment among 14-18-year-old population girls and boys. An anonymous cross-sectional classroom survey was carried out in comprehensive and secondary schools in Finland. 90953 boys and 91746 girls aged 14-18 participated. Sexual harassment was elicited with five questions. Family structure, parental education, parental unemployment and parental involvement as perceived by the adolescent were elicited. The data were analyzed using cross-tabulations with chi-square statistics and logistic regressions. All types of sexual harassment experiences elicited were more common among girls than among boys. Parental unemployment, not living with both parents and low parental education were associated with higher likelihood of reporting experiences of sexual harassment, and parental involvement in the adolescent's personal life was associated with less reported sexual harassment. Parental involvement in an adolescent's life may be protective of perceived sexual harassment. Adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged families are more vulnerable to sexual harassment than their more advantaged peers.

  4. Adolescents sexual practices

    OpenAIRE

    Frias, Ana; Chora, Antónia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: If teens options are experimenting sexualized practices, we should facilitate their knowledge, make them aware of their choices and help them living their sexuality in a safer mode. Objectives: To identify adolescents sexual practices; characterize the attitudes of teenagers against the use of contraception. Methods: quantitative research with exploratory nature. We studied a convenience sample of 301 adolescents of both sexes whitch attend the 9th grade. Sexual practices and a...

  5. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population.

  6. Anxiety Levels in Adolescents Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Maloney, Kristy; Meyer, Crystal; Qualls, Constance Dean

    2007-01-01

    High levels of anxiety can negatively affect the lives of children and adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents who stutter and 36 adolescents who do not stutter were administered standardized scales for anxiety and self-esteem. Significant differences were found for the total T-scores for "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale" for the two groups,…

  7. Do the effects of adolescent employment differ by employment intensity and neighborhood context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Sharon; Rose, Amy

    2015-03-01

    Research on the effects of adolescent employment on primarily middle-class youth suggests that intense employment, working more than 15 or 20 hours during the school year, is associated with increased participation in risky behavior. Despite these findings, scholars who focus on the development of youth living in low-income urban areas often hypothesize that adolescent employment will have beneficial effects on this population. There is some evidence that adolescent employment is associated with increased educational achievement and adult employment for low-income urban youth. The impact of adolescent employment on future engagement in risky behavior across levels of neighborhood deprivation and employment intensity was investigated on a sample of 1,057 adolescents from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a longitudinal study of neighborhood effects on development. After controlling for individual characteristics, intense employment during adolescence did predict increased use of cigarettes and alcohol and having a greater number of sexual partners 2 years after employment was measured. There were no significant interactions between neighborhood SES and adolescent employment status on involvement in risky behavior. These findings suggest that intense adolescent employment is associated with detrimental developmental outcomes for youth regardless neighborhood context.

  8. The association between high recreational physical activity and physical activity as a part of daily living in adolescents and availability of local indoor sports facilities and sports clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, B.; Petzold, M.; Schnohr, Christina Warrer

    2012-01-01

    members) in Greenlandic adolescents. Material and methods: Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey including 2,430 children aged 11-17 years was used. Logistic regression models were developed with dichotomous measures on VPA and MVPA as outcomes, number of indoor sports...... facilities and of sports clubs with child members as independent variables, and adjusted for age, gender, family affluence (FAS), and type of habitation (capital, town or village). Results: High VPA increased with access to indoor facilities, while high MVPA was less likely (odds ratio (OR) 0.54 (0...

  9. "Tava morta e revivi": significado de maternidade para adolescentes com experiência de vida nas ruas "I was dead, but came back to life": the meaning of motherhood for adolescent girls with a history of living in the streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela T. Gontijo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A descoberta da sexualidade entre as adolescentes que fazem das ruas seu espaço de sobrevivência geralmente é permeada pelo desconhecimento do próprio corpo, o que resulta, muitas vezes, em comportamentos de risco para a contaminação por doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e para a gravidez. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar os significados atribuídos à maternidade por adolescentes com experiência de vida nas ruas que optaram por assumir o cuidado dos filhos fora das ruas. Com base na abordagem de pesquisa qualitativa, os dados foram coletados junto a adolescentes-mães abrigadas em uma instituição não-governamental, e analisados segundo a modalidade temática da análise de conteúdo. Os resultados foram discutidos por meio da categoria "a nova vida: mãe & filho", mostrando que a experiência da maternidade é significada de forma positiva pelas adolescentes, sendo o filho entendido como o "salvador" de uma morte certa nas ruas, depositando nele as expectativas de um futuro melhor. A título de considerações finais, observamos no exercício da maternidade uma oportunidade de estabelecimento de novas formas de estar e se relacionar no mundo, sendo o processo de construção dessa maternidade terreno fértil para a intervenção de profissionais da saúde.The discovery of sexuality by adolescent girls living in the streets generally involves lack of knowledge about their own bodies, often resulting in risk behaviors for sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy. This study aimed to identify the meanings ascribed to motherhood by teenage girls with a history of living in the streets and who chose to assume the care for their children, off the streets. Based on a qualitative methodology, data were collected from the adolescent mothers at a nongovernmental shelter and analyzed according to the content analysis modality. The results were discussed using the category "new life: mother & child", showing that the adolescents

  10. America's Adolescents: How Healthy Are They? Volume 1. Profiles of Adolescent Health Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Janet E.; And Others

    Many adolescent health problems are linked with educational performance, family relationships, poverty, and the general lifestyles that adolescents experience in their communities. Although serious, chronic medical and psychiatric disorders affect about 6 percent of the adolescent population, many more adolescents are at risk for death and for…

  11. Learning to BREATHE: An Intervention to Foster Mindfulness in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Patricia C.; Frank, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    During adolescence, young people are traversing exciting and also challenging stages in their development. Mindfulness, if taught in a developmentally appropriate way, has the potential to be an asset in adolescents' lives. Developmentally appropriate approaches of mindfulness intervention during adolescence need to consider adolescents'…

  12. Adolescents' and Parents' Changing Conceptions of Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith; Crean, Hugh F.; Campione-Barr, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents and parents view parents' regulation of some aspects of adolescents' lives as legitimate, but they disagree as to how much personal freedom adolescents should have. Too much parental control over personal issues in early adolescence leads to feelings of psychological control, but increasing autonomy over personal issues in later…

  13. Is the association between acne and mental distress influenced by diet? Results from a cross-sectional population study among 3775 late adolescents in Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoresen Magne

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sev