Sample records for adolescent peer relationships

  1. Parental management of peer relationships and early adolescents' social skills. (United States)

    Mounts, Nina S


    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship between parental management of peers (consulting and guiding), conflict about peers, and adolescents' social skills (cooperation, assertion, responsibility, empathy, and self-control) and to examine potential precursors (goals of improving peer relationships and beliefs about authority over peer relationships) to parental management of peer relationships. A predominantly White sample (71%) of 75 seventh-graders (57% female) and their primary caregivers participated in the 9-month investigation. Caregivers completed questionnaires regarding goals of improving their adolescents' peer relationships, beliefs about parental authority over peer relationships, parental management of peers, and adolescents' social skills. Adolescents completed questionnaires regarding their social skills. Path analyses suggest that a greater number of caregivers' goals of improving peer relationships and higher beliefs about parental authority over peers were related to higher levels of consulting, guiding, and conflict about peers. Higher levels of conflict about peers in conjunction with higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of assertion and responsibility in peer relationships over time. When parents reported having a greater number of goals of improving peer relationships, adolescents reported higher levels of cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self control over time. Findings suggest that caregivers' goals and beliefs are important in predicting parental management of peer relationships and adolescents' social skills over time, and that conflict about peers undermines caregivers' efforts to be positively involved in

  2. Peer Relationship Difficulties in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder (United States)

    Siegel, Rebecca S.; Freeman, Andrew J.; La Greca, Annette M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.


    Background: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with psychosocial impairment, but few studies have examined peer relationship functioning and PBD. Adolescence is a crucial developmental period when peers become increasingly salient. Objective: This study compared perceived friendship quality and peer victimization in adolescents with…

  3. Parental Management of Peer Relationships and Early Adolescents' Social Skills (United States)

    Mounts, Nina S.


    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship…

  4. Gender nonconformity, sexual orientation, and Dutch adolescents' relationship with peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bos; T. Sandfort


    Same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity have both been shown to negatively affect the relationships of adolescents with their peers. It is not clear, though, whether same-sex attracted adolescents are more likely to have negative peer relationships because they are same-sex attracted or because

  5. Close Relationships and Attributions for Peer Victimization among Late Adolescents (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra


    This study examined the effect of close relationships (best friendship and romantic relationship) on late adolescents' casual attributions for peer victimization. A total of 1106 twelfth grade students completed self-report measures of perceived peer victimization, self-blame attribution, psychological maladjustment (loneliness and social…

  6. Mexican American Parents' Involvement in Adolescents' Peer Relationships: Exploring the Role of Culture and Adolescents' Peer Experiences (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.


    This study examined the nature and correlates of Mexican American mothers' and fathers' involvement in adolescents' peer relationships along 4 dimensions: support, restriction, knowledge, and time spent with adolescents and peers. Mexican American adolescents and their parents in 220 families described their family relationships, cultural…

  7. Configurations of Adolescents' Peer Experiences : Associations With Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Parental Problem Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Meeus, Wim; Verhulst, Frank C.; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.


    Adolescents' peer experiences embrace behavior, relationship quality, status, and victimization, but studies that account for multiple dimensions are rare. Using latent profile modeling and measures of peer behavior, relationship quality, peer status, and victimization assessed from 1,677 adolescent

  8. The Role of Peer Group Aggression in Predicting Adolescent Dating Violence and Relationship Quality (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Chung-Hall, Janet; Dumas, Tara M.


    Past research has shown that adolescent peer groups make a significant contribution to shaping behavior but less is known about the role of peer groups in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study examined the contribution of aggressive peer group norms on relationship quality and dating violence among dating adolescents. At the…

  9. Quality of attachment relationships and peer relationship dysfunction among late adolescents with and without anxiety disorders. (United States)

    Brumariu, Laura E; Obsuth, Ingrid; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen


    Little is known about the links between anxiety disorders and parent-child attachment disorganization and quality of peer relationships in late adolescence. This study examined the quality of attachment and peer relationships among adolescents with and without anxiety disorders in a sample of 109 low- to moderate-income families. Psychopathology was assessed with the SCID-I. Attachment disorganization and dysfunction in peer relationships were measured using semi-structured interviews and behavioral observations. Adolescents with anxiety disorders and comorbid conditions showed higher levels of attachment disorganization across three measurement approaches, as well as higher levels of dysfunction in peer relationships than those with no Axis I diagnosis. Adolescents without anxiety disorders but with other Axis I disorders differed only in the quality of school relationships from those with no diagnoses. The pattern of results suggests that pathological anxiety, in the context of other comorbidities, may be a marker for more pervasive levels of social impairment.

  10. Adolescents' Susceptibility to Peer Pressure: Relations to Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Adolescents' Emotional Autonomy from Parents (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui; Chan, Kwok-Wai


    Studies on factors affecting susceptibility to peer pressure are not plentiful although this susceptibility has been found to be associated with youth problems such as substance use and risky sexual behavior. The present study examined how adolescents' susceptibility to peer pressure is related to their relationships with mothers and emotional…

  11. Stress with Parents and Peers: How Adolescents from Six Nations Cope with Relationship Stress (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Persike, Malte; Karaman, Neslihan Guney; Cok, Figen; Herrera, Dora; Rohail, Iffat; Macek, Petr; Hyeyoun, Han


    This study investigated how 2000 adolescents from middle-class families in six countries perceived and coped with parent-related and peer-related stress. Adolescents from Costa Rica, Korea, and Turkey perceived parent-related stress to be greater than peer-related stress, whereas stress levels in both relationship types were similar in the Czech…

  12. Links of Adolescents Identity Development and Relationship with Peers: A Systematic Literature Review (United States)

    Ragelienė, Tija


    Objective: According to Erik Erikson, the main task of adolescents is to solve the crisis of identity versus role confusion. Research has shown that a stable and strong sense of identity is associated with better mental health of adolescents. Good relationships with peers are also linked with better emotional and psychological well-being of adolescents. However, there is a lack of reviews of studies in the scientific literature examining the relationship between the adolescents’ identity development and relationships with peers. The aims of this article were to analyze links between adolescent identity development and relationships with peers identified from a literature review, summarize the results, and discuss the theoretical factors that may predict these relationships. Method: A systematic literature review. Results: Analysis of findings from the systematic literature review revealed that a good relationship with peers is positively related to adolescent identity development, but empirical research in this area is extremely limited. Conclusions: The links between adolescents’ identity development and their relationship with peers are not completely clear. The possible intermediate factors that could determine the relationship between adolescent identity development and their relationships with peers are discussed. Further empirical researches is needed in this area. PMID:27274745

  13. Romantic Relationship Patterns from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Family and Peer Experiences in Early Adolescence. (United States)

    Boisvert, Stéphanie; Poulin, François


    The present study identifies and describes romantic relationship patterns from adolescence to adulthood and examines their associations with family and peer experiences in early adolescence. In a 13-year longitudinal study, 281 youth (58 % girls) identified all their romantic partners each year from the ages of 16-24. Dimensions of family relationships (family cohesion, parent-child conflict) and peer relationships (peer likeability, social withdrawal, close friendships, other-sex friendships) were assessed at age 12. Latent class analyses brought out five distinct romantic relationship patterns and significant associations were found with family and peer relationships in early adolescence. These five romantic relationship patterns appeared to follow a continuum of romantic involvement, with romantic relationship patterns situated a both ends of this continuum (later involvement pattern and intense involvement pattern) being associated with more interpersonal experiences in early adolescence.

  14. Multiple dimensions of peer influence in adolescent romantic and sexual relationships: a descriptive, qualitative perspective. (United States)

    Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Deardorff, Julianna


    Adolescents undergo critical developmental transformations that increase the salience of peer influence. Peer interactions (platonic and romantic) have been found to have both a positive and negative influence on adolescent attitudes and behaviors related to romantic relationships and sexual behavior. This study used qualitative methodology to explore how peers influence romantic and sexual behavior. Forty adolescents participated in individual semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed, and analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. The concept of peer influence on romantic relationships and sexual behavior emerged as a key theme. Youth described that platonic peers (friends) influenced their relationships and sexual behavior including pressuring friends into relationships, establishing relationships as currency for popularity and social status, and creating relationship norm and expectations. Romantic peers also motivated relationship and sexual behavior as youth described engaging in behavior to avoid hurting and successfully pleasing their partners. Future research should explore multiple types of peer influence in order to better inform interventions to improve the quality of adolescents' romantic and sexual relationships.

  15. Positive and negative qualities of South African adolescents' parent and peer relationships. (United States)

    Lesch, Elmien; de Jager, Nadia


    Parent and peer relationships are important social resources for adolescents. South African research on adolescents' relationships, however, underemphasises these relationships as potential positive resources. Studies also tend to use samples from urban populations, while rural and semi-rural adolescent populations are neglected. This study focused on White and Coloured adolescents living in one South African semi-rural community and their ratings of positive and negative relationship qualities in relationships with parents and peers. Using the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI), we found that mothers, best friends and romantic partners were relatively equal sources of social support. Mothers' high ratings for support, conflict and punishment may point to mothers bearing the primary responsibility for child care. Fathers' low support ratings raise concern as father involvement is important for adolescents' well-being. White participants overall rated their relationship higher for support and lower for negative qualities than the Coloured participants.

  16. The relation between adolescent's relationship with his/her parents and peers and substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the correlations between adolescents' perception of their relationship with mother, father and peers, parental monitoring, parental and peer influence, and frequency of substance use in the life and in the past month. 151 college students (43,7% male aged 18-22 years participated in the study. The results showed statistically significant negative correlations between frequency of substance use and adolescents' perception of: (1 open communication and (2 trust in their relationship with mother, father and peers, (3 parental monitoring, and (4 mother's influence. The correlations between frequency of substance use and adolescents' perception of (1 alienation from parents and peer, and (2 influence of peer were positive.

  17. Does the Importance of Parent and Peer Relationships for Adolescents' Life Satisfaction Vary across Cultures? (United States)

    Schwarz, Beate; Mayer, Boris; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Ben-Arieh, Asher; Friedlmeier, Mihaela; Lubiewska, Katarzyna; Mishra, Ramesh; Peltzer, Karl


    This study investigated whether the associations between (a) the quality of the parent-child relationship and peer acceptance and (b) early adolescents' life satisfaction differed depending on the importance of family values in the respective culture. As part of the Value of Children Study, data from a subsample of N = 1,034 adolescents (58%…

  18. Dimensions of Peer Influences and Their Relationship to Adolescents' Aggression, Other Problem Behaviors and Prosocial Behavior. (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Thompson, Erin L; Mehari, Krista R


    Although peers are a major influence during adolescence, the relative importance of specific mechanisms of peer influence on the development of problem behavior is not well understood. This study investigated five domains of peer influence and their relationships to adolescents' problem and prosocial behaviors. Self-report and teacher ratings were obtained for 1787 (53 % female) urban middle school students. Peer pressure for fighting and friends' delinquent behavior were uniquely associated with aggression, drug use and delinquent behavior. Friends' prosocial behavior was uniquely associated with prosocial behavior. Friends' support for fighting and friends' support for nonviolence were not as clearly related to behavior. Findings were generally consistent across gender. This study highlights the importance of studying multiple aspects of peer influences on adolescents' behavior.

  19. Longitudinal relationship between drinking with peers, descriptive norms, and adolescent alcohol use. (United States)

    Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Haynie, Denise; Farhat, Tilda; Wang, Jing


    Descriptive norms are consistently found to predict adolescent alcohol use but less is known about the factors that predict descriptive norms. The objective of this study is to test if drinking with peers predicts later alcohol consumption and if this relationship is mediated by a change in the descriptive norms of peer alcohol use. Data are from a nationally representative cohort of high school students surveyed in the 10th and 11th grade (N = 2,162). Structural equation modeling was used to test a mediation model of the relationship between drinking with peers (T1) on later alcohol use (T2) and mediation of the relationship by descriptive norms (T2). Descriptive norms significantly mediated the relationship between drinking with peers and alcohol use for both males and females with a somewhat larger effect for males compared to females. These results support a continued focus on the development and evaluation of interventions to alter descriptive norms of alcohol use.

  20. The Role of Perceived Peer Norms in the Relationship Between Media Violence Exposure and Adolescents' Aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, Karin M.; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Lugtig, Peter; Valkenburg, Patti M.


    This study investigates the role of a social context variable, perceived peer norms, in the relationship between media violence exposure and adolescents' aggressive behavior. This was informed by a need to better understand whether, how, and for whom, media violence exposure may affect aggression. T

  1. Relationships among Shyness, Social Competence, Peer Relations, and Theory of Mind among Pre-Adolescents (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Kakarani, Styliani; Kolovou, Demetra


    The present study examined the relationships between shyness, a number of personal and interpersonal variables (i.e. social skills, self-esteem, attachment style, advanced Theory of Mind skills and peer relations) in a sample of 243 Greek pre-adolescents. Participants completed self-reports of the variables. Results indicated that females scored…

  2. Dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among early adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syudo Yamasaki


    Full Text Available Peer victimization increases the risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms among clinical and general populations, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Dissociation, which is related to peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences, has been demonstrated as a significant mediator in the relation between childhood victimization and hallucinatory experience among adult patients with psychosis. However, no studies have examined the mediating effect of dissociation in a general early adolescent population. We examined whether dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among 10-year-old adolescents using a population-based cross-sectional survey of early adolescents and their main parent (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey; N = 4478. We examined the mediating effect of dissociation, as well as external locus of control and depressive symptoms, on the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences using path analysis. The model assuming mediation effects indicated good model fit (comparative fit index = .999; root mean square error of approximation = .015. The mediation effect between peer victimization and hallucination via dissociation (standardized indirect effect = .038, p < .001 was statistically significant, whereas the mediation effects of depressive symptoms (standardized indirect effect = −.0066, p = 0.318 and external locus of control (standardized indirect effect = .0024, p = 0.321 were not significant. These results suggest that dissociation is a mediator in the relation between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences in early adolescence. For appropriate intervention strategies, assessing dissociation and peer victimization as they affect hallucinatory experiences is necessary.

  3. Representations of Mother-Child Attachment Relationships and Social-Information Processing of Peer Relationships in Early Adolescence (United States)

    Granot, David; Mayseless, Ofra


    We examined the concurrent associations between early adolescents' representations of mother-child attachment relationships and how they process social information in their peer relationships. Attachment representations were examined in a normative sample of 97 males and 88 females (mean age = 10.35 years), using an adaptation of the Attachment…

  4. Behavioral Engagement, Peer Status, and Teacher-Student Relationships in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study on Reciprocal Influences. (United States)

    Engels, Maaike C; Colpin, Hilde; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Bijttebier, Patricia; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Claes, Stephan; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine


    Although teachers and peers play an important role in shaping students' engagement, no previous study has directly investigated transactional associations of these classroom-based relationships in adolescence. This study investigated the transactional associations between adolescents' behavioral engagement, peer status (likeability and popularity), and (positive and negative) teacher-student relationships during secondary education. A large sample of adolescents was followed from Grade 7 to 11 (N = 1116; 49 % female; M age = 13.79 years). Multivariate autoregressive cross-lagged modeling revealed only unidirectional effects from teacher-student relationships and peer status on students' behavioral engagement. Positive teacher-student relationships were associated with more behavioral engagement over time, whereas negative teacher-student relationships, higher likeability and higher popularity were related to less behavioral engagement over time. We conclude that teachers and peers constitute different sources of influence, and play independent roles in adolescents' behavioral engagement.

  5. Fighting Fair: Adaptive Marital Conflict Strategies as Predictors of Future Adolescent Peer and Romantic Relationship Quality (United States)

    Miga, Erin M.; Gdula, Julie Ann; Allen, Joseph P.


    This study examined the associations between reasoning during inter-parental conflict and autonomous adolescent conflict negotiation with peers over time. Participants included 133 adolescents and their parents, peers, and romantic partners in a multimethod, multiple reporter, longitudinal study. Inter-parental reasoning at adolescent age of 13…

  6. Risky Lifestyle as a Mediator of the Relationship between Deviant Peer Affiliation and Dating Violence Victimization among Adolescent Girls (United States)

    Vezina, Johanne; Hebert, Martine; Poulin, Francois; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.


    Few studies have explored the possible contribution of the peer group to dating violence victimization. The current study tested the hypothesis that a risky lifestyle would mediate the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and dating violence victimization among adolescent girls. The proposed mediation model was derived from lifestyles and…

  7. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning (United States)

    Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.


    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…

  8. Victimization and Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: The Influence of Parental and Peer Behaviors, and Individual Adjustment (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Banister, Elizabeth M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Yeung, Rachel


    Consistent with the view that adolescent relationships are established in the context of important characteristics of their social networks, we examined the effects of adolescents' experiences of parenting (psychological control and positive monitoring) and of peer aggression and victimization, on their self reports of dating victimization and…

  9. The development of adolescent self-regulation: reviewing the role of parent, peer, friend, and romantic relationships. (United States)

    Farley, Julee P; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen


    Self-regulation plays an important role in adolescent development, predicting success in multiple domains including school and social relationships. While researchers have paid increasing attention to the influence of parents on the development of adolescent self-regulation, we know little about the influence of peers and friends and even less about the influence of romantic partners on adolescent development of self-regulation. Extant studies examined a unidirectional model of self-regulation development rather than a bidirectional model of self-regulation development. Given that relationships and self-regulation develop in tandem, a model of bidirectional development between relationship context and adolescent self-regulation may be relevant. This review summarizes extant literature and proposes that in order to understand how adolescent behavioral and emotional self-regulation develops in the context of social relationships one must consider that each relationship builds upon previous relationships and that self-regulation and relationship context develop bidirectionally.

  10. The Developmental Relationship Between Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence and Harmful Drinking in Emerging Adulthood: The Role of Peers and Parents. (United States)

    Pesola, Francesca; Shelton, Katherine H; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus; Hickman, Matthew; van den Bree, Marianne B M


    Depressive symptoms have been linked to the development of harmful drinking in adolescence but it remains unclear to what extent this effect continues into emerging adulthood. Deviant peers represent a risk factor while parental monitoring is a protective factor for harmful drinking. The study explored the relationship between depressive symptoms and harmful drinking between early adolescence and emerging adulthood. We also assessed to what extent this relationship is mediated by the influence of deviant peers and whether parental monitoring weakens this process. The sample consisted of 2964 adolescents (64 % females) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children study assessed between the ages of 14 and 19. Using structural equation modelling, we found that affiliation with deviant peers mediated the association between depressive symptoms and harmful drinking after adjustment for socio-demographic variables, parental drinking and depression, teenager's sex, conduct problems as well as drinking and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. We also found that parental control and solicitation reduced the influence of deviant peers on harmful drinking. The results indicate that prevention programs should offer adolescents training for peer resistance training and monitoring skills training for parents may have a long-term effect at weakening peer influences on harmful drinking.

  11. Forms of Aggression, Peer Relationships, and Relational Victimization among Chinese Adolescent girls and boys: Roles of Prosocial Behavior

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    Shujun eWang


    Full Text Available Through a sample of 686 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 13.73 years; 50% girls, we examined the compensatory and moderating effects of prosocial behavior on the direct and indirect associations between forms of aggression and relational victimization mediated by peer relationships among adolescent girls and boys. The results indicated that only adolescent girls’ relationally aggressive behaviors could be directly linked with their experiences of relational victimization, and both relationally and overtly aggressive adolescent boys and girls might be more often rejected by their peers, which, in turn, could make them targets of relational aggression. Next, we found that prosocial behavior indirectly counteracts the effects of aggression on relational victimization through reducing adolescents’ peer rejection and promoting adolescents’ peer attachment. In addition, relationally aggressive girls with high levels of prosocial behavior might be less rejected by peers; however, they might also have lower levels of peer attachment and be more likely to experience relational victimization. Last, adolescent boys scored higher on risks, but lower on the protective factors of relational victimization than girls, which, to some degree, might explain the gender difference in relational victimization. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  12. My beliefs of my peers' beliefs: exploring the gendered nature of social norms in adolescent romantic relationships. (United States)

    Hertzog, Jodie L; Rowley, Rochelle Lynn


    Dating violence in adolescent relationships is a growing social problem in the United States. A majority of adolescents have dated by the time they finish high school and these experiences have an impact on their relationship trajectories as adults. Although more and more prevention efforts are aimed at reducing teen dating violence and/or teaching adolescents about healthy relationships, very few of these efforts investigate discrepancies in descriptive and injunctive norms associated with adolescent dating. This pilot study adds to the existing literature by investigating the dating norms of early and mid-adolescents to aid in tailoring prevention efforts among this population. One hundred eighty-seven middle and high school student leaders from public schools in the Midwest completed an annual relationship survey. Findings suggest that participants did not support unhealthy relationship norms overall. However, two patterns of discrepancies emerged: one between participant attitudes (descriptive norms) and their perceptions of peer attitudes (injunctive norms), and another between perceptions participants hold about their male versus female peers' beliefs. Results imply the development of pluralistic ignorance occurs during adolescence and that perceptions of peer norms are in line with the principles of hegemonic masculinity. Implications for possible prevention initiatives and future research directions are noted.

  13. The Negative Effects of Prejudice on Interpersonal Relationships within Adolescent Peer Groups (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Mereish, Ethan H.; Birkett, Michelle


    Social development theories highlight the centrality of peer groups during adolescence and their role in socializing attitudes and behaviors. In this longitudinal study, we tested the effects of group-level prejudice on ensuing positive and negative interpersonal interactions among peers over a 7-month period. We used social network analysis to…

  14. Positive Outcome Expectancy Mediates the Relationship Between Peer Influence and Internet Gaming Addiction Among Adolescents in Taiwan. (United States)

    Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Wu, Li-An; Oei, Tian Po


    The present study examined the role of positive outcome expectancy in the relationship between peer/parental influence and Internet gaming addiction (IGA) among adolescents in Taiwan. Two thousand, one hundred and four junior high students completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale for IGA, Parental Influence for IGA, peer influence for IGA, and Positive Outcome Expectancy of Internet Gaming Questionnaire. Results showed that the three types of peer influences (positive attitudes toward Internet gaming, frequency of Internet game use, and invitation to play) and positive outcome expectancy were significantly and positively correlated with IGA. Moreover, peer influence was also positively correlated with positive outcome expectancy. On the other hand, positive outcome expectancy and parental influences had a low correlation. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that positive outcome expectancy did not mediate the relationship between either type of parental influences and IGA, and only the parent's invitation to play Internet games directly predicted IGA severity. However, peers' positive attitude or the frequency of peers' Internet game use positively predicted IGA and was fully mediated through positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. In addition, the frequency of peers' invitation to play Internet games directly and indirectly predicted IGA severity through a partial mediation of positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. The overall fit of the model was adequate and was able to explain 25.0 percent of the variance. The findings provide evidence in illuminating the role of peer influences and positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming in the process of why adolescents may develop IGA.

  15. The Developmental Significance of Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Parent and Peer Predictors of Engagement and Quality at Age 15 (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Spieker, Susan


    From a longitudinal sample (n = 957; 49.9% male; 77.3% White/non-Hispanic) of participants studied from infancy through age 15, adolescents' depth of engagement in, and quality of romantic relationships were predicted from early and contemporaneous parent-child interactive quality and peer social competence. High quality maternal parenting and…

  16. Effects of Early Childhood Peer Relationships on Adolescent Mental Health: A 6- to 8-Year Follow-Up Study in South Korea (United States)

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon


    Objective Peer relationships are one of the important factors in children's development. The present study examines the relationship between the effects of early peer relationships and adolescent psychological adjustment. Methods The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment obtained data in 2006, as the original participants reached 13–15 years of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and simple questions about peer relationships to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Youth Self Report (K-YSR). Results Children's peer relationships have longitudinal effects on mental health and adjustment. Children who had qualitative peer-relation problems were more likely to exhibit internalizing problems as adolescents. Conclusion Children who have poor peer relationships might become more vulnerable to emotional problems and social adjustment as adolescents. PMID:27482238

  17. Observations of adolescent peer resistance skills following a classroom-based healthy relationship program: a post-intervention comparison. (United States)

    Wolfe, David A; Crooks, Claire V; Chiodo, Debbie; Hughes, Raymond; Ellis, Wendy


    This study examines peer resistance skills following a 21-lesson classroom-based intervention to build healthy relationships and decrease abusive and health-risk behaviors among adolescents. The Fourth R instructs students in positive relationship skills, such as negotiation and delay, for navigating challenging peer and dating scenarios. Observational data from 196 grade 9 students participating in a larger cluster randomized controlled trial were used to evaluate post-intervention acquisition of peer resistance skills. Pairs of students engaged in a role play paradigm with older student actors, where they were subjected to increasing pressure to comply with peer requests related to drugs and alcohol, bullying, and sexual behavior. Specific and global measures of change in peer resistance responses were obtained from two independent sets of observers, blinded to condition. Specific peer resistance responses (negotiation, delay, yielding to pressure, refusal, and compliance) were coded by research assistants; global peer resistance responses were rated by teachers from other schools (thinking / inquiry, application, communication, and perceived efficacy). Students who received the intervention were more likely to demonstrate negotiation skills and less likely to yield to negative pressure relative to controls. Intervention students were also more likely to use delay than controls; control girls were more likely to use refusal responses; the number of times students complied with peer requests did not differ. Teacher ratings demonstrated significant main effects favoring intervention youth on all measures. Program and research implications are highlighted.

  18. Examining the Role of Peer Relationships in the Lives of Gay and Bisexual Adolescents (United States)

    Roe, Stuart L.


    School social workers can serve as valuable supporters of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youths in the public school system by providing services aimed to improve school climates for all students. This article describes a qualitative study that examined gay and bisexual adolescent experiences with peer support using a…

  19. Do differences make the heart grow fonder? Associations between differential peer experiences on adolescent sibling conflict and relationship quality. (United States)

    Greer, Kelly Bassett; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Debrown, Brina; Maupin, Cynthia


    Though it is known that different familial relationships influence one another (e.g., Yu & Gamble, 2008) the influence of outside relationships (i.e., peers) on family dynamics (i.e., sibling relationships) is less clear. Thus, the authors examined the association differential peer experiences had on the conflict frequency, conflict intensity, and relationship quality of the sibling relationship. A 1-year longitudinal design measured first-born siblings in Grades 8, 10, and 12 along with their second-born siblings. In the first year, participants were brought to the university to complete questionnaires and in the following year, siblings again participated by completing online questionnaires at home. Results partially confirmed the study hypotheses that adolescents would show greater sibling conflict and poorer relationship quality with greater peer group differences, revealing that when peer group differences between siblings were greater, the youngest siblings reported more intense sibling conflicts (pe = -.10 p relationship positivity (pe = .13 p relationship negativity (pe = -.12 p relationships.

  20. The Relationship of Peer Victimization to Social Anxiety and Loneliness in Adolescent Females (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Masia-Warner, Carrie


    This study examined the relationship of overt and relational victimization to social anxiety, loneliness, and prosocial behaviours in a sample of female adolescents. The Social Experience Questionnaire, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 561 girls in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh grades of an…

  1. Development and Validation of the Relationship and Motivation (REMO) Scale to Assess Students' Perceptions of Peers and Teachers as Motivators in Adolescence (United States)

    Raufelder, Diana; Drury, Kate; Jagenow, Danilo; Hoferichter, Frances; Bukowski, William


    Factor analyses of a newly developed measure designed to measure early adolescents' perceptions of peers and teachers as sources of scholastic motivation were conducted with a diverse sample of 7th and 8th grade students (N = 1088) in secondary schools. The Relationship and Motivation (REMO) scales measure perceptions of peers (P-REMO) and…

  2. Peer Involvement in Adolescent Dating Violence (United States)

    Stephenson, Pam S.; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke


    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in…

  3. Peer influence on adolescent snacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Hansen, Kathrine Nørgaard; Grunert, Klaus G


    show that the youngest adolescents and the girls perceived the highest influence from peers, and that peer social influence has more effect on what adolescents perceive as important snack attributes as compared to more personal factors. The focus group results show that adolescents purchase and consume......Purpose – The purpose of the research presented in this paper is 1) To explore peer influence and the social and symbolic meaning that adolescents (10 to 16 years) attach to snacks; and 2) to investigate the relative influence of peer influence compared to personal factors in explaining perceived...... importance of snack attributes; and 3) To investigate age and gender differences in the peer influence process. Design/methodology/approach – A web-based survey distributed via email was combined with follow-up focus groups including adolescents aged 10 to 16 years in Denmark. Findings – The survey results...

  4. Romantic relationships and sexuality in adolescence and young adulthood : The role of parents, peers, and partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bongardt, Daphne; Yu, Rongqin; Dekovic, Maja; Meeus, Wim H J


    The formation of romantic relationships and the engagement in sexual behaviours are considered normative and salient developmental tasks for adolescents and young adults. These developmental tasks are increasingly viewed from an ecological perspective, thus not only as individual processes, but also

  5. Romantic relationships and sexuality in adolescence and young adulthood: The role of parents, peers, and partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bongardt, D.; Yu, R.; Deković, M.; Meeus, W.H.J.


    The formation of romantic relationships and the engagement in sexual behaviours are considered normative and salient developmental tasks for adolescents and young adults. These developmental tasks are increasingly viewed from an ecological perspective, thus not only as individual processes, but also

  6. Violent relationships at the social-ecological level: A multi-mediation model to predict adolescent victimization by peers, bullying and depression in early and late adolescence (United States)

    Oriol, Xavier; Miranda, Rafael; Acosta, Hedy C.; Mendoza, Michelle C.; Torres-Vallejos, Javier


    Background From the social-ecological perspective, exposure to violence at the different developmental levels is fundamental to explain the dynamics of violence and victimization in educational centers. The following study aims at analyzing how these relationships are produced in the Peruvian context, where structural violence situations exist. Methods A multi-mediation structural model with 21,416 Peruvian adolescents (M = 13.69; SD = 0.71) was conducted to determine the influence of violence in the school environment on violence perceived within school and violence exercised by teachers. In addition, it was also intended to determine whether these violent relationships predict depression through loneliness, and bullying through peer victimization. The existence of differences between early and late adolescence was also verified. Results Results confirm that violence in the school setting has high influence on violence exercised by adolescents and teachers within the school. Teacher violence is the most important predictor of depression through loneliness, and encourages peer victimization and the emergence of aggressive behavior. Exposure to violence exercised by support sources—teachers and classmates—explains more than 90% of the total variance explained in bullying behavior. Differences were found between early and late adolescence models. Conclusion The high prevalence of structural violence in school settings facilitates the bullying/victimization dynamics within school. From a social-ecological perspective, this result suggests the importance of network cooperation at a mesosystem level, with teachers from educational centers playing a crucial role in the prevention of bullying/victimization. PMID:28358905

  7. The Relationships among Interparental Conflict, Peer, Media Effects and the Violence Behaviour of Adolescents: The Mediator Role of Attitudes towards Violence (United States)

    Avci, Rasit; Gucray, Songül Sonay


    The aim of this research is to investigate interparental conflict, peer and media effects and its direct relationship with the violence behaviour of adolescents and the mediator role of attitudes towards violence. 2120 students, 964 girls and 1156 boys chosen from 7th and 8th grades of one private and eleven public elementary schools in Adana have…

  8. The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment: Individual Differences and Their Relationship to Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence. (United States)

    Armsden, Gay G.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    The development and validation of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), a self-report instrument for use with adolescents, is described. Item content of the instrument was suggested by Bowlby's theoretical formulations concerning the nature of feelings toward attachment figures. A hierarchical regression model was employed to…

  9. Do peers matter? A review of peer and/or friends' influence on physical activity among American adolescents. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Fitzgerald, Noelle; Aherne, Cian


    This systematic review investigated the relationship between peer and/or friend variables and physical activity among adolescents by synthesising cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental research conducted in the US. Seven electronic databases were searched to identify related articles published within the last 10 years and the articles reviewed included adolescents between 10 and 18 years. Studies reporting a measure of physical activity for adolescents and at least one potential peer and/or friend variable were included. Research demonstrated that peers and friends have an important role to play in the physical activity behavior of adolescents. Six processes were identified through which peers and/or friends may have an influence on physical activity including: peer and/or friend support, presence of peers and friends, peer norms, friendship quality and acceptance, peer crowds, and peer victimization. The theoretical significance of these results is assessed and the development of peer-related physical activity programs for adolescents is discussed.

  10. Peer relations in adolescents: effects of parenting and adolescents' self-concept. (United States)

    Deković, M; Meeus, W


    In this study we examined the link between the parent-adolescent relationship and the adolescent's relationship with peers. The proposed model assumes that the quality of the parent-child relationship affects the adolescent's self-concept, which in turn affects the adolescent's integration into the world of peers. The sample consisted of 508 families with adolescents (12- to 18-years-old). The data were obtained at the subjects' homes, where a battery of questionnaires was administered individually to mothers, fathers and adolescents. Several constructs relating to the quality of parent-child relationship were assessed: parental acceptance, attachment, involvement, responsiveness, love withdrawal and monitoring of the child. The measures of the adolescent's self-concept included Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Adolescents and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The indicators of the quality of peer relations were: degree of peer activity, having a best friend, perceived acceptance by peers and attachment to peers. Assessment of the hypothesized model showed that the adolescent's self-concept serves a mediating role in the relationship between maternal child-rearing style and involvement with peers. The mediating role of self-concept was greatest for maternal acceptance. Paternal child-rearing style, however, appeared to have an independent effect on the adolescent's involvement with peers that is not accounted for by the adolescent's self-concept. The prediction of the quality of adolescents' peer relations yielded similar results for both mothers and fathers. The results suggest that a positive self-concept and warm supportive parenting each contribute unique variance to satisfactory peer relations.

  11. Suicidality and its relationships with individual, family, peer, and psychopathology factors among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang


    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence rates of suicidal intent and its correlates among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged 11-18 years and diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations of suicide with individual, family, peer, ADHD, and psychopathology factors. A total of 12.2% of the participants reported suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. A logistic regression analysis model showed that adolescents who were older, were bullying perpetrators, and reported high depression level were more likely to have suicidal intent. These three factors were also significantly correlated with suicidal ideation; however, only having high depression level was significantly correlated with suicidal attempts. The results of this study showed that a high proportion of adolescents with ADHD reported suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. Multiple factors were significantly associated with suicidal intent among adolescents with ADHD. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents with ADHD should monitor the possibility of suicide in adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the correlates of suicidal intent identified in this study.

  12. The Moderating Effect of Machiavellianism on the Relationships between Bullying, Peer Acceptance, and School Adjustment in Adolescents (United States)

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang


    This study examined the moderating effect of Machiavellianism on the relationships between bullying, peer acceptance, and school adjustment (rule-following behavior and academic performance) among 216 middle school 7th-graders in Taipei, Taiwan. The participants were divided into two groups according to their Machiavellianism. Multi-group path…

  13. The Intersection of Identity Development and Peer Relationship Processes in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Contributions of the Special Issue (United States)

    Galliher, Renee V.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.


    This analysis of the papers in the special section on the intersection of identity development and peer relationship processes calls attention to conceptual contribution this collection of papers makes to the literature on identity development. Together these ten papers build on strong theoretical foundations in identity development, which posit…

  14. Peer relationships and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.


    Full Text Available After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a social competence, (b social acceptance/rejection, (c child's friendships and (d prosocial behavior on academic achievement.

  15. Peer Associations and Coping: The Mediating Role of Ethnic Identity for Urban, African American Adolescents. (United States)

    Joyce, Jeneka A; O'Neil, Maya E; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; McWhirter, Ellen H; Dishion, Thomas J


    This study sought to examine the relationship between coping strategies and prosocial and deviant peer associations for urban, African American adolescents. In addition, the study analyzed the mediating role of ethnic identity for coping strategies and peer associations. Results of the African American models were then compared with models for European American adolescents. Results indicated that African American and European American adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were more likely to associate with prosocial peers, and those who reported using self-destruction strategies were less likely to associate with prosocial peers. Adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were less likely to associate with deviant peers, and adolescents who reported using self-destruction strategies were more likely to associate with deviant peers. Ethnic identity mediated the relationship between coping and prosocial peer association for African American adolescents. Limitations of the study and future research directions are also presented.

  16. Sexual Violence Perpetration by Adolescents in Dating versus Sam-Sex Peer Relationships: Differences in Associated Risk and Protective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen C Basile


    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence (SV perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer.Methods: Analyses were based on data from a survey conducted in 2004 with public school boys and girls in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N=4,131 in a high-risk, urban school district in the United States. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do. Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics.Results: Findings revealed that 2.1% of respondents reported perpetration against a same-sex peer and 3.2% reported perpetration against a date during the past 12 months. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were significantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types.Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys. Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:329–340.

  17. Brief Report: Do Peer Relationships Matter to Vietnamese Adolescents' and Young Adults' Development of Identity? Towards a Working Theory of Identity Development in a Changing Culture (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong; Cohen, Edward; Hines, Alice


    In this paper, using data from the first nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of more than 7000 Vietnamese adolescents, we explore how peers, compared to family, matter to Vietnamese adolescents' development of their independent identity as an adult. We use future hopes and aspirations as proxies for identity development, arguing that…

  18. Early Adolescent Romantic Partner Status, Peer Standing, and Problem Behaviors (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S.; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.


    This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a…

  19. Dangerous Liaisons? Dating and Drinking Diffusion in Adolescent Peer Networks (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.


    The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence. Yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating, and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks.…

  20. Empathy and Peer Violence among Adolescents: Moderation Effect of Gender (United States)

    Bojana, Dinic M.; Jasmina, Kodžopeljic S.; Valentina, Sokolovska T.; Ilija, Milovanovic Z.


    The study examined the relationships between empathy and peer violence among adolescents, along with gender as a moderator in these associations. Thereby, multidimensionality of empathy (affective and cognitive empathy) and different forms of violence (physical, verbal, and relational) were considered. The participants were 646 high school…

  1. Delinquency in Adolescent Girls: Using a Confluence Approach to Understand the Influences of Parents and Peers. (United States)

    Henneberger, Angela K; Tolan, Patrick H; Hipwell, Alison E; Keenan, Kate


    Determining the interdependence of family and peer influences on the development of delinquency is critical to defining and implementing effective interventions. This study explored the longitudinal relationship among harsh punishment, positive parenting, peer delinquency, and adolescent delinquency using data from a sub-sample of the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Participants were 622 adolescent girls (42% European American, 53% African American); families living in low-income neighborhoods were oversampled. After controlling for the effects of race, living in a single parent household, and receipt of public assistance, harsh punishment and peer delinquency in early adolescence were positively related to delinquency in mid-adolescence. No significant main effects of positive parenting or interaction effects between parenting and peer delinquency were observed. Thus, the effects of harsh parenting and peer delinquency are independent and perhaps additive, rather than interdependent. Results indicate the continued importance of targeting both parenting and peer relationships to prevent delinquency in adolescent girls.

  2. Investigating the effect of child maltreatment on early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P


    : Estimates from the mediation model indicated significant indirect effects of child physical abuse on sexual aggression via peer influence and insecure-hostile masculinity. No significant total effect of child sexual abuse and child neglect on sexual aggression was found. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of the present......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and severe early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression, using a multiple mediator model. METHODS: The study comprised 330 male Grade 9 students with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD=0.5). RESULTS...

  3. Social Adjustment of Deaf Early Adolescents at the Start of Secondary School: The Divergent Role of Withdrawn Behavior in Peer Status (United States)

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo


    This study examined the peer relationships and social behaviors of deaf adolescents in the first 2 years of secondary school. Peer nominations and ratings of peer status and behavior were collected longitudinally with 74 deaf and 271 hearing adolescents from Grade 7 to Grade 8. The predictions of deaf adolescents' peer status in Grade 8 from…

  4. Social Adjustment of Deaf Early Adolescents at the Start of Secondary School: The Divergent Role of Withdrawn Behavior in Peer Status (United States)

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo


    This study examined the peer relationships and social behaviors of deaf adolescents in the first 2 years of secondary school. Peer nominations and ratings of peer status and behavior were collected longitudinally with 74 deaf and 271 hearing adolescents from Grade 7 to Grade 8. The predictions of deaf adolescents' peer status in Grade 8 from Grade…

  5. Adolescents, gangs, and perceptions of safety, parental engagement, and peer pressure. (United States)

    Kelly, Sarah E; Anderson, Debra G


    Adolescents are exposed to various forms of gang violence, and such exposure has led them to feel unsafe in their neighborhood and have differing interactions with their parents and peers. This qualitative study explored adolescents', parents', and community center employees' perceptions of adolescents' interaction with their neighborhood, family, and peers. Three themes emerged from the data: Most adolescents reported that the community center provided a safe environment for them; parental engagement influenced adolescents' experiences with gangs; and adolescents were subjected to peer pressure in order to belong. Exposure to gang violence can leave an impression on adolescents and affect their mental health, but neighborhood safety and relationships with parents and peers can influence adolescents' exposure to gang violence. Recommendations regarding the use of health care professionals at community centers are proposed.

  6. Injunctive and Descriptive Peer Group Norms and the Academic Adjustment of Rural Early Adolescents (United States)

    Hamm, Jill V.; Schmid, Lorrie; Farmer, Thomas W.; Locke, Belinda


    This study integrates diverse literatures on peer group influence by conceptualizing and examining the relationship of peer group injunctive norms to the academic adjustment of a large and ethnically diverse sample of rural early adolescents' academic adjustment. Results of three-level hierarchical linear modeling indicated that peer groups were…

  7. Adolescent Peer Relationships and Emerging Adult Romantic Styles: A Longitudinal Study of Youth in an Italian Community (United States)

    Dhariwal, Amrit; Connolly, Jennifer; Paciello, Marinella; Caprara, Gian Vittorio


    This study extends understanding of romantic development in the emerging adult years by using an 8-year longitudinal design in Italy. Peer groups at age 13, interpersonal functioning and emotion regulation at age 17, and romantic styles at age 21 were measured in 388 youth. Early peer groups were shown to be indirectly associated with two romantic…

  8. Strengthening Grief Support for Adolescents Coping with a Peer's Death (United States)

    Balk, David E.; Zaengle, Donna; Corr, Charles A.


    This article offers suggestions for strengthening school-based grief support following an adolescent's death. Such interventions must be considered within the context of: (a) development during adolescence; (b) the role of peers in adolescent development; and (c) the fact that an adolescent peer's death is a non-normative life crisis in developed…

  9. Self-reported peer victimization and suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients: the mediating role of negative self-esteem. (United States)

    Jones, Heather A; Bilge-Johnson, Sumru; Rabinovitch, Annie E; Fishel, Hazel


    The current study investigated relationships among self-reported peer victimization, suicidality, and depression in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Sixty-seven adolescent psychiatric inpatients at a Midwestern children's hospital completed measures of bullying and peer victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression during their inpatient stay. Analyses indicated significant moderate correlations among victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression in adolescents. Results from mediational analyses found that negative self-esteem mediated the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation. To date, this study is the first to directly examine the mechanisms underlying the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

  10. Predicting violence in romantic relationships during adolescence and emerging adulthood: a critical review of the mechanisms by which familial and peer influences operate. (United States)

    Olsen, James P; Parra, Gilbert R; Bennett, Shira A


    For three decades, researchers have sought to gain a greater understanding of the developmental antecedents to later perpetration or victimization of violence in romantic relationships. Whereas the majority of early studies focused on family-of-origin factors, attention in recent years has turned to additional ecologies such as peer relationships. This review highlights accomplishments of both family and peer studies that focus on violent romantic relationships in an effort to summarize the current state of knowledge. Attention is given to epidemiology and developmental family and peer factors, with special attention given to mechanisms that mediate and/or moderate the relation between family and peer factors and later participation in violent relationships. A critical approach is taken throughout the review in order to identify limitations of previous studies, and to highlight key findings. A case is made for viewing these developmental antecedents as a result of multiple developmental ecologies that is perhaps best summarized as a culture of violence.

  11. Longitudinal associations between social anxiety symptoms and cannabis use throughout adolescence: the role of peer involvement. (United States)

    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Hale, William W; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Branje, Susan J T; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim H J


    There appear to be contradicting theories and empirical findings on the association between adolescent Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms and cannabis use, suggesting potential risk as well as protective pathways. The aim of this six-year longitudinal study was to further examine associations between SAD symptoms and cannabis use over time in adolescents from the general population, specifically focusing on the potential role that adolescents' involvement with their peers may have in these associations. Participants were 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys; M age = 13.03 at T1), who completed annual self-report questionnaires for 6 successive years. Cross-lagged panel analysis suggested that adolescent SAD symptoms were associated with less peer involvement 1 year later. Less adolescent peer involvement was in turn associated with lower probabilities of cannabis use as well as lower frequency of cannabis use 1 year later. Most importantly, results suggested significant longitudinal indirect paths from adolescent SAD symptoms to cannabis use via adolescents' peer involvement. Overall, these results provide support for a protective function of SAD symptoms in association with cannabis use in adolescents from the general population. This association is partially explained by less peer involvement (suggesting increased social isolation) for those adolescents with higher levels of SAD symptoms. Future research should aim to gain more insight into the exact nature of the relationship between anxiety and cannabis use in adolescents from the general population, especially regarding potential risk and protective processes that may explain this relationship.

  12. Influences of Children's and Adolescents' Action-Control Processes on School Achievement, Peer Relationships, and Coping with Challenging Life Events (United States)

    Geldhof, G. John; Little, Todd D.


    Self-regulation represents a core aspect of human functioning that influences positive development across the life span. This chapter focuses on the action-control model, a key facet of self-regulation during childhood and early adolescence. The authors discuss the development of action-control beliefs, paying particular attention to their…

  13. Neural correlates of adolescents' viewing of parents' and peers' emotions: Associations with risk-taking behavior and risky peer affiliations. (United States)

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas; Margolin, Gayla


    Social reorientation from parents to same-age peers is normative in adolescence, but the neural correlates of youths' socioemotional processing of parents and peers have not been explored. In the current study, 22 adolescents (average age 16.98) underwent neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) while viewing and rating emotions shown in brief video clips featuring themselves, their parents, or an unfamiliar peer. Viewing self vs. other and parents vs. the peer activated regions in the medial prefrontal cortex, replicating prior findings that this area responds to self-relevant stimuli, including familiar and not just similar others. Viewing the peer compared with parents elicited activation in posterior 'mentalizing' structures, the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and right temporoparietal junction, as well as the ventral striatum and bilateral amygdala and hippocampus. Relative activations in the PCC and precuneus to the peer vs. the parent were related both to reported risk-taking behavior and to affiliations with more risk-taking peers. The results suggest neural correlates of the adolescent social reorientation toward peers and away from parents that may be associated with adolescents' real-life risk-taking behaviors and social relationships.

  14. Family Process and Peer Influences on Substance Use by Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yim-wah Mak


    Full Text Available This study explores the association of family process and peer influences with risk behaviors of adolescents. A total of 805 students were recruited from secondary schools. The results showed that adolescents who have parents who are “authoritarian” (OR = 1.856 were more likely to smoke. Adolescents who have conflicts with their parents (OR = 1.423 were more likely to drink. Those who have parents who are “permissive” were less likely to drink (OR = 0.885. Having friends who smoked (OR = 5.446 or drank (OR = 1.894, and friends’ invitation to smoke (OR = 10.455 or drink (OR = 11.825 were the dominant contributors to adolescent smoking and drinking. Interventions are needed that recognize the strength of the parent-child relationship, as well as strengthen family functioning through improved interpersonal, parenting, and monitoring skills.

  15. Peer interaction in adolescents with a chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, SA; Sinnema, G; Bijstra, JO; Mellenbergh, GJ; Wolters, WHG


    This study examined behavioural, cognitive and affective aspects of peer interaction of adolescents with a chronic illness. The aim of the study was twofold: (1) describe peer interaction of adolescents with a chronic illness in comparison with norms of healthy adolescents; (2) examine the relations

  16. Friendships and Romantic Relationships of Black and White Adolescents (United States)

    Pagano, Maria E.; Hirsch, Barton J.


    Prior research on adolescent peer relationships has focused on interpersonal dimensions of friendships but not of romantic relationships, and has rarely examined minority groups. We used a random sample of 122 adolescents to examine race and gender differences in friendships, romantic relationships, and the congruence between closest friendship…

  17. Delinquency in Adolescent Girls: Using a Confluence Approach to Understand the Influences of Parents and Peers


    Henneberger, Angela K.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Keenan, Kate


    Determining the interdependence of family and peer influences on the development of delinquency is critical to defining and implementing effective interventions. This study explored the longitudinal relationship among harsh punishment, positive parenting, peer delinquency, and adolescent delinquency using data from a sub-sample of the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Participants were 622 adolescent girls (42% European American, 53% African American); families living in low-income neighborhoods were o...

  18. An analytical cross-sectional study of peer pressure on adolescents


    Anisha Khan; Manisha Jain; Chhaya Budhwani


    Background: Friendships constitute an integral part of adolescent growth and development. As the teens explore their identity towards functional independence, teen peer relationship acquires an important role. Contrary to prevailing beliefs, peer pressure can have both a positive and negative impact on youths. Methods: A school based cross sectional study carried out on adolescents falling between the age group of 11 to 19 years using a pre-designed written questionnaire. The data obtained...

  19. Maternal and Peer Regulation of Adolescent Emotion: Associations with Depressive Symptoms. (United States)

    Lougheed, Jessica P; Craig, Wendy M; Pepler, Debra; Connolly, Jennifer; O'Hara, Arland; Granic, Isabela; Hollenstein, Tom


    Emotion socialization by close relationship partners plays a role in adolescent depression. In the current study, a microsocial approach was used to examine how adolescents' emotions are socialized by their mothers and close friends in real time, and how these interpersonal emotion dynamics are related to adolescent depressive symptoms. Participants were 83 adolescents aged 16 to 17 years who participated in conflict discussions with their mothers and self-nominated close friends. Adolescents' positive and negative emotions, and mothers' and peers' supportive regulation of adolescent emotions, were coded in real time. Two multilevel survival analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework predicted the hazard rate of (1) mothers' supportive regulation of adolescents' emotions, and (2) peers' supportive regulation of adolescents' emotions. The likelihood of maternal supportiveness, regardless of adolescent emotions, was lower for adolescents with higher depressive symptoms. In addition, peers were less likely to up-regulate adolescent positive emotions at higher levels of adolescent depressive symptoms. The results of the current study support interpersonal models of depression and demonstrate the importance of real-time interpersonal emotion processes in adolescent depressive symptoms.

  20. Childhood ADHD and Adolescent Substance Use: An Examination of Deviant Peer Group Affiliation as a Risk Factor


    Marshal, Michael P.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Pelham, William E.


    Deviant peer group affiliation was evaluated as a risk factor for substance use in adolescents with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results showed that deviant peer affiliation mediated the relationship between ADHD and substance use, suggesting that children with ADHD are more likely than children without ADHD to become involved with deviant peers and, as a result, more likely to use substances. Moreover, the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and substa...

  1. Evaluation of a Decision-Making Curriculum for Teaching Adolescents with Disabilities to Resist Negative Peer Pressure (United States)

    Khemka, Ishita; Hickson, Linda; Mallory, Sarah B.


    This study was designed to assess the impact of a decision-making curriculum (PEER-DM) on the social peer relationship knowledge and self-protective decision-making skills of adolescents with disabilities in hypothetical situations involving negative peer pressure. A randomized design was used to assign students with disabilities from…

  2. Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development. (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J; Tipsord, Jessica M


    In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that "select" adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors.

  3. Will They Like Me? Adolescents' Emotional Responses to Peer Evaluation (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Caouette, Justin D.; Lee, Clinton C.; Ruiz, Sarah K.


    Relative to children and adults, adolescents are highly focused on being evaluated by peers. This increased attention to peer evaluation has implications for emotion regulation in adolescence, but little is known about the characteristics of the evaluatee and evaluator that influence emotional reactions to evaluative outcomes. The present study…

  4. Peer Influence on Gender Identity Development in Adolescence (United States)

    Kornienko, Olga; Santos, Carlos E.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Granger, Kristen L.


    During adolescence, gender identity (GI) develops through a dialectic process of personal reflection and with input from the social environment. Peers play an important role in the socialization of gendered behavior, but no studies to-date have assessed peer influences on GI. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine peer influences on…

  5. Emotion dysregulation as a mechanism linking peer victimization to internalizing symptoms in adolescents. (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Hilt, Lori M


    Peer victimization experiences represent developmentally salient stressors among adolescents and are associated with the development of internalizing symptoms. However, the mechanisms linking peer victimization to adolescent psychopathology remain inadequately understood. This study examined emotion dysregulation as a mechanism linking peer stress to changes in internalizing symptoms among adolescents in a longitudinal design. Peer victimization was assessed with the Revised Peer Experiences Questionnaire (M. J. Prinstein, J. Boergers, & E. M. Vernberg, 2001) in a large (N = 1,065), racially diverse (86.6% non-White) sample of adolescents 11-14 years of age. Emotion dysregulation and symptoms of depression and anxiety were also assessed. Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent construct of emotion dysregulation from measures of discrete emotion processes and of peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Peer victimization was associated with increased emotion dysregulation over a 4-month period. Increases in emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between relational and reputational, but not overt, victimization and changes in internalizing symptoms over a 7-month period. Evidence for a reciprocal relationship between internalizing symptoms and relational victimization was found, but emotion dysregulation did not mediate this relationship. The implications for preventive interventions are discussed.

  6. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms. (United States)

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M


    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression.

  7. Early adolescent alcohol use in context: how neighborhoods, parents, and peers impact youth. (United States)

    Trucco, Elisa M; Colder, Craig R; Wieczorek, William F; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawk, Larry W


    Developmental-ecological models are useful for integrating risk factors across multiple contexts and conceptualizing mediational pathways for adolescent alcohol use, yet these comprehensive models are rarely tested. This study used a developmental-ecological framework to investigate the influence of neighborhood, family, and peer contexts on alcohol use in early adolescence (N = 387). Results from a multi-informant longitudinal cross-lagged mediation path model suggested that high levels of neighborhood disadvantage were associated with high levels of alcohol use 2 years later via an indirect pathway that included exposure to delinquent peers and adolescent delinquency. Results also indicated that adolescent involvement with delinquent peers and alcohol use led to decrements in parenting, rather than being consequences of poor parenting. Overall, the study supported hypothesized relationships among key microsystems thought to influence adolescent alcohol use, and thus findings underscore the utility of developmental-ecological models of alcohol use.

  8. Peer acceptance among Chinese adolescents: the role of emotional empathy, cognitive empathy and gender. (United States)

    Huang, Heqing; Su, Yanjie


    Previous studies have found mixed results on the relationship between empathy and peer acceptance. Emotional and cognitive components of empathy were hypothesised to play different roles in peer acceptance, and the relationship between empathy and peer acceptance differed across genders. In this study, 375 Chinese adolescents completed self-report measures of emotional and cognitive empathy. They also provided peer nominations that allowed for the determination of social preference and social impact scores. The results showed that a boy's cognitive empathy positively correlated with the extent to which he was liked by his male classmates, whereas a girl's cognitive empathy positively correlated with her social impact among her female classmates. This study suggests that empathy does not affect peer acceptance among adolescents uniformly; instead, gender plays a determinative role in the dialectics between social acceptance and empathy.

  9. Peer Influence, Peer Status, and Prosocial Behavior: An Experimental Investigation of Peer Socialization of Adolescents' Intentions to Volunteer. (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J


    Peer influence processes have been documented extensively for a wide range of maladaptive adolescent behaviors. However, peer socialization is not inherently deleterious, and little is known about whether adolescents influence each other's prosocial behaviors, or whether some peers are more influential than others towards positive youth outcomes. This study addressed these questions using an experimental "chat room" paradigm to examine in vivo peer influence of prosocial behavior endorsement. A school-based sample of 304 early adolescents (55% female, 45% male; M(age) = 12.68) believed they were interacting electronically with same-gender grademates (i.e., "e-confederates"), whose peer status was experimentally manipulated. The participants' intent to engage in prosocial behaviors was measured pre-experiment and in subsequent "public" and "private" experimental sessions. Overall, the adolescents conformed to the e-confederates' prosocial responses in public; yet, these peer influence effects were moderated by the peer status of the e-confederates, such that youth more strongly conformed to the high-status e-confederates than to the low-status ones. There also was some evidence that these peer influence effects were maintained in the private session, indicating potential internalization of prosocial peer norms. These findings help bridge the positive youth development and peer influence literatures, with potential implications for campaigns to increase prosocial behaviors.

  10. The development of romantic relationships and adaptations in the system of peer relationships. (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J


    In this review, it is proposed that a systems approach to the study of the development of romantic relationships might enhance our understanding of the nature of social relationships, and the links between social relationships and individual psychosocial functioning. First, a selected literature review is provided on the normative development of romantic relationships during adolescence, antecedents of different romantic involvement pathways, and positive and negative qualities of these relationships. Second, the focus is placed on the how the development of romantic relationships occurs within existing systems of relationships including peer networks and close friendships. It is suggested that the development of romantic relationships may change the peer network and nature of relationships with friends and others, and particular types of transitions in social relationships will likely occur. The timing of these transitions and an understanding of the entire peer system as romantic relationships develop will likely improve our understanding of individual developmental processes such as identity formation and the development of externalizing and internalizing problems. Finally, it is proposed that adolescents are faced with a complicated task that includes developing romantic interests and relationships but managing their changing social networks.

  11. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice. (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea


    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  12. Peer Relationships of Children with Cochlear Implants. (United States)

    Bat-Chava, Yael; Deignan, Elizabeth


    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of interviews with parents of children with cochlear implants found that, although implants have the potential to improve deaf children's relationships with hearing peers, these children still face communication obstacles which impede their social relationships. Results are discussed from the viewpoints of…

  13. Emotional reactions of peers influence decisions about fairness in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard T. Klapwijk


    Full Text Available During adolescence, peers take on increasing importance, while social skills are still developing. However, how emotions of peers influence social decisions during that age period is insufficiently known. We therefore examined the effects of three different emotional responses (anger, disappointment, happiness on decisions about fairness in a sample of 156 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Participants received written emotional responses from peers in a version of the Dictator Game to a previous unfair offer. Adolescents reacted with more generous offers after disappointed reactions compared to angry and happy reactions. Additionally, we found preliminary evidence for developmental differences over adolescence, since older adolescents differentiated more between the three emotions than younger adolescents. In addition, individual differences in social value orientation played a role in decisions after happy reactions of peers to a previous unfair offer, such that participants with a ‘proself’ orientation made more unfair offers to happy peers than ‘prosocial’ participants. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that adolescents take emotions of peers into account when making social decisions, while individual differences in social value orientation affect these decisions, and age seems to influence the nature of the reaction.

  14. Young adolescents' perceived activity space risk, peer networks, and substance use. (United States)

    Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Light, John; Rusby, Julie; Westling, Erika; Crewe, Stephanie; Flay, Brian; Campbell, Leah; Zaharakis, Nikola; McHenry, Chantal


    Adolescent substance use is a developmentally contingent social practice that is constituted within the routine social-environment of adolescents' lives. Few studies have examined peer networks, perceived activity space risk (risk of substance use at routine locations), and substance use. We examined the moderating influence of peer network characteristics on the relationship between perceived activity space risk and substance use among a sample of 250 urban adolescents. Significant interactions were found between peer networks and perceived activity space risk on tobacco and marijuana use, such that protective peer networks reduced the effect of activity place risk on substance use. A significant 3-way interaction was found on marijuana use indicating that gender moderated peer network's effect on activity space risk. Conditional effect analysis found that boys' peer networks moderated the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use, whereas for girls, the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use was not moderated by their peer networks. These findings could advance theoretical models to inform social-environmental research among adolescents.

  15. Gender, Peer Relations, and Challenges for Girlfriends and Boyfriends Coming Together in Adolescence


    Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.


    This paper examines how girls’ and boys’ different peer cultures in middle childhood may set the stage for challenges in emerging heterosexual romantic relationships in adolescence. Two theoretical frameworks are presented for understanding gender differences in children's same-gender friendships and peer groups in middle childhood: the two cultures perspective (Maccoby, 1998) and the emotional tradeoffs perspective (Rose & Rudolph, 2006). Emerging empirical evidence is presented to highlight...

  16. Friends: The Role of Peer Influence across Adolescent Risk Behaviors. (United States)

    Maxwell, Kimberly A.


    Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…

  17. The Influence of Sensation-Seeking and Parental and Peer Influences in Early Adolescence on Risk Involvement through Middle Adolescence (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita


    This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in Grade 6, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over 3 years. Youth sensation-seeking in Grade 6 contributed to risk…

  18. Influence of Peers on Young Adolescent Females' Romantic Decisions (United States)

    Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee E.; Garwick, Ann W.


    Background: Initiation of sexual intercourse during early adolescence is a known risk factor for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Purpose: To examine young women's stories describing peer in?uences on their romantic and sexual decisions and behavior during early adolescence. Methods: Semistructured ethnographic interviews were…

  19. Music Listening, Coping, Peer Affiliation and Depression in Adolescence (United States)

    Miranda, Dave; Claes, Michel


    This study was conducted with 418 French-Canadian adolescents from Montreal (Canada) and had three objectives: (1) to find empirical evidence that music listening in adolescence can lead to peer affiliation based upon music preferences; (2) to find out whether three styles of coping by music listening (original self-report scale: emotion-oriented,…

  20. Adolescents' Social Goals, Beliefs about the Causes of Social Success, and Satisfaction in Peer Relations. (United States)

    Jarvinen, Denis W.; Nicholls, John G.


    Examined the social goals and beliefs involved in adolescent peer relationships among 266 ninth-grade students. Factor analysis of questionnaire responses identified relevant goals (intimacy, nurturance, dominance, leadership, popularity, and avoidance) and beliefs (sincerity, status, responsibility, caring, entertaining, and toughness) concerning…

  1. Parenting practices and peer group affiliation in adolescence. (United States)

    Brown, B B; Mounts, N; Lamborn, S D; Steinberg, L


    Social scientists have often assumed that parental influence is sharply curtailed at adolescence because of the rising counterinfluence of peer groups, over which parents have little control. The present study tested a conceptual model that challenged this view by arguing that parents retain a notable but indirect influence over their teenage child's peer associates. Data from a sample of 3,781 high school students (ages 15-19) indicated that specific parenting practices (monitoring, encouragement of achievement, joint decision making) were significantly associated with specific adolescent behaviors (academic achievement, drug use, self-reliance), which in turn were significantly related to membership in common adolescent crowds (jocks, druggies, etc). Findings encourage investigators to assess more carefully parents' role in adolescents' peer group affiliations.

  2. Sensation seeking, peer deviance, and genetic influences on adolescent delinquency: Evidence for person-environment correlation and interaction. (United States)

    Mann, Frank D; Patterson, Megan W; Grotzinger, Andrew D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige


    Both sensation seeking and affiliation with deviant peer groups are risk factors for delinquency in adolescence. In this study, we use a sample of adolescent twins (n = 549), 13 to 20 years old (M age = 15.8 years), in order to test the interactive effects of peer deviance and sensation seeking on delinquency in a genetically informative design. Consistent with a socialization effect, affiliation with deviant peers was associated with higher delinquency even after controlling for selection effects using a co-twin-control comparison. At the same time, there was evidence for person-environment correlation; adolescents with genetic dispositions toward higher sensation seeking were more likely to report having deviant peer groups. Genetic influences on sensation seeking substantially overlapped with genetic influences on adolescent delinquency. Finally, the environmentally mediated effect of peer deviance on adolescent delinquency was moderated by individual differences in sensation seeking. Adolescents reporting high levels of sensation seeking were more susceptible to deviant peers, a Person × Environment interaction. These results are consistent with both selection and socialization processes in adolescent peer relationships, and they highlight the role of sensation seeking as an intermediary phenotype for genetic risk for delinquency. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Salivary testosterone as a potential indicator for risky behaviour associated with smoking-related peer pressure in adolescents. (United States)

    Idris, Adi; Ghazali, Nur B; Said, Nadzirah M; Steele, Michael; Koh, David; Tuah, Nik A


    Early smoking is considered an indicator for risky behaviour in adolescents. Although social indicators predicting adolescent smoking are known, biological indicators have not been defined. This study aimed to establish whether salivary testosterone could be used as a "predictive biomarker" for smoking-associated peer pressure. Saliva samples were collected from Bruneian adolescents (aged 13-17 years) by the passive drool method. Salivary testosterone concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Salivary testosterone concentration and smoking-associated peer pressure indicators were compared between adolescent males and females and statistical significance was determined by an independent samples t-test. A significant positive relationship between smoking-associated peer pressure and salivary testosterone levels in adolescents was found. However, this relationship was not significant when males and females were considered separately. Our data suggest that students who have tried cigarette smoking and have friends who are cigarette smokers have higher salivary testosterone levels.

  4. Interpersonal Complementarity – Self-rated Behavior by Normal and Antisocial Adolescents with a Liked and Disliked Peer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Hakelind


    Full Text Available The principle of complementarity in interpersonal theory and the SASB model (Structural Analysis of Social Behavior as developed by Benjamin (1974 were used to study how adolescents in a normal group of 60 adolescents and a group of 42 adolescents with severe behavioural problems rated that they usually behaved in relation to a liked and disliked peer. The peer’s behaviour varied in a systematic way on the dimensions of affiliation and dominance. Complementary behavior was defined as the same behaviour from peer and self and anticomplementarity was defined as opposite behaviour from self in relation the peer’s behavior. Consistent over the two groups complementarity and anticomplementarity were influenced by both the peer’s behaviour and type of relationship with the peer. Friendly behaviour from a liked peer evoked much more complementary friendly behaviour compared to a disliked peer who with the same behaviour evoked almost as much anticomplementary hostile behaviour as complementary friendly behaviour. Hostile behaviour from a disliked peer evoked much more complementary hostile behaviour compared to a liked peer with the same kind of behavior. Autonomy granting from a liked peer evoked more complementary autonomous behaviour compared to a disliked peer. Differences between the two groups were small and only in relation with a disliked peer. The results were discussed in terms of interpersonal theory and the principle of complementarity with focus on kind of relationship.

  5. Affairs of the Heart: Qualities of Adolescent Romantic Relationships and Sexual Behavior (United States)

    Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.


    We know more about parent and peer influences than about the ways in which specific qualities of adolescent romantic relationships may influence sexual decision-making. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, we focus on communication processes and emotional feelings, as well as more basic contours of adolescent romantic…

  6. The Interpersonal Relationships and Social Perceptions of Adolescent Perfectionists (United States)

    Gilman, Rich; Adams, Ryan; Nounopoulos, Alex


    This study investigated the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism, self-reported interpersonal relationships, and peer-reported prosocial, disruptive, and academic behaviors among a general sample of 984 9th-grade adolescents. Cut-scores from the "Almost Perfect Scale-Revised" (APS-R; Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001)…

  7. 遗传与环境对儿童青少年同伴关系影响的双生子研究%Twin studies on the influence of heredity and environment on children and adolescents' peer relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小梅; 傅一笑; 马兴顺; 朱文芬; 侯枭; 蒙华庆; 邱田; 刘洋; 李晓


    Objective To explore the influence of genetic and environmental factors on children and adolescents' peer relationship.Methods The peer relations of 178 twin pairs from Chongqing,aged from 6 to 18,were investigated with the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) parents version,and then the survey data were analyzed for genetic,descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis with statistical software Open-Mx and SPSS 20.0.Result Non-shared environment factors had an impact on peer relationship of male and female children,0.37,0.40 (95%CI=0.24 to 0.37,95%CI=0.27 to 0.58).The peer relations of female child and adolescent were influenced by shared environment factors,0.60 (95%CI=0.42 to 0.73).And the peer relations of male child and adolescent were affected by the genetic factors,0.63 (95%CI=0.43 to 0.76).The impact of non-shared environmental and genetic factors on the group aged 11 and older was greater than the group younger than 11 years old,0.51,0.38 (95%CI=0 to 0.72,0 to 0.58),0.38,0.32 (95%CI=0 to 0.65,0 to 0.70),and the shared environmental factors can affect the group younger than 11 years old,0.11,0.30 (95%CI=0 to 0.54,0 to 0.67).For the homozygotic twin group,the male and female group,the group aged 11 and older or the group educated for longer or shorter than 6 years,the peer relations of child and adolescent and the family cohesion and adaptability were negatively related.And the peer relations of the dizygotic twin group were negatively correlated with adaptability but the degree of intimacy was not obvious.There was no obvious correlation between peer relations and family cohesion and adaptability in the group younger than 11 years old.Conclusion According to different gender and age,the effect of genetic and environmental factors on peer relationships of child and adolescent is diverse.The male are mainly influenced by genetic factors,while the female are mainly affected by the shared environment.And the impact of non

  8. Peer influence on gender identity development in adolescence. (United States)

    Kornienko, Olga; Santos, Carlos E; Martin, Carol Lynn; Granger, Kristen L


    During adolescence, gender identity (GI) develops through a dialectic process of personal reflection and with input from the social environment. Peers play an important role in the socialization of gendered behavior, but no studies to-date have assessed peer influences on GI. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine peer influences on four aspects of adolescents' GI in racially and ethnically diverse 7th- and 8th-grade students (N = 670; 49.5% boys, M age = 12.64) using a longitudinal social network modeling approach. We hypothesized stronger peer influence effects on between-gender dimensions of GI (intergroup bias and felt pressure for gender conformity) than on within-gender dimensions of GI (typicality and contentedness). Consistent with expectations, we found significant peer influence on between-gender components of GI-intergroup bias among 7th and 8th graders as well as felt pressure for gender conformity among 8th graders. In contrast, within-gender components of GI showed no evidence of peer influence. Importantly, these peer socialization effects were evident even when controlling for tendencies to select friends who were similar on gender, gender typicality, and contentedness (8th graders only). Employing longitudinal social network analyses provides insights into and clarity about the roles of peers in gender development. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. The relationships of family and classroom environments with peer relational victimization: an analysis of their gender differences. (United States)

    Jesús Cava, María; Musitu, Gonzalo; Buelga, Sofia; Murgui, Sergio


    This study analyzes the relationships of adolescents' perceptions of their family and classroom environments with peer relational victimization, taking into account that these relationships could be mediated by adolescents' self-esteem, feelings of loneliness, and sociometric status. These relationships, and their possible gender differences, were analyzed in a sample of 1319 Spanish adolescents (48% boys and 52% girls), ages 11 to 16 years (M = 13.7, SD = 1.5). A structural equation modeling was calculated for boys and girls separately. The findings suggested that the adolescents' self-esteem, loneliness, and sociometric status had a significant direct effect on peer relational victimization for boys, and adolescents' loneliness and sociometric status for girls. Their perceptions of family and classroom environments had a significant indirect effect on peer relational victimization for boys and girls, but the paths were different. Overall, findings suggested that a negative classroom environment had a more relevant effect in relational victimization for boys.

  10. Body image concern among Australian adolescent girls: the role of body comparisons with models and peers. (United States)

    Carey, Renee N; Donaghue, Ngaire; Broderick, Pia


    This study investigated the potential mediating roles of body comparisons with peers and models in the relationship between the internalization of thinness norms and body image concern. A total of 224 Western Australian girls aged 14-15 completed questionnaires assessing their endorsement of thinness norms, body image concerns, and frequency of body comparisons with peers and with models. Both targets of body comparisons were found to significantly mediate the relationship between the endorsement of thinness norms and body image concern, with body comparison with peers a stronger mediator than comparison with models. These findings show that body comparison with peers, in particular, plays a significant role in the experience of body image concerns among adolescent girls, and should be given a higher profile in programs designed to prevent or reduce body image concern.

  11. Reactive/proactive aggression and the development of internalizing problems in males: the moderating effect of parent and peer relationships. (United States)

    Fite, Paula J; Rubens, Sonia L; Preddy, Teresa M; Raine, Adrian; Pardini, Dustin A


    The current study examined whether reactive and/or proactive aggression in adolescent males prospectively predicted increased levels of internalizing symptoms (depression and anxiety) in late adolescence. It was postulated that reactive aggression would be robustly related to later internalizing problems, but only among adolescent males who had problematic family or peer social relationships. Participants were a racially diverse group of 289 adolescent males (Mean age = 16). Measures of reactive and proactive aggression, peer rejection, and poor parent-adolescent communication were examined as predictors of both depression and anxiety symptoms assessed approximately 3 years later. The interactive effects between the two facets of aggression and measures of peer rejection and poor parent-adolescent communication in predicting internalizing problems was also examined. Adolescents with high levels of reactive aggression were more likely to exhibit elevated internalizing problems during late adolescence, even when controlling for pre-existing levels of anxiety/depression. However, this association only emerged for adolescents who had high levels of peer rejection and/or poor communication with their parent. Consistent with expectations, proactive aggression was unrelated to internalizing symptoms regardless of social relationship quality. Adolescent reactive, but not proactive, aggression is a risk factor for the development of internalizing problems. However, the findings suggest that interventions designed to foster positive social relationships among reactively aggressive youth may help protect them from developing significant internalizing problems over time.

  12. Peer status and aggression as predictors of dating popularity in adolescence. (United States)

    Houser, John J; Mayeux, Lara; Cross, Cassandra


    Research has identified links between dating and aversive behavior such as aggression and bullying in adolescence, highlighting the need for studies that further our understanding of romantic relationships and their dynamics during this period. This study tested the associations between dating popularity and overt and relational aggression, social preference, and peer popularity. Of particular interest were the moderating roles of social preference and peer popularity in the association of aggression with dating popularity. Further moderation by gender was also explored. Participants were 478 ninth-graders (48% girls) with peer nomination scores for peer status, aggression, and dating popularity. Dating popularity was positively correlated with popularity, social preference, and overt and relational aggression. Regression models indicated that popular, overtly aggressive girls were seen as desirable dating partners by their male peers. Relational aggression was associated with dating popularity for both boys and girls, especially for youths who were well-liked by peers. These findings are interpreted in light of developmental-contextual perspectives on adolescent romantic relationships and Resource Control Theory.

  13. Peer Effects, Fast Food Consumption and Adolescent Weight Gain


    Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra


    This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to...

  14. Early Adolescent Substance Use in Mexican Origin Families: Peer Selection, Peer Influence, and Parental Monitoring* (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Robins, Richard W.


    Background Because adolescents vary in their susceptibility to peer influence, the current study addresses potential reciprocal effects between associating with deviant peers and use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD), as well as the potential buffering role of parental monitoring on these reciprocal effects. Method 674 children of Mexican origin reported at fifth and seventh grade(10.4 years old at fifth grade)on the degree to which they associated with deviant peers, intended to use alcohol, tobacco or other drugs (ATOD) in the future, and had used controlled substances during the past year. Trained observers rated parental monitoring from video-recorded family interactions at the first assessment. Results Youth who intended to use ATODs during fifth grade experienced a relative increase in number of deviant peers by seventh grade, and youth with more deviant peers in fifth grade were more likely to use ATODs by seventh grade. Parental monitoring buffered (i.e., moderated) the reciprocal association between involvement with deviant peers and both intent to use ATODs and actual use of ATODs. Conclusions Parental monitoring can disrupt the reciprocal associations between deviant peers and ATOD use during the transition from childhood to adolescence PMID:26525416

  15. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies Regarding Adolescents' Peer-Related Loneliness: Associations with Adolescent Adjustment. (United States)

    Spithoven, Annette W M; Vanhalst, Janne; Lodder, Gerine; Bijttebier, Patricia; Goossens, Luc


    Because loneliness is a subjective experience, it is often examined using self-reports. Yet, researchers have started to use other-reports to examine loneliness. As previous research suggests that discrepancies between self- and other views might have important implications for adolescents' mental health, the current study examines discrepancies in multi-informant reports on adolescents' loneliness in relation with prosocial behavior, aggression, and adolescents' parent-related loneliness. The sample consisted of 374 mother-adolescent dyads and 318 father-adolescent dyads (41.80% male, M age  = 15.67 years, SD = 1.25). Results indicated that informants used different reference points to assess adolescents' peer-related loneliness, but were otherwise comparable. Moreover, informant discrepancies were associated with greater adolescents' reported parent-related loneliness. The current study did not provide evidence that discrepancies were related to prosocial or aggressive behavior. The current study adds to the notion that other-reports on loneliness show substantial convergence with self-reports. In addition, this study indicates that the discrepancy between other- and self-reports on loneliness holds valuable information for adolescent socio-emotional adjustment.

  16. Effects of Teacher-Student Relationships on Peer Harassment: A Multilevel Study (United States)

    Lucas-Molina, Beatriz; Williamson, Ariel A.; Pulido, Rosa; Pérez-Albéniz, Alicia


    Peer harassment is a major social problem affecting children and adolescents internationally. Much research has focused on student-to-student harassment from either an individual or a multilevel perspective. There is a paucity of multilevel research on students' relationships with the classroom teacher. The purpose of this study was to use a…

  17. The role of perceived peer norms in the relationship between media violence exposure and adolescents’ aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, K.M.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Lugtig, P.; Valkenburg, P.M.


    This study investigates the role of a social context variable, perceived peer norms, in the relationship between media violence exposure and adolescents' aggressive behavior. This was informed by a need to better understand whether, how, and for whom, media violence exposure may affect aggression. T

  18. Peer Group Socialization of Homophobic Attitudes and Behavior during Adolescence (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul


    A social developmental framework was applied to test for the socialization of homophobic attitudes and behavior within adolescent peer groups (Grades 7-11; aged 12-17 years). Substantial similarity within and differences across groups were documented. Multilevel models identified a group socializing contextual effect, predicting homophobic…

  19. Is Depression Contagious? A Test of Alternative Peer Socialization Mechanisms of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Peer Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiuru, N.; Burk, W.J.; Laursen, B.; Nurmi, J.E.; Salmela-Aro, K.


    Purpose: This study examined the role of two different types of peer socialization (convergence, contagion) in adolescents' depression, adjusting for the effects of peer selection and deselection. Methods: The sample used in this study comprised 949 Finnish adolescents (56% females; mean age: 16 yea

  20. The Short-Term Longitudinal and Reciprocal Relations Between Peer Victimization on Facebook and Adolescents' Well-Being. (United States)

    Frison, Eline; Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Eggermont, Steven


    Although studies have shown that depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and adolescents' online peer victimization are associated, there remain critical gaps in our understanding of these relationships. To address these gaps, the present two-wave panel study (N Time1 = 1840) (1) examines the short-term longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between peer victimization on Facebook, depressive symptoms and life satisfaction during adolescence, and (2) explores the moderating role of adolescents' gender, age, and perceived friend support. Self-report data from 1621 adolescent Facebook users (48 % girls; M Age  = 14.76; SD = 1.41) were used to test our hypotheses. The majority of the sample (92 %) was born in Belgium. Cross-lagged analyses indicated that peer victimization on Facebook marginally predicted decreases in life satisfaction, and life satisfaction predicted decreases in peer victimization on Facebook. However, depressive symptoms were a risk factor for peer victimization on Facebook, rather than an outcome. In addition, support from friends protected adolescents from the harmful outcomes of peer victimization on Facebook. Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  1. Peer influence on snacking behavior in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, E.J.; Larsen, J.K.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Geenen, R.


    To examine the association of adolescents' snack and soft drink consumption with friendship group snack and soft drink consumption, availability of snacks and soft drinks at school, and personal characteristics, snack and soft drink consumption was assessed in 749 adolescents (398 girls, 351 boys, a

  2. Depressive Symptoms and Romantic Relationship Qualities from Adolescence through Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Examination of Influences (United States)

    Vujeva, Hana M.; Furman, Wyndol


    Research has consistently demonstrated the negative consequences of depression on adolescents' functioning in peer and family relationships, but little work has examined how depressive symptoms affect the quality of adolescents' and emerging adults' romantic relationships. Five waves of data on depressive symptoms, romantic relationship conflict,…

  3. Adolescents' reactions to the death of a peer. (United States)

    O'Brien, J M; Goodenow, C; Espin, O


    In recent years, more attention has been given to the fact that grieving is a process, especially in the work of Elizabeth Kubler-Ross. The literature has focused on many aspects of bereavement, including how the process may be different at different ages. Much of the research on adolescents has focused on reactions to the suicide of a peer. The purpose of this study was to explore adolescent reactions to the death of a peer by means other than suicide. Semistructured interviews were conducted with ten college students about their experience of losing a friend in high school. Results indicated that even after a few years, the adolescents were still struggling through the grieving process. Implications for future research and suggestions for practitioners faced with similar crises are offered.

  4. Investigating the effect of child maltreatment on early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression: testing a multiple mediator model in a non-incarcerated sample of Danish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Holm Bramsen


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and severe early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression, using a multiple mediator model. Methods: The study comprised 330 male Grade 9 students with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD=0.5. Results: Estimates from the mediation model indicated significant indirect effects of child physical abuse on sexual aggression via peer influence and insecure-hostile masculinity. No significant total effect of child sexual abuse and child neglect on sexual aggression was found. Conclusions: Findings of the present study identify risk factors that are potentially changeable and therefore of value in informing the design of prevention programs aiming at early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression in at-risk youth.

  5. Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit provides information and strategies on how to: incorporate abuse prevention into programming; conduct staff training;...

  6. MAOA基因rs6323多态性与同伴关系对男青少年早期抑郁的影响%Interaction Effects between rs6323 Polymorphism in theMAOA Gene and Peer Relationship on Early Depression among Male Adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美萍; 纪林芹; 张文新


    Prior evidence suggested thatMAOA gene was an potentially important candidate gene of depression, and its association with depression was mediated by environmental factors. However, most of the studies in this area have been guided by the "diathesis and stress model" and have typically focused on the interaction between MAOA gene and adverse environments, such as child maltreatment and stressful life events. Peer relationship, including peer accept and peer rejection, is among the important interpersonal relationships during early adolescence and plays a critical role in adolescent psychosocial development. However, it still remains unclear whether and how peer relationships interact withMAOA gene on adolescent depression. Additionally, previous studies examined mainly the effects ofMAOA-uVNTR polymorphism on depression, and rarely focused on rs6323 polymorphism, which has been identified as a common polymorphism site among Asians. This study aimed to examine the interaction between rs6323 polymorphism and peer acceptance/rejection on early adolescent depression, with the differential susceptibility model as the theoretical frame. The participants in this study included 683 male adolescents originally drawn from a 3-year longitudinal study (n=1323) which investigated 11 junior high schools obtained through a random cluster sampling method. During the initial assessment (in 2010), adolescents (grade 7) were on average 13.53 years old (SD=0.51). Adolescents' depression were measured using self-rated Children's Depression Inventory (2010:α = 0.87; 2012:α = 0.88), while peer relationship (including peer acceptance and peer rejection) were rated by peer nomination. DNA was extracted from saliva. Genotype at rs6323 was performed in real time with MassARRAY RT software version and analyzed using the MassARRAY Typer software version 3.4 (Sequenom). A series of linear regression analyses were conducted using SPSS 19.0, followed by the "region of significance

  7. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking Even When the Probabilities of Negative Outcomes Are Known (United States)

    Smith, Ashley R.; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence


    The majority of adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers, and recent research suggests that the presence of peers may alter how the potential rewards and costs of a decision are valuated or perceived. The current study further explores this notion by investigating how peer observation affects adolescent risk taking when the…

  8. Preventing Adolescent Social Anxiety and Depression and Reducing Peer Victimization: Intervention Development and Open Trial (United States)

    La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn


    Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the…

  9. Predictors of Peer Victimization among Hispanic Adolescent Girls: Implications for School Social Work (United States)

    Powell, Anne; Jenson, Jeffrey M.


    Aggressive behavior aimed at peers in school settings is a persistent problem for students, teachers, parents, and school social workers. Peer victimization is particularly troubling for adolescent girls in light of recent increases in aggression and violence among female adolescents. However, most studies of peer victimization, particularly among…

  10. Emotion Dysregulation as a Mechanism Linking Peer Victimization to Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescents (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Hilt, Lori M.


    Peer victimization experiences represent developmentally salient stressors among adolescents and are associated with the development of internalizing symptoms. However, the mechanisms linking peer victimization to adolescent psychopathology remain inadequately understood. This study examined emotion dysregulation as a mechanism linking peer stress…

  11. The Peer Context and the Development of the Perpetration of Adolescent Dating Violence (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Benefield, Thad S.; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Ennett, Susan T.; Faris, Robert; Chang, Ling-Yin; Hussong, Andrea; Suchindran, Chirayath M.


    The peer context is a central focus in research on adolescent risk behaviors but few studies have investigated the role of the peer context in the perpetration of adolescent dating violence. This longitudinal study examined between-subjects and within-person contemporaneous and lagged effects of peer attributes, measured with social network…

  12. Life satisfaction in early adolescence: personal, neighborhood, school, family, and peer influences. (United States)

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A; Zumbo, Bruno D


    Drawing from an ecological assets framework as well as research and theory on positive youth development, this study examined the relationship of early adolescents' satisfaction with life to trait optimism and assets representing the social contexts in which early adolescents spend most of their time. Self-reports of satisfaction with life, optimism, and ecological assets in the school (school connectedness), neighborhood (perceived neighborhood support), family (perceived parental support), and peer group (positive peer relationships) were assessed in a sample of 1,402 4th to 7th graders (47% female) from 25 public elementary schools. Multilevel modeling (MLM) was conducted to analyze the variability in life satisfaction both at the individual and the school level. As hypothesized, adding optimism and the dimensions representing the ecology of early adolescence to the model significantly reduced the variability in life satisfaction at both levels of analysis. Both personal (optimism) and all of the ecological assets significantly and positively predicted early adolescents' life satisfaction. The results suggest the theoretical and practical utility of an assets approach for understanding life satisfaction in early adolescence.

  13. Communication with Parents and Peers on Sexual Matters: the Experience of Adolescents in the Northeastern of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-ying ZHANG; Iqbal Shah; Wendy Baldwin


    Objective To analyze the status of parent-child communication on sexual matters and its relationship to the sexual behaviors of adolescents.Methods The data were obtained from a study which was conducted in Changchun city of China in 2001. Unmarried adolescents aged 15-19 years old(322 males and 360 females) were selected for this analysis.Results Ten percent of adolescents reported having experience of sexual intercourse (16% of male and 5% of female). The percentages of adolescents communicating with peers, mothers and fathers were 35%, 30% and 17%, respectively. Males were more likely to talk about sexual issues with peer, while females were more likely to talk with mothers. Significant difference was also noted between the ratio of communication on sexual matters and having a girl/boy friend with peers and with parents. There was a statistically significant relationship between sexual experience and communication with fathers among male adolescents. Despite the fact that parents are the most closest care providers, adolescents obtained most of the sex information from "reading materials"and from "teachers ", but not from their parents. There was an age difference in the main source of obtaining sexual information. Younger adolescents obtained sexual information mainly from teachers while older adolescents mainly from reading materials.Conclusion In addition to schools and reading materials, parents should serve as an important source of information on sexual education as well.

  14. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking by Enhancing Activity in the Brain's Reward Circuitry (United States)

    Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; O'Brien, Lia; Uckert, Kaitlyn; Steinberg, Laurence


    The presence of peers increases risk taking among adolescents but not adults. We posited that the presence of peers may promote adolescent risk taking by sensitizing brain regions associated with the anticipation of potential rewards. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in adolescents, young adults, and adults as they made decisions in a…

  15. Marijuana Use and Dependence in Chilean Adolescents and Its Association with Family and Peer Marijuana Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobato, Monica; Sanderman, Robbert; Pizarro, Esteban; Hagedoorn, Margriet


    Purpose The purpose of the study is to examine (1) whether family and peer marijuana use are independently related to adolescent marijuana use in Chile, (2) whether family and peer marijuana use are associated with adolescent marijuana dependence in adolescents using marijuana, and (3) whether the a

  16. Marijuana Use and Dependence in Chilean Adolescents and Its Association with Family and Peer Marijuana Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobato, Monica; Sanderman, Robbert; Pizarro, Esteban; Hagedoorn, Margriet


    Purpose The purpose of the study is to examine (1) whether family and peer marijuana use are independently related to adolescent marijuana use in Chile, (2) whether family and peer marijuana use are associated with adolescent marijuana dependence in adolescents using marijuana, and (3) whether the a

  17. Marijuana Use and Dependence in Chilean Adolescents and Its Association with Family and Peer Marijuana Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobato, Mónica; Sanderman, Robbert; Pizarro, Esteban; Hagedoorn, Mariët


    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to examine (1) whether family and peer marijuana use are independently related to adolescent marijuana use in Chile, (2) whether family and peer marijuana use are associated with adolescent marijuana dependence in adolescents using marijuana, and (3) whether the

  18. Adolescents Prefer More Immediate Rewards when in the Presence of Their Peers (United States)

    O'Brien, Lia; Albert, Dustin; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence


    Adolescents take more risks in the presence of their peers, but the mechanism through which peer presence affects risky decision-making is unknown. We propose that the presence of peers increases the salience of the immediate rewards of a risky choice. The current study examined the effect of peer presence on reward sensitivity in a sample of 100…

  19. Peer effects, fast food consumption and adolescent weight gain. (United States)

    Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra


    This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to control for common environment at the network level and to solve the simultaneity (reflection) problem. Our second equation is a panel dynamic weight production function relating an individual's Body Mass Index z-score (zBMI) to his fast food consumption and his lagged zBMI, and allowing for irregular intervals in the data. Results show that there are positive but small peer effects in fast food consumption among adolescents belonging to a same friendship school network. Based on our preferred specification, the estimated social multiplier is 1.15. Our results also suggest that, in the long run, an extra day of weekly fast food restaurant visits increases zBMI by 4.45% when ignoring peer effects and by 5.11%, when they are taken into account.

  20. Depressed Adolescents' Pupillary Response to Peer Acceptance and Rejection: The Role of Rumination. (United States)

    Stone, Lindsey B; Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Stroud, Laura R; Nelson, Eric E; Dahl, Ronald E; Jones, Neil P


    Heightened emotional reactivity to peer feedback is predictive of adolescents' depression risk. Examining variation in emotional reactivity within currently depressed adolescents may identify subgroups that struggle the most with these daily interactions. We tested whether trait rumination, which amplifies emotional reactions, explained variance in depressed adolescents' physiological reactivity to peer feedback, hypothesizing that rumination would be associated with greater pupillary response to peer rejection and diminished response to peer acceptance. Twenty currently depressed adolescents (12-17) completed a virtual peer interaction paradigm where they received fictitious rejection and acceptance feedback. Pupillary response provided a time-sensitive index of physiological arousal. Rumination was associated with greater initial pupil dilation to both peer rejection and acceptance, and diminished late pupillary response to peer acceptance trials only. Results indicate that depressed adolescents high on trait rumination are more reactive to social feedback regardless of valence, but fail to sustain cognitive-affective load on positive feedback.

  1. Quality of Parent-Child Relationship, Family Conflict, Peer Pressure, and Drinking Behaviors of Adolescents in an Asian Context: The Case of Singapore (United States)

    Choo, Hyekyung; Shek, Daniel


    Analyzing data from a probability sample representative of secondary school students in Singapore (N = 1,599), this study examined the independent impact between the quality of mother-child relationship, the quality of father-child relationship and family conflict on the frequency of drinking and drunkenness, and whether each dyadic parent-child…

  2. Evaluation of a Decision-Making Curriculum for Teaching Adolescents with Disabilities to Resist Negative Peer Pressure. (United States)

    Khemka, Ishita; Hickson, Linda; Mallory, Sarah B


    This study was designed to assess the impact of a decision-making curriculum (PEER-DM) on the social peer relationship knowledge and self-protective decision-making skills of adolescents with disabilities in hypothetical situations involving negative peer pressure. A randomized design was used to assign students with disabilities from self-contained special education classes to an intervention group (n = 22) or a wait-list control group (n = 20). ANCOVA analyses, using pretest scores as covariates, indicated that students who were trained on PEER-DM had significantly higher effective decision-making action and correct risk perception scores, relative to participants in the control group. This study provides supporting evidence that PEER-DM is a promising intervention for students with disabilities, including those with identified autism spectrum disorders, during transition years to help them develop a better understanding of positive and negative peer relationships and learn systematic decision-making skills for improved handling of social situations in the school and community, especially situations involving negative peer pressure. The study adds credence to using systematic, strategy-based decision making interventions designed to address the cognitive, emotional and motivational processes underlying adolescent decision making in sensitive interpersonal situations involving peer pressure. The study points to the lack of preparedness to handle situations of negative peer pressure as a serious social and health risk for adolescents with disabilities that deserves urgent and concerted attention in transition services programming. Implications for future curriculum-development efforts and replication of treatment findings are discussed. Future research examining disability-specific patterns of decision-making in peer situations and comparisons with typically developing populations is recommended.

  3. Peer and Teacher Preference, Student-Teacher Relationships, Student Ethnicity, and Peer Victimization in Elementary School (United States)

    Wang, Feihong; Leary, Kevin A.; Taylor, Lorraine C.; Derosier, Melissa E.


    The authors examined the effects of peer preference and teacher preference for students, students' perceived relationship with their teacher and student ethnicity on peer victimization in late elementary school. Participants were students in the third through fifth grades in four public elementary schools in a southern state. Using hierarchical…

  4. Adult-Directed and Peer-Directed Respect for Authority: Relationships With Aggressive and Manipulative Behavior. (United States)

    Clemans, Katherine H; Graber, Julia A; Bettencourt, Amie F


    This study investigated whether respect for adult and peer authority are separate attitudes which have distinct relationships with aggressive and manipulative behavior. Items assessing admiration for and obedience toward parents, teachers, popular students, and friend group leaders were administered to 286 middle school students (M age = 12.6 yrs). Factor analysis revealed two primary factors which corresponded to adult-directed and peer-directed respect orientations. Results suggested that adult-directed respect was associated with lower levels of aggression and social manipulation, whereas peer-directed respect was associated with higher levels of these behaviors. The role of peer-directed respect as a risk factor for negative social behavior in adolescence is discussed.

  5. Antisocial Peer Affiliation and Externalizing Disorders in the Transition from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Selection versus Socialization Effects (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Goodman, Rebecca J.; Erath, Stephen A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.


    Prior research has demonstrated both socialization and selection effects for the relationship between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing problems in adolescence. Less research has evaluated such effects postadolescence. In this study, a cross-lagged panel analysis was used to evaluate the extent of "socialization" (i.e., the…

  6. The mediating role of deviant peers on the link between depressed mood and harmful drinking: Analyses in a population-based sample of adolescents (United States)

    Pesola, Francesca; Shelton, Katherine H.; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus; Maughan, Barbara; Hickman, Matthew; van den Bree, Marianne B.M.


    Purpose One’s peer group can have a strong impact on depressed mood and harmful drinking in adolescence. It remains unclear whether affiliation with deviant peers explains the link between these traits. Our study aims to: a) explore the developmental relationship between harmful drinking and depressed mood in adolescence; and b) establish to which extent affiliation with deviant peers explains this relationship. Methods 4,863 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were assessed between the ages of 14 and 16. Harmful drinking was established using age-appropriate measures: the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) in mid-adolescence (age 14) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in late adolescence (age 16). Depressed mood was measured by the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) at both ages. Affiliation with deviant peers was assessed at age 15. Results Harmful drinking at age 14 predicted depressed mood two years later. This association was explained by affiliation with deviant peers and remained present even after adjustment for earlier depressed mood. Depressed mood at age 14 predicted harmful drinking at age 16 via affiliation with deviant peers; however, this indirect effect disappeared when adjusting for adolescents’ earlier harmful alcohol use (age 14). No gender differences were observed. Conclusions Adolescents who engage in early harmful drinking and subsequently become affiliated with a deviant peer group may be at particular risk of later depressed mood. PMID:25620300

  7. Adolescent Peer Victimization, Peer Status, Suicidal Ideation, and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Examining Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heilbron, N.; Prinstein, M.J.


    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations among peer victimization, peer status, and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (i.e., suicidal ideation and nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI]) over a 2-year period. A community sample of 493 adolescents (51% girls) in Grades 6-8 participate

  8. Adolescent Peer Victimization, Peer Status, Suicidal Ideation, and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Examining Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations (United States)

    Heilbron, Nicole; Prinstein, Mitchell J.


    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations among peer victimization, peer status, and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (i.e., suicidal ideation and nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI]) over a 2-year period. A community sample of 493 adolescents (51% girls) in Grades 6-8 participated in the study. Participants completed measures…

  9. Pressure to drink but not to smoke: Disentangling selection and socialization in adolescent peer networks and peer groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiuru, N.; Burk, W.J.; Laursen, B.; Salmela-Aro, K.; Nurmi, J.E.


    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants

  10. A brief measure of peer affiliation and social acceptance (PASA): validity in an ethnically diverse sample of early adolescents. (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J; Kim, Hanjoe; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; O'Neill, Maya


    The purpose of this study was to conduct a multiagent-multimethod analysis of the validity of a brief measure of deviant peer affiliations and social acceptance (PASA) in young adolescents. Peer relationships are critical to child and adolescent social and emotional development, but currently available measures are tedious and time consuming. The PASA consists of a youth, parent, and teacher report that can be collected longitudinally to study development and intervention effectiveness. This longitudinal study included 998 middle school students and their families. We collected the PASA and peer sociometrics data in Grade 7 and a multiagent-multimethod construct of deviant peer clustering in Grade 8. Confirmatory factor analyses of the multiagent-multimethod data revealed that the constructs of deviant peer affiliations and social acceptance and rejection were distinguishable as unique but correlated constructs within the PASA. Convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and predictive validity of the PASA was satisfactory, although the acceptance and rejection constructs were highly correlated and showed similar patterns of concurrent validity. Factor invariance was established for mother reports and for father reports. Results suggest that the PASA is a valid and reliable measure of peer affiliation and of social acceptance among peers during the middle school years and provides a comprehensive yet brief assessment of peer affiliations and social acceptance.

  11. How can peer group influence the behavior of adolescents: explanatory model. (United States)

    Tomé, Gina; Matos, Margarida; Simões, Celeste; Diniz, José Alves; Camacho, Inês


    The current work aims to study both the peer group and family influence on adolescent behaviour. In order to achieve the aforementioned objective, an explanatory model based on the Structural Equations Modelling (SEM) was proposed. The sample used was the group of adolescents that participated in the Portuguese survey of the European study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). The Portuguese survey included students from grades 6, 8 and 10 within the public education system, with an average age of 14 years old (SD=1.89). The total sample of the HBSC study carried out in 2006 was 4,877; however with the use of the SEM, 1,238 participants were lost out of the total sample. The results show that peers have a direct influence in adolescents' risk behaviours. The relationship with parents did not demonstrate the expected mediation effect, with the exception of the following elements: relation between type of friends and risk behaviour; and communication with parent and lesser involvement in violence behaviours and increased well-being. The negative influence of the peer group is more connected to the involvement in risk behaviours, whilst the positive influence is more connected with protective behaviours.

  12. Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Platt, Cora; McDonald, Renee


    Beginning with a definition of dating and dating violence among adolescents, this article explores the factors which impact such violence. It concludes with a review of two school-based prevention/intervention programs (Safe Dates and The Youth Relationships Project). (Contains 1 table.)

  13. Does the influence of peers and parents on adolescents' drunkenness differ between Roma and non-Roma adolescents in Slovakia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobakova, D.; Kolarcik, P.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; Klein, D.; Reijneveld, S.A.; van Dijk, J.P.


    Background. Roma adolescents have been shown to use less alcohol than non-Roma adolescents. This could be due to the protective influences of peers and parents. Objective. The purpose of this study was to explore differences in the levels of peer and parental influence and their effects on drunkenne

  14. The Role of Social Relationships in the Association between Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Academic Achievement. (United States)

    Maurizi, Laura K; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Granillo, M Teresa; Delva, Jorge


    While research has established that depression interferes with academic achievement, less is understood about the processes by which social relationships may buffer the relationship between depression and academic outcomes. In this study we examined the role of positive relationships in the school, family and peer contexts in the association between depressive symptoms and academic achievement among 894 adolescents aged 12-17 years living in Santiago, Chile. Depressive symptoms were associated with lower levels of academic achievement; parental monitoring, school belonging, positive mother relationships, and having academically inclined peers moderated this relationship, though some interactions differed by sex and age. Implications for promoting the academic success of adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms are discussed.

  15. Correlates of Early Alcohol and Drug Use in Hispanic Adolescents: Examining the Role of ADHD with Comorbid Conduct Disorder, Family, School, and Peers (United States)

    Lopez, Barbara; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Rothe, Eugenio M.; Wang, Wei; Pantin, Hilda


    This study examined correlates of early adolescent alcohol and drug use in a community sample of 217 eighth-grade adolescents with behavior problems and from Hispanic/Latino immigrant families. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships of multiple contexts (e.g., family, school, and peers) to alcohol and drug use. Results…

  16. Adolescent romantic relationships and change in smoking status. (United States)

    Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S; Pollard, Michael S; Go, Myong-Hyun; Green, Harold D


    Although smoking rates have decreased, smoking among adolescents continues to be a problem. Previous research has shown the importance of peer influences on adolescent smoking behavior but has mostly neglected the impact of adolescent romantic relationships. This study examines the influence of romantic relationships with smokers and non-smokers on smoking initiation and cessation over a one-year period using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). For initial non-smokers, we examined whether the total length of time in romantic relationships with smokers and non-smokers at Wave I, as well as amount of exposure to smoking through romantic partners, predicted smoking initiation at Wave II. Among initial regular smokers, we examined whether these same relationship characteristics predicted smoking cessation at Wave II. These analyses were conducted separately for respondents in any type of romantic relationship, as well as just those respondents in close romantic relationships. Results indicated that, for close romantic relationships, cessation was more likely among smokers with more time in relationships with non-smoking partners. Greater exposure to smoking through romantic partners at Wave I significantly decreased the likelihood of cessation among initial smokers and increased the likelihood of initiation among initial non-smokers. For all relationships, greater exposure to smoking through romantic partners at Wave I significantly reduced the likelihood of cessation. These associations held when controlling for best friend smoking, as well as demographic factors and school-level smoking, suggesting that peer-based smoking programs aimed at adolescents should incorporate a focus on romantic relationships.

  17. 青少年疏离感与病理性互联网使用的关系:家庭功能和同伴接纳的调节效应检验%Relationship between Adolescents' Alienation and Pathological Internet Use:Testing the Moderating Effect of Family Functioning and Peer Acceptance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐夫真; 张文新


    通过对549名初一至高二年级城市青少年的问卷调查,考察了青少年病理性互联网使用的特点及其与疏离感之间的关系,并对家庭功能和同伴接纳是否可以调节疏离感与病理性互联网使用之间的关系进行了检验.结果发现:(1)在所有使用互联网的青少年被试中,网络成瘾群体的检出率为8.93%;(2)女青少年病理性互联网使用的突显性水平高于男青少年.在病理性互联网使用的消极后果上,初一青少年高于高一、初三和高二青少年.但青少年病理性互联网使用总体上不存在显著的性别和年级差异;(3)疏离感较高的青少年病理性互联网使用的水平也较高,健康的家庭功能可以保护疏离感高的青少年减少病理性互联网使用,但同伴接纳对高疏离感青少年减少病理性互联网使用不具有保护性作用.%Internet as an important media has become an inevitable part of adolescents' lives. Although Internet meet various needs of adolescents, such as expressing emotions and seeking sense of belonging, misuse of Internet could result in psychological, social and academic problems during adolescence (Young & Rodgers, 1998; Davis,2001; Lei & Yang, 2007). In this study, we use the term of pathological Internet use (PIU) to refer to the degree of adolescents' misuse of Internet and its negative outcomes.Alienation is a negative emotional state, reflecting individual incompetence in dealing with others and establishing an effective bond with social groups. Existing researches demonstrated that adolescents with high alienation were inclined to use Internet excessively. Researches on the relationship between pathological Internet use and adolescents' negative emotions reveal that positive factors of family and peer groups may be of important buffering effects (Thomas & Schare, 2000; Slater, 2003; Gross, 2004; Gao & Chen, 2006; Yeh et al.,2008). Thus it is reasonable to assume that family functioning and

  18. Adolescents with Chronic Illnesses: School Absenteeism, Perceived Peer Aggression, and Loneliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalyn H. Shute


    Full Text Available Frequent school absence is often cited as a risk factor for peer relationship problems in youngsters with chronic illnesses, but this assumption has not been subjected to quantitative empirical examination. This issue was examined in the present study by exploring the relationship between school absenteeism, peer aggression, and loneliness in adolescents with chronic illnesses. Forty-one adolescents with chronic illnesses completed a modified version of the Direct and Indirect Aggression Scale and the Asher Loneliness Scale. Details of school absences and hospitalizations were obtained from parents and school and hospital records. No evidence was found to support the notion that peer aggression and loneliness are related to absenteeism, but social aggression (for both boys and girls and verbal aggression (more markedly for girls were associated with loneliness. Of the group, 19% reported experiencing verbal aggression and 12% social aggression at least weekly; informal qualitative data suggesting that such aggression is often related to limited sporting ability and appearance. Interventions at both the individual and school community level are warranted.

  19. Self-efficacy for healthy eating and peer support for unhealthy eating are associated with adolescents' food intake patterns. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Heary, Caroline; Kelly, Colette; Nixon, Elizabeth; Shevlin, Mark


    Adolescence, with its change in dietary habits, is likely to be a vulnerable period in the onset of obesity. It is considered that peers have an important role to play on adolescents' diet, however, limited research has examined the role of peers in this context. This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy for healthy eating, parent and peer support for healthy and unhealthy eating and food intake patterns. Participants were 264 boys and 219 girls (N=483), aged 13-18years, recruited from post-primary schools in Ireland. Self-report measures assessed self-efficacy, parent and peer support for healthy eating, and for unhealthy eating. Dietary pattern analysis, a popular alternative to traditional methods used in nutritional research, was conducted on a FFQ to derive food intake patterns. Two patterns were identified labelled 'healthy food intake' and 'unhealthy food intake'. Multi-group modelling was used to evaluate whether the hypothesized model of factors related to dietary patterns differed by gender. The multi-group model fit the data well, with only one path shown to differ by gender. Lower self-efficacy for healthy eating and higher peer support for unhealthy eating were associated with 'unhealthy food intake'. Higher self-efficacy was associated with 'healthy food intake'. Prevention programs that target self-efficacy for eating and peer support for unhealthy eating may be beneficial in improving dietary choices among adolescents.

  20. Predictors of Complicated Grief among Adolescents Exposed to a Peer's Suicide (United States)

    Melhem, Nadine M.; Day, Nancy; Shear, M. Katherine; Day, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F.; Brent, David


    The purpose of this article is to examine the predictors of complicated grief, depression, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adolescents exposed to the suicide of a peer. One hundred and forty six peers of adolescent suicide victims were interviewed at 6, 12-18, and 36 months following the suicide. The roles of previous psychiatric…

  1. Peer Victimization and Perceived Life Satisfaction among Early Adolescents in the United States (United States)

    Valois, Robert F.; Kerr, Jelani C.; Huebner, E. Scott


    Background: Peer victimization among adolescents has been linked to increased psychological stress, psychosomatic illness, anxiety, depression, lower self-esteem, suicide ideation and poor physical health. Purpose: This study explored associations between peer victimization and adolescents' perceptions of life satisfaction. Methods: Public middle…

  2. The Multidimensionality of Adolescents' Beliefs about and Attitudes toward Gay and Lesbian Peers in School (United States)

    Horn, Stacey S.; Nucci, Larry


    This study investigated tenth- and twelfth-grade adolescents' ( N = 264) beliefs about homosexuality, their attitudes about gay and lesbian peers in school, and their evaluations of the treatment of gay, lesbian, and gender non-conforming peers. The results revealed differences in adolescents' beliefs about homosexuality and their attitudes toward…

  3. Adolescent Peer Relations and Socioemotional Development in Latin America: Translating International Theory into Local Research (United States)

    Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo


    Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from…

  4. Understanding the privacy behavior of adolescents on Facebook : The role of peers, popularity and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, B.; Corten, R.; van Tubergen, F.A.


    We study whether peer influence processes, popularity and trust predict privacy settings on Facebook. We use large-scale survey data from 3434 Dutch adolescents combined with observed privacy behavior on Facebook. The findings show that peer influence processes play a role and that adolescents imita

  5. Clusters and Correlates of Experiences with Parents and Peers in Early Adolescence (United States)

    Kan, Marni L.; McHale, Susan M.


    This study used a person-oriented approach to examine links between adolescents' experiences with parents and peers. Cluster analysis classified 361, White, working- and middle-class youth (mean age = 12.16 years) based on mothers' and fathers' reports of parental acceptance and adolescents' reports of perceived peer competence. Three patterns…

  6. Sense of coherence and substance use in Spanish adolescents. Does the effect of SOC depend on patterns of substance use in their peer group? (United States)

    García-Moya, Irene; Jiménez-Iglesias, Antonia; Moreno, Carmen


    The aims of this work were to analyse the relationships between sense of coherence (SOC) and substance use among Spanish adolescents and to examine the potential moderator effect of the patterns of substance use in the peer group. Sample consisted of 5475 Spanish adolescents aged 15 to 18 from the 2010 edition of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Statistical analysis included cluster analysis to identify groups of adolescents according to their peer group's patterns of substance use and logistic regression with SOC and peers' pattern of consumption as predictors of current tobacco use, current alcohol use, life-time drunkenness and current drunkenness. The results showed that a strong SOC seemed to reduce the adolescents' likelihood of involving in tobacco use and drunkenness, but it was not associated with being a current drinker. In addition, the protective effect of SOC was moderated by peers' patterns of substance use. Specifically, SOC had a significant protective influence in adolescents whose peer group showed either a nonconsumption pattern or a pattern of frequent alcohol use and occasional drunkenness; but the protective effect of SOC disappeared if peers showed a pattern of consumption that included illegal drugs. In conclusion, SOC tends to act as a protective personal variable with respect to substance use during adolescence, but the influence exerted by the peer group seems to moderate the aforementioned protective effect of SOC.

  7. Person × Environment Interactions on Adolescent Delinquency: Sensation Seeking, Peer Deviance and Parental Monitoring. (United States)

    Mann, Frank D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M


    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is robustly correlated with delinquent behavior in adolescence. The current study tested specific contextual factors hypothesized to facilitate, exacerbate or attenuate this risk factor for adolescent delinquency. Individual differences in sensation seeking, peer deviance, parental monitoring and self-reported delinquent behavior were assessed in a sample of 470 adolescents. Peer deviance partially mediated the effects of sensation seeking and parental monitoring on adolescent delinquency. We also found evidence for a three-way interaction between sensation seeking, peer deviance and parental monitoring, such that the highest rates of delinquency occurred from the concurrence of high sensation seeking, high peer deviance, and low levels of parental monitoring. Results highlight the importance of considering peer- and family-level processes when evaluating personality risk and problematic adolescent behavior.

  8. Personal values as a mediator between parent and peer expectations and adolescent behaviors. (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Carlo, Gustavo


    The current study examined the mediating role of adolescents' personal values on the relation between maternal and peer expectations for prosocial behaviors and adolescents' self-reported prosocial and antisocial behaviors. One hundred thirty-four adolescents (mean age = 16.22 years, 54% girls) completed measures of their own values and behaviors, as well as their perceptions of the positive expectations that their mother and their best friend(s) had for their (the adolescents') prosocial behaviors. Stepwise regression analyses suggested that adolescents' personal prosocial values mediated the relation between adolescents' perceptions of both maternal and peer expectations and adolescents' prosocial behaviors. In addition, for boys, perceptions of positive peer expectations were directly and negatively related to antisocial behaviors. The current study has important implications for parents, educators, and practitioners who are concerned about promoting adolescents' positive behaviors and discouraging negative behaviors.

  9. Adolescent Resource Control: Associations with Physical and Relational Aggression, Prosocial and Withdrawn Behaviors, and Peer Regard (United States)

    Findley, Danielle; Ojanen, Tiina


    This study examined adolescent coercive and prosocial resource control strategies in relation to various indices of peer-reported behaviors and peer regard ("N" = 384; 12-14 years). Coercive control was uniquely positively related to physical and relational aggression and peer disliking, and negatively to prosocial behaviors when…

  10. Implicit and Explicit Peer Evaluation: Associations With Early Adolescents' Prosociality, Aggression, and Bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Bukowski, W.M.


    Implicit and explicit peer evaluations were assessed among 120 early adolescents (56 boys, 64 girls; M age = 11.1 years). Explicit peer evaluations were round-robin ratings of likeability; implicit peer evaluations were assessed with an approach-avoidance task, also using a round-robin design. Proso

  11. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Affiliation with Deviant Peers during Adolescence and Early Adulthood (United States)

    Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C.; Garcia, Sarah E.; South, Susan; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt


    Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youths exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence has suggested that…

  12. Interactive Contributions of Cumulative Peer Stress and Executive Function Deficits to Depression in Early Adolescence (United States)

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.


    Exposure to peer stress contributes to adolescent depression, yet not all youth experience these effects. Thus, it is important to identify individual differences that shape the consequences of peer stress. This research investigated the interactive contribution of cumulative peer stress during childhood (second-fifth grades) and executive…

  13. Disruptiveness, peer experiences, and adolescent smoking: A long-term longitudinal approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.; Wanner, B.; Vitaro, F.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Engels, R.C.M.E.


    Aims - This study examined links of peer experiences (i.e. social status and affiliation with disruptive peers) throughout childhood with respect to adolescent smoking trajectories, after controlling for childhood disruptiveness. Specifically, we tested four models regarding links of peer experience

  14. Pre-Adolescents' Representations of Multiple Attachment Relationships: The Role of Perceived Teacher Interpersonal Behaviour (United States)

    Charalampous, Kyriakos; Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Apota, Ekaterini; Iliadou, Anastasia; Iosifidou, Maria; Moysidou, Sofia; Vriza, Ekaterini


    Attachment theory proposes that early parent-child relationships provide the basis for all future close relationships of the individual, through childhood and adolescence into later life. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between parental attachment, peer attachment and students' perceptions of their teacher's…

  15. Latina adolescent suicide ideations and attempts: associations with connectedness to parents, peers, and teachers. (United States)

    De Luca, Susan M; Wyman, Peter; Warren, Keith


    Associations between suicidal behavior and social-ecological variables were examined among 1,618 Latina high school students (mean age = 15) from the nationally representative Add Health sample (68% were U.S.-born). Ideations were associated with having a suicidal friend, lower perceived father support, and overall parental caring. Attempts were associated with having a suicidal friend, and lower perceived teacher and parental support. Peer and mother relationship variables were not predictors of ideations or attempts. The protective role of father and teacher support has not previously been emphasized in the literature. Strengthening connections to parents and teachers may reduce suicidal behavior in adolescent Latinas.

  16. Peer and Teacher-Selected Peer Buddies for Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social, Emotional, and Mentalizing Abilities. (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Federico, Francesca; Lonigro, Antonia; Levanto, Simona; Ferraro, Maurizio; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto


    This study examined mentalizing abilities, social behavior, and social impact of adolescents who expressed the willingness to become peer buddies for adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders, and adolescents selected by their teachers and peers. Twenty-seven teachers and 395 adolescents from public high schools completed mentalizing abilities, social status, behavioral, and peer buddy nomination measures. Findings suggest that social status and preference play a significant role in the selection of peer buddies by both teachers and classmates. Furthermore, more advanced Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities and the engagement in prosocial behaviors differentiated peers selected as buddies from other classmates. When compared with nonparticipating students, adolescents who expressed willingness to participate were more often girls, and were more prosocial. Agreement between teacher and peer nominations of best peer was moderate.

  17. School climate and delinquency among Chinese adolescents: analyses of effortful control as a moderator and deviant peer affiliation as a mediator. (United States)

    Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanhui


    School climate is the quality and character of school life and reflects the norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and the organizational structure of a school. There is substantial literature documenting the negative association between positive school climate and adolescent delinquency, but little is known about the moderating and mediating mechanisms underlying this relationship. The aim of this study was to examine whether the direct and indirect pathways between school climate and adolescent delinquency would be moderated by effortful control. A sample of 2,758 Chinese adolescents (M age = 13.53 years, SD = 1.06) from 10 middle schools completed anonymous questionnaires regarding school climate, effortful control, deviant peer affiliation, and delinquency. After gender, age, geographical area, and socioeconomic status were included as covariates, the results revealed that school climate was significantly associated with adolescent delinquent behavior. This direct association was moderated by effortful control, such that the negative relationship between positive school climate and delinquency was only significant among adolescents low in effortful control. Moreover, the indirect association between school climate and delinquency via deviant peer affiliation was also moderated by effortful control. Specifically, the moderating effect of effortful control was not only manifested in the relationship between school climate and deviant peer affiliation, but also in the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and delinquency. These findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms through which positive school climate might reduce delinquent behavior and have important implications for prevention efforts aimed at diminishing adolescent delinquency.

  18. Adolescent witnesses in cases of teen dating violence: An analysis of peer responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Bonache


    Full Text Available Gender violence is a serious problem that also affects the adolescent population (González & Santana, 2001. The victims of such violence in adolescence, should they seek help, rely primarily on their peers and rarely report it to adults (Weisz et al., 2007. The responses or reactions of avoidance, minimization or protection that their peers may have contribute to the victim maintaining or breaking the "unhealthy" relationship. An experimental study was designed to examine the reactions of adolescents in the event that they are witness to an episode of violence (verbal and physical aggression towards a friend. The main objective was to analyze the differences in their reactions according to sex of the witness, familiarity with the perpetrator (stranger vs. a friend and the relationship between aggressor and victim (a date, romantic partner. An exploratory analysis of the influence of the witnesses’ sexist beliefs (hostile and benevolent on these reactions was also performed. Thus, more negative reactions were found (greater passivity and less empathy among men in the case where the victim maintained a relationship with the offender than in the case of a date, especially if the perpetrator was a stranger. Also, in the girls more avoidance responses were found when the violent episode occurred between members of a couple on a date. Finally, the practical implications of the findings are discussed, highlighting the need to include guidelines in programs against gender violence among adolescents on how to behave if in relation to the victim when they are witnesses of gender violence.

  19. Adolescents' social status goals: relationships to social status insecurity, aggression, and prosocial behavior. (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wright, Michelle F


    Peer status is an important aspect of adolescents' social lives and is pursued actively by them. Although extensive research has examined how social behaviors are related to peer status (e.g., social preference, popularity), little attention has been given to adolescents' social goals to obtain a desired peer status. Thus, this study examined two types of social status goals, popularity goal and social preference goal, and their relationships to social status insecurity and social behaviors among 405 ethnically diverse early adolescents (267 girls; M age = 12.92 years; age range = 11-15 years). After accounting for adolescents' attained peer statuses (popularity and social preference), both social status goals were related distinctly to aggressive and prosocial behaviors as measured by self reports and peer nominations. Specifically, higher endorsement of the popularity goal was related to more self-reported relational aggression, but less peer-nominated prosocial behavior. In contrast, higher endorsement of the social preference goal was linked to less self-reported overt and relational aggression, but more self-reported and peer-nominated prosocial behavior. In addition, this study reveals that adolescents' social status insecurity was related positively to both social status goals and had an indirect effect on adolescents' social behaviors through the mediation of popularity goal endorsement. There were variations in goal endorsement as shown by groups of adolescents endorsing different levels of each goal. The group comparison results on social behaviors were largely consistent with the correlational findings. This study provides new insights into adolescents' social cognitive processes about peer status and the implications of the two social status goals on adolescents' behavioral development.

  20. How Adolescent Girls Understand and Manage Depression Within Their Peer Group: A Grounded Theory Investigation. (United States)

    Pinto-Foltz, Melissa D; Hines-Martin, Vicki; Logsdon, M Cynthia


    Depression is prevalent among adolescent girls, but few receive mental health treatment. Adolescent girls often forgo needed mental health treatment because they fear responses of peers about depression. Understanding the processes of how adolescent girls respond to peers with depression is an important first step to improve access to mental health treatment. This qualitative study describes the knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adolescent girls about depression and mental health treatment within their peer group. The investigators conducted two focus groups, with adolescent girls (n=21), in a public high school in the southern U.S. Grounded theory methods were utilized to identify a beginning substantive theory about perceptions and behaviors of adolescent girls related to depression in their peers. Participants cognitively processed mental health concepts similarly to adults. However, their affective responses to peers with mental illness fluctuated between adult and child perspectives. Participants expressed concerns about individuals with depression that have previously been identified in adults, but expressed unique perspectives that reflect their transitional stage of development. Findings provide new information about how adolescent girls respond to peers with depression, define areas for further investigation, provide directions for constructing developmentally appropriate mental health educational interventions for adolescent girls, and elucidate the need to provide guidance to women with whom adolescent girls have sustained contact.

  1. Peer acceptance protects global self-esteem from negative effects of low closeness to parents during adolescence and early adulthood. (United States)

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Breivik, Kyrre; Wold, Bente


    Having a distant relationship with parents seems to increase the risk of developing a more negative global self-esteem. This article describes a longitudinal study of 1,090 Norwegian adolescents from the age of 13-23 (54 % males) that explored whether peer acceptance can act as a moderator and protect global self-esteem against the negative effects of experiencing low closeness in relationships with parents. A quadratic latent growth curve for global self-esteem with closeness to parents and peer acceptance as time-varying covariates was modeled, taking partial measurement invariance in global self-esteem into account. Peer acceptance was found to have a general protective effect on global self-esteem for all adolescents. In addition, at most ages, peer acceptance was found to have a protective-stabilizing effect on the relationship between closeness to parents and global self-esteem. This indicates that peer acceptance can be an especially valuable source of global self-esteem when closeness to parents is low.

  2. Effects of Parenting and Deviant Peers on Early to Mid-Adolescent Conduct Problems (United States)

    Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina


    We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7-9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n = 112 boys; n = 107 girls; n = 7…

  3. Influence of socio-economic status, parents and peers on smoking behaviour of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, AM; Stewart, R; van Dijk, JP; Orosova, O; Groothoff, JW; Post, D


    With the aim of analysing the importance of psycho-social factors in predicting adolescents' smoking behaviour, a model of the interrelations between socio-economic status, parents', peers' and adolescents' own smoking behaviours was tested. The sample consisted of 2,616 adolescents. LISREL analyses

  4. The Impact of Parenting Factors, Deviant Peers, and Coping Style upon Adolescent Drug Use. (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; Robertson, Joan F.


    Developed and tested adolescent drug use model integrating social learning theory and recent stress and coping studies. Interviewed adolescents (N=343) aged 13-17 and found increase in adolescent drug use with presence of parental rejection, deviant peers, and combination of low self-esteem and avoidant coping style. Suggests both individual…

  5. The Double Standard at Sexual Debut: Gender, Sexual Behavior and Adolescent Peer Acceptance. (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A; Staff, Jeremy; Gauthier, Robin; Lefkowitz, Eva S; Feinberg, Mark E


    A sexual double standard in adolescence has important implications for sexual development and gender inequality. The present study uses longitudinal social network data (N = 914; 11-16 years of age) to test if gender moderates associations between adolescents' sexual behaviors and peer acceptance. Consistent with a traditional sexual double standard, female adolescents who reported having sex had significant decreases in peer acceptance over time, whereas male adolescents reporting the same behavior had significant increases in peer acceptance. This pattern was observed net of respondents' own perceived friendships, further suggesting that the social responses to sex vary by gender of the sexual actor. However, findings for "making out" showed a reverse double standard, such that female adolescents reporting this behavior had increases in peer acceptance and male adolescents reporting the same behavior had decreases in peer acceptance over time. Results thus suggest that peers enforce traditional sexual scripts for both "heavy" and "light" sexual behaviors during adolescence. These findings have important implications for sexual health education, encouraging educators to develop curricula that emphasize the gendered social construction of sexuality and to combat inequitable and stigmatizing peer responses to real or perceived deviations from traditional sexual scripts.

  6. Effects of anonymous peer observation on adolescents' preference for immediate rewards. (United States)

    Weigard, Alexander; Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; Smith, Ashley; Steinberg, Laurence


    Research suggests that the presence of peers influences adolescent risk-taking by increasing the perceived reward value of risky decisions. While prior work has involved observation of participants by their friends, the current study examined whether observation by an anonymous peer could elicit similarly increased reward sensitivity. Late adolescent participants completed a delay discounting task either alone or under the belief that performance was being observed from a neighboring room by an unknown viewer of the same gender and age. Even in this limited social context, participants demonstrated a significantly increased preference for smaller, immediate rewards when they believed that they were being watched. This outcome challenges several intuitive accounts of the peer effect on adolescent risk-taking, and indicates that the peer influence on reward sensitivity during late adolescence is not dependent on familiarity with the observer. The findings have both theoretical and practical implications for our understanding of social influences on adolescents' risky behavior.

  7. Adolescent mice, unlike adults, consume more alcohol in the presence of peers than alone. (United States)

    Logue, Sheree; Chein, Jason; Gould, Thomas; Holliday, Erica; Steinberg, Laurence


    One hallmark of adolescent risk-taking is that it typically occurs when adolescents are with peers. It has been hypothesized that the presence of peers primes a reward-sensitive motivational state that overwhelms adolescents' immature capacity for inhibitory control. We examined this hypothesis using a rodent model. A sample of mice were raised in same-sex triads and were tested for alcohol consumption either as juveniles or as adults, with half in each age group tested alone and half tested with their cagemates. The presence of 'peers' increased alcohol consumption among adolescent mice, but not adults. The peer effect on human adolescent reward-seeking may reflect a hard-wired, evolutionarily conserved process through which the presence of agemates increases individuals' sensitivity to potential rewards in their immediate environment.

  8. Early-Age Alcohol Use and Later Alcohol Problems in Adolescents: Individual and Peer Mediators in a Bi-National Study


    Mason, W. Alex; Toumbourou, John W.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.; Patton, George C


    This paper examines whether there is cross-national similarity in the longitudinal relationship between early-age alcohol use and adolescent alcohol problems. Potential mechanisms underlying this relationship also are examined, testing adolescent alcohol use, low self-regulation, and peer deviance as possible mediators. Students (N=1945) participating in the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal panel survey study, responded to questions on alcohol use and influencing factors,...

  9. Parental Social Coaching Promotes Adolescent Peer Acceptance Across the Middle School Transition. (United States)

    Gregson, Kim D; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; Pettit, Gregory S


    The present study investigated longitudinal associations between behavioral and cognitive dimensions of parental social coaching (i.e., advice about how to behave or think about peer challenges) and young adolescents' peer acceptance, and whether such associations are moderated by youths' social skills. Time 1 (T1) participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years; 50% boys; 58.5% European American). Parents gave open-ended reports about their social coaching to hypothetical peer stress scenarios, which were coded from low to high quality on behavioral and cognitive dimensions. Parents and teachers reported on adolescent prosocial behavior (i.e., social-behavioral skills), and adolescents reported on their social appraisals and social self-efficacy (i.e., social-cognitive skills). At T1 (before the first year of middle school) and Time 2 (approximately 10 months later, after the first year of middle school), parents and teachers rated adolescent peer acceptance. Analyses revealed that parents' prosocial behavioral advice and benign cognitive framing independently predicted adolescents' higher peer acceptance prospectively (controlling for earlier levels of peer acceptance). Furthermore, adolescent social skills moderated links between coaching and peer acceptance. Specifically, adolescents with higher, but not lower, social-cognitive skills became more accepted in the context of higher-quality coaching, supporting a "capitalization" pattern, such that these youth may be better able to utilize coaching suggestions. Results underscore the utility of parents' behavioral advice and cognitive framing for adolescent peer adjustment across the middle school transition and suggest that optimal social-coaching strategies may depend in part on adolescent social skill level. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Adolescent romance: between experience and relationships. (United States)

    Shulman, S; Seiffge-Krenke, I


    This concluding and integrative paper calls attention to several features and conceptual issues addressed by the contributors of this special issue. The first issue pertains to developmental perspectives in the study of how adolescent romance evolves. The second deals with the various features and concepts of adolescent romance. The third topic discusses the association of adolescent romance with other close relationships occurring during this time span. The fourth topic highlights the importance of the diversity of developmental contexts in shaping romantic relationships. Finally, conceptual issues in the study of adolescent romance are reviewed and the need for future studies of early adolescent romantic experiences is discussed.

  11. Peer Influences on Academic Motivation: Exploring Multiple Methods of Assessing Youths' Most "Influential" Peer Relationships (United States)

    Molloy, Lauren E.; Gest, Scott D.; Rulison, Kelly L.


    The present study examines the relative role of three distinct types of peer relationships (reciprocated friendships, frequent interactions, and shared group membership) in within-year changes in academic self-concept and engagement before and after the transition to middle school (fifth and seventh grade). In a series of linear regression…

  12. Adolescents' Information Behavior When Isolated from Peer Groups: Lessons from New Immigrant Adolescents' Everyday Life Information Seeking (United States)

    Koo, Joung Hwa


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how isolated immigrant adolescents seek and use necessary information when they are not able to use significant information sources--their peer groups--in the period of transition before new peer groups are established. Method: To achieve the study's purpose, sixteen recently arrived (three…

  13. The Salience of Adolescent Romantic Experiences for Romantic Relationship Qualities in Young Adulthood (United States)

    Madsen, Stephanie D.; Collins, W. Andrew


    Conceptual links between aspects of adolescents' dating experiences (i.e., involvement and quality; ages 15-17.5) and qualities of their romantic relationships in young adulthood (ages 20-21) were examined in a prospective longitudinal design. Even after accounting for earlier relationship experiences with parents and peers, aspects of adolescent…

  14. Social Relationships among Adolescents with Disabilities: Unique and Cumulative Associations with Adjustment (United States)

    Pham, Yen K.; Murray, Christopher


    This exploratory study investigated linkages between parent, peer, teacher, and mentor relationships and adjustment among adolescents with disabilities. The sample included 228 high school students with disabilities (65% male, 50% White) across four states. Overall findings indicate that students' social relationships were significantly associated…

  15. Relationship Reciprocation Modulates Resource Allocation in Adolescent Social Networks: Developmental Effects (United States)

    Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Jih, Yeou-Rong; Block, Per; Hiu, Chii-Fen; Holmes, Emily A.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.


    Adolescence is characterized as a period of social reorientation toward peer relationships, entailing the emergence of sophisticated social abilities. Two studies (Study 1: N = 42, ages 13-17; Study 2: N = 81, ages 13-16) investigated age group differences in the impact of relationship reciprocation within school-based social networks on an…

  16. The mediating role of perceived peer support in the relation between quality of attachment and internalizing problems in adolescence: a longitudinal perspective. (United States)

    Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla; Di Maggio, Rosanna


    The study was aimed to verify, from a longitudinal perspective, whether perceived peer support would mediate the relationship between attachment and internalizing problems. Longitudinal participants included 482 adolescents (245 boys) aged 14-15 years in Wave 1 and 17-18 years in Wave 2. Participants in Wave 1 completed the Relationship Questionnaire, and those in Wave 2 completed the Social Support Questionnaire and the Youth Self-Report. Results showed that secure attachment positively predicted high levels of perceived peer support and negatively predicted internalizing problems, whereas fearful and preoccupied attachment negatively predicted perceived peer support and positively predicted internalizing problems. The mediation models showed that perceived peer support partially mediated the relationship between secure attachment and internalizing problems as well as between preoccupied attachment and internalizing problems and between fearful attachment and internalizing problems. Our results confirm the role of subjective perception of peer support in contributing to the prediction of internalizing problems beyond attachment styles.

  17. "Peers, parents and phones"--Swedish adolescents and health promotion. (United States)

    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin; Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor


    Many unhealthy behaviors are created during adolescence and follow the individual into adulthood. In addition, health behaviors often occur in clusters as those who are inactive are more likely to eat unhealthy food and smoke. This makes the early foundation of healthy behaviors vital. The aim was to describe and develop an understanding of adolescents' awareness and experiences concerning health promotion. Data was collected using focus groups with a total of 28 seventh graders and was analysed with latent qualitative content analysis. One main theme was identified; being competent, ambivalent and creative at the same time. The following three subthemes also emerged: being a digital native for better and for worse, knowing what is healthy, and sometimes doing it, and considering change and having ideas of how change could be supported. The main theme elucidates how the majority of students were informed and able but they did not always prioritize their health. The concept of health promotion relies upon the engagement of the individual; however, although the students had clear ideas about how they would like to change their own behaviors, they felt a need for support. Interestingly, the students were able to make several suggestions about the kind of support that would make a difference to their adoption to more healthy modes of living. They suggested information and communication technology (ICT), for example encouraging text messages (SMS), and social support, for example parents setting rules and peers inspiring them to adhere to a healthy behavior. The knowledge gained from this study echoes our view of inclusion and this could be helpful for those who encounter the challenge of promoting health among adolescents.

  18. Associations between maternal negative affect and adolescent's neural response to peer evaluation. (United States)

    Tan, Patricia Z; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Dahl, Ronald E; Nelson, Eric E; Stroud, Laura J; Siegle, Greg J; Morgan, Judith K; Silk, Jennifer S


    Parenting is often implicated as a potential source of individual differences in youths' emotional information processing. The present study examined whether parental affect is related to an important aspect of adolescent emotional development, response to peer evaluation. Specifically, we examined relations between maternal negative affect, observed during parent-adolescent discussion of an adolescent-nominated concern with which s/he wants parental support, and adolescent neural responses to peer evaluation in 40 emotionally healthy and depressed adolescents. We focused on a network of ventral brain regions involved in affective processing of social information: the amygdala, anterior insula, nucleus accumbens, and subgenual anterior cingulate, as well as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Maternal negative affect was not associated with adolescent neural response to peer rejection. However, longer durations of maternal negative affect were associated with decreased responsivity to peer acceptance in the amygdala, left anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and left nucleus accumbens. These findings provide some of the first evidence that maternal negative affect is associated with adolescents' neural processing of social rewards. Findings also suggest that maternal negative affect could contribute to alterations in affective processing, specifically, dampening the saliency and/or reward of peer interactions during adolescence.

  19. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol


    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…

  20. Rejected by Peers--Attracted to Antisocial Media Content: Rejection-Based Anger Impairs Moral Judgment among Adolescents (United States)

    Plaisier, Xanthe S.; Konijn, Elly A.


    Adolescence is an important developmental stage during which both peers and the media have a strong influence. Both peer rejection and the use of morally adverse media are associated with negative developmental outcomes. This study examines processes by which peer rejection might drive adolescents to select antisocial media content by tying…

  1. Race-Based Humor and Peer Group Dynamics in Adolescence: Bystander Intervention and Social Exclusion. (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Palmer, Sally B; Abrams, Dominic


    Adolescents' evaluations of discriminatory race-based humor and their expectations about peer responses to discrimination were investigated in 8th- (Mage  = 13.80) and 10th-grade (Mage  = 16.11) primarily European-American participants (N = 256). Older adolescents judged race-based humor as more acceptable than did younger adolescents and were less likely to expect peer intervention. Participants who rejected discrimination were more likely to reference welfare/rights and prejudice and to anticipate that peers would intervene. Showing awareness of group processes, adolescents who rejected race-based humor believed that peers who intervened would be more likely to be excluded. They also disapproved of exclusion more than did participants who supported race-based humor. Results expose the complexity of situations involving subtle discrimination. Implications for bullying interventions are discussed.

  2. The Influence of Parental Communication and Perception of Peers on Adolescent Sexual Behavior. (United States)

    Sneed, Carl D; Tan, Huey Peing; Meyer, Jacob C


    The authors used the theory of planned behavior to examine the influence of parents and peers on early adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions to have vaginal intercourse. Adolescents (N = 212) provided self-reports of their perception of parent and peer attitudes regarding sexual behavior. The authors used bivariate and regression analyses to examine the relation between parent and peer attitudes with adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions to have vaginal intercourse. Although there were gender differences, the analyses revealed the importance of both parents and peers on adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and intentions to have vaginal sex in the next year.

  3. Risk-taking and social exclusion in adolescence: neural mechanisms underlying peer influences on decision-making. (United States)

    Peake, Shannon J; Dishion, Thomas J; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Moore, William E; Pfeifer, Jennifer H


    Social exclusion and risk-taking are both common experiences of concern in adolescence, yet little is known about how the two may be related at behavioral or neural levels. In this fMRI study, adolescents (N=27, 14 male, 14-17years-old) completed a series of tasks in the scanner assessing risky decision-making before and after an episode of social exclusion. In this particular context, exclusion was associated with greater behavioral risk-taking among adolescents with low self-reported resistance to peer influence (RPI). When making risky decisions after social exclusion, adolescents who had lower RPI exhibited higher levels of activity in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), and this response in rTPJ was a significant mediator of the relationship between RPI and greater risk-taking after social exclusion. Lower RPI was also associated with lower levels of activity in lPFC during crashes following social exclusion, but unlike rTPJ this response in lPFC was not a significant mediator of the relationship between RPI and greater risk-taking after social exclusion. The results suggest that mentalizing and/or attentional mechanisms have a unique direct effect on adolescents' vulnerability to peer influence on risk-taking.

  4. Adolescent intimate heterosexual relationships: measurement issues. (United States)

    Short, Mary B; Catallozzi, Marina; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Auslander, Beth A; Rosenthal, Susan L


    During adolescence, individuals develop increased ability to have emotionally and physically intimate relationships. The type of intimate relationship will make a difference as to whether the adolescent engages in protective behaviors or avoids risky behaviors. However, in reviewing the literature on the association of relationship type and sexual risk and protective behaviors, four methodological challenges were noted. These challenges limit our understanding of the impact of relationship type. These four challenges are: (a) inconsistent definitional frameworks; (b) lack of adolescent voices; (c) lack of consideration of gender; and (d) poor differentiation between individual and relationship risk. These issues direct the course of future work in this area and are necessary to advance the field of adolescent sexual health, particularly with regard to the development and testing of appropriate interventions designed to reduce untoward outcomes of adolescent sexuality.

  5. Heterosocial Involvement, Peer Pressure for Thinness, and Body Dissatisfaction among Young Adolescent Girls


    Gondoli, Dawn M.; Corning, Alexandra F.; Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Fitzsimmons, Ellen E.


    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal connections among young adolescent heterosocial involvement (i.e., mixed-sex interactions), peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. Three years of self-report questionnaire data were collected from 88 adolescent girls as they completed 6th through 8th grades. Results indicated that the relation between heterosocial involvement and body dissatisfaction was mediated by perceived peer pressure for thinness. Within this model, he...

  6. Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media. (United States)

    Charmaraman, Linda; McKamey, Corinne


    In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants' exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored.

  7. The value "social responsibility" as a motivating factor for adolescents' readiness to participate in different types of political actions, and its socialization in parent and peer contexts. (United States)

    Schmid, Christine


    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for participation in legal protest actions. No relationships with readiness for participation in federal elections or with readiness for participation in illegal protest actions occurred, and a negative relationship with readiness for participation in political violent actions was found. In a second step, the socialization of the value social responsibility in the parents and peer context was the focus. Value similarities between adolescents, their parents and friends, as well as other contextual factors were considered. Multiple regression analyses revealed differential effects for male and female adolescents. In male adolescents, authoritative parenting and political discussions with parents were positively linked to social responsibility. Furthermore, peer-group membership had a negative impact. For female adolescents, significant value similarities with their parents, especially with their mothers, occurred. Value similarities with their friend were found in both gender groups, but appeared to be higher in the female group. Also, in both gender groups, a positive parent-child relationship quality was linked to higher social responsibility. In sum, findings show that parents as well as peer contextual factors were contributing to the adolescents' value acquisition.

  8. Marital Conflict and Adolescents' Peer Aggression: The Mediating and Moderating Role of Mother-Child Emotional Reciprocity (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Chambers, Jessica Campbell; Frabutt, James M.; Mackinnon-Lewis, Carol


    This study examined the role of mother-adolescent emotional reciprocity in connections between marital conflict and adolescent aggression with peers. Data were collected from a racially diverse community sample of 268 adolescents and their mothers. Adolescents reported on parents' marital conflict, and mother-adolescent positive and negative…

  9. Adolescents in Peer Groups Make More Prudent Decisions When a Slightly Older Adult Is Present. (United States)

    Silva, Karol; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence


    Adolescents make more reckless decisions when with peers than when alone, which poses a challenge for organizations that place adolescents in situations in which risky and myopic decision making is problematic. We asked whether the effect of peers on adolescents' decision making is mitigated by the presence of a slightly older adult. We examined whether target subjects' risk taking was greater when they were in groups of 4 late-adolescent males (ages 18-22) than when they were in groups that mixed 3 late-adolescent males with 1 slightly older adult (age 25-30); risk taking in both of these conditions was compared with that of adolescents tested alone. We found that adolescents took more risks and expressed stronger preference for immediate rewards when they were grouped with 3 same-age peers than when they were alone. When 1 adolescent was replaced by someone slightly older, however, adolescents' decision making and reward processing resembled that seen when adolescents were tested alone. Adding a young adult to a work team of adolescents may improve group decision making.

  10. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles]. (United States)

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau


    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.

  11. Adolescents' Selective Visual Attention for High-Status Peers: The Role of Perceiver Status and Gender (United States)

    Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Karremans, Johan C.


    Previous research has shown that adolescents' attention for a peer is determined by the peer's status. This study examined how it is also determined by the status of the perceiving adolescent, and the gender of both parties involved (perceiver and perceived). Participants were 122 early adolescents (M age = 11.0 years) who completed…

  12. Is It the Music? Peer Substance Use as a Mediator of the Link between Music Preferences and Adolescent Substance Use (United States)

    Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.


    Both music preferences and the substance use behavior of peers are important elements in explaining adolescent substance use. The extent to which music preference and peer use overlap in explaining adolescent substance use remains to be determined. A nationally representative sample of 7324 Dutch school-going adolescents (aged 12-16) provided data…

  13. KRBKSS: a keyword relationship based keyword-set search system for peer-to-peer networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liang; ZOU Fu-tai; MA Fan-yuan


    Distributed inverted index technology is used in many peer-to-peer (P2P) systems to help find rapidly document in -set search system for peer-to-peer networkswhich a given word appears. Distributed inverted index by keywords may incur significant bandwidth for executing more complicated search queries such as multiple-attribute queries. In order to reduce query overhead, KSS (keyword-set search) by Gnawali partitions the index by a set of keywords. However, a KSS index is considerably larger than a standard inverted index,since there are more word sets than there are individual words. And the insert overhead and storage overhead are obviously unacceptable for full-text search on a collection of documents even if KSS uses the distance window technology. In this paper, we extract the relationship information between query keywords from websites' queries logs to improve performance of KSS system.Experiments results clearly demonstrated that the improved keyword-set search system based on keywords relationship (KRBKSS) is more efficient than KSS index in insert overhead and storage overhead, and a standard inverted index in terms of communication costs for query.

  14. Alcohol Use in Adolescent Twins and Affiliation with Substance Using Peers (United States)

    Hill, Jennifer; Emery, Robert E.; Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane; Turkheimer, Eric


    Affiliation with substance using peers is one of the strongest predictors of adolescent alcohol use. This association is typically interpreted causally: peers who drink incite their friends to drink. This association may be complicated by uncontrolled genetic and environmental confounds because teens with familial predispositions for adolescent…

  15. Relations among Sadness Regulation, Peer Acceptance, and Social Functioning in Early Adolescence: The Role of Gender (United States)

    Perry-Parrish, Carisa; Zeman, Janice


    Using a multi-informant approach, this study examined emotion regulation within the social context of White and Black adolescent peer groups by assessing two aspects of sadness expression management (i.e., inhibition, disinhibition) and their linkages to peer acceptance and social functioning as a function of gender and ethnicity. Seventh- and…

  16. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.


    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  17. Body Image Concerns in Young Girls: The Role of Peers and Media Prior to Adolescence (United States)

    Dohnt, Hayley K.; Tiggemann, Marika


    Peer and media influences have been identified as important conveyors of socio-cultural ideals in adolescent and preadolescent samples. This study aims to explore peer and media influences in the body image concerns and dieting awareness of younger girls, aged 5-8 years. A sample of 128 girls was recruited from the first 4 years of formal…

  18. Children's and Adolescents' Moral Emotion Attributions and Judgements about Exclusion of Peers with Hearing Impairments (United States)

    Chilver-Stainer, Jennifer; Gasser, Luciano; Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina


    Children and adolescents with hearing impairments are at risk of being excluded from activities with hearing peers. Moral emotion attributions may represent important indicators for children's identification with the moral norm not to exclude peers based on disability. Against this background, we investigated how 10-, 12- and 15-year-olds…

  19. Evidence-Based Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The UCLA PEERS Program (United States)

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Frankel, Fred; Gantman, Alexander; Dillon, Ashley R.; Mogil, Catherine


    The present study examines the efficacy and durability of the PEERS Program, a parent-assisted social skills group intervention for high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Results indicate that teens receiving PEERS significantly improved their social skills knowledge, social responsiveness, and overall social skills in the areas of social…

  20. The Peer Context of Adolescent Substance Use: Findings from Social Network Analysis (United States)

    Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Hussong, Andrea; Faris, Robert; Foshee, Vangie A.; Cai, Li; DuRant, Robert H.


    To examine the peer context of adolescent substance use, social network analysis was used to measure three domains of attributes of peer networks: social embeddedness, social status, and social proximity to substance users. The sample was a panel of 5,104 sixth, seventh, and eighth graders in three public school systems surveyed every 6 months for…

  1. Adolescent Self-Regulation as Resilience: Resistance to Antisocial Behavior within the Deviant Peer Context (United States)

    Gardner, Theodore W.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Connell, Arin M.


    This study tests the hypothesis that self-regulation serves as a resiliency factor in buffering youth from negative influences of peer deviance in middle to late adolescence. The interactive effects between peer deviance and self-regulation were investigated on change in antisocial behavior from age 17 to 19 years in an ethnically diverse sample…

  2. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills (United States)

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena


    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…

  3. The Interplay Between Peer Rejection and Acceptance in Preadolescence and Early Adolescence, Serotonin Transporter Gene, and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René


    Gene-environment studies on adolescents' peer contexts are important for understanding the interplay between biological and social antecedents of adolescent psychopathology. To this end, this study examined the roles of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and preadolescent and early adolescent peer rej

  4. Associations between maternal negative affect and adolescent's neural response to peer evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Z. Tan


    Full Text Available Parenting is often implicated as a potential source of individual differences in youths’ emotional information processing. The present study examined whether parental affect is related to an important aspect of adolescent emotional development, response to peer evaluation. Specifically, we examined relations between maternal negative affect, observed during parent–adolescent discussion of an adolescent-nominated concern with which s/he wants parental support, and adolescent neural responses to peer evaluation in 40 emotionally healthy and depressed adolescents. We focused on a network of ventral brain regions involved in affective processing of social information: the amygdala, anterior insula, nucleus accumbens, and subgenual anterior cingulate, as well as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Maternal negative affect was not associated with adolescent neural response to peer rejection. However, longer durations of maternal negative affect were associated with decreased responsivity to peer acceptance in the amygdala, left anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and left nucleus accumbens. These findings provide some of the first evidence that maternal negative affect is associated with adolescents’ neural processing of social rewards. Findings also suggest that maternal negative affect could contribute to alterations in affective processing, specifically, dampening the saliency and/or reward of peer interactions during adolescence.

  5. Neural correlates of prosocial peer influence on public goods game donations during adolescence. (United States)

    Van Hoorn, Jorien; Van Dijk, Eric; Güroğlu, Berna; Crone, Eveline A


    A unique feature of adolescent social re-orientation is heightened sensitivity to peer influence when taking risks. However, positive peer influence effects are not yet well understood. The present fMRI study tested a novel hypothesis, by examining neural correlates of prosocial peer influence on donation decisions in adolescence. Participants (age 12-16 years; N = 61) made decisions in anonymous groups about the allocation of tokens between themselves and the group in a public goods game. Two spectator groups of same-age peers-in fact youth actors-were allegedly online during some of the decisions. The task had a within-subjects design with three conditions: (1) EVALUATION: spectators evaluated decisions with likes for large donations to the group, (2) Spectator: spectators were present but no evaluative feedback was displayed and (3) Alone: no spectators nor feedback. Results showed that prosocial behavior increased in the presence of peers, and even more when participants received evaluative feedback from peers. Peer presence resulted in enhanced activity in several social brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex, temporal parietal junction (TPJ), precuneus and superior temporal sulcus. TPJ activity correlated with donations, which suggests similar networks for prosocial behavior and sensitivity to peers. These findings highlight the importance of peers in fostering prosocial development throughout adolescence.

  6. A meta-analysis of the relations between three types of peer norms and adolescent sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bongardt, D.; Reitz, E.; Sandfort, T.; Deković, M.


    The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the associations between three types of peer norms—descriptive norms (peer sexual behaviors), injunctive norms (peer sexual attitudes), and peer pressure to have sex—and two adolescent sexual behavior outcomes (sexual activity and sexual risk b

  7. Peer Selection and Socialization in Adolescent Depression: The Role of School Transitions (United States)

    Goodwin, Natalie P.; Mrug, Sylvie; Borch, Casey; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.


    Previous studies have indicated homophily in depressive symptoms among adolescent friends, resulting from both peer selection and socialization processes. However, developmental differences and the role of school transitions in these processes have not been elucidated. A sample of 367 (51% female) adolescents was followed from 6th to 11th grade to…

  8. Delinquency and Peer Acceptance in Adolescence: A Within-Person Test of Moffitt's Hypotheses (United States)

    Rulison, Kelly L.; Kreager, Derek A.; Osgood, D. Wayne


    We tested 2 hypotheses derived from Moffitt's (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. We tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from delinquent…

  9. Peer impact on smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use and sports activities in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, A; van Dijk, JP


    The impact of peer behavior on smoking, alcohol consumption drug use and sports pursuits by pals was followed on a sample of 2616 Slovak adolescents (including 1370 boys, mean age 15 years) within the project Health Inequalities in Adolescents. The data were collected in the form of questionnaires.

  10. Being in "Bad" Company: Power Dependence and Status in Adolescent Susceptibility to Peer Influence (United States)

    Vargas, Robert


    Theories of susceptibility to peer influence have centered on the idea that lower status adolescents are likely to adopt the behaviors of high status adolescents. While status is important, social exchange theorists have shown the value of analyzing exchange relations between actors to understand differences in power. To build on status-based…

  11. Regulatory Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication (United States)

    Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.; Giletta, Matteo


    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) ranging in age of 14 to 20 years (M = 16.1 years of…

  12. Attitude and Peer Influences on Adolescent Substance Use: The Moderating Effect of Age, Sex, and Substance. (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Holub, Shayla C.; Arnett, Mitzi


    Examines the importance of peer influence and personal attitudes in relation to self-reported use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana for 213 younger adolescents and 219 older adolescents. Friends' use was significantly related to substance use for both age groups, both sexes, and all substances examined. Resistance self- efficacy was…

  13. Adolescent Substance Use and Aggressive Behaviours in Multiple Structural Peer Contexts (SRCD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, Rob; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; ter Bogt, Tom


    Many changes in health-related behaviours occur during adolescence (Williams, Holmbeck, & Greenley, 2002). Peers play a critical role in such behaviour changes, since they can substantially influence youths’ health behaviours (Ryan, 2001). Adolescents tend to adhere to the behavioural norms (i.e., t

  14. Adolescent Substance Use and Aggressive Behaviours in Multiple Structural Peer Contexts (HBSC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, Rob; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; ter Bogt, Tom


    Many changes in health-related behaviours occur during adolescence (Williams, Holmbeck, & Greenley, 2002). Peers play a critical role in such behaviour changes, since they can substantially influence youths’ health behaviours (Ryan, 2001). Adolescents tend to adhere to the behavioural norms (i.e., p

  15. Adolescent Substance Use and Aggressive Behaviours in Multiple Structural Peer Contexts (CAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, Rob; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; ter Bogt, Tom


    Many changes in health-related behaviours occur during adolescence (Williams, Holmbeck, & Greenley, 2002). Peers play a critical role in such behaviour changes, since they can substantially influence youths’ health behaviours (Ryan, 2001). Adolescents tend to adhere to the behavioural norms (i.e., p

  16. Regulatory Self-efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaglietti, E.; Burk, W.J.; Giletta, M.


    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) rang

  17. The Influence of Parental Support, Depressed Affect, and Peers on the Sexual Behaviors of Adolescent Girls. (United States)

    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others


    Used longitudinal data from 76 adolescent girls and their parents to investigate effects of parental warmth and supportiveness on adolescents' depressed affect, attitudes about sexuality, peer influence, and sexual experience. Girls with more emotionally distant parents were more likely to manifest symptoms of depression. Depressed affect was…

  18. Age differences in the impact of peers on adolescents' and adults' neural response to reward. (United States)

    Smith, Ashley R; Steinberg, Laurence; Strang, Nicole; Chein, Jason


    Prior research suggests that increased adolescent risk-taking in the presence of peers may be linked to the influence of peers on the valuation and processing of rewards during decision-making. The current study explores this idea by examining how peer observation impacts the processing of rewards when such processing is isolated from other facets of risky decision-making (e.g. risk-perception and preference, inhibitory processing, etc.). In an fMRI paradigm, a sample of adolescents (ages 14-19) and adults (ages 25-35) completed a modified High/Low Card Guessing Task that included rewarded and un-rewarded trials. Social context was manipulated by having participants complete the task both alone and while being observed by two, same-age, same-sex peers. Results indicated an interaction of age and social context on the activation of reward circuitry during the receipt of reward; when observed by peers adolescents exhibited greater ventral striatal activation than adults, but no age-related differences were evinced when the task was completed alone. These findings suggest that, during adolescence, peers influence recruitment of reward-related regions even when they are engaged outside of the context of risk-taking. Implications for engagement in prosocial, as well as risky, behaviors during adolescence are discussed.

  19. Emotional closeness in Mexican-origin adolescents' relationships with mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sue A; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J


    Research on the associations between parent-adolescent relationships and friendships among Latinos is limited. Drawing on developmental and ecological perspectives, we examined bidirectional associations between parental warmth and friendship intimacy with same-sex peers from early to late adolescence using a longitudinal cross-lag panel design. Parent-adolescent immigration status and adolescent gender were examined as moderators of these associations. Home interviews were conducted with 246 Mexican American adolescents (51 % female) when they were in early (M = 12.55; SD = .60 years), middle (M = 14.64; SD = .59 years), and late adolescence (M = 17.67; SD = .57 years). Modest declines in paternal warmth were evident from early to late adolescence, but maternal warmth was high and stable across this time period. Girls' intimacy with same-sex friends also was high and stable from early to late adolescence, but boys' intimacy with same-sex friends increased over this time period. In general, findings revealed that adolescents' perceptions of parents' warmth in early adolescence were associated positively with friendship intimacy in middle adolescence, and friendship intimacy in middle adolescence was associated positively with parental warmth in late adolescence. Some associations were moderated by adolescent gender and parent-adolescent immigration status. For example, there was an association from maternal warmth in early adolescence to friendship intimacy in late adolescence only for immigrant youth. These findings suggest that among Mexican American adolescents, their relationships with their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends are intertwined closely and that gender and immigration status shape some of these associations during adolescence.

  20. "He Cheated on Me, I Cheated on Him Back'': Mexican American and White Adolescents' Perceptions of Cheating in Romantic Relationships (United States)

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Hickle, Kristine E.


    A qualitative approach was used to explore the meaning and perceptions of cheating in adolescent romantic relationships. Mexican American and White adolescents (N = 75; 53.3% girls; 56.1% Mexican American), separated by gender and ethnicity into 12 focus groups (three groups per type), discussed personal and peer experiences of cheating in dating…

  1. Peer selection and influence effects on adolescent alcohol use: a stochastic actor-based model



    Abstract Background Early adolescent alcohol use is a major public health challenge. Without clear guidance on the causal pathways between peers and alcohol use, adolescent alcohol interventions may be incomplete. The objective of this study is to disentangle selection and influence effects associated with the dynamic interplay of adolescent friendships and alcohol use. Methods The study analyzes data from Add Health, a longitudinal survey of seventh through eleventh grade U.S. students enrol...

  2. Adolescents' Emotional Reactivity across Relationship Contexts (United States)

    Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Blair, Bethany L.


    Adolescents' emotional reactivity in family, close friendships, and romantic relationships was examined in a community-based sample of 416 two-parent families. Six waves of annual data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Emotional reactivity to interparental conflict during early adolescence was associated prospectively with…

  3. Exploring the role of parents and peers in young adolescents' risk taking on social networking sites. (United States)

    Shin, Wonsun; Ismail, Nurzali


    This study investigated the role of parental and peer mediation in young adolescents' engagement in risk-taking in social networking sites (SNSs). A survey conducted in Malaysia with 469 SNS users aged 13-14 revealed that control-based parental mediation can cause boomerang effects, making young adolescents more inclined to taking risks in SNSs. While discussion-based parental mediation was found to be negatively related to young adolescents' befriending strangers in SNSs, it did not reduce privacy risks. Findings also suggested that peer influence could result in undesirable outcomes. In particular, the more young adolescents talked about Internet-related issues with peers, the more likely they were to disclose personally identifiable information on SNSs.

  4. Adolescent Peer Relations and Socioemotional Development in Latin America: Translating International Theory into Local Research. (United States)

    Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo


    Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from these considerations to review research on adolescents' peer relations in Latin America from a socioemotional perspective. First, approaches to adolescence are discussed, with a main focus on attachment and identity theories, based on a bioecological framework. Then, a review of research in Latin America on friendships, school climate, and intergroup relations is presented. The discussion addresses the tension between theories and evidence generated in developed societies and highlights the particularities of Latin American youth, stressing the need for collecting local data.

  5. The effects of single-sex versus coeducational schools on adolescent peer victimization and perpetration. (United States)

    Gee, Kevin A; Cho, Rosa Minhyo


    Bullying is a growing public health concern for South Korean adolescents. In our quantitative investigation, we analyze the frequency with which Korean adolescents in single-sex versus coeducational schools are targets of or engage in three peer aggressive behaviors (verbal, relational (social exclusion), and physical (including theft)). We use two nationally representative datasets, the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the 2005 Korea Education Longitudinal Study (KELS), and rely on propensity score matching (PSM). For adolescent girls, we find that being in all-girls schools mitigates both their exposure to and engagement in peer victimization. For adolescent boys, we find that boys in all-boys schools have significantly higher odds of experiencing more frequent verbal and physical attacks versus their counterparts in coeducational schools. Our findings strongly suggest that interventions to mitigate peer victimization and aggression in Korea should consider the gendered schooling contexts in which they are implemented.

  6. Transactional Relations between Motivational Beliefs and Help Seeking from Teachers and Peers across Adolescence. (United States)

    Amemiya, Jamie; Wang, Ming-Te


    Adolescents often avoid seeking academic help when needed, making it important to understand the motivational processes that support help seeking behavior. Using expectancy-value theory as a framework, this study examined transactional relations between motivational beliefs (i.e., academic self-concept or academic importance) and seeking help from teachers and peers across adolescence (i.e., from approximately age 12 to 17 years). Data were collected from 1479 adolescents (49% female; 61.9% African American, 31.2% European American, 6.9% other race). Analyses were conducted with cross-lagged panel models using three waves of data from seventh, ninth, and eleventh grade. Results indicated that both academic self-concept and academic importance were associated with increases in teacher help seeking in earlier adolescence, but were associated only with increases in peer help seeking in later adolescence. Help-seeking behavior positively influenced motivational beliefs, with teacher help seeking increasing academic self-concept earlier in adolescence and peer help seeking increasing academic importance later in adolescence. These transactional relations differed by adolescents' prior achievement and racial background, but not by adolescents' gender.

  7. Self-Esteem, Perceived Stress, and Gender During Adolescence: Interactive Links to Different Types of Interpersonal Relationships. (United States)

    Bi, Yanling; Ma, Lijie; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Baoshan


    The goal of this study was to analyze the relationships between self-esteem, perceived stress, the quality of different types of interpersonal relationships, and gender in adolescents. This study used a sample of 1614 adolescent high school students and robust data analytic techniques to test the proposed relationships. The results partially supported the initial hypothesis in that perceived stress mediated the relationships between self-esteem and four of the types of interpersonal relationships (i.e., same-sex peer relationships, opposite-sex peer relationships, parent-child relationships, and teacher-student relationships) and moderated the relationship between self-esteem and same-sex peer relationships. In addition, a moderated role of gender was also partially supported in that perceived stress mediated the relationships between self-esteem and same-sex peer relationships, opposite-sex peer relationships, and the parent-child relationship for girls, but not boys. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that perceived stress plays an intervening role in the relationship between self-esteem and different types of interpersonal relationships and that gender seems to be a moderator for some of the patterns of the relationships between these variables. These findings are discussed in light of the possible mechanisms by which the variables could influence each other. Implications for theory and practice as well as some directions for future research were also suggested.

  8. Peer victimization as a risk factor for schizotypal personality in childhood and adolescence. (United States)

    Fung, Annis Lai-chu; Raine, Adrian


    There has been no prior research on peer victimization and child or adolescent schizotypal personality. This study tests the hypothesis that increased peer victimization is associated with increased schizotypal personality. Schizotypy was assessed using the SPQ-C (Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Child) in 3,508 male and female schoolchildren aged 8 to 16 years. All forms of peer victimization (physical, verbal, social manipulation, attack on property) were associated with schizotypal personality in both males and females across all age groups. Significant victimization more than doubled schizotypy scores. It is hypothesized that peer victimization may predispose to paranoid ideation, social anxiety, and lack of close friends, and consequently heightened schizotypal personality.

  9. Peer Attachment and Cyber Aggression Involvement among Chinese, Indian, and Japanese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F. Wright


    Full Text Available Significant advancements have been made in cyber aggression literature, with many studies revealing the consequences associated with adolescents’ involvement in these behaviors. Few studies have focused on cyber aggression involvement in China, India, and Japan. The present study examined differences in cyber aggression perpetration and victimization among 1637 adolescents living in China, India, and Japan, while controlling for face-to-face bullying involvement, individualism, and collectivism. Another aim of the present study was to examine country of origin and cyber aggression involvement (i.e., the uninvolved, cyberaggressor-cybervictims, cyberaggressors, and cybervictims differences in peer attachment. Findings revealed that adolescents from India had the highest levels of cyber aggression involvement when compared to adolescents from China or Japan. Chinese adolescents engaged in more cyber aggression perpetration and were victimized more by cyber aggression when compared to Japanese adolescents. No country of origin differences were found for peer attachment. However, uninvolved adolescents reported higher levels of peer attachment when compared to the other groups. Cyberaggressor-cybervictims had the lowest levels of peer attachment, followed by cybervictims and cyberaggressors. These results suggest that there should be concern about cyber aggression involvement among adolescents in these countries, especially in India, where cyber aggression research has been slow to develop.

  10. The role of gender and friends' gender on peer socialization of adolescent drinking: a prospective multilevel social network analysis. (United States)

    Deutsch, Arielle R; Steinley, Douglas; Slutske, Wendy S


    Although socializing effects of friends' drinking on adolescent drinking behavior have been firmly established in previous literature, study results on the importance of gender, as well as the specific role that gender may play in peer socialization, are very mixed. Given the increasing importance of gender in friendships (particularly opposite-sex friendships) during adolescence, it is necessary to better understand the nuanced roles that gender can play in peer socialization effects on alcohol use. In addition, previous studies focusing on the interplay between individual gender and friends' gender have been largely dyadic; less is known about potential gendered effects of broader social networks. The current study sought to further investigate potential effects of gender on friends' influence on adolescent drinking behavior with particular emphasis on the number of same-sex and opposite-sex friends within one's friendship network, as well as closeness to these friends. Using Waves I and II of the saturated sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), adolescent friendship networks were used to calculate the mean drinking behaviors of adolescent friends. Multi-level models estimated the effects of individual drinking behaviors, friend drinking behaviors, and school-level drinking behaviors on adolescent drinking 1 year later, as well as moderating effects of gender composition of friendship groups and male and female friend closeness on the relationship between friends' drinking behaviors and adolescent drinking behavior. Results documented that gender composition of friendship groups did not influence the effect of friends' drinking on individual drinking 1 year later. However, closeness to friends did influence this relationship. As closeness to male friends decreased, the influence of their drinking behavior increased, for both boys and girls. A similar effect was found for female friends, but only for boys. Female friend

  11. The risk and protective functions of perceived family and peer microsystems among urban adolescents in poverty. (United States)

    Seidman, E; Chesir-Teran, D; Friedman, J L; Yoshikawa, H; Allen, L; Roberts, A; Aber, J L


    Utilized a pattern-based approach to discover the different constellations of perceived social transactions separately for family and peer systems and explored the risk and protective functions of these microsystem profiles for both depression and antisocial behavior among a sample of ethnically and racially diverse urban adolescents living in poverty. Measures of perceived social support, involvement and hassles with family and peers, as well as perceived social acceptance and peers' values were entered into two sets of iterative cluster analyses to identify distinct profiles of family and peer transactions. From each of the perceived family and peer transactional analyses, six replicated profiles emerged. Several of the profiles were consistent with expectations from prior literature such as Enmeshing families and Rejecting peer networks, while others were novel and intriguing such as Entangling peers. Family profiles were consistent in their risk and protective associations for both depression and antisocial behavior, while the peer profiles varied in their effects for each developmental outcome. For example, the Rejecting peer profile placed adolescents at increased risk for depression but protected them from antisocial behavior. Implications for future research and preventive intervention are discussed.

  12. The Relationship between Emotional Competence and Social Competence in Early Adolescence. (United States)

    Vorbach, Anne Marie; Foster, Sharon F.

    This study examined emotional and social competence in early adolescence, focusing on the relationship between the ability to identify the emotions of another, emotion regulation, friendship quality, and peer-identified prosocial and overtly aggressive behavior. Gender was examined for potential moderator status. Participating in the study were…

  13. Relationships between Social Information Processing and Aggression among Adolescent Girls with and without ADHD (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Lee, Steve S.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Mullin, Benjamin C.


    This study investigated the relationship between social information processing (SIP) and both relational and overt, physical aggression in a longitudinally-followed sample of 228 adolescent girls (ages 11-18; 140 with ADHD and 88 comparison girls). During childhood, girls participated in naturalistic summer camps where peer rejection, overt…

  14. Social Status, Perceived Social Reputations, and Perceived Dyadic Relationships in Early Adolescence (United States)

    Badaly, Daryaneh; Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer


    This investigation examined social acceptance and popularity as correlates of perceived social reputations and perceived dyadic relationships in a cross-sectional sample of 418 6th and 7th grade students (approximate average age of 12 years). We assessed early adolescents' social status using peer nominations and measured their perceptions of…

  15. Desire for Increased Autonomy and Adolescents' Perceptions of Peer Autonomy: "Everyone Else Can; Why Can't I?" (United States)

    Daddis, Christopher


    Two studies examined adolescents' personal autonomy beliefs and their perceptions of peer autonomy. Study 1 sampled 527 adolescents (M = 15.40 years) and found that adolescents desired increased autonomy most over personal and multifaceted issues and least over moral and conventional issues. Younger adolescents and girls desired increased autonomy…

  16. Adolescents' media-related cognitions and substance use in the context of parental and peer influences. (United States)

    Scull, Tracy M; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Parker, Alison E; Elmore, Kristen C; Benson, Jessica W


    Two cross-sectional studies investigated media influences on adolescents' substance use and intentions to use substances in the context of exposure to parental and peer risk and protective factors. A total of 729 middle school students (n = 351, 59% female in Study 1; n = 378, 43% female in Study 2) completed self-report questionnaires. The sample in Study 1 was primarily African-American (52%) and the sample in Study 2 was primarily Caucasian (63%). Across the two studies, blocks of media-related cognitions made unique contributions to the prediction of adolescents' current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future above and beyond self-reported peer and parental influences. Specifically, identification with and perceived similarity to media messages were positively associated with adolescents' current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future, and critical thinking about media messages and media message deconstruction skills were negatively associated with adolescents' intention to use substances in the future. Further, peer influence variables (e.g., peer pressure, social norms, peer substance use) acted as risk factors, and for the most part, parental influence variables (e.g., parental pressure to not use, perceived parental reaction) acted as protective factors. These findings highlight the importance of developing an increased understanding of the role of media messages and media literacy education in the prevention of substance use behaviors in adolescence.

  17. The Relationship between Alcohol Use and Peer Pressure Susceptibility, Peer Popularity and General Conformity in Northern Irish School Children (United States)

    McKay, Michael T.; Cole, Jon C.


    This cross-sectional study investigated the bivariate and more fully controlled (with socio-demographic measures) relationship between self-reported drinking behaviour and peer pressure susceptibility, desire for peer popularity and general conformity in a sample of 11-16-year-old school children in Northern Ireland. Self-reported drinking…

  18. Negotiated media effects. Peer feedback modifies effects of media's thin-body ideal on adolescent girls. (United States)

    Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C


    The present study introduces a theoretical framework on negotiated media effects. Specifically, we argue that feedback of peers on thin-body ideal media images and individual dispositions guide effects on adolescent girls' psychosocial responses to media exposure. Therefore, we examined the thin-body ideal as portrayed in media and peers' feedback on such thin-ideal images in their combined effects on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, objectified body consciousness, and social comparison with media models. Hence, media models and peer comments were systematically combined as incorporated entities in YouTube-formats. Hypotheses were tested in a 3 (media models: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight)×3 (peer comments: 6kg-underweight vs. 3kg-underweight vs. normal-weight)×2 (appearance schematicity: lower vs. higher) between-subjects design (N=216). Results showed that peer comments indicating that a media model was 'only 3kg-underweight' exerted most negative responses, particularly in girls who strongly process appearance relevant information. Peer feedback interacts with media models in guiding perceptions of what is considered an 'ideal' body shape. Results highlight the important role of peers as well as individual predispositions in view of understanding how thin-ideal media images may impact adolescent girls' body image concerns.

  19. Chronic Childhood Peer Rejection is Associated with Heightened Neural Responses to Social Exclusion During Adolescence. (United States)

    Will, Geert-Jan; van Lier, Pol A C; Crone, Eveline A; Güroğlu, Berna


    This functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study examined subjective and neural responses to social exclusion in adolescents (age 12-15) who either had a stable accepted (n = 27; 14 males) or a chronic rejected (n = 19; 12 males) status among peers from age 6 to 12. Both groups of adolescents reported similar increases in distress after being excluded in a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball), but adolescents with a history of chronic peer rejection showed higher activity in brain regions previously linked to the detection of, and the distress caused by, social exclusion. Specifically, compared with stably accepted adolescents, chronically rejected adolescents displayed: 1) higher activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) during social exclusion and 2) higher activity in the dACC and anterior prefrontal cortex when they were incidentally excluded in a social interaction in which they were overall included. These findings demonstrate that chronic childhood peer rejection is associated with heightened neural responses to social exclusion during adolescence, which has implications for understanding the processes through which peer rejection may lead to adverse effects on mental health over time.

  20. Parasocial Interactions and Relationships in Early Adolescence (United States)

    Gleason, Tracy R.; Theran, Sally A.; Newberg, Emily M.


    Parasocial interactions and relationships, one-sided connections imagined with celebrities and media figures, are common in adolescence and might play a role in adolescent identity formation and autonomy development. We asked 151 early adolescents (Mage = 14.8 years) to identify a famous individual of whom they are fond; we examined the type of celebrities chosen and why they admired them, and the relationships imagined with these figures across the entire sample and by gender. Adolescents emphasized highly salient media figures, such as actors, for parasocial attention. While different categories of celebrities were appreciated equally for their talent and personality, actors/singers were endorsed for their attractiveness more so than other celebrity types. Most adolescents (61.1%) thought of their favorite media figures as relationship partners, and those who did reported more parasocial involvement and emotional intensity than those who did not. Gender differences emerged in that boys chose more athletes than girls and were more likely to imagine celebrities as authority figures or mentors than friends. Celebrities afforded friendship for girls, who overwhelmingly focused on actresses. Hierarchical parasocial relationships may be linked to processes of identity formation as adolescents, particularly boys, imagine media figures as role models. In contrast, egalitarian parasocial relationships might be associated with autonomy development via an imagined affiliation with an attractive and admirable media figure. PMID:28280479

  1. Moderating effects of aggression on the associations between social withdrawal subtypes and peer difficulties during early adolescence. (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C; Markovic, Andrea; Cogswell, Alex; Raja, Radhi


    Recent research has revealed significant heterogeneity in the peer difficulties associated with social withdrawal subtypes during early adolescence, but little is known about possible sources of that heterogeneity. This study of 194 Indian young adolescents (48% female; 90% Hindu; M age= 13.35 years) evaluated whether the peer adversity related to self-reported social withdrawal subtypes (shyness, unsociability, avoidance) varied as a function of peer-nominated overt and relational aggression, and gender. Regression analyses revealed that overt aggression and gender moderated the pathways between shyness and peer exclusion and peer victimization such that the associations were significant and positive only for boys who were high and girls who were low in overt aggression. Several additional moderator effects were found, including results revealing that relational aggression (in certain cases, in conjunction with gender) moderated the association between: (1) avoidance and peer exclusion and peer rejection, (2) shyness and peer rejection, and (3) unsociability and peer victimization. For adolescents who were average and low in relational aggression, avoidance was positively related to peer rejection, and unsociability was positively related to peer victimization. However, only for boys who were high in relational aggression, avoidance was found to be positively related to peer exclusion, and shyness was positively related to peer rejection. The findings highlight the importance of considering additional individual risk factors in studies of social withdrawal subtypes and point to important differences for young adolescent withdrawn boys and girls.

  2. South African Adolescents' Constructions of Intimacy in Romantic Relationships (United States)

    Lesch, Elmien; Furphy, Claire


    Localized understandings of adolescent romantic relationships are needed to expand our knowledge of the diversity of adolescent romantic experiences and to challenge negative discourses of adolescent heterosexual relationships. This study explored the constructions of intimacy of 20 adolescent men and women in romantic relationships from one…

  3. The Mediating Role of Psychological Adjustment between Peer Victimization and Social Adjustment in Adolescence

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    Eva M. Romera


    Full Text Available There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between victimization and difficulties related to social adjustment among high school students. To do so, various explanatory models were tested to determine whether psychological adjustment (negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy could play a mediating role in this relationship, as suggested by other studies on academic adjustment. The sample comprised 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age = 14.34. The instruments used were the scale of victimization from European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, the negative scale from Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a general item about social self-efficacy, all of them self-reports. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results confirmed the partial mediating role of negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy between peer victimization and social adjustment and highlight the importance of empowering victimized students to improve their self-esteem and self-efficacy and prevent social anxiety. Such problems lead to the avoidance of social interactions and social reinforcement, thus making it difficult for these students to achieve adequate social adjustment.

  4. The role of peers and families in predicting the loneliness level of adolescents. (United States)

    Uruk, Ayse Ciftci; Demir, Ayhan


    The authors investigated the relative contribution of peer relations, family structure, and demographic variables in predicting loneliness in adolescents. Ninth-grade high school students (N = 756) from 8 different schools representing various socioeconomic status in Ankara, Turkey, completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale (D. Russell, L. A. Peplau, & M. L. Ferguson, 1978), the Family Structure Assessing Instrument (A. Gülerce, 1996), and an author-constructed questionnaire involving demographic information and variables on peer relations. Results of multiple regression analyses indicated that all three sets of variables accounted for 41% of the variance in loneliness scores. Additionally, peer relations contributed 34% of the variance, family structure 14%, and demographic variables 3%. Within the limits of the study, peer relations appear to be the best predictors of adolescent loneliness.

  5. Heterosocial involvement, peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction among young adolescent girls. (United States)

    Gondoli, Dawn M; Corning, Alexandra F; Salafia, Elizabeth H Blodgett; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Fitzsimmons, Ellen E


    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal connections among young adolescent heterosocial involvement (i.e., mixed-sex interactions), peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. Three years of self-report questionnaire data were collected from 88 adolescent girls as they completed 6th through 8th grades. Results indicated that the relation between heterosocial involvement and body dissatisfaction was mediated by perceived peer pressure for thinness. Within this model, heterosocial involvement was associated with greater peer pressure for thinness. In turn, peer pressure for thinness was associated with greater body dissatisfaction. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at girls during their middle-school years.

  6. Moderating Effects of Aggression on the Associations between Social Withdrawal Subtypes and Peer Difficulties during Early Adolescence (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Markovic, Andrea; Cogswell, Alex; Raja, Radhi


    Recent research has revealed significant heterogeneity in the peer difficulties associated with social withdrawal subtypes during early adolescence, but little is known about possible sources of that heterogeneity. This study of 194 Indian young adolescents (48% female; 90% Hindu; M age = 13.35 years) evaluated whether the peer adversity related…

  7. The association of family and peer factors with tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among Chilean adolescents in neighborhood context

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    Horner P


    Full Text Available Pilar Horner1, Andy Grogan-Kaylor2, Jorge Delva2, Cristina B Bares3, Fernando Andrade4, Marcela Castillo51School of Social Work, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; 2School of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3School of Social Work, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; 4School of Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 5Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos (INTA, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, ChileAbstract: Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context, access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles in substance use. The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex, whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents.Keywords: substance use, adolescence, international, peers

  8. Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.


    Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

  9. Heavy Alcohol Use and Dating Violence Perpetration During Adolescence: Family, Peer and Neighborhood Violence as Moderators


    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.


    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating viol...

  10. Factors impacting the quality of peer relationships of youth with Tourette’s syndrome


    O’Hare, Deirdre; Eapen, Valsamma; Helmes, Edward; McBain, Kerry; Reece, John; Grove, Rachel


    Background Tourette’s syndrome (TS) is a poorly understood neurodevelopmental disorder consistently associated with impaired peer relationships. This research aimed to investigate the relationship between TS and the ability of diagnosed youth to form secure attachment relationships with peers. A quantitative study examined differences between youth with TS and typically developing peers in social functioning, relationship problems and attachment security. Qualitative studies sought to identif...

  11. Globalization and eating disorder risk: Peer influence, perceived social norms, and adolescent disordered eating in Fiji (United States)

    Gerbasi, Margaret E.; Richards, Lauren K.; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E.; Becker, Anne E.


    Objective The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. Method We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n=523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). Results We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p <.001) and EDE-Q global scores in a fully adjusted linear regression model. Discussion Study findings support the possibility that peer influence as well as perceived social norms relevant to disordered eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition—and where globalization is also influencing local social norms—may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. PMID:25139374

  12. Race-Based Humor and Peer Group Dynamics in Adolescence:Bystander Intervention and Social Exclusion



    Adolescents’ evaluations of discriminatory race-based humor and their expectations about peer responses to\\ud discrimination were investigated in 8th- (Mage = 13.80) and 10th-grade (Mage = 16.11) primarily European-\\ud American participants (N = 256). Older adolescents judged race-based humor as more acceptable than did\\ud younger adolescents and were less likely to expect peer intervention. Participants who rejected discrimination\\ud were more likely to reference welfare/rights and prejudice...

  13. Adolescent Social Anxiety and Substance Use: The Role of Susceptibility to Peer Pressure

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    Anke W. Blöte


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to further our understanding of the link between social anxiety and substance use in adolescents, in particular the role susceptibility to peer pressure plays in this link. The relation between social anxiety and susceptibility to peer pressure was studied in two community samples (n=534 and n=117 each consisting of two age groups (12-13 and 15–17 years. The relation of these two variables with substance use was evaluated in the second sample using regression analysis. Social anxiety was related to susceptibility to peer pressure in both groups and not related to substance use in the younger group and negatively related to substance use in the older group. Susceptibility to peer pressure acted as a suppressor in the relation between social anxiety and substance use. Results suggest that socially anxious adolescents basically avoid substance use but, if susceptible, may yield to peer pressure and start using substances. Parents, teachers, and therapists should be aware of this susceptibility to possibly negative peer pressure of socially anxious adolescents.

  14. The changing influences of self-worth and peer deviance on drinking problems in urban American Indian adolescents. (United States)

    Radin, Sandra M; Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Patricia Silk; Walker, R Dale; Marlatt, G Alan; Larimer, Mary


    This study explored the changing relations among self-worth, peer deviance, and alcohol-related problems in a sample of 224 urban-dwelling, American Indian adolescents. Data were collected annually at 7 time points to test a proposed mediational model. As expected, peer deviance mediated the relation between low self-worth and alcohol-related problems in younger adolescents; however, this relation did not hold as participants became older. In older adolescents, low self-worth and peer deviance directly and independently contributed to alcohol problems. Possible explanations for and implications of these findings are discussed in terms of developmental changes during adolescence.

  15. Depression from childhood into late adolescence: Influence of gender, development, genetic susceptibility, and peer stress. (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L; Young, Jami F; Abela, John R Z; Smolen, Andrew; Jenness, Jessica L; Gulley, Lauren D; Technow, Jessica R; Gottlieb, Andrea Barrocas; Cohen, Joseph R; Oppenheimer, Caroline W


    Depression is a debilitating mental illness with clear developmental patterns from childhood through late adolescence. Here, we present data from the Gene Environment Mood (GEM) study, which used an accelerated longitudinal cohort design with youth (N = 665) starting in 3rd, 6th, and 9th grades, and a caretaker, who were recruited from the general community, and were then assessed repeatedly through semistructured diagnostic interviews every 6 months over 3 years (7 waves of data) to establish and then predict trajectories of depression from age 8 to 18. First, we demonstrated that overall prevalence rates of depression over time, by age, gender, and pubertal status, in the GEM study closely match those trajectories previously obtained in past developmental epidemiological research. Second, we tested whether a genetic vulnerability-stress model involving 5-HTTLPR and chronic peer stress was moderated by developmental factors. Results showed that older aged adolescents with SS/SL genotype, who experienced higher peer chronic stress over 3 years, were the most likely to be diagnosed with a depressive episode over time. Girls experiencing greater peer chronic stress were the most likely to develop depression. This study used repeated assessments of diagnostic interviewing in a moderately large sample of youth over 3 years to show that depression rates increase in middle to late adolescence, or postpubertally, and that the gender difference in depression emerges earlier in adolescence (age 12.5), or postpubertally. Additionally, genetically susceptible older adolescents who experience chronic peer stress were the most likely to become depressed over time.

  16. Peer Sexual Harassment and Disordered Eating in Early Adolescence (United States)

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet S.


    Peer sexual harassment is a pervasive problem in schools and is associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes. Objectification theory suggests that sexual attention in the form of peer harassment directs unwanted attention to the victim's body and may lead to a desire to alter the body via disordered eating. In the current study, we…

  17. Social Anxiety and Peer Helping in Adolescent Addiction Treatment (United States)

    Pagano, Maria E.; Wang, Alexandra R.; Rowles, Brieana M.; Lee, Matthew T.; Johnson, Byron R.


    The developmental need to fit in may lead to higher alcohol and other drug use among socially anxious youths which exacerbates the drink/trouble cycle. In treatment, youths with social anxiety disorder (SAD) may avoid participating in therapeutic activities with risk of negative peer appraisal. Peer-helping is a low-intensity, social activity in…

  18. Entering adolescence: resistance to peer influence, risky behavior, and neural changes in emotion reactivity. (United States)

    Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Masten, Carrie L; Moore, William E; Oswald, Tasha M; Mazziotta, John C; Iacoboni, Marco; Dapretto, Mirella


    Adolescence is often described as a period of heightened reactivity to emotions paired with reduced regulatory capacities, a combination suggested to contribute to risk-taking and susceptibility to peer influence during puberty. However, no longitudinal research has definitively linked these behavioral changes to underlying neural development. Here, 38 neurotypical participants underwent two fMRI sessions across the transition from late childhood (10 years) to early adolescence (13 years). Responses to affective facial displays exhibited a combination of general and emotion-specific changes in ventral striatum (VS), ventromedial PFC, amygdala, and temporal pole. Furthermore, VS activity increases correlated with decreases in susceptibility to peer influence and risky behavior. VS and amygdala responses were also significantly more negatively coupled in early adolescence than in late childhood while processing sad and happy versus neutral faces. Together, these results suggest that VS responses to viewing emotions may play a regulatory role that is critical to adolescent interpersonal functioning.

  19. Narrative in adolescent specific language impairment (SLI): a comparison with peers across two different narrative genres


    Wetherell, D.; Botting, N.; Conti-Ramsden, G


    Background: Narrative may provide a useful way in which to assess the language ability of adolescents with specific language impairment and may be more ecologically valid than standardized tests. However, the language of this age group is seldom studied and, furthermore, the effect of narrative genre has not been explored in detail. Methods & Procedures: A total of 99 typically developing adolescents and 19 peers with specific language impairment were given two different types of narrativ...

  20. Risk and protection factors in the peer context: how do other children contribute to the psychosocial adjustment of the adolescent?

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    Marie-Hélène Véronneau


    Full Text Available As children become adolescents, peers assume greater importance in their lives. Peer experiences can either help them thrive or negatively affect their psychosocial adjustment. In this review article definitions for the types of peer experiences are provided followed by an overview of common psychosocial issues encountered by adolescents. Past research that has pointed to risk and protection factors that emerge from peer experiences during adolescence and the role of peer influences in the context of current issues relevant to adolescent education are discussed. Research suggests that friendships with deviant peers, involvement in bullying and the experience of rejection from the overall peer group are related to adjustment problems, whereas friendships with prosocial and academically oriented peers and social acceptance in the peer group are related to healthy development. Friendship quality, popularity among peers, and involvement in friendship cliques cannot be clearly categorized as either positive or negative influences, because they interact with other factors in shaping the development of adolescents. The promotion of social skills and positive youth leadership as an integral part of the student's learning process in school is recommended.

  1. Parent Structure and Support and Adolescent Problems: Delinquency, Substance Abuse, and Peer and Self-Esteem Deficits


    Parker, Jennifer S.


    ab ABSTRACT Attachment and family systems theories provided a framework for examining parental structure and support and adolescent delinquency, substance abuse, peer relations, and self-esteem. Three parent scales: support, watchfulness and decidedness, and eight adolescent outcome variables assessing self-esteem, peer relations, and risk-behaviors were derived from the National Educational Longitudinal Study. The sample of 16,749 adolescents was diverse re...

  2. Adolescents' Relationships with Father, Mother, and Same-Gender Friend. (United States)

    Mayseless, Ofra; Wiseman, Hadas; Hai, Ilan


    This study examined age differences in autonomy and relatedness in adolescents' relationship with parents, and same-gender friend. Questionnaire responses of 205 Israeli adolescents indicated that older adolescents had greater autonomy in relationships with parents than did younger adolescents. No age differences were reported in closeness and…

  3. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, M.D.


    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is importan

  4. Dual Trajectories of Gang Affiliation and Delinquent Peer Association During Adolescence: An Examination of Long-Term Offending Outcomes. (United States)

    Dong, Beidi; Krohn, Marvin D


    Prior research has demonstrated that both adolescent gang affiliation and perceived delinquent peer association are important predictors of individual offending. A crucial question is whether and how youth gang affiliation contributes to a spectrum of criminal acts above and beyond the influence of associating with delinquent peers. Using 14 waves of data from the Rochester Youth Developmental Study, an ongoing longitudinal panel study aimed at understanding the causes and consequences of delinquency and drug use in an urban sample of adolescents, the current study employs a relatively new modeling technique-dual trajectory analysis-to illustrate the dynamic relationship between these two measures among 666 male youth. The results suggest that the two measures, while overlapping, may constitute distinct concepts that operate in different ways. The most convincing evidence of gang effects, above and beyond the influence of perceived peer delinquency, is for violent behavior and by extension police arrest. Our findings contribute to developmental research and provide information that informs future gang control efforts.

  5. Buffering the effects of peer victimization on adolescent non-suicidal self-injury: The role of self-compassion and family cohesion. (United States)

    Jiang, Yongqiang; You, Jianing; Hou, Yang; Du, Chao; Lin, Min-Pei; Zheng, Xiaoling; Ma, Congfen


    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a significant behavioral problem among adolescents all over the world. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between peer victimization and NSSI, as well as the buffering effects of self-compassion and family cohesion on this relationship. Data were collected at two time points from 525 secondary school students (226 girls; Mage = 12.97, SD = 1.02) in China. Results showed that peer victimization (marginally) significantly predicted NSSI over time even after controlling for Wave 1 NSSI. This association was weakened under the condition of high levels of self-compassion. Findings of this study emphasize the buffering effect of self-compassion in the relationship between peer victimization and NSSI, and are informative for prevention and intervention of this behavioral problem.

  6. Peer Victimization as a Predictor of Depression and Body Mass Index in Obese and Non-Obese Adolescents (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.


    Background: The current study examined the pathway from peer victimization to depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) as mediated by self-concept for physical appearance in both obese and non-obese adolescents. It was thought that this pathway would be particularly important for obese adolescents because, compared to non-obese adolescents,…

  7. Unwanted Sexual Activity among Peers during Early and Middle Adolescence: Incidence and Risk Factors. (United States)

    Small, Stephen A.; Kerns, Donell


    Assessed incidence and risk factors of unwanted sexual activity initiated by peers for 1,149 adolescent females. Twenty percent of sample reported some type of unwanted sexual contact in past year. Over one-third of this group reported having been forced to have sexual intercourse. Boyfriends were most commonly reported perpetrators followed by…

  8. The Teen Outreach Reproductive Challenge: Improving Adolescent Health Care Delivery through Peer Education Projects (United States)

    DeMairo, Pauline; Dischell, Jackie; Jouthe, Sorahya A.; Horner, Andrea


    The Teen Outreach Reproductive CHallenge (TORCH) is a peer education program that provides information on various topics relevant to adolescent sexual health to a diverse audience, ranging from teens to health care providers. This information is disseminated through various projects by a group of New York City high-school students who are…

  9. Peer selection and socialization in adolescent depression: The role of school transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodwin, N.P.; Mrug, S.; Borch, C.; Cillessen, A.H.N.


    Previous studies have indicated homophily in depressive symptoms among adolescent friends, resulting from both peer selection and socialization processes. However, developmental differences and the role of school transitions in these processes have not been elucidated. A sample of 367 (51% female) a

  10. African American and European American Students' Peer Groups during Early Adolescence: Structure, Status, and Academic Achievement (United States)

    Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.


    Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…

  11. What It Means to Be an Adolescent Teacher-and-Peer-Independent Motivation Type (United States)

    Krunke, Hannah Marei; Raufelder, Diana


    In order to enhance our understanding of interindividual differences in academic motivation, the present study examined the interplay of personality, psychosocial adjustment and socio-academic factors in a subsample of adolescent students identified as teacher-and-peer-independent motivation type (MT) (N = 295; M[subscript Age] = 13.71) in…

  12. Peer Group Counselling and School Influence on Adolescents' Self-Concept (United States)

    Egbochuku, E. O.; Aihie, N. O.


    The study focused on the influence of peer group counselling and school influence on the self-concept of adolescents' in Nigerian secondary schools. Sixty-eight Senior Secondary School II students from three schools--a boys' school, a girls' school and a co-educational school in Benin City participated in the study. A pre-test, post-test control…

  13. Influence of peers and friends on children's and adolescents' eating and activity behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvy, S.J.; Haye, K. de la; Bowker, J.C.; Hermans, R.C.J.


    Obesity during childhood and adolescence is a growing problem in the United States, Canada, and around the world that leads to significant physical, psychological, and social consequences. Peer experiences have been theoretically and empirically related to the “Big Two” contributors to the obesity e

  14. Teacher and Peer Support for Young Adolescents' Motivation, Engagement, and School Belonging (United States)

    Kiefer, Sarah M.; Alley, Kathleen M.; Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.


    The purpose of this sequential explanatory mixed methods study was to investigate teacher and peer support for young adolescents' academic motivation, classroom engagement, and school belonging within one large, urban, ethnically diverse middle school. In the initial quantitative phase, associations among aspects of teacher support (autonomy,…

  15. Adolescents' Perceptions of Chronic Self-Concept, Peer Relations, and Learning Conditions (United States)

    Liu, Weiping; Eckert, Thomas


    Based on Lewin's Field Theory, Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Systems Theory and social network analysis, the authors collected data from 405 Chinese adolescents about their peer relations, chronic self-concept levels and learning condition variables through questionnaire distributing, and from their teachers about their annual average…

  16. Adolescents' Media-Related Cognitions and Substance Use in the Context of Parental and Peer Influences (United States)

    Scull, Tracy M.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Parker, Alison E.; Elmore, Kristen C.; Benson, Jessica W.


    Two cross-sectional studies investigated media influences on adolescents' substance use and intentions to use substances in the context of exposure to parental and peer risk and protective factors. A total of 729 middle school students (n = 351, 59% female in Study 1; n = 378, 43% female in Study 2) completed self-report questionnaires. The sample…

  17. Relations of Marital Satisfaction to Peer Outcomes in Adolescent Boys: A Longitudinal Study. (United States)

    Feldman, S. Shirley; Wentzel, Kathryn R.


    Examined connection between parents' marital relationship and parenting styles to peer-related outcomes. Analysis of boys' (n=62) and parents' reports on marriage over a four-year period indicate that children who experience emotional closeness within the family might not need high levels of social attention and approval from peers. (RJM)

  18. Pathways to romantic relational aggression through adolescent peer aggression and heavy episodic drinking. (United States)

    Woodin, Erica M; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Caldeira, Valerie; Homel, Jacqueline; Leadbeater, Bonnie


    Adolescent peer aggression is a well-established correlate of romantic relational aggression; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Heavy episodic drinking (or "binge" alcohol use) was examined as both a prior and concurrent mediator of this link in a sample of 282 12-18 year old interviewed four times over 6 years. Path analyses indicated that early peer relational and physical aggression each uniquely predicted later romantic relational aggression. Concurrent heavy episodic drinking fully mediated this effect for peer physical aggression only. These findings highlight two important mechanisms by which peer aggression may increase the risk of later romantic relational aggression: a direct pathway from peer relational aggression to romantic relational aggression and an indirect pathway through peer physical aggression and concurrent heavy episodic drinking. Prevention programs targeting romantic relational aggression in adolescence and young adulthood may benefit from interventions that target multiple domains of risky behavior, including the heavy concurrent use of alcohol. Aggr. Behav. 42:563-576, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Power of the Like in Adolescence: Effects of Peer Influence on Neural and Behavioral Responses to Social Media. (United States)

    Sherman, Lauren E; Payton, Ashley A; Hernandez, Leanna M; Greenfield, Patricia M; Dapretto, Mirella


    We investigated a unique way in which adolescent peer influence occurs on social media. We developed a novel functional MRI (fMRI) paradigm to simulate Instagram, a popular social photo-sharing tool, and measured adolescents' behavioral and neural responses to likes, a quantifiable form of social endorsement and potential source of peer influence. Adolescents underwent fMRI while viewing photos ostensibly submitted to Instagram. They were more likely to like photos depicted with many likes than photos with few likes; this finding showed the influence of virtual peer endorsement and held for both neutral photos and photos of risky behaviors (e.g., drinking, smoking). Viewing photos with many (compared with few) likes was associated with greater activity in neural regions implicated in reward processing, social cognition, imitation, and attention. Furthermore, when adolescents viewed risky photos (as opposed to neutral photos), activation in the cognitive-control network decreased. These findings highlight possible mechanisms underlying peer influence during adolescence.

  20. Relationship between Poverty and Health among Adolescents. (United States)

    Abernathy, Thomas J.; Webster, Greg; Vermeulen, Marian


    Examines data on 1,759 adolescents to assess the effect of low socioeconomic status on their health. Results confirm the relationship between income and health. Explains how the pathway to poor health care operates through the social environment, lifestyle differences, access to care, and self-esteem problems. Findings do suggest that physical…

  1. Interpersonal Relationships and Emotional Distress in Adolescence (United States)

    Kenny, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda


    The aim of this study was to examine positive and negative qualities in adolescents' interpersonal relationships and their relative importance in predicting emotional distress. Participants were 260 students from three schools in the Dublin area (119 girls; 141 boys), aged 12-18 years (M = 15.32, SD = 1.91). Students completed questionnaires…

  2. School Connectedness, Peer Attachment, and Self-Esteem as Predictors of Adolescent Depression (United States)

    Millings, Abigail; Buck, Rhiannon; Montgomery, Alan; Spears, Melissa; Stallard, Paul


    Recent literature suggests that school connectedness (SC) may be a key determinant of adolescent mental health. Specifically, SC has been found to have a negative relationship with adolescent depression. In the current, cross sectional study, we examine whether the relationship between SC and symptoms of low mood is dampened or moderated by…

  3. School Phobic Adolescents and a Peer Support Group. (United States)

    Diamond, Stanley C.


    Describes one school's program to deal with school phobic students--those whose emotional problems are often centered on the school setting. Explains how such students formed and ran a peer support group to help each other cope with anxiety. (FL)

  4. Developing adolescent sexuality in context: Relations with parents and peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongardt, D. van de


    In this dissertation it was investigated how various aspects of adolescents’ developing sexuality (behaviors, cognitions, emotions) are intertwined over time with adolescents’ relations with parents and peers. The overall goal of the six empirical studies, which utilized a multi-method approach (lon

  5. Probing the Neural Correlates of Anticipated Peer Evaluation in Adolescence (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E.; McClure-Tone, Erin B.; Shiffrin, Nina D.; Pine, Daniel S.; Nelson, Eric E.


    Neural correlates of social-cognition were assessed in 9- to- 17-year-olds (N = 34) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants appraised how unfamiliar peers they had previously identified as being of high or low interest would evaluate them for an anticipated online chat session. Differential age- and sex-related activation…

  6. Cultural Socialization Across Contexts: Family-Peer Congruence and Adolescent Well-Being. (United States)

    Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D


    Racial/ethnic minority youth live at the intersection of diverse cultures, yet little is known about cultural socialization outside families or how cultural socialization in multiple settings conjointly influences adolescent well-being. In a sample of 236 8th graders (51 % female; 89 % Latinos, 11 % African Americans), we examined adolescents' perceptions of family and peer cultural socialization toward the heritage culture and the mainstream American culture. A variable-centered approach demonstrated that the socioemotional and academic benefits of family cultural socialization were most evident when peer cultural socialization was congruently high. Although family and peer cultural contexts are often assumed to be drastically different, we identified similar proportions of adolescents experiencing congruently high, congruently low, and incongruent cultural socialization from families and peers using a person-centered approach. Although the incongruent group received relatively high levels of cultural socialization in one setting, their well-being was similar to the congruently low group. The findings highlight the importance of considering cultural socialization across multiple developmental settings in understanding racial/ethnic minority youth's well-being.

  7. Positive and Negative Emotions and Coping as Mediators of Mother-Child Attachment and Peer Relationships (United States)

    Abraham, Michelle M.; Kerns, Kathryn A.


    This study examined whether emotions and coping explain (mediate) the association between mother-child attachment and peer relationships. Attachment, positive and negative emotion experience, coping, and peer relationships were examined in 106 fourth-grade through sixth-grade girls attending a 6-day residential camp. Attachment, experience of…

  8. Peer Relationships, Social Behaviours, Academic Performance and Loneliness in Korean Primary School Children (United States)

    Shin, Yoolim


    The purpose of this study was to investigate how different forms of peer relationships offer children unique support for loneliness and to examine the direct as well as indirect effects of social behaviours and academic performance through the mediation of peer relationships on the prediction of loneliness in Korean children. Four hundred and…

  9. Social Support Seeking in Relation to Parental Attachment and Peer Relationships among Victims of Cyberbullying (United States)

    Ševcíková, Anna; Machácková, Hana; Wright, Michelle F.; Dedková, Lenka; Cerná, Alena


    Victims use social support seeking (SSS) to buffer the negative effects of cyberbullying. It is unknown whether cybervictims' perceptions of harm and having poor peer and parental relationships influence SSS. Using a sample of 451 cyberbullying-victims, aged 12-18, 68% girls, this study examined relationships of gender, harm, peer rejection,…

  10. Peer relationships of pupils with and without individualized education plans in co-teaching and maistream educational settings



    Pupils with special educational needs have been shown to experience more problems in peer relationships than their peers. Comparative research across different educational settings has been limited though. The purpose of this study was to compare the peer relationships of fifth-graders with and without individualized education plans (IEP) in co-teaching and mainstream educational settings. Peer relationships were operationalized as peer acceptance, friendship and, as a subjective re...

  11. Brain Structural Correlates of Risk-Taking Behavior and Effects of Peer Influence in Adolescents (United States)

    Kwon, Myoung Soo; Vorobyev, Victor; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki


    Adolescents are characterized by impulsive risky behavior, particularly in the presence of peers. We discriminated high and low risk-taking male adolescents aged 18–19 years by assessing their propensity for risky behavior and vulnerability to peer influence with personality tests, and compared structural differences in gray and white matter of the brain with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. We also compared the brain structures according to the participants' actual risk-taking behavior in a simulated driving task with two different social conditions making up a peer competition situation. There was a discrepancy between the self-reported personality test results and risky driving behavior (running through an intersection with traffic lights turning yellow, chancing a collision with another vehicle). Comparison between high and low risk-taking adolescents according to personality test results revealed no significant difference in gray matter volume and white matter integrity. However, comparison according to actual risk-taking behavior during task performance revealed significantly higher white matter integrity in the high risk-taking group, suggesting that increased risky behavior during adolescence is not necessarily attributed to the immature brain as conventional wisdom says. PMID:25389976

  12. Befriending Risky Peers: Factors Driving Adolescents' Selection of Friends with Similar Marijuana Use. (United States)

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D; Pollard, Michael S; Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S


    Adolescents often befriend peers who are similar to themselves on a range of demographic, behavioral, and social characteristics, including substance use. Similarities in lifetime history of marijuana use have even been found to predict adolescent friendships, and we examine whether this finding is explained by youth's selection of friends who are similar on a range of more proximate, observable characteristics that are risk factors for marijuana use. Using two waves of individual and social network data from two high schools that participated in Add Health (N = 1,612; 52.7% male), we apply longitudinal models for social networks to test whether or not several observable risky attributes (psychological, behavioral, and social) predict adolescent friendship choices, and if these preferences explain friend's similarities on lifetime marijuana use. Findings show that similarities on several risk factors predict friendship choices, however controlling for this, the preference to befriend peers with a similar history of marijuana use largely persists. The results highlight the range of social selection processes that lead to similarities in marijuana use among friends and larger peer groups, and that also give rise to friendship groups whose members share similar risk factors for substance use. Friends with high "collective risk" are likely to be important targets for preventing the onset and social diffusion of substance use in adolescents.

  13. Mental health problems in adolescents with cochlear implants: Peer problems persist after controlling for additional handicaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eHuber


    Full Text Available The aims of the present multi-center study were to investigate the extent of mental health problems in adolescents with a hearing loss and cochlear implants (CIs in comparison to normal hearing (NH peers and to investigate possible relations between the extent of mental health problems of young CI users and hearing variables, such as age at implantation, or functional gain of CI. The survey included 140 adolescents with CI (mean age = 14.7, SD = 1.5 years and 140 NH adolescents (mean age = 14.8, SD = 1.4 years, their parents and teachers. Participants were matched by age, gender and social background. Within the CI group, 35 adolescents were identified as risk cases due to possible and manifest additional handicaps, and 11 adolescents were non-classifiable. Mental health problems were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ in the versions Self, Parent, and Teacher. The CI group showed significantly more Peer Problems than the NH group. When the CI group was split into a risk-group (35 risk cases and 11 non-classifiable persons and a non-risk group (n = 94, increased peer problems were perceived in both CI subgroups by adolescents themselves. However, no further differences between the CI non-risk group and the NH group were observed in any rater. The CI-risk group showed significantly more hyperactivity compared to the NH group and more hyperactivity and conduct problems compared to the CI non-risk group. Cluster analyses confirmed that there were significantly more adolescents with high problems in the CI-risk group compared to the CI non-risk group and the NH group. Adolescents with CI, who were able to understand speech in noise had significantly less difficulties compared to constricted CI users. Parents, teachers, and clinicians should be aware that CI users with additionally special needs may have mental health problems. However, peer problems were also experienced by CI adolescents without additional handicaps

  14. Adolescent Social Anxiety and Substance Use: The Role of Susceptibility to Peer Pressure


    Blöte, Anke W.; Miers, Anne C.; P. Michiel Westenberg


    The aim of this study was to further our understanding of the link between social anxiety and substance use in adolescents, in particular the role susceptibility to peer pressure plays in this link. The relation between social anxiety and susceptibility to peer pressure was studied in two community samples (n=534 and n=117) each consisting of two age groups (12-13 and 15–17 years). The relation of these two variables with substance use was evaluated in the second sample using regression analy...

  15. Neural Responses to Witnessing Peer Rejection after Being Socially Excluded: fMRI as a Window into Adolescents' Emotional Processing (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Dapretto, Mirella


    During adolescence, concerns about peer rejection and acceptance become increasingly common. Adolescents regularly experience peer rejection firsthand and witness these behaviors among their peers. In the current study, neuroimaging techniques were employed to conduct a preliminary investigation of the affective and cognitive processes involved in…

  16. Early age alcohol use and later alcohol problems in adolescents: individual and peer mediators in a bi-national study. (United States)

    Mason, W Alex; Toumbourou, John W; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Catalano, Richard F; Patton, George C


    This paper examines whether there is cross-national similarity in the longitudinal relationship between early age alcohol use and adolescent alcohol problems. Potential mechanisms underlying this relationship also are examined, testing adolescent alcohol use, low self-regulation, and peer deviance as possible mediators. Students (N = 1,945) participating in the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal panel survey study, responded to questions on alcohol use and influencing factors, and were followed annually over a 3-year period from 2002 to 2004 (98% retention rate). State-representative, community student samples were recruited in grade 7 in Washington State, United States (US, n = 961, 78% of those eligible; Mage = 13.09, SD = .44) and Victoria, Australia (n = 984, 76% of those eligible; Mage = 12.93, SD = .41). Analyses were conducted using multiple-group structural equation modeling. In both states, early age alcohol use (age 13) had a small but statistically significant association with subsequent alcohol problems (age 15). Overall, there was little evidence for mediation of early alcohol effects. Low self-regulation prospectively predicted peer deviance, alcohol use, and alcohol problems in both states. Peer deviance was more positively related to alcohol use and low self-regulation among students in Victoria compared to students in Washington State. The small but persistent association of early age alcohol use with alcohol problems across both samples is consistent with efforts to delay alcohol initiation to help prevent problematic alcohol use. Self-regulation was an important influence, supporting the need to further investigate the developmental contribution of neurobehavioral disinhibition.

  17. Adolescents in Wilderness Therapy: A Qualitative Study of Attachment Relationships (United States)

    Bettmann, Joanna E.; Olson-Morrison, Debra; Jasperson, Rachael A.


    Characterized by acute changes in attachment relationships, adolescence is a time of balancing autonomy and attachment needs. For adolescents in wilderness therapy programs, the setting often challenges their understanding of their own attachment relationships. The current study evaluates the narratives of 13 adolescents in a wilderness therapy…

  18. Parental employment status and adolescents' health: the role of financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescents' resilience. (United States)

    Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Benka, Jozef; Orosova, Olga


    The paper deals with parental employment status and its relationship to adolescents' self-reported health. It studies the role of the financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent resilience in the relationship between parental employment status and adolescents' self-rated health, vitality and mental health. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse questionnaire data obtained from 2799 adolescents (mean age 14.3) in 2006. The results show a negative association of the father's, but not mother's unemployment or non-employment with adolescents' health. Regression analyses showed that neither financial strain nor a poor parent-adolescent relationship or a low score in resilience accounted for the relationship between the father's unemployment or non-employment and poorer adolescent health. Furthermore, resilience did not work as a buffer against the negative impact of fathers' unemployment on adolescents' health.

  19. Rethinking Adolescent Peer Sexual Harassment: Contributions of Feminist Theory (United States)

    Conroy, Nicole E.


    This article provides an integrative review of the literature on adolescent sexual harassment and highlights potential contributions of feminist theory for research. Although developmental theories for studying sexual harassment are useful in their own right, the discussion focuses on how they fail to address the ways in which sexual harassment…

  20. Adolescent problem behavior in school : the role of peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geven, S.A.J.


    Adolescence is a notable period during which a considerable share of students tends to engage in problem behavior in school. Students for example skip class, fail to do their best in school, or have serious arguments with their teachers. A student’s decision to engage in such behavior is not usually

  1. Ostracism and Peer Victimization in Adolescents With and Without Mental Health Diagnoses in a Public Middle School Setting. (United States)

    Heithaus, Jennifer L; Twyman, Kimberly A; Braddock, Barbara A


    To better understand adolescents experiencing peer victimization, ostracism, and emotional health problems, this study aimed to describe a cohort of middle school students identified as having school peer-related social difficulties as 2 groups: those with mental health diagnoses (MHDs; n = 17) and those without diagnoses (n = 8). Participants were administered a test battery to examine communication ability, social responsiveness, social activity, ostracism, victimization, and emotional health. Results showed that adolescents with MHDs, relative to those without, scored significantly lower on measures of communication ability, social responsiveness, and social activity but similarly on measures of victimization, ostracism, and internalizing/externalizing factors. Results suggest that adolescents with and without MHDs can endure ostracism and peer victimization to a similar extent. Because ostracism and victimization have serious morbidity in adolescents, physicians and caregivers must look for signs in all adolescents, irrespective of MHD. Recommendations for appropriate primary care management are discussed.

  2. Beyond the class norm : Bullying behavior of popular adolescents and its relation to peer acceptance and rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.K.; Lindenberg, S.M.; Veenstra, R.


    This study examined to what extent bullying behavior of popular adolescents is responsible for whether bullying is more or less likely to be accepted or rejected by peers (popularity-norm effect) rather than the behavior of all peers (class norm). Specifically, the mean level of bullying by the whol

  3. Beyond the Class Norm: Bullying Behavior of Popular Adolescents and Its Relation to Peer Acceptance and Rejection (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, Rene


    This study examined to what extent bullying behavior of popular adolescents is responsible for whether bullying is more or less likely to be accepted or rejected by peers (popularity-norm effect) rather than the behavior of all peers (class norm). Specifically, the mean level of bullying by the whole class (class norm) was split into behavior of…

  4. Peer Victimization among Adolescent Females: A Literature Review of the Significant Causes and Consequences Associated with Relational Aggression (United States)

    Tobin, Casey; Duncan, Jenny


    Peer victimization is an all too common occurrence in schools throughout the United States, affecting millions of adolescents every year. Involvement in peer victimization carries devastating consequences that can last a lifetime. Recent research indicates males and females engage in different forms of victimization, with males displaying more…

  5. Testing the Direction of Longitudinal Paths between Victimization, Peer Rejection, and Different Types of Internalizing Problems in Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Sentse (Miranda); P.J. Prinzie (Peter); C. Salmivalli (Christina)


    textabstractThe transition to secondary school is accompanied by the fragmentation of peer groups, while adolescents are also confronted with heightened incidents of bullying and increased levels of internalizing problems. Victimization, peer rejection, and internalizing problems are known to be int

  6. Serial Multiple Mediation of General Belongingness and Life Satisfaction in the Relationship between Attachment and Loneliness in Adolescents (United States)

    Yildiz, Mehmet Ali


    The current research aims to investigate the serial-multiple mediation of general belongingness and life satisfaction in the relationship between loneliness and attachment to parents and peers in adolescents. The participants of the research consisted of 218 high school students (F = 126, 57.8%; M = 92, 42.2%). Age of the participants' ranged…

  7. The Changing Nature of Adolescent Friendships: Longitudinal Links with Early Adolescent Ego Development (United States)

    Marsh, Penny; Allen, Joseph P.; Ho, Martin; Porter, Maryfrances; McFarland, F. Christy


    Although success in managing evolving peer relationships is linked to critical adolescent outcomes, little is known about the specific factors that lead to success or failure in peer relationship development across adolescence. This longitudinal study examines the role of adolescents' level of ego development as a predictor of the future course of…

  8. Relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination along childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Saraiva


    Full Text Available The two main goals of this review were to understand how the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination are established along the motor development of children and adolescents, and how they would influence their future lives. The web based bibliographic database B-On was searched for peer-reviewed publications during the last decade (2000 to 2009. Search criteria included all articles on relationships between any two of the above named factors. Although different methodological designs and variables were found as markers for the same factor, overall results suggested the existence of a clear positive relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination from childhood to adolescence, with a special relevance for the relationship between physical activity and coordination. It was also noted a renewed interest on physical activity and motor coordination developmental characteristics and relationships as well as on their lifelong health effects.

  9. Attachment to parents and peers as a risk factor for adolescent depressive disorders: the mediating role of emotion regulation. (United States)

    Kullik, Angelika; Petermann, Franz


    This study examined emotion regulation as a mediator in the relationship of attachment and depression in adolescents. Participants (N girls = 127; M age = 14.50; N boys = 121; M age = 14.31) completed self-report questionnaires of attachment to parents and peers, emotion regulation and depression. Models with dysfunctional emotion regulation as a mediation variable were tested via hierarchical multiple regression analyses and bootstrapping procedure. Results revealed significant relations between attachment to parents and peers, dysfunctional emotion regulation and depression. For girls, internal-dysfunctional emotion regulation was a mediator in the relation of attachment to parents and depression and partly mediated the association of attachment to peers. For boys, internal- and external-dysfunctional emotion regulation acted as partly mediators in association of attachment to parents and depression. Results indicate important mechanisms that contribute to the refinement of conceptual models and provide indications for gender specific prevention and intervention for depressive disorders.

  10. Sex-Related Online Behaviors, Perceived Peer Norms and Adolescents' Experience with Sexual Behavior: Testing an Integrative Model. (United States)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; ter Bogt, Tom F M; Reitz, Ellen; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M


    Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM]) and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS]) sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer norms in predicting adolescents' experience with sexual behavior. Structural equation modeling on longitudinal data from 1,132 Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; range 11-17; 52.7% boys) demonstrated concurrent, direct, and indirect effects between sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms, and experience with sexual behavior. SEIM use (among boys) and SNS use (among boys and girls) predicted increases in adolescents' perceptions of peer approval of sexual behavior and/or in their estimates of the numbers of sexually active peers. These perceptions, in turn, predicted increases in adolescents' level of experience with sexual behavior at the end of the study. Boys' SNS use also directly predicted increased levels of experience with sexual behavior. These findings highlight the need for multisystemic research and intervention development to promote adolescents' sexual health.

  11. The Impact of Knowledge, Attitude, and Peer Influence on Adolescent Energy Drink Consumption


    Ward, Alyson C.


    Adolescents are labeled as sensitive to caffeine, though despite this predisposition, consumption is high among this population. Energy drinks are a current trend in soft-drink-like beverages and are marketed to 11-35 year olds. However, unlike soft drinks, energy drinks are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, and therefore do not have to limit their caffeine content. This cross-sectional, correlational study sought to identify the role that knowledge, attitudes, and peers pla...

  12. Peer Victimisation and Its Relationships with Perceptions of Body Composition (United States)

    Frisen, Ann; Lunde, Carolina; Hwang, Philip


    The present study examined the links between children's exposure to peer victimisation, in terms of type and frequency, their body composition and subjective perceptions of body composition. A total of 960 Swedish 10-year-olds (515 girls and 445 boys) completed questionnaires about their peer victimisation experiences, weight and height, and…

  13. Using self- and parent-reports to test the association between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms in verbally fluent adolescents with ASD. (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E; Fredstrom, Bridget K; Duncan, Amie W; Holleb, Lauren J; Bishop, Somer L


    The current study tested the associations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms in 54 verbally fluent adolescent males with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Adolescent- and parent-reports of multiple types of peer victimization and internalizing symptoms were used. First, the validity and reliability of the adolescent-report measure of peer victimization were successfully tested, with some exceptions. Then, structural equation models showed that adolescent-reports of peer victimization were associated with a latent construct of internalizing symptoms even after controlling for parent-reports of peer victimization. Discussion focuses on the importance of considering adolescent-reports of negative peer experience, such as peer victimization, rather than relying exclusively on parent reports.

  14. Alcohol makes you macho and helps you make friends: the role of masculine norms and peer pressure in adolescent boys' and girls' alcohol use. (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek K; Smiler, Andrew P


    Peer pressure and general conformity to adult norms have been found to be strongly associated with alcohol use among adolescents; however there is limited knowledge about the sociocultural factors that might influence this relationship. Theory and research suggest that masculine norms might directly and indirectly contribute to alcohol use through peer pressure and general conformity to adult norms. Whereas being male is typically identified as a risk factor for alcohol use, masculine norms provide greater specificity than sex alone in explaining why some boys drink more than others. There is growing evidence that girls who endorse masculine norms may be at heightened risk of engaging in risky behaviors including alcohol use. Data were provided by adolescents living in a rural area in the Northeastern United States and were collected in 2006. This study demonstrated that masculine norms were associated with peer pressure and general conformity and alcohol use for both adolescent girls (n = 124) and boys (n = 138), though the relationship between masculine norms and alcohol use was stronger for boys. The study's limitations are noted and theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  15. Alcohol Makes You Macho and Helps You Make Friends: The Role of Masculine Norms and Peer Pressure in Adolescent Boys’ and Girls’ Alcohol Use (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek K.; Smiler, Andrew P.


    Peer pressure and general conformity to adult norms have been found to be strongly associated with alcohol use among adolescents; however there is limited knowledge about the sociocultural factors that might influence this relationship. Theory and research suggest that masculine norms might directly and indirectly contribute to alcohol use through peer pressure and general conformity to adult norms. Whereas being male is typically identified as a risk factor for alcohol use, masculine norms provide greater specificity than sex alone in explaining why some boys drinkmore than others. There is growing evidence that girls who endorse masculine norms may be at heightened risk of engaging in risky behaviors including alcohol use. Data were provided by adolescents living in a rural area in the Northeastern United States and were collected in 2006. This study demonstrated that masculine norms were associated with peer pressure and general conformity and alcohol use for both adolescent girls (n = 124) and boys (n = 138), though the relationship between masculine norms and alcohol use was stronger for boys. The study’s limitations are noted and theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:23421386

  16. Adolescent Alcohol Use: Protective and Predictive Parent, Peer, and Self-Related Factors. (United States)

    Handren, Lindsay M; Donaldson, Candice D; Crano, William D


    Adolescent alcohol use has been linked with a multitude of problems and a trajectory predictive of problematic use in adulthood. Thus, targeting factors that enhance early prevention efforts is vital. The current study highlights variables that mitigate or predict alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking. Using Monitoring the Future (MTF) data, multiple path analytic models revealed links between parental involvement and alcohol abstinence and initiation. Parental involvement predicted enhanced self-esteem and less self-derogation and was negatively associated with peer alcohol norms for each MTF grade sampled, with stronger associations for 8th and 10th graders than 12th graders. For younger groups, self-esteem predicted increased perceptions of alcohol risk and reduced drinking. Self-derogation was associated with peers' pro-alcohol norms, which was linked to lower risk perceptions, lower personal disapproval of use, and increased drinking. Peer influence had a stronger association with consumption for 8th and 10th graders, whereas 12th graders' drinking was related to personal factors of alcohol risk perception and disapproval. In all grades, general alcohol use had a strong connection to heavy episodic drinking within the past 2 weeks. Across-grade variations in association of parent, peer, and personal factors suggest the desirability of tailored interventions focused on specific factors for each grade level, with the overall goal of attenuating adolescent alcohol use.

  17. Rank among Peers during Game Competition Affects the Tendency to Make Risky Choices in Adolescent Males (United States)

    Foo, Jerome C.; Nagase, Kohei; Naramura-Ohno, Sawako; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Morita, Kenji


    It has been shown that adolescents take more risks when they are with peers than when they are alone, presumably because the presence of peers can be a social reward/punishment that can bias decision making. Competition is inherent in peer interactions, and recent work has demonstrated that winning/losing is an intrinsic social reward/punishment. Taken together, it can be hypothesized that competition amongst peers affects adolescents’ risky behavior. While there is much evidence that status amongst peers can relate to antisocial/aggressive behavior, it remains unclear whether risky behavior is affected. Moreover, the degree to which ‘temporary status,’ such as ranking in a short-term competitive game, affects behavior is uncertain, an important issue because adolescents might be sensitive to situations or factors which potentially destabilize existing hierarchies. In this experiment, these issues were directly explored in the classroom environment using smartphone technology and Wi-Fi setup. Male junior high school students (aged 14–15) performed a roulette game task on smartphones, playing either independently or against five classmates. In the latter case, the students’ current ranks within the group of six were constantly presented on smartphone screens. To dissociate the effects of the students’ reactions to ranks from their actual performances, unknown to the students, the ranks presented were actually predetermined so that about half of the students were continuously presented with high ranks whereas the other half were continuously presented with low ranks. We found that the students presented with low ranks made more risky plays than those not presented with ranks or those presented with high ranks. This result suggests that even temporary status significantly affects adolescents’ risky behavior, and also demonstrates the usefulness of smartphones in examining and manipulating peer interactions in classroom experiments. PMID:28174543

  18. A longitudinal study of interpersonal relationships among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents and young adults: mediational pathways from attachment to romantic relationship quality. (United States)

    Starks, Tyrel J; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian


    The current study examined the potential for mental health to mediate associations between earlier attachment to parents and peers and later relationship adjustment during adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of sexual minority youth. Secondarily, the study examined associations between peer and parental attachment and relationship/dating milestones. Participants included 219 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth who participated in six waves of data collection over 3.5 years. Parental attachment was associated with an older age of dating initiation, while peer attachment was associated with longer relationship length. Both peer and parental attachment were significantly associated with mental health in later adolescence and young adulthood. Mental health mediated the association between peer attachment and main partner relationship quality. While the total indirect effect of parental attachment on main partner relationship quality was statistically significant, specific indirect effects were not. Implications for the application of attachment theory and integration of interpersonal factors into mental health intervention with sexual minority youth are discussed.

  19. Mechanisms of adolescent smoking cessation: roles of readiness to quit, nicotine dependence, and smoking of parents and peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Leeuwe, van J.; Brug, J.; Zundert, van R.M.P.; Eijn, van den R.J.J.M.


    Multiple levels of influence should be considered in interventions aimed at the adolescent smoker, including psychological, addiction, peer and parental influences. However, the mechanism by which these variables influence the process of smoking cessation in adolescents is not well elucidated. There

  20. Self-Disclosure in Friendships as the Moderator of the Association between Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Overweight Adolescents (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Cantin, Stephane


    The objective of the study was to examine the effects of self-disclosure in best friendships on the pathway from peer victimization to depressive symptoms as mediated by self-esteem for physical appearance (SEPA) in overweight adolescents. Utilizing data from 610 French-speaking Canadian adolescents in Grades 7 and 8, the current study examined…

  1. Peer Victimization, Self-esteem, and Ego Resilience Types in Adolescents: A Prospective Analysis of Person-context Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, G.J.; Zeevalkink, H.; Vermulst, A.A.; Scholte, R.H.J.


    This study examined bidirectional, longitudinal associations between peer victimisation and self-esteem in adolescents, and tested for moderator effects of undercontrolling, overcontrolling, and ego-resilient personality types in these associations. Data were used from 774 adolescents ages 11-16 yea

  2. Peer Victimization, Self-Esteem, and Ego Resilience Types in Adolescents: A Prospective Analysis of Person-Context Interactions (United States)

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Zeevalkink, Herma; Vermulst, Ad; Scholte, Ron H. J.


    This study examined bidirectional, longitudinal associations between peer victimisation and self-esteem in adolescents, and tested for moderator effects of undercontrolling, overcontrolling, and ego-resilient personality types in these associations. Data were used from 774 adolescents ages 11-16 years who participated in a three-wave (i.e., 2005,…

  3. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms. (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J


    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships.

  4. Cascading peer dynamics underlying the progression from problem behavior to violence in early to late adolescence. (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J; Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Myers, Michael W


    This study examined the peer dynamics linking early adolescent problem behavior, school marginalization, and low academic performance to multiple indices of late adolescent violence (arrests, parent report, and youth report) in an ethnically diverse sample of 998 males and females. A cascade model was proposed in which early adolescent risk factors assessed at age 11 to 12 predict gang involvement at age 13 to 14, which in turn, predicts deviancy training with friends at age 16 to 17, which then predicts violence by age 18 to 19. Each construct in the model was assessed with multiple measures and methods. Structural equation modeling revealed that the cascade model fit the data well, with problem behavior, school marginalization, and low academic performance significantly predicting gang involvement 2 years later. Gang involvement, in turn, predicted deviancy training with a friend, which predicted violence. The best fitting model included an indirect and direct path between early adolescent gang involvement and later violence. These findings suggest the need to carefully consider peer clustering into gangs in efforts to prevent individual and aggregate levels of violence, especially in youths who may be disengaged, marginalized, or academically unsuccessful in the public school context.

  5. [Peer harassment in primary school: the role of peers and its relationship with sociometric status]. (United States)

    Lucas Molina, Beatriz; Pulido Valero, Rosa; Solbes Canales, Irene


    During the last decade, there has been a change in peer harassment research from a focus on the characteristics of the Aggressor-Victim dyad to the recognition of peer harassment as a whole group process, with most of children playing some kind of role. This study uses a shortened adaptation of the Participant-Role Questionnaire approach to identify these roles in 2,050 Spanish children aged 8 to 13 years. These Participant Roles were related to belonging to one of the five sociometric status groups. Factor analysis revealed four different roles, indicating that the adapted scale remains a reliable way of distinguishing the Aggressor, Victim, Defender of the victim, and Outsider roles. Boys played the roles of Aggressor and Victim significantly more frequently. The children's Participant Role was found to be related to their sociometric status. Progress in the measurement of peer harassment as a group process and the success of intervention strategies may depend on finding clearer distinctions among the different peer roles, mobilizing peer pressure, and isolating aggressors from their social support.

  6. Romantic Relationships from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. (United States)

    Meier, Ann; Allen, Gina


    Theories on romantic relationship development posit a progression of involvement and intensity with age, relationship duration, and experience in romantic relationships. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study tests these propositions by considering relationship type and patterns of relationships over the course of adolescence and their influence on relationship formation in young adulthood. Findings indicate that relationships become more exclusive, dyadic, of longer duration, and more emotionally and sexually intimate over the course of adolescence. Moreover, relationship experience in adolescence is associated with an increased likelihood of cohabitation and marriage in young adulthood. These findings indicate that instead of being trivial or fleeting, adolescent romantic relationships are an integral part of the social scaffolding on which young adult romantic relationships rest.

  7. Analyzing Cultural Models in Adolescent Accounts of Romantic Relationships (United States)

    Milbrath, Constance; Ohlson, Brightstar; Eyre, Stephen L.


    Research on academic achievement has led the way in demonstrating how culturally constructed meanings shape adolescent scholastic behavior. The aim of this research is to move this standpoint of analysis more centrally into the area of adolescent dating and sexuality by focusing on the cultural components of adolescent romantic relationships. This…

  8. Strengthening Foster Parent-Adolescent Relationships through Filial Therapy (United States)

    Capps, Jennifer E.


    The purpose of this article is to explore the application of filial therapy as a means of strengthening relationships between foster parents and adolescent foster children. Adolescents in foster care experience a number of placement disruptions and while a number of therapeutic interventions are implemented to assist adolescents in foster care,…

  9. Mother– and Father–Adolescent Relationships and Early Sexual Intercourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nogueira Avelar e Silva, R.; van de Bongardt, D.; van de Looij-Jansen, P.; Wijtzes, A.; Raat, H.


    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prospective associations between mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationship quality and early sexual intercourse initiation (ie, ≤16 years) among a large sample of Dutch adolescents. METHODS: Two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study

  10. Natural Mentoring Relationships among Adolescent Mothers: A Study of Resilience (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.


    This study focused on natural mentoring relationships between nonparental adults and African American adolescent mothers. Data were collected from 93 adolescent mothers over 5 time points, starting in the adolescent mothers' senior year of high school and ending 5 years after high school. We found that having a natural mentor was related to fewer…

  11. Social Risk and Peer Victimization in Elementary School Children: The Protective Role of Teacher-Student Relationships. (United States)

    Elledge, L Christian; Elledge, Allison R; Newgent, Rebecca A; Cavell, Timothy A


    Children not accepted or actively rejected by peers are at greater risk for peer victimization. We examined whether a positive teacher-student relationship can potentially buffer these children from the risk of peer victimization. Participants were 361 elementary school children in the 4th or 5th grade. Peer-report measures were used to assess teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ), social preference, and rejected sociometric status; peer victimization was assessed via self-, peer-, and teacher-reports. As expected, social preference assessed in the fall semester was a significant negative predictor of self- and peer-reported victimization measured in the spring, controlling for prior levels of peer victimization. TSRQ in the fall was not a significant unique predictor of self-, peer-, or teacher-reported victimization the following spring, controlling for fall victimization and social preference scores. We found a significant interaction between social preference and TSRQ in predicting self-, peer-, and teacher-reported peer victimization: Social preference significantly predicted peer victimization, but only for those children with relatively poor student-teacher relationships. Subgroup analysis revealed that children actively rejected by peers in the fall reported significantly less peer victimization in the spring (controlling for fall victimization scores) when their fall TSRQ scores were at or above the sample mean compared to rejected children whose TSRQ scores were low (i.e., teacher-student relationship quality can buffer children at social risk for continued peer victimization.

  12. An investigation of young children’s perceptions of teasing within peer relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra HARWOOD


    Full Text Available The paper analyzed children’s perceptions of teasing within their real world peer relationships through participants’ drawings and accompanying narratives. The case study research was approached from an ethic of listening to children to discover and uncover children’s perceptions and experiences with the phenomenon of peer teasing. Fifteen children from kindergarten to grade 2 participated in drawing and narrating their complex understandings of the multi-faceted aspects of peer teasing. The participants attended two30-40 minute sessions of conversational interviews with the first session also involving drawing and narrating personal stories of teasing. The results of the study indicate the significance of teasing within the young peer relationship as well as several distinct perceptions and insights. Ultimately, these insights may help teachers to broaden curricular approaches within the school culture and enhance current theoretical conceptualizations of peer teasing.


    Kreager, Derek A; Rulison, Kelly; Moody, James


    Gangs and group-level processes were once central phenomena for criminological theory and research. By the mid-1970's, however, gang research was primarily displaced by studies of individual behavior using randomized self-report surveys, a shift that also removed groups from the theoretical foreground. In this project, we return to the group level to test competing theoretical claims about delinquent group structure. We use network-based clustering methods to identify 897 friendship groups in two ninth grade cohorts of 27 Pennsylvania and Iowa schools. We then relate group-level measures of delinquency and drinking to network measures of group size, friendship reciprocity, transitivity, structural cohesion, stability, average popularity, and network centrality. We find significant negative correlations between group delinquency and all of our network measures, suggesting that delinquent groups are less solidary and less central to school networks than non-delinquent groups. Further analyses, however, reveal that these correlations are primarily explained by other group characteristics, such as gender composition and socioeconomic status. Drinking behaviors, on the other hand, show net positive associations with most of the network measures, suggesting that drinking groups have higher status and are more internally cohesive than non-drinking groups. Our findings shed light on a longstanding criminological debate by suggesting that any structural differences between delinquent and non-delinquent groups may be attributable to other attributes coincidental with delinquency. In contrast, drinking groups appear to provide peer contexts of greater social capital and cohesion.

  14. Peer Groups and Substance Use: Examining the Direct and Interactive Effect of Leisure Activity (United States)

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar


    This paper explores the relationships among adolescent leisure activities, peer behavior, and substance use. We suggest that peer group interaction can have a differential effect on adolescent deviant behavior depending on the type of leisure pattern adolescents engage in. We analyze data from a representative national sample of Icelandic…

  15. Relational Aggression in Adolescents' Sibling Relationships: Links to Sibling and Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Denning, Donna J.; McHale, Susan M.


    This study examined the links between sibling relational aggression and other sibling relationship qualities (i.e., intimacy, negativity, and temporal involvement) and broader parenting dynamics. Participants included 185 adolescent sibling pairs and their mothers and fathers. Data were gathered during home interviews and a series of nightly phone…

  16. Heavy alcohol use and dating violence perpetration during adolescence: family, peer and neighborhood violence as moderators. (United States)

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T


    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. The effects of heavy alcohol use on dating violence tended to diminish over time and were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Consistent with hypotheses, across all grades, relations between heavy alcohol use and dating violence were stronger for teens exposed to higher levels of family violence and friend dating violence. However, neither friend peer violence nor neighborhood violence moderated relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Taken together, findings suggest that as adolescents grow older, individual and contextual moderators may play an increasingly important role in explaining individual differences in relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Implications for the design and evaluation of dating abuse prevention programs are discussed.

  17. Adolescent gang involvement: The role of individual, family, peer, and school factors in a multilevel perspective. (United States)

    Lenzi, Michela; Sharkey, Jill; Vieno, Alessio; Mayworm, Ashley; Dougherty, Danielle; Nylund-Gibson, Karen


    Youth gang involvement is a serious public health challenge as adolescents involved in gangs are more likely than others to engage in violence and aggression. To better understand gang involvement, we examined the role of protective (empathy and parental support) and risk (peer deviance and lack of safety at school) factors, as well as their interactions, in predicting adolescent gang affiliation. The study involved a sample of 26,232 students (53.4% females; mean age = 14.62, SD = 1.69) participating in the California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS), a survey investigating a wide range of youth health and risk behaviors administered in all California schools every 2 years. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), findings indicated that high levels of empathy and parental support were associated with a lower likelihood of affiliating with a gang. Associating with deviant peers and perceiving the school as unsafe were positively correlated with gang membership. At the school level, lack of safety and type of school (special education, vocational, or alternative school vs. comprehensive schools) were associated with greater probability of gang membership. Empathy mitigated the association between deviant peers and gang membership.

  18. Temperament and Parenting Styles in Early Childhood Differentially Influence Neural Response to Peer Evaluation in Adolescence (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Jarcho, Johanna M.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Eric E.


    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar or novel contexts and conveys risk for social anxiety disorder. Developmental outcomes associated with this temperament can be influenced by children’s caregiving context. The convergence of a child’s temperamental disposition and rearing environment is ultimately expressed at both the behavioral and neural levels in emotional and cognitive response patterns to social challenges. The present study used functional neuroimaging to assess the moderating effects of different parenting styles on neural response to peer rejection in two groups of adolescents characterized by their early childhood temperament (Mage = 17.89 years, N= 39, 17 males, 22 females; 18 with BI; 21 without BI). The moderating effects of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles were examined in three brain regions linked with social anxiety: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), striatum, and amygdala. In youth characterized with BI in childhood, but not in those without BI, diminished responses to peer rejection in vlPFC were associated with higher levels of authoritarian parenting. In contrast, all youth showed decreased caudate response to peer rejection at higher levels of authoritative parenting. These findings indicate that BI in early life relates to greater neurobiological sensitivity to variance in parenting styles, particularly harsh parenting, in late adolescence. These results are discussed in relation to biopsychosocial models of development. PMID:25588884

  19. Temperament and Parenting Styles in Early Childhood Differentially Influence Neural Response to Peer Evaluation in Adolescence. (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E; Jarcho, Johanna M; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Degnan, Kathryn A; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Eric E


    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar or novel contexts and conveys risk for social anxiety disorder. Developmental outcomes associated with this temperament can be influenced by children's caregiving context. The convergence of a child's temperamental disposition and rearing environment is ultimately expressed at both the behavioral and neural levels in emotional and cognitive response patterns to social challenges. The present study used functional neuroimaging to assess the moderating effects of different parenting styles on neural response to peer rejection in two groups of adolescents characterized by their early childhood temperament (M(age) = 17.89 years, N = 39, 17 males, 22 females; 18 with BI; 21 without BI). The moderating effects of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles were examined in three brain regions linked with social anxiety: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), striatum, and amygdala. In youth characterized with BI in childhood, but not in those without BI, diminished responses to peer rejection in vlPFC were associated with higher levels of authoritarian parenting. In contrast, all youth showed decreased caudate response to peer rejection at higher levels of authoritative parenting. These findings indicate that BI in early life relates to greater neurobiological sensitivity to variance in parenting styles, particularly harsh parenting, in late adolescence. These results are discussed in relation to biopsychosocial models of development.

  20. The Revised Behavior Problem Checklist and severely emotionally disturbed adolescents: relationship to intelligence, academic achievement, and sociometric ratings. (United States)

    Hagborg, W J


    This study explored the relationship among the subscales of the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist and intelligence, academic achievement, and sociometric ratings for a sample of 62 severely emotionally disturbed adolescents enrolled in a special school. A relationship of the Attention Problems-Immaturity subscale with intelligence scores and mathematics achievement was found. Four of six subscales were found to be related to peer sociometric ratings of social acceptance, while only one subscale was related to sociometric ratings of peer acceptance of his/her classmates. These findings are discussed within the context of previous research.

  1. Peer influences on moral disengagement in late childhood and early adolescence. (United States)

    Caravita, Simona C S; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Rambaran, J Ashwin; Gini, Gianluca


    Moral disengagement processes are cognitive self-justification processes of transgressive actions that have been hypothesized to be learned and socialized within social contexts. The current study aimed at investigating socialization of moral disengagement by friends in two developmentally different age groups, namely late childhood (age: 9-10 years; n = 133, 42.9% girls) and early adolescence (age: 11-14 years; n = 236, 40.6% girls) over a 1-year period. Specifically, the current study examined whether similarity in moral disengagement between friends was the result of friends' influence or friend selection. Moreover, gender (42% girls), individual bullying behavior, and perceived popularity status were examined as potential moderators of socialization for moral disengagement within friendship networks. Self-report measures were used to assess moral disengagement, sociometric questions and a peer-nomination scale for friendship networks and bullying behavior, respectively. Longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena) was used to study change of moral disengagement in friendship networks during a 1-year interval. In early adolescence, friends were more likely to be similar to each other over time and this was explained only by influence processes and not by selection processes. Gender, bullying, and perceived popularity did not moderate the friends' influence on moral disengagement over time. Results indicate that self-justification processes change over time already in late childhood, but only in early adolescence this change is likely to be dependent upon peers' moral disengagement.

  2. Peer victimization during middle childhood as a lead indicator of internalizing problems and diagnostic outcomes in late adolescence. (United States)

    Schwartz, David; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E


    We examined evidence that peer victimization in middle childhood is a lead indicator of internalizing behavior problems and diagnostic outcomes during adolescence. This research was conducted as part of an ongoing multisite longitudinal investigation. The participants were 388 children (198 boys, 190 girls). Peer victimization was assessed with a peer nomination inventory that was administered when the average age of the participants was approximately 8.5 years. Internalizing problems were assessed using a behavior problem checklist completed by mothers in 9 consecutive years, and a structured clinical interview was administered to the participants in the summer following high school graduation (10-11 years after the victimization assessment). Peer victimization in middle childhood was correlated with internalizing problems on a bivariate basis through the late years of adolescence. Multilevel analyses also revealed associations between peer victimization and increases in internalizing problems over time. In addition, peer victimization had a modest link to unipolar depressive disorders in late adolescence. Victimization in the peer group during middle childhood appears to be a marker of long-term risk for internalizing behavior problems and unipolar depression.

  3. Relationship between Family Characteristics and Aggressive Behaviors of Children and Adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yizhen; SHI Junxia; HUANG Yan; WANG Jun


    In order to identify family factors obviously relevant to aggression, and offer a theoretical foundation for the prevention of aggression, 4010 students from primary and secondary schools in 5 different areas in Hubei province were surveyed. The Child Behavior Checklist "parents' form"(Chinese version) and the four scales of Family Environment Scale were used. A multiple logistic regression was used to identify risk factors of children's and adolescents' aggressive behavior. The results showed that maternal education, paternal occupation, family type, parental child-rearing attitude and patterns, students' interpersonal relationship were significantly associated with the children's and adolescents' aggression. The risk factors of aggression were parental child-rearing patterns, peer relationship, teacher-student relationship, and family conflicts.

  4. Impact of adolescent peer aggression on later educational and employment outcomes in an Australian cohort. (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Thomas, Hannah J; Sly, Peter D; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Norman, Rosana E


    This study used prospective birth cohort data to analyse the relationship between peer aggression at 14 years of age and educational and employment outcomes at 17 years (N = 1091) and 20 years (N = 1003). Participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were divided into mutually exclusive categories of peer aggression. Involvement in peer aggression was reported by 40.2% (10.1% victims; 21.4% perpetrators; 8.7% victim-perpetrators) of participants. Participants involved in any form of peer aggression were less likely to complete secondary school. Perpetrators and victim-perpetrators of peer aggression were more likely to be in the 'No Education, Employment or Training' group at 20 years of age. This association was explained by non-completion of secondary school. These findings demonstrate a robust association between involvement in peer aggression and non-completion of secondary school, which in turn was associated with an increased risk of poor educational and employment outcomes in early adulthood.

  5. Risk Factors Associated with Peer Victimization and Bystander Behaviors among Adolescent Students (United States)

    Huang, Zepeng; Liu, Zhenni; Liu, Xiangxiang; Lv, Laiwen; Zhang, Yan; Ou, Limin; Li, Liping


    Despite the prevalence of the phenomena of peer victimization and bystander behaviors, little data has generated to describe their relationships and risk factors. In this paper, a self-administered survey using a cross-sectional cluster-random sampling method in a sample of 5450 participants (2734 girls and 2716 boys) between 4th and 11th grades was conducted at six schools (two primary schools and four middle schools) located in Shantou, China. Self-reported peer victimization, bystander behaviors and information regarding parents’ risky behaviors and individual behavioral factors were collected. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate risk factors affecting peer victimization and bystander behaviors. The results indicated that urban participants were more likely to become bullying victims but less likely to become passive bystanders. Contrarily, bullying victimization was related to the increasing of passive bystander behaviors. Father drinking and mother smoking as independent factors were risk factors for peer victimization. Participants who were smoking or drinking had a tendency to be involved in both peer victimization and passive bystander behaviors. This study suggested that bystander behaviors, victims’ and parents’ educations play a more important role in peer victimization than previously thought. PMID:27472354

  6. Bullying Predicts Reported Dating Violence and Observed Qualities in Adolescent Dating Relationships. (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A


    The relationship between reported bullying, reported dating violence, and dating relationship quality measured through couple observations was examined. Given past research demonstrating similarity between peer and dating contexts, we expected that bullying would predict negative dating experiences. Participants with dating experience (n = 585; 238 males, M(age) = 15.06) completed self-report assessments of bullying and dating violence perpetration and victimization. One month later, 44 opposite-sex dyads (M(age) = 15.19) participated in behavioral observations. In 10-min sessions, couples were asked to rank and discuss areas of relationship conflict while being video-recorded. Qualities of the relationship were later coded by trained observers. Regression analysis revealed that bullying positively predicted dating violence perpetration and victimization. Self-reported bullying also predicted observations of lower relationship support and higher withdrawal. Age and gender interactions further qualified these findings. The bullying of boys, but not girls, was significantly related to dating violence perpetration. Age interactions showed that bullying was positively predictive of dating violence perpetration and victimization for older, but not younger adolescents. Positive affect was also negatively predicted by bullying, but only for girls. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that adolescents carry forward strategies learned in the peer context to their dating relationships.

  7. Emotional and Behavioral Effects of Romantic Relationships in Chinese Adolescents (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyan; Guo, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Li, Xinying; Duan, Qing; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Xiaojia


    Adolescents' romantic relationships have been associated with higher levels of depression, although their links with externalizing behavioral problems remain unclear. The present study examined the impact of adolescent romantic relationships on depression and externalizing behaviors in a large sample of 10,509 Chinese secondary school students…

  8. Unlikely Optimists, Skeptics, and Believers: Understanding Adolescents' Prospective Relationship Views (United States)

    Halpern-Meekin, Sarah


    Attitudes formed in adolescence create a foundation for family-formation decisions in adulthood. Drawing on qualitative interviews with fifty American adolescents, this article details five relationship-relevant factors that emerge in the teens' discussions of their relationship views. These are personal communication style, divorce acceptance,…

  9. Relationship between physical activity and obesity in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, S.; Teixeira-Pinto, A.; Ribeiro, J. C.


    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relationship between physical activity (PA) and obesity in Portuguese children and adolescents.......The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relationship between physical activity (PA) and obesity in Portuguese children and adolescents....

  10. Adolescent Drinking and Adolescent Stress: A Domain-Specific Relationship in Northern Irish Schoolchildren (United States)

    McKay, Michael Thomas; Cole, Jon C.


    Previous research has suggested an association between heightened levels of stress among adolescents and reduced levels of mental, physical and emotional well-being. This study sought to examine the relationship between 10 domains of adolescent stress and self-reported drinking behaviour. A total of 610 adolescents, aged 12-16 years old, were…

  11. The Mediating Role of Psychological Adjustment between Peer Victimization and Social Adjustment in Adolescence


    Romera, Eva M.; Olga Gómez-Ortiz; Rosario Ortega-Ruiz


    There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychoso...

  12. Peer Attachment: A Meta-Analytic Review of Gender and Age Differences and Associations with Parent Attachment (United States)

    Gorrese, Anna; Ruggieri, Ruggero


    In adolescence, peers represent key actors within individual social network. Given the relevance of peer connections and the growing literature examining them, the purpose of this article was to review, through a meta-analytic approach, studies on adolescent and youth peer relationships within the theoretical framework of attachment. First, we…

  13. Comparing children and adolescents engaged in cyberbullying to matched peers. (United States)

    Twyman, Kimberly; Saylor, Conway; Taylor, Lloyd Adam; Comeaux, Cadie


    Although characteristics of traditional bullying participants have been identified and studied for years, research on cyberbullying is limited. The purpose of this study is to expand the literature on cyberbullying with a particular focus on the relationships among cyberbullying characteristics, typical social activities, and more traditional forms of bullying. The typical activities and experiences with traditional bullying and cyberbullying of 52 children ages 11 to 17 were compared to those of 52 matched controls. Children exposed to cyberbullying, whether as a cyberbully, cybervictim, or both (bully/victim), spent more time on computer-based social activities. Nearly two thirds of cyberbully/victims were also traditional bully/victims. While preliminary, results suggest that efforts to prevent cyberbullying may need to focus on patterns of Internet use, amount and type of social activities, and exposure to traditional bullying as risk factors for engaging in cyberbullying.

  14. A meta-analysis on the relation between peer victimization and adolescent non-suicidal self-injury. (United States)

    van Geel, Mitch; Goemans, Anouk; Vedder, Paul


    Several studies suggest that there are relations between children's or adolescents' self-injurious behaviors and peer victimization. In the current study, a meta-analysis was performed to study the relations between non-suicidal self-injury and peer victimization. Non-suicidal self-injury focuses on self-injurious behaviors without suicidal intent, that result in immediate tissue damage and are not socially sanctioned within one's culture or for display. Using a meta-analysis, effect sizes of existing studies can be statistically summarized, and publication bias and moderators can be analyzed. The databases PsycINFO, MEDLINE, ERIC and ProQuest were searched for relevant articles. Articles were only included if they focused on children or adolescents, if they focused on non-clinical samples, and if they focused on self-injuring behaviors as opposed to thoughts or ideation. We found nine studies with fourteen independent samples and a total of 20,898 adolescents and children reporting on the relation between peer victimization and non-suicidal self-injury. Our analysis showed positive and significant relations between non-suicidal self-injury and peer victimization. Further analyses showed an absence of publication bias. Younger children that were victimized reported significantly more non-suicidal self-injury than older children. By preventing peer victimization we may potentially prevent non-suicidal self-injury in children and adolescents.

  15. Peer Influence and Attraction to Interracial Romantic Relationships


    Lehmiller, Justin J.; Graziano, William G.; VanderDrift, Laura E.


    The present research examined the effect of social influence on White, heterosexual individuals’ attraction to targets of varying races (White vs. Black) in two  college student samples from the United States (one that leaned politically liberal and one that leaned politically conservative). Using a within-subjects experimental design, participants were given artificial peer evaluation data (positive, negative, or none) before providing ratings of attractiveness and dating interest for a seri...

  16. Adaptation and validation of the Spanish version of the Dieting Peer Competitiveness Scale to adolescents of both genders. (United States)

    Pamies-Aubalat, Lidia; Quiles-Marcos, Yolanda; Núñez-Núñez, Rosa M


    This study examined the Dieting Peer Competitiveness Scale; it is an instrument for evaluating this social comparison in young people. This instrumental study has two aims: The objective of the first aim was to present preliminary psychometric data from the Spanish version of the Dieting Peer Competitiveness Scale, including statistical item analysis, research about this instrument's internal structure, and a reliability analysis, from a sample of 1067 secondary school adolescents. The second objective of the study corresponds to confirmatory factor analysis of the scale's internal structure, as well as analysis for evidence of validity from a sample of 1075 adolescents.

  17. Harsh parenting and peer acceptance in Chinese early adolescents: Three child aggression subtypes as mediators and child gender as moderator. (United States)

    Wang, Mingzhong


    This study examined the mediating roles of three types of child aggression in the relation between harsh parenting and Chinese early adolescents' peer acceptance as well as the moderating role of child gender on this indirect relation. 833 children (mean age=13.58, 352 girls) with their parents were recruited as participants from two junior high schools in Shandong Province, People's Republic of China. The results showed that paternal harsh parenting was only associated with boys' aggressive behaviors and maternal harsh parenting was only associated with boys' and girls' verbal aggression. Adolescents' verbal and relational aggressions were negatively associated with their peer acceptance. Verbal aggression was more strongly and negatively associated with girls' peer acceptance. The results imply that in the Chinese cultural context, paternal harsh parenting may compromise boys' peer acceptance through boys' verbal and relational aggression as mediators, whereas maternal harsh parenting may impair children's peer acceptance through children's verbal aggression as a mediator, especially for girls. These results provide a theoretical basis for ameliorating the negative effect of harsh parenting on early adolescents' peer acceptance by reducing their aggressive behaviors, with different strategies between boys and girls.

  18. Socialization of Physical and Social Aggression in Early Adolescents' Peer Groups: High-Status Peers, Individual Status, and Gender (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling


    The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…

  19. Parent-adolescent relationships and its association to adolescents' self-esteem. (United States)

    Yaacob, Mohd Jamil Bin


    Psychoanalysts believed that early mother-child relationships form the prototype of all future relationships and the outcome of adolescents development depends on their ego-strength. Object relations theory believed that intrapsychic process mediates interpersonal interaction to develop a sense of secure self and adolescents must relinquish the internalized other in order to develop a more mature sense of self. Social-relation theory believed that mothers and fathers provide different socialization experiences. Self-esteem depends on the functioning of the whole family in which adolescent is intimately related to the dyadic relationship in a family. There is an association between interparental conflict and adolescent's self-esteem and problem behaviour.

  20. Masculinity in adolescent males' early romantic and sexual heterosexual relationships. (United States)

    Bell, David L; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Ott, Mary A


    There is a need to understand better the complex interrelationship between the adoption of masculinity during adolescence and the development of early romantic and sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to describe features of adolescent masculinity and how it is expressed in the contexts of early to middle adolescent males' romantic and sexual relationships. Thirty-three 14- to 16-year-old males were recruited from an adolescent clinic serving a community with high sexually transmitted infection rates and were asked open-ended questions about their relationships-how they developed, progressed, and ended. Participants described a high degree of relationally oriented beliefs and behaviors related to romantic and sexual relationships, such as a desire for intimacy and trust. The males also described a more limited degree of conventionally masculine beliefs and behaviors. These beliefs and behaviors often coexisted or overlapped. Implications for the clinical care of similar groups of adolescents are described.

  1. School Connectedness and Student-Teacher Relationships: A Comparison of Sexual Minority Youths and Their Peers (United States)

    Joyce, Hilary D.


    Strong connections to school and positive student-teacher relationships offer numerous social, emotional, and academic benefits for youths. Unfortunately, sexual minority youths (SMY) are at risk for disparate school connectedness and student-teacher relationship experiences compared with their peers. Using the National Longitudinal Study of…

  2. The Relationship between Peer Victimization and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptomatology in a Rural Sample (United States)

    Crosby, James W.; Oehler, Judy; Capaccioli, Kristen


    Peer victimization (PV) has been associated with a number of negative psychological sequelae. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between PV and the symptomatology of post-traumatic stress disorder, and no studies to date have examined this relationship in a rural sample. Adapted versions of the SEQ-SR and the TSCC were used to…

  3. The Role of Reactive Aggression in the Link Between Hyperactive-Impulsive Behaviors and Peer Rejection in Adolescents. (United States)

    Evans, Spencer C; Fite, Paula J; Hendrickson, Michelle L; Rubens, Sonia L; Mages, Anna K


    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and aggressive behaviors are both associated with peer rejection, but little is known the nature of this association with respect to the two symptom dimensions of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention and different types of aggression. The present study examines the relations between dimensions of ADHD symptomatology, proactive and reactive aggression, and peer rejection in adolescence. Teacher-reported data were obtained for 200 high school students (grades 9-12; 48% female; predominately Latino). In structural equation modeling path analyses, the indirect effects of reactive aggression accounted for the link between hyperactivity-impulsivity and peer rejection. Within the same model, neither inattention nor proactive aggression were associated with peer rejection. These findings suggest that reactive aggression may be a key mechanism through which hyperactive-impulsive behavior is associated with peer rejection. Future research and intervention efforts should address the role of reactive aggression among youth with ADHD symptomatology.

  4. Do Social Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem Moderate the Relationship between Peer Victimization and Academic Performance? (United States)

    Raskauskas, Juliana; Rubiano, Sherry; Offen, Ilanit; Wayland, Ann Kathleen


    Victimization by peers has been associated with low academic performance and internalizing problems. Still, not all students who experience peer victimization report a reduction in performance. The current study examines the potential protective nature of self-esteem and social self-efficacy in the relationship between peer victimization and…

  5. Media as social influence: racial differences in the effects of peers and media on adolescent alcohol cognitions and consumption. (United States)

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Pomery, Elizabeth A; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Wills, Thomas A; Kingsbury, John; Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen


    Racial differences in the effects of peer and media influence on adolescents' alcohol cognitions and consumption were examined in a large-scale panel study. With regard to peer influence, results from cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the relation between perceived peer drinking and own drinking was significant for both Black and White adolescents, but it was stronger for the White adolescents. With regard to media influence, structural modeling analyses indicated that exposure to drinking in movies was associated with more alcohol consumption 8 months and 16 months later. These effects were mediated by increases in the favorability of the adolescents' drinker prototypes, their willingness to drink, and their tendency to affiliate with friends who were drinking. Multiple group analyses indicated that, once again, the effects (both direct and indirect) were much stronger for White adolescents than for Black adolescents. The results suggest media influence works in a similar manner to social influence and that Whites may be more susceptible to both types of influence.

  6. Relationships with mother, teacher, and peers: unique and joint effects on young children's self-concept. (United States)

    Verschueren, Karine; Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien


    This study tested the unique and joint effects of three significant relationships in young children's social lives, namely their relationships with mother, teacher, and peers, on three dimensions of self-concept (general, academic, and social). A sample of 113 children participated. Mother-child attachment quality was observed in preschool. In first grade, teacher ratings of teacher-child relationship quality, peer ratings of peer acceptance, and child reports of self-concept were administered. The results revealed domain-specific links between social relationships and self-concept dimensions. Specifically, academic self-concept related to teacher-child relationship quality, social self-concept to peer acceptance, and general self-concept to the quality of attachment to mother. Moreover, an indirect effect was revealed of earlier mother-child attachment quality on the academic dimension of self through its effect on current adult-child relationships in school. This way, the study uncovered the pathways through which significant social relationships shape the formation of young children's self-concept.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Kaplan


    Full Text Available Various studies available in the literature on pubertşy. The individual's physical and psychological changes during puberty, as well as changes in the social field are remarkable. During this period, the importance of family relationships with losing a bit more with the relationships with their peers is their strength. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between parental attachment and aggression in adolescents. In the study, risk factors and protective factors between parent attachment and aggressive behavior were examined. Parents marital accord to have friend; close friend and peer group were considered as protective factors. Watching violent movies on Tv and having a disciplinary penalt were identified as risk factors. Also, that empathy was between parent attachment aggression examined as a mediator. That research is carried with randomly selected 1424 (709 females and 715 males adolescents, who are living in Burdur in 2010, going to high school and ranging from 13 and 19. The schools were visited after obtaining necessary permits from the Burdur Directorate Education by the researcher and participation in the study was based on volunteerism. Personal information form, and Aggression Scale (Buss ve Perry, 1992, Parent and Peer Attachment inventory (Armsden ve Greenberg, 1987 and Empathic Tendency Scale (Dökmen, 1988 were applied in the study. For the data analysis, the statistical analysis like Two-way analysis of variance, T-test and Sobel Test were used. When taking a look at analysis findings, it was noticed that adolescents insecurely attached got higher aggression score. It was seen that only the level of emphaty get on with each other between insecure parent attachment and aggression. In the light of literature, the findings of that research were discussed with the other studies’ findings regarding that subject and were interprented. In addition, suggestions relevant to those findings were presented for

  8. Exploring Mexican American adolescent romantic relationship profiles and adjustment. (United States)

    Moosmann, Danyel A V; Roosa, Mark W


    Although Mexican Americans are the largest ethnic minority group in the nation, knowledge is limited regarding this population's adolescent romantic relationships. This study explored whether 12th grade Mexican Americans' (N = 218; 54% female) romantic relationship characteristics, cultural values, and gender created unique latent classes and if so, whether they were linked to adjustment. Latent class analyses suggested three profiles including, relatively speaking, higher, satisfactory, and lower quality romantic relationships. Regression analyses indicated these profiles had distinct associations with adjustment. Specifically, adolescents with higher and satisfactory quality romantic relationships reported greater future family expectations, higher self-esteem, and fewer externalizing symptoms than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Similarly, adolescents with higher quality romantic relationships reported greater academic self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Overall, results suggested higher quality romantic relationships were most optimal for adjustment. Future research directions and implications are discussed.

  9. A Comparison of Quality of Life between Adolescences with Beta Thalassemia Major and their Healthy Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Baraz


    Full Text Available Background The chronic genetic blood disorder, thalassemia, affects Quality of life (QOL negatively. Regarding this, if adolescences with thalassemia are treated well, they will grow into an adult who will have a good potential for participating in society. Objectives: to determine the strongest predictor of QOL, compare QOL between the adolescents with beta-type major and their peers in Abadan city. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study; the population consisted of 65 beta thalassemia major patients and 65  healthy peers with the same ages as the witness group. The data collection tools included SF-36 questionnaire and a questionnaire for demographic information. Data analysis was performed using independent t-test, correlation and linear regression by SPSS-16. Results The results of the study revealed that there is a significant difference (P < 0.05 in the average quality of life between the two groups of the study. On the other hand, the results showed that there was a meaningful relation between different aspects of life quality and family history of thalassemia            (P< 0.05. Also, there was a negative correlation between quality of life and the frequency of blood transfusion per year (P< 0.05. Conclusion Adolescences with beta thalassemia major do not have a desirable quality of life, therefore, this fact shows the necessity of serious reforming in various fields of health care, treatment, family, social and financial support, and rehabilitation that need more attention from health care policymakers.

  10. Indian Adolescents' Cyber Aggression Involvement and Cultural Values: The Moderation of Peer Attachment (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F.; Kamble, Shanmukh V.; Soudi, Shruti P.


    Although research on cyberbullying and cyber aggression is growing, little attention has been given to examinations of these behaviors among adolescents in Asian countries, particularly in India. The present study examined the relationships among cyber aggression involvement and cultural values (i.e. individualism, collectivism), along with peer…

  11. Same-sex attraction, social relationships, psychosocial functioning, and school performance in early adolescence. (United States)

    Bos, Henny M W; Sandfort, Theo G M; de Bruyn, Eddy H; Hakvoort, Esther M


    The authors examined whether 13- to 15-year-old adolescents who experience feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) differ from those without such feelings in the quality of relationships with parents, peers, and class mentors and in psychosocial functioning (health status and school performance). The authors also assessed whether differences in psychosocial functioning resulted from differences in the quality of social relationships. Data were collected from 866 Dutch high school students (mean age 13.61 years) by means of a computer-based questionnaire. Of the participants, 74 (8.5%) reported having feelings of SSA. The participants with SSA rated the quality of their relationships with their fathers and their peers lower than did those without SSA. Participants with SSA also had poorer mental health (higher levels of depression and lower levels of self-esteem) and lower school performance. A mediation analysis revealed that differences in psychosocial functioning resulted from differences in the quality of the same-sex attracted youths' social relationships, especially with fathers and peers.

  12. Family Process and Peer Deviance Influences on Adolescent Aggression: Longitudinal Effects across Early and Middle Adolescence (United States)

    Benson, Mark J.; Buehler, Cheryl


    Beginning in sixth grade at an average age of 11.9 years, 416 adolescents and their parents participated in 4 waves of data collection involving family observations and multiple-reporter assessments. Ecological theory and the process-person-context-time (PPCT) model guided the hypotheses and analyses. Lagged, growth curve models revealed that…

  13. The Sense of School Belonging and Implementation of a Prevention Program: Toward Healthier Interpersonal Relationships Among Early Adolescents. (United States)

    Drolet, Marie; Arcand, Isabelle; Ducharme, Daphne; Leblanc, Raymond


    The purpose of this qualitative study is to pave the way for the establishment of healthy interpersonal relations by facilitating an understanding of the impacts of Lions Quest Skills for Adolescence as perceived by adolescents and teachers who took part in it. Lions Quest has become recognized as an evidence-based program for preventing alcohol and drug use through the development of social skills and the promotion of meaningful engagement in the school community (Lions Clubs International, Overview of Skills for Adolescence 2013). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7th and 8th grade Francophone and Anglophone adolescents from three schools in Eastern Ontario who had participated in Lions Quest. Deductive and inductive analysis of interview transcripts clearly underscored that the positive perceptions of those early adolescents on the quality of their relationships with friends outweigh the negative impression that can be created by peer pressures at this age. It is through such a filter that these adolescents came to appreciate the impact of Lions Quest. Their need to be part of a circle of friends also comes to the fore as a crucial component of a sense of school belonging (Faircloth and Hamm (2005) J Youth Adolesc 34:293-309), highlighting the need to incorporate more of this form of positive social norm into interventions and prevention geared toward early adolescents. The data also underline the complementary importance attributed to having positive relationships with supportive adults.

  14. Can peer education make a difference? Evaluation of a South African adolescent peer education program to promote sexual and reproductive health. (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Mathews, Catherine; Flisher, Alan J


    Peer education is popular both with governments and with young people. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a government-led peer education program on the self-reported sexual health behavior and related psychosocial outcomes of adolescent students in public high schools in the Western Cape of South Africa. Grade 10 students (n = 3934), at 30 public high schools (15 intervention, 15 comparison) were recruited to the study. In the intervention schools, peer educators were recruited and trained to provide information and support to their fellow students. Sexual health behaviors and related psychosocial outcomes of students were measured at baseline and at follow up 18 months later. Comparisons were made between those in the intervention and comparison group schools. We were unable to detect a significant difference in the age of sexual debut, use of condoms at last sex, goal orientation, decision-making or future orientation for students in the intervention group as compared to students in the comparison group. The findings suggest that the peer education program was not effective in reducing the age of sexual debut or condom use. Issues around the implementation of the program suggested that this was sub-optimal. Governments who advocate widespread use of peer education as an approach need to recognise barriers to implementation and ensure ongoing monitoring and evaluation of effectiveness and cost effectiveness.

  15. Parental Involvement in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Patterns and Correlates (United States)

    Kan, Marni L.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.


    This study examined dimensions of mothers' and fathers' involvement in adolescents' romantic relationships when offspring were age 17. Using cluster analysis, parents from 105 White, working and middle class families were classified as positively involved, negatively involved, or autonomy-oriented with respect to their adolescents' romantic…

  16. Family Dynamics, Supportive Relationships, and Educational Resilience During Adolescence (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Elder, Glen H., Jr.


    If problematic relationships with parents are an academic risk factor during adolescence, then nonparental sources of support (e.g., friends, siblings, and teachers) may be arenas of comfort that promote educational resilience in the face of such risk. In a series of structural models using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the…

  17. Alcohol use and abuse in young adulthood : Do self-control and parents' perceptions of friends during adolescence modify peer influence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, F.C.; Reijneveld, Menno


    Aims: To assess the influence of peer alcohol use during adolescence on young adults' alcohol use and abuse, and to assess to what extent parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends and adolescent's self-control modify this influence. Methods: We analyzed data from the first, third, and

  18. The Interactive Effects of Puberty and Peer Victimization on Weight Concerns and Depression Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls (United States)

    Compian, Laura J.; Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris


    Utilizing a cross-sectional design, the authors examined associations between pubertal status, peer victimization, and their interaction in relation to weight concerns and symptoms of depression in a sample of early adolescent girls (N = 261). Multivariate analyses revealed a significant interaction between pubertal status and relational…

  19. The Moderating Effects of Culture on Peer Deviance and Alcohol Use among High-Risk African-American Adolescents (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Jagers, Robert J.; Wilson, Karen D.; Owens, Kristal


    African-American adolescents have lower rates of alcohol consumption than White youth. However, African-American youth suffer disproportionately more adverse social, mental, and physical health outcomes related to alcohol use. Affiliating with negative peers is a risk factor for alcohol initiation and consumption. Cultural variables have shown…

  20. Maternal Psychological Control and Peer Victimization in Early Adolescence: An Application of the Family Relational Schema Model (United States)

    Batanova, Milena D.; Loukas, Alexandra


    Guided by the family relational schema model, the current study examined the direct and indirect contributions of maternal psychological control to subsequent relational and overt peer victimization, via early adolescents' conduct problems, fear of negative evaluation, and depressive symptoms. Participants were 499 10- to 14-year-olds (53% female;…

  1. Observations of Adolescent Peer Group Interactions as a Function of Within- and Between-Group Centrality Status (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Dumas, Tara M.; Mahdy, Jasmine C.; Wolfe, David A.


    Observations of adolescent (n = 258; M age = 15.45) peer group triads (n = 86) were analyzed to identify conversation and interaction styles as a function of within-group and between-group centrality status. Group members' discussions about hypothetical dilemmas were coded for agreements, disagreements, commands, and opinions. Interactions during…

  2. Parent and Peer Predictors of Physical Dating Violence Perpetration in Early Adolescence: Tests of Moderation and Gender Differences (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Sullivan, Terri; Orpinas, Pamela; Simon, Thomas R.


    This study examined parenting and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration during early adolescence and tested moderation among these predictors and gender. Participants were 2,824 ethnically diverse sixth-grade students with a recent boyfriend/girlfriend who was part of a multisite, longitudinal investigation of the development…

  3. Why Do Adolescents Overestimate Their Peers' Smoking Prevalence? Correlates of Prevalence Estimates among California 8th-Grade Students. (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B.; Rohrbach, Louise Ann


    Used data from a statewide sample of 5,870 eighth graders in California to examine the correlates of smoking prevalence estimates. Best friends' smoking accounted for the largest proportion of the variance in prevalence estimates. Smoking by peers may give adolescents the impression that smoking is more normative and prevalent than it actually is.…

  4. Hispanic/Latino Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Influence of Family Structure, Perceived Peer Norms, and Family Members' Alcohol Use (United States)

    Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E.; Xu, Lei; Valente, Thomas W.


    Background: Family structure and value system among Hispanic/Latino population are changing. However, very few studies have examined the combination of the influence of family structure, parental and sibling alcohol use, perceived peer norms about drinking, and alcohol use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Purpose: This study examined the…

  5. By the Book: An Analysis of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Condition Co-Constructing Fictional Narratives with Peers (United States)

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; White, Rachael


    In this discourse analytic study, we examine interactions between adolescents with autism spectrum condition (ASC) and their typically developing (TD) peers during the construction of fictional narratives within a group intervention context. We found participants with ASC contributed fewer narrative-related turns at talk than TD participants. The…

  6. Rejection and acceptance across contexts : parents and peers as risks and buffers for early adolescent psychopathology. the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Omvlee, Annelies; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, René


    In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: n = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls) it was investigated whether the effects of parental and peer acceptance and rejection on psychopathology (externalizing and internalizing problems) remain when taking into account both contexts simultaneously. Moreover

  7. Identity Development as a Buffer of Adolescent Risk Behaviors in the Context of Peer Group Pressure and Control (United States)

    Dumas, Tara M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.


    We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n = 1070; M[subscript age] = 15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of "identity exploration", the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs…

  8. Use of Peer Tutoring, Cooperative Learning, and Collaborative Learning: Implications for Reducing Anti-Social Behavior of Schooling Adolescents (United States)

    Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Obiyo, N.; Obidoa, M.


    The study investigated the use of peer tutoring, cooperative learning, and collaborative learning as strategies to reduce anti-social behavior among schooling adolescents. The study is a descriptive survey study. The area of study was Nsukka education zone in Enugu State of Nigeria. The sample of the study was 200 teachers randomly sampled from…

  9. Resisting Pressure from Peers to Engage in Sexual Behavior: What Communication Strategies Do Early Adolescent Latino Girls Use? (United States)

    Norris, Anne E.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Hutchison, Janet; Campoe, Kristi


    A content analysis of early adolescent X-bar = 12.02 years) Latino girls' (n = 44) responses to open-ended questions embedded in an electronic survey was conducted to explore strategies girls may use to resist peer pressure with respect to sexual behavior. Analysis yielded 341 codable response units, 74% of which were consistent with the REAL…

  10. The unique and interactive contributions of peer victimization and teacher-child relationships to children's school adjustment. (United States)

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Kuntz, Kayla J


    The present study tested whether a close relationship with the teacher would reduce, or a conflictual relationship would amplify, links between peer victimization and school maladjustment. Data on 352 3rd- and 4th-grade children (166 boys; 186 girls) were collected over a two-year period. Teachers provided data on their relationships with students and students' academic performance. Children completed measures assessing peer victimization and school liking. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that at high levels of peer victimization declines in school liking were reduced when student shared a close, low conflict, relationship with their teacher. Furthermore, a combination of peer victimization and poor teacher-child relationship quality predicted trajectories of sustained, low academic performance. These findings highlight the benefits of a close relationship with the teacher for victimized children and the cumulative impact stress within peer- and teacher-relationships can have on students.

  11. Peer Influence and Attraction to Interracial Romantic Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin J. Lehmiller


    Full Text Available The present research examined the effect of social influence on White, heterosexual individuals’ attraction to targets of varying races (White vs. Black in two  college student samples from the United States (one that leaned politically liberal and one that leaned politically conservative. Using a within-subjects experimental design, participants were given artificial peer evaluation data (positive, negative, or none before providing ratings of attractiveness and dating interest for a series of targets. In both samples, positive information was associated with greater levels of attraction and dating interest than negative information, regardless of target race. Within the conservative sample, participants reported greater attraction toward and more dating interest in White targets relative to Black targets, while in the liberal sample, participants’ ratings of targets did not significantly differ from one another. These findings suggest that social influence can affect perceptions of attractiveness even in very different political climates.

  12. Correlates of False Self in Adolescent Romantic Relationships (United States)

    Sippola, Lorrie K.; Buchanan, Carie M.; Kehoe, Sabrina


    The goal of this study was to examine the association between interpersonal competencies in the peer domain and feelings of false self in romantic relationships. Participants included 238 White, middle-class boys and girls (Grades 10 and 11). Students completed self report measures of false self in romantic relationships and interpersonal…

  13. Peer mentorship to promote effective pain management in adolescents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

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    Hayes Loran P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominal pain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain and functioning, children with low expectations of skill-building programs may lack motivation to comply with therapists' recommendations. This study will develop and test a new manualized peer-mentorship program which will provide modeling and reinforcement by peers to other adolescents with chronic pain (the mentored participants. The mentorship program will encourage mentored participants to engage in therapies that promote the learning of pain self-management skills and to support the mentored participants' practice of these skills. The study will examine the feasibility of this intervention for both mentors and mentored participants, and will assess the preliminary effectiveness of this program on mentored participants' pain and functional disability. Methods This protocol will recruit adolescents ages 12-17 with chronic pain and randomly assign them to either peer mentorship or a treatment-as-usual control group. Mentored participants will be matched with peer mentors of similar age (ages 14-18 who have actively participated in various treatment modalities through the UCLA Pediatric Pain Program and have learned to function successfully with a chronic pain disorder. The mentors will present information to mentored participants in a supervised and monitored telephone interaction for 2 months to encourage participation in skill-building programs. The control group will receive usual care but without the mentorship intervention. Mentored and control subjects' pain and functioning will be assessed at 2 months (end of intervention for mentored participants and

  14. Reciprocal Relationships between Teacher Ratings of Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors in Adolescents with Different Levels of Cognitive Abilities. (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J S; Arens, A Katrin; Maïano, Christophe; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Tracey, Danielle; Parker, Philip D; Craven, Rhonda G


    Are internalizing and externalizing behavior problems interrelated via mutually reinforcing relationships (with each behavior leading to increases over time in levels of the other behavior) or mutually suppressing relationships (with each behavior leading to decreases over time in levels of the other behavior)? Past research on the directionality of these relationships has led to ambiguous results, particularly in adolescence. Furthermore, the extent to which prior results will generalize to adolescents with low levels of cognitive abilities remains unknown. This second limit is particularly important, given that these adolescents are known to present higher levels of externalizing and internalizing behaviors than their peers with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities, and that the mechanisms involved in the reciprocal relationships between these two types of behaviors may differ across both populations. This study examines the directionality of the longitudinal relationships between externalizing and internalizing behavior problems as rated by teachers across three measurement waves (corresponding to Grades 8-10) in matched samples of 138 adolescents (34.78 % girls) with low levels of cognitive abilities and 556 adolescents (44.88 % girls) with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities. The results showed that the measurement structure was fully equivalent across time periods and groups of adolescents, revealing high levels of developmental stability in both types of problems, and moderately high levels of cross-sectional associations. Levels of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors were higher among adolescents with low levels of cognitive abilities relative to those with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities. Finally, the predictive analyses revealed negative reciprocal longitudinal relationships (i.e., mutually suppressing relationships) between externalizing and internalizing problems, a result that was replicated within

  15. Adolescents' Conceptions of the Influence of Romantic Relationships on Friendships (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer J.


    Although researchers have investigated how adolescents' friendships affect their romantic relationships, the influence of romantic relationships on friendships is unexamined. As a first step, 9th- (n = 198) and 11th grade students (n = 152) reported on their conceptions of friendship when one friend had a romantic relationship and when neither…

  16. Does This Make Me Look Fat? Peer Crowd and Peer Contributions to Adolescent Girls' Weight Control Behaviors (United States)

    Mackey, Eleanor Race; La Greca, Annette M.


    Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action, this study evaluated a "socialization" model linking girls' peer crowd affiliations (e.g., Jocks, Populars) with their own weight concern, perceived peer weight norms, and weight control behaviors. An alternative "selection" model was also evaluated. Girls (N = 236; M age = 15.95 years) from diverse ethnic…

  17. Peers, stereotypes and health communication through the cultural lens of adolescent Appalachian mothers. (United States)

    Dalton, Elizabeth; Miller, Laura


    The purpose of this study was to understand how young Appalachian mothers retrospectively construct sexual and reproductive health communication events. Sixteen in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with mothers between the ages of 18 and 22 from the South Central Appalachian region of the USA. Findings indicate that within this population, peer influence, stereotypes medical encounters and formal health education are experienced within a culture that exhibits tension between normalising and disparaging adolescent sexuality. Theoretical and applied implications acknowledge the role of Appalachian cultural values, including egalitarianism, traditional gender roles and fatalism, in understanding the social construction of young people's sexuality in this region. Practical implications for sexual education and the nature of communication in the healthcare setting can be applied to current education curricula and medical communication practices. We suggest that future programmes may be more effective if they are adapted to the specific culture within which they are taught.

  18. Chinese children's imaginary companions: Relations with peer relationships and social competence. (United States)

    Lin, Qiyi; Fu, Hong; Wan, Yingjia; Zhou, Nan; Xu, Hui


    We investigated relationships between Chinese children's imaginary companions (ICs) and peer relationships and social competence in 160 children, aged 5-6 years old. Children and their mothers participated in the interviews regarding the details of the children's ICs, including the type of the companion and the quality of the child-IC relationship. Peer relationships were assessed using sociometric nomination and perceived popularity nomination. Teachers rated children's social competence. Here, 55 children (34.3%) were deemed to have engaged in imaginary companion play. There was no relationship between imaginary companion types and child-IC relationship qualities. Children with invisible friends received more positive nominations than children with personified objects. Children with egalitarian relationships received more positive nominations and popularity nominations, but fewer negative nominations and unpopularity nominations than children with hierarchical relationships. Compared with children with hierarchical relationships, teachers rated the children with egalitarian relationships higher in social competence. The results suggest that imaginary companion types and relationship qualities may represent different dimensions of imaginary companions, calling attentions to the different mechanisms underlying imaginary companion types and relationship qualities with respect to social functioning.

  19. Teacher-Student Relationship Quality and Children's Bullying Experiences with Peers: Reflecting on the Mesosystem (United States)

    Bouchard, Karen L.; Smith, J. David


    Drawing from social-ecological systems theory, the authors argue that current research on childhood bullying would benefit from analyses that consider the mesosystem--specifically, how teacher-student relationships can influence children's bullying experiences. The authors provide two theoretical conceptions for how children's peer interactions…

  20. Relationships with Mothers and Peers Moderate the Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Anxiety Disorders (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.


    Objective: The objective of the current study was to assess whether relationships with mothers and peers moderate the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and anxiety disorders. That is, positive and supportive experiences were expected to minimize the effects of CSA whereas nonsupportive experiences were expected to magnify them.…

  1. The Relationship between Teacher and Peer Support and English-Language Learners' Anxiety (United States)

    Huang, Shufen; Eslami, Zohreh; Hu, Rou-Jui Sophia


    This study sought to shed light on the relationship between support (from teachers and peers) and foreign-language learners' anxiety. A total of 158 adult Taiwanese English-language learners completed three questionnaires: a background questionnaire, the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale, and the Classroom Life Measure. The results showed…

  2. Educators' Understandings Of, and Support For, Infant Peer Relationships in Early Childhood Settings (United States)

    Davis, Belinda; Degotardi, Sheila


    This research adopted a qualitative methodology to investigate the reported beliefs and pedagogical practices relating to infant peer relationships held by three early childhood infant educators. Thematic analysis was used to derive commonalties and differences that reflected these educators' views and practices about children's early…

  3. Children's Representations of Family Relationships, Peer Information Processing, and School Adjustment (United States)

    Bascoe, Sonnette M.; Davies, Patrick T.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Cummings, E. Mark


    This study examined children's peer information processing as an explanatory mechanism underlying the association between their insecure representations of interparental and parent-child relationships and school adjustment in a sample of 210 first graders. Consistent with emotional security theory (P. T. Davies & E. M. Cummings, 1994), results…

  4. Identity and Perceived Peer Relationship Quality in Emerging Adulthood: The Mediating Role of Attachment-Related Emotions (United States)

    Doumen, Sarah; Smits, Ilse; Luyckx, Koen; Duriez, Bart; Vanhalst, Janne; Verschueren, Karine; Goossens, Luc


    Identity formation and the perceived quality of one's peer relationships are theorized to be intimately linked in emerging adulthood. The present study examined the associations between identity styles (i.e., information-oriented, normative, and diffuse-avoidant styles) and the quality of relationships with peers (as indexed by friendship quality…

  5. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Oral Communicative Competence and Peer Rejection: An Explorative Study in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    van der Wilt, Femke; van Kruistum, Claudia; van der Veen, Chiel; van Oers, Bert


    This study investigated gender differences in the relationship between oral communicative competence and peer rejection in early childhood education. It was hypothesized that children with poorer oral communicative competence would be rejected by their peers more frequently and that the strength of this relationship would differ for boys and…

  6. Adolescent Filial Piety as a Moderator between Perceived Maternal Control and Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality in Hong Kong (United States)

    Wong, Sin Man; Leung, Angel Nga-Man; McBride-Chang, Catherine


    This study examined the perceived parental styles of maternal warmth and control, as well as adolescent filial piety, in relation to parent-child relationship quality, in 308 Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. The three mother-child relationship qualities measured were perceived maternal support, conflicts, and relationship depth. Adolescents'…

  7. The Relationship Between Immigrant School Composition, Classmate Support and Involvement in Physical Fighting and Bullying among Adolescent Immigrants and Non-immigrants in 11 Countries. (United States)

    Walsh, Sophie D; De Clercq, Bart; Molcho, Michal; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Davison, Colleen M; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Stevens, Gonneke W J M


    Increasing numbers of migrant youth around the world mean growing numbers of heterogeneous school environments in many countries. Contradictory findings regarding the relationship between immigrant school composition (the percentage of immigrant versus non-immigrant students in a school) and adolescent peer violence necessitate further consideration. The current study examined the relationship between immigrant school composition and peer violence, considering classmate support as a potential moderator among 51,636 adolescents (50.1% female) from 11 countries. The findings showed that a higher percentage of immigrant adolescents in a school was related to higher levels of physical fighting and bullying perpetration for both immigrant and non-immigrant adolescents and lower levels of victimization for immigrants. In environments of low classmate support, the positive relationship between immigrant school composition and fighting was stronger for non-immigrants than in environments with high classmate support. In environments of low classmate support, the negative relationship between immigrant school composition and fighting and bullying victimization was stronger for immigrant adolescents than in environments with high classmate support. In general, the contribution of immigrant school composition was modest in comparison to the contribution of classmate support. The findings emphasize that it is not just the number of immigrants in a class per se, but rather the environment in the classroom which influences levels of peer violence. The results highlight a need for school intervention programs encouraging positive relations in schools with immigrant populations.

  8. Going Through the Motions? Development of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Psychosocial Problems during Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen, D.


    Adolescence is a developmental phase that is marked by profound transformations in parent-adolescent relationships and it is a rather sensitive period for the development of psychosocial problems. The purpose of the current dissertation was to understand longitudinal associations between parent-adol

  9. Economic hardship and Mexican-origin adolescents' adjustment: examining adolescents' perceptions of hardship and parent-adolescent relationship quality. (United States)

    Delgado, Melissa Y; Killoren, Sarah E; Updegraff, Kimberly A


    Studies examining economic hardship consistently have linked family economic hardship to adolescent adjustment via parent and family functioning, but limited attention has been given to adolescents' perceptions of these processes. To address this, the authors investigated the intervening effects of adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship and of parent-adolescent warmth and conflict on the associations between parental economic hardship and adolescent adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, risky behaviors, and school performance) in a sample of 246 Mexican-origin families. Findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' reports of economic hardship were positively related to adolescents' reports of economic hardship, which in turn, were negatively related to parent-adolescent warmth and positively related to parent-adolescent conflict with both mothers and fathers. Adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship were indirectly related to (a) depressive symptoms through warmth with mothers and conflict with mothers and fathers, (b) involvement in risky behaviors through conflict with mothers and fathers, and (c) GPA through conflict with fathers. Our findings highlight the importance of adolescents' perceptions of family economic hardship and relationships with mothers and fathers in predicting adolescent adjustment.

  10. Adolescent internet use and its relationship to cigarette smoking and alcohol use: a prospective cohort study. (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Yi, Chin-Chun; Ksobiech, Kate


    The present study aims to investigate the longitudinal impact of situational Internet use on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use among male and female adolescents. A Northern Taiwanese cohort sample of adolescents with no prior use of cigarettes (n=1445) or alcohol (n=1468) was surveyed at age 16 and again 4 years later. Information regarding where, why, and length of time spent using the Internet was gathered from the 16-year-old participants. Outcome information regarding cigarette/alcohol use was gathered via a follow-up questionnaire at age 20. Multivariate regressions were used to incorporate peer, individual and family characteristics as measured at age 16 and create models of future cigarette and alcohol use at age 20. The analyses demonstrated that adolescent Internet use, particularly where such use took place, has a significant impact on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use, adjusted for conventional factors, and its relationship differs significantly by gender. Female adolescents with Internet café use appear to be especially likely to develop these two risky behaviors. The why of Internet use is also a predictor of future cigarette smoking. Finally, time spent using the Internet is significantly related to alcohol use; greater use of the Internet is associated with higher levels of drinking. The results revealed that different risky behaviors are differentially influenced by separate components of adolescent Internet use. These findings suggest that programs aimed at promoting adolescent health could potentially benefit Taiwanese adolescents by including components related to situational Internet use and taking gender into consideration.

  11. Suicide Ideation and Peers Group: Analysis of a Venezuelan Adolescents Sample


    Rodríguez Ramírez, Juan Antonio; Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela. Escuela de Criminología.; Oduber, Jesús Angel; Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela. Escuela de Criminología.


    The goal of this study was to determine a model of relationship in order to predict school-age adolescents suicide ideation. A model based on peers’ suicidal behavior, father and mother’s support, family violence and depression was proposed. A sample of 912 subjects was used. The results through path analysis suggest that teenagers with depression symptoms prefer relating with friends who show suicidal behavior. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar un modelo de relaciones para predec...

  12. Iraqi American refugee youths' exposure to violence: relationship to attitudes and peers' perpetration of dating violence. (United States)

    Black, Beverly M; Chiodo, Lisa M; Weisz, Arlene N; Elias-Lambert, Nada; Kernsmith, Poco D; Yoon, Jina S; Lewandowski, Linda A


    This exploratory study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, home and dating relationships among Iraqi American youth. As Iraqi American youth are traditionally not allowed to date, dating violence measures focused on attitudes about and perceptions of abuse occurring in the relationships of friends. The number of friends known who were secretly dating was the most significant predictor of acceptability of dating violence and perceived prevalence of abuse. Youth who experienced child abuse perceived higher rates of dating violence among their peers. Findings highlight the complexities of prevention and intervention of teen dating violence within secretive relationships.

  13. An evaluation of a Canadian peer-driven injury prevention programme for high-risk adolescents. (United States)

    Tenn, L; Dewis, M E


    The mortality and morbidity resulting from serious trauma in adolescence, particularly head and spinal cord injury, constitutes a health problem of major proportions. Although many community-based prevention programmes have been reported in this last decade, few of these describe an evaluation component. In this study, a school-based prevention programme was developed by a peer group and presented by them to high-risk adolescents. The study aimed to test the efficacy of this intervention compared to the delivery of a prevention presentation to a similar group by a health care professional and compared to a control group. Measures of health locus of control, self-efficacy and behavioural intent were supplemented by open-ended items related to risk-taking behaviour change. At post-test and at 4-month follow-up, there was little evidence in the quantitative measures to support the effectiveness of the intervention for reducing injury risk factors. More encouraging findings were seen in the qualitative data. Explanations for why the intervention did not result in the expected outcomes are offered.

  14. Positive family relationships and religious affiliation as mediators between negative environment and illicit drug symptoms in American Indian adolescents. (United States)

    Yu, Mansoo; Stiffman, Arlene R


    The present study tests how positive family relationships and religious affiliation mediate between negative familial and social environments, and adolescent illicit drug abuse/dependence symptoms. The theoretical framework is based on an integration of two theories: the ecological model of human development (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) and the social development model (Hawkins & Weis, 1985). We used a stratified random sample of 401 American Indian adolescents. A path analysis tested the integrative theoretical model. Findings showed that positive family relationships mediated the negative impact of addicted family members, violence victimization, and negative school environment on illicit drug abuse/dependence symptoms. Religious affiliation mediated the negative effect of deviant peers on positive family relationships. Intervention and prevention efforts may benefit from promoting positive family relationships and religious affiliation to reduce the impact of complex familial and social problems on illicit drug symptoms.

  15. Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: The HELENA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Donne Cinzia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents. Methods The study comprised a total of 2176 adolescents (46.2% male from ten European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using validated 24-h dietary recalls and self-reported questionnaires respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were used to compare the energy and nutrient intake and the food consumption between groups of adolescents with different physical activity levels (1st to 3rd tertile. Results In both sexes no differences were found in energy intake between the levels of physical activity. The most active males showed a higher intake of polysaccharides, protein, water and vitamin C and a lower intake of saccharides compared to less active males. Females with the highest physical activity level consumed more polysaccharides compared to their least active peers. Male and female adolescents with the highest physical activity levels, consumed more fruit and milk products and less cheese compared to the least active adolescents. The most active males showed higher intakes of vegetables and meat, fish, eggs, meat substitutes and vegetarian products compared to the least active ones. The least active males reported the highest consumption of grain products and potatoes. Within the female group, significantly lower intakes of bread and cereal products and spreads were found for those reporting to

  16. Alcohol Use and Popularity: Social Payoffs from Conforming to Peers' Behavior (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I.; Homer, Jenny F.; French, Michael T.; Norton, Edward C.


    Although many economic analyses of adolescents have examined the costs of risky behaviors, few have investigated the gains that young people derive from such actions, particularly in terms of social payoffs for complying with peer behavior. This paper studies the relationship between adolescents' use of alcohol (relative to that of their peers)…

  17. Discrepancies Between Perceptions of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms : An Illustration of Polynomial Regression Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, S A; Branje, S J T; Hale, W W; Goossens, L; Koot, H M; Oldehinkel, A J; Meeus, W H J


    Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their rel

  18. Associations between fifth graders' gender atypical problem behavior and peer relationships: a short-term longitudinal study. (United States)

    Kochel, Karen P; Miller, Cindy Faith; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Ladd, Gary W; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky


    An accruing body of evidence supports associations between self-perceived gender typicality and peer relationship difficulties; however, researchers have yet to evaluate peers' perceptions of problem behaviors to gain insight into the social correlates of gender typicality. A short-term longitudinal study was conducted to evaluate associations between gender atypical problem behavior and subsequent peer relational difficulties for 2,076 fifth graders (M age= 10.27; 53% female). Peer nomination methodology was used to assess participants' classroom peer relationships, problem behaviors, and social-emotional characteristics. Findings showed that youth characterized by gender atypical, compared to gender typical, problem behavior (withdrawn boys/aggressive girls vs. withdrawn girls/aggressive boys, respectively) evidenced higher levels of subsequent peer difficulties; moreover, participation in a mutual friendship was associated with decreased risk for peer relationship maladjustment, particularly among youth characterized by gender atypical problem behavior. Results further revealed that, compared to friendless youth, friended youth earned higher prosocial and peer liking scores and, for withdrawn youth, lower emotional sensitivity scores. The present research contributes to our understanding of the potential short-term consequences of youth's gender atypical problem behavior. Findings underscore the need for supplemental conceptualizations of gender typicality as well as multifaceted interventions designed to promote the acceptance of gender nonnormativity, support the development of adaptive peer relationships, and reduce the occurrence of problem behaviors.

  19. Young Adolescents' Perceptions of Romantic Relationships and Sexual Activity (United States)

    Royer, Heather R.; Keller, Mary L.; Heidrich, Susan M.


    The purpose of this article is to describe young adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationships, ratings of important romantic partner characteristics, and acceptability of sexual activity with romantic relationships. Fifty-seven eighth-grade participants (average age = 13.8 years) from one urban US public middle school completed an anonymous…

  20. Sibling Relationships and Influences in Childhood and Adolescence (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Whiteman, Shawn D.


    The authors review the literature on sibling relationships in childhood and adolescence, starting by tracing themes from foundational research and theory and then focusing on empirical research during the past 2 decades. This literature documents siblings' centrality in family life, sources of variation in sibling relationship qualities, and the…

  1. Perceptions of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship: A Longitudinal Investigation (United States)

    McGue, Matt; Elkins, Irene; Walden, Brent; Iacono, William G.


    A self-report measure of conflict and aspects of warmth in the parent-child relationship was completed by 1,330 11-year-old twins, 1,176 of whom completed the inventory again 3 years later. On average, adolescents' perceptions of the quality of the parent-child relationship declined consistently and moderately between age 11 and age 14. Conflict…

  2. Parent-adolescent relationships, physical disciplinary history, and adjustment in adolescents. (United States)

    DeVet, K A


    Physical discipline occurs within the context of the parent-child relationship, yet it is often not examined within this important context. The current study examined whether negative effects of physical discipline on older adolescent adjustment are mediated by the overall parent-child relationship. The sample consisted of 253, mostly Caucasian, middle-class, adolescent participants (mean age = 18.4, 67% female). Physical punishment history, parent-adolescent relationships, and adjustment were assessed with self-report instruments. For females, relationships with parents partially mediated the association between physical punishment and adjustment. Physical punishment was negatively associated with both adjustment and parent-adolescent relationships. For males, physical punishment was not related to adjustment. Parent-adolescent relationships were positively associated with adjustment for both females and males. Physical punishment by fathers was negatively associated with father-son relationships. The results suggest the importance of exploring links between physical punishment and adjustment within the context of parent-child relationship, as well as examining males, females, mothers, and fathers separately.

  3. Relationship between migraine and sleep disorders in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Waty


    Full Text Available Background Headaches and sleep disorders may influence academic performances, personality, memory, and interpersonal relationships. Migraine is the most common headache type seen in adolescents. Although headaches and sleep disorders are believed to be related, there has been little study in this area. Objectives To assess the relationship between migraine and sleep disorders in adolescents and compare different types of sleep disorders found in adolescents with migraine vs. healthy adolescents. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in December 2009 on students of three junior high schools in the Secanggang District, Langkat Rregency, North Sumatera. We included adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who suffered from migraines, as defined by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition criteria (ICHD-II, and healthy adolescents who did not experience migraines as the control group. Parents filled questionnaires on their child’s sleep patterns for one week. Results A total of 100 adolescents were enrolled in the study, consisted of 50 adolescents in the migraine group and the others 50 in the control group. There was a significant difference in the incidence of sleep disorders between the two groups (76% and 30%, in the case and control groups, respectively; P=0.0001. Moreover, significant differences were also found in the prevalence of different sleeping disorder types between the case and control groups, i.e. insomnia (62% and 30%, respectively; P=0.003, sleep apnea (56% and 16%, respectively; P=0.0001, restlessness (56% and 18%, respectively; P=0.0001, parasomnia (76% and 10%, respectively; P=0.0001, narcolepsy (42% and 16%, respectively; P=0.008, and excessive daytime sleepiness (50% and 26%, respectively; P= 0.023. Conclusions Migraine in adolescents is significantly associated with sleep disorders. Parasomnia is the most common type of sleeping disorder observed in adolescents with migraines in our study

  4. Supportive Romantic Relationships as Predictors of Resilience Against Early Adolescent Maternal Negativity. (United States)

    Szwedo, David E; Hessel, Elenda T; Allen, Joseph P


    Negativity in parent-child relationships during adolescence has been viewed as a risk factor for teens' future personal and interpersonal adjustment. This study examined support from romantic partners and close friends during late adolescence as protective against maternal negativity experienced during early adolescence. A combination of observational, self-report, and peer-report measures were obtained from a community sample of 97 youth (58 % female), their mothers, closest friends, and romantic partners assessed at ages 13, 18, and 20. Moderating effects suggested a protective effect of romantic support against maternal negativity across a variety of psychosocial outcomes, including depressive symptoms, self-worth, social withdrawal, and externalizing behavior. Protective effects were found even after controlling for initial levels of outcome behavior and observed support from close friends throughout adolescence. Receiving support from a romantic partner may provide teens with new, positive ways of coping with adversity and help them avoid more serious distress that may be predicted from maternal negativity when such support is not available.

  5. Adolescents' Internalizing Symptoms as Predictors of the Content of Their Facebook Communication and Responses Received from Peers. (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Underwood, Marion K


    This research examined how adolescents' internalizing symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, and loneliness, relate to the content of their Facebook communication and the responses they receive from peers on Facebook. Participants (n = 125, 56 female, age 18) reported on their internalizing symptoms in the summer following 12(th) grade, and downloaded an application to their Facebook account that stored the content of all of their Facebook communication to secure, online archive. Two months of participants' status updates and comments and peers' comments were coded for content. Relations between internalizing symptoms and Facebook communication differed for girls and boys. For girls, internalizing symptoms predicted several types of Facebook content: negative affect, somatic complaints and eliciting support. In contrast, internalizing symptoms were not related to boys' Facebook posts. Relations between internalizing symptoms and peers' responses on Facebook also differed by gender. For girls, internalizing symptoms positively predicted receiving more peer comments expressing negative affect, and peer responses offering support. For boys, internalizing symptoms did not predict any of the measured peer responses. These findings suggest that girls prone to internalizing symptoms use Facebook in ways that appear similar to co-rumination, by expressing problems to friends and receive possibly reinforcing feedback in return.

  6. Do Deviant Peer Associations Mediate the Contributions of Self-Esteem to Problem Behavior During Early Adolescence? A 2-Year Longitudinal Study (United States)

    DuBois, David L.; Silverthorn, Naida


    We investigated deviant peer associations as a mediator of the influences of general and peer-oriented self-esteem on problem behavior using data from a 2-year longitudinal study of 350 young adolescents. Measures of problem behavior included substance use (alcohol use, smoking) and antisocial behavior (fighting, stealing). Using latent growth…

  7. Lesbian and heterosexual two-parent families: adolescent-parent relationship quality and adolescent well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bos; L. van Gelderen; N. Gartrell


    This study compared 51 adolescents from intact two-mother planned lesbian families (all conceived through donor insemination) with 51 adolescents from intact mother-father families on their relationships with their parents (parental control, disclosure to parents, and adolescent-parent relationship

  8. What Works in Writing with Peer Response? A Review of Intervention Studies with Children and Adolescents (United States)

    Hoogeveen, Mariëtte; van Gelderen, Amos


    Peer response is viewed as an important aspect of writing instruction. Several meta-studies indicated that peer response is effective. However, these studies did not focus on the specific aspects of peer response that made it effective. The present review analyzes the effects of instructional factors accompanying peer response in 26 studies on…

  9. Coping Strategies in Late Adolescence: Relationships to Parental Attachment and Time Perspective. (United States)

    Blomgren, Anna-Sara; Svahn, Kajsa; Åström, Elisabeth; Rönnlund, Michael


    The authors investigated adolescents' use of coping strategies in relation to attachment to parents and time perspective. Adolescents in Grade 3 upper secondary school (M age = 18.3 years, SD = 0.6 years; n = 160) completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and the Brief COPE. Correlational analyses showed that attachment to parents was associated with a more favorable view of the past (higher past positive and lower past negative), a less fatalistic view of the present, and a more favorable view of the future (higher future positive and lower future negative). Parental attachment accounted for significant variance in composite coping scores (adaptive and maladaptive) when entered before, but not after, time perspective subscales in hierarchical regression analyses. However, time perspective (mainly present hedonistic and positive or negative future) predicted adaptive or maladaptive coping over and beyond attachment. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that most of the relationship between adolescents' attachment to parents and coping is mediated by individual differences in time perspective. By contrast, factors other than attachment to parents (e.g., temperament) must be considered to fully account for the relationship between time perspective and coping.

  10. Adolescent Romantic Relationships in China and Canada: A Cross-National Comparison (United States)

    Li, Zhi Hong; Connolly, Jennifer; Jiang, Depeng; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy


    This study compared the romantic involvements of Canadian and Chinese adolescents as well as linkages with friend and parental relationships. Participants were 496 Chinese adolescents and 395 Canadian adolescents, aged 16-17 years. Chinese adolescents were less likely to have any form of romantic involvement, including a romantic relationship,…

  11. Rates of peer victimization in young adolescents with ADHD and associations with internalizing symptoms and self-esteem. (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Mehari, Krista R; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W


    The purposes of the present study were to: (1) describe rates of peer victimization in young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, (2) evaluate the association between types of peer victimization (i.e., physical, relational, and reputational) and internalizing problems (i.e., anxiety, depression, and self-esteem), and (3) examine whether associations between victimization and internalizing problems differ for males or females. Participants were 131 middle-school students (ages 11-15 years, 73 % male, 76 % White) diagnosed with ADHD who completed ratings of victimization, anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Over half of the participants (57 %) reported experiencing at least one victimization behavior at a rate of once per week or more, with higher rates of relational victimization (51 %) than reputational victimization (17 %) or physical victimization (14 %). Males reported experiencing more physical victimization than females, but males and females did not differ in rates of relational or reputational victimization. Whereas relational and physical victimization were both uniquely associated with greater anxiety for both males and females, relational victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem for males but not females. These findings indicate that young adolescents with ADHD frequently experience peer victimization and that the association between victimization and internalizing problems among young adolescents with ADHD differs as a result of victimization type, internalizing domain, and sex.

  12. The relationship between perceived parenting styles and resilience during adolescence. (United States)

    Kritzas, Natasha; Grobler, Adelene Ann


    Objective - The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between perceived parenting styles and resilience in adolescence. Method - The respondents were a sample of 360 English speaking subjects, with a mean age of 17.6 years. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to investigate this relationship. The criterion variables included sense of coherence and problem-focused, emotion-focused and dysfunctional coping strategies. The predictor variables included six scales. Results - Authoritative parenting provided the most significant contribution to the explanation of the variance in resilience for black and white adolescents, and both genders. Surprisingly, the findings suggest that there is a positive relationship between fathers' authoritarian styles and emotion-focused coping strategies in white adolescent learners. In contrast, other researchers found that authoritarian and harsh parental styles are closely related to psychological disturbance. Conclusions - The identified relationships between the criterion and predictor variables found in this study for both black and white adolescents of both genders have distinct and far-reaching implications for envisaged interventions. A future study might also investigate the present study qualitatively. Further research will be necessary to enhance and develop appropriate parenting styles that facilitate resilience in adolescent children. Making use of more sophisticated methodologies, paying greater attention to the interaction between internal and external circumstances and refining theories to make specific predictions about how input variables influence components, should be considered in future.

  13. The Importance of Relationships with Parents and Best Friends for Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Quality: Differences between Indigenous and Ethnic Dutch Adolescents (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Overbeek, Geertjan; de Greef, Marieke; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.


    This study examined how the quality of relationships with parents and friends were related to intimacy, commitment, and passion in adolescents' romantic relationships for indigenous Dutch and ethnic Dutch adolescents. Self-report survey data were used from 444 (88.9%) indigenous Dutch and 55 (11.1%) ethnic Dutch adolescents between 12 and 18 years…

  14. The Effect Social Information Processing in Six-Year-Old Children Has on Their Social Competence and Peer Relationships (United States)

    Ogelman, Hulya Gulay; Seven, Serdal


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect social information processing levels has on the social competence (entering a peer group, response towards provocation, response to failure, response to success, social expectations, teacher expectations, reactive aggression, proactive aggression) and peer relationship (prosocial behaviour,…

  15. Satisfaction in Romantic Relationship among Adolescents: Inputs to Guidance Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Romantic relationship among adolescents are common everywhere however not all of us are true natural born, hopeful romantics. Yet there are those who struggle with the whole concept. It is not because they don’t want to enjoy it with their partner but has more to do with their never having understood it. No relationships-themed resource would be complete without some helpful insights regarding the subject of romance. This study was conducted to discover whether or not there is an association between the profile and involvement in a romantic relationship among adolescent. It also outlined the timing of romantic attachment formation and its implications for relationship stability. Fifty high school students attending Batangas National High School were surveyed. Approximately one hundred percent of those surveyed were involved in a relationship. Results showed that adolescents are generally satisfied with their romantic relationships. The respondents are already confident in establishing romantic relationship. The relationship between the length of the romantic relationship and the level of satisfaction was found to be positive

  16. Racially and ethnically diverse schools and adolescent romantic relationships. (United States)

    Strully, Kate


    Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to "work around" opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships or work around constraints from other groups' preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school.

  17. The ABC's of teaching social skills to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder in the classroom: the UCLA PEERS (®) Program. (United States)

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A; Ellingsen, Ruth; Sanderson, Jennifer; Tucci, Lara; Bates, Shannon


    Social skills training is a common treatment method for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet very few evidence-based interventions exist to improve social skills for high-functioning adolescents on the spectrum, and even fewer studies have examined the effectiveness of teaching social skills in the classroom. This study examines change in social functioning for adolescents with high-functioning ASD following the implementation of a school-based, teacher-facilitated social skills intervention known as Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS (®) ). Seventy-three middle school students with ASD along with their parents and teachers participated in the study. Participants were assigned to the PEERS (®) treatment condition or an alternative social skills curriculum. Instruction was provided daily by classroom teachers and teacher aides for 14-weeks. Results reveal that in comparison to an active treatment control group, participants in the PEERS (®) treatment group significantly improved in social functioning in the areas of teacher-reported social responsiveness, social communication, social motivation, social awareness, and decreased autistic mannerisms, with a trend toward improved social cognition on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Adolescent self-reports indicate significant improvement in social skills knowledge and frequency of hosted and invited get-togethers with friends, and parent-reports suggest a decrease in teen social anxiety on the Social Anxiety Scale at a trend level. This research represents one of the few teacher-facilitated treatment intervention studies demonstrating effectiveness in improving the social skills of adolescents with ASD in the classroom: arguably the most natural social setting of all.

  18. Peers, parents and phones”—Swedish adolescents and health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunvor Gard


    Full Text Available Many unhealthy behaviors are created during adolescence and follow the individual into adulthood. In addition, health behaviors often occur in clusters as those who are inactive are more likely to eat unhealthy food and smoke. This makes the early foundation of healthy behaviors vital. The aim was to describe and develop an understanding of adolescents’ awareness and experiences concerning health promotion. Data was collected using focus groups with a total of 28 seventh graders and was analysed with latent qualitative content analysis. One main theme was identified; being competent, ambivalent and creative at the same time. The following three subthemes also emerged: being a digital native for better and for worse, knowing what is healthy, and sometimes doing it, and considering change and having ideas of how change could be supported. The main theme elucidates how the majority of students were informed and able but they did not always prioritize their health. The concept of health promotion relies upon the engagement of the individual; however, although the students had clear ideas about how they would like to change their own behaviors, they felt a need for support. Interestingly, the students were able to make several suggestions about the kind of support that would make a difference to their adoption to more healthy modes of living. They suggested information and communication technology (ICT, for example encouraging text messages (SMS, and social support, for example parents setting rules and peers inspiring them to adhere to a healthy behavior. The knowledge gained from this study echoes our view of inclusion and this could be helpful for those who encounter the challenge of promoting health among adolescents.

  19. Structure Matters: The Role of Clique Hierarchy in the Relationship Between Adolescent Social Status and Aggression and Prosociality. (United States)

    Pattiselanno, Kim; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian; Vollebergh, Wilma; Veenstra, René


    Peer cliques form an important context for the social development of adolescents. Although clique members are often similar in social status, also within cliques, status differences exist. How differences in social status between clique members are related to behaviors of its individual members is rather unknown. This study examined to what extent the relationship of individual social status (i.e., perceived popularity) with aggression and prosocial behavior depends on the level of internal clique hierarchy. The sample consists of 2674 adolescents (49.8% boys), with a mean age of 14.02. We focused specifically on physical and relational aggression, and practical and emotional support, because these behaviors have shown to be of great importance for social relationships and social standing among adolescents. The internal status hierarchy of cliques was based on the variation in individual social status between clique members (i.e., clique hierarchization) and the structure of status scores within a clique (pyramid shape, inverted pyramid, or equal distribution of social status scores) (i.e., clique status structure). The results showed that differences in aggressive and prosocial behaviors were particularly moderated by clique status structure: aggression was stronger related to individual social status in (girls') cliques where the clique status structure reflected an inverted pyramid with relatively more high status adolescents within the clique than low status peers, and prosocial behavior showed a significant relationship with individual social status, again predominantly in inverted pyramid structured (boys' and girls') cliques. Furthermore, these effects differed by types of gender cliques: the associations were found in same gender but not mixed-gender cliques. The findings stress the importance of taking into account internal clique characteristics when studying adolescent social status in relationship to aggression and prosociality.




  1. Normative Beliefs and Self-Efficacy for Nonviolence as Moderators of Peer, School, and Parental Risk Factors for Aggression in Early Adolescence (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D.; Henry, David B.; Schoeny, Michael E.; Bettencourt, Amie; Tolan, Patrick H.


    This study examined the direct effects of beliefs about aggression and nonviolence on physical aggression and their role as protective factors that buffer adolescents from key risk factors in the peer, school, and parenting domains. Multilevel analyses were conducted on data from 5,581 adolescents representing two cohorts from 37 schools in four…

  2. Adolescents with Intellectual Disability Have Reduced Postural Balance and Muscle Performance in Trunk and Lower Limbs Compared to Peers without Intellectual Disability (United States)

    Blomqvist, Sven; Olsson, Josefine; Wallin, Louise; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Borje


    For adolescent people with ID, falls are more common compared to peers without ID. However, postural balance among this group is not thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to compare balance and muscle performance among adolescents aged between 16 and 20 years with a mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID) to age-matched…

  3. The Effectiveness of the Life Skills Program IPSY for the Prevention of Adolescent Tobacco Use: The Mediating Role of Yielding to Peer Pressure (United States)

    Weichold, Karina; Tomasik, Martin J.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Spaeth, Michael


    In this study, the effectiveness of a life skills program to impede tobacco use in early adolescence was scrutinized. The focus was on the mediating role of yielding to peer pressure. The universal school-based life skills program IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection) against adolescent substance use was implemented over 3…

  4. Don’t tell me what I should do, but what others do: The influence of descriptive and injunctive peer norms on fruit consumption in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Vet, de E.; Wit, J.B.F.


    OBJECTIVES: While healthy eating patterns are of high importance in adolescence, most adolescents portray quite unhealthy eating behaviour. One reason for this may be that social norms among peers tend to be unsupportive of healthy eating. The current study investigates whether communicating health-

  5. Intimate violence in adolescent relationships: recognizing and intervening. (United States)

    Seimer, Belinda S


    Women in the United States are more likely to be assaulted, injured, raped, or killed by an intimate partner or ex-partner than by any other perpetrator. Adolescents who are exposed to violence in their family of origin are at risk for violence in their own future relationships. This article provides an overview of the subject of intimate violence in adolescent relationships. The author suggests that it is critical for providers to advocate for patients by routinely inquiring about intimate violence at each healthcare visit and assisting the patient to resolution.

  6. The relationship between fantasy proneness and schizotypy in adolescents. (United States)

    Sánchez-Bernardos, María Luisa; Avia, María Dolores


    Previous research has found substantial relationships between fantasy proneness and schizotypy in adulthood. The aim of the present study is to examine the connections between these constructs in an adolescent sample. A sample of 511 adolescents filled out a measure of fantasy proneness and a measure of psychotic-like phenomena. The factorial pattern for schizotypal traits in adolescents replicate the earlier documented three-factor structure. Also, the full range of schizotypal features was found to be related to imaginative tendencies tapped by fantasy proneness. Finally, joint analysis of fantasy and schizotypy showed that, in adolescents, fantasy converges with magical ideation and the cognitive-perceptual dimension of schizotypy, but diverges from the interpersonal aspects of schizotypy.

  7. Peer Attachment and Youth Internalizing Problems: A Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Gorrese, Anna


    Background: Peer relationships become the central arena in which attachment processes are likely to play out during adolescence and beyond, and contribute to various aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Objective: Given the relevance of peer connections and the growing literature examining them, the purpose of this article was to review, through a…

  8. Family relationships and the development of social competence in adolescence. (United States)

    Brennan, J L


    Resilient adolescents are notable for their social competence, which enables them to form and maintain close relationships. The evidence is that adolescents' social competence is derived from their experience of close relationships within their family. On the basis of structured interviews, adolescents' working models of attachments can be categorized into secure, dismissive, or pre-occupied. These attachment styles are associated with very divergent beliefs about the self and others, with differing patterns of emotion regulation and with differing risk profiles for maladjustment. Parenting styles and family relationships appear to have considerable influence on attachment behaviour. Further evidence for the importance of the family comes from research on ego development. Family level behavioural patterns have been discerned from family research interviews which are associated with stagnation or advancement in ego development during adolescence. Though the results suggest causal connections, the direction of effects is far from clear. Longitudinal research underpins the importance of childhood temperament as a contributing factor to the quality of the family environment that the child and then adolescent experiences.

  9. The impact of training adolescent EFL learners on their perceptions of peer assessment of writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Meletiadou


    Full Text Available Peer assessment (PA has been increasingly used as an alternative method of engaging learners in the development of their own learning. However, very little research has been conducted in the Cypriot and Greek educational systems. This paper describes part of a research project conducted in a Cypriot State EFL Institute. Forty adolescent ‘English as a Foreign Language (EFL’ students were involved in PA of writing in an attempt to improve their writing performance and attitudes towards the assessment of writing. Learners received training since they had no PA experience prior to the study. The students’ attitudes were canvassed both prior to the PA training and at the end of it by means of a PA questionnaire. The findings showed that students’ response to PA was: (a negative before the training, and b positive after the training. This study concludes that PA is an innovative method and students have to be given time, training and support to adapt to it, in order to perform to the best of their ability and exploit its full potential.

  10. Feminist attitudes and mother-daughter relationships in adolescence. (United States)

    Notar, M; McDaniel, S A


    In spite of the growing amount of research on women's issues, there are few empirical studies of mother-daughter relationships, and almost none on the effects of the major women's movement of our times on relationships between mothers and daughters. In this study of late adolescent daughters' perceptions of their relationships with their mothers, two alternative hypotheses are examined: (1) feminism, with its emphasis on bonding among women, strengthens relations between adolescent daughters and their mothers, or (2) feminism as a force of social change, both attitudinal and behavioral, weakens the adolescent daughter-mother relationship. Based on 102 questionnaires completed by university-age women in the winter of 1983, it was found that the majority of daughters who have a good relationship with their mothers see both themselves and their mothers as feminist. However, these daughters do not attribute their positive mother-daughter relationship explicitly to feminism. For the minority of daughters who claim to have a poor relationship with their mothers, they attribute the problems to feminism.

  11. Early Childhood Predictors of Mothers' and Fathers' Relationships with Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities (United States)

    Mitchell, D. B.; Hauser-Cram, P.


    Background: The importance of positive parent-adolescent relationships is stressed in research on adolescents, although very little is known about this relationship when a teen has developmental disabilities (DD). We investigated the relationships of adolescents with disabilities with their mothers and their fathers in order to answer a number of…

  12. Violence in Young Adolescents' Relationships: A Path Model (United States)

    Josephson, Wendy L.; Proulx, Jocelyn B.


    A structural equation model based on social cognitive theory was used to predict relationship violence from young adolescents' knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes, and alternative conflict strategies (n = 143 male and 147 female grade 7-9 students). A direct causal effect was supported for violence-tolerant attitudes and psychologically aggressive…

  13. The Impact of Relationship Education on Adolescents of Diverse Backgrounds (United States)

    Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Schramm, David G.; Higginbotham, Brian; Paulk, Amber


    Adolescent-focused marriage education is a relatively uncharted research area. Using a quasi-experimental design, this study examined the effectiveness of an adapted version of the curriculum entitled, "Love U2: Increasing Your Relationship Smarts" with an economically, geographically, and racially diverse sample of 340 high school students.…

  14. Bridges and Barriers: Adolescent Perceptions of Student-Teacher Relationships (United States)

    McHugh, Rebecca Munnell; Horner, Christy Galletta; Colditz, Jason B.; Wallace, Tanner LeBaron


    In urban secondary schools where underpreparation and dropping out are real world concerns, students understand that their relationships with teachers affect their learning. Using descriptive coding and thematic analysis of focus group data, we explore adolescents' perceptions of the "bridges" that foster and the "barriers"…

  15. Reading Relationships: Parents, Adolescents, and Popular Fiction by Stephen King. (United States)

    Chandler, Kelly


    Describes a collective case study of 12 high school juniors who identified themselves as avid readers of popular fiction. Finds strong reading relationships between parents and high school students. Describes the different roles that parents played in their adolescent children's reading lives. Looks at implications for secondary English classrooms…

  16. Processes through which adolescents believe romantic relationships influence friendship quality. (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer J


    Little is known about how romantic relationships influence adolescents' friendships. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify behaviors through which adolescents believe romantic relationships influence friendship quality. Intimate exchange, co-rumination, encouragement, and conflict resolution were identified as processes through which romantic relationships influence friendship quality. Associations between these variables and friendship quality were investigated with 340 adolescents. Adolescents believed these processes occurred frequently within friendship. Gender differences suggest girls may be more sensitive to the influence of romantic partners on their friendships than are boys. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that greater intimacy, encouragement, compromise, and less co-rumination were associated with more positive beliefs about friendship quality when one friend has a girlfriend or boyfriend. Greater co-rumination and less encouragement were predictive of negative friendship quality. Thus, these processes may represent avenues through which romantic relationships positively and negatively influence friendship quality. Findings highlight the need to understand friendships as part of a complex social network that includes romantic ties.

  17. Violent peer influence: The roles of self-esteem and psychopathic traits. (United States)

    Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Van Zalk, Nejra


    Evidence for the risks of psychopathic personality traits for adolescent antisocial behavior are well documented in the literature. Little is known, however, about who the peers of adolescents with these traits are and to what extent they influence one another. In the current study, three dimensions of psychopathic traits were distinguished: grandiose-manipulative traits, callous-unemotional traits, and impulsive-irresponsible traits. A dynamic social network approach was used with three waves of longitudinal data from 1,772 adolescents (51.1% girls, M age = 13.03 at first measurement). Results showed that adolescents with grandiose-manipulative and callous-unemotional traits formed peer relationships with adolescents who had low self-esteem. Furthermore, peers' violence predicted stronger increases in violence for adolescents with low self-esteem than for other adolescents, and peers' violence predicted stronger increases in adolescent violence for peers with high psychopathic traits than for other peers. Thus, findings indicate that adolescents with low self-esteem are vulnerable to deviant peer influence from peers with psychopathic traits.

  18. Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review



    Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative ho...

  19. Experiences of Being Ignored by Peers during Late Adolescence: Linkages to Psychological Maladjustment (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Adams, Ryan E.; Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Gilman, Rich


    In this study on being ignored by peers, 934 twelfth-grade students reported on their experiences of being ignored, victimized, and socially withdrawn, and completed measures of friendship and psychological adjustment (depression, self-esteem, and global satisfaction). Peer nominations of being ignored, victimized, and accepted by peers were also…

  20. Can Socially Adept Friends Protect Peer-Victimized Early Adolescents against Lower Academic Competence? (United States)

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.


    The present study examined indices of friends' social adjustment (prosocial skills and social anxiety) that may protect against or exacerbate vulnerability to lower academic competence in the context of peer victimization during middle school (N=320). Peer victimization was assessed with peer nominations, social anxiety was measured with self…

  1. Relationship between body composition and blood pressure in Bahraini adolescents. (United States)

    Al-Sendi, Aneesa M; Shetty, Prakash; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Myatt, Mark


    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition and blood pressure (BP) in Bahraini adolescents. A sample of 504 Bahraini schoolchildren aged 12-17 years (249 boys and 255 girls) was selected using a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure. BP measurements were performed on the students. Anthropometric data including weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and triceps, subscapular and medial calf skinfold thicknesses were also collected. BMI, percentage body fat, waist:hip (WHR), and subscapular:triceps skinfold ratio were calculated. Mean systolic BP and mean diastolic BP were higher in males than in females. Weight and height in boys and weight only in girls were significantly associated with systolic BP independent of age or percentage fat. Nearly 14 % of the adolescents were classified as having high BP. BMI and percentage body fat were significantly and positively associated with the risk of having high BP in the boys and girls. Adolescents with high WHR or WC, as indicators for central obesity, tended to have higher BP values. The results from the present study indicate that obesity influences the BP of Bahraini adolescents and that simple anthropometric measurements such as WHR and WC are useful in identifying children at risk of developing high BP. These findings together with the known tracking of BP from adolescence into adulthood underline the importance of establishing intervention programmes in order to prevent the development of childhood and adolescent obesity.

  2. Father-child separation, retrospective and current views of attachment relationship with father, and self-esteem in late adolescence. (United States)

    McCormick, C B; Kennedy, J H


    Relationships between paternal separation in childhood and adult measures of self-esteem, paternal acceptance and independence-encouragement were investigated with 236 nonparent college students as subjects. Current relationship with father was measured by a modified version of Epstein's Mother-Father-Peer Scale. Self-esteem was measured by Coopersmith's Self-esteem Inventory. Individuals who experienced separation for all reasons from their fathers during childhood recounted less acceptance by their fathers in late adolescence but not less independence-encouragement. Individuals whose parents had divorced (whether or not they had experienced a significant separation) reported lower acceptance by their fathers in both childhood and in late adolescence, and they attained lower scores on self-esteem.

  3. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia Moderates the Relation between Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Adolescents' Social Adjustment. (United States)

    Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, Wim; de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; van Lier, Pol; Branje, Susan


    This 2-wave longitudinal study aimed (1) to investigate whether high resting RSA predicted adolescents' lower externalizing behavior and higher empathic concern, and (2) to address the potential moderating role of resting RSA in the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents' externalizing behavior and empathic concern. In a sample of 379 adolescents (212 boys, 167 girls), resting RSA was assessed during a laboratory session, and adolescents reported on parental support, negative interaction with parents, empathic concern and externalizing behavior during a home visit. We found no support for high resting RSA predicting low externalizing behavior or high empathic concern. However, in line with our hypotheses, we did find several instances of RSA functioning as a moderator, although the interaction patterns varied. First, negative interaction with parents was a negative predictor of externalizing behavior for girls low in resting RSA, whereas the association was non-significant for girls with high RSA. Second, higher negative interaction with parents predicted lower empathic concern for boys high in resting RSA, whereas the association was reversed for boys with low resting RSA. Third, parental support was a positive predictor of empathic concern for girls high in resting RSA, whereas the association was non-significant for girls low in resting RSA. The findings suggest that adolescents with different levels of resting RSA respond differentially to relationship quality with parents.

  4. Development of leadership self-efficacy and collective efficacy: adolescent girls across castes as peer educators in Nepal. (United States)

    Posner, J; Kayastha, P; Davis, D; Limoges, J; O'Donnell, C; Yue, K


    Adolescent girls in Nepal face enormous social barriers to accessing education and health services due to exclusionary socio-religious traditions and years of conflict. The programme and study reported here address two issues that a national assembly of in-school and out-of-school adolescent girls, who had completed a basic life skills class, and, in the case of unschooled girls, an intensive literacy course, identified as important to their well-being - menstrual restrictions and HIV awareness and prevention. Local non-governmental organizations developed a peer education programme in three districts of Nepal that paired girls from different castes and different educational levels. The programme sought to increase peer educators' (PE) leadership and collective efficacy for informing peers and adults in their communities about the effects that these issues have on women and girls. In total, 504 girls were selected and trained as PEs. They conducted targeted discussion sessions with other girls and organised mass awareness events, reaching 20,000 people. Examination of the effects of participating in the programme on key outcome measures showed that leadership self-efficacy, which was a central theoretical construct for the programme, provided a strong predictor of both increased HIV knowledge and of practicing fewer menstrual restrictions at endline. The project demonstrated that girls from different caste and educational backgrounds are able to work together to change individual behaviour and to address socio-cultural norms that affect their lives and well-being within their communities.

  5. Discrepancies Between Perceptions of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: An Illustration of Polynomial Regression Analysis. (United States)

    Nelemans, S A; Branje, S J T; Hale, W W; Goossens, L; Koot, H M; Oldehinkel, A J; Meeus, W H J


    Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their relationship may be particularly important to consider. In the present study, we therefore examined how discrepancies in parents' and adolescents' perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship were associated with early adolescent depressive symptoms, both concurrently and longitudinally over a 1-year period. Our sample consisted of 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys, M age = 13.03 years), residing in the western and central regions of the Netherlands, and their mothers and fathers, who all completed several questionnaires on two occasions with a 1-year interval. Adolescents reported on depressive symptoms and all informants reported on levels of negative interaction in the parent-adolescent relationship. Results from polynomial regression analyses including interaction terms between informants' perceptions, which have recently been proposed as more valid tests of hypotheses involving informant discrepancies than difference scores, suggested the highest adolescent depressive symptoms when both the mother and the adolescent reported high negative interaction, and when the adolescent reported high but the father reported low negative interaction. This pattern of findings underscores the need for a more sophisticated methodology such as polynomial regression analysis including tests of moderation, rather than the use of difference scores, which can adequately address both congruence and discrepancies in perceptions of adolescents and mothers/fathers of the parent-adolescent relationship in detail. Such an analysis can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of risk factors for early adolescent depressive symptoms.

  6. Longitudinal Associations between Perceived Parent-Adolescent Attachment Relationship Quality and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Adolescence (United States)

    van Eijck, Fenna E. A. M.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Hale, William W., III; Meeus, Wim H. J.


    This longitudinal study examined the direction of effects between adolescents' generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms and perceived parent-adolescent attachment relationship quality, as well as the moderating role of gender and age. 1,313 Dutch adolescents (48.5% boys) from two age cohorts of early (n = 923, M[subscript age] = 12 at W1) and…

  7. Familism as a Predictor of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Developmental Outcomes for Adolescents in Armenian American Immigrant Families (United States)

    Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Supple, Andrew J.; Plunkett, Scott W.


    We investigated associations between familism, parent-adolescent relationships, and developmental outcomes for a sample of 97 Armenian adolescents in immigrant families. Our results suggested that adolescents emphasizing family needs over their own were more likely to report conformity to parents' wishes, respect for parental authority, and…

  8. Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality as a Moderator for the Influences of Parents' Religiousness on Adolescents' Religiousness and Adjustment (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S.; McCullough, Michael E.


    Prior investigations have demonstrated that parents' religiousness is related inversely to adolescent maladjustment. However, research remains unclear about whether the link between parents' religiousness and adolescent adjustment outcomes--either directly or indirectly via adolescents' own religiousness--varies depending on relationship context…

  9. Dysfunctional Relationship Beliefs in Parent-Late Adolescent Relationship and Conflict Resolution Behaviors (United States)

    Hamamci, Zeynep


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of dysfunctional relationships beliefs on both the perceptions of their relationships with the parents and conflict resolution behaviors of late adolescence. The sample was consisted of 372 Turkish university students (248 women and 124 men). Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale,…

  10. Media as a "Super Peer": How Adolescents Interpret Media Messages Predicts Their Perception of Alcohol and Tobacco Use Norms. (United States)

    Elmore, Kristen C; Scull, Tracy M; Kupersmidt, Janis B


    Adolescents' media environment offers information about who uses substances and what happens as a result-how youth interpret these messages likely determines their impact on normative beliefs about alcohol and tobacco use. The Message Interpretation Processing (MIP) theory predicts that substance use norms are influenced by cognitions associated with the interpretation of media messages. This cross-sectional study examined whether high school adolescents' (n = 817, 48 % female, 64 % white) media-related cognitions (i.e., similarity, realism, desirability, identification) were related to their perceptions of substance use norms. Results revealed that adolescents' media-related cognitions explained a significant amount of variance in perceived social approval for and estimated prevalence of peer alcohol and tobacco use, above and beyond previous use and demographic covariates. Compared to prevalence norms, social approval norms were more closely related to adolescents' media-related cognitions. Results suggest that critical thinking about media messages can inhibit normative perceptions that are likely to increase adolescents' interest in alcohol and tobacco use.

  11. [Visually-impaired adolescents' interpersonal relationships at school]. (United States)

    Bezerra, Camilla Pontes; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag


    This study describes the school environment and how interpersonal relationships are conducted in view of the needs of visually handicapped adolescents. Data were collected through observations of the physical environment of two schools in Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil, with the support of a checklist, in order to analyze the existence of obstacles. Four visually handicapped adolescents from 14 to 20 years of age were interviewed. Conclusions were that the obstacles that hamper the free locomotion, communication, and physical and social interaction of the blind--or people with other eye disorders--during their activities at school are numerous.

  12. Mentoring Relationships and Adolescent Self-Esteem (United States)

    Schwartz, Sarah E. O.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Rhodes, Jean E.


    An estimated three million American youth are in formal, one-to-one mentoring relationships, and countless more have meaningful, natural mentoring relationships with extended family members, teachers, neighbors, coaches and other caring, non-parental adults. The empirical literature generally indicates that close and enduring mentoring…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Velásquez


    Full Text Available This study assessed the moderating effect of social problem-solving (SPS in the association between risk factors and peer victimization in a sample of Colombian adolescents. Using structural equation modeling techniques, this study assessed the extent to which changes in victimization varied as a function of the interaction between risk factors and social problem-solving. Results showed that both aggression and avoidance were predictive of initial scores on victimization, but only avoidance was found to predict its change over time. Only a main effect of SPS was found at the beginning of the year; no moderating effects were found. Results are consistent with previous findings by confirming that avoidance and aggression are risk factors for peer victimization.

  14. From kids, through kids, to kids: examining the social influence strategies used by adolescents to promote prevention among peers. (United States)

    Krieger, Janice L; Coveleski, Samantha; Hecht, Michael L; Miller-Day, Michelle; Graham, John W; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Kootsikas, Allison


    Recent technological advances have increased the interest and ability of lay audiences to create messages; however, the feasibility of incorporating lay multimedia messages into health campaigns has seldom been examined. Drawing on the principle of cultural grounding and narrative engagement theory, this article seeks to examine what types of messages adolescents believe are most effective in persuading their peers to resist substance use and to provide empirical data on the extent to which audience-generated intervention messages are consistent with the associated campaign philosophy and branding. Data for the current study are prevention messages created by students as part of a four-lesson substance use prevention "booster" program delivered to eighth-grade students in 20 rural schools in Pennsylvania and Ohio during 2010-2011. Content analysis results indicate that didactic message strategies were more common in audience-generated messages than narrative strategies, although strategy was somewhat dependent on the medium used. Two of the most common strategies that adolescents used to persuade peers not to use substances were negative consequences and identity appeals, and messages varied in the degree to which they were consistent with the theoretical underpinnings and program philosophy of the prevention campaign. Implications of the current study for understanding the social construction of substance use prevention messages among adolescents and incorporating audience-generated messages in health communication campaigns are discussed.

  15. Adolescents' Satisfaction with School Experiences: Relationships with Demographics, Attachment Relationships, and School Engagement Behavior (United States)

    Elmore, Gail M.; Huebner, E. Scott


    This study investigated the relationships among demographics, parent and peer attachment, school satisfaction, and student engagement behavior in a 1-year longitudinal study of secondary-school students. Statistically significant cross-sectional differences in school satisfaction were observed, based on grade, but not on race, gender, or…

  16. Romantic Relationship Commitment and Its Linkages with Commitment to Parents and Friends during Adolescence (United States)

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan; van Duin, Jet; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim


    This five-wave longitudinal study examines linkages between adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationship commitment and the development of adolescents' perceptions of commitment to parents and friends. A total of 218 early-to-middle adolescents (39.0 percent boys) and 185 middle-to-late adolescents (30.8 percent boys) participated.…

  17. Examining Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity during Early Adolescence (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Park, Lora E.


    The present study of 150 adolescents ("M" age = 13.05 years) examined the associations between appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) and psychological adjustment during early adolescence, and evaluated three types of other-gender peer experiences (other-gender friendship, peer acceptance, and romantic relationships) as…

  18. Mediating effects of teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and emotional/behavioral problems. (United States)

    Ban, Jiyoon; Oh, Insoo


    The current study examined the mediating effects of the teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and a child's emotional/behavioral problems. A total of 2070 student surveys from the panel of the Korean Child Youth Panel Study (KCYPS) were analyzed by path analysis. The key findings of this study are outlined below. Firstly, parental physical and emotional abuse and neglect had significant effects on children's problems. The direct effect of parental abuse on emotional/behavioral problems was higher than the direct effect of parental neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Secondly, the teacher relationship partially mediated the effects of the parental abuse/neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Thirdly, the peer relationship also partially mediated the effects of parental abuse/neglect on children's emotional/behavioral problems. The indirect effect of parental neglect via teacher relationships and peer relationships was stronger than the indirect effect of parental abuse. This study is significant in that it identified that parental abuse/neglect was mediated by the teacher and peer relationship, thereby suggesting an implication for effective intervention with children who have suffered abuse and neglect. In terms of the teacher and peer relationship, understanding the influence of parental abuse and neglect on children's problems was discussed, and the limitations and recommendations for future study were suggested.

  19. Peer Contexts for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: Reducing Stigma, Prejudice, and Discrimination (United States)

    Horn, Stacey S.; Romeo, Katherine E.


    Peer relationships are a vital part of adolescents' lives. For lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, whether these relationships are supportive and positive, or filled with stigma, prejudice, and discrimination rests, to some degree, on their heterosexual peers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality. For while LGBT youth may…

  20. Parent and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration in early adolescence: tests of moderation and gender differences. (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Sullivan, Terri; Orpinas, Pamela; Simon, Thomas R


    This study examined parenting and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration during early adolescence and tested moderation among these predictors and gender. Participants were 2,824 ethnically diverse sixth-grade students with a recent boyfriend/girlfriend who was part of a multisite, longitudinal investigation of the development and prevention of violence among middle school students. Those students who reported having a boyfriend/girlfriend reported significantly more drug use and delinquent activity and were more likely to be male. Twenty-nine percent of youth with a boyfriend/girlfriend reported perpetrating physical aggression against their boyfriend/girlfriend. Parenting and peer variables were significant predictors of physical dating violence. However, gender moderated the association between parenting practices and physical dating violence, with parental monitoring inversely linked to dating violence for boys and parent support for nonaggression inversely linked to dating violence for girls. Parent support for aggression also moderated the association between peer deviancy and reported perpetration. Finally, gender moderated the interaction between peer deviancy and parent support for nonaggressive solutions.