Chang Ho Hong
Full Text Available During the adolescent period, they experience rapid physical, emotional, cognitive developments while they establish their lifestyle and habitual routines that strongly influence adult health and life. Recent rapid economic growth in Korea, and the earlier onset of physical, sexual, and psychological maturation of adolescents, has resulted in changes in the health status of adolescents from many years ago. Risk-taking behaviors such as drinking alcohol, smoking, and sexual experiences are critical issues that affect the health of, adolescents. Therefore, it is important for pediatricians to note the that risk-taking behaviors of adolescents in Korea that are caused by individual psychosocial factors. This review article illustrates the current health status of Korean adolescents and provides an overview of risktaking behaviors, to inform pediatricians about some of the key issues.
Boyd, Candice P; Aisbett, Damon L; Francis, Kristy; Kelly, Melinda; Newnham, Krystal; Newnham, Karyn
The mental health of adolescents living in rural Australia has received little research attention. In this article, the extant literature on rural adolescent mental health in Australia is reviewed. Given the lack of literature on this topic, the review is centered on a vignette presented at the beginning of the article. The case represented by the vignette is that of a young Australian growing up in a rural area. The issues raised--including the nature of mental health issues for rural adolescents and barriers to seeking professional help--are then discussed in terms of the available literature. The article concludes with a future focus for research efforts in the area of rural adolescent mental health.
The Internet has turned during the past decade into a major information resource in various domains of life and a communication venue among adolescents who seek health information via the net. The increasing availability of computers in homes, as well as wireless Internet access, means that adolescents today can go online anywhere, at any time. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem, but they do contribute significantly to a variety of adolescent health problems, including aggressive behavior, sexual activity, drug use, obesity, sleep disorders, eating disorders, depression, suicide and self harm. This paper focuses on 3 major health issues in adolescents' Internet use: Body image and eating behaviors; sexuality and reproductive health behaviors; and self harm and suicidal behavior. This paper also demonstrates Internet venues where reliable health information is provided to young people by health professionals. Health professionals need to recognize the hazards of adolescents Internet use, and to address potential Internet abuse when encountering adolescents in clinical settings.
Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Haire, Bridget; Harrison, Abigail; Odetoyingbo, Morolake; Fatusi, Olawunmi; Brown, Brandon
There is increasing interest in the need to address the ethical dilemmas related to the engagement of adolescents in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) research. Research projects, including those that address issues related to STIs and HIV, adverse pregnancy outcomes, violence, and mental health, must be designed and implemented to address the needs of adolescents. Decisions on when an individual has adequate capacity to give consent for research most commonly use age as a surrogate rather than directly assessing capacity to understand the issues and make an informed decision on whether to participate in research or not. There is a perception that adolescents participating in research are more likely to be coerced and may therefore not fully comprehend the risk they may be taking when engaging in research. This paper examines the various ethical issues that may impact stakeholders' decision making when considering engaging adolescents in SRH research in Nigeria. It makes a case for lowering the age of consent for adolescents. While some experts believe it is possible to extrapolate relevant information from adult research, studies on ethical aspects of adolescents' participation in research are still needed, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health where there are often differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices compared to adults. The particular challenges of applying the fundamental principles of research ethics to adolescent research, especially research about sex and sexuality, will only become clear if more studies are conducted. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A; Stoyanov, Stoyan R
Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10-18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs.
Agnes Caroline Souza Pinto
Full Text Available Objective: To identify the risk factors associated with mental health issues in adolescents. Method: An integrative review was conducted in four databases with publications from 2007 to 2013. The terms Adolescent and Mental Health were used to search adequate articles as DeCs/MeSH bases. Results: Publications were found in different journals in different fields of knowledge and the quantitative research was the most frequent. The mental health issues were categorized as individual factors; drug related factors, school factors, family factors, social factors and STDs/Aids related factors. The most addressed category was individual factors, with 23 publications. Conclusion: The integrative review allowed to point important questions to be addressed in preventive actions by the health professional, including the nurse, to create a space that works with risk conditioning factors in adolescents for mental health aggravation.
Tesfaye Assebe Yadeta
Full Text Available Background. Open family discussion on reproductive health (RH issues often leads to increased awareness on RH matters and reduces risky behaviors among adolescents. This study was conducted to assess factors affecting parent-adolescent discussion on RH issues in Harar, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey using face to face interview supplemented with focus group discussion (FGD was conducted on 751 randomly selected parents of 10–19-year-old adolescents. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15. Results. More than one-fourth (28.76% of parents reported discussing RH issues with their adolescents during the last six months. In the logistic regression, parents who have demonstrated good RH knowledge and positive attitude towards RH were almost six times and seventy percent (AOR 5.69, 95% CI: 3.67–8.82; AOR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.08–2.68 higher in discussing RH with their adolescents than their counterparts, respectively. Conclusion. Parent-adolescent discussion about RH issues rarely occurs and is bounded by lack of knowledge, sociocultural norms, and parental concern that discussion would encourage premarital sex. Reproductive health programs should target on improving awareness of parents and addressing sociocultural norms surrounding reproductive health issues.
The right of adolescents to access confidential health care is sensitive and controversial. Recent challenges in the court system to adolescents' right to access abortion and contraception are eroding current law, including the Roe v Wade decision. The prospect of more than a million pregnancies in individuals under the age of 20 years in the United States with increasingly fewer alternatives to pregnancy is concerning. New regulations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act are adding yet another layer of complexity to the care of adolescents. Understanding legal issues surrounding adolescent rights to care can help the health care provider make appropriate care available to this age group. Keywords previously identified in CINAHL and MEDLINE were used to perform the literature search. LexisNexis was the search engine used to identify the laws and statutes.
Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok
Data on awareness of adolescent's on the legal and social issues/acts related to reproductive health, especially in rural areas, are scarce. The aim of the present cross-sectional study is to assess the awareness level of legal and social issues related to reproductive health and its association with the various individual and family/household level characteristics. 650 adolescent girls in the age group of 15-19 years were interviewed with the help of pretested and semistructured questionnaire and focus group discussions were also conducted for qualitative findings in Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi. It was observed that 42.9% of the respondents were aware of legal age of marriage, 14.9% knew about the right age of childbearing. Dowry prohibition act and domestic violence act were known to 46% and 27% respondents, respectively, and only 2.6% were aware of medical termination of pregnancy act. Logistic regression analysis shows the significant effect of education on awareness of legal age of marriage, right age of childbearing, domestic violence, and dowry prohibition acts, which is also supported by qualitative findings. All the important legal issues/acts should be included in high school curriculum and female teachers should be involved in training program for adolescents. Role of mass media in creating awareness about these issues in their routine programs should be ascertained. Accredited Social Health Activist and Anganwadi workers should be aware of and include these issues/acts in adolescent meetings.
Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues.
Kramer, Gregory M; Luxton, David D
The use of technology to provide telemental healthcare continues to increase; however, little has been written about the legal and regulatory issues involved in providing this form of care to children and adolescents. This article reviews existing laws and regulations to summarize the risk management issues relevant to providing telemental healthcare to children and adolescents. There are several legal and regulatory areas in which telemental health clinicians need to have awareness. These areas include: 1) Licensure, 2) malpractice liability, 3) credentialing and privileging, 4) informed consent, 5) security and privacy, and 6) emergency management. Although legal and regulatory challenges remain in providing telemental healthcare to children and adolescents, it is possible to overcome these challenges with knowledge of the issues and appropriate risk management strategies. We provide general knowledge of these key legal and regulatory issues, along with some risk management recommendations.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the level of knowledge of the adolescent girls regarding reproductive health issues.Materials and methods: A cross sectional descriptive type of study was carried out among 150unmarried adolescent girls of Vashantek slum in Dhaka city by face to face interview using a semistructuredquestionnaire from January to June 2008.Results: The mean age of the respondents were 16.4±2.9 years ranging from 10-19 years. Out of 150respondents, 130 had history of menstruation and their median age of menarche was 13 years. Thecorrect knowledge was high among the adolescent having secondary level of education than the SSCand above or primary level of education and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. Aboutthree-fourths of the respondents had sufficient knowledge about hygienic menstrual practice. Majority ofthe girls could mention the legal age of marriage. Regarding the demerits of early marriage, majoritymentioned some of the demerits but not all. Three-fifths of the respondents had no knowledge onimportance of family planning and regarding the methods of family planning, majority of them had noknowledge. Majority of the respondents heard the disease AIDS but regarding the knowledge oncausative agent half of them had no knowledge. More than two-fifths had no knowledge on mode oftransmission of AIDS. It was also found that majority of the respondents had no knowledge on symptomsof AIDS and three-fifths had no knowledge on prevention of AIDS.Conclusion: So formal, informal and special educational program may be taken to educate theadolescent girls on reproductive health issues and government should be more concerned about this.
Wood, Paul L; Bauman, Dvora
The implications of obesity in childhood and adolescence resonate into adulthood and have implications at different levels that include psychosocial and health issues that impact beyond reproductive performance. This chapter explores the various facets and consequences on gynaecological issues of increased Body Mass Index in childhood, including the link with puberty, pubertal menorrhagia (also affecting children with complex needs) and the all too common problems surrounding hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance and the polycystic ovarian syndrome in particular which need to be seen in the specific context of the adolescent years. The wider ramifications of obesity on the psychosocial welfare of adolescents merits special attention. Finally management strategies are considered in the context of the needs of adolescents. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walley, Cynthia T.; Grothaus, Tim
Given the prevalence of adolescent mental health issues and the impact they have on adolescent development and school success, school counselors are challenged to provide appropriate prevention and intervention services. Yet the sufficiency of school counselor training for these challenges is unclear. Qualitative procedures were used to examine…
Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues.
Swann, Stephanie; Herbert, Sarah E.
Examines ethical dilemmas arising when treating adolescents with gender dysphoria, discussing ethical and legal issues pertinent to treating any adolescent and highlighting gender dysphoric adolescents. Reviews legal decisions, existing data on adolescent decision making, and ethical principles for resolving complex situations. Illustrates ethical…
Motsomi, Kegaugetswe; Makanjee, Chandra; Basera, Tariro; Nyasulu, Peter
Communication between parents and adolescents regarding sexuality is an important reproductive health topic. Due to complexities associated with adolescent's physiological development, sexuality should be dealt with holistically. This study aimed to investigate factors affecting effective communication between parents and adolescents concerning sexual and reproductive health issues. An exploratory qualitative study using the focus group discussions method was done to explore amongst other things; social, cultural and religious barriers to communication. Thematic content analysis was done. Factors identified included: embarrassment when discussing sexual topics; adolescent misperceptions that guardians want to engage in sexual activities with them; strong belief amongst guardians that reproductive health discussions with adolescents encourages sexual experimentation; belief that adolescents were too young to understand; non-conducive environment for open discussions of sexual and reproductive health matters; cultural and religious beliefs. In view of these findings, there are still barriers in terms of parent-adolescent engagement on issues related to risks associated with sexual behaviours and erroneous reproductive health choices among adolescents. Therefore, there is a need to encourage engagement by creating neutral platforms facilitated by community healthcare providers and/ or social workers. This will help create awareness and bridge the communication and interaction gap by emphasising the importance of effective engagement among adolescents and their parents on matters related to risks associated with sexual behaviours and erroneous reproductive health choices. Post implantation intervention studies are needed to inform on the outcomes of the intervention.
Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza; Banura, Cecily; Mugooda, Herbert; Kwesiga, Doris; Bastien, Sheri; Klepp, Knut-Inge
Evidence suggests that in spite of some adolescents being sexually active, many parents do not discuss sex-related issues with them due to lack of age-appropriate respectful vocabulary and skills. The likelihood of parent-adolescent communication improving sexual and reproductive health outcomes appears plausible. The desire to understand parent-adolescent communication and how to improve it for promotion of healthy sexual behaviours inspired this research. The paper is meant to describe perceptions of adolescents, parents and school administrators about parent-adolescent communication on sexual issues; describe the content of such communication and identify factors that influence this communication. The study was done among two urban and two rural secondary school students in their second year of education. Data were collected from 11 focus group discussions and 10 key Informants Interviews. Data management, analysis and interpretation followed thematic analysis principles. Illuminating verbatim quotations are used to illustrate findings. Parental warmth and acceptability of children was perceived by parents to be foundational for a healthy adolescent- parent communication. Perceptions of adolescents tended to point to more open and frequent communication with mothers than fathers and to cordial relationships with mothers. Fathers were perceived by adolescents to be strict, intimidating, unapproachable and unavailable. While adolescents tended to generally discuss sexual issues with mothers, male adolescents communicated less with anyone on sex, relationships and condoms. Much of the parent-adolescent communication was perceived to focus on sexually transmitted infections and body changes. Discussions of sex and dating with adolescents were perceived to be rare. Common triggers of sexuality discussions with female adolescents were; onset of menstruation and perceived abortion in the neighbourhood. Discussion with male adolescents, if it occurred was perceived to
Ayalew, Mulatuwa; Mengistie, Bezatu; Semahegn, Agumasie
Sexual and reproductive health communications are most likely promoting healthy sexual development and reduce sexual risks. Communication is the principal means for parents to transmit sexual values, beliefs, expectations and knowledge to their adolescents. However, there is a paucity of evidence about adolescent parent communication in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine adolescent-parent communication on sexual and reproductive health issues and associated factors among high school students in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Institution based cross sectional study was conducted among high school students in Dire Dawa administrative council from February to March 2011. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 695 students from 9-12 grades. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussion separately for female and male parents. Data were entered in Epi info version 3.5.1 and analyzed by SPSS version 16.1. Logistic regression with OR and 95% confidence interval was used to identify the independent predictors of adolescent parent communication. Thirty seven percent of students had ever discussed on at least two sexual and reproductive health topics with their parents. Of which, majority of student preferred to discuss with their peers than parent. Condom use during first intercourse was associated with having communication about sexual and reproductive health [AOR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.8]. Cultural taboo, shame and lack of communication skill were reasons that hinder communication between parent and adolescent about sexual matters. Communication on sexual and reproductive health issue between adolescent and their parent was low. School based education is important to improve adolescent parent communication about sexual and reproductive health issues.
Ford, Carol A; Cheek, Courtney; Culhane, Jennifer; Fishman, Jessica; Mathew, Leny; Salek, Elyse C; Webb, David; Jaccard, James
Patient-centered health care recognizes that adolescents and parents are stakeholders in adolescent health. We investigate adolescent and parent interest in receiving information about health topics and parent-teen communication from clinicians. Ninety-one parent-adolescent dyads in one practice completed individual interviews. Items assessed levels of interest in receiving health and health communication information from the adolescent's doctor about 18 topics, including routine, mental health, sexual health, substance use, and injury prevention issues. Analyses tested differences between parents and adolescents, within-dyad correlations, and associations with adolescent gender and age. Most parents were female (84%). Adolescents were evenly divided by gender; 36 were aged 12-13 years, 35 were aged 14-15 years, and 20 were aged 16-17 years. Adolescent race reflected the practice population (60% black; 35% white). The vast majority of parents and adolescents reported moderate or high levels of interest in receiving information about all 18 health issues and information to increase parent-teen communication about these topics. Parents' interest in receiving information varied by adolescent age when the expected salience of topics varied by age (e.g., acne, driving safety), whereas adolescents reported similar interest regardless of age. Adolescent gender influenced parent and adolescent interest. Level of interest in receiving information from doctors within adolescent-parent pairs was not significantly correlated for one-half of topics. Parents and adolescents want health care professionals to help them learn and talk about a wide range of adolescent health topics. Feasible primary care interventions that effectively improve parent-teen health communication, and specific adolescent health outcomes are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Giannattasio, Antonietta; Officioso, Annunziata; Continisio, Grazia Isabella; Griso, Giovanna; Storace, Cinzia; Coppini, Simonetta; Longhi, Daniela; Mango, Carmela; Guarino, Alfredo; Badolato, Raffaele; Pisacane, Alfredo
After active antiretroviral therapy, children with HIV are clinically well, whereas psychosocial issues continue to influence their quality of life. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) of the World Health Organization evaluates health status and environmental and social factors associated with health. We investigated the efficacy of the ICF to describe the health status and needs of a cohort of children and adolescents with HIV seen at a reference center for pediatric AIDS in Europe. A quantitative analysis of structured interviews was performed. Caregivers of children and adolescents with HIV infection in follow-up at 2 reference centers for pediatric AIDS were enrolled. Four major areas included in the ICF instrument were investigated: impairments of body structures; impairments of body functions; environmental factors; and activity limitations and restrictions to social life. Forty-one families of children with HIV were enrolled. Body structures and functions were marginally impaired, whereas environmental factors and psychosocial issues had a relevant impact on quality of life. Most families considered environmental factors to be "barriers"; these were poverty, unemployment, and single-parent family structure. Activity limitations and social restrictions were also reported in a few cases. Almost all parents reported problems in disclosing their child's HIV status because of the fear of social stigma. Psychosocial issues are part of the well-being of children with HIV. The ICF is a standard tool to evaluate the clinical and psychosocial status of children and adolescents with HIV infection and to measure the impact of therapeutic interventions and strategies on psychosocial functioning.
Tseng, Ying-Hua; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chou, Fan-Hao
Internet use is an important part of the daily life of adolescents. The ease of searching the internet for information makes finding information on sex, a topic of particular interest to adolescents, easy. Although the internet is replete with sexual information, the influence of internet use on adolescents' sexual health is analogous to a double-edged sword. This article identifies the four main sexual dilemmas facing Taiwan adolescents and analyzes the pros and cons of internet use with regard to adolescents' sexual health. Cons include the predominance of internet pornography and the potential risks of making friends online. Pros include the internet's role as an optimal communications platform and tool for sex-related research. We suggest that nurses have a unique role and functions to play in promoting adolescent sexual health. We also offer recommendations for school health nursing and clinical nursing. Further internet-based quantitative and qualitative research is necessary to clarify relevant sexual health issues. Finally, we offer design suggestions for sexual education homepages.
Vreeman, Rachel C; McCoy, Brittany M; Lee, Sonia
Mental health is a critical and neglected global health challenge for adolescents infected with HIV. The prevalence of mental and behavioural health issues among HIV-infected adolescents may not be well understood or addressed as the world scales up HIV prevention and treatment for adolescents. The objective of this narrative review is to assess the current literature related to mental health challenges faced by adolescents living with HIV, including access to mental health services, the role of mental health challenges during transition from paediatric to adult care services and responsibilities, and the impact of mental health interventions. For each of the topics included in this review, individual searches were run using Medline and PubMed, accompanied by scans of bibliographies of relevant articles. The topics on which searches were conducted for HIV-infected adolescents include depression and anxiety, transition from paediatric to adult HIV care and its impact on adherence and mental health, HIV-related, mental health services and interventions, and the measurement of mental health problems. Articles were included if the focus was consistent with one of the identified topics, involved HIV-infected adolescents, and was published in English. Mental and behavioural health challenges are prevalent in HIV-infected adolescents, including in resource-limited settings where most of them live, and they impact all aspects of HIV prevention and treatment. Too little has been done to measure the impact of mental health challenges for adolescents living with HIV, to evaluate interventions to best sustain or improve the mental health of this population, or to create healthcare systems with personnel or resources to promote mental health. Mental health issues should be addressed proactively during adolescence for all HIV-infected youth. In addition, care systems need to pay greater attention to how mental health support is integrated into the care management for HIV
Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents are an important resource of any country. Adolescent girls need adequate information about the physical, psychological changes that take place during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy and child birth. This study aims to assess knowledge and attitude of adolescent girls of the age group 17-19 years on family formation and reproductive health issues in an urban area of Pondicherry. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among adolescent girls (aged 17 to 19 years residing in an urban ward of Puducherry. Data collection was through house to house survey using a structured questionnaire. Results: 120 girls were approached and response rate was 100%. One fifth (21% and one third (31% of the study subjects knew the legal age for marriage for boys and girls respectively. 90% of girls were aware of small family norm, and perceived ideal family size as two. Awareness on contraception was poor (9%. Around 78% subjects considered fruits and vegetables as essential in the diet of pregnant women. Nearly 73% subjects were aware of Janani Suraksha Yojana and 89% were aware that immunization is essential for infants. Though 98% of the girls were aware that breast milk was the ideal food for babies, only 34.2% of the girls were aware of exclusive breast feeding. Conclusion: In this study, adolescent girls were aware regarding legal age at marriage, small family norm and dietary care during pregnancy. However, knowledge levels on contraceptive measures, exclusive breast feeding and supplementary feeding is less than satisfactory. These gaps in knowledge on reproductive health and family formation need to be addressed through innovative ways of health education in a non-threatening environment at the school and community levels.
War, Firdous Ahmad; Ved, Rifat Saroosh; Paul, Mohammad Altaf
The primary purpose of this paper was to compare the epidemiology of mental health problems and self-esteem of conflict hit adolescents living in charitable seminaries with their counterparts brought up in natural homes. Substantive body of the literature illustrates the emotional and behavioral issues experienced by these adolescents. In this study, 27 adolescents from a charitable Muslim seminary and 30 adolescents from a regular school were recruited. Self-report measures and clinical interview were used to measure mental health and self-esteem. The findings indicate that adolescents in institution setting may not be having mental health and self-esteem-related issues when compared to adolescents living in intact by parent homes. While the authors acknowledge the limitations of the study, these findings need further research to examine the causes for these differences.
There has been an increasing awareness of the need to pay special focus on the adolescent and their sexual and reproductive health. This article reviews the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in the Niger Delta region (NDR) of Nigeria. The objective is to bring to focus these important issues in the region.
... and counseling Psychosocial problems including depression, stress, anxiety, self-esteem, and sleep problems Acne and other skin conditions According to individual state law pertaining to adolescents and confidentiality, certain health care issues related to ...
Baranov, A A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Il'in, A G
The article presents submitted data of population dynamics of adolescent (10-17 years old) in Russian Federation over the period of 1995-2012 In the presence of reduction by 8.2 million of adolescent population the top-priority task of adolescent health and life maintenance was declared. The article deals with physical growth and development statistics of schoolchildren of 15-19 years old: as opposed to peers of 80-es increase of length, body weight and circumference of chest as well as reduction of muscle strength is observed. On the ground of the data analysis of authoritative statistical reporting the increase of morbidity rate by factor of 1.4 was detected over the last 10 years. It has been established that the true morbidity level is above the authoritative by the factor of 1.5. The number of adolescent at the age of 10-15 referred to 1st and 2nd health groups decreased almost on 20%, at the same time pathological processes become chronic. The reproductive and mental health of adolescent at the age of 15-17 years was analyzed over the last 10 years. The rate of mental health disorders in adolescent living in country is more than in the peers living in cities by the factor of 1.2-1.4. The rate of period disorders, salpingitis and oothecitis increased in girls under 10 years and ones at the age of 15-17. The rate and structure of child disability was analyzed. It was fixed that leading causes of adolescent disability are mental disorders, diseases of nervous system, congenital anomalies. The most commonly encountered seed of physical dysfunction is capacity to study. It is demonstrated that there is misreporting on both child disability in totally and adolescent disability in Russian Federation. After the analysis of particular provisions of legislation concerning medical and social issues of child disability the week points were detected. The morbidity rate of adolescent was studied: primary cause of death in adolescent is extrinsic factor (more than 70%), the
Shek, Daniel T L
Several adolescent developmental issues and problems in Hong Kong are examined in this paper. First, the changing adolescent substance abuse patterns are described. Second, although the overall youth crime trend was relatively stable in the past decade, shoplifting and stealing crimes deserve our concern. Third, adolescent mental health problem is a growing problem. Fourth, statistics show that unhealthy life styles, such as smoking, early sex and moral confusion are issues of concern. Fifth, the proportion of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage has increased. Sixth, youth unemployment and non-engaged youth are growing problems when the economy of Hong Kong is undergoing re-structuring. Seventh, family and parenting problems in families with adolescents deserve our attention. Finally, the Social Development Index showed that the development of young people has gradually deteriorated in the past decade. These adolescent issues and problems provide useful pointers for designing the positive youth development program financially sponsored by the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.
Gupta, Niodita; Chandak, Aastha; Gilson, Glen; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Goldsworthy, Richard; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Fisher, Christopher
Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations are in a unique position to interact with the adolescents because they are neither parents/guardians nor teachers. The objectives of this study were to explore qualitatively what sexual health issues adolescents discuss with YDPs and to describe those issues using the…
Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; Scholtz, Alexandra; Norris, Shane A
When developing intervention research, it is important to explore issues from the community perspective. Interventions that promote adolescent health in South Africa are urgently needed, and Project Ntshembo ('hope') aims to improve the health of young women and their offspring in the Agincourt sub-district of rural northeast South Africa, actively using stakeholder involvement throughout the research process. This study aimed to determine adolescent health priorities according to key stakeholders, to align stakeholder and researcher priorities, and to form a stakeholder forum, which would be active throughout the intervention. Thirty-two stakeholders were purposefully identified as community members interested in the health of adolescents. An adapted Delphi incorporating face-to-face discussions, as well as participatory visualisation, was used in a series of three workshops. Consensus was determined through non-parametric analysis. Stakeholders and researchers agreed that peer pressure and lack of information, or having information but not acting on it, were the root causes of adolescent health problems. Pregnancy, HIV, school dropout, alcohol and drug abuse, not accessing health services, and unhealthy lifestyle (leading to obesity) were identified as priority adolescent health issues. A diagram was developed showing how these eight priorities relate to one another, which was useful in the development of the intervention. A stakeholder forum was founded, comprising 12 of the stakeholders involved in the stakeholder involvement process. The process brought researchers and stakeholders to consensus on the most important health issues facing adolescents, and a stakeholder forum was developed within which to address the issues. Stakeholder involvement as part of a research engagement strategy can be of mutual benefit to the researchers and the community in which the research is taking place.
De Los Reyes, Andres; Aldao, Amelia
The National Institute of Mental Health recently launched the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). The RDoC is an initiative to improve classification of mental health concerns by promoting research on the brain mechanisms underlying these concerns, with the ultimate goal of developing interventions that target these brain mechanisms. A key focus of RDoC involves opening new lines of research examining patients' responses on biological measures. The RDoC presents unique challenges to mental health professionals who work with children and adolescents. Indeed, mental health professionals rarely integrate biological measures into clinical assessments. Thus, RDoC's ability to improve patient care rests, in part, on the development of strategies for implementing biological measures within mental health assessments. Further, mental health professionals already carry out comprehensive assessments that frequently yield inconsistent findings. These inconsistencies have historically posed challenges to interpreting research findings as well as assessment outcomes in practice settings. In this introductory article, we review key issues that informed the development of a special issue of articles demonstrating methods for implementing low-cost measures of physiological functioning in clinical child and adolescent assessments. We also outline a conceptual framework, informed by theoretical work on using and interpreting multiple informants' clinical reports (De Los Reyes, Thomas, Goodman, & Kundey, 2013 ), to guide hypothesis testing when using physiological measures within clinical child and adolescent assessments. This special issue and the conceptual model described in this article may open up new lines of research testing paradigms for implementing clinically feasible physiological measures in clinical child and adolescent assessments.
Dockery, Alfred; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth
Previous research demonstrates that non-standard work schedules undermine the stability of marriage and reduce family cohesiveness. Limited research has investigated the effects of parents working non-standard schedules on children's health and wellbeing and no published Australian studies have addressed this important issue. This paper contributes to bridging this knowledge gap by focusing on adolescents aged 15-20 years and by including sole parent families which have been omitted in previous research, using panel data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. Multilevel linear regression models are estimated to analyse the association between parental work schedules and hours of work and measures of adolescents' mental health derived from the SF-36 Health Survey. Evidence of negative impacts of parents working non-standard hours upon adolescent wellbeing is found to exist primarily within sole parent families.
Gunn, Anthony; Menzies, Ross G; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Lowe, Robyn; Iverach, Lisa; Heard, Robert; Block, Susan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate anxiety and psychological functioning among adolescents seeking speech therapy for stuttering using a structured, diagnostic interview and psychological questionnaires. This study also sought to determine whether any differences in psychological status were evident between younger and older adolescents. Participants were 37 stuttering adolescents seeking stuttering treatment. We administered the Computerized Voice Version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, and five psychometric tests. Participants were classified into younger (12-14 years; n=20) and older adolescents (15-17 years; n=17). Thirty-eight percent of participants attained at least one diagnosis of a mental disorder, according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; APA, 2000), with the majority of these diagnoses involving anxiety. This figure is double current estimates for general adolescent populations, and is consistent with our finding of moderate and moderate-severe quality of life impairment. Although many of the scores on psychological measures fell within the normal range, older adolescents (15-17 years) reported significantly higher anxiety, depression, reactions to stuttering, and emotional/behavioral problems, than younger adolescents (12-14 years). There was scant evidence that self-reported stuttering severity is correlated with mental health issues. There are good reasons to believe these results are conservative because many participants gave socially desirable responses about their mental health status. These results reveal a need for large-scale, statistically powerful assessments of anxiety and other mental disorders among stuttering adolescents with reference to control populations. The reader will be able to: (a) explain the clinical importance of assessing for mental health with stuttering adolescents, (b) state the superior method for adolescent mental
Out-of-school peer educators [PE] are resourceful in transmitting reproductive health information but their retention remains a contentious issue. This study aimed to assess motivation and sustainability of out-of-school PEs in disseminating reproductive health information among adolescents. A structured questionnaire was ...
Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dahl, Ronald E
In this article, we consider how to leverage some of the rapid advances in developmental neuroscience in ways that can improve adolescent health. We provide a brief overview of several key areas of scientific progress relevant to these issues. We then focus on two examples of important health problems that increase sharply during adolescence: sleep problems and affective disorders. These examples illustrate how an integrative, developmental science approach provides new insights into treatment and intervention. They also highlight a cornerstone principle: how a deeper understanding of potentially modifiable factors-at key developmental inflection points along the trajectory toward clinical disorders-is beginning to inform, and may eventually transform, a broad range of innovative early intervention strategies to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Opsenica-Kostić Jelena J.
Full Text Available Today's generations of adolescents have grown up with information and communication technologies which have a significant place in their lives. One of the important issues in this context is the relation between the Internet and the mental health of adolescents. The first topic that this paper deals with, is the relationship between the use of the Internet and mental health, and the other is related to the planned use of the Internet for the purpose of improving wellbeing. The most common activity of young people on the Internet is social networking. Online social networks can positively affect wellbeing through facilitating self-disclosing and the availability of social support. Such findings from empirical research support the ideas of theories that emphasize the positive aspects of online relating. However, social networks (and online communication in general can also have significant negative effects on the mental health of adolescents, if they are exposed to cyberbullying. The second topic of the paper is the planned use of the Internet for the purpose of improving mental health. To young people (and to members of other age groups, as well online support groups are the most accessible nowadays, aimed at supporting a group of people with a common problem or life challenge. These forums are most often text-based and this kind of communication has a number of potential benefits for users. It is also possible to organize online interventions that promote mental health and prevent its deterioration. Research shows that online skill-based interventions can have a positive impact on adolescent mental health. The results of the online prevention interventions indicate the encouraging evidence concerning computerized cognitive behavioral therapy interventions and their impact on adolescent's anxiety and depression symptoms. Although it contains potentially negative aspects, the Internet has a positive significance and potential for the development
Jackson, Michaela; Harrison, Paul; Swinburn, Boyd; Lawrence, Mark
This article discusses how qualitative vignettes were combined with interviews to explore a complex public health issue; that is, promoting unhealthy foods and beverages to children and adolescents. It outlines how the technique was applied in practice and the combination of vignette-based interviews with a broader approach involving Gadamerian hermeneutics. Twenty-one participants from the public health community and the marketing and food and beverage industries took part in vignette-based interviews between March and September 2012. Overall, the qualitative vignette method afforded an efficient, generally well-received technique that effectively explored the issue of promoting unhealthy foods and beverages to children and adolescents. The vignette provided structure to interviews but allowed certain responses to be investigated in greater depth. Through this research, we argue that qualitative vignettes allow researchers to explore complex public health issues. This article also provides a valuable resource for researchers seeking to explore this technique. © The Author(s) 2015.
Alesna-Llanto, Emma; Raymundo, Corazon M
This article highlights contraceptive issues in Asia, home to some 700 million adolescents. It starts with a description of the socio-cultural milieu of adolescents in South and Southeast Asia, their knowledge and use of contraceptives, the myriad barriers to access, and the many innovative programs to broaden contraceptive availability. The reproductive health needs of adolescents in poor countries cannot be solved by merely supplying them with contraceptives--these needs can only be fully addressed in the context of gender equality, poverty alleviation and the conviction that investing in the reproductive health of adolescents is a most urgent priority. Investing in the reproductive health of adolescents will have an impact not only on birth and abortion rates, maternal health, and the spread of STI/HIV but also on the demographics and economic development of the region--and beyond.
Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.
Presented are 18 papers on predicting adolescent drug abuse. The papers have the following titles: "Current Issues in the Epidemiology of Drug Abuse as Related to Psychosocial Studies of Adolescent Drug Use"; "The Quest for Interpersonal Predictors of Marihuana Abuse in Adolescents"; "Assessing the Interpersonal Determinants of Adolescent Drug…
Abedian, Kobra; Shahhosseini, Zohreh
Although adolescence is marked by profound and dynamic changes, it is virtually neglected by health care providers, by society, and even by most parents, teachers, and health professionals. The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to health education in adolescents from health care providers' views compared to teens. The study population consisted of 72 health care providers and 402 high school female students in Northern Iran in 2012. They completed a self-administered questionnaire about their views on barriers to adolescents' health education. It is revealed that the major barrier to adolescents' health education from a health care providers' perspective is "Lack of private room for adolescents' health education", while "Lack of adolescents' interest to content of educational programs" is a significantly greater barrier to health education among adolescents. The results suggest that for adolescent health education, specific strategies should be used in adolescent health promotion programs.
This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated
Secor-Turner, Molly A; Randall, Brandy A; Brennan, Alison L; Anderson, Melinda K; Gross, Dean A
The purpose of this study was to assess rural North Dakota adolescents' experiences in accessing adolescent-friendly health services and to examine the relationship between rural adolescents' communication with health care providers and risk behaviors. Data are from the Rural Adolescent Health Survey (RAHS), an anonymous survey of 14- to 19-year-olds (n = 322) attending secondary schools in four frontier counties of North Dakota. Descriptive statistics were used to assess participants' access to adolescent-friendly health services characterized as accessible, acceptable, and appropriate. Logistic regressions were used to examine whether participant-reported risk behaviors predicted communication with health care providers about individual health risk behaviors. Rural adolescents reported high access to acceptable primary health care services but low levels of effective health care services. Participant report of engaging in high-risk behaviors was associated with having received information from health care providers about the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. These findings reveal missed opportunities for primary care providers in rural settings to provide fundamental health promotion to adolescents. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schwartz, Kelly D.; Fouts, Gregory T.
Studied the personality characteristics and developmental issues of three groups of adolescent music listeners divided by preferred type of music. Findings for 164 adolescents show that each of the three music preference groups is inclined to demonstrate a unique profile of personality dimensions and developmental issues. (SLD)
Kang, Melissa; Cannon, Bianca; Remond, Louise; Quine, Susan
There is a mismatch between presenting concerns of adolescents to GPs and behaviours that lead to adolescent morbidity and mortality. Better understanding of health concerns of this target group would enhance communication between health professionals and adolescent patients. To explore and categorize the health concerns of adolescent girls sending unsolicited emails to a teenage girls' magazine. We conducted a content analysis of 1000 systematic randomly selected unsolicited emails submitted to the health column of an Australian adolescent girls' magazine over a 6-month period. Three main foci of concern were identified: Context of Concern, Health Issue of Concern and Advice Sought for Concern. Within Health Issue of Concern, there were five categories: body (47.5%), sex (31.9%), relationship (14.7%), mind (4.7%) and violence and/or safety (1.2%). Concerns within the body and sex categories ranged enormously, but frequently expressed intimate descriptions of anatomy, feelings, sexual practices and relationships. Many concerns occurred in the context of adolescents' relationships with others. The proportion of concerns about physical or psychological symptoms or health issues commonly associated with the adolescent age group (such as health risk behaviours, mental health, pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections) was relatively small. GPs and other health professionals might engage more readily with adolescent patients with a deeper understanding of the concerns that adolescents have about their bodies, relationships and overall health. Seemingly 'trivial' issues, such as normal puberty, could be used as discussion triggers in health consultations to help alleviate anxiety and build rapport.
social functioning of the adolescent but its magnitude is poorly documented. Objective: To describe the psychosocial issues observed among Nigerian adolescent diabetics attending the Paediatric outpatient clinics of two Nigerian hospitals.
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available Adolescent developmental issues, such as mental health problems, substance abuse, and egocentric behavior, of university students are examined. This conceptual review generally shows that although there are related issues among university students deserving greater attention, there is a general lack of systematic prevention or positive youth development programs adopting the principle of universal prevention. In contrast to the abundance of universal adolescent prevention and positive youth development programs specifically designed for high school students, similar programs are grossly lacking in the university educational context. This paper highlights the factors contributing to such negligence in university education and the possible strategies that can be adopted to help university students develop in a holistic manner.
Stephanie R. Partridge
Full Text Available Obesity is one of the greatest health challenges facing today’s adolescents. Dietary interventions are the foundation of obesity prevention and management. As adolescents are digital frontrunners and early adopters of technology, digital health interventions appear the most practical modality for dietary behavior change interventions. Despite the rapid growth in digital health interventions, effective engagement with adolescents remains a pertinent issue. Key strategies for effective engagement include co-designing interventions with adolescents, personalization of interventions, and just-in-time adaptation using data from wearable devices. The aim of this paper is to appraise these strategies, which may be used to improve effective engagement and thereby improve the dietary behaviors of adolescents now and in the future.
Mendes, Neuza; Palma, Fátima; Serrano, Fátima
As adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major sources of morbidity, preventing them is an important health goal for Portuguese society. To review data on the knowledge, attitudes and statistics on sexual and reproductive health. A systematic review was conducted including peer-reviewed articles addressing issues influencing the sexuality of Portuguese adolescents (aged 13 to 19), published up to 2011 and conducted in any type of setting. After crossing-cleaning the reference list, 33 articles were included. The rate of sexual activity by Portuguese adolescents is high (44%-95%), but there has been an increase in the age of intercourse debut (currently 15.6 years). Early commencement of sexual intercourse is associated with smoking and regular alcohol consumption. Condoms are the most frequently chosen contraceptive method for first (76%-96%) and subsequent (52%-69%) sexual encounters. The perception of a double standard in sex still exists in teenage culture for both genders and influence behavior. There are significant differences between migrant and native adolescents: African adolescents initiate sexual intercourse at earlier ages and are more likely to have unprotected sex. Only one-third of Portuguese teenagers have ever visited a health facility to seek counseling concerning contraception or STIs, and less than half have ever attended classes on reproductive health. Very few (12%) have knowledge about Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The prevalence of STIs in Portuguese youth is unknown. The adolescent fertility rate is still high (14.7 births per 1000 females aged 15-19 years), but it, as well as the rate of abortion, is steadily decreasing. There is still a long way to go towards promoting a resourceful young population. Citizens and institutions must focus on increasing both the competence of youths and external supports. Information must be provided systematically and health services must have greater accessibility. Studies
This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated included psychosomatic problems and self-esteem. It…
C, Manyike Pius; M, Chinawa Josephat; Elias, Aniwada; I, Odutola Odetunde; Awoere, Chinawa T.
Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse among adolescents is an often overlooked issue in pediatrics, yet it is a major cause of low self esteem and stigmatization in adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the socioeconomic determinant and pattern of child sexual abuse among adolescent attending secondary schools in South East Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out among children in three secondary schools in Enugu and Ebonyi states of Nigeria. Five hundred and six adolescents who met inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited into our prospective study between June and October, 2014. Results: One hundred and ninety nine (40 %) of the respondents had been abused and the commonest form of abuse was to look at pornographic pictures, drawings, films, videotapes or magazine 93(18.4%). Fifty eight (11.5%) adolescents stated that they were abused once with age at first exposure being 7-12 years 57 (11.4%). When grouped together, family members and relatives are perpetrators of child sexual abuse. There was significant difference in sex abuse between males and females (p=0.014) while there were no significant difference for age (p=0.157) and social class (p=0.233). Conclusion: Overall prevalence and one time prevalence rates of sexual abuse among adolescents in south east Nigeria was 40% and 11.5% respectively with male perpetrators. There is no link between socioeconomic class, age and child sexual abuse among adolescents. PMID:26430412
Hensel, Devon J; Nance, Jennifer; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Developmental models link sexual well-being to physical, mental/emotional, and social well-being, yet little empirical literature evaluates these relationships in adolescents. Better understanding of how and when sexuality complements other aspects of health may yield important points to enhance existing health education and prevention efforts. Data were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships and sexual behavior among adolescent women (N = 387; 14-17 years at enrollment). Sexual health data were drawn from quarterly partner-specific interviews and were linked to physical, mental/emotional, and social health information in annual questionnaires. Random intercept, mixed effects linear, ordinal logistic, or binary logistic regression were used to estimate the influence of sexual health on health and well-being outcomes (Stata, v.23, StataCorp, College Station, TX). All models controlled for participant age and race/ethnicity. Higher sexual health was significantly associated with less frequent nicotine and substance use, lower self-reported depression, lower thrill seeking, higher self-esteem, having fewer friends who use substances, higher religiosity, better social integration, lower frequency of delinquent behavior and crime, and more frequent community group membership. Sexual health was not associated with the number of friends who used cigarettes. Positive sexually related experiences in romantic relationships during adolescence may complement physical, mental/emotional, and social health. Addressing specific aspects of healthy sexual development during clinical encounters could dually help primary prevention and health education address other common adolescent health issues. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tezcan, Sabahat; Adali, Tuğba
Adolescent marriage is an important issue given its social and medical consequences. This study focuses on the recent trends in adolescent marriage and reproductive health in Turkey to provide insights for action. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys of 1998 and 2008 were used. Adolescent marriage and reproductive health indicators were assessed for urban-rural residences, demographic regions and educational levels. Logistic regression was used to predict marriage and birth in adolescence. Despite the decrease in the proportion of married adolescents from 1998 to 2008, the findings suggest no improvement in some marriage characteristics. In both surveys, over 60% of ever-married adolescents had been pregnant at least once. There is an increase in contraceptive use and antenatal care. Our findings showed that in Turkey, women living in rural areas, from poor households, with more traditional parental families, with less education, and who are not working are more likely to get married in their adolescent ages.
Wilf-Miron, Rachel; Sikron, Fabienne; Glasser, Saralee; Barell, Vita
with psychosocial problems and one-fifth with a sexuality-related problem. A considerable percentage of those diagnosed with psychosocial or sexuality-related problems had not stated these issues as their "reason for encounter". This additional increment probably represents the contribution of the Health Concern Checklist (HCC), in which the adolescent was asked to mark each item for which she had concerns or would like to receive further information. The HCC can help primary care physicians as well as adolescent medical specialists approach the teenage patient and initiate productive communication. A practical approach to confidential health care for adolescents: The issue of confidentiality has not been sufficiently clarified by Israeli law or by the medical community. The need for confidentiality was strongly felt in the adolescent health service. A policy which provides all adolescents with the opportunity to meet with a physician and receive health guidance or advice at least once, even without parental knowledge or consent, was formulated and implemented. If parental consent was not feasible, the minor was allowed to give informed consent for medical and psychosocial care for himself/herself, with certain limitations.
Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan
Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (p<0.05). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers and cues to action were predictors of physical puberty health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health.
Chavez-Ayala, Ruben; Orozco-Núñez, Emanuel; Sánchez-Estrada, Marcela; Hernández-Girón, Carlos
The aim of this study was to estimate the role of victimization by violence among Mexican adolescents that have considered or attempted migrating to the United States, including mental health variables (emotional self-esteem, self-esteem in school, depression, suicidal ideation, and attempted suicide) as mediators of the effects. The study used a cross-sectional design with a stratified cluster sample of 13,198 adolescents from the 2nd Mexican National Survey on Exclusion, Intolerance, and Violence in public schools in 2009. The analysis used the regression models proposed by Baron & Kenny. Prevalence of having considered or attempted cross-border migration was 23.1%. Mean age was 16.36 years. Female adolescents constituted 54.9% of the sample, and 56% were lower-income. Mental health variables that acted as partial mediators were suicidal ideation (35.9%), depression (19.2%), attempted suicide (17.7%), emotional self-esteem (6.2%), and self-esteem in school (3.4%) for moderate family violence, and emotional self-esteem (17.5%) for social rejection in school and suicidal ideation (8.1%) for physical harm in school. Female adolescents showed greater impact from mediators than men in considering or having attempted cross-border migration. The study discusses the importance of incorporating the prevention of violence in the social contexts studied here and incorporating mental health in dealing with violence in adolescents and in public health programs in transit areas for illegal migrants.
Dodd, Virginia J; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank
An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural adolescents. Semistructured individual interviews with 100 rural, minority, low socioeconomic status adolescents revealed their current perceptions of oral health and dental care access. Respondents age ranged from 12 to 18 years. The sample was 80% black and 52% male. Perceived threat from dental disease was low. Adolescents perceived regular brushing and flossing as superseding the need for preventive care. Esthetic reasons were most often cited as reasons to seek dental care. Difficulties accessing dental care include finances, transportation, fear, issues with Medicaid coverage and parental responsibility. In general, adolescents and their parents are in need of information regarding the importance of preventive dental care. Findings illuminate barriers to dental care faced by low-income rural adolescents and counter public perceptions of government-sponsored dental care programs as being "free" or without cost. The importance of improved oral health knowledge, better access to care, and school-based dental care is discussed. © 2014, American School Health Association.
This paper introduces nine steps that are recommended in conducting focus group discussions in rural communities and gives an example of how they can appropriately and fruitfully be employed in adolescent health behavioural research. The paper also reviewed issues related to methods of data collection, data analysis, ...
specific health-care needs that are different than children or adults (82.3% and 84.0%, respectively. With respect to health services, the majority (85.8% believed that adolescents should be hospitalized in adolescent-specific wards. Only 26.7% of health-care providers believed that patients should be transferred from child to adult health-care services at 12–13 years of age, as is currently practiced in the country. Conclusion: A gap exists between the training, knowledge and skills of health-care providers, and the needs to address health-care issues of adolescents in Saudi Arabia. This coupled with the fact that health-care providers are interested in gaining more knowledge and skills and are supportive of changes in the health-care system provides an opportunity for building local capacity and instituting medical and nursing education and health-care reform that can better serve the needs of the country's young population. Keywords: medical education, young population, knowledge transfer
Shahid, A.; Nasim, S.; Memon, A.A.; Mustafa, M.A.
Objectives: To determine the existing knowledge, attitude and behavior about reproductive and sexual health in adolescents of Karachi and seek their opinion about reproductive health education. Study type, settings and duration: A cross sectional study was conducted on adolescents (17-19 years) of both gender studying in colleges of Karachi during 2010. Subject sand Methods: Using stratified sampling procedure, a cross sectional study was carried out. After informed consent and ensuring confidentiality an anonymous quantitative questionnaire was completed to ascertain the knowledge of adolescents on reproductive health. Results: A total of 912 adolescents (470 males and 442 females) of 12 public and private sector colleges of Karachi participated in the study. Acquaintance to reproductive health was present in 75% males and 71% females and most participants confirmed discussing reproductive health issues with friends. About 81% males and 91 % females affirmed for a need for enhanced reproductive health education and awareness while over 50% of the respondents were of the opinion that the right age for reproductive health education was 16 to 18 years. Confining sexual activity to one partner and avoiding exposure to blood and needles for the prevention of AIDS was known to 38% males and 44% females but the prevention of sexually transmitted infections using condoms, was known to only 1/3 rd of the respondents. Although 70% of the respondents of both genders knew that pregnancy can be avoided but only 20% knew about contraceptives. Conclusions: Most adolescents' knew about the reproductive cycle but were not well aware of how to avoid exposures to sexually transmitted infections and pregnancies. Policy message: Reproductive health education is insufficient in adolescents should be gender specific and socio culturally sensitive. (author)
Mcgee, R; Williams, S
It is often believed that low self-esteem is associated with such health-compromising behaviours in adolescence as substance use, early sexual activity, eating problems and suicidal ideation. Surprisingly, there is little longitudinal research addressing this issue. This longitudinal study examines the predictive association between both global and academic self-esteem from ages 9 to 13 years, and a variety of health compromising behaviours at age 15, in a large sample of young New Zealanders. Levels of global self-esteem significantly predicted adolescent report of problem eating, suicidal ideation, and multiple health compromising behaviours. Earlier levels of self-esteem were unrelated to later substance use and early sexual activity. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for efforts to raise self-esteem among young people. Copyright 2000 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.
Gupta, Neeru; Mathur, A K; Singh, M P; Saxena, N C
In 1996, India included Adolescent Health in Reproductive and Child Heatlh Programme. This Task-Force Study was planned to test the awareness level of adolescents regarding various reproductive health issues and to identify lacunae in knowledge, particularly in legal minimum age of marriage, number of children, male preference, contraceptive practices, about STIs /AIDS etc. It was a multicentre study, done in rural co-education/higher secondary schools of 22 districts located in 14 states through Human Reproductive Research Centre (HRRC's) of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). A sample of 8453 school going adolescents (aged 10-19 years) was surveyed by means of open ended, self-administered questionnaires maintaining confidentiality. Mean age of adolescents was 14.3 +/- 3.4 years. Awareness of legal minimum age of marriage was present in more than half of adolescents. Attitude towards marriage beyond 21 years in boys and 18 years in girls was favorable. Mean number of children desired was 2.2 +/- 1.4. However, number of children desired by boys (2.2+/-1.6) was significantly more (p< 0.000) than those desired by girls (2.0+/-1.1). More boys (23.7%) than girls (9.4%) wanted three or more children with male preference. Only 19.8% of adolescents were aware of at least one method of contraception. Only two-fifth (39.5%) were aware of AIDS and less than one-fifth (18%) were aware of STDs and most of them thought it is same as AIDS. Awareness of at least one method of immunization was present in three-fifth (60.1%) of students. It was least for DPT (13.5%) and most (55%) were aware of polio only. Awareness of all Reproductive Health matters was more in boys than girls and more in late teens (15-19) than earlier teens (10-14). The study showed tremendous lacunae in awareness of all Reproductive Health (RH) matters. There is a need for evolving information, education, and communication strategies to focus on raising awareness on RH and gender related issues. A
Lindstrom, Rena R.; Van Sant, Sondra
Gifted adolescents from minority groups face the same issues all gifted young people face, but the addition of racial and cultural factors increases the complexity of these issues. Discusses individual versus cultural pressures that affect identity, issues related to assisting students with long-range planning, and two models for programming.…
Full Text Available Adolescence is the period in human growth and development that occurs after childhood and before adulthood, from ages 10 to 19 years. It is a period of dynamic brain development. During this period, adolescents learn from the social behavior and environmental surroundings of their community. Because of rapid urbanization without accounting for the basic health-care amenities, health disparities tend to arise. In this review, we have tried to describe the health profile of adolescents in urban India. Relevant articles were extracted from PubMed and related websites. Adolescents in urban areas perceive their physical environment as very poor. Social capital and social cohesion are very important in their development. Increasing child marriage and poor antenatal care among adolescents are key challenges in improving the reproductive and sexual health. More than half of adolescents are undernourished. About 56% of adolescent girls are anemic. At this time of fighting against under-nutrition, burden of overweight and obesity is increasing among the urban adolescents. Mass media use and increased sedentary lifestyle increase the risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. Labile mental and emotional behavior makes them prone to suicide and intentional self-harm. Another avoidable key challenge among adolescents is addiction. Urban living and regular media exposure are positively associated with smoking and alcohol consumption. Among unintentional injuries, road traffic accidents dominate the picture. Various health programs targeting adolescent health have been launched in the recent past.
Hirani, Kajal; Cherian, Sarah; Mutch, Raewyn; Payne, Donald N
Adolescent refugees encounter traumatic stressors and are at risk of developing psychosocial health problems; limited research data exist internationally. This study aims to identify health risk behaviours among adolescent refugees resettling in Western Australia and assess the feasibility of using a standardised adolescent health questionnaire for this purpose. Refugees aged 12 years and above attending a tertiary Refugee Health Service (RHS) were recruited over 12 months. Sociodemographic data were collected. Psychosocial assessments based on the ' H ome, E ducation/Eating, A ctivities, D rugs, S exuality, S uicide/mental health' (HEADSS) framework were undertaken utilising interpreters where required. Health concerns identified were managed through the RHS. A total of 122 adolescents (20 ethnicities) participated; 65% required interpreters. Median age (range) was 14 (12-17) years. Most (80%) had nuclear family separation. Almost half (49%) had a deceased/missing family member. A third (37%) had lived in refugee camps and 20% had experienced closed detention. The median time (range) since arrival in Australia was 11 (2-86) months. Every adolescent had at least one health concern identified during the psychosocial assessment. Frequency of health concerns identified in each domain were 87% for home, 66% for education, 23% for eating, 93% for activities, 5% for drugs, 88% for sexuality and 61% for suicide/mental health. Most adolescents (75%) required intervention, consisting of counselling for health risk behaviours and/or referral to health or community services. It is feasible to use a standardised adolescent health questionnaire to identify health risk behaviours among a cohort of ethnically diverse adolescent refugees. Use of the questionnaire identified a large burden of psychosocial health issues requiring multidisciplinary intervention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved
Garg, Rajesh; Goyal, Shobha; Gupta, Sanjeev
The onset of menstruation is one of the most important physiological changes occurring among girls during the adolescent years. Menstruation heralds the onset of physiological maturity in girls. It becomes the part and parcel of their lives until menopause. Apart from personal importance, this phenomenon also has social significance. In India, menstruation is surrounded by myths and misconceptions with a long list of "do's" and "don'ts" for women. Hygiene-related practices of women during menstruation are of considerable importance, as it may increase vulnerability to Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI's). Poor menstrual hygiene is one of the major reasons for the high prevalence of RTIs in the country and contributes significantly to female morbidity. Most of the adolescent girls in villages use rags and old clothes during menstruation, increasing susceptibility to RTI's. Adolescents constitute one-fifths of India's population and yet their sexual health needs remain largely unaddressed in the national welfare programs. Poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. In June 2010, the Government of India proposed a new scheme towards menstrual hygiene by a provision of subsidized sanitary napkins to rural adolescent girls. But there are various other issues like awareness, availability and quality of napkins, regular supply, privacy, water supply, disposal of napkins, reproductive health education and family support which needs simultaneous attention for promotion of menstrual hygiene. The current article looks at the issue of menstrual hygiene not only from the health point of view, but also considers social and human rights values attached to it.
Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert
This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and reproductive health issues, the negotiation of sex…
Harrison, Megan E; van Zanten, Stephanie Veldhuijzen; Noel, Ariana; Gresham, Louise; Norris, Mark L; Robinson, Amy; Chan, Jason; Boafo, Addo
To review sexual health screening practices during admission to an adolescent psychiatry unit. Retrospective chart review of randomly selected youth admitted over a one-year period (2013). Data extracted included demographics, reasons for admission, sexual health history, as well as any comorbid behaviours noted. The main outcome measure was whether sexual health details were documented at any time during admission; if so, this information was extracted for analysis. Statistical analysis was done using univariate associations and logistic association. Mean age of subjects (n=99, 79 females and 20 males) was 15.24 years (SD = 1.30). Most common reasons for admission were suicidal gestures/self harm (n=57, 58%) and mood disorders (n=53, 54%). Thirty-seven patients (37%) had sexual health information documented in their charts. No demographic variables were significantly associated with being asked sexual health questions. Patients who had mood disorder diagnoses had 6 times the odds (95%CI: 1.18 to 29.96, P=0.03) of sexual health questions being documented compared to those not diagnosed with mood disorders. Screening for sexual health concerns is not being documented in the majority of adolescent psychiatry inpatients. Omitting sexual health screening during hospitalizations represents a missed opportunity for investigation and management of sexual health issues in this high-risk group. As many adolescents, particular those struggling with mental illness, do not attend preventative health visits, screening for pregnancy risk and other reproductive health needs is recommended at every adolescent encounter and in all settings.
Full Text Available Adolescence is a period in which all the habits and behaviour like high risk behaviour, substance abuse and eating habits develop that have lifelong impact. In India, programmes have been launched to address all the problems faced during adolescent period, still then adolescents are facing problems. In this review the problems faced by Indian adolescents were highlighted from the past 14 years’ studies. The studies were searched from 2001 to 2015 from Pub Med, Google scholar and other community medicine and public health related journals. The problems included were sexual health and teenage pregnancy, problems related to menstruation, illicit drugs, tobacco and alcohol use. Anaemia, eating problems, obesity, behavioural problems and oral health among adolescent were also reviewed. Nineteen abstracts and 52 full texts were available. Sexual health knowledge among adolescent varies from 41% to poor. Knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases and sexuality is less. Prevalence of dysmenorrhoea varies from 67.2% to 56.15% among adolescent girls. Prevalence of tobacco use varies from 25.1 to 12%. Prevalence of obesity varies from 3.4% to 0.35% and overweight varies from 5.5% to 5.84%. Prevalence of anaemia varies from 29% to 41.1%. Adolescents are facing depressive problems, physical fights, worry and loneliness. Prevalence of depression varies from 18.4% to 13.3%. Prevalence of dental problems varies from 18.2 to 41%. The review revealed that adolescents in India are facing problems of sexually transmitted infections, dysmenorrhea, tobacco and alcohol use, depression, physical fights, worry, loneliness and oral health problems. This needs a participation of family, community and government to resolve the issue.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents experience disparities in mental and sexual health. There is also a lack of research on this population relative to other adolescents, which limits our ability to effectively address these health disparities. Researchers may unfortunately avoid conducting research with this population because of anticipated or actual experiences with difficulties in obtaining IRB approval. A case example is provided to illustrate the ethical and regulatory issues related to research with LGBT adolescents. Relevant U.S. federal and local regulations related to research on sexual and mental health with adolescents is then reviewed. Data are presented demonstrating that requiring parental consent for LGBT youth under age 18 would likely alter study result. Data are also presented on participants' appraisals of the risks and discomforts associated with research participation. The provision of such empirical data on the risks of research participation is consistent with the goal of moving the IRB process of risk/benefit assessment from being entirely subjective to being evidence-based. Finally, recommendations are provided on how to approach these issues in IRB applications and investigators are called to help to build a corpus of scholarship that can advance empirical knowledge in this area.
Berg, Rachelle; Hendricks, Bret; Bradley, Loretta
Major ethical considerations must be taken into account when providing counseling services to suicidal adolescents and their families. This article explores these ethical issues and the American Counseling Association and International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors ethical codes relevant to these issues. Related liability and…
Brindis, Claire D; Moore, Kristin
Many US policies that affect health are made at the state, not the federal, level. Identifying state-level policies and data to analyze how different policies affect outcomes may help policy makers ascertain the usefulness of their public policies and funding decisions in improving the health of adolescent populations. A framework for describing and assessing the role of federal and state policies on adolescent health and well-being is proposed; an example of how the framework might be applied to the issue of teen childbearing is included. Such a framework can also help inform analyses of whether and how state and federal policies contribute to the variation across states in meeting adolescent health needs. A database on state policies, contextual variables, and health outcomes data can further enable researchers and policy makers to examine how these factors are associated with behaviors they aim to impact.
Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Benka, Jozef; Orosova, Olga
The paper deals with parental employment status and its relationship to adolescents' self-reported health. It studies the role of the financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent resilience in the relationship between parental employment status and adolescents' self-rated health, vitality and mental health. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse questionnaire data obtained from 2799 adolescents (mean age 14.3) in 2006. The results show a negative association of the father's, but not mother's unemployment or non-employment with adolescents' health. Regression analyses showed that neither financial strain nor a poor parent-adolescent relationship or a low score in resilience accounted for the relationship between the father's unemployment or non-employment and poorer adolescent health. Furthermore, resilience did not work as a buffer against the negative impact of fathers' unemployment on adolescents' health.
Full Text Available Background: Since adolescent girls comprise a major reproductive age group, their role is critical in determining the India's future population goal. This apart, evidence ofchange in sexual behavior and growing spread of HIV infection, has generatedfresh reproductive health concerns, which need to be accountedfor by policy makers to develop appropriate family life educational strategies.Objectives:To assess the level of knowledge ofoubertal changes, reproductive tract infections and HIV/AIDS among adolescents.To assess the attitude of adolescent girls regarding age at marriage, age at first birth, small family concept.To identify the preferred source of information by adolescents on reproductive health.Study design: cross- sectional studySampling Technique: thirty cluster methodology Study setting: Rural areas of Luc knowParticipants: 455 unmarried adolescent girls of (10-19 years age .Statistical A nalysis: Chi square test and Fischer exact testResult: Three fourth of the girls were aware of at least one pubertal change. In spite of being aware that RTI is a curable disease, only 8.5% of the girls having RTI sought treatmentfor it. About 80% ofadolescent girls had heard of HIV/AIDS. 47.7% ofadolescents were unaware that it is incurable. Heterosexual relation was cited by most (73.2% ofthe girls as mode oftransmission of HIV. Sex with partner only and use ofcondom as a preventive measure was identified by 52.6% and 39.2% girls respectively. Early marriage and early child bearing (<2I years was preferred by 10.7% and 33.6% of girls respectively. Family size oftwo or less was preferred by 69.2%> Irrespective ofany age group, majority of the girls preferred afamily member to get information on reproductive health problems
Hardoff, Daniel; Gefen, Assaf; Sagi, Doron; Ziv, Amitai
Human dignity has a pivotal role within the health care system. There is little experience using simulation-based medical education (SBME) programs that focus on human dignity issues in doctor-patient relationships. To describe and assess a SBME program aimed at improving physicians' competence in a dignifying approach when encountering adolescents and their parents. A total of 97 physicians participated in 8 one-day SMBE workshops that included 7 scenarios of typical adolescent health care dilemmas. These issues could be resolved if the physician used an appropriate dignifying approach toward the patient and the parents. Debriefing discussions were based on video recordings of the scenarios. The effect of the workshops on participants' approach to adolescent health care was assessed by a feedback questionnaire and on 5-point Likert score questionnaires administered before the workshop and 3 months after. All participants completed both the pre-workshop and the feedback questionnaires and 41 (42%) completed the post-workshop questionnaire 3 months later. Practice and competence topics received significantly higher scores in post-workshop questionnaires (P simulation-based workshop may improve physicians' communication skills and sense of competence in addressing adolescents' health care issues which require a dignifying approach toward both the adolescent patients and their parents. This dignity-focused methodology may be expanded to improve communication skills of physicians from various disciplines.
Yonker, Lael M; Zan, Shiyi; Scirica, Christina V; Jethwani, Kamal; Kinane, T Bernard
Social media has emerged as a potentially powerful medium for communication with adolescents and young adults around their health choices. The goal of this systematic review is to identify research on the use of social media for interacting with adolescents and young adults in order to achieve positive health outcomes. A MEDLINE/PubMed electronic database search was performed between January 1, 2002 and October 1, 2013, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media and other Web 2.0 technologies were an important feature. We used a systematic approach to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. We identified 288 studies involving social media, of which 87 met criteria for inclusion; 75 studies were purely observational and 12 were interventional. The ways in which social media was leveraged by these studies included (1) observing adolescent and young adult behavior (n=77), (2) providing health information (n=13), (3) engaging the adolescent and young adult community (n=17), and (4) recruiting research participants (n=23). Common health topics addressed included high-risk sexual behaviors (n=23), alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use (n=19), Internet safety (n=8), mental health issues (n=18), medical conditions (n=11), or other specified issues (n=12). Several studies used more than one social media platform and addressed more than one health-related topic. Social media technologies offer an exciting new means for engaging and communicating with adolescents and young adults; it has been successfully used to engage this age group, identify behaviors, and provide appropriate intervention and education. Nevertheless, the majority of studies to date have been preliminary and limited in their methodologies, and mostly center around evaluating how adolescents and young adults use social media and the resulting implications on their health. Although these explorations are essential, further exploration and development of these strategies into
Montessoro, A C; Blixen, C E
In the United States 45% of female adolescents engage in premarital sex; 40% will become pregnant before reaching the age of 20; and 4/5 of these pregnancies will be unintended. Adolescent pregnancy has been associated with increased health risks for both the mother and the child. Only 6 in 10 adolescents will graduate from high school compared with 9 in 10 of their peers who delayed parenthood. The increasing number of single-parent families has contributed significantly to the increase in child poverty rates from 15% in 1960 to 20.3% in 1988. Further, such families cost billions of dollars to taxpayers because of public assistance and medical care. From a historical viewpoint the number of teen childbearing reached a peak in 1957 with 97.3 births per 1000 women 15-17 years old; it declined to 52.8/1000 by 1977 and to 51.8/1000 by the 1980s. The legalization of abortion in 1973 had a major impact on the resolution of adolescent pregnancies. Since the 1960s there has been a faster increase in early sexual activity, pregnancy, and birth among White adolescents than among minority groups. The United States has higher rates than western European countries, while it is also more ambivalent on sexuality issues. Tremendous change did take place in the 1960s in American culture as regards the family, and social and sexual relationships. Yet there is still a double standard with respect to female morality, and adolescents get a conflicting message about sexuality. Teenage mothers and their infants face an uncertain economic future because the much maligned welfare system is undergoing an overhaul and the market is shrinking for unskilled workers. Although increasing numbers of pregnant adolescents remained in school after amendments were passed to the education act, adolescent pregnancy has not been tackled at its very footing, its socioeconomic causes.
differences in competencies might be a key determinant in explaining inequalities in emotional health problems. Methods: The HBSC Methodology Survey 2012 included 11-15-year-old school children in Slagelse and Halsnæs municipality, participation rate 77%, n=3975. The participants answered a new test......Background: Emotional health problems are widespread among adolescents. The Health Behavior in School aged Children (HBSC) survey from 2010 of 11-15-year-olds' health and well-being show that 21% of girls and 16% of boys experience at least one emotional problem every day. Adolescents´ mental...... health is an important public health issue and a goal in itself. Further, mental health and competencies in adolescence track into adulthood. Emotional health problems seem to be socially patterned as the prevalence of problems is approximately twice as high in lower compared to higher social classes...
Hegde, Asha; Kamath, Asha; Roy, Kallol
The transitional phase encompassing the physiological and psychological changes during our lifespan is termed as adolescence. Adolescents get mislead to substance use, violence related activities, dating relationships, unhealthy lifestyle. Minimal studies are conducted in India to identify the parenting factors that affect an adolescent's mind. The aim of our study was to explore the role of parenting and social surroundings on - adolescent's mental health and involvement in violence related activities. Cross sectional study design was adopted. Semi structured questionnaire was used. Data obtained was entered and analyzed using SPSS 15. Proportions were used to report the findings. Chi-square test was used to find associations between mental health issues, involvement in violence related activities and Interpersonal Relationship (IPR) Status. Multiple logistic regressions were done to identify independent predictors of mental health. A total of 1770 adolescents participated. Proportion of adolescents with good IPR with parents reported to be having a better mental health status and low involvement in violent related activities. Schools also displayed similar effects. Neighborhood, peers did not display any significant effect on adolescent's mental health. Most significant predictor for adolescent mental health was IPR with parents and at school. The study highlights the need of a cordial environment at places which does influence the adolescent's mental health. Interventions enhancing the relationship status of adolescents with parents, at school must be carried out to observe the change in adolescent behavior.
Indonesia is now entering the Fifth Country Program Cycle of Population. The reproductive health and family well-being of the youth forms part of the country program. In order to translate this component into concrete action program, a project document in its first draft was developed for UNFPA (UN Population Fund) funding by the government and with the assistance of UNFPA CST, Bangkok and UNFPA Field Office in Jakarta. The project aims to raise the level of commitment and degree of participation of families, particularly parents, for developing among their pre-adolescent and adolescent children a better understanding of the concepts/process of adolescent reproductive health and desirable attitudes and values dealing with family well-being. This is to be achieved through family-centered learning approaches that will contribute to the adoption of the small, happy, and prosperous family norm. To achieve this goal, the project will develop national capacity by creating management teams, developing sets of training and counseling materials, delivering key messages through the media, upgrading skills in adolescent counseling and developing better understanding of adolescent reproductive health and family well-being issues among the facilitators. The strategy to be used is to set up small groups of 20-30 families which will regularly meet to discuss adolescent problems and issues with the help of cadres. They will be supported by provincial reproductive health and family well-being counseling centers which will also be set up to handle serious cases difficult for parents to handle. These centers, to be run by NGOs, will provide counseling services to parents and youth, evolve innovative and culturally acceptable counseling techniques, and at the same time serve as material and information collection, development and dissemination centers. The project will be launched in collaboration with seven NGOs in seven selected provinces. It is currently under review by UNFPA and
Archana, Siddaiah; Nongkrynh, B; Anand, K; Pandav, C S
High prevalence of reproductive morbidities is seen among adolescents in India. Health workers play an important role in providing health services in the community, including the adolescent reproductive health services. A study was done to assess the feasibility of training female health workers (FHWs) in the classification and management of selected adolescent girls' reproductive health problems according to modified WHO algorithms. The study was conducted between Jan-Sept 2011 in Northern India. Thirteen FHWs were trained regarding adolescent girls' reproductive health as per WHO Adolescent Job-Aid booklet. A pre and post-test assessment of the knowledge of the FHWs was carried out. All FHWs were given five modified WHO algorithms to classify and manage common reproductive morbidities among adolescent girls. All the FHWs applied the algorithms on at least ten adolescent girls at their respective sub-centres. Simultaneously, a medical doctor independently applied the same algorithms in all girls. Classification of the condition was followed by relevant management and advice provided in the algorithm. Focus group discussion with the FHWs was carried out to receive their feedback. After training the median score of the FHWs increased from 19.2 to 25.2 (p - 0.0071). Out of 144 girls examined by the FHWs 108 were classified as true positives and 30 as true negatives and agreement as measured by kappa was 0.7 (0.5-0.9). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 94.3% (88.2-97.4), 78.9% (63.6-88.9), 92.5% (86.0-96.2), and 83.3% (68.1-92.1) respectively. A consistent and significant difference between pre and post training knowledge scores of the FHWs were observed and hence it was possible to use the modified Job Aid algorithms with ease. Limitation of this study was the munber of FHWs trained was small. Issues such as time management during routine work, timing of training, overhead cost of training etc were not
Bay, J L; Vickers, M H
Health before conception, and periconceptional nutritional environments, contribute to conditioning of later-life health and disease. Health behaviors developed during adolescence continue into adulthood. Thus, even when the gap between pregnancy and adolescence is substantial, behaviors developed during adolescence influence later-life non-communicable disease (NCD) vulnerability in offspring. Consequently, adolescence is an important life phase where development of positive health behaviors can contribute to disruption of transgenerational cycles of NCD risk. Schooling is a core activity during adolescence. Modern curricula focus on development of capabilities associated with critical, engaged citizenship, empowering learning that supports action-based engagement in complex issues. Contexts relevant to adolescents and their communities, such as the NCD epidemic, are used to facilitate learning. Thus, engaging the education sector as participants in the work of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease community offers an important strategy to capture the potential of adolescence as a life stage for transgenerational primary prevention of obesity and NCD risk.
Park, Eunhee; Kwon, Misol
The internet is widely used by children and adolescents, who generally have a high level of competency with technology. Thus, the internet has become a great resource for supporting youth self-care and health-related services. However, few studies have explored adolescents' internet use for health-related matters. The objective of this systematic literature review was to examine the phenomenon of children and adolescents' health-related internet use and to identify gaps in the research. A total of 19 studies were selected from a search of major electronic databases: PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO using the following search terms: "health-related internet use," "eHealth," "Internet use for health-related purpose," "Web-based resource," "health information seeking," and "online resource," combined with "child," "adolescent," "student," "youth," and "teen." The children's and adolescents' ages were limited to 24 years and younger. The search was conducted from September 2015 to October 2017. The studies identified to contain youth (<24 years) health-related internet use were all published in peer-reviewed journals in the past 10 years; these studies examined general internet use seeking health care services, resources, information, or using the internet for health promotion and self-care. Studies were excluded if they explored the role of the internet as a modality for surveys, recruitment, or searching for relevant literature without specifically aiming to study participants' health-related internet use; focused solely on quality assurance for specific websites; or were designed to test a specific internet-based intervention. Interesting patterns in adolescents' health-related internet use, such as seeking preventative health care and specific information about medical issues, were identified. Quantitative studies reported rates of the internet use and access among youth, and the purpose and patterns of health
This article provides information on adolescent developmental issues and developmentally appropriate interventions that can help mental health practitioners work with adolescents grieving a death loss. Specific areas that are initially covered include core adolescent developmental issues that must be understood, including adolescent developmental…
Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health. ... GENDER, URBAN/RURAL AND SOCIAL CLASS DIFFERENCES · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... CLINICAL PERSPECTIVES'CROSS-CULTURAL' ISSUES IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT ... HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY IN BRAIN INJURED CHILDREN BOCA ...
Emans, S Jean; Austin, S Bryn; Goodman, Elizabeth; Orr, Donald P; Freeman, Robert; Stoff, David; Litt, Iris F; Schuster, Mark A; Haggerty, Robert; Granger, Robert; Irwin, Charles E
To address the critical shortage of physician scientists in the field of adolescent medicine, a conference of academic leaders and representatives from foundations, National Institutes of Health, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, and the American Board of Pediatrics was convened to discuss training in transdisciplinary research, facilitators and barriers of successful career trajectories, models of training, and mentorship. The following eight recommendations were made to improve training and career development: incorporate more teaching and mentoring on adolescent health research in medical schools; explore opportunities and electives to enhance clinical and research training of residents in adolescent health; broaden educational goals for Adolescent Medicine fellowship research training and develop an intensive transdisciplinary research track; redesign the career pathway for the development of faculty physician scientists transitioning from fellowship to faculty positions; expand formal collaborations between Leadership Education in Adolescent Health/other Adolescent Medicine Fellowship Programs and federal, foundation, and institutional programs; develop research forums at national meetings and opportunities for critical feedback and mentoring across programs; educate Institutional Review Boards about special requirements for high quality adolescent health research; and address the trainee and faculty career development issues specific to women and minorities to enhance opportunities for academic success. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. All rights reserved.
Zare, Elham; Simbar, Masoumeh; Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Alavi Majd, Hamid
Health in the adolescence period guarantees the next generation's health. The assessment of health needs is the first stage for the implementation of health promotion interventions. This study aimed to assess the priorities of male adolescent's health needs in Tehran, Iran, in year 2015. This cross-sectional correlational study was conducted with 1,200 male adolescents aged between 13 and 18 years. Single male adolescents studying in public guidance and high schools in Tehran, Iran, in year 2015 were chosen using a random multistage sampling method. Data were collected using the male adolescent health need assessment scale. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. It was found that while the lowest score was for the domain of sexual health, other domains had average or higher than average scores. More attention should be paid to the sexual health needs of male adolescents. Policy makers need to design strategies that help meet the health needs of male adolescents.
Following the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), our knowledge of HIV infection and management has increased ... This article highlights common treatment issues in HIV adolescent care and ... Oral sex is viewed as less risky and often this is not explored in the ... parents, peers and the community.
Following the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), our knowledge of HIV infection and management has increased rapidly, but implementation of interventions has been slow in resource-limited settings. In particular, interventions such as antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission were hindered owing to lack of access to antiretroviral drugs. This resulted in ongoing HIV transmission, morbidity and mortality associated with opportunistic infections. Notwithstanding the current progress in HIV prevention and treatment, challenges remain in preventing new infections in adolescents and supporting and treating HIV-infected adolescents. Barriers to successful treatment of infection in adolescents include denial of diagnosis, poor understanding or perception of future benefits of treatment and current-orientated thinking that may contribute to non-adherence to ART. Side-effects that lead to stigmatisation, such as lipoatrophy (stavudine, zidovudine), diarrhoea and flatulence (lopinavir/ritonavir) and gynaecomastia (efavirenz), maybe intolerable and prevent adherence to treatment. This article highlights common treatment issues in HIV adolescent care and provides guidance on their management in the South African setting.
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A,; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to increase service use. This paper examines associations of school resources with past-year mental health service use among students with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. Method Data come from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescent mental health that included 4,445 adolescent-parent pairs in 227 schools in which principals and mental health coordinators completed surveys about school resources-policies for addressing student emotional problems. Adolescents and parents completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and reported mental health service use across multiple sectors. Multilevel multivariate regression was used to examine associations of school mental health resources and individual-level service use. Results Roughly half (45.3%) of adolescents with a 12-month DSM-IV disorder received past-year mental health services. Substantial variation existed in school resources. Increased school engagement in early identification was significantly associated with mental health service use for adolescents with mild/moderate mental and behavior disorders. The ratio of students-to-mental health providers was not associated with overall service use, but was associated with sector of service use. Conclusions School mental health resources, particularly those related to early identification, may facilitate mental health service use and influence sector of service use for youths with DSM disorders. PMID:23622851
Sharifi, Vandad; Mojtabai, Ramin; Shahrivar, Zahra; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Zarafshan, Hadi; Wissow, Lawrence
The need for mental health care among children and adolescents in Iran, as in other low and middle income countries (LAMIC) remains mostly unmet. In this paper, we sought to provide an overview of the extent of unmet need and mental health services in Iran. We also aimed to propose approaches to address this gap. We reviewed the published epidemiologic studies of child and adolescent mental and behavioral health problems in Iran. We also examined the current status of child mental health services and the gaps between current needs and available services based on published literature that included papers published in scientific journals, as well as governmental and other administrative reports. The contextual issues relevant to child mental health care were also explored, as well as the possibilities to introduce new or scale up promising services. Child and adolescent mental and behavioral health problems are highly prevalent in Iran. Different studies have estimated that 16.7% to 36.4% of children and adolescents suffer from one or more mental health problems. However, there is a serious scarcity of resources to meet this need. Available services are delivered by independent public organizations (e.g., Ministry of Health, Welfare Organization, and Ministry of Education) or private sector with inefficient communication and collaboration among them and no mandatory national mental health policy. Available specialized child and adolescent services are mostly confined to small inpatient units and university outpatient facilities in larger cities, and there is a scarce evidence for the effectiveness of the available services. Expansion of primary care's role in timely detection and management of child and adolescent mental health problems, implementation of task-shifting and -sharing initiatives, as well as improved collaboration among responsible governmental and non-governmental sectors are some of the most promising future venues to improve mental health care for
Roscoe, B.; Goodwin, M.P.
Three hundred fifty-seven college students were surveyed to assess later adolescents' awareness of the status of nuclear arms development and possible effects of a nuclear war on people and the environment. Chi-square analyses were performed to determine whether the frequency of correct responses differed with regard to participants' sex, political orientation, and position toward the United States' possession of nuclear weapons. Results suggest that later adolescents are extremely uninformed regarding the current status of nuclear issues and the consequences of a nuclear war. These data, coupled with findings from previous studies reporting children's and adolescents' concerns and fears about nuclear war, indicate that there is a strong need to educate young people concerning nuclear issues
Saewyc, Elizabeth M.
The decade between 1998 and 2008 saw rapid increases in research on adolescent sexual orientation development and related health issues, both in the quantity and in the quality of studies. While much of the research originated in North America, studies from other countries also contributed to emerging understanding of developmental trajectories…
Wartberg, L; Kriston, L; Kramer, M; Schwedler, A; Lincoln, T M; Kammerl, R
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Currently, associations between IGD in early adolescence and mental health are largely unexplained. In the present study, the relation of IGD with adolescent and parental mental health was investigated for the first time. We surveyed 1095 family dyads (an adolescent aged 12-14 years and a related parent) with a standardized questionnaire for IGD as well as for adolescent and parental mental health. We conducted linear (dimensional approach) and logistic (categorical approach) regression analyses. Both with dimensional and categorical approaches, we observed statistically significant associations between IGD and male gender, a higher degree of adolescent antisocial behavior, anger control problems, emotional distress, self-esteem problems, hyperactivity/inattention and parental anxiety (linear regression model: corrected R 2 =0.41, logistic regression model: Nagelkerke's R 2 =0.41). IGD appears to be associated with internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents. Moreover, the findings of the present study provide first evidence that not only adolescent but also parental mental health is relevant to IGD in early adolescence. Adolescent and parental mental health should be considered in prevention and intervention programs for IGD in adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Scirica, Christina V; Jethwani, Kamal
Background Social media has emerged as a potentially powerful medium for communication with adolescents and young adults around their health choices. Objective The goal of this systematic review is to identify research on the use of social media for interacting with adolescents and young adults in order to achieve positive health outcomes. Methods A MEDLINE/PubMed electronic database search was performed between January 1, 2002 and October 1, 2013, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media and other Web 2.0 technologies were an important feature. We used a systematic approach to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. Results We identified 288 studies involving social media, of which 87 met criteria for inclusion; 75 studies were purely observational and 12 were interventional. The ways in which social media was leveraged by these studies included (1) observing adolescent and young adult behavior (n=77), (2) providing health information (n=13), (3) engaging the adolescent and young adult community (n=17), and (4) recruiting research participants (n=23). Common health topics addressed included high-risk sexual behaviors (n=23), alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use (n=19), Internet safety (n=8), mental health issues (n=18), medical conditions (n=11), or other specified issues (n=12). Several studies used more than one social media platform and addressed more than one health-related topic. Conclusions Social media technologies offer an exciting new means for engaging and communicating with adolescents and young adults; it has been successfully used to engage this age group, identify behaviors, and provide appropriate intervention and education. Nevertheless, the majority of studies to date have been preliminary and limited in their methodologies, and mostly center around evaluating how adolescents and young adults use social media and the resulting implications on their health. Although these explorations are essential, further
Francomano, Jesse A; Harpin, Scott B
Social networking site use has exploded among youth in the last few years and is being adapted as an important tool for healthcare interventions and serving as a platform for adolescents to gain access to health information. The aim of this study was to examine the strengths, weaknesses, and best practices of utilizing Facebook in adolescent health promotion and research via pragmatic literature review. We also examine how sites can facilitate ethically sound healthcare for adolescents, particularly at-risk youth. We conducted a literature review of health and social sciences literature from the past 5 years related to adolescent health and social network site use. Publications were grouped by shared content then categorized by themes. Five themes emerged: access to healthcare information, peer support and networking, risk and benefits of social network site use in care delivery, overcoming technological barriers, and social network site interventions. More research is needed to better understand how such Web sites can be better utilized to provide access to adolescents seeking healthcare. Given the broad reach of social network sites, all health information must be closely monitored for accurate, safe distribution. Finally, consent and privacy issues are omnipresent in social network sites, which calls for standards of ethical use.
Cerniglia, L; Zoratto, F; Cimino, S; Laviola, G; Ammaniti, M; Adriani, W
Despite it has not been formally included in DSM-5 as a disorder, 'Internet addiction (IA)' has become a worldwide issue. It can be broadly defined as a non-chemical, behavioral addiction, which involves human-machine interaction. We pinpoint it as an "instrumental" form of social interaction (i.e. mediated by machines), a notion that appears useful for the sake of possible preclinical modeling. The features of Internet use reveals as addictive when this comes at the expense of genuine real-life sociability, with an overlap towards the hikikomori phenomenon (i.e., extreme retreat to one's own room). Due to the specific neuro-developmental plasticity in adolescence, IA poses risks to youths' mental health, and may likely produce negative consequences in everyday life. The thwarted development of adolescents' identity, self-image and adaptive social relationships is discussed: the IA adolescents often suffer loss of control, feelings of anger, symptoms of distress, social withdrawal, and familial conflicts. Further, more severe clinical conditions are also associated to IA, such as dysthymic, bipolar, affective, social-anxiety disorders, as well as major depression. This paper overviews the literature on IA, from neuro-biological, psycho-social and clinical standpoints, taking into account recent debates on diagnostic criteria, nosographic label and assessment tools. Neuroimaging data and neurochemical regulations are illustrated with links to pathogenetic hypotheses, which are amenable to validation through innovative preclinical modeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yuwen, W; Chen, A C C
Asian Americans are one of the fastest-growing minority groups in the USA, and Chinese constitute the largest group. Evidence suggests that Asian American adolescents experience higher levels of depressive symptoms than their same-gender white counterparts. Quantitative findings suggest associations between parenting factors and Chinese American adolescents' mental health. A qualitative understanding regarding Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and its relationship with adolescents' psychosocial health is warranted. To gain an in-depth understanding of Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and how parenting styles might influence adolescents' psychosocial health. In this qualitative study, we recruited 15 Chinese American adolescents aged 12-17 years in a southwest metropolitan area. We conducted two focus group interviews. Participants also filled out a brief questionnaire that included their socio-demographic information, immigration history and level of acculturation. Participants reported perceiving that parents had high expectations about academic performance and moral values. They also perceived stricter family rules regarding choices of friends compared with their non-Asian peers. Parents tended to be more protective of girls than of boys. Both Chinese American boys and girls reported poor or ineffective communication with their parents, which contributed to increased conflict between parents and adolescents and emotional distress of the adolescents. The findings provide evidence for nurses to develop linguistically and culturally tailored resources (e.g. parent support groups, programs aimed to improving parent-child communication) or connect these families with existing resources to enhance parenting skills and consequently reduce emotional distress of their adolescent children. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.
Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara K; Patelarou, Evridiki; Akrivos, Patrick D; Falagas, Matthew E
Knowledge on health and disease prevention and adolescent satisfaction from the health care system are factors that can affect the adolescent's health status. To assess the sources of health information of adolescents in a sample of teenagers from Athens and Crete, Greece. Data were obtained from a convenience sample of 369 adolescents aged 12-18 years from urban areas of Athens and Crete, Greece. Data on health care information sources and overall adolescent health literacy were collected with the use of a questionnaire exploring education on health topics over the past year, sources of health information, and interaction with their physician. More than half the study participants indicated having received information within the past year on oral health, sexually transmitted diseases, physical activity, smoking, and nutrition. The family (71.8%) and the physician (51.5%; boys vs. girls: 44.2% vs. 57.9%, p = .009) are most usually consulted for health information. Girls were found to seek out more sources of health information than boys and to receive more information from their friends (26.9% vs. 11.0%, p programming for youth in Greek schools is imperative to promote healthier lifestyles and to prevent chronic and infectious diseases.
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nelson R ... of information concerning their bodies and ..... improve quality of healthcare services for adolescents – services that .... equipment, medicines, supplies and technology needed to ensure effective service provision to adolescents.
Cardoza, Vicky J; Documét, Patricia I; Fryer, Craig S; Gold, Melanie A; Butler, James
To identify sexual health behavior interventions targeting U.S. Latino adolescents. A systematic literature review. Peer-reviewed articles published between 1993 and 2011, conducted in any type of setting. Male and female Latino adolescents ages 11-21 years. Interventions promoting sexual abstinence, pregnancy prevention, sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, and/or HIV/AIDS prevention. Changes in knowledge, attitudes, engagement in risky sexual behaviors, rates of STIs, and/or pregnancy. Sixty-eight articles were identified. Fifteen were included in this review that specifically addressed Latino adolescent sexual health behavior. Among the reviewed interventions, most aimed to prevent or reduce STI and HIV/AIDS incidence by focusing on behavior change at two levels of the social ecological model: individual and interpersonal. Major strengths of the articles included addressing the most critical issues of sexual health; using social ecological approaches; employing different strategies to deliver sexual health messages; and employing different intervention designs in diverse geographical locations with the largest population of Latino communities. Most of the interventions targeted female adolescents, stressing the need for additional interventions that target Latino adolescent males. Latino adolescent sexual health is a new research field with gaps that need to be addressed in reducing negative sexual health outcomes among this population. More research is needed to produce new or validate existing, age-specific, and culturally-sensitive sexual health interventions for Latino male and female adolescents. Further, this research should also be conducted in areas of the U.S. with the newest Latino migration (e.g., North Carolina). Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K
Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult
Holder-Nevins, D; James, K; Bailey, A; Eldemire-Shearer, D
The perspectives of adolescents were solicited on the issue of sexual and reproductive health messages they received through dancehall music as well as their perceptions of parents' views of such messages and adolescents' indulgence with this genre of music. This sequential mixed methods study was completed in 2008. The study's qualitative component was summarized as the novel ALODAC (Ask, Listen and Observe, Discuss, Analyse and Confirm) model, involving a series of steps to engage adolescents 10-19 years to share their perspectives on sexual and reproductive health messages enunciated in the dancehall music to which they listen. The quantitative component saw 1626 adolescents in public schools responding to an interviewer-administered questionnaire which included questions about their families and how they respond to dancehall content. Five messages determined from content analysis of songs on adolescents' music menu were used to initiate discussions with adolescents about the issues. Almost equal proportions of respondents in the survey lived with either their mothers (37.3%) or both parents (35.6%). Most adolescents reported enjoying dancehall music and learning specific messages even when some parents were against use of such music. There were significant gender differences observed regarding perceptions about parents agreement with lyrics on transactional sex (p music their adolescent children listen to does not seem to affect the pleasure and lessons adolescents gain from this medium. Opportunities for discussing sexual issues common in Jamaican dancehall music exist but are missed.
Austin, S B; Rich, M
Marketplace practices are integral to the larger economic and social context of adolescent health risk behaviors. To corporations and marketers, adolescents represent a gold mine of current and future profits. Adolescent incomes increased by almost a third in the 1990s. The annual spending of the U.S. adolescent population is estimated now to have reached 155 billion US dollars. The sheer size of the adolescent population and its spending power are of keen interest to corporations and marketers. This chapter presents a brief history of youth-targeted marketing and examines the major avenues in the media and inside schools that marketers and corporations use today to reach adolescents with their messages and products. It outlines the impact of consumerism and marketing on adolescent health using five case examples: tobacco, alcohol, cosmetic surgery, laxatives, and diet pills. It then concludes with a discussion of resistance efforts, led by health advocates, policy makers, parents, and youth themselves to restrict sales of harmful products to youth and curtail advertisers' access to adolescents in schools. A critical role for adolescent health researchers and advocates is to contribute a public health perspective into ongoing debates over regulating business practices that negatively affect the health of young people.
Grist, Rebecca; Porter, Joanna; Stallard, Paul
There are an increasing number of mobile apps available for adolescents with mental health problems and an increasing interest in assimilating mobile health (mHealth) into mental health services. Despite the growing number of apps available, the evidence base for their efficacy is unclear. This review aimed to systematically appraise the available research evidence on the efficacy and acceptability of mobile apps for mental health in children and adolescents younger than 18 years. The following were systematically searched for relevant publications between January 2008 and July 2016: APA PsychNet, ACM Digital Library, Cochrane Library, Community Care Inform-Children, EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Social Policy and Practice, Web of Science, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, and OpenGrey. Abstracts were included if they described mental health apps (targeting depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, self-harm, suicide prevention, conduct disorder, eating disorders and body image issues, schizophrenia, psychosis, and insomnia) for mobile devices and for use by adolescents younger than 18 years. A total of 24 publications met the inclusion criteria. These described 15 apps, two of which were available to download. Two small randomized trials and one case study failed to demonstrate a significant effect of three apps on intended mental health outcomes. Articles that analyzed the content of six apps for children and adolescents that were available to download established that none had undergone any research evaluation. Feasibility outcomes suggest acceptability of apps was good and app usage was moderate. Overall, there is currently insufficient research evidence to support the effectiveness of apps for children, preadolescents, and adolescents with mental health problems. Given the number and pace at which mHealth apps are being released on app stores, methodologically robust research studies
Bryant, Carol A; Mayer, Alyssa B; McDermott, Robert J; Panzera, Anthony D; Trainor, John K
Social marketing applies some of the same principles used in commercial marketing for the analysis, planning, execution, and evaluation of programs designed to motivate voluntary behavioral change. It relies on consumer research for understanding the people they hope to change, including their values, aspirations, fears, lifestyle, and factors that motivate and deter them from adopting desired behaviors. Social marketing has been applied in public health settings since the 1980s for promoting such behaviors as safer sex, hypertension and cholesterol control, reduced occurrence of alcohol-impaired driving, improved utilization of public health prevention and screening services, and enactment of better school nutrition policies in schools. Although most evidence for social marketing's utility comes from interventions directed at adult audiences, its application with adolescents may help to address issues that have been challenging or unresponsive to health behavior change specialists. This article describes the basic tenets of social marketing as a behavior change process, identifies its previously successful applications with adolescent audience segments, and offers both lessons learned and projected future applications that employ emerging communication technologies.
Courey, Tamra J
Increasingly, more children and adolescents are attending camps with mental health concerns. This can pose a challenge for camp nurses who may lack experience in assessment and treatment of mental health issues. To focus on the importance of addressing and treating mental health needs of children and adolescents at camp utilizing the Scope and Standards of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing Practice. Personal observations, camp nursing experience, and scholarly published literature. It is paramount that mental health needs of children and adolescents at camp are addressed and managed appropriately by the camp nurse. Education of camp nurses and camp administrators is also a vital part of providing care.
Page, Randy M; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn
Despite the popularity of self-rated health (SRH) in Western countries as a useful public health tool, it has only rarely been used in Asian countries. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether measures of psychosocial functioning and health-related factors differ according to SRH in a school-based sample of Thai adolescents. The survey was given to 2519 adolescents attending 10 coeducational secondary high schools in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand and included measures of psychosocial functioning (loneliness, hopelessness, shyness, perceptions of social status, self-rated happiness, and perception of physical attractiveness) and certain health-related factors (height/weight, physical activity, eating breakfast, sleep). The proportion of boys (5.1%) reporting that they were not healthy was similar to the proportion of girls (4.6%) making the same rating. These adolescents showed a pattern of overall poor health risk. Compared to adolescent peers who rated their health as healthy or very healthy, they were less physically active, got less sleep, were more likely to be overweight, and scored lower on loneliness, shyness, hopelessness, and self-rated happiness. The present pattern of poor health risk warrants attention and supports the merit of using SRH in adolescent health assessment. SRH is easy to obtain and simple to assess and single-item assessments of SRH appear to be valid measures of health status in adults and adolescent. Interventions, such as health counseling, mental health counseling, and health education, can target adolescents who rate themselves as 'not healthy' or report poor health status.
Smith-Fromm, Tiffany; Evans-Agnew, Robin A
One in five adolescents will experience a mental health event in their lifetime. If left untreated, depression, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and anorexia/bulimia can elevate the risk of dropping out of high school. As a key principle of 21st-century nursing practice, school nurses must provide leadership in educating school staff in identifying and responding to mental health issues in high school settings. This article describes the results of an online survey assessing secondary educators' knowledge of and experience with mental health issues in one school district. Resources are suggested to assist nurses in educating school staff, providing them with ways to decrease stigma in the classroom, and partnering with the community to improve services.
Hawaii State Dept. of Health, Honolulu. Maternal and Child Health Branch.
This publication reports on a survey to develop a profile of adolescent health in Hawaii in order to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies. The survey covered: general health status; family, peer, and school problems; depression and suicide; use of licit and illicit substances; sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases; and…
Zlotnick, Cheryl; Birenbaum-Carmeli, Daphna; Goldblatt, Hadass; Dishon, Yael; Taychaw, Omer; Shadmi, Efrat
Few studies have assessed healthcare experiences in apparently healthy adolescents, or whether healthcare attitudes are linked to the two leading adolescent health indicators, smoking and obesity. Even fewer have examined these relationships in adolescent immigrant groups or made comparisons to adolescent non-immigrants. Using a cross-sectional study, healthcare experiences were compared among three groups of adolescents (n = 589) including Russian immigrants (n = 154), Ethiopian immigrants (n = 54), and non-immigrants (n = 381). Bootstrap estimates indicated positive healthcare experiences were less common among Russian adolescent immigrants (OR = 0.38, CI = 0.17, 0.86) compared to non-immigrants, unless the Russian adolescent immigrants reported above average socioeconomic status, in which case they were more likely than non-immigrant adolescents to report positive healthcare experiences (OR = 3.22, CI = 1.05, 9.85). Positive healthcare experiences were less likely among adolescents who were smokers (OR = 0.50, CI = 0.27, 0.91), and more likely for adolescents with a normal or low BMI (OR = 3.16, CI = 1.56, 6.40) and for those relying on parents for health information (OR = 1.97, CI = 1.05, 3.70). Findings suggest a social gradient in which positive healthcare experiences were more common among adolescence with higher socioeconomic status for some immigrants (Russian adolescents) but not for others. The two leading health indicators were related to healthcare experiences, but as adolescent smokers were less likely to have positive healthcare experiences, proactive efforts are needed to engage this group. What is Known: • Health indicators (such as obesity) and healthcare attitudes are linked to healthcare service use among adolescents sampled from outpatient and inpatient populations. What is New: • A social gradient involving socioeconomic status and being an adolescent immigrant was found regarding
Full Text Available Charisse L Nixon Pennsylvania State University, the Behrend College, Erie, PA, USA Abstract: Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents' health and well-being. A plethora of correlational studies have demonstrated a cogent relationship between adolescents' involvement in cyberbullying and negative health indices. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. Mediating/moderating processes have been found to influence the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed. Keywords: cyberbullying, adolescent health, prevention, intervention
Havas, Jano; Bosma, Hans; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Feron, Frans J
We studied the hypothesis of socioeconomic equalization regarding adolescents' mental health problems by examining whether a low educational level of adolescents and their parents shows independent (cumulative) or dependent (including interactive) associations with adolescents' mental health problems, or whether equalization occurred. Cross-sectional data were obtained from the preventive Youth Health Care Centre in a relatively deprived Dutch former mining area. Participants were 1861 adolescents aged 13 or 14 years (response rate 71.7%). The self-administered Dutch version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to identify adolescents' mental health problems. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations, and linear regression models to check the robustness of the findings. A low educational level of adolescents was strongly related to their mental health problems (OR = 5.37; 95% CI: 3.31-8.70). The initially high odds ratios for adolescents with low-educated parents (OR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.14-2.59) disappeared after controlling for the adolescents' own educational level (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 0.73-1.74). In terms of interactions, no specifically increased odds were found, e.g. for low-educated adolescents with high-educated parents. There was no evidence for socioeconomic equalization regarding adolescents' mental health problems. Lower educated adolescents had substantially higher odds of having mental health problems, regardless of their parents' education. The odds may be affected by differences in intelligence and life events. Youth healthcare workers should collaborate closely with schools to intervene in time, particularly among low-educated adolescents. More interventions are probably needed to reduce these major inequities.
Rice, Timothy R; Shah, Lesha D; Trelles, Pilar; Lin, Shih-Ku; Christensen, Dinne Skjærlund; Walther, Andreas; Sher, Leo
Male adolescents and young men benefit when their mental health care is specialized to match their unique gendered and developmental needs. Sensitivity to the social circumstances of this population is important; additionally, the emerging ability to tailor care through knowledge gleaned from the intersection of psychiatry, neurology, and endocrinology informs care. This article summarized the views of six experts in the area of the adolescent and young adult male mental health. These experts were select members of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry's Task Force on Men's Mental Health. They convened to present two symposia on the topic of men's mental health at the 13th World Congress of Biological Psychiatry (WCBP) in Copenhagen, Denmark in 2017. In these works, a special focus is paid to addictive disorders, disruptive behavior disorders, aggression, and brain development. Collectively, the authors present an argument for the merits of a male-specific model of mental health care to advance the overall well-being of this population. Men's mental health should be recognized as a social issue as much as a medical issue, with special attention paid to problems such as unemployment, familial disruption, and substance abuse. These problems, and especially those of major societal impact including violence and suicide which are much more frequently the product of male youth and men, should have more male-tailored options for service provision that respond to men's mental health needs.
Tilahun, Mesfin; Mengistie, Bezatu; Egata, Gudina; Reda, Ayalu A
Adolescents in developing countries face a range of sexual and reproductive health problems. Lack of health care service for reproductive health or difficulty in accessing them are among them. In this study we aimed to examine health care workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey among 423 health care service providers working in eastern Ethiopia in 2010. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to drive proportions and associations. The majority of health workers had positive attitudes. However, nearly one third (30%) of health care workers had negative attitudes toward providing RH services to unmarried adolescents. Close to half (46.5%) of the respondents had unfavorable responses toward providing family planning to unmarried adolescents. About 13% of health workers agreed to setting up penal rules and regulations against adolescents that practice pre-marital sexual intercourse. The multivariate analysis indicated that being married (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.44 - 3.06), lower education level (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.04 - 1.99), being a health extension worker (OR 2.49; 95% CI 1.43 - 4.35), lack of training on reproductive health services (OR 5.27; 95% CI 1.51 - 5.89) to be significantly associated with negative attitudes toward provision of sexual and reproductive services to adolescents. The majority of the health workers had generally positive attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health to adolescents. However, a minority has displayed negatives attitudes. Such negative attitudes will be barriers to service utilization by adolescents and hampers the efforts to reduce sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. We therefore call for a targeted effort toward alleviating negative attitudes toward adolescent
... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... 2015, table 2 [PDF – 2.7 MB] Leading causes of death Leading causes of deaths among adolescents ...
Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chiang, Jeng-Tung; Pan, Ying-Chun
This study examined the relationship between parental and adolescent eHealth literacy and its impact on online health information seeking. Data were obtained from 1,869 junior high school students and 1,365 parents in Taiwan in 2013. Multivariate analysis results showed that higher levels of parental Internet skill and eHealth literacy were associated with an increase in parental online health information seeking. Parental eHealth literacy, parental active use Internet mediation, adolescent Internet literacy, and health information literacy were all related to adolescent eHealth literacy. Similarly, adolescent Internet/health information literacy, eHealth literacy, and parental active use Internet mediation, and parental online health information seeking were associated with an increase in adolescent online health information seeking. The incorporation of eHealth literacy courses into parenting programs and school education curricula is crucial to promote the eHealth literacy of parents and adolescents.
Nair, M K C; Leena, M L; Paul, Mini K; Pillai, H Vijayan; Babu, George; Russell, P S; Thankachi, Yamini
To assess parents' and teachers' attitude towards Adolescent Reproductive Sexual Health Education (ARSHE). The study group consisted of a random sample of 795 parents and 115 teachers belonging to three urban schools (one boys only, one girls only and one co-education) and one co-education rural school at Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, where an ICMR supported ARSHE intervention programme was done subsequently. A self-administered questionnaire for parents and teachers developed by an ICMR taskforce for ARSHE programme was used to assess their opinion on the need, content and the appropriate person to provide adolescent reproductive sexual health education in a school setting. 65.2% of parents and 40.9% teachers have not discussed growth and development issues with their adolescents. Only 5.2% teachers and 1.1% parents discussed sexual aspects with adolescents. 44% of parents agreed that information on HIV/AIDS/STD should be provided. More than 50% of parents were not sure whether information on topics like masturbation, dating, safe sex, contraceptives, pregnancy, abortion and childcare should be provided to adolescents. Results pointed out the need for introducing reproductive and sexual education in the school setting. Only 1.1% of parents and 5.2% teachers actually discussed sexual aspects with adolescents which highlights the need for parent and teacher awareness programs before ARSHE is introduced in the schools.
Lau, Claudia; Wong, Mitchell; Dudovitz, Rebecca
Parenting style is strongly associated with adolescent health. However, little is known about how school disciplinary style relates to health. We categorized adolescents' perceptions of their schools as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or neglectful, and test whether perceived school disciplinary style is associated with health. We analyze data from the RISE Up study (Reducing Health Inequities Through Social and Educational Change Follow-up), comprised of baseline (eighth grade) and 2-year follow-up surveys (10th grade) from 1,159 low-income minority adolescents in Los Angeles attending 157 schools. At 10th grade, students' ratings of school support and structure were used to categorize perceived school disciplinary style as authoritative (highest tertile for support and structure), authoritarian (low support, high structure), permissive (high support, low structure), neglectful (low on both dimensions), and average (middle tertile on either dimension). Mixed effects logistic regressions controlling for sociodemographic factors, parenting style, grades, and baseline health tested whether school disciplinary style was associated with substance use, violence, bullying, and depression symptoms. Risky behaviors varied by school disciplinary style. After adjusting for covariates, compared with an average school disciplinary style, a neglectful school was associated with higher odds of substance use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.3, p authoritative school was associated with lower odds of substance use (AOR .6, p = .049), violence (AOR .6, p = .03), and bullying (AOR .5, p = .001). Structured and supportive school environments may impact the health of vulnerable adolescents. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shariati, Mohammed; Babazadeh, Raheleh; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Najmabadi, Khadijeh Mirzaii
Adolescence is a critical period of transition from childhood to adulthood. In today's world, to pass through this period successfully it is necessary to have adequate information and knowledge about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues. In Iran, it is crucial that special attention be paid to reproductive health services for adolescents, especially for girls. This study aimed to explore the views and experiences of adolescent girls and key adults around the barriers to access of Iranian adolescent girls to SRH information and services. In this qualitative study, data were gathered through focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 247 adolescent girls and 71 key adults including mothers, teachers, health providers, governmental, nongovernmental and international managers of health programmes, health policymakers, sociologists and clergy in four Iranian cities. Data were coded and categorised using content analysis by MAXQDA10. The main barriers identified were classified in four categories: (1) social and cultural barriers such as taboos; (2) structural and administrative barriers such as inappropriate structure of the health system; (3) political barriers such as lack of an adopted strategy by the government and (4) non-use of religious potential. Adolescent SRH in Iran should be firmly established as a priority for government leaders and policymakers. They should try to provide those services that are consistent with the community's cultural and religious values for adolescent girls. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available Although significant research supports the association between physical activity and mental wellbeing, current literature acknowledges that athletes are no less susceptible to mental illness than the general population. Despite welcomed initiatives aimed at improving mental health within elite sport, these programs often fail to target young athletes; an important concern given that the genesis of many mental illnesses are recognized to occur during this critical period. Given the importance of early intervention and effective treatment, and the potentially devastating consequences of clinical issues going undiagnosed, the implications for talent identification and development become obvious. With this in mind, this study sought to examine the range of mental health issues that may impact upon developing athletes and potential consequences for the development process, specific risk and protective factors associated with talent development, along with an examination of current practices concerning the identification of mental health issues in such environments. Qualitative interviews were conducted with purposively sampled clinicians (n = 8 experienced in working with adolescents and/or young athletes. Inductive content analysis was undertaken, identifying four main themes: key behavioral indicators; associated risk factors; associated protective factors; and issues around identification and diagnosis. Key behavioral indicators included behavioral change, along with behaviors associated with eating disorders, anxiety and depression. Risk factors centered on family background, the performance environment, and issues surrounding adolescence. Protective factors were primarily social in nature. Finally, a lack of awareness and understanding of clinical issues, multiple causes of symptoms, non-disclosure and the need for triangulation of assessment were identified. The need for improved identification and intervention strategies was apparent, with
Hill, Andy; MacNamara, Áine; Collins, Dave; Rodgers, Sheelagh
Although significant research supports the association between physical activity and mental wellbeing, current literature acknowledges that athletes are no less susceptible to mental illness than the general population. Despite welcomed initiatives aimed at improving mental health within elite sport, these programs often fail to target young athletes; an important concern given that the genesis of many mental illnesses are recognized to occur during this critical period. Given the importance of early intervention and effective treatment, and the potentially devastating consequences of clinical issues going undiagnosed, the implications for talent identification and development (TID) become obvious. With this in mind, this study sought to examine the range of mental health issues that may impact upon developing athletes and potential consequences for the development process, specific risk and protective factors associated with talent development, along with an examination of current practices concerning the identification of mental health issues in such environments. Qualitative interviews were conducted with purposively sampled clinicians (n = 8) experienced in working with adolescents and/or young athletes. Inductive content analysis was undertaken, identifying four main themes: key behavioral indicators; associated risk factors; associated protective factors; and issues around identification and diagnosis. Key behavioral indicators included behavioral change, along with behaviors associated with eating disorders, anxiety and depression. Risk factors centered on family background, the performance environment, and issues surrounding adolescence. Protective factors were primarily social in nature. Finally, a lack of awareness and understanding of clinical issues, multiple causes of symptoms, non-disclosure and the need for triangulation of assessment were identified. The need for improved identification and intervention strategies was apparent, with coaches
Hill, Andy; MacNamara, Áine; Collins, Dave; Rodgers, Sheelagh
Although significant research supports the association between physical activity and mental wellbeing, current literature acknowledges that athletes are no less susceptible to mental illness than the general population. Despite welcomed initiatives aimed at improving mental health within elite sport, these programs often fail to target young athletes; an important concern given that the genesis of many mental illnesses are recognized to occur during this critical period. Given the importance of early intervention and effective treatment, and the potentially devastating consequences of clinical issues going undiagnosed, the implications for talent identification and development (TID) become obvious. With this in mind, this study sought to examine the range of mental health issues that may impact upon developing athletes and potential consequences for the development process, specific risk and protective factors associated with talent development, along with an examination of current practices concerning the identification of mental health issues in such environments. Qualitative interviews were conducted with purposively sampled clinicians (n = 8) experienced in working with adolescents and/or young athletes. Inductive content analysis was undertaken, identifying four main themes: key behavioral indicators; associated risk factors; associated protective factors; and issues around identification and diagnosis. Key behavioral indicators included behavioral change, along with behaviors associated with eating disorders, anxiety and depression. Risk factors centered on family background, the performance environment, and issues surrounding adolescence. Protective factors were primarily social in nature. Finally, a lack of awareness and understanding of clinical issues, multiple causes of symptoms, non-disclosure and the need for triangulation of assessment were identified. The need for improved identification and intervention strategies was apparent, with coaches
Long, Katelyn N G; Gren, Lisa H; Long, Paul M; Jaggi, Rachel; Banik, Srabani; Mihalopoulos, Nicole L
Purpose Mental health disorders are a pressing issue among adolescents around the world, including in India. A better understanding of the factors related to poor mental health will allow for more effective and targeted interventions for Indian adolescents. Methods The Indian Adolescent Health Questionnaire (IAHQ), a validated questionnaire designed specifically for use in schools, was administered to approximately 1500 secondary students in three private urban Indian schools in 2012. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) module assessed mental health. Linear regression was used to predict SDQ scores. The biopsychosocial framework was used as an organizing framework to understand how each explanatory variable in the final model might impact the SDQ score. Results One thousand four hundred and eight students returned IAHQ surveys (93.9% response rate); 1102 students completed questions for inclusion in the regression model (78.3% inclusion rate). Statistically significant (p health, negative peer pressure, insults from peers, kindness of peers, feeling safe at home, at school, or with friends, and grades. Discussion Schools have a role to play in improving adolescent mental health. Many of the significant variables in our study can be addressed in the school environment through school-wide, long-term programs utilizing teachers and lay counselors. The IAHQ and SDQ can be used by schools to identify factors that contribute to poor mental health among students and then develop targeted programs to support improved mental health.
Craddock, Nadia; Dlova, Ncoza; Diedrichs, Phillippa C
Colourism, a form of prejudice and discrimination based solely upon skin colour, stands to jeopardize the physical health, wellbeing and life chances of adolescents of colour, globally. Research shows that adolescents can experience colourism at school and college, in the criminal justice system, at work and in the media they consume. It is therefore unsurprising that adolescents of colour often express a desire for lighter skin tones and/or are dissatisfied with their skin tone. Although research is scarce, some studies include older adolescents in their samples of skin-lightening product users. This is significant as the evidence is clear that the unmonitored use of skin-lightening products can be harmful to physical and psychological health, with evidence linking skin-lightening use to skin damage, kidney failure and depression. Although it is evident that colourism is central to the lives of adolescents of colour, more research is needed concerning the use of skin-lightening products among adolescents. Media literacy and critical race theory offer avenues in helping attenuate the harmful impact of colourism for adolescents of colour.
Gersh, Elon; Richardson, Laura P; Katzman, Katherine; Spielvogle, Heather; Arghira, Adriana Cristina; Zhou, Chuan; McCarty, Carolyn A
We investigated which adolescent health risk behaviors are of concern to parents generally, according to adolescent age, gender, and in the context of perceived risk. We compared adolescent and parent reports of the presence of health-risk behaviors and factors predicting agreement. Three hundred adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (mean, 14.5 years; 52% female) who presenting for well care completed an electronic screening tool used to assess health-risk behaviors. Parents completed parallel measures of their child's behavior and parental concern. Adolescent and parent reports were compared using McNemar test. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine predictors of agreement. High parental concern was most commonly reported for screen time and diet. When parents identified their adolescent as at-risk, high parental concern was near universal for mental health but less commonly reported for substance use. There were no differences in parental concern according to adolescent gender. Parents of older adolescents expressed more concern regarding physical activity and alcohol. Compared with adolescents, parents were more likely to report risk regarding anxiety, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity, and less likely to report risk regarding screen time, sleep, and marijuana use. Younger adolescent age and higher family relationship quality were predictive of stronger parent-adolescent agreement. Parents in well-care visits commonly have concerns about adolescent lifestyle behaviors. Although parents are more likely to report concern when they know about a behavior, parental concern is not always aligned with parental awareness of risk, particularly for substance use. Parent report of higher prevalence of some risk behaviors suggests their input might assist in risk identification. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Wazny, Kerri; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
The Millennium Development Goal era has resulted in improvements in maternal and child health worldwide. As more children are surviving past their fifth birthday, the population of adolescents is increasing. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental transition; adolescence sets the stage for adult health through risks taken and beneficial and detrimental habits that are formed and it is thus an optimal time to target health interventions. Beginning interventions in adolescence or even earlier in childhood maximizes the impact on the individual's health in adult life. Evidence suggests that interventions to promote sexual and reproductive health, physical activity and healthy lifestyle, mental health and wellbeing, safe and hazard-free environment, improving access to nutritious and healthy foods, and minimizing exposure to substance abuse can improve health outcomes in young adolescents. School-based delivery strategies appear to be the most highly evaluated for improving adolescent health; they have been used to deliver interventions such as sexual health, substance abuse prevention, and nutritional interventions. Use of social media and information technologies, cash transfers, social protection, and micro-finance initiatives are promising strategies; however, given the lack of rigorous evaluations, there is a need for further research. Additional research is also warranted to strengthen the evidence base by establishing causality, understanding the differential impacts of adolescent health in different contexts particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In addition, research and evaluation in the domain of adolescent health must focus on how to implement interventions effectively at-scale, sustain the impacts over time and ensure equitable outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Romo, Matthew L; Abril-Ulloa, Victoria; Kelvin, Elizabeth A
Mental health and food insecurity are major public health issues among adolescents in Ecuador. Our objective was to determine the relationship between hunger, symptoms of depression, and suicidal ideation among school-going Ecuadorian adolescents. We conducted crude and multivariable logistic regression models using data from the 2007 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Quito, Guayaquil, and Zamora, Ecuador (N = 5524). Hunger was defined as having gone hungry in the past 30 days due to lack of food in the home. Outcomes of interest were symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation with or without planning in the past year. Overall, 41.2 % (2200/5467) of students reported experiencing hunger. In multivariable logistic regression models, hunger had an increasing exposure-response relationship with symptoms of depression [sometimes hungry odds ratio (OR) 1.80, P = 0.0001; most of the time or always hungry OR 2.01, P Hunger was associated with increased odds of symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation with planning. Strategies to improve mental health among adolescents in Ecuador should consider the potential contribution of hunger and food insecurity.
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ... Conclusion: Adolescent concerns about their emotional, sexual, social outlook ... and design relevant strategies such as special adolescent/youth health services to address the adolescent needs.
Ghaddar, Suad F.; Valerio, Melissa A.; Garcia, Carolyn M.; Hansen, Lucy
Background: Little research has examined adolescent health literacy and its relationship with online health information sources. The purpose of this study is to explore health literacy among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent population and to investigate whether exposure to a credible source of online health information, MedlinePlus[R], is…
Ciccarelli, Marina; Fraser, Kerri; Vaz, Sharmila
Children and adolescents are prolific users of information and communication technologies (ICT) in learning, leisure, and social communication activities. High exposure to ICT is associated with musculoskeletal injuries in adults; however, the management of ICT physical complaints in children is not well-understood. An online survey of allied health professionals (occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and chiropractors) was undertaken to determine (i) the number of children and adolescents in Perth, Western Australia who accessed treatment for musculoskeletal complaints related to use of technology; (ii) the typical frequency and duration of service provision; and (iii) the nature of treatment provided. Costs associated with service provision were estimated. Data from 101 identified the most commonly treated musculoskeletal complaints among children and adolescents included: non-specific neck pain; thoracic postural pain disorder; non-specific low back pain; and lumbar postural pain disorder. Approximately 1445 children were treated in the previous 12 months; with one-third of chiropractors each reported treating 31+ children. Most common treatments were soft tissue release, mobilisation, flexibility and conditioning exercises, soft tissue massage and kinesio-taping. Verbal education about healthy use of technology was provided by most clinicians (88%), with some inconsistent recommendations. The estimated cost of treatment was AUD$1,057,715; of which AUD$544,886 was health system funded. Children and adolescents received allied health treatment for a range of musculoskeletal complaints associated with ICT use. The potential long-term impacts on their health and wellbeing, and the economic burden associated with this health issue warrant the development of systematic risk reduction strategies. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.
González-Forteza, Catalina; Torre, Alicia Edith Hermosillo de la; Vacio-Muro, María de Los Ángeles; Peralta, Robert; Wagner, Fernando A
Depression is an important public health problem that requires more and better attention. In the present work we review epidemiologic studies of depression among adolescents in Mexico and discuss strategies that may help in earlier identification and referral of potential cases for timely care. In summary, depressive symptoms are prevalent among adolescents and adults in Mexico as in many other countries, with a higher ratio of female cases. Young people experiencing the most challenging socio-urban situations have higher rates of depression. Even though depressive disorders are more prevalent among females, consequences may be even worse for males. The authors posit that, among males, stigma attached to depression might lead to attempts to hide depressive symptoms by masking them through high-risk behaviors (e.g., alcohol, drug use, and violence, among others). Women may have higher rates of suicide attempts, but the case-fatality rate of suicide attempts is higher among males. Despite of barriers and resource scarcity among healthcare and educational institutions, it is necessary to continue to develop alternatives that will lead to better attention of mental health issues among the youth, even when their mental health needs are not expressed directly or their chief complaints are in regard to "other" health issues. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.
Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira
To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk frequently, and adolescents with heterosexual behavior and none of the risk factors investigated. More of the risk factors were found in adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior compared with those with heterosexual behavior. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior were more likely to talk about their positive personal experiences and negative relationship experiences that
Assessment of adolescents' communication on sexual and reproductive health matters with parents and associated factors among secondary and preparatory schools' students in Debremarkos town, North West Ethiopia.
Shiferaw, Kasiye; Getahun, Frehiwot; Asres, Getahun
Sexuality and reproductive health are among the most fundamental aspects of life. Poor parental involvement in preparing young people for safe sexual life and good reproductive health was part of the blame for the lack of skills on sexual decision making. Despite the growing needs, there is no adequate health service or counseling specifically suitable for this specific age group and research on the role of parents in this process has yielded inconsistent results. The objective of the study is to assess adolescents' communication on sexual and reproductive health issues with parents and associated factors among secondary and preparatory schools students in Debremarkos town. School based study was conducted among secondary and preparatory schools students in Debremarkos town, from April 8 to 21, 2012. Multistage sampling and self administered questionnaires were employed. The proportion of the students who had discussion on sexual & reproductive health issues with their parent was found to be 254 (36.9%). Mother who able to read and write (AOR = 2; 95% CI 1.3 to 3.1), adolescents accepting discussion of sexual & reproductive health issues (AOR = 2.5 95% CI 1.3 to 4.5), adolescents who ever got SRH information (AOR = 2; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.9), adolescents who ever had sexual intercourse (AOR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6) were found to have significant positive associations, and being grade 12 students (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.7) and having less than three family size (AOR = 0.5; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.9) showed significant negative associations. Study unveils that parent -adolescent communications on sexual and reproductive health issues is low, only about one third of the students were communicating on SRH issues. Therefore; there is a need to equip and educate parents on different sexual & reproductive health issues. Comprehensive family life education should also be initiated for the students and parents.
Reilly, J J
A global epidemic of paediatric obesity occurred in recent years, and prevalence of obesity is continuing to rise. In the developed world obesity is now the most common disease of childhood and adolescence. Paediatric obesity is not a cosmetic issue, being associated with a significant burden of ill health both for obese children and for adults who were obese as children. Health professionals tend to underestimate the impact of paediatric obesity, and lack the skills, knowledge, and time to t...
Full Text Available The spiritual health of adolescents is a topic of emerging contemporary importance. Limited numbers of international studies provide evidence about developmental patterns of this aspect of health during the adolescent years. Using multidimensional indicators of spiritual health that have been adapted for use within younger adolescent populations, we therefore: (1 describe aspects of the perceptions of the importance of spiritual health of adolescents by developmental stage and within genders; (2 conduct similar analyses across measures related to specific domains of adolescent spiritual health; (3 relate perceptions of spiritual health to self-perceived personal health status. Cross-sectional surveys were administered to adolescent populations in school settings during 2013–2014. Participants (n=45,967 included eligible and consenting students aged 11–15 years in sampled schools from six European and North American countries. Our primary measures of spiritual health consisted of eight questions in four domains (perceived importance of connections to: self, others, nature, and the transcendent. Socio-demographic factors included age, gender, and country of origin. Self-perceived personal health status was assessed using a simple composite measure. Self-rated importance of spiritual health, both overall and within most questions and domains, declined as young people aged. This declining pattern persisted for both genders and in all countries, and was most notable for the domains of “connections with nature” and “connections with the transcendent”. Girls consistently rated their perceptions of the importance of spiritual health higher than boys. Spiritual health and its domains related strongly and consistently with self-perceived personal health status. While limited by the 8-item measure of perceived spiritual health employed, study findings confirm developmental theories proposed from qualitative observation, provide foundational
Groft, Jean N; Hagen, Brad; Miller, Nancy K; Cooper, Natalie; Brown, Sharon
Significant health problems encountered in adulthood often have their roots in health behaviours initiated during adolescence. In order to reverse this trend, school and health personnel, as well as parents and other community members working with high school students, need to be aware of the health-related beliefs and choices that guide the behaviours of teenagers. Although a wide variety of research has been conducted on this topic among urban adolescents, less is known about the health beliefs and behaviors of adolescents residing in rural areas, particularly in Canada. In general, rural Canadians are less healthy than their urban counterparts. Building on the knowledge and understanding of their own community, key stakeholders were invited to engage in the design and implementation of a participatory action research project aimed at understanding and improving the health of rural adolescents. A group of parents, teachers, students, school administrators and public health nurses engaged in a participatory action research project to better understand determinants of the health of rural adolescents at a high school in Western Canada. Group members developed and administered a health survey to 288 students from a small rural high school, in an effort to identify areas of concern and interest regarding health practices and beliefs of rural adolescents, and to take action on these identified concerns. Results indicated some interesting but potentially worrying trends in this population. For example, while frequent involvement in a physical activity was noted by 75.9% of participants, close to half of the females (48%) described their body image as 'a little overweight' or 'definitely overweight', and approximately 25.8% of respondents noted that they skipped meals most of the time. Differences between the genders were apparent in several categories. For example, more girls smoked (16.2%) than boys (12.3%), and more males (55.0%) than females (41%) had tried illegal
Knowledge transfer: a worldwide challenge in child mental health: a recommendation to the readership of CAPMH concerning the revised version of the IACAPAP Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Maier, Anna T; Brown, Rebecca C; Fegert, Joerg M
Transfer of knowledge is an important issue throughout all scientific disciplines, especially in the medical and psycho-social field. The issue of worldwide knowledge transfer in child mental health is one of the aims and goals of the journal Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health (CAPMH). The demand for mental health training is high worldwide, and especially in low- to lower-middle income countries, where inadequate access to knowledge resources in the field of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) is prevalent. At the same time, many of these countries are showing an increased risk for mental health issues in children and adolescents. The International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (IACAPAP) Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health counters this problem. It is an open-access e-textbook aiming to provide an overview of current and established treatment and practical approaches for child and adolescent psychiatrists, psychotherapists and allied (mental health) professionals worldwide. First published in 2012, the updated and revised version was launched in 2015. The aim of this commentary is to review and disseminate the usefulness and practicability of content and further material included in the new version of the textbook. Overall, the textbook contains ten sections divided into 59 chapters, with a total of 1435 pages. The original version of the textbook was written in English. The revised version contains translations of 49 chapters into different languages (to date French, Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic, Portuguese, Russian, Norwegian and/or Japanese), with additional material for knowledge dissemination and self-directed learning (e.g. videos and quizzes) for several chapters. The textbook and the add-on materials for dissemination are of high quality and convey a great introduction to important topics concerning mental health. Apart from knowledge transfer, there is a pragmatic focus on clinical
Yarcheski, Adela; Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Thomas J
The purposes of this methodological study were to factor analyze the Laffrey Health Conception Scale (LHCS) and to assess construct validity of the instrument with early adolescents. The final sample consisted of 230 early adolescents, aged 12 to 14, who responded to instrument packets in classrooms in an urban middle school. Data obtained on the LHCS were subjected to principal components factor analysis with oblique rotation. A two-factor solution was accepted, which is consistent with early adolescents' conceptions of health. Factor I was labeled Wellness and Factor II was labeled Clinical Health. A higher order factor analysis yielded one factor with 26 items, labeled the LHCS for Early Adolescents. The 26-item LHCS had a coefficient alpha of .95. Construct validity was assessed by testing three theoretical propositions, which significantly linked health conception to social support, self-esteem, and positive health practices. The findings indicate that the LHCS is a reliable and valid measure of health conceptions in early adolescents. Results also offer flexibility to researchers interested in testing theory involving the constructs of the definition of health, wellness, and clinical health in early adolescents.
Adolescent sexual and reproductive health access continues to dominate the development agenda since the historic 1994 Cairo Conference and becomes a huge public health concern for the increasing diverse of undocumented adolescents who have become an important component as irregular migration patterns and ...
Asha P Shetty
Full Text Available Introduction: Lifestyle modification is one of the methods to promote healthy lifestyle among adolescents. In this study, the researcher planned to develop, implement and evaluate a need based Participatory Adolescent Strategic Health Action (PASHA for lifestyle modification among selected adolescents. Materials and Methods: An evaluative approach with Quasi experimental one group pretest post test design (time series was adopted. Sample constituted 103 adolescents, aged 12-17 years studying in high schools and pre university colleges of Udupi district selected based on convenient sampling. Data was gathered using reliable and valid tools. Results: The mean combined preventive health lifestyle score among all adolescents increased from 75.65-81.56. Similarly the number of adolescents with healthy lifestyle score also increased from 28.2-53.4% after practicing for 180 days. Analysis of all the components of lifestyle showed that the adolescents had adopted healthy lifestyle practices in all the components of lifestyle. The number of adolescents with combined health status score also showed an increase from 31.1-54.4% after implementing PASHA practice. Analysis of reported outcome among subjects indicated that PASHA was motivating to improve their lifestyle practices. Conclusion: PASHA was found to be effective in lifestyle modification of adolescents. It is reiterated that when lifestyle modification is to be done, a strategy to improve self directedness and self efficacy should be adopted.
Carolina Vieira de Freitas
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and the severity of malocclusions and to analyze factors associated with the need for orthodontic treatment of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: This exploratory, cross-sectional study was carried out based on secondary data from the national epidemiological survey on oral health in Brazil (2002-2003. Socio-demographic conditions, self-perception, and the existence and degree of malocclusion, using the Dental Aesthetic Index, were evaluated in 16,833 adolescent Brazilians selected by probabilistic sample by conglomerates. The dependent variable need orthodontic treatment was estimated from the severity of malocclusion. The magnitude and direction of the association in bivariate and multivariate analyzes from a Robust Poisson regression was estimated. RESULTS: The majority of the adolescents needed orthodontic treatment (53.2%. In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of the need for orthodontic treatment was larger among females, non-whites, those that perceived a need for treatment, and those that perceived their appearance as normal, bad, or very bad. The need for orthodontic treatment was smaller among those that lived in the Northeast and Central West macro-regions compared to those living in Southeast Brazil and it was also smaller among those that perceived their chewing to be normal or their oral health to be bad or very bad. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high prevalence of orthodontic treatment need among adolescents in Brazil and this need was associated with demographic and subjective issues. The high prevalence of orthodontic needs in adolescents is a challenge to the goals of Brazil's universal public health system.
... About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Health Issues & Treatments Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... people with spina bifida are exactly alike. Health issues and treatments for people with spina bifida will ...
Musavian, Azra Sadat; Pasha, Afsaneh; Rahebi, Seyyedeh-Marzeyeh; Atrkar Roushan, Zahra; Ghanbari, Atefeh
Health maintenance and promotion are the fundamental prerequisites to community development. The best time for establishing healthy lifestyle habits is during adolescence. Due to importance of health promotion behaviors in adolescents, this study was conducted to investigate health-promoting behaviors and its associated factors among high school students in Rasht, Iran. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 424 students during the first semester of the year 2012. We employed the multistage sampling design to recruit from private and public high schools in Rasht, Iran. The data collection instrument was a self-report questionnaire consisting of two parts. The first part of instrument was consisted of demographic questionnaire and the second part was adolescent health promotion scale (AHPS) questionnaire. AHPS questionnaire was consisted of six dimensions (nutrition, social support, health responsibility, life appreciation, physical activity, and stress management) to measure health promoting lifestyles. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 software employing ANOVA (analysis of variance) test, t-test, Mann-Whitney, and the Kruskal-Wallis. The score of total Adolescent Health Promotion Scale were 3.58 ± 0.52 (possible range was 1-5). The highest score was in life appreciation dimension (3.99 ± 0.068) and the lowest score was in health responsibility dimension. Moreover, Significant associations were found between the adolescent health promotion Scale with age (P school grade (P health instructors, schoolteachers, and families must pay more attention to these students. Moreover, as most of lifelong healthy and unhealthy lifestyle habits are established during adolescence, developing effective health promotion and disease prevention strategies for adolescents seems crucial.
Jones, Georgina L; Hall, Jennie M; Lashen, Hany L; Balen, Adam H; Ledger, William L
To explore health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Qualitative study. Two out-patient gynecology clinics in Yorkshire, England. Fifteen young women diagnosed with PCOS were recruited. Semistructured interviews were carried out, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic analysis using NVivo software version 2.0. A few areas were identified where PCOS had a positive impact upon HRQoL (e.g., improved relationships). However, overall the condition had a negative impact upon HRQoL. Weight problems (in particular the difficulties associated with managing/maintaining weight) and body perceptions appeared to be the most significant contributors to a reduced HRQoL. Menstrual dysfunction, fertility issues, and hirsutism also had adverse affects on emotional well-being, self-perception (including poor body image, self-consciousness, & low self-esteem), social functioning, and sexual behavior. A number of participants described receiving insufficient information from health care professionals (HCPs) and negative experiences in relation to the diagnosis and management of their condition. Overall, PCOS has a negative impact on the HR QoL of adolescent girls with the condition. Emotional and social functioning appeared to be most affected rather than areas of physical functioning. Future research is needed to identify ways to improve communication between adolescents with PCOS and their HCPs, particularly around the diagnosis and potential for infertility. Finally, HCPs need to be more aware of the emotional impact of PCOS upon adolescents' HRQoL and of the potential for poor sexual health through risk-taking behaviors that may occur due to the potential loss of fertility. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Ferro, Mark A
To examine the mediating effect of family functioning on the relation between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms and determine whether the magnitude of the mediating effect is different for adolescents with and without chronic physical health conditions. Data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. A representative survey of 11,813 adolescents and their mothers was included. Maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms were measured using the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Family functioning was measured using the McMaster Family Assessment Device. Multilevel multiple-group path analysis was used to examine potential mediating and moderating effects. Family functioning measured when adolescents were 14-15 years mediated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms (measured at 10-13 years) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured at 16-19 years) for both adolescents with [αβ = 0.02 (0.02, 0.03)] and without chronic health conditions [αβ = 0.01 (0.00, 0.01)]. These findings provided evidence to suggest mediated moderation, Δαβ = 0.02 (0.01, 0.03), that is, the mediating effect of family functioning was significantly larger for adolescents with chronic health conditions. The mediating effect of family functioning in the relation between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms is larger for adolescents with chronic health conditions. Within the framework of family-centered care, maternal depressive symptoms and family functioning are suitable targets for preventive intervention for adolescents with chronic health conditions.
Griesler, Pamela C; Hu, Mei-Chen; Kandel, Denise B
To examine the prospective associations of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders nicotine dependence (ND) and other individual and parental factors in adolescence on self-reported health symptoms in early adulthood. Multiethnic prospective longitudinal cohort of adolescents from grades 6-10 and a parent (N = 908) from the Chicago Public Schools. Adolescents were interviewed five times at 6-month intervals (Waves 1-5) and once 4.5 years later (Wave 6). Parents were interviewed annually three times (W1, W3, W5). Multivariate regressions estimated prospective associations of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ND, other individual and familial risk factors in adolescence (mean age 16.6) on physical health symptoms in early adulthood (mean age 21.3), controlling for health symptoms in adolescence. Levels of health symptoms declined from adolescence to early adulthood, except among dependent smokers. Nicotine dependent adolescents reported more health symptoms as young adults than nonsmokers and nondependent smokers, especially if depressed. ND and health symptoms in adolescence were the strongest predictors of health in early adulthood. These two adolescent factors, depression, and the familial factors of parental ND, depression and health conditions, each independently predicted health symptoms in young adulthood. Females reported more symptoms than males. There is continuity of health status over time. ND, depression, and parental factors in adolescence contribute to poor health in early adulthood. The findings highlight not only the role of adolescent behavior, but the importance of the family in the development of young adult health. Reducing smoking, particularly ND, and depression among adolescents and parents will decrease physical health burden. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Abdirahman, H A; Bah, T T; Shrestha, H L; Jacobsen, K H
To examine the relationships between peer victimization, mental health, and parental involvement among middle school students in the Caribbean. Data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in the Cayman Islands, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago in 2007 were analysed using age- and gender-adjusted logistic regression models. About one-quarter of the 6780 participants reported having been bullied in the past month. Rates of bullying were similar for boys and girls, and younger children reported higher rates of peer victimization. Nearly 25% of students reported sadness and hopelessness, more than 10% reported loneliness and anxiety and more than 15% reported having seriously considered suicide in the past year. Bullied students were much more likely than non-bullied students to report mental health issues (p mental health issues and were somewhat less likely to report being a victim of a bully. The strong association between bullying and poor mental health in the Caribbean emphasizes the need to develop and implement strategies for reducing bullying among children and adolescents.
Carbonated beverages including energy drinks make up an increasing percentage of energy intake amongst adults as well as children and adolescents. Due to high content of di- or monosaccharides and biologically active compounds (mainly caffeine), their regular intake may involve addictions and potential health risks, including diabetes. Although consumption of energy drinks is usually not recommended by the manufacturers to the children under the age of 16, due to its popularity and unrestricted availability on market energy drinks are easily accessible to younger children. Low awareness of the potential health risks involved with such beverages in society together with unrestricted distribution and advertising requires undertaking general information campaign concerning energy drinks. In this paper a critical review has been made to discuss potential somatic and psychological health risks issue. Moreover, conclusions were supported with the results of the survey conducted among college and high-school adolescents.
Nixon, Charisse L
Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents’ health and well-being. A plethora of correlational studies have demonstrated a cogent relationship between adolescents’ involvement in cyberbullying and negative health indices. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. Mediating/moderating processes have been found to influence the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed. PMID:25177157
MacPhail, Catherine; McKay, Kathy
While research indicates that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents may be at increased risk of some sexually transmitted infections, there is limited information about factors that may place these young people at more risk of adverse sexual health than their non-Indigenous counterparts. Current research has tended to focus on surveillance-type data, but there is an increasing need to understand social determinants of sexual health risk. This systematic review assessed the evidence of social determinants impacting on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents' sexual health in Australia. Published, English-language literature was searched across key databases from 2003 to 2015. Fourteen studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Findings suggest that social determinants such as access to healthcare, poverty, substance use, educational disadvantage, sociocultural context, gender inequalities, status and identity, and social disadvantage impacted on Indigenous adolescents' sexual behaviours and sexual health risk. Evidence from the literature included in the review suggests that peer education may be an acceptable and appropriate approach for addressing such issues. There remains a need for programmes and services to be community-developed and community-led, thus ensuring cultural appropriateness and relevance. However, there is also a significant need for such programmes to be effectively and rigorously evaluated with data that goes beyond surveillance, and seeks to unpack how sexual norms are experienced by Indigenous adolescents, particularly outside of remote Australia - and how these experiences act as either risk or protective factors to good sexual health and positive social and emotional well-being. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Coyne, I; McNamara, N; Healy, M; Gower, C; Sarkar, M; McNicholas, F
Service user involvement is essential for quality care in the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). This study was conducted to explore adolescents' and parents' experiences of CAMHS in relation to accessibility, approachability and appropriateness. This study used a descriptive qualitative design, and focus groups and single interviews were conducted with adolescents (n = 15) and parents (n = 32) from three mental health clinics. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Accessing mental health services was a challenging experience for many parents and adolescents due to knowledge deficit, lack of information and limited availability of specialist services. Some parents and adolescents reported positive experiences while others reported negative experiences. They expressed a need for more information, involvement in decision making, flexible scheduling of appointments, school support and parent support groups. The nature and quality of the relationship with staff was critical to positive experience with the service; therefore, frequent changes of medical staff was disruptive. Mental health nurses can play a vital role in ensuring continuity, assessing adolescents' participation preferences and advocating for their information needs with other members of the interdisciplinary team. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea
Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.
Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha
The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…
U, Harikrishnan; Arif, Ali; H, Sobhana
Adolescent emotional responses and behaviors are often passed off as growth pangs and academic stress, thereby missing those that need deeper understanding and mental health interventions. The aim of the study is to understand mental health status among the school adolescents in Tezpur, Assam. The present study was a cross sectional study that used convenience sampling in selection of the schools. A total of 10 schools were selected for the purpose of the study. 1403 Adolescents were selected for data analysis. Socio-Demographic Performa and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [SDQ] were administered to the participants. The results indicated that five predictors (gender, education, family type, academic performance, socio economic status in the family) explained 9.79% of the variance (F=5.040, Pconcern. Schools should have standing operation procedures in place to periodically screen adolescents for mental health related issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Järvholm, Kajsa; Karlsson, Jan; Olbers, Torsten; Peltonen, Markku; Marcus, Claude; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Gronowitz, Eva; Johnsson, Per; Flodmark, Carl-Erik
About 20% of adolescents experience substantial mental health problems after bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to explore differences between adolescents with poor mental health (PMH) 2 years after surgery and those with average/good mental health. Three university hospitals in Sweden. Mental health and health-related quality of life were assessed in 82 of 88 adolescents (mean age: 16.8 yr, 67% female) at baseline and 1 and 2 years after laparoscopic gastric bypass. Possible associations among mental health, weight, and biochemical outcomes were explored. Two years after surgery 16 (20%) adolescents were identified as having PMH. More symptoms of anxiety and depression and worse mental health at baseline significantly predicted PMH 2 years later. The decline in mental health for the PMH group happened mainly during the second year after surgery. Suicidal ideation was reported in 14% of the total sample 2 years postsurgery and was more frequent in the PMH group. Weight outcomes between groups were comparable at all time points, and physical health was equally improved 2 years after surgery. Although adolescents with PMH after surgery lose as much weight and have similar improvements in physical health compared with other adolescents, special attention should be given to adolescents who report mental health problems at baseline and follow-up, especially during the second year after gastric bypass. The high prevalence of suicidal ideation in adolescents 2 years after bariatric surgery is another indication that longer follow-up is necessary. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sauer, Kristin; Barkmann, Claus; Klasen, Fionna; Bullinger, Monika; Glaeske, Gerd; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
Background Child and adolescent mental health problems are ubiquitous and burdensome. Their impact on functional disability, the high rates of accompanying medical illnesses and the potential to last until adulthood make them a major public health issue. While methodological factors cause variability of the results from epidemiological studies, there is a lack of prevalence rates of mental health problems in children and adolescents according to ICD-10 criteria from nationally representative ...
Hunter, A; Playle, J; Sanchez, P; Cahill, J; McGowan, L
Policy guidance suggests that outcomes for adolescents with mental health problems can be improved by secondary education services (SES) and child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) working more closely. This study reports on staff experiences of the introduction of a mental health link worker (MHLW). The findings of two focus groups are presented, conducted with staff from CAMHS and SES. These focus groups formed part of the overall wider evaluation of the MHLW role. The groups explored staff perceptions and experiences following the introduction of the MHLW, and elicited their views on the effectiveness of this innovative role. Qualitative methods were employed, and analysis was conducted using the principles of grounded theory and the constant comparative method. The findings revealed that the MHLW was well received by both groups, despite the identification of potential barriers. A number of key themes emerged, which included the ability of the link worker to improve communication and to encourage mutual understanding between services. The issues raised by these themes are discussed and recommendations are made for future practice and research.
Rhodes, A M
Adolescent pregnancies have risen in recent years. Options open to the pregnant adolescent are: terminating the pregnancy; giving birth to the child out of wedlock; keeping the baby; giving the baby up for adoption; and marriage before or after the birth of the baby. Each of these options carries certain legal ramifications, since the adolescent patients have not reached the age of majority. The state or the parents usually assume the role of decision making on behalf of the adolescent or assist in the decision making process. Court rulings since the early seventies have legalized abortion and enlarged the rights of minors seeking termination of their pregnancies. Both parents and minors have rights under the certain state laws; parent have the right to notification, minors have the right to privacy. Keeping the child, out of wedlock, might result in legal battles over custody and/or establishing financial support from the father. Some adolescent mothers give up their children for adoption. There are 2 legal procedures that have to be accomplished before a child can be adopted: termination of the rights of the natural parents and adoption proceedings. If the parents marry after the birth of the child, the child is then considered legitimate and the father does not have to go through the process of adopting the child. Other issues requiring parental or individual consent include consent to treatment, contraception, or sterilization. In the case of forcible rape or incest, the physician is required to report incidents to law enforcement officials.
Adolescent health care providers frequently care for patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT), or who may be struggling with or questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity. Whereas these youth have the same health concerns as their non-LGBT peers, LGBT teens may face additional challenges because of the complexity of the coming-out process, as well as societal discrimination and bias against sexual and gender minorities. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages adolescent providers and researchers to incorporate the impact of these developmental processes (and understand the impacts of concurrent potential discrimination) when caring for LGBT adolescents. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages providers to help positively influence policy related to LGBT adolescents in schools, the foster care system, and the juvenile justice system, and within the family structure. Consistent with other medical organizations, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine rejects the mistaken notion that LGBT orientations are mental disorders, and opposes the use of any type of reparative therapy for LGBT adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Adolescents are vulnerable group in term of acquisition of oral health-related knowledge, habits and attitudes. That is why the aim of this study was to investigate the associations between dental status, dental anxiety and oral health-related behavior and oral healthrelated quality of life as captured by Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP index. Methods. This crosssectional survey included representative sample of 404 adolescents (15 years old, randomly recruited from high schools in Belgrade, Serbia. The adolescents were interviewed using Serbian versions of eight-item OIDP index, Hiroshima University Dental Behavior Inventory (HUDBI and modified Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS. Three previously trained and calibrated dentists examined the subjects in the classrooms to determine the oral health status of adolescents [the Decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT index and visual signs of gingivitis]. Results. At least one oral impact was reported in 49.50% of adolescents. Most frequently, oral health problems affected eating (26.73%, tooth cleaning (27.47% and sleep and relaxation (16.83%. In comparison with adolescents without oral impacts, the adolescents with at least one oral impact reported, had higher DMFT score, more often reported problems with bleeding gums, usage of hard toothbrush, worries about the color of their teeth and seeing the dentist because of the symptoms. Logistic regression showed that dental anxiety (MDAS score, dental behavior (HUDBI score and worrying about the color of the teeth significantly affected OIDP score. Conclusion. Oral healthrelated quality of life among adolescents was affected by their behavior and dental anxiety levels. Implementing public health policies that target adolescents with poor oral health or bad habits might be helpful in improving their oral health-related quality of life.
Hyden, Christel; Cohall, Alwyn
Over the past decade, new technology and media have changed the way we communicate, access information, and share content with one another. Most 12- to 17-year-olds now own cell phones, and most adolescents and young adults spend several hours per day on computers and cell phones. The American Academy of Pediatrics now encourages all pediatricians to increase their knowledge of new media and technology. This article details technology access among adolescents and young adults, highlights several current and potential innovative applications for new technology and social networking in health promotion, and discusses issues to consider as practitioners move toward integrating new media into clinical and health education settings.
Friedman, H L
Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood in which interlocking changes in the body, mind and social relationship take place. Healthy development depends on both a propitious environment and the action of adolescents themselves. A stable family, peace, material conditions for physical health, and educational, social and vocational opportunities with a chance to make use of them before marriage, are necessary environment conditions. However, within this context the adolescent must experiment with new behaviours and relationships inevitably courting some risks. Adolescent health is especially linked to behaviour. If the environment is inadequate or dangerous and the adolescent lacks self-esteem, behaviours dangerous to health are more likely to occur. These include: precocious and unprotected sexual behaviour sometimes resulting in too early or unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases; the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs; injuries arising accidentally from risk taking behaviours especially when combined with alcohol or drugs; intentional injury whether self-inflicted or inflicted by others; and poor eating and habits of hygiene leading to obesity, or emaciation, acne and poor teeth and gums. Adolescent behaviour is often governed by their beliefs about what others think. Two way communication in a trusting atmosphere will reduce myths and misinformation and encourage healthy behaviour. The promotion of health, the prevention of problems, and their treatment and rehabilitation when they arise can best be accomplished with the active co-operation of young people.
Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S.
Background: Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security…
Smith, Scott R; Samar, Vincent J
Deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) adults have lower health literacy compared to hearing adults, but it is unclear whether this disparity also occurs in adolescence. We used the Health Literacy Skills Instrument-Short Form (HLSI-SF), Short Form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA), Comprehensive Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire (CHDKQ), and newly constructed interactive and critical health literacy survey items to quantify D/HH and hearing adolescents' health literacy. We adapted and translated survey materials into sign language and spoken English to reduce testing bias due to variable English language skills. Participants were 187 D/HH and 94 hearing college-bound high school students. When we adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, school grade, and socioeconomic status, D/HH adolescents demonstrated weaker general and functional health literacy and cardiovascular health knowledge than hearing adolescents on the HLSI, S-TOFHLA, and CHDKQ (all ps < .0001). Standard health literacy or knowledge scores were associated with several interactive and critical health literacy skills (all ps < .05). D/HH adolescents who reported greater hearing-culture identity, having hearing aids, experiencing better hearing with assistive devices, having good quality of communication with parents, and attending hearing schools at least half of the time had higher functional health literacy (all ps < .025). Those who reported English as their best language and attending hearing schools at least half of the time had higher cardiovascular health knowledge scores (all ps < .03). Results suggest that interventions to improve D/HH adolescents' health literacy should target their health-related conversations with their families; access to printed health information; and access to health information from other people, especially health care providers and educators.
Green, J; Stewart, A
This paper concerns the special ethical problems in child and adolescent psychiatry which relate to the child as a developing being. Two themes are discussed--the sense of responsibility in the child, and the therapist's responsibility towards the child. As a background to understanding the former, ideas on moral and cognitive development are reviewed. The therapist's responsibility is discussed in relation to different styles of therapy and the ethical issues they raise. The article concludes with a number of suggested ethical principles. PMID:3572994
Ha Na Cho
Full Text Available Abstract Background Measures to address gender-specific health issues are essential due to fundamental, biological differences between the sexes. Studies have increasingly stressed the importance of customizing approaches directed at women’s health issues according to stages in the female life cycle. In Korea, however, gender-specific studies on issues affecting Korean women in relation to stages in their life cycle are lacking. Accordingly, the Korean Study of Women’s Health-Related Issues (K-Stori was designed to investigate life cycle-specific health issues among women, covering health status, awareness, and risk perceptions. Methods K-Stori was conducted as a nationwide cross-sectional survey targeting Korean women aged 14–79 years. Per each stage in the female life cycle (adolescence, childbearing age, pregnancy & postpartum, menopause, and older adult stage, 3000 women (total 15,000 were recruited by stratified multistage random sampling for geographic area based on the 2010 Resident Registration Population in Korea. Specialized questionnaires per each stage (total of five were developed in consultation with multidisciplinary experts and by reflecting upon current interests into health among the general population of women in Korea. This survey was conducted from April 1 to June 31, 2016, at which time investigators from a professional research agency went door-to-door to recruit residents and conducted in-person interviews. Discussion The study’s findings may help with elucidating health issues and unmet needs specific to each stage in the life cycle of Korean women that have yet to be identified in present surveys.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the risky health behaviors and to raise the awareness of adolescents (attending high school education about prevention of risky behaviors and solutions by the effect of module-based training courses (about reproductive health and birth control, sexually transmitted infections, harmful habits, psychosocial behavior. Being planned as cross-sectional, this study was performed between September 2013-June 2014 in three states and a private high school in Zonguldak and conducted with a group of students aged between 14 and 19.926 students have participated before the training and 534 students have participated after training. It was seen that the mean scores of ‘The Adolescent Risk-Taking Questionnaire', ‘The Adolescent's Attitudes Towards Violence Scale' and ‘taking risk about social status', ‘traffic', ‘subtance use' subscales have decreased after the risk prevention trainings. The means scores of ‘Adolescent Coping with Problems Scale', ‘Nutrition Behaviour Scale' and ‘Nutrition Attitude Scale' have raised. Hence, the scores of domains reflecting adolescent health perception such as hygiene, sleep and exercise have raised while the scores of somatic symptoms domain, such as abdominal pain, headache, and fatigue have been failed. Consequently, it was determined that the training courses about risky health behaviours were effective in preventing risky health behaviors and creating positive health perceptions of adolescents.
Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina R.
Parents play an important role in the promotion of adolescent sexual health, but little is known about parents' attitudes and beliefs in immigrant families. We examine Hmong American parents' attitudes about adolescent sexual health using survey data from 202 parents of adolescents with attention to parental gender differences. Breaking from…
Costigan, Sarah A; Barnett, Lisa; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Lubans, David R
Evidence suggests sitting time is independently associated with a range of health issues in adults, yet the relationship between sedentary behavior and health indicators in young people is less clear. Age-related increases in sedentary behavior are well-documented; the behavioral patterns of adolescent girls are of particular concern. More than one third of adolescent girls' sedentary behavior time is accumulated through use of recreational screen-based behaviors. The objective of this review was to investigate the association between recreational screen-based sedentary behavior and the physical, behavioral, and psychosocial health indicators for adolescent girls. A secondary objective was to identify studies that have adjusted sedentary behavior indicators for physical activity. A structured electronic search of all publication years (through December 2011) was conducted to identify studies in: CINAHL, Communications and Mass Media Complete, ERIC, MEDLINE with Full Text, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus with Full Text. Included publications were observational and interventional studies involving adolescent girls (12-18 years) that examined associations between screen-based, sedentary behavior and health indicators (physical, psychosocial, and/or behavioral). The search identified 33 studies that evaluated health indicators of screen-based sedentary behaviors among adolescent girls. Strong evidence for a positive association between screen-based sedentary behavior and weight status was found. A positive association was observed between screen-time and sleep problems, musculoskeletal pain and depression. Negative associations were identified between screen time and physical activity/fitness, screen time and psychological well-being, and screen time and social support. The relationship between screen-based sedentary behavior and diet quality was inconclusive. Less than half of the studies adjusted sedentary behavior indicators for physical activity. Screen-based sedentary
Eliacik, Kayi; Bolat, Nurullah; Koçyiğit, Cemil; Kanik, Ali; Selkie, Ellen; Yilmaz, Huseyin; Catli, Gonul; Dundar, Nihal Olgac; Dundar, Bumin Nuri
The rapid rise in the global prevalence of obesity suggests that environmental factors may be responsible. The increased use of technology is associated with increased rates of obesity due to declines in physical activity and significant sedentary life style. Internet addiction is also a growing health issue associated with diminished physical activity and poor sleep quality as well as various health problems. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between Internet addiction and adolescent obesity-related problems. In this case-control study, 71 adolescents with obesity were recruited from the outpatient clinic at Tepecik Teaching Hospital and Katip Celebi University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology in Izmir, Turkey. The control group consisted of 64 non-obese adolescents that were matched with patients in the study group by age and gender. All subjects completed socio-demographic forms, an Internet addiction scale, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Adolescents with obesity were significantly more likely to have Internet addiction (p = 0.002), lower quality of life (p Internet addiction and less physical activity were associated with increased odds of obesity. The results indicated a significant association between Internet addiction and obesity. Health practitioners should take possible Internet addiction, online activities, and physical activities into consideration in follow-up of obese adolescents. In addition to pharmacologic therapies and dietary interventions, providing behavioral therapy targeting healthy Internet use may be promising to reduce the effects of obesity in adolescence.
Al'bitskii, V Iu; Makeev, N I
The article deals with the results of study of health preserving behavior of 310 students of senior classes of high schools of town of Jukovsky of Moskovskaya oblast. The higher level of prevalence of harmful habits among adolescents is revealed. It is emphasized that among girls the prevalence of harmful habits is not at large lower than among boys. The lower level of medical activities of respondents is explained by mistrusting physicians of curative preventive establishments, fear of queues, self-confidence in one's own knowledge and low level of medical awareness. The priority of physical culture and sport in the life of adolescents is reducing. The reorientation of trends in modern fashion to the behavior stereotypes with motional activities restriction occurs. The making of conditions to develop consistent health preserving behavior can become the most important reserve of preservation and enhancement of adolescents' health.
Padilla-Moledo, C; Castro-Piñero, J; Ortega, F B; Pulido-Martos, M; Sjöström, M; Ruiz, J R
The aim of this study was to study the correlation of television viewing with positive and negative health in youth. The present cross-sectional study comprised a total of 680 children and adolescents aged 6-17.9 (46% girls) representative of the province of Cádiz (south Spain). We used the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire to assess television viewing, positive and negative health. It was found that correlations between television viewing >2 hours and several outcomes were inconsistent. No effects were found for quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in children, or with perceived excellent health status, excellent life satisfaction, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in adolescents. However viewing >2 hours of television was correlated with lower quality family relations in adolescents, and lower perceived excellent health status, lower life satisfaction and higher health complaints index in children. Correction for multiple comparisons would render all television relationships as non-significant. Our results suggest that negative television influences on children and adolescents are minimal. However excessive television viewing may be symptomatic of other underlying mental health problems for some children.
Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Lazarus, Jeffrey Victor
OBJECTIVE: An adolescent's right to confidential healthcare is protected by international law and professional consensus. However, parental and social support for confidential sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, in particular, varies greatly. This study documents Lithuanian residents......' expectations with regard to confidentiality protection for adolescents in this domain, and explores the factors related to the diversity of these expectations. METHODS: Two national surveys of Lithuanian residents completed in 2005 and 2012 using anonymous questionnaires. Participants rated their expectations...... for confidentiality using a five-point Likert scale for eight types of SRH consultations. RESULTS: Public anticipation for confidentiality depended on whether issues related to sexual behaviour or to its consequences were addressed during adolescent consultation. Only younger respondents had higher expectations...
Full Text Available Background: Slovenia is one of the most successful European countries in the prevention of adolescent pregnancy and the country with a relative early sexual engagement of adolescents. Every year new generations of adolescents are entering puberty, thus reproductive health care of adolescents should be our continuous priority. Methods: The most important challenges in reproductive health care of adolescents in Slovenia are early sexual engagement of adolescents, low double method use at sexual intercourse and inadequate detection of sexually transmitted infections. Possible responses should be found on a micro-level of physician (recognition of a new role of physician, promotion of ABC ap- proach and on a macro-level of society (development of national strategy of reproductive health care, introduction of systematic sexuality education in the schools. Conclusions: Challenges in reproductive health care of adolescents are several and possible responses are integral. A response on challenges demand that every physician recognizes his/her new role and develops his/her competency. Responses on challenges will be feasible with inter- connection of physicians with other physicians and professionals and with collaboration of profession and politics.
Marcell, Arik V; Ford, Carol A; Pleck, Joseph H; Sonenstein, Freya L
Male adolescents frequently become disconnected from health care, especially as they get older, which limits physicians' abilities to address their health needs and results in missed opportunities to connect them to the health care system as they enter adulthood. In this study we tested the ability of modifiable (beliefs about masculinity, parental communication, sex education, and health insurance) and nonmodifiable (age, race/ethnicity, and region of residence) factors to prospectively predict health care use by male adolescents. We conducted a prospective analysis of data from 1677 male participants aged 15 to 19 years who completed the National Survey of Adolescent Males, a household probability survey conducted throughout the United States in 1988 (wave 1, participation rate: 74%) and in 1990-1991 (wave 2, follow-up rate: 89%). We present percentages and adjusted relative risks of the factors that predict male adolescents' self-report of a physical examination by a regular provider in the past year measured at wave 2. On average, 1067 (66%) of 1677 male adolescents at wave 2 reported having a physical examination within the last year. Factors associated with a lower likelihood of a physical examination included living in the South, Midwest, and West; being older in age; and holding more traditional masculine beliefs. Factors associated with a higher likelihood of a physical examination included communicating about reproductive health with both parents and being insured. Male adolescents who were sexually active or engaged in > or = 2 other risk behaviors had neither a higher nor lower likelihood of a physical examination. Efforts to enhance male adolescents' health through health care should include work to modify masculine stereotypes, improve mothers' and fathers' communication about health with their sons, expand health insurance coverage, and identify interventions to connect male adolescents at increased risk for health problems with health care.
Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte
Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…
Saisky, Yaniv; Hasid, Soli; Ebert, Tanya; Kosov, Irene
Approximately 8% from those who are defined as blind in Israel are children and adolescents. Visual impairment is correlated with a high rate of psychopathology. However, some of these children and adolescents do not receive appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Often, the clinicians and those who treat the children/adolescents lack the proper professional knowledge related to the unique diagnosis and treatment of children/ adolescents who are visually impaired. Visual impairment might influence different aspects of the psychiatric diagnosis. These aspects include the influence of the impairment on different developmental axes; the reciprocal relationship between the child and his/her environment; the clinical presentation of different psychopathologies; and the different treatment modalities. In this review we discuss these issues. Moreover, we raise the question as to whether there is a need to adapt the psychiatric evaluation and the treatment specifically to the visually impaired child. The review is based on the existing literature in addition to our clinical experience, which stems from our work with children and adolescents who are at the "Jewish Institute for the Blind", an institute for children and adolescents with visual impairment in Israel.
Anny Giselly Milhome da Costa Farre
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the contribution of arts education to health promotion of adolescents in situations of urban social vulnerability. Method: Participatory evaluative research, with a qualitative approach, using as a reference the theoretical constructs of Paulo Freire's Conscientization and the Empowerment Evaluation as a method of collecting with adolescents and teachers of an arts education program in the field of the Family Health Strategy. Results: Participants constructed a collective mission that represented the concept of adolescent health promotion. Arts education activities were prioritized and ranked with a mission focus, and over a three-month period, the program implemented health goals through art. In the reevaluation, the group presented a broad look at the implementation of activities and self-determination for change. Final considerations: Arts education is a potential space for nurses to act in the conscientization and empowerment of adolescent health in Primary Health Care.
Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan
Background: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old.…
Tarokh, Leila; Saletin, Jared M.; Carskadon, Mary A.
Sleep is a core behavior of adolescents, consuming up to a third or more of each day. As part of this special issue on the adolescent brain, we review changes to sleep behaviors and sleep physiology during adolescence with a particular focus on the sleeping brain. We posit that brain activity during sleep may provide a unique window onto adolescent cortical maturation and compliment waking measures. In addition, we review how sleep actively supports waking cognitive functioning in adolescence. Though this review is focused on sleep in healthy adolescents, the striking comorbidity of sleep disruption with nearly all psychiatric and developmental disorders (for reviews see 1,2) further highlights the importance of understanding the determinants and consequences of adolescent sleep for the developing brain. Figure 1 illustrates the overarching themes of our review, linking brain development, sleep development, and behavioral outcomes. PMID:27531236
Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Zoeckler, Leo; Olsen, Helen Elizabeth; Thomas, Katie; Pinho, Christine; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Dandona, Lalit; Ferrari, Alize; Ghiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Hay, Simon I.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lopez, Alan; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mokdad, Ali H.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Patton, George C.; Salomon, Joshua; Sartorius, Benn; Topor-Madry, Roman; Vollset, Stein Emil; Werdecker, Andrea; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Abate, Kalkidan Hasen; Abbas, Kaja; Damtew, Solomon Abrha; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alemayohu, Mulubirhan Assefa; Altirkawi, Khalid; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Antonio, Carl A. T.; Arnlov, Johan; Artaman, Al; Asayesh, Hamid; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Bacha, Umar; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Barac, Aleksandra; Bärnighausen, Till Winfried; Baye, Estifanos; Bedi, Neeraj; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabe, Eduardo; Bernal, Oscar Alberto; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bikbov, Boris; Boyce, Cheryl Anne; Brazinova, Alexandra; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Carter, Austin; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chitheer, Abdulaal A.; Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Crump, John; Dandona, Rakhi; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribew, Amare; deVeber, Gabrielle; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Dubey, Manisha; Endries, Amanuel Yesuf; Erskine, Holly E.; Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino; Faro, Andre; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fernandes, Joao C.; Fijabi, Daniel Obadare; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Fleming, Thomas D.; Flor, Luisa Sorio; Foreman, Kyle J.; Franklin, Richard C.; Fraser, Maya S.; Frostad, Joseph J.; Fullman, Nancy; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Gebru, Alemseged Aregay; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gidey Yihdego, Mahari; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Gizachew, Tessema Assefa; Glaser, Elizabeth; Gold, Audra L.; Goldberg, Ellen; Gona, Philimon; Goto, Atsushi; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Jiang, Guohong; Gupta, Rajeev; Tesfay, Fisaha Haile; Hankey, Graeme J.; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hijar, Martha; Horino, Masako; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hu, Guoqing; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Jayaraman, Sudha P.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jibat, Tariku; Johnson, Catherine O.; Jonas, Jost; Kasaeian, Amir; Kawakami, Norito; Keiyoro, Peter N.; Khalil, Ibrahim; Khang, Young-Ho; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A.; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kissoon, Niranjan; Knibbs, Luke D.; Koyanagi, Ai; Krohn, Kristopher J.; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu; Kulikoff, Rachel; Kumar, G. Anil; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lam, Hilton Y.; Larson, Heidi J.; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis Odai; Leung, Janni; Lim, Stephen S.; Lo, Loon-Tzian; Lo, Warren D.; Looker, Katharine J.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan; Malekzadeh, Reza; Markos Shifti, Desalegn; Mazidi, Mohsen; Meaney, Peter A.; Meles, Kidanu Gebremariam; Memiah, Peter; Mendoza, Walter; Abera Mengistie, Mubarek; Mengistu, Gebremichael Welday; Mensah, George A.; Miller, Ted R.; Mock, Charles; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mueller, Ulrich; Nagata, Chie; Naheed, Aliya; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Quyen Le; Nsoesie, Elaine; Oh, In-Hwan; Okoro, Anselm; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Ortiz, Alberto; Paudel, Deepak; Pereira, David M.; Perico, Norberto; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Ram, Usha; Rankin, Zane; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Sagar, Rajesh; Sanabria, Juan Ramon; Kedir Mohammed, Muktar Sano; Santos, Itamar S.; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Schöttker, Ben; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Shaheen, Amira; Shaikh, Masood Ali; She, June; Shiri, Rahman; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Singh, Jasvinder; Silpakit, Naris; Smith, Alison; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Stein, Dan J.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale; Swaminathan, Soumya; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tabb, Karen M.; Tadese, Fentaw; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taye, Bineyam; Teeple, Stephanie; Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Temam Shifa, Girma; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomas, Bernadette; Thomson, Alan J.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Tonelli, Marcello; Tran, Bach Xuan; Troeger, Christopher; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Uthman, Olalekan; Vasankari, Tommi; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert; Gebrehiwot, Solomon Weldemariam; Westerman, Ronny; Williams, Hywel C.; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Woodbrook, Rachel; Yano, Yuichiro; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zegeye, Elias Asfaw; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Vos, Theo
Importance Comprehensive and timely monitoring of disease burden in all age groups, including children and adolescents, is essential for improving population health. Objective To quantify and describe levels and trends of mortality and nonfatal health outcomes among children and adolescents from 1990 to 2015 to provide a framework for policy discussion. Evidence Review Cause-specific mortality and nonfatal health outcomes were analyzed for 195 countries and territories by age group, sex, and year from 1990 to 2015 using standardized approaches for data processing and statistical modeling, with subsequent analysis of the findings to describe levels and trends across geography and time among children and adolescents 19 years or younger. A composite indicator of income, education, and fertility was developed (Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) for each geographic unit and year, which evaluates the historical association between SDI and health loss. Findings Global child and adolescent mortality decreased from 14.18 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 14.09 million to 14.28 million) deaths in 1990 to 7.26 million (95% UI, 7.14 million to 7.39 million) deaths in 2015, but progress has been unevenly distributed. Countries with a lower SDI had a larger proportion of mortality burden (75%) in 2015 than was the case in 1990 (61%). Most deaths in 2015 occurred in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Global trends were driven by reductions in mortality owing to infectious, nutritional, and neonatal disorders, which in the aggregate led to a relative increase in the importance of noncommunicable diseases and injuries in explaining global disease burden. The absolute burden of disability in children and adolescents increased 4.3% (95% UI, 3.1%-5.6%) from 1990 to 2015, with much of the increase owing to population growth and improved survival for children and adolescents to older ages. Other than infectious conditions, many top causes of disability are associated with long
Starfield, B; Riley, A W; Green, B F; Ensminger, M E; Ryan, S A; Kelleher, K; Kim-Harris, S; Johnston, D; Vogel, K
This study was designed to test the reliability and validity of an instrument to assess adolescent health status. Reliability and validity were examined by administration to adolescents (ages 11-17 years) in eight schools in two urban areas, one area in Appalachia, and one area in the rural South. Integrity of the domains and subdomains and construct validity were tested in all areas. Test/retest stability, criterion validity, and convergent and discriminant validity were tested in the two urban areas. Iterative testing has resulted in the final form of the CHIP-AE (Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition) having 6 domains with 20 subdomains. The domains are Discomfort, Disorders, Satisfaction with Health, Achievement (of age-appropriate social roles), Risks, and Resilience. Tested aspects of reliability and validity have achieved acceptable levels for all retained subdomains. The CHIP-AE in its current form is suitable for assessing the health status of populations and subpopulations of adolescents. Evidence from test-retest stability analyses suggests that the CHIP-AE also can be used to assess changes occurring over time or in response to health services interventions targeted at groups of adolescents.
Sarah E Wiehe
Full Text Available Various forms of community disorder are associated with health outcomes but little is known about how dynamic context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behaviors.Assess whether exposure to contexts associated with crime (as a marker of community disorder correlates with self-reported health-related behaviors among adolescent girls.Girls (N = 52, aged 14-17, were recruited from a single geographic urban area and monitored for 1 week using a GPS-enabled cell phone. Adolescents completed an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview survey on substance use (cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use and sexual intercourse in the last 30 days. In addition to recorded home and school address, phones transmitted location data every 5 minutes (path points. Using ArcGIS, we defined community disorder as aggregated point-level Unified Crime Report data within a 200-meter Euclidian buffer from home, school and each path point. Using Stata, we analyzed how exposures to areas of higher crime prevalence differed among girls who reported each behavior or not.Participants lived and spent time in areas with variable crime prevalence within 200 meters of their home, school and path points. Significant differences in exposure occurred based on home location among girls who reported any substance use or not (p 0.04 and sexual intercourse or not (p 0.01. Differences in exposure by school and path points were only significant among girls reporting any substance use or not (p 0.03 and 0.02, respectively. Exposure also varied by school/non-school day as well as time of day.Adolescent travel patterns are not random. Furthermore, the crime context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behavior. These data may guide policy relating to crime control and inform time- and space-specific interventions to improve adolescent health.
Zwaanswijk, Marieke; Ende, J. van der; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bensing, J.; Verhulst, F.C.
Objective: To determine the association of parent, family, and adolescent variables with adolescent mental health service need and utilization. Method: Correlates of adolescent mental health service utilization, self-perceived need and unmet need were investigated in a general population sample of
Parisod, Heidi; Pakarinen, Anni; Axelin, Anna; Danielsson-Ojala, Riitta; Smed, Jouni; Salanterä, Sanna
The purpose of this study was to explore the design of a health game that aims to both support tobacco-related health literacy and a tobacco-free life in early adolescence and to meet adolescents' expectations. Data were collected from adolescents using an open-ended questionnaire (n = 83) and focus groups (n = 39) to obtain their view of a health game used for tobacco-related health education. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. A group of experts combined the adolescents' views with theoretical information on health literacy and designed and produced the first version of the game. Adolescents (session 1, n = 16; session 3, n = 10; and session 4, n = 44) and health promotion professionals (session 2, n = 3) participated in testing the game. Feedback from testing sessions 3 and 4 was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Adolescents pointed out that the health game needs to approach the topic of tobacco delicately and focus on the adolescents' perspective and on the positive sides of a tobacco-free life rather than only on the negative consequences of tobacco. The adolescents expected the game to be of high quality, stimulating, and intellectually challenging and to offer possibilities for individualization. Elements from the adolescents' view and theoretical modelling were embedded into the design of a game called Fume. Feedback on the game was promising, but some points were highlighted for further development. Investing especially in high-quality design features, such as graphics and versatile content, using humoristic or otherwise stimulating elements, and maintaining sufficiently challenging gameplay would promote the acceptability of theory-based health games among adolescents.
Agampodi, Suneth B; Agampodi, Thilini C; UKD, Piyaseeli
Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17–19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners. Conclusions and recommendations
Agampodi Thilini C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17–19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners
Agampodi, Suneth B; Agampodi, Thilini C; Ukd, Piyaseeli
Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17-19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners. Adolescent health services are inadequate and available services
Vingilis, Evelyn; Wade, Terrance; Seeley, Jane
This study, using Andersen's health care utilization model, examined how predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need, personal health practices, and psychological factors influence health care utilization using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of Canadian adolescents. Second, this study examined whether this process…
Sysko, Robyn; Zandberg, Laurie J; Devlin, Michael J; Annunziato, Rachel A; Zitsman, Jeffrey L; Walsh, B Timothy
Best practice guidelines for adolescents considering bariatric surgery recommend a pre-operative mental health evaluation. However, only general information about these assessments appears in the literature, which makes consistency of administration challenging. This review proposes a specific empirically-derived format for pre-surgical mental health evaluations and summarizes currently available data on the psychiatric functioning of adolescents seeking bariatric surgery. Studies of mental health evaluations for adults preparing for bariatric surgery are reviewed, as is the limited literature relevant to adolescent evaluations. A specific and detailed example of an evaluation (clinical interview, self-report questionnaires, cognitive assessment) used for younger patients at a major metropolitan hospital center is presented, followed by data from an initial group of adolescents completing this evaluation. 200 adolescents (n=139 female; age: 14-18 y, BMI: 35.4-83.3 kg/m 2 ) presenting for bariatric surgery. A notable subset of adolescents reported current Axis I conditions (31.5%) and current mental health treatment (29.5%), but reports of current illicit drug use (1.5%) and regular alcohol use (0.5%) were relatively rare. Procedures for using the completed evaluation and post-surgery monitoring of psychosocial issues are discussed. Adolescents considering weight loss surgery should receive comprehensive pre-surgical mental health evaluations, but additional data are needed to develop specific recommendations the use of these evaluations in post-operative care.
In the popular press, most of the reported effects of video games appear to centre upon the alleged negative consequences such as increased aggression, medical consequences of excessive play, and addiction. Although in extreme cases, video game playing can be addictive, there are many benefts that children and adolescents can get from playing video games. These can be educational, social, and/or therapeutic. This paper examines various issues about the use of video games in the classroom. Thi...
Essack, Zaynab; Toohey, Jacintha; Strode, Ann
In South Africa children under the age of 18 are legal minors and considered not fully capable of acting independently. However, in certain defined circumstances the law has granted minors the capacity to act independently, including regarding their sexual and reproductive health (SRH). This study explored the perspectives and practices of 17 social workers from KwaZulu-Natal on legislation relevant to adolescents' evolving sexual and reproductive health and rights and the decriminalisation of consensual underage sex. A key finding was that many social workers have conservative views about adolescent access to SRH advice and services and many were critical of the recent decriminalisation of underage consensual sex. In the main, social workers were concerned that adolescents lack the capacity to make SRH care decisions and that liberal laws promote underage sex rather than protect adolescents. Despite antagonistic views of SRH laws related to adolescents, many social workers felt that they are able to uphold their professional rather than personal views in their work. These findings are important given that a key barrier to adolescent access and uptake of SRH advice and services relates to concerns that they will be judged. Therefore service providers need to be regularly updated on adolescent SRH issues (including rights, laws, and policies) and be engaged in critical thinking about conflicting cultural, moral and personal judgements around adolescent sexuality. Such training should include counselling and communication skills that address issues on confidentiality, adolescents' dignity, privacy and best interests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hoopes, Andrea J; Benson, Samantha K; Howard, Heather B; Morrison, Diane M; Ko, Linda K; Shafii, Taraneh
Adolescents in the United States are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy. Adolescent-centered health services may reduce barriers to health care; yet, limited research has focused on adolescents' own perspectives on patient-provider communication during a sexual health visit. Twenty-four adolescents (14-19 years old) seeking care in a public health clinic in Washington State participated in one-on-one qualitative interviews. Interviews explored participants' past experiences with medical providers and their preferences regarding provider characteristics and communication strategies. Interviews revealed that (1) individual patient dynamics and (2) patient-provider interaction dynamics shape the experience during a sexual health visit. Individual patient dynamics included evolving level of maturity, autonomy, and sexual experience. Patient-provider interaction dynamics were shaped by adolescents' perceptions of providers as sources of health information who distribute valued sexual health supplies like contraception and condoms. Participant concerns about provider judgment, power differential, and lack of confidentiality also emerged as important themes. Adolescents demonstrate diverse and evolving needs for sexual health care and interactions with clinicians as they navigate sexual and emotional development.
Full Text Available Abstract Background China is in the midst of history's largest flow of rural-urban migration in the world; a flow that includes growing numbers of children and adolescents. Their health status is an important public health issue. This study compares self-rated physical and mental health of migrant and local adolescents in China, and examines to what extent layered social connections account for health outcomes. Methods In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study among middle school students in Pudong New Area, Shanghai. Information about health status, social connections, and demographic factors were collected using a questionnaire survey. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, we used the t-test, Chi-square analysis, and a series of regression models to compare differences in health outcomes and explore the effects of social connections. Results Migrant adolescents reported significantly higher rates of good physical health. However, they also had significantly fewer social connections, lower self-esteem, and higher levels of depression than their native peers. Family cohesion was associated with depressive symptoms and low self-esteem among all adolescents; peer association and social cohesion played major roles in migrants' well-being. Gender, age, and socioeconomic (SES factors also affected adolescents' self-rated physical and mental health. Conclusions Self-rated data suggest that migrant adolescents enjoy a physical health advantage and a mental health disadvantage. Layered social connections, such as peer association and social cohesion, may be particularly important for migrants. A public health effort is required to improve the health status of migrant youth.
Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid
adult educational achievement. Data are taken from a birth cohort study of all adolescents born in 1989 (n=3,058) living in a rural county in Denmark. Information was obtained from questionnaires (sent to the adolescents and their parents) and from different national registers (e.g. hospitalization......This study examines the impact of a wide range of health measures on school performance at the end of compulsory school (9 years of school). The key questions raised are whether different health problems lowers school performance contributing to a health selection process that could lead to lower...... health and school performance....
Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.
Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…
Full Text Available Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1 Ebele Samuel Onubogu,1 Okechukwu Bonaventure Anozie,1 Lucky Osaheni Lawani,1 Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,2 Emeka Ogah Onwe,3 Monique Iheoma Ajah4 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, 3Department of Paediatrics, 4Well Women Centre, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria Background: Reproductive health services in the form of adolescent health and contraceptive services are fundamental in the prevention of a high incidence of teenage pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine the age at menarche, menstrual pattern, and awareness of and use of modern contraception among secondary school girls in Abakaliki, Nigeria.Subjects and materials: This was a cross-sectional study in which self-administered questionnaires were completed by 482 adolescent girls at two girls’ secondary schools between August and September 2012.Results: The mean age at menarche was 13.13±1.37 years. The mean menstrual cycle length was 27.8±3.14 days, and the mean duration of menstrual flow was 4.8±1.14 days. Thirty-seven (7.7% respondents were ignorant of their cycle length, while 29 (6.0% had irregular cycles. Premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea were major menstrual issues, which resulted in 69 (14.3% and 59 (12.2% of respondents resorting to self-medication and absenteeism from school, respectively. Mothers were the main source of their daughters’ adolescent education, while friends and mass media were the main source of contraceptive information. Though there was a high level (75.7% of awareness of contraceptive information among the girls, usage (8.9% was poor. Only eight (18.6% of the 43 respondents who had ever used modern contraception were adherent to modern contraceptives. Students who were more than 15 years old, attained menarche at 13 years or less, and whose families were of
Davis, Laurel; Shlafer, Rebecca J
Reliable information about children of incarcerated people is difficult to obtain, and major gaps exist in our understanding of their well-being. This study aims to determine whether adolescents with incarcerated parents report higher levels of mental health problems than those without an incarcerated parent, and whether the relationship between parental incarceration and adolescent mental health is moderated by parent-child relationships. Using a statewide survey from one US state, we compared adolescents with a currently incarcerated parent to those with a formerly incarcerated parent and those with no history of parental incarceration on self-reported indicators of mental health, and examined whether strong parent-child relationships were protective against mental health concerns. Results indicate that adolescents with incarcerated parents are at elevated risk for mental health problems, and strong parent-child relationships partially buffer children from risk. Findings underscore the need for more investment in effective early interventions for adolescents in highly adverse contexts. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In the presented paper, the issue of recognition and building of resources in adolescent pupils was discussed, referring to salutogenic concept of A. Antonovsky and Conservation of Resources Theory of S. E. Hobfoll. Coming out from developmental pedagogy and positive orientation in social sciences, benefits of scientific and educational actions concentrated on identifying pupils’ resources and supporting them in generating them, were shown. On the basis of Polish and foreign literature, empirical research treating about pupils’ resource, was analyzed, with special attention put to the sense of coherence and its components, stress management and behavior fostering health.
Kekkonen, V; Kivimäki, P; Valtonen, H; Hintikka, J; Tolmunen, T; Lehto, S M; Laukkanen, E
The representativeness of the data is one of the main issues in evaluating the significance of research findings. Dropping out is common in adolescent mental health research, and may distort the results. Nevertheless, very little is known about the types of systematic bias that may affect studies in a) the informed consent phase and b) later in follow-up phases. The authors addressed this gap in knowledge in a five-year follow-up study on a sample of adolescents aged 13-18 years. The data were collected using self-report questionnaires. The baseline sample consisted of 4171 adolescents, 1827 (43.8%) of whom gave consent to be contacted for a follow-up survey, but only 797 (19.1%) participated in the follow-up. Binary logistic regression models were used to explain the participation. Young age, female gender, a high number of hobbies, good performance at school in the native language and general subjects, family disintegration such as divorce, high parental employment, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were associated with both consent and participation. However, the effect of mental health aspects was smaller than the effect of age and gender. This study confirmed the possibility of systematic selection bias by adolescents' sociodemographic characteristics. The representativeness of the study sample might have been improved by more intense recruitment strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aragão, Joyce Mazza Nunes; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Torres, Raimundo Augusto Martins; Silva, Andréa Soares Rocha da; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha
understand the perceptions of adolescent students regarding the use of Facebook social media in sexual and reproductive health learning in the Family Health Strategy. a qualitative, descriptive study developed with 96 adolescents from a public school and a private school in Fortaleza-CE who concluded an educational intervention using Facebook. The information was collected in the online environment itself, as well as in a questionnaire applied in person. For the collection and analysis of this information, netnography was used. Facebook contributed to the sexual and reproductive health education in an interactive, playful and practical way, reducing the embarrassment of some adolescents to converse on the subject, and brought adolescents closer to the health service, by strengthening their bond with Health professionals. health professionals should recognize that such virtual spaces on the Internet offer potential for the production of health care, especially among adolescents.
Full Text Available Several African countries have recently introduced or are currently introducing the HPV vaccine, either nationwide or through demonstration projects, while some countries are planning for introduction. A collaborative project was developed to strengthen country adolescent immunisation programmes and health systems in the African Region, addressing unique public health considerations of HPV vaccination: adolescents as the primary target group, delivery platforms (e.g. school-based and facility based, socio-behavioural issues, and the opportunity to deliver other health interventions alongside HPV vaccination.Following a successful âtaking-stockâ meeting, a training programme was drafted to assist countries to strengthen the integration of adolescent health interventions using HPV vaccination as an entry point. Two workshops were conducted in the Eastern and Southern African Regions. All countries reported on progress made during a final joint symposium.Of the 20 countries invited to participate in either of the workshops and/or final symposium, 17 countries participated: Angola, Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Countries that are currently implementing HPV vaccination programmes, either nationally or through demonstration projects, reported varying degrees of integration with other adolescent health interventions. The most commonly reported adolescent health interventions alongside HPV vaccination include health education (including sexually transmitted infections, deworming and delivering of other vaccines like tetanus toxoid (TT or tetanus diphtheria (Td.The project has successfully (a established an African-based network that will advocate for incorporating the HPV vaccine into national immunisation programmes; (b created a platform for experience exchange and thereby contributed to novel ideas of
Full Text Available AiM: This study was planned as a descriptive study in order to investigate risky health behaviors of immigrant and non immigrant adolescents. METHODS: The study was performed in a high school situated Izmir between the dates of October and November 2008. Sample group of this research was included 293 immigrant and 813 non immigrant adolescents. Data were collected by using Socio-demographic question form and and Health Risk Behaviors Scale. Data were collected from students with a technical pencil-paper by researcher in classroom. Frequencies, one way anova (post-hoc bonferroni and independent t test were used with Stastical Package for Social Science 13.0 program for statistical analysis of data. Written consent was taken from Izmir Directorate of Education to carry out the study. Oral consent was taken from the school manager and the students. RESULTS: Mean age of adolescents was 15.42+/-0.03. It was determined that risky health behaviors mean score (t: 2.161, p: 0.031 and physical activity (t: 2.132, p: 0.033, nutrition (t:3.030, p: 0.003, hygiene (t: 3.850, p: 0.000 sub-scales mean scores of immigrant adolescent were statistically higher than non immigrant adolescents (p<0.05. CONCLUSiONS: Consequently, this study was important to health professionals worked primary health services and school health services The study have significant data about migration affects on health behaviors of adolescent to show health professionals worked primary care and school health services and to plan health services towards adolescents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(4.000: 289-294
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic health inequalities in adolescence are not consistently reported. This may be due to the measurement of self-reported general health, which probably fails to fully capture the psychological dimension of health, and the reliance on traditional socio-economic indicators, such as parental education or occupational status. The present study aimed at investigating this issue using simple questions to assess both the physical and psychological dimension of health and a broader set of socioeconomic indicators than previously used. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 5614 adolescents aged 16-18 years-old from 25 senior high schools in Greece. Self-reported general and psychological health were both measured by means of a simple Likert-type question. We assessed the following socio-economic variables: parents' education, parents' employment status, a subjective assessment of the financial difficulties experienced by the family and adolescents' own academic performance as a measure of the personal social position in the school setting. Results One out of ten (10% and one out of three (32% adolescents did not enjoy good general and psychological health respectively. For both health variables robust associations were found in adolescents who reported more financial difficulties in the family and had worse academic performance. The latter was associated with psychological health in a more linear way. Father's unemployment showed a non-significant trend for an association with worse psychological health in girls only. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities exist in this period of life but are more easily demonstrated with more subjective socioeconomic indicators, especially for the psychological dimension of health.
Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E
Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. In urban communities, on the other hand, the authoritarian style was more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. The connectedness of all female adolescents with their family was stronger than that of male adolescents. The connectedness of girls was found to be more emotional and financial in villages and to be more functional in town. Female adolescents reported a higher frequency of psychological disorders. Mental health was associated with authoritative parenting, but not with authoritarian parenting. It seems that authoritarian parenting within an authoritarian culture is not as harmful as within a liberal culture.
Cheah, Whye Lian; Hazmi, Helmy; Chang, Ching Thon
Eating disorders are common health issues among the adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of eating disorders and their relationship with body mass index, body part satisfaction and perception on body weight among urban secondary school children. It was a cross-sectional study conducted in Kuching, Sarawak. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire that consist of the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26), perception on body part satisfaction and body weight, and anthropometric measurement. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 22. A total of 329 respondents participated in this study with 59% females and 60.5% Malays. There were 14.3% of the respondents overweight and obese, with higher percentage among males (19.3%). About 18.5% of the respondents were found to be at risk of eating disorders with higher prevalence among males (19.3%). More females reported to have higher prevalence of body part dissatisfaction (46.9%) and body weight (37.6%) compared to males (40%, 28.1%). The statistical results indicated there were significant associations between EAT-26 and body mass index (BMI) (p=0.039), body part satisfaction (p=0.004), and perception of body weight (p=0.038). Eating disorders are becoming more prevalent amongst adolescents, particularly among males. As eating disorder are strongly associated with adolescent mental and physical health, intervention programme on their developmental challenges and issues for both males and females should be in place particularly in the school education syllabus.
In the Andean region of Latin America over one million adolescent girls get pregnant every year. Adolescent pregnancy (AP) has been associated with adverse health and social outcomes, but it has also been favorably viewed as a pathway to adulthood. AP can also be conceptualized as a marker of inequity, since it disproportionately affects girls from the poorest households and those who have not been able to attend school.Using results from a study carried out in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador, this paper explores APs and adolescents' sexual and reproductive health from a rights and gender approach. The paper points out the main features of a rights and gender approach, and how it can be applied to explore APs. Afterward it describes the methodologies (quantitative and qualitative) and main results of the study, framing the findings within the rights and gender approach. Finally, some implications that could be generalizable to global reserach on APs are highlighted.The application of the rights and gender framework to explore APs contributes to a more integral view of the issue. The rights and gender framework stresses the importance of the interaction between rights-holders and duty-bearers on the realization of sexual and reproductive rights, and acknowledges the importance of gender-power relations on sexual and reproductive decisions. A rights and gender approach could lead to more integral and constructive interventions, and it could also be useful when exploring other sexual and reproductive health matters.
The result showed that the majority of the male adolescent students (53.6 %) age lies in the age ... of adolescents behavioral, social and physical health problems should be given high priority ..... in which depression and anxiety can occur.
Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline
Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…
Bains, Ranbir Mangat; Diallo, Ana F.
Mental health issues affect 20-25% of children and adolescents, of which few receive services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) provide access to mental health services to children and adolescents within their schools. A systematic review of literature was undertaken to review evidence on the effectiveness of delivery of mental health services…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10–19 years is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15–19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probability sampling techniques were applied. A structured, pretested, envelope sealed self administered questionnaire was distributed among all (1584 adolescents of the 11 and 12 grades of selected institutions. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (16 versions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. RESULTS: About 19.37% adolescents had sexual contact and male participation was higher than females (P<0.05. Nearly one fifth of unmarried were found to be involved in sexual activities and most of them had first sex between 15-19 years age (median age 15.26 years. Of those who had sex, 6.91% had adopted all the three: vaginal, oral and anal sexes and majority had single followed by 2-5 sex partners in their sexual intercourse in the last one year and last month. About 13.93% adolescents were found to be indulged in group sex. Most of them had sex with regular partners and commercial sex workers. More than eight out of every ten who had sex had used contraceptive methods and condom was method of choice (94.77%. CONCLUSIONS: Premarital sexual involvement was prevalent among adolescents; sex with commercial sex workers and non commercial sex partners was perceived to be risk. Behavior change intervention strategies need to be formulated and implemented to promote adolescent reproductive and sexual health.
Full Text Available Background. Adolescents living with HIV are an emerging group in the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. Mental health in this population affects HIV care, treatment, consequential morbidity and secondary transmission. There is a paucity of research regarding these youth in South Africa (SA, partly because section 71 of the National Health Act of 2003 (NHA requires parental or guardian’s consent. Objective. To explore legal and ethical issues related to conducting adolescent mental health research in SA. Methods. After obtaining a High Court order permitting research on minors aged <18 years without prior parental or guardian’s consent, we used qualitative and quantitative methods to interview adolescents in five clinics serving HIV-positive adolescents in Johannesburg. Results. Our study enrolled 343 participants; 74% were orphaned and did not have legal guardians, 27% were symptomatic for depression, anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder, 24% were suicidal, and almost 90% did not feel that they belonged in the family with which they lived. Without court intervention, most of the participants could not have participated in this research because parental consent was impossible to obtain. This case study argues for exceptions to the parental consent requirement, which excludes orphaned and vulnerable children and youth from research. Conclusions. Recommendations are made to promote ethical integrity in conducting mental health research with adolescents. A balance is needed between protecting adolescents from exploitation and permitting access to benefits of research. Requiring parental consent for all research does not necessarily give effect to policy. For the vast majority of SA HIV-positive adolescents, parental consent is not possible. Section 71 of the NHA ought to be amended to facilitate valuable and necessary research concerning HIV-positive orphan children and adolescents.
Hastrup, J L; Phillips, S M; Vullo, K; Kang, G; Slomka, L
Compared 309 youths ages 11 to 15 years and their parents with respect to their comprehension of terms for seven common medical disorders: heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis, ulcer, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. For two thirds of the adolescent sample, accuracy of reporting of these disorders among the parents and grandparents was assessed. Results indicated considerable variation among disorders with respect to both comprehension of terms and accuracy of family health history. Adolescents' age was a major predictor of knowledge of medical terms (r = .41). Age was not related to accuracy of family health information. Consonant with this finding, adolescents' level of accuracy regarding family health history was generally similar to that of previous adult samples, suggesting that family health information is acquired and retained at an early age. Adolescents were more accurate concerning parents' compared with grandparents' history of hypertension.
Jenkins, Paul E; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Doyle, Angela Celio; Eddy, Kamryn; Crosby, Ross D; Hill, Laura; Powers, Pauline; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an emerging area of research in eating disorders (EDs) that has not been examined in adolescents in detail. The aim of the current study is to investigate HRQoL in an adolescent ED sample, examining the impact of ED symptoms on HRQoL. Sixty-seven treatment-seeking adolescents (57 females) with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) completed self-report measures of HRQoL and ED symptoms. Participants reported poorer HRQoL in mental health domains than in physical health domains. Disordered attitudes, binge eating, and compensatory behaviors were associated with poorer mental health HRQoL, and body dissatisfaction was associated with poorer physical health HRQoL. The current study assessed HRQoL among adolescents with EDs, finding several consistencies with the literature on adults with EDs. Future research should compare adolescents and adults with EDs on HRQoL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Koposov, Roman; Razvodovsky, Yury; Ruchkin, Vladislav
Some evidence suggests that in recent years the prevalence of heavy drinking has increased among Russian adolescents. However, as yet, little is known about either heavy alcohol consumption or its relationship with other adolescent health risk behaviours in Russia. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the association between binge drinking and health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia. Data were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a survey carried out in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2003. Information was obtained from a representative sample of 2868 adolescents aged 13-17 regarding the prevalence and frequency of binge drinking (five or more drinks in a row in a couple of hours) and different forms of substance use, risky sexual behaviour and violent behaviour. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between binge drinking and adolescent involvement in various health risk behaviours. Adolescent binge drinking was associated with the occurrence of every type of health risk behaviour - with the sole exception of non-condom use during last sex. In addition, there was a strong association between the number of days on which binge drinking occurred and the prevalence of many health risk behaviours. Binge drinking is associated with a variety of health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia. Public health interventions such as reducing the affordability and accessibility of alcohol are now needed to reduce binge drinking and its harmful effects on adolescent well-being. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mosavi, Seyed Abbas; Babazadeh, Raheleh; Najmabadi, Khadijeh Mirzaii; Shariati, Mohammad
To explore the views and experiences of adolescent girls and key adults regarding the necessity of providing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services for adolescent girls in Iran. This was a qualitative study; the data were coded and categorized in content analysis by MAXQDA10 and were gathered through focus groups with adolescent girls and their mothers and semi-structured interviews with school counselors, sociologists, health providers, state and nongovernmental directors of health programs, clergy, and health policy makers in the Iranian cities of Mashhad, Tehran, Shahroud, and Qom. There were six main reasons for the need to provide SRH services for adolescent girls: a lack of adequate knowledge about SRH, easy access to inaccurate information sources, cultural and social changes, increasing risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, religion's emphasis on sex training of children and adolescents, and the existence of cultural taboos. Most participants confirmed the necessity of providing SRH services for adolescent girls, so instead of talking about provision or non-provision of these services, it is important for policy makers to plan and provide SRH services that can be consistent with cultural and religious values for adolescent girls. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Hyun Sik
Numerous studies have demonstrated the negative influence of sexual debut during adolescence on mental health outcomes. This article contributes to this literature by investigating whether sexual debut has negative effects on mental health among South Korean adolescents and whether the timing of adolescent sexual debut matters. Drawing on longitudinal data from a nationally representative survey, we first predicted mental health outcomes at one year after high school graduation using first sexual intercourse that had occurred before the outcomes were measured. In a second statistical model, adolescent sexual debut was defined as first coitus that had occurred before high school graduation. Sexual debut was associated with an increase in problematic aggressive behaviors for both genders. In contrast, only girls experienced a rise in depressive symptoms after becoming sexually active. For girls, having sex before high school graduation was correlated with worse mental health outcomes to the extent that sexual debut even enhanced the risk of suicidal ideation. We concluded that the negative effects of sexual activity among South Korean adolescents are attributable mainly to the sexually conservative atmosphere and gendered sexuality in that country.
Pennington, Nicole; Johnson, Molly; Delaney, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Mary Beth
A new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. Specific effects that have been reported by adolescents include jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, gastrointestinal upset, and…
Guo, Cheng; Tomson, Göran; Keller, Christina; Söderqvist, Fredrik
Studies investigating the prevalence of positive mental health and its correlates are still scarce compared to the studies on mental disorders, although there is growing interest of assessing positive mental health in adolescents. So far, no other study examining the prevalence and determinants of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents has been found. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents. This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire including Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) and items regarding multiple aspects of adolescent life. The sample involved a total of 5399 students from grade 8 and 10 in Weifang, China. Multivariate Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between potential indicators regarding socio-economic situations, life style, social support and school life and positive mental health and calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. More than half (57.4%) of the participants were diagnosed as flourishing. The correlated factors of positive mental health in regression models included gender, perceived family economy, the occurrence of sibling(s), satisfaction of self-appearance, physical activity, sleep quality, stress, social trust, desire to learn, support from teachers and parents as well as whether being bullied at school (OR ranging from 1.23 to 2.75). The Hosmer-Lemeshow p-value for the final regression model (0.45) indicated adequate model fit. This study gives the first overview on prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents. The prevalence of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents is higher than reported in most of the previous studies also using MHC-SF. Our findings suggest that adolescents with advantageous socio-economic situations, life style, social support and school life are experiencing better positive mental health than others.
Jewett, Rachel; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Scarapicchia, Tanya; O'Loughlin, Jennifer
This longitudinal study examined the association between participation in school sport during adolescence and mental health in early adulthood. Adolescents (n = 853) reported participation in school sport in each grade throughout the 5 years of secondary school. In early adulthood, participants reported depressive symptoms, level of stress, and self-rated mental health. Involvement in school sport during adolescence was a statistically significant predictor of lower depression symptoms, lower perceived stress, and higher self-rated mental health in young adulthood. School sport participation may protect against poor mental health in early adulthood. Policies to increase school sport participation may be warranted as part of public health strategies to promote mental health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gurpreet Singh Chhabra
Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of psychosocial problems in male adolescents and find out various factors contributing to psycho-social ill health. Methods: 500 adolescents were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire to elicit the information about the psychosocial problems including depression, suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts. Association of academic performance, family problems, psychological problems and substance abuse was also included. Results: More than one third (39.6% adolescents were having psychological problems. These problems were significantly higher in middle adolescence (14-16 years, large extended families (> 8 members and lower socioeconomic status. Residence had no significant relation to psychological problems in the adolescents. On correlation, these adolescents with psychological problems were having significantly more academic problems, family disputes, domestic violence, lesser number of close friends and greater substance abuse. Conclusion: Considering that male adolescents from large families with lesser education and lower income had higher prevalence of psychosocial problems, it is essential for health care planners to design comprehensive family and health education programs for the adolescents. The family support, teacher student rapport and peer group communication should be strengthened to counteract unsafe behaviours in the adolescents.
Chung, Richard J; English, Abigail
This review describes the current state of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of adolescents in the United States and globally, the legal and health implications of this severe form of abuse, and the roles that pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers can play in addressing this issue. Although this form of exploitation and abuse is shrouded in secrecy, pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers are well positioned to respond when it arises. However, awareness and understanding of the issue are generally lacking among healthcare professionals, currently limiting their effectiveness in combating this problem. Although the empirical evidence base available to guide clinical care of victims of trafficking remains limited given the secretive nature of the abuse, important contributions to the multidisciplinary literature on this issue have been made in recent years, including the Institute of Medicine's landmark report in the United States. Commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of adolescents represent a human rights tragedy that remains inadequately addressed. As preeminent advocates for the health and well-being of adolescents, pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers can play a crucial role in advancing efforts not only to intervene but also to prevent further victimization of vulnerable youth.
Ewan, Lindsay A; McLinden, Daniel; Biro, Frank; DeJonckheere, Melissa; Vaughn, Lisa M
Health research that includes youth and family stakeholders increases the contextual relevance of findings, which can benefit both the researchers and stakeholders involved. The goal of this study was to identify youth and family adolescent health priorities and to explore strategies to address these concerns. Stakeholders identified important adolescent health concerns, perceptions of which were then explored using concept mapping. Concept mapping is a mixed-method participatory research approach that invites input from various stakeholders. In response to prompts, stakeholders suggested ways to address the identified health conditions. Adolescent participants then sorted the statements into groups based on content similarity and rated the statements for importance and feasibility. Multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis were then applied to create the concept maps. Stakeholders identified sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and obesity as the health conditions they considered most important. The concept map for STIs identified 7 clusters: General sex education, support and empowerment, testing and treatment, community involvement and awareness, prevention and protection, parental involvement in sex education, and media. The obesity concept map portrayed 8 clusters: Healthy food choices, obesity education, support systems, clinical and community involvement, community support for exercise, physical activity, nutrition support, and nutrition education. Ratings were generally higher for importance than for feasibility. The concept maps demonstrate stakeholder-driven ideas about approaches to target STIs and obesity in this context. Strategies at multiple social ecological levels were emphasized. The concept maps can be used to generate discussion regarding these topics and to identify interventions. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Seo-Hee; Woo, Sook Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok
Abstract Homosexual adolescents may face significant health disparities. We examined health-risk behaviors and health cognition related to homosexual behavior in a representative sample of adolescents. Data were obtained from 129,900 adolescents between 2008 and 2012 over 5 cycles of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of students in grades 7 to 12. Various health-risk behaviors and aspects of health cognition were compared between homosexual and heterosexual adolescents and analyzed with multiple logistic regression models. Compared with heterosexual adolescents (n = 127,594), homosexual adolescents (n = 2306) were more likely to engage in various health-risk behaviors and to have poor health cognition. In multiple logistic regression analysis, not living with parents, alcohol experience (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–1.78 for males and 1.66; 1.33–2.07 for females), smoking experience (1.80; 1.54–2.10 for males and 3.15; 2.61–3.79 for females), and drug experience (3.65; 2.81–4.80 for males and 3.23; 2.35–4.46 for females) were associated with homosexual behavior. Homosexual adolescents were more likely to use adult internet content (2.82; 2.27–3.50 for males and 7.42; 4.19–13.15 for females), and to be depressed (1.21; 1.03–1.43 for males and 1.32; 1.06–1.64 for females). In addition, suicide ideation (1.51; 1.26–1.81 for males and 1.47; 1.16–1.86 for females) and attempts (1.67; 1.37–2.05 for males and 1.65; 1.34–2.03 for females) were significantly more prevalent among homosexual adolescents. Homosexual adolescents report disparities in various aspects of health-risk behavior and health cognition, including use of multiple substances, adult internet content and inappropriate weight loss methods, suicide ideation and attempts, and depressive mood. These factors should be addressed relevantly to develop specific interventions regarding sexual minorities. PMID:27227939
Young, Michael; Palacios, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.
To improve the quality of research and commentary concerning adolescent sexuality and evaluation of both comprehensive sexuality education and abstinence education programs, this article aims to help readers (1) select appropriate measures to study adolescent sexual behavior, (2) develop appropriate study designs to evaluate adolescent sexual…
Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…
Laird, Robert; Kuhn,Emily
Emily S Kuhn, Robert D Laird Department of Psychology, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Family support programs aim to improve parent wellbeing and parenting as well as adolescent mental and behavioral health by addressing the needs of parents of adolescents experiencing or at risk for mental health problems. Family support programs can be part of the treatment for adolescents diagnosed with mental or behavioral health problems, or family support programs can be deli...
Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Wong, Sabrina T.; Zumbo, Bruno D.
Despite the large number of adolescents of East Asian origin in Canada, there is limited research on sexual health among this population. A first step to develop strategies for sexual health promotion for adolescents is to document the prevalence of sexual behaviours. This study thus estimated the prevalence of sexual health and risk behaviours among East Asian adolescents in grades 7 to 12, using the province-wide, school-based 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (unweighted N = 4...
Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy
Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…
Nguyen, Peter V.
Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. Most Vietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity…
Background “Mental health for everyone” is a school program for mental health literacy and prevention aimed at secondary schools (13–15 yrs). The main aim was to investigate whether mental health literacy, could be improved by a 3-days universal education programme by: a) improving naming of symptom profiles of mental disorder, b) reducing prejudiced beliefs, and c) improving knowledge about where to seek help for mental health problems. A secondary aim was to investigate whether adolescent sex and age influenced the above mentioned variables. A third aim was to investigate whether prejudiced beliefs influenced knowledge about available help. Method This non-randomized cluster controlled trial included 1070 adolescents (53.9% boys, M age14 yrs) from three schools in a Norwegian town. One school (n = 520) received the intervention, and two schools (n = 550) formed the control group. Pre-test and follow-up were three months apart. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations models were employed for analysis. Results Mental health literacy improved contingent on the intervention, and there was a shift towards suggesting primary health care as a place to seek help. Those with more prejudiced beleifs did not suggest places to seek help for mental health problems. Generally, girls and older adolescents recognized symptom profiles better and had lower levels of prejudiced beliefs. Conclusions A low cost general school program may improve mental health literacy in adolescents. Gender specific programs and attention to the age and maturity of the students should be considered when mental health literacy programmes are designed and tried out. Prejudice should be addressed before imparting information about mental health issues. PMID:24053381
National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2008
School-based health centers (SBHCs) are considered one of the most effective strategies for delivering preventive care, including reproductive and mental health care services, to adolescents--a population long considered difficult to reach. National Assembly on School-Based Health Care (NASBHC) recommends practices and policies to assure…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency of visiting doctors and health-related behaviors among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design, categorical and multivariate data analyses were used. The hypotheses investigated were: high frequency of AS is positively associated with lack of obesity and less frequent visits to doctors; and high frequency AS is positively associated with health-related behavior. Results A total of 656 boys (53.2% and girls (46.8%, ranging in age from 13–18 years were studied between January and June 2004. Three hundred and fifty seven subjects (54% reported that they slept less than the suggested 6–8 hours on schooldays. A significant negative association was found between low sleep and of the following health-related behaviors: (1 life appreciation; (2 taking responsibility for health; (3 adopting healthy diet; (4 effective stress management; (5 regular exercise; and (6 total AHP score. High frequency AS was associated with low frequencies of obesity after potential confounding factors were controlled. Junior high school adolescents reported significantly higher frequencies of AS than high school participants. Gender, family structure, home location and frequency of television watching or computer use were not significantly associated with AS. Conclusion These findings support the proposition that AS is associated with good health status and high-frequency adoption of health-related behavior. Furthermore, these findings suggest that inadequate
Becker, Sara J.; Swenson, Rebecca; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Cataldo, Andrea; Spirito, Anthony
Military families with adolescents experience high levels of stress associated with parental deployment, but many of these families do not seek or utilize mental health services. The current qualitative study was designed to better understand barriers to mental health treatment experienced by adolescents in military families. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with military adolescents (n = 13), military (non-enlisted) parents (n = 12), and mental health service providers who treat adolescents in military families (n = 20). Discussions primarily explored barriers to seeking treatment, with supplemental questions assessing the ideal elements of mental health services for this population. Seven barriers to engaging in mental health services were identified: four internal (confidentiality concerns, stigma, ethic of self-reliance, lack of perceived relevance) and three external (time and effort concerns, logistical concerns, financial concerns). Challenges engaging military adolescents in mental health services are discussed and several recommendations are offered for service providers attempting to work with this population. PMID:25574070
Atienzo, Erika E; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Campero, Lourdes
Most studies on parent-adolescent sexual health communication come from developed countries and are based on either parents' or children's reports. In developing countries, there is little evidence about the agreement among reports of all parties involved in parent-adolescent sexual health communication. The objective of this study is to explore the congruence (agreement) between adolescents and their parents about how frequently they discuss on selected sexual health topics. A total of 1606 parent-adolescent dyads of adolescents attending the first year in public high schools and their parents, in Morelos, Mexico were sampled in this study. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the frequency of parent-adolescent communication about eight sexual health topics. An ordinal logistic threshold model was used to estimate intra-class correlation coefficients within parent-adolescent dyads (as a measure of congruence) and to test if thresholds were equal between parents and adolescents. Congruence in reported frequency of parent-adolescent sexual health communication ranged from 0.205 (menstruation) to 0.307 (condoms) for mother-adolescent dyads, and from 0.103 (ejaculation) to 0.380 (condoms) for father-adolescent dyads. The thresholds (i.e., the cutoff points that define the categories in the observed ordinal variable) differed between parents and adolescents for each of the sexual health topics explored (pcongruence between parents' and adolescents' reports on parent-adolescent sexual health communication. This might be due to interpretation of frequency and intensity of sexual health communication which differs between parents and adolescents.
Naylor, Paul B; Cowie, Helen A; Walters, Stephen J; Talamelli, Lorenzo; Dawkins, Judith
Child and adolescent mental health disorders are present in around 10% of the population. Research indicates that many young people possess negative attitudes towards mental health difficulties among peers. To assess the impact of a mental health teaching programme on adolescent pupils' understanding. Two-group pre-test-post-test control group study in two English secondary schools. Experimental classes (School E) received a six-lesson teaching intervention on mental health; control classes (School C) did not. Participants were 14- and 15-year-old pupils. The intervention consisted of six lessons on mental health issues common to young people: stress; depression; suicide/self-harm; eating disorders; being bullied; and intellectual disability. School C was given access to these lesson plans and materials on completion of the study. Understanding was measured at two time points, Time 1 (T(1)) and Time 2 (T(2)), 8 months apart, by a Mental Health Questionnaire. Behavioural, emotional and relationship strengths and difficulties were measured by the self-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) with five subscales: hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, peer problems and prosocial behaviour. At T(2), pupils in School E compared with those in School C showed significantly more sensitivity and empathy towards people with mental health difficulties. They also used significantly fewer pejorative expressions to describe mental health difficulties. There was a significant reduction in SDQ scores on conduct problems and a significant increase on prosocial behaviour among School E pupils compared with controls. Pupils valued the intervention highly, in particular the lessons on suicide/self-harm. Teaching 14- and 15-year-olds about mental health difficulties helps to reduce stigma by increasing knowledge and promoting positive attitudes. The intervention also reduced self-reported conduct problems and increased prosocial behaviour. Generally
Poutiainen, Hannele; Levälahti, Esko; Hakulinen-Viitanen, Tuovi; Laatikainen, Tiina
Family socio-economic factors and parents' health behaviours have been shown to have an impact on the health and well-being of children and adolescents. Family characteristics have also been associated with school nurses' concerns, which arose during health examinations, about children's and adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development. Parental smoking has also been associated with smoking in adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent school nurses' concerns about adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development related to family characteristics are mediated through parents' and adolescents' own health behaviours (smoking). A path model approach using cross-sectional data was used. In 2008-2009, information about health and well-being of adolescents was gathered at health examinations of the Children's Health Monitoring Study. Altogether 1006 eighth and ninth grade pupils in Finland participated in the study. The associations between family characteristics, smoking among parents and adolescents and school nurses' concerns about adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development were examined using a structural equation model. Paternal education had a direct, and, through fathers' and boys' smoking, an indirect association with school nurses' concerns about the physical health of boys. Paternal labour market status and family income were only indirectly associated with concerns about the physical health of boys by having an effect on boys' smoking through paternal smoking, and a further indirect effect on concerns about boys' health. In girls, only having a single mother was strongly associated with school nurses' concerns about psychosocial development through maternal and adolescent girl smoking. Socio-economic family characteristics and parental smoking influence adolescent smoking and are associated with school nurses' concerns about adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development. The findings
Gavazzi, Stephen M.; Lim, Ji-Young; Yarcheck, Courtney M.; Bostic, Jennifer M.; Scheer, Scott D.
Greater empirical attention directed toward gender-sensitive assessment strategies that concentrate on family-specific factors is thought to be both timely and necessary, especially with regard to outcome variables associated with mental health and substance abuse in at-risk adolescent populations. A sample of 2,646 court-involved adolescents was…
Background The internet is widely used by children and adolescents, who generally have a high level of competency with technology. Thus, the internet has become a great resource for supporting youth self-care and health-related services. However, few studies have explored adolescents’ internet use for health-related matters. Objective The objective of this systematic literature review was to examine the phenomenon of children and adolescents’ health-related internet use and to identify gaps in the research. Methods A total of 19 studies were selected from a search of major electronic databases: PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO using the following search terms: “health-related internet use,” “eHealth,” “Internet use for health-related purpose,” “Web-based resource,” “health information seeking,” and “online resource,” combined with “child,” “adolescent,” “student,” “youth,” and “teen.” The children’s and adolescents’ ages were limited to 24 years and younger. The search was conducted from September 2015 to October 2017. The studies identified to contain youth (internet use were all published in peer-reviewed journals in the past 10 years; these studies examined general internet use seeking health care services, resources, information, or using the internet for health promotion and self-care. Studies were excluded if they explored the role of the internet as a modality for surveys, recruitment, or searching for relevant literature without specifically aiming to study participants’ health-related internet use; focused solely on quality assurance for specific websites; or were designed to test a specific internet-based intervention. Results Interesting patterns in adolescents’ health-related internet use, such as seeking preventative health care and specific information about medical issues, were identified. Quantitative studies reported rates of the internet use and
Dick, Bruce; Ferguson, B Jane
The World Health Organization has produced a multimedia, interactive online report entitled Health for the World's Adolescents: A Second Chance in the Second Decade. The report provides an overview of global and regional estimates of adolescent mortality and disability-adjusted life years, disaggregated by age, sex, and cause, and country-level data on health-related behaviors and conditions among adolescents. It outlines the reasons why adolescence is a unique period in the life course requiring special attention and synthesizes current thinking about the determinants that underlie the differences in health status between adolescents. For the first time, this new report pulls together recommendations and guidance from across the World Health Organization relating to interventions directed to a range of priority health problems, including use of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, AIDS, injuries, mental health, nutrition, sexual and reproductive health, tobacco use, and violence, focusing on four core functions of the health sector: supportive policies, service provision, strategic information, and working with other sectors. The report concludes with 10 key actions that would strengthen national responses to adolescent health, and outlines the approaches that are needed to overcome the obstacles to accelerating evidence-informed actions to improve the health of adolescents worldwide--with all the benefits that this will have for public health in the present and across the life course, for this generation and the next. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Aims: From the developmental perspectives children acquire and widen their perceptions of health as they mature and grow up. The main purpose of this study was to describe health through the eyes of adolescents in immigrant Ethiopian families living in Finland.Methods: Ten boys and five girls participated. The adolescents’ ages ranged from 12 to17. Theme interviews were used in data collection. Snowball sampling technique was used. Consent was obtained from the adolescents and adolescents’ parents. Inductive content analysis technique was used to analyse the data.Results: Adolescents indicated that health is the wellbeing of all dimensions that make us intact and complete. Adolescents believed relaxation, physical activity, good hygiene, good social relationship, avoiding consumption of poison substances, green nature, hygienic environment and peace are health supportive elements. On the contrary adolescents said insufficient resting, violent behaviors, difficulty, irritation, being inactive physically, addiction to alcohol and smoking, eating fatty food, not respecting meal time and use of drugs are health damaging behaviors. Adolescents consumed soft drink and alcohol frequently ,were physical inactive, practiced unhealthy eating habits, felt lazy to go and grab food from food store, faced financial difficulty to pay for Gym and healthy food that threatened their health. Adolescents used sport, socialization, moderate alcohol intake, avoid eating unhealthy food and smoking as their strategies to enhance their health.Conclusions: Adolescents were able to identify unhealthy lifestyles and healthy lifestyles. However adolescents were engaged in healthy and unhealthy lifestyles simultaneously. Thus family, school, neighbours and health care workers should work together and vigilant in assessing and removing factors that prevent adolescents from adopting healthy lifestyles.
Gonzales, C; Mulligan, D; Kaufman, A; Davis, S; Hunt, K; Kalishman, N; Wallerstein, N
Participants in this discussion of the potential of school-based health care services for adolescents included family medicine physicians, school health coordinators, a school nurse, and a community worker. It was noted that health care for adolescents tends to be either inaccessible or underutilized, largely because of a lack of sensitivity to adolescent culture and values. An ideal service for adolescents would offer immediate services for crises, strict confidentiality, ready access to prescribed medications, a sliding-scale scheme, and a staff that is tolerant of divergent values and life-styles. School-based pilot adolescent clinics have been established by the University of New Mexico's Department of Family, Community, and Emergency Medicine to test the community-oriented health care model. On-site clinics provide urgent medical care, family planning, pregnancy testing, psychological counseling, alcohol and drug counseling, and classroom health education. Experience with these programs has demonstrated the necessity for an alliance among the health team and the school administration, parents, and students. Financial, ethical, and political factors can serve as constraints to school-based programs. In some cases, school administrators have been resistant to the provision of contraception to students on school grounds and parents have been unwilling to accept the adolescent's right to confidentiality. These problems in part stem from having 2 separate systems, each with its own values, orientation, and responsibilities, housed in 1 facility. In addition, there have been problems generating awareness of the school-based clinic among students. Health education theater groups, peer counseling, and student-run community services have been effective, however, in increasing student participation. It has been helpful to mold clinic services to meet the needs identified by teenagers themselves. There is an interest not only in curative services, but in services focused
Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro
A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…
McDade, Thomas W; Chyu, Laura; Duncan, Greg J; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Doane, Leah D; Adam, Emma K
Health-related behaviors in adolescence establish trajectories of risk for obesity and chronic degenerative diseases, and they represent an important pathway through which socio-economic environments shape patterns of morbidity and mortality. Most behaviors that promote health involve making choices that may not pay off until the future, but the factors that predict an individual's investment in future health are not known. In this paper we consider whether expectations for the future in two domains relevant to adolescents in the U.S.-perceived chances of living to middle age and perceived chances of attending college-are associated with an individual's engagement in behaviors that protect health in the long run. We focus on adolescence as an important life stage during which habits formed may shape trajectories of disease risk later in life. We use data from a large, nationally representative sample of American youth (the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) to predict levels of physical activity, fast food consumption, and cigarette smoking in young adulthood in relation to perceived life chances in adolescence, controlling for baseline health behaviors and a wide range of potentially confounding factors. We found that adolescents who rated their chances of attending college more highly exercised more frequently and smoked fewer cigarettes in young adulthood. Adolescents with higher expectations of living to age 35 smoked fewer cigarettes as young adults. Parental education was a significant predictor of perceived life chances, as well as health behaviors, but for each outcome the effects of perceived life chances were independent of, and often stronger than, parental education. Perceived life chances in adolescence may therefore play an important role in establishing individual trajectories of health, and in contributing to social gradients in population health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Glozah, Franklin N
There is presently no internationally agreed upon set of indicators for assessing adolescent health and what "health and wellbeing" means to adolescents. The psychosocial context of family, friends, and school plays a crucial role in the construction of health and wellbeing by adolescents. In spite of this, not much is known about the meaning Ghanaian adolescents attach to their health and wellbeing and the role of stress and social support in the construction of this meaning. This study explores how perceived social support and stress influence the construction of the meaning of health and wellbeing to Ghanaian adolescents. Eleven respondents purposively selected from 770 males and females participated in semi-structured interviews, which were transcribed verbatim and analysed with thematic analysis. Findings pointed to the fact that health and wellbeing was largely construed as "ability to perform daily functions," such as ability to take critical decisions and a general sense of vitality and mental strength. These were influenced by perceived social support ("encouragement and advice" and "religiosity or spirituality") and stress ("teasing, strictness, quarrels, and arguments"). These findings suggest that effective communication, mutual respect, and support from significant others, in the midst of stressful life events, contribute substantially to a holistic construction and meaning of health and wellbeing by Ghanaian adolescents.
Freeman, Jaimie L; Caldwell, Patrina H Y; Bennett, Patricia A; Scott, Karen M
To conduct a systematic review of the evidence concerning whether and how adolescents search for online health information and the extent to which they appraise the credibility of information they retrieve. A systematic search of online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC) was performed. Reference lists of included papers were searched manually for additional articles. Included were studies on whether and how adolescents searched for and appraised online health information, where adolescent participants were aged 13-18 years. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize the findings. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. In line with the research questions, 2 key concepts were identified within the papers: whether and how adolescents search for online health information, and the extent to which adolescents appraise online health information. Four themes were identified regarding whether and how adolescents search for online health information: use of search engines, difficulties in selecting appropriate search strings, barriers to searching, and absence of searching. Four themes emerged concerning the extent to which adolescents appraise the credibility of online health information: evaluation based on Web site name and reputation, evaluation based on first impression of Web site, evaluation of Web site content, and absence of a sophisticated appraisal strategy. Adolescents are aware of the varying quality of online health information. Strategies used by individuals for searching and appraising online health information differ in their sophistication. It is important to develop resources to enhance search and appraisal skills and to collaborate with adolescents to ensure that such resources are appropriate for them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Halvorsen, Jon A; Lien, Lars; Dalgard, Florence; Bjertness, Espen; Stern, Robert S
There are few studies on psychosocial problems in adolescents with eczema. We performed a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study to explore the relationship of suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and social functioning with eczema. A total of 4,744 adolescents (18-19 years) were invited for the study, of whom 3,775 (80%) participated. The overall prevalence of current eczema was 9.7%. Among those with current eczema, 15.5% reported suicidal ideation compared with 9.1% among those without eczema, significantly associated in a multivariate model (odds ratio 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.31-2.68). In a subgroup analyses, the prevalence of suicidal ideation in those with both eczema and itch was 23.8%, and was significantly associated, compared with those without eczema (3.57, 2.46-5.67). Eczema was associated with mental health problems assessed by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (1.72, 1.21-2.45) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10 (1.63, 1.23-2.16). Five questions assessed social function: feeling attached to family and friends; thriving at school; experiencing bullying; and romantic relationships. Boys with current eczema were less likely to have had romantic relationships (1.93, 1.21-3.08). Eczema in late adolescence is associated with suicidal ideation and mental health problems but rarely with social problems. Our findings point to the importance of addressing mental health issues in adolescents with eczema.
Coccia, Catherine; Darling, Carol A; Rehm, Marsha; Cui, Ming; Sathe, Shridhar K
A survey of adolescents aged 15 to 16 years was used to examine the relationship between their perceptions of indulgent parenting and adolescent weight status to overall satisfaction with life, as associated with adolescent perceptions of body image, health and stress. In addition, perceptions of parental indulgence were examined in terms of their association with adolescent eating behaviours and health. The results revealed a paradox related to indulgent parenting, with both positive and negative outcomes for adolescents. Structural equation analyses showed that parental indulgence was not only related to lower stress and higher life satisfaction, but also to unhealthy eating behaviours. Path analysis indicated that both positive and negative eating outcomes for adolescents were related to parental indulgence. This research has many implications for both parent and adolescent health education, focusing on parenting styles, stress and healthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Elfers, John; Carlton, Lidia; Gibson, Paul; Puffer, Maryjane; Smith, Sharla; Todd, Kay
The Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group commissioned the development of core competencies that define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for all providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This article describes the background and rationale for this set of competencies, the history and use of competencies, and the process…
Farideh K Abadi Farahani
Full Text Available Objective: Parents are believed to be among the most influential adults who have a deterministic role in the success of interventional programs on adolescents' reproductive health. The aim of this study is to describe parents' perceptions and attitudes towards adolescent reproductive needs, experiences and associated factors. Method: A population-based study of 539 parents of adolescent boys, aged 15-18 in Tehran was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with parents' attitudes and their reports of adolescent heterosexual relationships. Results: Higher education, higher income, access to satellite programs and internet were associated with a liberal attitude among parents. Some demographic factors including adolescents' age, lack of adolescents' endorsement to religion, access to satellite programs, parents' drinking, and various family factors such as poor parent-adolescent relationship, conflict, parental low valuation on education, parents' low endorsement to morals, difficult parent-adolescent communication on important issues and finally easy communication about sex, were all among the factors associated with more frequent reports of having a girlfriend over the last year for the adolescent males. Parents' reports on their adolescents' sexual relationships with the opposite sex highlighted a significant gap with the figure reported for the adolescents aged 15-18 in a preceding study in 2002(3% vs. 28%. Conclusion: Parents should be advised to build a good relationship with teens, to maintain a close parent-teen communication, and to discuss morals and values with teens .
Zhang, Ni; Teti, Michele; Stanfield, Kellie; Campo, Shelly
This exploratory qualitative study examines Chinese adolescents' health information sharing habits on social network sites. Ten focus group meetings with 76 adolescents, ages 12 to 17 years, were conducted at community-based organizations in Chicago's Chinatown. The research team transcribed the recording and analyzed the transcripts using ATLAS.ti. Chinese adolescents are using different social network sites for various topics of health information including food, physical activity, and so on. Adolescents would share useful and/or interesting health information. Many adolescents raised credibility concerns regarding health information and suggested evaluating the information based on self-experience or intuition, word-of-mouth, or information online. The findings shed lights on future intervention using social network sites to promote health among Chinese adolescents in the United States. Future interventions should provide adolescents with interesting and culturally sensitive health information and educate them to critically evaluate health information on social network sites.
Bearinger, L H; Wildey, L; Gephart, J; Blum, R W
The health problems of youth have dramatically shifted in the last 30 years from biological to social causes of morbidity and mortality. To assess the adequacy of nurses' knowledge and skills in adolescent health, a national survey of 445 nurses, including members of the American Public Health Association, the American School Health Association, and the National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners, was undertaken in 1985. Results indicated that even among nurses who work with young people the most, areas of greatest knowledge and skill deficiencies included common social morbidities of adolescents. In addition to self-assessed inadequacies in knowledge and skills, nurses identified excessive time demands as a primary obstacle to the provision of health services to adolescents. To assure adequate preparation of nurses, it is recommended that accreditation criteria for baccalaureate and graduate programs specify essential adolescent health content for curricula compared to current accreditation criteria that generalizes "across the life span." Focusing on the enhancement of educational opportunities in adolescent health, nurses identified strategies for further education that would bridge the gap between the health needs of youth and nurse's self-perceived competencies in providing these services.
Adults may facilitate or obstruct healthy sexual behaviours by adolescents; hence information on their attitude towards adolescent sexual behaviour, including contraceptive use is important. The attitude of teachers to school-based adolescent reproductive health services was assessed among two hundred and twenty three ...
Full Text Available Screen-based media are becoming an increasingly important part of life for today’s children and adolescents. That is why our purpose was to review the literature published within the past 10 years regarding the use and impact of TV, video game, and computer /Internet on youth health outcomes including how they affect their psychosocial outcomes and physical well-being. Systematic literature search for and analysis of a variety of media used by children and adolescents from a public health perspective was done. Literature was reviewed from May to July 2014. Children and adolescents spend a great deal of time using screen-based media. This high overall electronic media use was associated with poorer behavior and health status. A large part of this younger generation’s social and emotional development is occurring while on the Internet and on cell phones. Screen-based media use was mutually associated, and the plural use of these media had stronger associations with unhealthy lifestyles and subjective health complaints. Various physical complaints, like obesity, backache and headache, neck-shoulder pain, and sleep disorders were also found significant. Children and adolescents are consumers, but also they are producers of social media. Public health professionals and society as a whole should increase health education on screen-based media consumption, by stimulating reasonable use and teaching youth to be critical. Parents can be most helpful if they understand the core issues and have strategies for dealing with them.
Moed, Anat; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Bringewatt, Elizabeth H
For youth exposed to community violence, parenting has been found to play a significant role in protecting adolescents from associated mental health symptoms. Yet little is known about the potential of parenting to prevent such exposure in the first place and thereby reduce the likelihood of adolescents' mental health symptoms. This study examined two parental practices that have often been examined as moderators, but not yet as predictors, of youth exposure to community violence associations with adolescent mental health, namely parental control and parental harshness. Analyses of self-reported data from 908 adolescents (M age = 16.5, SD = 1.71; 52 % girls; 13 % non-Hispanic White) revealed that harsh parenting was indirectly associated with youth mental health symptoms through higher levels of exposure to community violence, whereas links between controlling parenting and mental health symptoms were either non-significant or mediated through lower levels of adolescent violence exposure. These findings highlight the potential positive role parental control may play by preventing adolescents from exposure to potentially dangerous situations. Conversely, our results suggest that harsh parenting appears to pose a risk for adolescents by driving youth away from the home environment and potentially into places where violence may be more prevalent.
Eckard, Allison R; Mora, Stefano
Chronic HIV infection and exposure to antiretroviral therapy compromises bone health in children and adolescents, potentially impacting their long-term quality of life. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review the most recent literature on this topic in HIV-infected children and adolescents. Recent studies continue to demonstrate bone abnormalities in HIV-infected children and adolescents, whether HIV is acquired perinatally or during adolescence. Researchers have employed new modalities, both high tech and those that can be utilized in resource-limited settings, to better assess bone health. New data suggest that this population may also be experiencing an increase incidence of fractures, and they may not acquire the same peak bone mass as their HIV-uninfected counterparts. Reassuringly, however, in-utero tenofovir exposure does not appear to have a significant impact on bone health in HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. HIV-infected children and adolescents are exposed to HIV and antiretroviral therapy for many decades starting early in life and during the most critical time for skeletal growth and bone mass accrual. Recent findings underscore the need for further research on bone in this population. Longitudinal studies are especially needed to evaluate long-term risk of osteoporosis and fracture.
Che, Chong Chin; Coomarasamy, Jeya Devi; Suppayah, Balakrishnan
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia, about one in 19 women being at risk. This study aimed to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination (BSE), as well as knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer amongst female adolescents in Malaysia. Subsequently, relationships between demographic characteristics and knowledge level of BSE, risk factors for breast cancer and BSE practice were assessed. A descriptive, cross sectional survey was conducted using a sample of 500 Malaysian adolescents from the age of 15 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather socio- demographic characteristics, knowledge of BSE, knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer and BSE practices. The findings of this study indicated that female adolescents in Malaysia demonstrated an inadequate knowledge level of BSE and risk factors for breast cancer. Only 27.8% of female adolescents performed BSE regularly. BSE practice, knowledge of BSE and knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer showed significant positive relationships. The study highlighted the importance of planning and implementing breast health education programs for female students in secondary schools in Malaysia. It will also provide the health care providers an avenue to stress on the importance of imparting breast health education to adolescents.
Full Text Available Background. Mobile communication technologies provide novel opportunities to support clinic-based health initiatives. Adoption of technologies for daily use and for health communication can differ between communities, depending upon demographic and cultural characteristics. Design and methods. A survey was administered in adolescent primary care and subspecialty clinics to assess parent-adolescent preferences in use of mobile technologies and social media to support provider-patient communication in an urban Latino community. Results. Of 130 respondents (65 parent-adolescent pairs, approximately half frequently sent and received text messages but lacked agreement regarding the other’s text messaging use. In contrast, adolescents only rarely used email compared to parents (15.4% versus 37.5%, P=0.006. Of social media, FacebookTM/MySpaceTM was most frequently used by parents and youth (60% and 55.4%, P=0.59; however, most lacked interest in using social media for health communication. Parents reported more interest than adolescents in receiving email (73.4% versus 35.9%, P<0.001 and text messages (58.5% versus 33.9%, P=0.005 for health, but had more concerns about privacy issues (26.2% versus 9.2%, P=0.01. Respondents who were American born (aOR 5.7, 95%CI 1.2-28.5 or regularly used Instant Messaging or FacebookTM/MySpaceTM (aOR 4.6, 95%CI 1.4-14.7 were more likely to be interested in using social media for health communication. Conclusions. These findings underscore the importance of targeted assessment for planning the utilization of communication technologies and social media in clinical care or research for underserved youth.
Jepsen, Stine Leegaard; Bastrup Jørgensen, Lene; Fridlund, Bengt
The aim of this study was to develop a formal substantive theory (FST) on the multidimensional behavioral process of coping with health issues. Intacting integrity while coping with health issues emerged as the core category of this FST. People facing health issues strive to safeguard and keep...
Lamblin, M; Murawski, C; Whittle, S; Fornito, A
Social relationships promote health and wellbeing. Brain regions regulating social behavior continue to develop throughout adolescence, as teens learn to navigate their social environment with increasing sophistication. Adolescence is also a time of increased risk for the development of psychiatric disorders, many of which are characteristically associated with social dysfunction. In this review, we consider the links between adolescent brain development and the broader social environment. We examine evidence that individual differences in social ability, partly determined by genetic influences on brain structure and function, impact the quality and quantity of social ties during adolescence and that, conversely, the structure of one's social network exerts complex yet profound influences on individual behavior and mental health. In this way, the brain and social environment sculpt each other throughout the teenage years to influence one's social standing amongst peers. Reciprocal interactions between brain maturation and the social environment at this critical developmental stage may augment risk or promote resilience for mental illness and other health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Juričič, Mojca; Truden Dobrin, Polonca; Paulin, Sonja; Seher Zupančič, Margareta; Bratina, Nataša
Slovenia's health system is financed by a Bismarckian type of social insurance system with a single insurer for a statutory health insurance, which is fully regulated by national legislation and administered by the Health Insurance Institute of Slovenia. The health insurance system is mandatory, providing almost universal coverage (98.5% of the population). Children and adolescents have the right to compulsory health insurance as family members of an insured person until the end of their regular education. Slovenia has a lower number of physicians per capita than both the European Union and the Central and Eastern Europe countries. Slovenia is facing a workforce crisis, as the number of health professionals retiring is not adequately being replaced by new trainees. There is also a net deficit of nurses with university and college degrees. Physicians working with children and adolescents in primary level have a 5-year specialization in pediatrics. Slovenia tends to be in line with the goals for the development of pediatric health care on a primary level in European countries, which are to maintain the achieved level of quality, better and equitable access, and delivery of services, aiming to reduce inequalities in health of children and adolescents and provide for every child and adolescent in the best way possible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Pitel, Lukas y; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.
BACKGROUND: Many studies of adolescent health-related behaviors have assessed the effects of gender and parental socioeconomic position (SEP) but not their mutual modification. We investigated socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviors among Slovak adolescents and the potential
Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.
The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim's social integration theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative…
Full Text Available Health literacy refers to personal competencies for the access to, understanding of, appraisal of and application of health information in order to make sound decisions in everyday life. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument for the measurement of health literacy among adolescents (the Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents-HELMA.This study was made up of two phases, qualitative and quantitative, which were carried out in 2012-2014 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part of the study, in-depth interviews with 67 adolescents aged 15-18 were carried out in 4 high schools to generate the initial item pool for the survey. The content validity of the items was then assessed by an expert panel review (n = 13 and face validity was assessed by interviewing adolescents (n = 16. In the quantitative part of the study, in order to describe the psychometric properties of the scale, validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest and factor analysis were assessed.An item pool made up of 104 items was generated at the qualitative stage. After content validity was considered, this decreased to 47 items. In the quantitative stage, 582 adolescents aged 15-18 participated in the study with a mean age of 16.2 years. 51.2% of participants were females. In principal component factor analysis, 8 factors were loaded, which accounted for 53.37% of the variance observed. Reliability has been approved by α = 0.93 and the test-retest of the scale at two-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC = 0.93. The final questionnaire was approved with 44 items split into eight sections. The sections were titled: gain access to, reading, understanding, appraise, use, communication, self-efficacy and numeracy.The Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA is a valid and reliable tool for the measurement of the health literacy of adolescents aged 15-18 and can be used to evaluate
Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi
This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.
Introduction: Identifying what adolescents perceive as their lifestyle and exploring the factors persuading their decisions to engage in or avoid healthy or unhealthy lifestyle behaviors could improve the ability of healthcare professionals to develop innovative preventive strategies and modify negative health behaviors in adolescents. Hence, the literature on adolescent health-related issues reported by adults showed a rarity of information from adolescents themselves. Materials and Methods:...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent health challenges are increasing throughout the world. It has been shown that adolescents with persistent health challenges are at greater risk of having mental health problems than their healthy peers. However, these studies are mainly cross-sectional, and little is known about the transition to adulthood. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine how mental health problems in adolescents and young adults with persistent health challenges vary during adolescence and in the transition to young adulthood. Methods The study used longitudinal and time-series data from the “Young in Norway” study. A sample of adolescents was prospectively followed from adolescence to young adulthood with measures at four different time points (n = 3,087; T1–T4: 2921 adolescents (12–19 years participated at T1 and T2, while 2448 young adults participated at T3 and T4. Persistent health challenges, age, gender, mental health problems and parental socio-economic status were measured in the longitudinal survey. Regression models were applied to estimate associations between persistent health challenges (understood as having a chronic health condition or disability and mental health problems during adolescence and young adulthood. Different models were tested for chronic health conditions and disability. Results Adolescents with disability had higher scores for depressive and anxiety symptoms, loneliness and self-concept instability, and lower scores for self-worth, appearance satisfaction, scholastic competence and social acceptance compared with adolescents without disability. In young adulthood, there were also significant associations between disability and most mental health problems. The longitudinal associations between chronic health conditions and mental health problems during adolescence and young adulthood showed that significant associations between chronic health conditions and mental health problems were only
Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are an important age-group for preventing disease and supporting health yet little is known about their health-seeking behaviours. Objective: We describe socio-demographic characteristics and health-seeking behaviours of adolescents in Soweto, South Africa, in order to broaden our understanding of their health needs. Design: The Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Study was an interviewer-administered cross-sectional survey of 830 adolescents (14–19 years conducted in Soweto from 2010 to 2012. Health-seeking behaviours were defined as accessing medical services and/or being hospitalised in the 6 months prior to the survey. Chi-square analysis tested for associations between gender, other socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and health-seeking behaviours. Results: Of 830 adolescents, 57% were female, 50% were aged 17–19 years, 85% were enrolled in school, and 78% reported experiencing medium or high food insecurity. Males were more likely than females to report sexual debut (64% vs. 49%; p<0.0001 and illicit drug use (11% vs. 3%; p<0.0001. Approximately 27% (n=224 and 8% (n=65 reported seeking healthcare or being hospitalised respectively in the previous 6 months, with no significant differences by gender. Services were most commonly sought at medical clinics (75%, predominantly because of flu-like symptoms (32%, followed by concerns about HIV (10%. Compared to females, males were more likely to seek healthcare for condom breakage (8% vs. 2%; p=0.02. Relative to males, a significantly higher proportion of females desired general healthcare services (85% vs. 78%; p=0.0091, counselling (82% vs. 70%; p<0.0001, and reproductive health services (64% vs. 56%; p=0.02. Conclusions: A quarter of male and female adolescents accessed health services in the 6 months prior to the interview. Adolescents reported a gap between the availability and the need for general, reproductive, and counselling services. Integrated
This article discusses a 3-year project, "Promotion of Adolescent Reproductive Health and Healthy Living," which was implemented by the Federation of Family Planning Associations, Malaysia. The project seeks to achieve the following: 1) development of a reproductive health of adolescent module (RHAM) for trainers and educators; 2) training of trainers; 3) sharing of adolescent reproductive health experiences in Asian countries; and 4) setting up three service models in Sabah, Selangor, and Terengganu to provide reproductive health (RH) care to adolescents and youth. The first part of the RHAM with the trainer's manual has been finalized and will be tested in a workshop. The second part, a teacher's guide, is under preparation. A series of training on the use of the RHAM will be conducted including a 5-day national workshop, which will be followed by several state level workshops. The three service models being set up have specific orientations. The Sabah model is putting up a youth clinic for adolescents within its clinic network. The Selangor model is developing a Youth Resource Center for training and youth involvement in RH activities. Lastly, the Terengganu family planning association (FPA) has developed a Youth Center web site, which features the history, mission, and activities of the Terengganu FPA.
Full Text Available Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health problem, particularly given the negative brain and behavioral consequences that often occur during and following acute intoxication. Negative outcomes appear to be especially pronounced when substance use is initiated in the early adolescent years, perhaps due to neural adaptations that increase risk for substance use disorders into adulthood. Recent models to explain these epidemiological trends have focused on brain-based vulnerabilities to use as well as neurodevelopmental aberrations associated with initiation of use in substance naïve samples or through the description of case-control differences between heavy users and controls. Within this research, adolescent alcohol and marijuana users have shown relative decreases in regional gray matter volumes, substance-specific alterations in white matter volumes, deviations in microstructural integrity in white matter tracts that regulate communication between subcortical areas and higher level regulatory control regions, and deficits in functional connectivity. How these brain anomalies map onto other types of youth risk behavior and later vulnerabilities represent major questions for continued research. This special issue addresses these compelling and timely questions by introducing new methodologies, empirical relationships, and perspectives from major leaders in this field.
AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Tamim, Hani; Al Dubayee, Mohammad; AlDhukair, Shahla; Al Shehri, Sulieman; Tamimi, Waleed; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Magzoub, Mohi Eldin; de Vries, Nanne; Al Alwan, Ibrahim
With the increasing burden of noncommunicable disease, adolescence is viewed as an opportune time to prevent the onset of certain behaviors and promote healthy states. Although adolescents comprise a considerable portion of Saudi Arabia's population, they have received insufficient attention and indicators of their health status, as a first step in a prevention cycle are unavailable. This study was carried out with the aim of identifying the health risk behaviors and health status of adolescents in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional, school-based study was carried out in all 13 regions of Saudi Arabia. Through multistage, cluster, random sampling, intermediate, and secondary school students were invited to participate. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire addressing health risk behaviors and health status, clinical anthropometric measurements, and laboratory investigations. A total of 12,575 adolescents participated. Various health risk behaviors, including dietary and sedentary behaviors, lack of safety measures, tobacco use, bullying, and violence were highly prevalent. Twenty-eight percent of adolescents reported having a chronic health condition, 14.3% reported having symptoms suggestive of depression, 30.0% were overweight/obese, and 95.6% were vitamin D deficient. Behaviors and conditions known to persist into adulthood and result in morbidity and premature mortality are prevalent among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. Preventive measures and local health policies are urgently needed and can impact adolescents and future adults. Establishing adolescent health surveillance is necessary to monitor trends and impacts of such measures. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Due, P; Lynch, J; Holstein, B
To investigate the role of different types of social relations in adolescent health inequalities.......To investigate the role of different types of social relations in adolescent health inequalities....
Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.
Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…
Parent-Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Communication Is Very Limited and Associated with Adolescent Poor Behavioral Beliefs and Subjective Norms: Evidence from a Community Based Cross-Sectional Study in Eastern Ethiopia.
Full Text Available While parent-adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH communication is one potential source of SRH information for adolescents, it appears to be inadequately practiced in Ethiopia. This study was designed to investigate the factors that limit or improve parent-adolescent SRH communication in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia.A community based cross-sectional study was done on 4,559 adolescents of age 13-18. SRH communication was measured using a nine-item scale whose response ranged from "not at all" to "always." Summated composite score ranging from 0-36 was generated; higher score indicates high SRH communication. A median value of the composite score was 4 out of the possible 36 with an Interquartile Range (IQR of 7. Respondents were ranked as very poor, poor and satisfactory communicators based on 33rd and 67th percentiles values. Generalized ordered logit model was applied to investigate the factors associated with SRH communication.Results showed that the adolescents who were more likely to practice poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication were those who had poor behavioral beliefs on and poor subjective norms of communicating sexual issues with parents and those who perceived their parents' reproductive health (RH knowledge as poor. Nonetheless, the probability of poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication was less with high adolescent-parent communication quality, television co-viewing and discussions, and self-disclosure.Curtailing the adolescents' underlying poor beliefs and norms, and improving adolescent-parent communication quality, self-disclosure, and television co-viewing and discussions are essential to engage the parents in sexual and reproductive health education of the adolescents.
Bang, Inho; Jeong, Young-Jin; Park, Young-Yoon; Moon, Na-Yeon; Lee, Junyong; Jeon, Tae-Hee
In Korea, the prevalence of depression is increasing in adolescents and the most common cause of death of adolescents has been reported as suicide. At a time of increasing predicament of mental health of adolescents, there are few studies on whether secondhand smoking is associated with mental health in adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with mental health-related variables, such as depression, stress, and suicide, in Korean adolescents. Data from the eleventh Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey, a nationally representative survey of 62,708 participants (30,964 males and 31,744 females), were analyzed. For students of aged 12 to 18 years, extensive data including secondhand smoking, mental health, sociodemographic variables, and physical health were collected. Chi-square analysis, multiple logistic regression analysis and ordered logistic regression analysis were performed to estimate the association and dose-response relation between secondhand smoking and mental health. Compared with the non-exposed group, the odds ratios (OR) of depression, stress, suicidal ideation, suicidal planning and suicidal attempt in the secondhand smoking exposed group were 1.339, 1.192, 1.303, 1.437 and 1.505, respectively (all P mental health related variable, in a dose-response relation. Our findings suggest that secondhand smoking is associated with poor mental health such as depression, stress, and suicide, showing a dose-response relation in Korean adolescents.
Logsdon, M Cynthia; Bennett, Gary; Crutzen, Rik; Martin, LuAnn; Eckert, Diane; Robertson, Ashley; Myers, John; Tomasulo, Roselyn; Gregg, Jennifer; Barone, Michael; Lynch, Tania; Flamini, Laura
Little is known about how adolescent mothers use social media and the Internet, especially to access health information. In this cross-sectional, descriptive study, adolescent mothers were recruited from an academic medical center after the birth of their child (n = 94) or from a state-funded, home visitation program during the first year after birth (n = 91). They completed the Pew Internet Survey: 37 questions related to use of social media and Internet, particularly in regard to obtaining health information. All adolescent mothers used a computer and almost all went online. Most accessed the Internet by cell phone (67.4%) and used social media. The health topics searched most frequently were pregnancy/birth control (85.8%), sexually transmitted diseases (n = 134, 72.6%) and HIV (66.3%). Response to survey questions differed between the two groups (adolescent mothers surveyed after birth from academic medical center and adolescent mothers surveyed in the first postpartum year in the community). Adolescent mothers spend significant time on the Internet including searching for health information. Cell phones are their preferred methods for accessing the Internet, and they use social media. Thus, social media and the Internet are potentially feasible and acceptable vehicles to deliver health interventions to adolescent mothers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Austin, Heather; Smith, Kevin C; Ward, Wendy L
Rates of obesity in adolescents continue to rise, and available lifestyle and pharmacological interventions have had limited success in reducing excess weight and risk for comorbid health issues. However, ongoing health risks, psychosocial issues, and increased risk of mortality place these adolescents in jeopardy and warrant ongoing investigation for available treatments. Bariatric surgery for adults has had positive medical and psychological outcomes. However, bariatric surgery is a relatively new option for adolescents. Initial findings suggest positive results for excess weight loss and psychosocial improvements, but not without possible risks. Selection of appropriate candidates is essential in the process, specifically considering developmental maturity, family support, and resultant disease burden without surgery. Surgery is not a panacea for the obesity epidemic. Outcome studies are limited and long-term results are unknown, but for extremely obese adolescents, bariatric surgery is promising and should be considered a viable option for appropriate adolescent candidates.
Gooding, Holly C; Ziniel, Sonja; Touloumtzis, Currie; Pitts, Sarah; Goncalves, Adrianne; Emans, Jean; Burke, Pam
Adolescent health providers increasingly work in interprofessional environments. There is a lack of evidence regarding best educational practices for preparing the adolescent health care workforce of the future. We developed, implemented, and evaluated an interprofessional longitudinal case-based curriculum for postgraduate trainees in adolescent health. Faculty in an academic adolescent medicine division worked collaboratively with recent trainees to develop six teaching cases illustrative of interprofessional care of adolescents. During the 2013-2014 academic year, seven trainees (two social workers, two physicians, one nurse practitioner, one psychologist, and one dietician) completed the six month-long case modules while simultaneously working together in an interprofessional clinic. Trainees completed four-item pre- and post-case questionnaires that assessed confidence with assessment and diagnosis, comfort with counseling skills, ability to devise a treatment plan, and understanding of their colleagues' role for each of the six cases. Participants completed the 19-item Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale and the 12-item Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale at three time points during the academic year and a 15-minute interview after their final session. Confidence with assessment/diagnosis, comfort counseling adolescents, and the ability to devise treatment plans increased for most case topics, as did understanding of the role of others on the interprofessional team. Mean Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale and Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale scores were high at baseline and similar at all three time points. Interviews highlighted the value of role clarity, communication, and learning within interprofessional teams along with modeling from interprofessional faculty. Case-based learning in conjunction with collaborative practice provided a successful teaching strategy for interprofessionals in adolescent health
Objectives: To assess the mental health of HIV positive Zambian adolescents by comparing with Zambian school sample and an age matched British normative sample. Design: This was a cross-sectional study of adolescents from school in the age range of 11-15 and HIV positive adolescents from clinics in Lusaka.
Stronski Huwiler, S M; Remafedi, G
Homosexuality has existed in all civilizations, but societal disapproval and cultural taboos have negatively influenced its recognition. A significant percentage of youths identify themselves as homosexual, and even more experience sex with the same sex or are confused about sexual feelings. A unifying etiological theory attributes the expression of sexual orientation to genes that shape the central nervous system's development, organization, and structure via prenatal sex steroids. Environmental factors may influence the expression of genetic potential. Several models of psychosocial development describe initial stages of awareness and confusion about same-sex attractions, followed by acknowledgement of homosexuality, disclosure to others, and eventual integration of sexual identity into a comprehensive sense of self. Stressors related to isolation, stigma, and violence may predispose homosexual adolescents to impaired social, emotional, and physical health, resulting in depression and suicide, school problems, substance abuse, running away eating disorders, risky sexual behavior, and illegal conduct. As with all adolescents, the overall goals in the care of homosexual youth are to promote normal adolescent development, social and emotional well-being, and physical health. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach is required to address medical, mental health, and psychosocial issues within the context of the adolescents' community and culture.
Svanemyr, Joar; Guijarro, Susana; Riveros, Betzabe Butron; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman
Background Adolescents face a range of health problems but many barriers block their access to health services, and in particular to sexual and reproductive health services. The objective of this study was to assess the health needs of adolescents in Ecuador and to draw lessons from the ways the country has responded to their need for differentiated care. Methods We conducted a literature review and consulted key stakeholders. Results Adolescents in Ecuador today have a wide range of health c...
Currently, little is known about adolescents' self-stigma experiences as mental health (MH) treatment recipients. Hence, this study addresses the following two questions: (a) what are adolescents' and parents' perceptions of stigma and perceptions of the cause, controllability, and anticipated outcome (illness perceptions) of adolescents' MH…
Schofield, Thomas J; Conger, Rand D; Gonzales, Joseph E; Merrick, Melissa T
Harsh, abusive and rejecting behavior by parents toward their adolescents is associated with increased risk of many developmental problems for youth. In the present study we address behaviors of co-parents that might help disrupt the hypothesized health risk of harsh parenting. Data come from a community study of 451 early adolescents followed into adulthood. During early adolescence, observers rated both parents separately on harshness towards the adolescent. Adolescents reported on their physical health at multiple assessments from age 12 through age 20, and on parental warmth. Harsh parenting predicted declines in adolescent self-reported physical health and increases in adolescent body mass index (BMI). Although the health risk associated with harshness from one parent was buffered by warmth from the other parent, warmth from the second parent augmented the association between harshness from the first parent and change over time in adolescent BMI. As appropriate, preventive interventions should include a focus on spousal or partner behaviors in their educational or treatment programs. Additional research is needed on the association between self-reported physical health and BMI in adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cluver, Lucie D; Orkin, F Mark; Meinck, Franziska; Boyes, Mark E; Yakubovich, Alexa R; Sherr, Lorraine
The first policy action outlined in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is the implementation of national social protection systems. This study assesses whether social protection provision can impact 17 indicators of five key health-related SDG goals amongst adolescents in South Africa. We conducted a longitudinal survey of adolescents (10-18 years) between 2009 and 2012. Census areas were randomly selected in two urban and two rural health districts in two South African provinces, including all homes with a resident adolescent. Household receipt of social protection in the form of 'cash' (economic provision) and 'care' (psychosocial support) social protection, and health-related indicators within five SDG goals were assessed. Gender-disaggregated analyses included multivariate logistic regression, testing for interactions between social protection and socio-demographic covariates, and marginal effects models. Social protection was associated with significant adolescent risk reductions in 12 of 17 gender-disaggregated SDG indicators, spanning SDG 2 (hunger); SDG 3 (AIDS, tuberculosis, mental health and substance abuse); SDG 4 (educational access); SDG 5 (sexual exploitation, sexual and reproductive health); and SDG 16 (violence perpetration). For six of 17 indicators, combined cash plus care showed enhanced risk reduction effects. Two interactions showed that effects of care varied by poverty level for boys' hunger and girls' school dropout. For tuberculosis, and for boys' sexual exploitation and girls' mental health and violence perpetration, no effects were found and more targeted or creative means will be needed to reach adolescents on these challenging burdens. National social protection systems are not a panacea, but findings suggest that they have multiple and synergistic positive associations with adolescent health outcomes. Such systems may help us rise to the challenges of health and sustainable development.
Lucie D Cluver
Full Text Available The first policy action outlined in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs is the implementation of national social protection systems. This study assesses whether social protection provision can impact 17 indicators of five key health-related SDG goals amongst adolescents in South Africa.We conducted a longitudinal survey of adolescents (10-18 years between 2009 and 2012. Census areas were randomly selected in two urban and two rural health districts in two South African provinces, including all homes with a resident adolescent. Household receipt of social protection in the form of 'cash' (economic provision and 'care' (psychosocial support social protection, and health-related indicators within five SDG goals were assessed. Gender-disaggregated analyses included multivariate logistic regression, testing for interactions between social protection and socio-demographic covariates, and marginal effects models.Social protection was associated with significant adolescent risk reductions in 12 of 17 gender-disaggregated SDG indicators, spanning SDG 2 (hunger; SDG 3 (AIDS, tuberculosis, mental health and substance abuse; SDG 4 (educational access; SDG 5 (sexual exploitation, sexual and reproductive health; and SDG 16 (violence perpetration. For six of 17 indicators, combined cash plus care showed enhanced risk reduction effects. Two interactions showed that effects of care varied by poverty level for boys' hunger and girls' school dropout. For tuberculosis, and for boys' sexual exploitation and girls' mental health and violence perpetration, no effects were found and more targeted or creative means will be needed to reach adolescents on these challenging burdens.National social protection systems are not a panacea, but findings suggest that they have multiple and synergistic positive associations with adolescent health outcomes. Such systems may help us rise to the challenges of health and sustainable development.
Elliot, Diane L.; Lindemulder, Susan J.; Goldberg, Linn; Stadler, Diane D.; Smith, Jennifer
Teenage survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased morbidity likely due to their prior multicomponent treatment. Habits established in adolescence can impact individuals’ subsequent adult behaviors. Accordingly, healthy lifestyles, avoiding harmful actions, and appropriate disease surveillance are of heightened importance among teenage survivors. We review the findings from prevention science and their relevance to heath promotion. The capabilities and current uses of eHealth components including e-learning, serious video games, exergaming, behavior tracking, individual messaging, and social networking are briefly presented. The health promotion needs of adolescent survivors are aligned with those eHealth aspects to propose a new paradigm to enhance the wellbeing of adolescent ALL survivors. PMID:23109253
Spein, Anna Rita; Pedersen, Cecilia Petrine; Silviken, Anne Cathrine
Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami.......Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami....
Kim, Junhyoung; Park, Se-Hyuk
ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of the study was to explore health benefits through leisure engagement among Korean adolescents with visual impairments. Method: Using semi-structured interviews, a total of 14 adolescents with visual impairments participated in this study. Results: Two salient themes were captured as health benefits as a result of leisure engagement: psychological wellbeing and personal growth. Conclusions: The findings suggest that leisure provides a venue for the development of self-expression, leisure skills, perseverance, and positive affects. It also indicates that leisure can serve as a vehicle for promoting health and life satisfaction among Korean adolescents with visual impairments. PMID:29513097
Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37–41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members’ satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. Results From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Conclusion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who
Chalmers, Kathryn J; Bond, Kathy S; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Williams-Tchen, Aj
It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37-41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members' satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who are developing mental illnesses or are in a
Fay, Kristen; Lerner, Richard M.
Eating disorders, and related issues (e.g., body dissatisfaction, weight control behaviors), represent pressing and prevalent health problems that affect American adolescents with alarming frequency and potentially chronic consequences. However, more longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the developmental processes that increase or maintain…
Smith, Chad E.; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Lieberth, Ann
Adolescent health and health literacy are critical health topics recognized in Healthy People 2020. Evidence indicates that adolescents who are d/Deaf have unique health-related needs, yet health communication efforts have not reached them. Despite the Internet's exponential growth and the growth of online health information-seeking behavior among…
Daly, Joan Ziegler; Ziegler, Robert; Goldstein, Donna J
A short-term postabortion group for adolescents was developed. Three groups were conducted in an adolescent mental health clinic within an urban high school-based health clinic. The clinical group experiences offered the adolescents an opportunity to integrate the experience of pregnancy and the abortion decision into their lives. At follow up, adolescents who participated in th postabortion counseling group indicated that they chose and used a method of birth control, did not repeat an unplanned pregnancy, and remained in high school.
Dupere, Veronique; Leventhal, Tama; Vitaro, Frank
Self-efficacy beliefs are central to mental health. Because adolescents' neighborhoods shape opportunities for experiences of control, predictability, and safety, we propose that neighborhood conditions are associated with adolescents' self-efficacy and, in turn, their internalizing problems (i.e., depression/anxiety symptoms). We tested these…
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Background: young persons are most strongly affected by displacement through political/military actions. This is also a European problem as well as an issue for the European Union. Applying the social-ecological model by Bronfenbrenner we concentrated on micro- and mesosystems of Austrian adolescents and migrant adolescents of war-affected countries.
Methods: a questionnaire was administered to adolescents in Austria attending schools beyond the mandatory school age, yielding a sample of about 1 100 students from Austrian and immigrant background. We used analysis of variance to compare host and immigrant youth as well as regression analysis to assess the impact of risk and protective factors on youth outcomes.
Results: we do find sex differences for protective factors and youth outcomes but few differences between immigrant and Austrian adolescents. Youth outcomes analysed were somatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, anti-social behaviour, substance use, and academic performance. Important risk factors turned out to be intergenerational conflict, exposure to violence, and social distance. Protective factors include family connectedness, parental monitoring, school connectedness, peer support, and neighbourhood attachment.
Conclusions: the most important protective factor is school connectsdness. Social distance and intergenerational conflict are the dominant risk factors influencing youth outcomes. Our research leads to a better understanding of factors determining the well-being of adolescents and contributes to finding new approaches to prevent or cope with mental health problems of young immigrants. In particular it appears to be important to keep young persons in education and/or training since school connectedness influences mental health and well-being positively.
van der Velde, J. L.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Hamp, A.; Knibb, R. C.; Duiverman, E. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.
Background: Food-allergic adolescents are at highest risk for food allergy fatalities, which may be partly due to compromised self-management behavior. Such behavior may be negatively influenced by conflictual situations caused by adolescent-parent disagreement on the adolescent's health-related
McGrath, Jennifer J.
Objective To examine the effects of provincial income inequality (disparity between rich and poor), independent of provincial income and family socioeconomic status, on multiple adolescent health outcomes. Methods Participants (aged 12–17 years; N = 11,899) were from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Parental education, household income, province income inequality, and province mean income were measured. Health outcomes were measured across a number of domains, including self-rated health, mental health, health behaviors, substance use behaviors, and physical health. Results Income inequality was associated with injuries, general physical symptoms, and limiting conditions, but not associated with most adolescent health outcomes and behaviors. Income inequality had a moderating effect on family socioeconomic status for limiting conditions, hyperactivity/inattention, and conduct problems, but not for other outcomes. Conclusions Province-level income inequality was associated with some physical and mental health outcomes in adolescents, which has research and policy implications for this age-group. PMID:25324533
Ataman, Hacer; Kömürcü, Nuran
The research was conducted experimentally to evaluate the effectiveness of the sexual health/reproductive health (SH/RH) education given to Turkish adolescents who use alcohol or illicit substances. The population was adolescents who use alcohol and substances and were inpatients at the Child and Adolescent Substance Addiction Research, Treatment and Education Center. The adolescents were grouped into the following three groups: Group 1 (control group), Group 2 (those who have received training once), and Group 3 (those who have received training twice). Data were collected between September 2011 and December 2012 using the forms Self-Introduction and Information on Sexual Health-Reproductive Health and Information on Sexual Health-Reproductive Health Education Modules. Upon studying the total SH/RH test scores of the groups individually, a statistically significant difference was observed in the scores of Groups 2 and 3 (p education in a repetitive manner for prevention of risky sexual behavior.
Jaspan, Heather B; Soka, Nosiphiwo F; Strode, Ann E; Mathews, Catherine; Mark, Daniella; Flisher, Alan J; Wood, Robin; Bekker, Linda-Gail
Adolescents globally are at high risk for HIV acquisition and are the targets of HIV prevention interventions such as HIV vaccines. In order to understand stakeholders' attitudes towards the ethical issues of adolescent involvement in HIV vaccine trials, we conducted focus group discussions with key members of a semi-urban, informal Cape Town community with high HIV prevalence in which HIV vaccine trials are taking place. Themes were identified from focus group transcripts by four researchers, and included necessity of guardian consent, age of independent consent, and confidentiality of in-trial medical results. In general, ethical adolescent HIV vaccine trials will be feasible in this community.
Full Text Available Background: Although there was Pesantren Health Post, but the promotion and education of reproductive health did notproceed well. Students at the Pesantren are mostly teenagers, therefore sexuality and reproduction problems in pesantrenhad become potential threats. This study described there productive health education in pesantren, that focused on theeducation system, material, and factors supporting and inhibiting reproductive health education efforts. Methods: This was a qualitative study. The data were collected by means of purposive sampling. The study was conducted at two pesantrens in Sampang, Balikpapan and West Lombok regencies. Data were collected by indepth interviews to managers, teachers and students. Results: This study indicated that reproductive education was not something new to the pesantren. The Classic Buku Kuning had been the reference of reproductive education among santri. The kyai used bandongan teaching methods which tend to be monologue. Further more this method did not employ evaluation system. The large number of santri, the high commitment and responsibility of the manager of pesantren, and the availibility of 24 hours assistance were factors that supported reproductive health education in pesantren. The inhibiting factors were limited understanding of reproductive health issues, lack of transparency of the pesantren community regarding issues that were considered taboo, and limitations of supporting infrastructure. Another aspect was the lack of external support that were relevance to the issue of adolescent reproductive health services. Recomendations: It is recommended to enrich the materials on reproductive health education in pesantren,
Nair, M K C; Leena, M L; Thankachi, Yamini; George, Babu; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar
To understand the problems faced and the difference in knowledge, attitude and practice of young people across the age group of 10-24 y on reproductive and sexual health issues and to get their suggestions regarding adolescent care services. This cross sectional community survey involving three districts in Kerala was conducted among adolescents and young adults of 10-24 y using a population proportion to sample size technique. The main problems faced by the young people between 10 and 24 y of age were financial, substance abuse in family, poor academic performance, difference of opinion, disease in self/family, mental problems, lack of talent, strict parents, difficulty in mingling, love failure, broken family, loneliness and problems at school/office in the descending order. As the age advances higher percentage of both boys (43.4%) and girls (61.7%) discuss reproductive sexual health issues among themselves. There was a statistically significant difference in personal hygiene practices like changing napkins/cloths more than once a day (94.3%), cleaning genital organs with soap every day (71.7%), washing after urination (69.2%), washing from front to back after defecation (62.2%) and washing hands with soap after defecation (73.2%) between 10-14, 15-19, and 20-24 y age group with higher percentages in the older groups. In order to make the service more useful, more of the older group participants suggested giving information on adolescent services to parents, adolescents and society as a whole by creating better societal acceptance and keeping confidentiality in service delivery. This study has shown an overall inadequacy in reproductive health knowledge in all age groups, but increasing knowledge gain and better attitude and practices on reproductive and sexual health as the age increases. The suggestions made by the group regarding need for adolescent reproductive sexual health (ARSH) and counseling services with privacy and confidentiality ensured, is useful
Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of rapid biological and behavioral changes that may expand the risk of mental health issues. Objective: This study aimed to compare the mental health of male and female athletes and non-athletes among a high school student groups. Methodology: On this base 100 students (50 athletes and 50 non-athletes, Mage = 16 (SD = ±1 were selected through multi stage random sampling and divided equally into four groups (female athlete / non-athlete, male athlete / non-athlete. General Health Questionnaire designed by Goldberg and Hiller (1979 was used for data collections. Results: The analysis of one-way ANOVA displayed significant differences between the mean scores in mental health among the groups in terms of mental health, F (3, 96 =39, P = .01 with less prevalence of these symptoms among athletes comparing to non-athletes. Conclusion: Increasing opportunities for students to take part in sport competitions can protect them against poor psychological well-being. Keywords: Mental Health; Depression; Anxiety; Social dysfunction; Somatic
Park, Eunhee; Kim, Heejung; Steinhoff, Andreanna
Internet-based health resources can support informal caregivers who are caring for children or adolescents with health care needs. However, few studies discriminate informal caregivers' needs from those of their care recipients or those of people caring for adults. This study reviews the literature of health-related Internet use among informal caregivers of children and adolescents. A total of 17 studies were selected from literature searches conducted in 6 electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE. All databases searches were limited to articles published in the years 2004 to 2014 in peer-reviewed publications. Search terms consisted of "health-related Internet use," "eHealth," "Internet use for health-related purpose(s)," "Web-based resource(s)," and "online resources," combined with informal caregiver (or "parents") of "child," "adolescent," "student," "youth," and "teen." The age range of the children receiving care was limited to younger than 22 years. Their informal caregivers were defined as persons (parents) who provided unpaid care or assistance to a child or an adolescent with health problems. Among 17 empirical studies, the majority of informal caregivers of children with medical issues were the parents. Quantitative studies (14/17, 77%) reported prevalence and predictors of health-related Internet use, while mixed-methods and qualitative studies (3/17, 24%) investigated informal caregiver perceptions of helpful health-related Internet use and barriers of use. The prevalence of health-related Internet use varied (11%-90%) dependent upon how health-related Internet use was operationalized and measured. Disease-specific information was used for decision making about treatment, while social support via virtual communities and email were used for informal caregiver emotional needs. A digital divide of Internet access was identified in lower educated minorities. Most studies had methodological challenges resulting from
Bohn, V; Richter, M
Social capital is increasingly acknowledged as a central determinant of health. While several studies among adults have shown the importance of social capital for the explanation of social inequalities in health, few comparable studies exist which focus on adolescents. The study examines the role of social capital in different social contexts for the explanation of health inequalities in adolescence. Data were obtained from the 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)' study in North Rhine-Westphalia from 2006. The sample includes data of 4323 11-15-year-old students. To analyse the role of social capital in the contexts family, school, friends and neighbourhood for inequalities in self-rated health and psychosomatic complaints, logistic regression models were calculated. The socioeconomic position of the adolescents was measured by type of school. Adolescents from general schools reported higher prevalences of fair/poor self-rated health and repeated psychosomatic complaints than pupils from grammar schools. Social capital in all 4 contexts (family, school, friends, and neighbourhood) was associated with both health indicators, independent of gender. In the separate analysis the variables for social capital showed a comparable explanatory contribution and reduced the odds ratios of self-rated health by 6-9%. The contribution for psychosomatic complaints was slightly higher with 10-15%. The only exception was social capital among friends which showed no effect for both health indicators. In the joint analysis the variables for social capital explained about 15% to 30% of health inequalities by school type. The results show that, already in adolescence, inequalities in subjective health can be partly explained through socioeconomic differences in the availability of social capital. The settings family, neighbourhood and school provide ideal contexts for preventive actions and give the opportunity to directly address the high-risk group of students from
This study gathered baseline data on reproductive health information and service needs of adolescent girls aged between 16 to 19 years in Samoa. The opinions and attitudes of these girls towards the provision of reproductive health services, and the health services available in Samoa were investigated using qualitative and quantitative research methods. Self-administered, semi-structured questionnaires were used with the adolescent girls, and semi-structured interview schedules were used with key informants from health services and the hospitality and entertainment industries. Access to age-specific education, information and health services were identified as reproductive health needs for Samoan adolescent girls. Promotion and encouragement of condom use by sexually active adolescents was also identified as a need. Including biological and psychosocial aspects of reproductive health in the school curriculum may improve knowledge. Reproductive health education involves all strata of society, such as governments, churches, communities, and families, with each playing a vital role. No stratum should be wholly responsible for addressing adolescent reproductive health. Any Samoan initiative on reproductive health may be evaluated against the data from this study. This study featured both selection bias and measurement bias. Sex is not openly discussed in Samoan society and could have led to participants not responding to certain questions or providing responses that they deemed socially desirable. These biases may have distorted results. Convenient population sampling method used may have led to mis-reporting of results in some adolescent groups.
Idemudia, Erhabor S
Gonzales NA, Coxe S, Roosa MW, White RMB, Knight GP, Zeiders KH and Saenz D (2011) Economic hardship, neighborhood context, and parenting: Prospective effects on Mexican-American adolescent's mental health. American Journal of Community Psychology 47(1-2): 98-113 O'Kane D (2011) A phenomenological study of child and adolescent mental health consultation in primary care. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 18(2): 185-188 Sentse M, Ormel J, Veenstra R, Verhulst FC and Oldehinkel AJ (2011) Child temperament moderates the impact of parental separation on adolescent mental health: The trails study. Journal of Family Psychology 25(1): 97-106 Leo RJ, Srinivasan SP and Parekh S (2011) The role of the mental health practitioner in the assessment and treatment of child and adolescent chronic pain. Child and Adolescent Mental Health 16(1): 2-8 James AC, Winmill L, Anderson C and Alfoadari K (2011) A preliminary study of an extension of a community dialectic behaviour therapy (DBT) programme to adolescents in the looked after care system. Child and Adolescent Mental Health 16(1): 9-13 Flouri E, Hickey J, Mavroveli S and Hurry J (2011) Adversity, emotional arousal, and problem behaviour in adolescence: The role of non-verbal cognitive ability as a resilience promoting factor. Child and Adolescent Mental Health 16(1): 22-29 Paradis AD, Giaconia RM, Reinherz HZ, Beardslee WR, Ward KE and Fitzmaurice GM (2011) Adolescent family factors promoting healthy adult functioning: A longitudinal community study. Child and Adolescent Mental Health 16(1): 30-37 Webster-Stratton C, Rinaldi J and Reid JM (2011) Long-term outcomes of Incredible Years parenting program: Predictors of adolescent adjustment. Child and Adolescent Mental Health 16(1): 38-46 Baruch G, Vrouva I and Wells C (2011) Outcome findings from a parent training programme for young people with conduct problems. Child and Adolescent Mental Health 16(1): 47-54 Davis Kenaley BL and Williams NJ (2011) A preliminary
Mental health problems in childhood and adolescence pose a major threat to public health. Epidemiological studies in high, middle and low income countries indicate that approximately one in five children and adolescents suffer from a mental disorder. In many instances these persist into adulthood. In South Africa, HIV ...
Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte; Terzian, Mary
Cigarette smoking has steadily declined among adolescents during the last fifteen years, although use of some tobacco products, like cigars, has seen recent increases. However, large numbers of teens continue to use tobacco products. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents key research findings; describes prevalence and trends; illustrates…
Wong, Y Joel; Rew, Lynn; Slaikeu, Kristina D
There is accumulating evidence that religiosity/spirituality (R/S) are important correlates of mental health in adult populations. However, the associations between R/S and mental heath in adolescent populations have not been systematically studied. The purpose of this article is to report on a systematic review of recent research on the relationships between adolescent R/S and mental health. Twenty articles between 1998 and 2004 were reviewed. Most studies (90%) showed that higher levels of R/S were associated with better mental health in adolescents. Institutional and existential dimensions of R/S had the most robust relationships with mental health. The relationships between R/S and mental health were generally stronger or more unique for males and older adolescents than for females and younger adolescents. Recommendations for future research and implications for mental health nursing are discussed.
Feinstein, Emily C; Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E
The use of addictive substances-tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs-during adolescence interferes with brain development and increases the risk of serious health and mental health conditions, including addiction. Yet, adolescents live in a culture in which family, social, community, and media influences regularly bombard them with pro-substance use messages, creating an environment in which substance use is considered an expected behavior, rather than a considerable health risk. To prevent the significant harm that falls to teens and young adults because of substance use, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA Columbia) undertook a study to explore how adolescent brain development relates to the risk of substance use and addiction; the cultural influences that create an environment in which substance use is considered normative behavior; individual factors that make some teens more disposed to substance use and addiction; and evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies for addressing this problem. The recently published report Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem concludes that risky substance use is a major public health problem that can be ameliorated through evidence-based public health measures, including education about the disease and its risk factors, screenings, and clinical interventions, and that addiction can be treated and managed effectively within routine health care practice and specialty care. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adrian, Molly; Charlesworth-Attie, Sarah; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Becker, Linda
The purpose of this study is to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting Healthy People 2020 health behavior recommendations for the prevention of chronic disease and to determine the association between mental health status (depression and/or conduct problems) and the likelihood of meeting these recommendations. The data used for this study are from the 2010 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were utilized to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting recommendations and associations between youth mental health status indicators and health-promoting behaviors. A small minority (5.8 %) of youth met all six recommendations in domains of tobacco abstinence, substance use abstinence, daily physical activity, breakfast consumption, weight below obese levels, and adequate sleep, though most (84.3 %) met at least three. At the aggregate level, the proportion of Washington State youth who met Healthy People 2020 guidelines exceeded targets, with the exception of substance use abstinence. A minority of youth reported guideline levels of daily physical activity (23.3 %) and sleep (39.8 %). Mental health status was strongly associated with the number of health-promoting behaviors adolescents endorsed. Interventions to increase the adoption of sleep hygiene and exercise habits should be added to an integrative positive youth development framework within school-, community-, and primary care-based adolescent health initiatives. Attention to adolescent mental health and shared risk factors may be critical for reducing barriers to healthy behavior.
Amon, Krestina L; Campbell, Andrew J; Hawke, Catherine; Steinbeck, Katharine
Researchers are increasingly using social media to recruit participants to surveys and clinical studies. However, the evidence of the efficacy and validity of adolescent recruitment through Facebook is yet to be established. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the use of Facebook to recruit adolescents for health research. Nine electronic databases and reference lists were searched for articles published between 2004 and 2013. Studies were included in the review if: 1) participants were aged ≥ 10 to ≤ 18 years, 2) studies addressed a physical or mental health issue, 3) Facebook was identified as a recruitment tool, 4) recruitment details using Facebook were outlined in the methods section and considered in the discussion, or information was obtained by contacting the authors, 5) results revealed how many participants were recruited using Facebook, and 6) studies addressed how adolescent consent and/or parental consent was obtained. Titles, abstracts, and keywords were scanned and duplicates removed by 2 reviewers. Full text was evaluated for inclusion criteria, and 2 reviewers independently extracted data. The search resulted in 587 publications, of which 25 full-text papers were analyzed. Six studies met all the criteria for inclusion in the review. Three recruitment methods using Facebook was identified: 1) paid Facebook advertising, 2) use of the Facebook search tool, and 3) creation and use of a Facebook Page. Eligible studies described the use of paid Facebook advertising and Facebook as a search tool as methods to successfully recruit adolescent participants. Online and verbal consent was obtained from participants recruited from Facebook. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wagtmann, Maria Anne
In the early part of 2008, Maria Anne Wagtmann had the opportunity to interview the former president of the International Maritime Health Association, Dr. Tim Carter, in London about a number of current maritime health issues. In this interview, Dr. Tim Carter, who is currently employed...... as the Chief Medical Advisor for the British government's Department for Transport, gives his personal - and thus non-official - opinions on these issues....
Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential synergistic effects of multiple dietary and physical activity behaviours on the risk of chronic conditions and health outcomes is a key issue for public health. This study examined the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple health behaviours among a sample of adolescents in the UK. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12–16 years (49% boys. Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption. The prevalence of adolescents meeting the physical activity (≥ 60 minutes moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day, fruit and vegetable (≥ 5 portions of FV per day and breakfast recommendations (eating breakfast on ≥ 5 days per week, and clustering patterns of these health behaviours are described. Results Boys were more active than girls (p Conclusion Many adolescents fail to meet multiple diet and physical activity recommendations, highlighting that physical activity and dietary behaviours do not occur in isolation. Future research should investigate how best to achieve multiple health behaviour change in adolescent boys and girls.
Chen, Mei-Yen; Lai, Li-Ju; Chen, Hsiu-Chih; Gaete, Jorge
Health-promoting lifestyle choices of adolescents are closely related to current and subsequent health status. However, parsimonious yet reliable and valid screening tools are scarce. The original 40-item adolescent health promotion (AHP) scale was developed by our research team and has been applied to measure adolescent health-promoting behaviors worldwide. The aim of our study was to examine the psychometric properties of a newly developed short-form version of the AHP (AHP-SF) including tests of its reliability and validity. The study was conducted in nine middle and high schools in southern Taiwan. Participants were 814 adolescents randomly divided into two subgroups with equal size and homogeneity of baseline characteristics. The first subsample (calibration sample) was used to modify and shorten the factorial model while the second subsample (validation sample) was utilized to validate the result obtained from the first one. The psychometric testing of the AHP-SF included internal reliability of McDonald's omega and Cronbach's alpha, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and construct validity with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results of the CFA supported a six-factor model and 21 items were retained in the AHP-SF with acceptable model fit. For the discriminant validity test, results indicated that adolescents with lower AHP-SF scores were more likely to be overweight or obese, skip breakfast, and spend more time watching TV and playing computer games. The AHP-SF also showed excellent internal consistency with a McDonald's omega of 0.904 (Cronbach's alpha 0.905) in the calibration group. The current findings suggest that the AHP-SF is a valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of adolescent health-promoting behaviors. Primary health care providers and clinicians can use the AHP-SF to assess these behaviors and evaluate the outcome of health promotion programs in the adolescent population.
Nair, Sandhya; Ganjiwale, Jaishree; Kharod, Nikhil; Varma, Jagdish; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar Marutirao
Mental health problems in adolescents are inadequately researched in low-resource settings. We aimed in this study to assess the prevalence of mental health problems and correlates in school children aged 13-17 years and compare differences between urban and rural schools in Anand District, Gujarat. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five Gujarati medium higher secondary schools in Anand, Gujarat. Six hundred and ninety-three students with equal distribution of boys and girls belonging to 9th to 12th grades were included in the study. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess the mental health status of the students, and total difficulties scoring was used to categorise participants into normal (0-15) and high (borderline (16-19) and abnormal (20-40)). Socio-demographic data and Teenage Screening Questionnaire-Trivandrum (TSQ) were used to assess associated medical and psychosocial factors. Clearance was obtained from the institutional ethics committee before conducting the study. 15% participants had a high SDQ score. Girls had more emotional problems, while the rest of the mental health problems were more prevalent in boys. Rural children were found to have more mental health issues. Having an eye problem, scoring parents increased odds of high SDQ score, while having friends and after-school entertainment like watching movies decreased odds of high SDQ score. At least one in eight adolescents in this study was at risk of mental health problems. SDQ self-report questionnaire and TSQ survey may be used as a screening modality to identify at-risk students.
Powell, Terrinieka W; Weeks, Fiona H; Illangasekare, Samantha; Rice, Eric; Wilson, James; Hickman, Debra; Blum, Robert W
Black churches are an important community resource and a potentially powerful actor in adolescent health promotion. However, limited research exists describing the factors that may influence the successful implementation of evidence-based adolescent sexual health programs in churches. In the present study, a multi-informant approach was used to identify facilitators and barriers to implementing adolescent sexual health programs in black churches. Nine Black churches located in Baltimore, MD, were recruited to participate in this study. The senior pastor and youth minster from each congregation participated in an in-depth interview (N = 18). A total of 45 youth (ages 13-19 years) and 38 parents participated in 15 focus groups. Qualitative data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a qualitative content analytic approach. Participants agreed that comprehensive adolescent sexual health education should be available for youth in black churches. They also believed that abstaining from sex should be discussed in all adolescent sexual health programs. Three facilitators were discussed: widespread endorsement of church-based adolescent sexual health education, positive influence of youth ministers on youth, and life lessons as teaching tools. Four barriers are described: perceived resistance from congregants, discomfort among youth, lack of financial resources, and competing messages at home about sexual health. Our findings suggest that churches are a preferred place for adolescent sexual health education among some parents and youth. Study findings also reinforce the feasibility and desirably of church-based adolescent sexual health programs. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S
Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security status. Baseline analysis using data from a randomized trial to increase school breakfast participation (SBP) in rural Minnesota high schools. Students completed a survey regarding food security, characteristics, and home and school environments. Schools provided academic data and staff measured height and weight. Food security was dichotomized as FS vs FIS. Bivariate analysis, multivariate linear/logistic regression, and testing for interaction of food security and sex were performed. Food-insecure adolescents reported poorer health, less exercise, had lower grades, and higher SBP (p breakfast (p = .05). All associations except reported benefits remained significant after adjustment. Interactions were identified with girls' grade point average and with boys' caloric and added sugar intake. Negative associations among food insecurity and positive youth development are identified in our sample. Policy and environmental strategies should address the complexities of these associations, including exploration of the role of school meals. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Jörg, Frederike; Visser, Ellen; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Hartman, Catharina A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J
The aim of the study was to estimate the proportion of adolescents with and without a psychiatric diagnosis receiving specialist mental health care and investigate their problem levels as well as utilization of other types of mental health care to detect possible over- and undertreatment. Care utilization data were linked to psychiatric diagnostic data of 2230 adolescents participating in the TRAILS cohort study, who were assessed biannually starting at age 11. Psychiatric diagnoses were established at the fourth wave by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Self-, parent- and teacher-reported emotional and behavioral problems and self-reported mental health care use were assessed at all four waves. Of all diagnosed adolescents, 35.3 % received specialist mental health care. This rate increased to 54.5 % when three or more disorders were diagnosed. Almost a third (28.5 %) of specialist care users had no psychiatric diagnosis; teachers gave them relatively high ratings on attention and impulsivity subscales. Diagnosed adolescents without specialist mental health care also reported low rates of other care use. We found no indication of overtreatment. Half of the adolescents with three or more disorders do not receive specialist mental health care nor any other type of care, which might indicate unmet needs.
Alina Catalina Duduciuc
Full Text Available How Internet is used by individuals from different age groups to keep their health in check has become one of the major issue of both academic researchers and policy makers. The topic derives mainly from 2000-2014 data which converge towards an Internet accessing pattern as source of information regarding health. Previous studies showed that teenagers are the main consumers of the Internet and they often start surfing for online health concerns on social media (Facebook, Twitter and popular engines (Google, Yahoo. The current paper describes how Romanian teenagers (N=161, aged 14-19 browse for online topics to keep their health in check. Based on a questionnaire, the data revealed that the Internet is used to a certain extent by more than a third of the respondents for health topics and over half of them consider that the health related information helped them to achieve a good trim. Overall, the research outcomes showed that the adolescents seem less interested in using Internet for health information and sometimes challenge the credibility of online health content.
Smith, Scott R; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Hauser, Peter C
Deaf individuals have more cardiovascular risks than the general population that are believed to be related to their cardiovascular health knowledge disparities. This phenomenological study describes where 20 deaf sign language-using adolescents from Rochester, New York, many who possess many positive characteristics to support their health literacy, learn cardiovascular health information and their lived experiences accessing health information. The goal is to ultimately use this information to improve the delivery of cardiovascular health education to this population and other deaf adolescents at a higher risk for weak health literacy. Deaf bilingual researchers interviewed deaf adolescents, transcribed and coded the data, and described the findings. Five major sources of cardiovascular health information were identified including family, health education teachers, healthcare providers, printed materials, and informal sources. Despite possessing advantageous characteristics contributing to stronger health literacy, study participants described significant challenges with accessing health information from each source. They also demonstrated inconsistencies in their cardiovascular health knowledge, especially regarding heart attack, stroke, and cholesterol. These findings suggest a great need for additional public funding to research deaf adolescents' informal health-related learning, develop accessible and culturally appropriate health surveys and health education programming, improve interpreter education, and disseminate information through social media. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Azzopardi, Peter S; Sawyer, Susan M; Carlin, John B; Degenhardt, Louisa; Brown, Ngiare; Brown, Alex D; Patton, George C
Indigenous populations have high rates of disease and premature mortality. Most Indigenous communities are young, and adolescence (age 10-24 years) provides great opportunities for population health gain. However, the absence of a comprehensive account of Indigenous adolescents' health has been a barrier to effective policy. We aimed to report a national health profile for Indigenous adolescents in Australia. We undertook a systematic synthesis of population data to report the health and wellbeing of Indigenous adolescents in Australia. A reporting framework for Indigenous adolescent health in Australia was defined to measure health outcomes, health risks, and sociocultural determinants. Available data (primary data from national surveys and administrative datasets, and available published data) were mapped against the defined reporting framework, and the quality graded, with the highest quality data selected to report a health profile for Indigenous adolescents. Comparison with non-Indigenous adolescents was made where possible, and estimates (disaggregated by age, sex, and remoteness) were reported as relative risks. A national advisory group (six Indigenous young people, three Indigenous adult community members, three researchers, three policy makers, and two service providers, all aged ≥16 years) provided input about the reporting framework, interpretation of findings, and policy recommendations. Data were available for 184 (79%) of 234 elements of the reporting framework. All-cause mortality for Indigenous adolescents (70 per 100 000) was more than twice that of non-Indigenous adolescents, with about 60% of deaths due to intentional self-harm and road traffic injury. 80% of all deaths among Indigenous adolescents were considered as potentially avoidable in the current health system. Communicable diseases (particularly sexually transmitted infections) were leading contributors to morbidity. Almost a third of Indigenous adolescents aged 18-24 years reported
Naveen S Salins
Results: Pain was the most common physical symptom seen in all 10 patients. 3 out of 10 patients were involved in decision making, 3 out of 10 patients had identity issues and 4 out of 10 patients had peer group isolation issues. Only 3 were aware of diagnosis and none were aware of treatment outcomes and mortality. 4 out of 10 had anxiety and depression and 3 out of 10 had body image issues. Sexuality, spiritual and existential issues were not explored in any of the patients studied. Conclusion: The outcomes of the study were in an adult oncology setting there was a poor recognition of key adolescent issues such as sexuality, body image, identity and peer group isolation. The psychosocial supports to these adolescents were minimal and spiritual and existential issues were not explored. The inferences drawn from this study suggested a need for multidisciplinary team approach oriented in handling adolescent care needs and preferably to have a dedicated space that will help the peer group to interact, bond and cope better with the illness.
Miller, Kirsty; Wakefield, Juliet R H; Sani, Fabio
The promotion and maintenance of mental health is an increasingly important societal issue. Previous research has shown that identification with social groups is positively associated with adult mental wellbeing, with multiple group identifications being particularly beneficial. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the same is true for adolescents. 1111 Scottish secondary school students aged 13-17 completed a questionnaire investigating mental health symptoms and the extent of their identification with their family, school, and friendship groups. Higher identification with each group predicted better mental health. There was also an additive effect of group identification, with the odds of reporting psychiatric disturbance decreasing for every additional group with which participants identified strongly. These effects held even when age, gender, and group contact were controlled for. Our findings have implications for the prevention and treatment of mental problems, offering an alternative to traditional ways of viewing mental illness in adolescence and beyond. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; O'Haver, Judith; Small, Leigh; Mays, Mary Z.
Background: Obesity and mental health disorders are 2 major public health problems in American adolescents, with prevalence even higher in Hispanic teens. Despite the rapidly increasing incidence and adverse health outcomes associated with overweight and mental health problems, very few intervention studies have been conducted with adolescents to…
Full Text Available With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents’ smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents’ habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents’ smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents’ smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents’ smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents’ health and improve their quality of life.
Christin, A; Akre, C; Berchtold, A; Suris, J C
Suffering from a chronic disease or disability (CDD) during adolescence can be a burden for both the adolescents and their parents. The aim of the present study is to assess how living with a CDD during adolescence, the quality of parent-adolescent relationship (PAR) and the adolescent's psychosocial development interact with each other. Using the Swiss Multicenter Adolescent Survey on Health 2002 (SMASH02) database, we compared adolescents aged 16-20 years with a CDD (n = 760) with their healthy peers (n = 6493) on sociodemographics, adolescents' general and psychosocial health, interparental relationship and PAR. Bivariate analyses showed that adolescents with a CDD had a poorer psychosocial health and a more difficult relationship with their parents. The log-linear model indirectly linked CDD and poor PAR through four variables: two of the adolescents' psychosocial health variables (suicide attempt and sensation seeking), the need for help regarding difficulties with parents and a highly educated mother that acted as a protective factor, allowing for a better parent-adolescent with a CDD relationship. It is essential for health professionals taking care of adolescents with a CDD to distinguish between issues in relation with the CDD from other psychosocial difficulties, in order to help these adolescents and their parents deal with them appropriately and thus maintain a healthy PAR. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Park, M Jane; Scott, Jazmyn T; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E
Adolescence and young adulthood are unique developmental periods that present opportunities and challenges for improving health. Health at this age can affect health throughout the lifespan. This review has two aims: (1) to examine trends in key indicators in outcomes, behaviors, and health care over the past decade for U.S. adolescents and young adults; and (2) to compare U.S. adolescents and young adults on these indicators. The review also assesses sociodemographic differences in trends and current indicators. Guided by our aims, previous reviews, and national priorities, the present review identified 21 sources of nationally representative data to examine trends in 53 areas and comparisons of adolescents and young adults in 42 areas. Most health and health care indicators have changed little over the past decade. Encouraging exceptions were found for adolescents and young adults in unintentional injury, assault, and tobacco use, and, for adolescents, in sexual/reproductive health. Trends in violence and chronic disease and related behaviors were mixed. Review of current indicators demonstrates that young adulthood continues to entail greater risk and worse outcomes than adolescence. Young adults fared worse on about two-thirds of the indicators examined. Differences among sociodemographic subgroups persisted for both trends and current indicators. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Do efforts to standardize, assess and improve the quality of health service provision to adolescents by government-run health services in low and middle income countries, lead to improvements in service-quality and service-utilization by adolescents?
Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Chatterjee, Subidita; Bose, Krishna
Researchers and implementers working in adolescent health, and adolescents themselves question whether government-run health services in conservative and resource-constrained settings can be made adolescent friendly. This paper aims to find out what selected low and middle income country (LMIC) governments have set out to do to improve the quality of health service provision to adolescents; whether their efforts led to measurable improvements in quality and to increased health service-utilization by adolescents. We gathered normative guidance and reports from eight LMICs in Asia, Africa, Central and Eastern Europe and the Western Pacific. We analysed national quality standards for adolescent friendly health services, findings from the assessments of the quality of health service provision, and findings on the utilization of health services. Governments of LMICs have set out to improve the accessibility, acceptability, equity, appropriateness and effectiveness of health service provision to adolescents by defining standards and actions to achieve them. Their actions have led to measurable improvements in quality and to increases in health service utilisation by adolescents. With support, government-run health facilities in LMICs can improve the quality of health services and their utilization by adolescents.
Quon, Elizabeth C; McGrath, Jennifer J
To examine the effects of provincial income inequality (disparity between rich and poor), independent of provincial income and family socioeconomic status, on multiple adolescent health outcomes. Participants (aged 12-17 years; N = 11,899) were from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Parental education, household income, province income inequality, and province mean income were measured. Health outcomes were measured across a number of domains, including self-rated health, mental health, health behaviors, substance use behaviors, and physical health. Income inequality was associated with injuries, general physical symptoms, and limiting conditions, but not associated with most adolescent health outcomes and behaviors. Income inequality had a moderating effect on family socioeconomic status for limiting conditions, hyperactivity/inattention, and conduct problems, but not for other outcomes. Province-level income inequality was associated with some physical and mental health outcomes in adolescents, which has research and policy implications for this age-group. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Gadomski, Anne M; Fothergill, Kate E; Larson, Susan; Wissow, Lawrence S; Winegrad, Heather; Nagykaldi, Zsolt J; Olson, Ardis L; Roter, Debra L
To evaluate how a comprehensive, computerized, self-administered adolescent screener, the DartScreen, affects within-visit patient-doctor interactions such as data gathering, advice giving, counseling, and discussion of mental health issues. Patient-doctor interaction was compared between visits without screening and those with the DartScreen completed before the visit. Teens, aged 15-19 years scheduled for an annual visit, were recruited at one urban and one rural pediatric primary care clinic. The doctor acted as his/her own control, first using his/her usual routine for five to six adolescent annual visits. Then, the DartScreen was introduced for five visits where at the beginning of the visit, the doctor received a summary report of the screening results. All visits were audio recorded and analyzed using the Roter interaction analysis system. Doctor and teen dialogue and topics discussed were compared between the two groups. Seven midcareer doctors and 72 adolescents participated; 37 visits without DartScreen and 35 with DartScreen were audio recorded. The Roter interaction analysis system defined medically related data gathering (mean, 36.8 vs. 32.7 statements; p = .03) and counseling (mean, 36.8 vs. 32.7 statements; p = .01) decreased with DartScreen; however, doctor responsiveness and engagement improved with DartScreen (mean, 4.8 vs. 5.1 statements; p = .00). Teens completing the DartScreen offered more psychosocial information (mean, 18.5 vs. 10.6 statements; p = .01), and mental health was discussed more after the DartScreen (mean, 93.7 vs. 43.5 statements; p = .03). Discussion of somatic and substance abuse topics did not change. Doctors reported that screening improved visit organization and efficiency. Use of the screener increased discussion of mental health but not at the expense of other adolescent health topics. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sousa, Pedro; Gaspar, Pedro; Fonseca, Helena; Hendricks, Constance; Murdaugh, Carolyn
Reliable and valid instruments are essential for understanding health-promoting behaviors in adolescents. This study analyzed the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Adolescent Lifestyle Profile (ALP). A linguistic and cultural translation of the ALP was conducted with 236 adolescents from two different settings: a community (n=141) and a clinical setting (n=95). Internal consistency reliability and confirmatory factor analysis were performed. Results showed an adequate fit to data, yielding a 36-item, seven-factor structure (CMIN/DF=1.667, CFI=0.807, GFI=0.822, RMR=0.051, RMSEA=0.053, PNFI=0.575, PCFI=0.731). The ALP presented a high internal consistency (α=0.866), with the subscales presenting moderate reliability values (from 0.492 to 0.747). The highest values were in Interpersonal Relations (3.059±0.523) and Positive Life Perspective (2.985±0.588). Some gender differences were found. Findings showed that adolescents from the clinic reported an overall healthier lifestyle than those from the community setting (2.598±0.379 vs. 2.504±0.346; t=1.976, p=0.049). The ALP Portuguese version is a psychometrically reliable, valid, and useful measurement instrument for assessing health-promoting lifestyles in adolescence. The ALP is cross-culturally validated and can decisively contribute to a better understanding of adolescent health promotion needs. Additional research is needed to evaluate the instrument's predictive validity, as well as its clinical relevance for practice and research. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Nguyen, Peter V
Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. MostVietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Inventory, this exploratory study surveyed 290Vietnamese American adolescents in a major metropolitan area to examine the relationship between their fathers' acculturation levels and parenting styles and the relationships among parenting styles and self-esteem levels and depression scores of the adolescents. Findings revealed that most of the adolescents perceived that their fathers have not acculturated to the U.S. culture and continue to practice the traditional authoritarian parenting style, regardless of the amount of time spent in the United States. Furthermore, results indicate that adolescents who perceived their fathers as using the authoritarian parenting style reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher depression scores when compared with those who perceived their fathers as using the authoritative parenting style.
Hale, Daniel R; Viner, Russell M
Health risk behaviours often co-occur in adolescence. This may be partially explained by a set of common risk and protective factors. The current study examines the association between risk behaviours throughout adolescence and identifies common risk factors for multiple risk behaviour in late adolescence. We use data from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. We examined the association between risk behaviours at age 14 (n = 15,588), age 16 (n = 12,416) and age 19 (n = 9,548). The associations between age 19 risk behaviour and earlier risk behaviours and risk and protective factors were assessed longitudinally. Health risk behaviours included smoking, alcohol use, illicit drug use, delinquency and unsafe sexual behaviour. All risk behaviours were found to be associated with other risk behaviours with associations weakening through adolescence. A number of sociodemographic, interpersonal, school and family factors at age 14 predicted risk behaviour and multiple risk behaviour at 19, though predictors for heavy alcohol use often differed from other health risk behaviours. Past risk behaviour was a strong predictor of age 19 risk behaviour though many involved in only one form of risk behaviour in mid-adolescence do not progress to multiple risk behaviour. Our findings reaffirm the links between health risk behaviours, but these diminish throughout adolescence with multiple risk behaviour usually initiated in mid-adolescence. Multiple risk behaviour is initiated in early or mid adolescence with a number of common risk factors explaining the co-occurrence of risk behaviours.
Atkins, Robert; Bluebond-Langner, Myra; Read, Nichole; Pittsley, Jerri; Hart, Daniel
Although there is a considerable literature on how adolescents make decisions which lead to risky behaviors (e.g., unprotected sex, drug use) and adversely affect the health and well-being of youth, little is known about the routine behaviors youth engage in which influence their health (e.g., having permanent teeth extracted, discontinuing antibiotics prematurely, delaying or going without treatment of subacute illnesses and minor injuries) and concomitantly the factors which influence these behaviors. In an effort to begin to fill this gap, we have undertaken a study of routine health behaviors and the factors which bear on them in adolescents from a high-poverty urban neighborhood. In this article, we present the results of the pilot phase of the study in which we documented the behavior of 10 adolescents from Camden, New Jersey, the fifth poorest city in the United States, and explored with them their perceptions of the decisions they made and the factors that gave rise to them. We found that participants had an insufficient understanding of their health problems and consequences of their health actions, problems in understanding and being understood by health care professionals, and reluctance to involve parents in routine health care decisions. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to improving the health of vulnerable youth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
So, Eun Sun; Park, Byoung Mo
This study aimed to examine the most prominent health-related behaviors impacting the academic performance of Korean adolescents. The 2012 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey data were analyzed using an ordinal regression analysis after adjusting for general and other health behaviors. Before adjustment, all health behaviors were significantly associated with academic performance. After adjustment for other health behaviors and confounding factors, only smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.98, 2.16), p academic performance, and engaging in a regular diet [OR = 0.65, 95% CI (0.65, 0.62), p academic performance. Regular diet, reducing smoking and alcohol drinking, and physical activity should be the target when designing health interventions for improving academic performance in Korean adolescents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Vicki A Nejtek
Full Text Available Vicki A Nejtek, Sarah Hardy, Scott WinterUniversity of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USAAbstract: The leading cause of suicide ideation, attempts, and completion in adolescents is persistent and unresolved parental conflict. National statistics show extremely high rates of childhood neglect and abuse are perpetrated most often by single mothers. Psychiatric disorders arising from maternal–child dysfunction are well-documented. However, resources to prevent offspring victimization are lacking. Here, we report maternal neglect of a 15-year-old male brought to the psychiatric emergency room for suicidal ideation. An inpatient treatment plan including pharmacotherapy, family therapy and psychological testing was initiated. The patient’s mother failed to attend clinic appointments or family therapy sessions. Clinician attempts to engage the mother in the treatment plan was met with verbal assaults, aggression, and threatening behavior. The patient decompensated in relation to the mother’s actions. Child Protective Services were contacted and a follow-up assessment with the patient and mother is pending. Psychiatric treatment of the mother may be a necessary intervention and prevention regimen for both the adolescent and the mother. Without consistent Child Protective Services oversight, medical and psychosocial follow-up, the prognosis and quality of life for this adolescent is considered very poor. Stringent mental health law and institutional policies are needed to adequately intercede and protect adolescents with mental illness.Keywords: adolescent, suicide, maternal treatment noncompliance, maternal neglect
The frequent incidence and seriousness of youth problems such as delinquency, runaways, drug abuse, and suicide create significant social problems. The tumultuous nature of adolescence, which offers a tremendous challenge to families, has captured the public's attention through adolescent sexuality (Herz, Goldberg, & Reis, 1984; Trussell, 1988). Considered a serious national health issue, the sexual behavior of adolescents is an area of increased concern as is the inci...
Kiragu, K; Obwaka, E; Odallo, D; Van Hulzen, C
To guide the development of adolescent reproductive health programs in Kenya, a national IEC survey was conducted with 1476 adolescents 15-19 years of age and 2894 of their parents. The survey was conducted in 1994 by the Johns Hopkins University Population Communication Services, in collaboration with the Kenyan National Council for Population Development and the Central Bureau of Statistics. Both parents and children were most likely to report having discussed school, future careers, and alcohol/drug use during the year preceding the survey; topics least likely to be discussed included boy-girl relationships, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), sexual relations, abortion, contraception, and puberty. Mothers were more likely to discuss reproductive health issues with their children than fathers. Both male and female adolescents indicated they would be most comfortable discussing sexual matters with their same-sex siblings, friends, and health care workers. Over 75% of children and adults were supportive of school-based family life education programs. In many cases, parents lacked correct information about reproductive health issues. Interventions designed to facilitate parent-child communication include a weekly call-in radio program, a comic book that encourages teens to talk to their parents, and a booklet for parents suggesting ways of initiating discussions on sexual issues.
Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.
Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…
Fahy, AE; Stansfeld, SA; Smuk, M; Smith, NR; Cummins, S; Clark, C
: Cyberbullying differs from face-to-face bullying and may negatively influence adolescent mental health, but there is a lack of definitive research on this topic. This study examines longitudinal associations between cyberbullying involvement and adolescent mental health. : Participants were 2,480 teenagers taking part in the Olympic Regeneration in East London study. We collected information from participants when they were 12-13 years old and again 1 year later to examine links between inv...
Fahy, Amanda E; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Smuk, Melanie; Smith, Neil R; Cummins, Steven; Clark, Charlotte
Cyberbullying differs from face-to-face bullying and may negatively influence adolescent mental health, but there is a lack of definitive research on this topic. This study examines longitudinal associations between cyberbullying involvement and adolescent mental health. Participants were 2,480 teenagers taking part in the Olympic Regeneration in East London study. We collected information from participants when they were 12-13 years old and again 1 year later to examine links between involvement in cyberbullying and future symptoms of depression and social anxiety, and mental well-being. At baseline, 14% reported being cybervictims, 8% reported being cyberbullies, and 20% reported being cyberbully-victims in the previous year. Compared to uninvolved adolescents, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims were significantly more likely to report symptoms of depression (cybervictims: odds ratio [OR] = 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.00, 2.06]; cyberbully-victims: OR = 1.54, 95% CI [1.13, 2.09]) and social anxiety (cybervictims: OR = 1.52, 95% CI [1.11, 2.07]; cyberbully-victims: OR = 1.44, 95% CI [1.10, 1.89]) but not below average well-being (cybervictims: relative risk ratio = 1.28, 95% CI [.86, 1.91]; cyberbully-victims: relative risk ratio = 1.38, 95% CI [.95, 1.99]) at 1 year follow-up, after adjustment for confounding factors including baseline mental health. This study emphasizes the high prevalence of cyberbullying and the potential of cybervictimization as a risk factor for future depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, and below average well-being among adolescents. Future research should identify protective factors and possible interventions to reduce adolescent cyberbullying. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Paakkari, Leena; Kokko, Sami; Villberg, Jari; Paakkari, Olli; Tynjälä, Jorma
The aim of this research was to compare the levels of perceived health literacy among adolescents who do or do not participate in sports club activities. Organized sport club activities reach a high proportion of adolescents, and have the potential to contribute to the development of their health literacy. The cross-sectional data on health literacy among school children in Finland (aged 13 and 15, n=3852) were measured, as a part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, using the Health Literacy for School-aged Children (HLSAC) instrument. Sports club participation and its association with health literacy were examined in relation to age, gender, family affluence, school achievement, and physical activity. The statistical analyses included cross-tabulation and the multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses. Perceived health literacy was higher among adolescents who participated in sports club activities. This conclusion was valid for boys and girls, for both age groups, among those who were physically active 6-7 days a week, had at least moderate school achievement, and those who belonged to the middle or high affluence families. From the health literacy perspective, participation in sports club activities was especially beneficial for those having low or moderate school achievement level. The sports club setting may work towards equalizing health literacy differences related to school achievement. However, the clubs should ensure that access is available to as many adolescents as possible; by this means they may spread beneficial influences, supporting the development of health literacy among broader population groups.
Sara Mota Borges Bottino
Full Text Available Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS. The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.
Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva
Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.
Hartman, Sarah; Li, Zhi; Nettle, Daniel; Belsky, Jay
A wealth of evidence documents associations between various aspects of the rearing environment and later development. Two evolutionary-inspired models advance explanations for why and how such early experiences shape later functioning: (a) the external-prediction model, which highlights the role of the early environment (e.g., parenting) in regulating children's development, and (b) the internal-prediction model, which emphasizes internal state (i.e., health) as the critical regulator. Thus, by using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the current project draws from both models by investigating whether the effect of the early environment on later adolescent functioning is subject to an indirect effect by internal-health variables. Results showed a significant indirect effect of internal health on the relation between the early environment and adolescent behavior. Specifically, early environmental adversity during the first 5 years of life predicted lower quality health during childhood, which then led to problematic adolescent functioning and earlier age of menarche for girls. In addition, for girls, early adversity predicted lower quality health that forecasted earlier age of menarche leading to increased adolescent risk taking. The discussion highlights the importance of integrating both internal and external models to further understand the developmental processes that effect adolescent behavior.
Cari L. Miller
Full Text Available Background: Youth between the ages of 15 years to 24 years account for almost half of new HIV infections in South Africa. Objectives: To describe the study details of the Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Study (BBAHS which was an investigation of HIV risk among adolescents living in Soweto, South Africa. Methods: Eligibility criteria for the BBAHS included being 14 years – 19 years old and living in one of the 41 identified formal and informal areas in the township of Soweto. A cross-sectional survey was developed between investigators and an adolescent community advisory board consisting of previously validated scales and original questions including demographics, sexual and reproductive health, health service utilisation and psychosocial behaviours. Results: Between 2010 and 2012, interviewers administered surveys among 830 adolescents (57% females, whose median age was 17 years (Q1, Q3: 16, 18, and found that 43% of participants identified their ethnicity as Zulu, 52% reported high food insecurity, 37% reported at least one parent had died, 15% reported living in a shack and 83% identified as heterosexual. Over half of the participants (55% reported ever having sex (49% of females and 64% of males, 11% of whom initiated sex at < 15 years of age (3% females and 21% males. Almost half (47% reported ever testing for HIV, 3% (n = 12 of whom self-reported being HIV-positive and 33% (n = 4 were on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion: Our study highlights important individual, relational and structural level determinants of HIV risk for adolescent men and women growing up within HIV hyperendemic settings.
Chang, Li-Chun; Hsieh, Pei-Lin; Liu, Chieh-Hsing
The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of short-form Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents. Assessing health literacy is vital to design health education programme; however, there are no measurement tools exist for use specifically in Chinese adolescents. A non-experimental design was used to test the psychometric properties of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents. The short-form Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents was translated and back translated into a Chinese language version. Thirty high school students were recruited to validate the scenario of Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents. Based on the multiple-stage stratified random sampling method, 300 high school students from four counties in Taiwan were invited to participate in this study to evaluate the psychometric properties of Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents. The Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents had good internal consistency reliability and excellent test-retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a one-factor solution. Contrary to the original version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents, the findings revealed that the 36-item, one-factor model for the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents is the best-fit model. This is a suitable instrument to assess health literacy levels in Chinese adolescents before health education programmes can be appropriately planned, implemented and evaluated. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Nov 3, 2016 ... Achieve real gender equality for adolescent health ... yet limited access to sexual and reproductive health services is preventing women and girls ... forms of sexual violence, trafficking, and abuse and gender discrimination.
Radović, Nelica Ivanović; Božić, Ksenija; Đurić, Aleksandra Plećaš; Vodopić, Sanja; Radulović, Ljiljana; Vujisić, Slavica
The objective of this study was to establish potential risk factors for poor health-related quality of life among adolescents with epilepsy in Montenegro. A sample of 104 adolescents with epilepsy (age: 11-19years) at a tertiary referral center in Podgorica, Montenegro, completed the validated Serbian version of the QOLIE-AD-48 questionnaire. They were divided into two groups: a group with active epilepsy (60 adolescents) and a group with inactive epilepsy (44 adolescents). Demographic and clinical data were collected. Adolescents with active epilepsy had low quality of life and felt the negative impact of the disease. They also had more cognitive impairments, felt more stigmatized, and had considerably more distorted perception of their health than adolescents with inactive epilepsy (pepilepsy was determined by severity of the disease, age, and gender. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McDonald, Catherine C.; Richmond, Therese R.
Urban adolescents are exposed to a substantial amount of community violence which has the potential to influence psychological functioning. To examine the relationship between community violence exposure and mental health symptoms in urban adolescents, a literature review using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, CSA Social Services, and CSA Sociological Abstracts was conducted. Search terms included adolescent/adolescence, violence, urban, mental health, well-being, emotional distress, depres...
Petersen, Poul Erik; Jiang, Han; Peng, Bin
distributions, regression analyses and factor analyses. RESULTS: Oral health-related behaviours among adolescents were associated with socioeconomic status of parents, school performance and peer relationships. The odds of a dental visit was 0.63 in adolescents of poorly educated parents and the corresponding...
Bélanger, Richard E; Akre, Christina; Berchtold, André; Michaud, Pierre-André
To examine the relationship between different Internet-use intensities and adolescent mental and somatic health. Data were drawn from the 2002 Swiss Multicenter Adolescent Survey on Health, a nationally representative survey of adolescents aged 16 to 20 years in post-mandatory school. From a self-administered anonymous questionnaire, 3906 adolescent boys and 3305 girls were categorized into 4 groups according to their intensity of Internet use: heavy Internet users (HIUs; >2 hours/day), regular Internet users (RIUs; several days per week and ≤ 2 hours/day), occasional users (≤ 1 hour/week), and non-Internet users (NIUs; no use in the previous month). Health factors examined were perceived health, depression, overweight, headaches and back pain, and insufficient sleep. In controlled multivariate analysis, using RIUs as a reference, HIUs of both genders were more likely to report higher depressive scores, whereas only male users were found at increased risk of overweight and female users at increased risk of insufficient sleep. Male NIUs and female NIUs and occasional users also were found at increased risk of higher depressive scores. Back-pain complaints were found predominantly among male NIUs. Our study provides evidence of a U-shaped relationship between intensity of Internet use and poorer mental health of adolescents. In addition, HIUs were confirmed at increased risk for somatic health problems. Thus, health professionals should be on the alert when caring for adolescents who report either heavy Internet use or very little/none. Also, they should consider regular Internet use as a normative behavior without major health consequence.
Due, Pernille; Krølner, Rikke; Rasmussen, Mette
useful for providing an overview of what elements and mechanisms in adolescence may be of special importance for adult health inequalities. There is a lack of knowledge of how social patterns of health, health behaviours, and social relations in adolescence transfer into adulthood and to what extent...... vulnerability. METHODS: We conducted literature searches in English-language peer-reviewed journals using PubMed (from 1966 to May 2009) and PsycINFO, and combined these with hand-searches of reference lists, journals, and authors of particular relevance. RESULTS: Most health indicators are socially patterned...
Stefansson, Lilja S; Webb, M Elizabeth; Hebert, Luciana E; Masinter, Lisa; Gilliam, Melissa L
Adolescents experience numerous barriers to obtaining sexual and reproductive health care (SRHC). Mobile Health Units (MHUs) can remove some barriers by traveling to the community. This pilot study developed Mobile SRHC through an iterative process on an existing MHU and evaluated it among adolescents and providers. Mobile SRHC was developed through a mixed-method, multiphase study. Three key informant interviews with MHU providers, an adolescent needs assessment survey, and a Youth Model Development Session informed model development. Emergency contraception (EC), oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) were sequentially incorporated into MHU services. Administrative data assessed method distribution and surveys assessed patient satisfaction. Key informants held positive attitudes toward implementing Mobile SRHC into their practice. Needs assessment surveys (N = 103) indicated a majority was interested in learning about sexual health (66.0%) and obtaining birth control (54.4%) on an MHU. Over 3 months, 123 adolescents participated in Mobile SRHC. Seven packs and 9 prescriptions of EC, 8 3-month packs and 10 prescriptions of OCPs, and 5 injections and 5 prescriptions of DMPA were distributed. Ninety-two percent of adolescent participants reported they would recommend Mobile SRHC to friends. Mobile SRHC is a feasible approach for reproductive health care among adolescents. © 2018, American School Health Association.
Reijneveld, S.A.; Boer, J.B.de; Bean, T.; Korfker, D.G.
We assessed the effects of a stringent reception policy on the mental health of unaccompanied adolescent asylum seekers by comparing the mental health of adolescents in a restricted campus reception setting and in a setting offering more autonomy (numbers [response rates]: 69 [93%] and 53 [69%],
Vieira Netto, Moysés Francisco; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira
The Family Health Strategy (FHS) has an acknowledged potential for the promotion of health and the prevention of violence. This is an integrative bibliographic review with the aim of evaluating the performance of FHS professionals in tackling and preventing violence involving adolescents. It is an integrative review of dissertations and theses on healthcare published from 1994 to 2014. The collection of 17 dissertations and 2 doctoral theses reveals that these studies are recent. The FHS professionals acknowledge the vulnerability of adolescents to inflicting and being subject to violence, however the FHS proves ineffective in tackling and preventing such violence. The predominance of the medical technical care model, the deficiencies in Public Health education in professional training and the lack of institutional support are seen as the main obstacles. Many of these professionals are unaware of the files for notification of violence. The existence of family violence and criminal groups were the aspects most mentioned in the territories. The social representation of adolescents as being "problematic" and the lack of ESF actions that promote an increase youth leadership and empowerment were clearly detected.
Eckhoff, C; Straume, B; Kvernmo, S
Pain in adolescence is associated with mental health problems, the main reason for work disability in young adults. This study explores the relationship between multisite musculoskeletal pain in adolescence and later medical (sickness and medical rehabilitation benefits) and social welfare benefits, adjusted for sociodemographic, adolescent psychosocial and mental health problems. Data were obtained by linkage between the National Insurance Registry (2003-11) and the Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study, a school-based survey in North Norway (2003-05), accepted by 3987 fifteen- to sixteen-year-olds (68% of the total population). The start of the follow-up time was July 1st of the corresponding year the participants responded to the health study. Musculoskeletal pain was measured by the number of musculoskeletal pain sites. We found a positive linear relationship between adolescent musculoskeletal pain sites and the occurrence of medical and social welfare benefits in young adulthood (p ≤ 0.001). Adolescent musculoskeletal pain was a significant predictor of sickness (p adolescent psychosocial and mental health problems. The most important adolescent psychosocial predictors were externalizing problems, less parental involvement and adverse life events. Adolescent multisite musculoskeletal pain was found to be an important predictor of later sickness and social welfare benefit receipt from adolescence to young adulthood. Adolescents with multisite musculoskeletal pain are at substantially increased risk of health and social difficulties into young adulthood. Identification and interventions for these adolescent problems could alleviate this risk and be a sound socioeconomic investment. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.
Seif, Saada A; Kohi, Thecla W; Moshiro, Candida S
Caretakers/parents/caregivers/guardians play important roles in improving Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) of adolescents. Caretaker-adolescent sexual communication suggested to influence young people's sexual behaviours. Despite this significance, the communication is believed to be low in Unguja due to the increase of risky sexual behaviours among adolescents. This study assessed the pattern of such communication using IMB model as a framework. This is a cross-sectional study targeted caretakers of adolescents aged 15-19. One thousand caretakers of adolescents were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Comparison between male and female caretakers on discussing different SRH topics to both sexes of adolescents was made. The mean-score difference of overall communication was examined using Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). Bivariate correlation and simple path analysis via regression was conducted to determine the association of IMB variables in relation to communication practice. This study finds 40.7% of caretakers had ever communicated with their adolescents on SRH matters and 9.2% reported to have had communicated in the past 30 days. The weighted topic measure revealed only 26.5% of caretakers communicated with their adolescents. Both caretakers communicated more with their female adolescents. The communication was more common between same sex and between caretakers and their biological adolescents (p related and associated with communication practice. Caretakers-adolescents communication on SRH in Unguja is low and it is not comprehensive. Caretakers fail to communicate with their adolescents on sensitive issues but do so on less sensitive ones. The pattern of communication found to vary across gender of caretaker and that of adolescent and depends on the nature of relationship between caretaker and adolescent. There is gender differences in selecting SRH topics of discussion. Interventions programmes have to include strategies that
To realize adolescents' right to sexual health, state parties' implementation of the obligations stipulated under Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa should reflect the key principles of the rights of the child, articulated under the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Welfare and Rights of the Child. However, societal norms that stigmatize adolescent sexual conduct constitute barriers to adolescents' sexual health care, including their access to contraceptives to avoid unwanted pregnancies and protect themselves from STIs and HIV. States should sensitize and train health professionals to provide sexual health services and care in accordance with the principles of the rights of the child, and create enabling laws and policies to facilitate their work with adolescents. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Natalie A. DiPietro
Full Text Available Purpose: To develop, implement, and evaluate an elective course for the Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD curriculum that provides students with a comprehensive overview of women's health across the lifespan and exposes them to social and economic issues that impact women's health. Case Study: At the time of this writing, the class has been delivered 3 times to a total of 56 students. Students read and discussed (both in-class and online timely articles in women's health issues on topics including sex-based biology; women in clinical trials; maternal and child health; women's health coverage and access to care in the United States; gender and health communication; abuse and the role of healthcare professionals; and international issues in women's health and women's rights. Students completed a pre- and post-test; developed seminar presentations regarding women's health issues; wrote reflective essays about the course; and designed and implemented health promotion projects for National Women's Health Week (NWHW. At the end of the course, the number of correct answers on the post-test significantly improved from the pre-test (p<0.001. Through anonymous course evaluations, students indicated that the assignments fulfilled the learning objectives (mean 4.68 on a 5-point Likert scale and the exercises were useful in helping their understanding of the material (mean 4.66 on a 5-point Likert scale. Over 500 women from the campus and community participated in the NWHW projects. Implications: An elective course was designed to educate pharmacy students regarding women's health issues and to provide students with an opportunity to perform community outreach. Type: Case Study
2 School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, ... Keywords: HIV, adolescents, mental health, SDQ, Zambia. 1. 2 ... can only reduce the viral load but cannot eradicate it ... disclosure, stigma, fear of death and family conflict.
Clark, M P
Politicians in the US have made adolescent parents the scapegoat of changing cultural patterns by suggesting punitive solutions to nonmarital births rather than addressing underlying causes of premature child-bearing. It is known that the percentages of young people of all races and all social classes reporting early, nonmarital sexual intercourse have increased dramatically, while adolescent fertility rates peaked in the 1950s. Improved access to contraception and abortion caused a decline in teen pregnancy and birth rates from 1970 to 1986. During 1986-91, service providers could not match growing demand, and the birth rate increased 25%. Increased rates of sexual activity have also led to increases in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS among adolescents. This situation was exacerbated by Reagan and Bush policies, which reduced funding for services to adolescents and supported abstinence-only sex education courses. The concern voiced by policy-makers today centers on nonmarital childbearing by low-income adolescents who will rely on public assistance to survive. A proper response to this situation would involve the following policy actions: 1) mandating comprehensive sexuality education from kindergarten through high school, 2) funding mentoring programs, 3) improving economic and educational opportunities, 4) expanding STD and HIV/AIDS prevention programs, 5) increasing access to confidential health services (including mental health care and substance abuse treatment), 6) expanding child sexual abuse prevention and intervention programs, and 7) increasing access to and acceptability of teen contraceptive usage and abortion.
Owuondo, Pacific Akinyi; Mwaura-Tenembergen, Wanja; Adoyo, Maureen; Kiilu, Elizabeth M.
Health service delivery is a key pillar of the health system management .The World Health Organization recently emphasized the need to develop adolescent -friendly health services to improve the care provided to young people throughout the world. However, there is limited peer reviewed literature on this subject therefore necessitating assessment of whether the existing health facilities are prepared to implement the adolescent friendly health services. Adolescent friendly health services remains a relatively new and sensitive area mainly due to restrictive norms and policies guiding the services. After International Conference on Population and Development in 1994, countries started implementing adolescent friendly health services. The Government of Kenya together with partners in an attempt to address the health challenges came up with the Adolescent package of care (APOC) in 2013 whose guidelines were finalized in November 2014 and released for use by service providers . Despite this package of care, there is still ineffective staff capacity in relation to skills and knowledge gap of health professionals, training needs, health resources as well as health system factors that can affect implementation of AFHS. The study explored ways of mitigating or addressing the barriers to implementation of these services. The study used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to collect data. The study utilized survey research adapting descriptive cross sectional design and semi-structured questionnaire to interview 348 health care providers and 472 adolescents in Mam Lucy Kibaki Hospital from 3rd May 2014 to 16 June 2014 .The key informants were mainly nurses, clinical officers and Medical doctors who were working at the health service delivery area at the time of study and were interviewed using an interview guide. The managers at the hospital were interviewed using an in-depth interview guide while the adolescents were interviewed through interview guide and focused
Owuondo, Pacific Akinyi; Mwaura-Tenembergen, Wanja; Adoyo, Maureen; Kiilu, Elizabeth M
Health service delivery is a key pillar of the health system management. The World Health Organization recently emphasized the need to develop adolescent -friendly health services to improve the care provided to young people throughout the world. However, there is limited peer reviewed literature on this subject therefore necessitating assessment of whether the existing health facilities are prepared to implement the adolescent friendly health services. Adolescent friendly health services remains a relatively new and sensitive area mainly due to restrictive norms and policies guiding the services. After International Conference on Population and Development in 1994, countries started implementing adolescent friendly health services. The Government of Kenya together with partners in an attempt to address the health challenges came up with the Adolescent package of care (APOC) in 2013 whose guidelines were finalized in November 2014 and released for use by service providers . Despite this package of care, there is still ineffective staff capacity in relation to skills and knowledge gap of health professionals, training needs, health resources as well as health system factors that can affect implementation of AFHS. The study explored ways of mitigating or addressing the barriers to implementation of these services. The study used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to collect data. The study utilized survey research adapting descriptive cross sectional design and semi-structured questionnaire to interview 348 health care providers and 472 adolescents in Mam Lucy Kibaki Hospital from 3rd May 2014 to 16 June 2014. The key informants were mainly nurses, clinical officers and Medical doctors who were working at the health service delivery area at the time of study and were interviewed using an interview guide. The managers at the hospital were interviewed using an in-depth interview guide while the adolescents were interviewed through interview guide and focused
Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the main strategies for keeping health is having healthy life style. Due to important role of adolescent health in community health promotion, this study aimed to determine health promoting life style in female adolescents of high schools and its associated factors in Mashhad, Iran. Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted on 810 girls ranging in ages from 14to 18 years old, who were studying in high schools and selected using cluster sampling from in Mashhad, Iran in 2013. They completed questionnaires of demographic data and Adolescent Health Promoting AH scale. Data were analyzed by statistical tests of Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Freedman, Wilcoxon, Spearman correlation coefficient and General linear model. Results: The mean age of subjects was 15.51±0.98 and the mean score of life style was 63.92±12.01. The highest score of life style subscales was allocated to the “spiritual growth or life-appreciation (77.66±15.56 and the least to the physical and sport activities (51.66±22.49. There was a significant relationship between the life style score of adolescents with parents educational level (mother P=0.024, father P=0.014. However no significant relationship was found between adolescents' life style and their residential area and also parents' job. Among different dimension of life style, the highest correlation was seen between spiritual growth score and life style total score (p=0.01. Conclusion: Based on the findings, it is necessary to prioritize implementing of health-related educational programs in order to changing and modification of unhealthy life style related factors, with focus on sport activities as well as health and nutrition. Also it is needed to provide special facilities to select healthy living behaviors among Female adolescents.
Ali, Mir M; Dean, David; Lipari, Rachel; Dowd, William N; Aldridge, Arnie P; Novak, Scott P
Nonmedical prescription drug use is estimated to be the second most abused category of drugs after marijuana among adolescents. Prescription drugs can be highly addictive and prolonged use can produce neurological changes and physiological dependence and could result in adverse mental health outcomes. This topic is largely unexplored, as current knowledge of possible mechanisms of the linkage between adverse mental health consequences and prescription drug misuse is limited. This study explores the relationship between nonmedical use of prescription drugs and depression outcomes among adolescents. Given their complex and confounded relationship, our purpose is to better understand the extent to which nonmedical use of prescription drugs is an antecedent of depressive episodes. Using data from the 2008-2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the study employs a propensity score matching methodology to ascertain whether nonmedical use of prescription drugs is linked to major depressive episodes among adolescents. The results document a positive relationship between nonmedical prescription drug use and major depressive episodes among adolescents. Specifically, the results indicate that adolescents who used prescription drugs non-medically are 33% to 35% more likely to experience major depressive episodes compared to their non-abusing counterparts. This provides additional evidence about the potential public health consequences of misuse of prescription drugs on adverse mental health outcomes. Given the significant increased risk of major depressive episode among adolescents who use prescription drugs nonmedically, it seems that the prevention of nonmedical prescription drug use warrants the utilization of both educational and public health resources. An important area for future research is to understand how any policy initiatives in this area must strike a balance between the need to minimize the misuse of prescription drugs and the need to ensure access for
Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph
Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and…
Telford, Claire; Coulter, Ian; Murray, Liam
Socioeconomic factors are associated with disparities in oral health among adolescents; however, the underlying reasons are not clear. The authors conducted a study to determine if known indicators of oral health can explain such disparities. The authors examined data from a 2007 California Health Interview Survey of adolescents. The outcome of interest was self-reported condition of the teeth; covariates were socioeconomic status (SES) (that is, family poverty level and parental education) and a range of other variables representing health-influencing behaviors, dental care and other social factors. The authors conducted analyses by using logistic regression to explain disparities in self-reported condition of the teeth associated with SES. The authors found that socioeconomic disparities decreased substantially after they added all potential explanatory variables to the model, leaving poverty level as the only variable associated with differences in the self-reported condition of the teeth. Adolescents living below the federal poverty guidelines were more likely to report that the condition of their teeth was fair or poor than were adolescents who were least poor (odds ratio = 1.58; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04-2.41). In multivariate analyses, further oral health disparities existed in relation to behaviors that influence health, social environment and dental care. The results of this study showed that a number of factors decreased, but did not eliminate, the observed relationship between SES and oral health in Californian adolescents. Most of these explanatory factors are modifiable, indicating that socioeconomic differences associated with oral health among adolescents may be amenable to change. Practice Implications. By promoting a healthy lifestyle (including healthy diet, exercise and regular dental attendance) and conveying to patients in languages other than English how to maintain oral health, dentists may be able to ameliorate the effects of
Jensen, Bente; Jensen, B. B.
The publication presents for the first time selected data from a survey of the attitudes of 13 to 15 year olds in Denmark. The survey indicates that the adolescents know that health is inequitably distributed. In addition. they strongly believe that everyone should have the sam opportunities to m...
Full Text Available In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition.
Full Text Available Improving mental health and reducing the burden of mental illness are complementary strategies which, along with the treatment and rehabilitation of people with mental disorders, significantly improve population health and well-being. A Institute of Medicine report describes a range of interventions for mental disorders that included treatment and maintenance, reserving the term “prevention” for efforts that occur before onset of a diagnosable disorder. Mental health problems affect 10–20% of children and adolescents worldwide. Despite their relevance as a leading cause of health-related disability and their long lasting consequences, the mental health needs of children and adolescents are neglected. Early intervention can help reduce the significant impacts that children and adolescents with serious mental health problems may experience. Screening is the first step in early intervention, recognizing emotional and behavioral problems and providing help at an early stage. It is essential to implement early intervention in a sensitive and ethical manner to avoid any of the negative outcomes.
Faustino R Pérez-López
Full Text Available Faustino R Pérez-López, Gonzalo Pérez-Roncero, María T López-BaenaGrupo de Investigación sobre Salud de la Mujer en Aragón (GRISAMAR, Universidad de Zaragoza, Hospital Clínico Zaragoza, SpainAbstract: Vitamin D is a hormone sequentially produced at different body sites, and which plays a significant role in human health, particularly bone health. However, other roles are emerging. When the serum concentration of vitamin D is very low, the risk of rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis is increased. In children and adolescents there is a high prevalence of low vitamin D status, especially in females and during the winter–the prevalence being lower than during the summer. Although there is no unanimous agreement over the minimum values necessary for good health, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels below 20 ng/mL may be regarded as a vitamin D-deficient condition, and levels between 20–30 ng/mL may be the range of vitamin D insufficiency. Mild low levels have been associated with bone mass accrual alterations in children and adolescents, diminished muscle strength, negative cardiovascular outcomes, insulin resistance and obesity, and neurological disorders. Effective preventive strategies are needed to guarantee adequate vitamin D levels throughout childhood and adolescence, taking into account the geographical setting, season of the year, the level of environmental pollution, skin characteristics, eating habits and body weight, with a view to securing optimum health during these phases, and the prevention of complications in adulthood. There needs to be a renewed appreciation of the beneficial effect of moderate sunlight for providing all humans with the vitamin D needed for ensuring good health. Prolonged sun exposure is not advised, however, due to the risk of skin cancer. In addition, a balanced diet is indicated, since vitamin D-rich foods are better assimilated than supplements. When such conditions cannot be met, then the
Kwan, Y. K.; Ip, W. C.
Relationships between self-assessed health status and socio-demographic variables were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong, a modern society with traditional Chinese ethno-cultural origin. Health status was self-rated in four aspects: overall health, physical health, mental health, and health effects on…
Kumwenda, Maureen; Nzala, Selestine; Zulu, Joseph M
While health care needs assessments have been conducted among juveniles or adolescents by researchers in developed countries, assessments using an ethics framework particularly in developing countries are lacking. We analysed the health care needs among adolescents at the Nakambala Correctional Institution in Zambia, using the Beauchamp and Childress ethics framework. The ethics approach facilitated analysis of moral injustices or dilemmas triggered by health care needs at the individual (adolescent) level. The research team utilized 35 in-depth interviews with juveniles, 6 key informant interviews and 2 focus group discussions to collect data. We analysed the data using thematic analysis. The use of three sources of data facilitated triangulation of data. Common health problems included HIV/AIDS, STIs, flu, diarrhoea, rashes, and malaria. Although there are some health promotion strategies at the Nakambala Approved School, the respondents classified the health care system as inadequate. The unfavourable social context which included clouded rooms and lack of adolescent health friendly services unfairly exposed adolescents to several health risks and behaviours thus undermining the ethics principle of social justice. In addition, the limited prioritisation of adolescent centres by the stakeholders and erratic funding also worsened injustices by weakening the health care system. Whereas the inadequate medical and drug supplies, shortage of health workers in the nearby health facilities and weak referral systems excluded the juveniles from enjoying maximum health benefits thus undermining adolescents' wellbeing or beneficence. Inadequate medical and drug supplies as well as non-availability of adolescent friendly health services at the nearest health facility did not only affect social justice and beneficence ethics principles but also threatened juveniles' privacy, liberty and confidentiality as well as autonomy with regard to health service utilisation
Niermann, Christina Y N; Kremers, Stef P J; Renner, Britta; Woll, Alexander
The importance of the family environment for children's and adolescents' health behavior has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of this influence remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between family environmental and individual determinants. It was hypothesized that the Family Health Climate (FHC) is associated with adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior and that intrinsic motivation mediates this association. Cross-sectional data were collected from 198 families (mother, father, and child) using questionnaires. Perceptions of FHC of mothers, fathers, and their children were assessed using the FHC-scales for physical activity (FHC-PA) and nutrition (FHC-NU). The adolescents also rated their intrinsic motivation for exercise and healthy eating, their physical activity and consumption of healthful food. A structural equation model was analyzed and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test direct and indirect effects. The FHC-PA was related to the amount of weekly physical activity and the FHC-NU to the consumption of fruit, vegetables and salad. These effects were mediated by adolescents' intrinsic motivation; the indirect effects were significant for both behaviors. These results emphasize the importance of the FHC in shaping adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior. Individual motivational factors are potential mediators of family and parental influences. Considering family-level variables and their interaction with individual factors contributes to the understanding of adolescents' health behavior.
Christina Y N Niermann
Full Text Available The importance of the family environment for children's and adolescents' health behavior has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of this influence remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between family environmental and individual determinants. It was hypothesized that the Family Health Climate (FHC is associated with adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior and that intrinsic motivation mediates this association.Cross-sectional data were collected from 198 families (mother, father, and child using questionnaires. Perceptions of FHC of mothers, fathers, and their children were assessed using the FHC-scales for physical activity (FHC-PA and nutrition (FHC-NU. The adolescents also rated their intrinsic motivation for exercise and healthy eating, their physical activity and consumption of healthful food. A structural equation model was analyzed and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test direct and indirect effects.The FHC-PA was related to the amount of weekly physical activity and the FHC-NU to the consumption of fruit, vegetables and salad. These effects were mediated by adolescents' intrinsic motivation; the indirect effects were significant for both behaviors.These results emphasize the importance of the FHC in shaping adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior. Individual motivational factors are potential mediators of family and parental influences. Considering family-level variables and their interaction with individual factors contributes to the understanding of adolescents' health behavior.
S. Ya. Volgina
Full Text Available Deviant behavior of adolescents is a serious social problem in today's society because of the significant prevalence of this phenomenon. Authors present the results of the study of adolescents with behavioral problems. Aim: optimization of medical and social care for adolescents with behavioral problems. Patients and methods: the authors studied the incidence of this condition among children aged from 15 to 17 years using the software package «SOC/PEDIATRIA-2». The features of the personality structure of adolescents with deviant behavior were revealed using the adopted Russian short version of MMPI-MINI-MULT. Demographic and social characteristics of the families of adolescents were assessed. SF-36 questionnaire was applied for the quality of life assessment of the studied category. Results: increasing morbidity among adolescents was revealed due to various reasons: economic, medical and social. The study allowed to develop personal characteristics of the criteria in order to timely identify adolescents with accentuated and psychopathological features. The characteristics of quality of life were used as criteria of health care for adolescents with behavioral problems. The measures for the prevention and correction of deviant behavior among adolescents were proposed, including intersectoral integration and active participation of family in the process of rehabilitation. Conclusions: it is necessary to identify adolescents with deviant behavior timely, followed by a set of measures to provide them with health and social care to protect their health.
Full Text Available Purpose : Recent changes in the population structure of Korea, such as rapid decline in birth rate and exponential increase in old-aged people, prompted us to prepare a new health improvement program in children and adolescents. Methods : We reviewed current health screenings applied for children and adolescents in Korea and other developed countries. We collected and reviewed population-based data focused on mortality and morbidity, and other health-related statistical data. We generated problem lists in current systems and developed new principles. Results : Current health screening programs for children and adolescents were usually based on laboratory tests, such as blood tests, urinalysis, and radiologic tests. Almost all of these programs lacked evidence based on population data or controlled studies. In most developed countries, laboratory tests are used only very selectively, and they usually focus on primary prevention of diseases and health improvement using anticipatory guidance. In Korea, statistics on mortality and morbidity reveal that diseases related to lifestyle, such as obesity and metabolic syndrome, are increasing in all generations. Conclusion : We recommend a periodic health screening program with anticipatory guidance, which is focused on growth and developmental surveillance in infants and children. We no longer recommend old programs that are based on laboratory and radiologic examinations. School health screening programs should also be changed to meet current health issues, such as developing a healthier lifestyle to minimize risk behaviors—for example, good mental health, balanced nutrition, and more exercise.
Cornelis, Erlinde; Cauberghe, Veroline; De Pelsmacker, Patrick
Two experiments were conducted among adolescents in 2011 in urban parts of Belgium, Europe. The effectiveness of two-sided binge drinking and marijuana prevention messages was investigated in relation to argument type, refutation, and issue ambivalence. Study 1 (n = 373) serves as a baseline study for study 2 (n = 156). Data were collected through a printed questionnaire in classrooms in Flemish secondary schools. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data. Implications for health practitioners, as well as limitations and suggestions for further research are given.
The South African Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (SAACAPAP). The SAACAPAP is a professional body for child and adolescent mental health practitioners in South Africa. It was initiated in 1978, and since then has been an active member of the International Association for Child ...
Buchmann, Marlis; Steinhoff, Annekatrin
Conceptualizing adolescent development within a life course framework that links the perspectives on social inequality and early life course transitions has largely been absent from previous research. Such a conceptual model is needed, however, in order to understand how the individual development of agentic capacities and the opportunities and constraints inherent in the social contexts of growing up interact and jointly affect young people's trajectories across the adolescent life stage. We present the corner stones of the conceptual "trident" of social inequality, life course transitions, and adolescent development and identify three major themes the eleven contributions to this special issue address within this conceptual framework: social and individual prerequisites and consequences of coping with life course transitions; intergenerational transmission belts of social inequality; socialization of agency in and outside the family home. These three themes exemplify the great analytical potential inherent in this framework.
Kassebaum, N.L.; Hmwe Kyu, Hmwe; Zoeckler, Leo; Geleijnse, J.M.
Importance: Comprehensive and timely monitoring of disease burden in all age groups, including children and adolescents, is essential for improving population health.
Objective: To quantify and describe levels and trends of mortality and nonfatal health outcomes among children and
Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S
Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.
López, R; Baelum, V
The need for treatment of destructive periodontal diseases is based on observations made by oral health professionals, who, prompted by clinical findings, recommend treatment. We hypothesized that clinical signs of periodontal destruction have an impact on the oral-health-related quality of life of adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 9203 Chilean high school students sampled by a multistage random cluster procedure. We recorded clinical attachment levels and the presence of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. The students answered the Spanish version of the Oral Health Impact Profile and provided information on several socio-economic indicators. The results of multivariable logistic regression analyses (adjusted for age, gender, and tooth loss) showed that both attachment loss [OR = 2.0] and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis [OR = 1.6] were significantly associated with higher impact on the Oral Health Related Quality of Life of adolescents. Individuals in lower socioeconomic positions systematically reported a higher impact on their oral-health-related quality of life.
Kenny, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda
Mobile applications or 'apps' have significant potential for use in mental health interventions with adolescents. However, there is a lack of research exploring end users' needs from such technologies. The aim of this study was to explore adolescents' needs and concerns in relation to mental health mobile apps. Five focus groups were conducted with young people aged 15-16 years (N = 34, 60% male). Participants were asked about their views in relation to the use of mental health mobile technologies and were asked to give their responses to a mental health app prototype. Participants identified (1) safety, (2) engagement, (3) functionality, (4) social interaction, (5) awareness, (6) accessibility, (7) gender and (8) young people in control as important factors. Understanding end users' needs and concerns in relation to this topic will inform the future development of youth-oriented mental health apps that are acceptable to young people. © The Author(s) 2014.
Dodd, Virginia J.; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D.; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank
Background: An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural…
Blood, Emily A; Trent, Maria; Gordon, Catherine M; Goncalves, Adrianne; Resnick, Michael; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Boyer, Cherrie B; Richardson, Laura; Emans, S Jean
Leadership development is a core value of Maternal Child Health Bureau training programs. Mentorship, an MCH Leadership Competency, has been shown to positively affect career advancement and research productivity. Improving mentorship opportunities for junior faculty and trainees may increase pursuit of careers in areas such as adolescent health research and facilitate the development of new leaders in the field. Using a framework of Developmental Networks, a group of MCH Leadership Education in Adolescent Health training program faculty developed a pilot mentoring program offered at the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine Annual Meeting (2011-2013). The program matched ten interdisciplinary adolescent health fellows and junior faculty with senior mentors at other institutions with expertise in the mentee's content area of study in 2011. Participants were surveyed over 2 years. Respondents indicated they were "very satisfied" with their mentor match, and all agreed or strongly agreed that the mentoring process in the session was helpful, and that the mentoring relationships resulted in several ongoing collaborations and expanded their Developmental Networks. These results demonstrate that MCH programs can apply innovative strategies to disseminate the MCH Leadership Competencies to groups beyond MCH-funded training programs through programs at scientific meetings. Such innovations may enhance the structure of mentoring, further the development of new leaders in the field, and expand developmental networks to provide support for MCH professionals transitioning to leadership roles.
O'Sullivan, Therese A; Robinson, Monique; Kendall, Garth E; Miller, Margaret; Jacoby, Peter; Silburn, Sven R; Oddy, Wendy H
Breakfast consumption has been associated with better mental health in adulthood, but the relationship between breakfast and mental health in adolescence is less well known. The aims of the present study were to evaluate breakfast quality in a cohort of adolescents and to investigate associations with mental health. Cross-sectional population-based study. Breakfast quality was assessed by intake of core food groups at breakfast, as determined from 3 d food diaries. Mental health was assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), with higher scores representing poorer behaviour. The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, Perth, Western Australia. Eight hundred and thirty-six males and females aged between 13 and 15 years. Mean mental health score as assessed by the CBCL was 45.24 (sd 11.29). A high-quality breakfast consisting of at least three food groups was consumed by 11 % of adolescents, while 7 % of adolescents did not consume any items from core food groups on average over the 3 d period. The two most common core food groups consumed at breakfast in this population were dairy products followed by breads and cereals. For every additional food group eaten at breakfast, the associated total mental health score decreased by 1.66 (95 % CI -2.74, -0.59) after adjustment for potential confounding factors, representing an improvement in mental health score. These findings support the concept that breakfast quality is an important component in the complex interaction between lifestyle factors and mental health in early adolescence.
Nunez Lopez, Omar; Jupiter, Daniel C; Bohanon, Fredrick J; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S; Bowen-Jallow, Kanika A
Bariatric surgery represents an appropriate treatment for adolescent severe obesity, but its utilization remains low in this patient population. We studied the impact of race and sex on preoperative characteristics, outcomes, and utilization of adolescent bariatric surgery. Retrospective analysis (2007-2014) of adolescent bariatric surgery using the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database, a national database that collects bariatric surgical care data. We assessed the relationships between baseline characteristics and outcomes (weight loss and remission of obesity-related conditions [ORCs]). Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and U.S. census data, we calculated the ratio of severe obesity and bariatric procedures among races and determined the ratio of ratios to assess for disparities. About 1,539 adolescents underwent bariatric surgery. Males had higher preoperative body mass index (BMI; 51.8 ± 10.5 vs. 47.1 ± 8.7, p adolescents underwent bariatric surgery at a higher proportion than blacks and Hispanics (2.5 and 2.3 times higher, respectively). Preoperative characteristics vary according to race and sex. Race and sex do not impact 12-month weight loss or ORC's remission rates. Minority adolescents undergo bariatric surgery at lower-than-expected rates. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Specific behavioral problems appear during early adolescence, and they become more pronounced. Although these problems are universal in many aspects, cultural differences are also conspicuous. The author, in addition to analyzing the five studies in the Special Issue, addresses questions concerning the cross-cultural context. The analysis reveals…
Full Text Available Muluken Fanta,1 Seblewengel Lemma,2 Getu Gamo Sagaro,3 Mengistu Meskele3 1Wolaita Zone Health Department, Southern Nations Nationalities and People Region State, Wolaita Sodo, 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, 3School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia Background: Communication from parents on reproductive health (RH issues with their adolescent children plays a great role in preventing morbidity and mortality associated with RH. The majority of Ethiopian adolescents do not communicate on these matters with their parents. This study aimed to identify the factors that affect communication on RH issues between parents and high school and preparatory students in Boditi town, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia.Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the level of communication, and factors affecting communication between high school and preparatory students with their parents on RH issues in Boditi town.Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 10 to February 20, 2015 among high school and preparatory students in Boditi town. A multistage sampling technique was used to sample the study participants. Data were collected by using a self-administrated structured questionnaire, which was developed based on previous literature incorporating all variables to be assessed. Data were entered and analyzed through Epi Info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 16.0, respectively.Results: This study revealed that 40.70% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37.2%–44.2% of students discussed RH issues with their parents. Factors such as being a female student (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.42; 95% CI 1.00–1.95; being in the 10th grade (AOR =1.62; 95% CI 1.04–2.50; having a mother who was educated (able to read and write only; AOR =0.56; 95% CI 0.34–0.91, who had completed secondary education (AOR =0.43; 95% CI 0.22–0.80, or who had
Hickman, Nichole Erin; Schaar, Gina
Health care providers need to develop improved methods of educating adolescents. This study was developed to evaluate adolescents' responses to and satisfaction with an educational text message intervention to promote healthy behaviors, reduce the incidence of unhealthy behaviors, and prevent high-risk behaviors. Adolescent participants received weekly text messages regarding high-risk sexual behaviors, healthy dietary habits, exercise, drug, or alcohol use, and social issues. Results indicate adolescents learned something new, made a behavioral change, and overall liked the delivery of educational information via text message. This indicates long-term continuation of a text message intervention is a viable means to deliver adolescent health information, thereby improving an adolescent's current and future health status.
Full Text Available The project “Problemes négligés du système de santé au Niger” focusses on a core set of often-neglected issues that nevertheless have an overall negative impact on health system effectiveness in Niger. For example, poor quality maternal health services result from challenges related to the midwifery profession and from pressures from addressing the effects of illegal termination of pregnancy. Overall health system governance is undermined by weak management of human resources and health information systems as well as problems related to decentralisation of health care provision and dependence on external funding for health projects. LASDEL applies a rapid assessment and qualitative research approach to working with patients and health care professionals to identify the scale and characteristics of these problems. The project goal is to develop an evidence base to support tackling these neglected issues. Développer des recherches sur les « problèmes négligés » dans la gouvernance de la santé, et sur cette base contribuer à des réformes des systèmes de santé permettant une meilleure qualité des soins pour les populations vulnérables. "Develop research on "neglected problems" in the provision of health systems, and through this work, contribute to health system reforms, that provide better quality of care for vulnerable populations." As can be seen above, many of these issues relate to reproductive health and more generally to health issues of disadvantaged groups. Some issues are neglected for political or social reasons meaning that they are not recognised or acknowledged and in some cases are criminalised. Therefore there are profound issues of participant privacy, protection and even safety for this project. Data sharing therefore requires thoughtful anonymisation and selection. The project group is Francophone with limited English language knowledge and the researchers and the context is largely in French. In common with
Johansen, Anette; Rasmussen, Søren; Madsen, Mette
the mother's socioeconomic status and the included health behaviour measurements; however, adolescents from the lower socioeconomic groups had a higher risk of unhealthy dietary habits and adolescents whose mothers were unemployed had a significantly lower risk of drinking alcohol weekly versus all other...... adolescents. Not living with both biological parents, focusing on friends, and not being very academically proficient were associated with an increased risk of harmful health behaviour. Health behaviour varied substantially between school classes, especially for daily smoking, weekly alcohol consumption......AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the relative influence of school class on health behaviour among adolescents versus that of the family's socioeconomic status and individual factors among adolescents. METHODS: The material comprised 3,458 students in grades 8 and 9 in 244 school classes...
Ozlem Koseoglu Ornek
Full Text Available Background: Work and work environment have a critical influence on adolescent workers' health. They are subjected to more risks than adults. The aim of this study is to examine psychological health outcomes in adolescent workers in the areas of depression, somatization, anxiety, hostility, and negative self-concept, and to investigate any related factors. Methods: This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. Research samples were collected from adolescent workers between 15 and 18 years old attending a 1-day mandatory education course at vocational training centers, working 5 days per week in small enterprises. Data were collected using the following instruments: Brief Symptom Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Descriptive Characteristics of Children's Assessment Form. Results: The investigation covers 837 young workers, of whom 675 were males and 162 were females. The majority of the families had low incomes (68.1%. Overall, 33.5% of the adolescents had been hospitalized because of health problems. Their average weekly working hours were 78.1 ± 10.7. Almost 50% of adolescent workers scored above the mean average in the Brief Symptom Inventory, indicating serious pschological health symptoms.Those who scored high for hostility, depression, negative self-concept, anxiety, and somatization were between 45.4% and 48.9% of the sample. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the underlying factors: a perception of “feeling very bad” health conditions was 2.07-fold whereas the rate of “no annual leave” was 0.73-fold, and both were found to be effective on psychological problems. Conclusion: In this study, it seems likely that psychological health problems are the result of multiple adverse factors including working conditions, annual leave, and health considerations. Keywords: adolescent workers, child Workers, occupational health, psychological problems, social support
Jani, Nrupa; Vu, Lung; Kay, Lynnette; Habtamu, Kassahun; Kalibala, Samuel
Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents' vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants' increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression) was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65)) and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81)) from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51)) and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97)). For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 290% (AOR: 3.9 (1
Skundberg-Kletthagen, Hege; Moen, Øyfrid Larsen
To explore school nurses' experiences with and attitudes towards working with young people with mental health problem in the school health services. Worldwide, 10%-20% of children and adolescents are affected by mental health problems. When these occur during youth, they constitute a considerable burden and are one of the main causes of disability among adolescents. School nurses are at the forefront of care for children and adolescents, identifying pupils struggling with physical, mental, psychosocial or emotional issues. A qualitative, explorative study was performed based on open-ended questions in a cross-sectional study of 284 school nurses in Norway. Inclusion criteria were as follows: working as a school nurse in the school health services with children and adolescents between the ages of 11-18 years. A qualitative inductive content analysis was conducted. Three generic categories emerged: perception of their role and experiences with mental health: the school nurses acknowledge their important role in work with adolescents focusing on their mental health. Perception of their professional competence: the school nurses described a lack of confidence and unmet training needs concerning mental health problems. Experiences with collaboration: the school nurses requested more knowledge about inter- and multidisciplinary cooperation regarding follow-up of pupils with mental health problems. The school nurses lacked knowledge and confidence in respect of working with children and adolescents suffering from mental health problems. This may be a barrier to giving pupils adequate aid. Nurses need to acquire more knowledge about mental health problems among children and adolescents as this is a growing public health issue. Educational programmes for school nurses need to be revised to achieve this. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wadsworth, Pamela; Records, Kathie
To review the research findings for mental and physical health outcomes and health behaviors of African American women and adolescents after sexual assault. Searches of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and PubMed from January 2001 through May 2012 using the terms Blacks, African Americans, sexual abuse, sexual offenses, and rape. Criteria for inclusion included (a) results of primary research conducted in the United States and published in English, (b) African American females age 13 and older, (c) sexual assault or sexual abuse reported as distinct from other types of abuse, and (d) health status as an outcome variable. Twenty-one publications met inclusion criteria. Articles were reviewed for the mental and physical health and health behavior outcomes associated with sexual assault of African American women and adolescents. Sexual assault was associated with increased risk of poor mental and physical health outcomes in the general population of women and adolescents. There was an increased risk of unhealthy behaviors (e.g., drinking, drug use, risky sexual behaviors) for all women and adolescents, with the highest risk reported for African American women and adolescents. Help seeking from family and friends demonstrated conflicting results. Cumulative effects of repeated assaults appear to worsen health outcomes. Sexual assault has significant effects on the physical and mental health and health behaviors of women and adolescents in the general population. Less evidence is available for differences among African American women and adolescents. More research is needed to understand the influence of race on women's and adolescents' responses to assault. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Gwon, Seok Hyun; DeGuzman, Pamela B.; Kulbok, Pamela A.; Jeong, Suyong
Adolescent smoking prevention is an important issue in health care. This literature review describes the theoretical concept of ecological model for adolescent smoking and tobacco retailers and summarizes previous studies on the association between the density and proximity of tobacco retailers and adolescent smoking. We reviewed nine studies on…
Schoenfelder, Erin; Moreno, Megan; Wilner, Molly; Whitlock, Kathryn B; Mendoza, Jason A
Physical activity (PA) reduces symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); interventions to increase PA may improve functioning and health for adolescents with ADHD. Mobile health (mHealth) technology and social media constitute promising interactive modalities for engaging adolescents-who are at highest risk for ADHD treatment drop-out-in interventions to increase PA. The current pilot study evaluated feasibility and acceptability of an innovative intervention incorporating an mHealth-linked wearable activity tracker (Fitbit Flex) and a Facebook group to increase PA among adolescents with ADHD. 11 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (age 14-18, m = 15.5; 54% female) participated in a 4-week trial utilizing the Fitbit Flex in conjunction with (1) weekly personalized step count goals (2) social support through a Facebook group and (3) daily text messages about PA. The study took place in the greater Seattle, Washington area in the fall of 2015. Adolescents completed online surveys twice per week to rate their ADHD symptoms and positive and negative mood states, and parents rated adolescent ADHD symptoms weekly. Participants were adherent to the study protocol and acceptability of the intervention was high. Linear mixed models indicated that participants significantly increased their average weekly steps over the course of the study and demonstrated improvements in both adolescent and parent-reported ADHD Inattentive symptoms. Results indicate that this mHealth intervention is engaging and promising for increasing PA among adolescents with ADHD, and warrant further study. Implications for improving ADHD symptoms and overall functioning for this undertreated population are discussed.
Saskia Y. M. Mérelle; Annet M. Kleiboer; Miriam Schotanus; Theresia L. M. Cluitmans; Cornelia M. Waardenburg; Danielle Kramer; Dike van de Mheen; Antonius J. van Rooij
markdownabstract_Objective:_ Problematic video-gaming or social media use may seriously affect adolescents’ health status. However, it is not very well known which health-related problems are most strongly related to these issues. To inform the development of prevention and intervention strategies, this study aims to gain a better understanding of the healthrelated problems and demographical factors associated with problematic video-gaming or social media use in early adolescence. _Method:_ A...
Background The use of computers has increased among adolescents, as have musculoskeletal symptoms. There is evidence that these symptoms can be reduced through an ergonomics approach and through education. The purpose of this study was to examine where adolescents had received ergonomic instructions related to computer use, and whether receiving these instructions was associated with a reduced prevalence of computer-associated health complaints. Methods Mailed survey with nationally representative sample of 12 to 18-year-old Finns in 2001 (n = 7292, response rate 70%). In total, 6961 youths reported using a computer. We tested the associations of computer use time and received ergonomic instructions (predictor variables) with computer-associated health complaints (outcome variables) using logistic regression analysis. Results To prevent computer-associated complaints, 61.2% reported having been instructed to arrange their desk/chair/screen in the right position, 71.5% to take rest breaks. The older age group (16-18 years) reported receiving instructions or being self-instructed more often than the 12- to 14-year-olds (p ergonomic instructions on how to prevent computer-related musculoskeletal problems fail to reach a substantial number of children. Furthermore, the reported sources of instructions vary greatly in terms of reliability. PMID:20064250
Byck, Gayle R; Bolland, John; Dick, Danielle; Swann, Gregory; Henry, David; Mustanski, Brian
This study examined whether relocating from a high-poverty neighborhood to a lower poverty neighborhood as part of a federal housing relocation program (HOPE VI; Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere) had effects on adolescent mental and behavioral health compared to adolescents consistently living in lower poverty neighborhoods. Sociodemographic, risk behavior, and neighborhood data were collected from 592 low-income, primarily African-American adolescents and their primary caregivers. Structured psychiatric interviews were conducted with adolescents. Prerelocation neighborhood, demographic, and risk behavior data were also included. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to test associations between neighborhood variables and risk outcomes. HLM was used to test whether the effect of neighborhood relocation and neighborhood characteristics might explain differences in sexual risk taking, substance use, and mental health outcomes. Adolescents who relocated of HOPE VI neighborhoods (n = 158) fared worse than control group participants (n = 429) on most self-reported mental health outcomes. The addition of subjective neighborhood measures generally did not substantively change these results. Our findings suggest that moving from a high-poverty neighborhood to a somewhat lower poverty neighborhood is not associated with better mental health and risk behavior outcomes in adolescents. The continued effects of having grown up in a high-poverty neighborhood, the small improvements in their new neighborhoods, the comparatively short length of time they lived in their new neighborhood, and/or the stress of moving appears to worsen most of the mental health outcomes of HOPE VI compared to control group participants who consistently lived in the lower poverty neighborhoods. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L; Skinner, Timothy
Longitudinal research on the links between intelligence and health behaviors among adolescents is rare. We report longitudinal data in which we assessed the relationships between intelligence as assessed in Grade 7 and consequential health outcomes in Grade 11. The mean age of respondents (N=420;...
Chaisson, Nicole; Shore, William B
Adolescence is marked by complex physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development, which can be stressful for families and adolescents. Before the onset of puberty, providers should clearly lay the groundwork for clinical care and office visits during the adolescent years. This article addresses the guidelines and current legal standards for confidentiality in adolescent care, the most frequently used psychosocial screening tools, and current recommendations for preventive health services and immunizations. Through the creation of teen-friendly clinics, primary care providers are well positioned to offer guidance and support to teens and their parents during this time of transition and growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Davis, Laurel; Shlafer, Rebecca J.
Reliable information about children of incarcerated people is difficult to obtain, and major gaps exist in our understanding of their well-being. This study aims to determine whether adolescents with incarcerated parents report higher levels of mental health problems than those without an incarcerated parent, and whether the relationship between parental incarceration and adolescent mental health is moderated by parent-child relationships. Using a statewide survey from one US state, we compar...
Theodoratos, Oreste; McPherson, Lyn; Franklin, Catherine; Tonge, Bruce; Einfeld, Stewart; Lennox, Nicholas; Ware, Robert S
Adolescents with intellectual disability have increased rates of psychopathology compared with their typically developing peers and present to hospital more frequently for ambulant conditions. The aim of this study is to describe the psychopathology and related characteristics of a sample of adolescents with intellectual disability who presented to general hospital services. We investigated a cohort of adolescents with intellectual disability in South East Queensland, Australia between January 2006 and June 2010. Demographic and clinical data were obtained via mailed questionnaires and from general practice notes. Psychopathology was measured with the Short Form of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. Of 98 individuals presenting to hospital, 71 (72.5%) had significant levels of psychopathology. Unknown aetiology for the intellectual disability was associated with presence of problem behaviours. Adolescents with more severe intellectual disability were more likely to have major problem behaviours. Co-morbid physical health issues were not associated with psychopathology. Only 12 (12.1%) adolescents had undergone specialized mental health intervention. The general hospital environment may offer opportunities for liaison psychiatry services to screen and provide management expertise for adolescent individuals with intellectual disability presenting for physical health issues.
Aimée, N.R.; van Wijk, A.J.; Maltz, M.; Varjão, M.M.; Mestrinho, H.D.; Carvalho, J.C.
Objective: This study aimed to assess the extent to which dental caries and fluorosis, in addition to sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants, impact the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of adolescents. Methods: All adolescents attending from sixth to eighth grades in the
Duke, Naomi N; Scal, Peter B
To examine the relationship between having a usual source of care, family centered care, and transition counseling for adolescents with special health care needs. Data are from 18,198 parents/guardians, of youth aged 12-17 years, who participated in the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs. Linear and logistic regression models were used to define relationships between parent report of identification of a usual place and provider of medical care for their child and counseling on four transition issues: transfer to adult providers, review of future health needs, maintaining health insurance in adulthood, and youth taking responsibility for care. The direct mediating effect of family centered care was evaluated. Youth having a usual source of care (vs. not) were more likely to receive counseling on future health needs (47.4 vs. 33.6%, P needs (56.3 vs. 39.6%, P needs and 94.9% of the effect of a usual source of care on encouragement to take responsibility for care. Study findings support the development of health care delivery models focusing on family centered care to the same degree as other health care access issues.
Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; Joosten-van Zwanenburg, Evelien; van As, Els; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra; Raat, Hein
To promote well-being and health behaviors among adolescents, 2 interventions were implemented at 12 secondary schools. Adolescents in the E-health4Uth group received Web-based tailored messages focused on their health behaviors and well-being. Adolescents in the E-health4Uth and consultation group received the same tailored messages, but were subsequently referred to a school nurse for a consultation if they were at risk of mental health problems. This study evaluated the effect of E-health4Uth and E-health4Uth and consultation on well-being (ie, mental health status and health-related quality of life) and health behaviors (ie, alcohol and drug use, smoking, safe sex). A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among third- and fourth-year secondary school students (mean age 15.9, SD 0.69). School classes (clusters) were randomly assigned to (1) E-health4Uth group, (2) E-health4Uth and consultation group, or (3) control group (ie, care as usual). Adolescents completed a questionnaire at baseline and at 4-month follow-up assessing alcohol consumption, smoking, drug use, condom use, mental health via the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Youth Self Report (YSR; only measured at follow-up), and health-related quality of life. Multilevel logistic, ordinal, and linear regression analyses were used to reveal differences in health behavior and well-being between the intervention groups and the control group at follow-up. Subsequently, it was explored whether demographics moderated the effects. Data from 1256 adolescents were analyzed. Compared to the control intervention, the E-health4Uth intervention, as a standalone intervention, showed minor positive results in health-related quality of life (B=2.79, 95% CI 0.72-4.87) and condom use during intercourse among adolescents of Dutch ethnicity (OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.71-7.55) not replicated in the E-health4Uth and consultation group. The E-health4Uth and consultation intervention showed minor
Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko
Although it seems evident that attention should be paid to risky sexual behaviors and their association with mental health among young people, this topic has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study aims to explore the relationship between sexual risk behaviors and mental health among adolescents. The participants were 251 adolescents in a juvenile detention facility (221 males and 31 females) as the "delinquent" group and 367 high school students (167 males and 200 females) as the "non-delinquent" group. A questionnaire including the Kessler 10, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale was employed to measure mental health status as well as sexual risk behaviors, suicidal ideation/attempts, and abuse history. Having a history of sexual abuse or of physical abuse was associated with age when one first had sex among males with delinquent behaviors, while same tendency was observed among males without delinquent behaviors. Among the female with delinquent behaviors group, past abuse history was significantly associated with higher number of sex partners. In the non-delinquent group, better mental health among males and, contrarily, worse mental health among females were associated with having more sex partners. The results highlight the importance of addressing abuse history among females and males. Given that poor mental health status in the adolescents was associated with risky sexual behaviors, adolescents are a vulnerable group that requires attention in terms of sexual and reproductive health that integrates mental health and psychosocial components. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Clark, Maria
'Globalisation' is the term used to describe the increasing economic and social interdependence between countries. Shifting patterns of health and disease are associated with globalisation. Global health refers to a health issue that is not contained geographically and that single countries cannot address alone. In response to globalisation and global health issues, nurses practise in new and emerging transnational contexts. Therefore, it is important that nurses respond proactively to these changes and understand the effects of globalisation on health worldwide. This article aims to increase nurses' knowledge of, and confidence in, this important area of nursing practice.
Meyer, Sarah R; Steinhaus, Mara; Bangirana, Clare; Onyango-Mangen, Patrick; Stark, Lindsay
Family-level predictors, including caregiver depression, are considered important influences on adolescent mental health. Adolescent depression and anxiety in refugee settings is known to be a significant public health concern, yet there is very limited literature from humanitarian settings focusing on the relationship between caregiver mental health and adolescent mental health. In the context of a larger study on child protection outcomes in refugee settings, researchers explored the relationship between caregiver depression and adolescent mental health in two refugee settlements, Kiryandongo and Adjumani, in Uganda. Adolescents between 13 and 17 and their caregivers participated in a household survey, which included measures of adolescent anxiety and depression, and caregiver depression. Analysis was conducted using multiple logistic regression models, and results were reported for the full sample and for each site separately. In Kiryandongo, a one-unit increase in a caregiver's depression score tripled the odds that the adolescent would have high levels of anxiety symptoms (AOR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.1), while in Adjumani, caregiver depression did not remain significant in the final model. Caregiver depression, gender and exposure to violence were all associated with higher symptoms of adolescent depression in both sites and the full sample, for example, a one unit increase in caregiver depression more than tripled the odds of higher levels of symptoms of adolescent depression (AOR: 3.6, 95% CI: 2.0, 6.2). Caregiver depression is a consistently significantly associated with adverse mental health outcomes for adolescents in this study. Adolescent well-being is significantly affected by caregiver mental health in this refugee context. Child protection interventions in humanitarian contexts do not adequately address the influence of caregivers' mental health, and there are opportunities to integrate child protection programming with prevention and treatment of
... Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Health Issues Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... it Email Print Do cell phones pose a health hazard? Many people are concerned that cell phone ...
Pearson, Natalie; Atkin, Andrew J; Biddle, Stuart JH; Gorely, Trish; Edwardson, Charlotte
Background The potential synergistic effects of multiple dietary and physical activity behaviours on the risk of chronic conditions and health outcomes is a key issue for public health. This study examined the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple health behaviours among a sample of adolescents in the UK. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12–16 years (49% boys). Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption. The prevalence of adolescents meeting the physical activity (≥ 60 minutes moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day), fruit and vegetable (≥ 5 portions of FV per day) and breakfast recommendations (eating breakfast on ≥ 5 days per week), and clustering patterns of these health behaviours are described. Results Boys were more active than girls (p < 0.001) and younger adolescents were more active than older adolescents (p < 0.01). Boys ate breakfast on more days per week than girls (p < 0.01) and older adolescents ate more fruit and vegetables than younger adolescents (p < 0.01). Almost 54% of adolescents had multiple risk behaviours and only 6% achieved all three of the recommendations. Girls had significantly more risk factors than boys (p < 0.01). For adolescents with two risk behaviours, the most prevalent cluster was formed by not meeting the physical activity and fruit and vegetable recommendations. Conclusion Many adolescents fail to meet multiple diet and physical activity recommendations, highlighting that physical activity and dietary behaviours do not occur in isolation. Future research should investigate how best to achieve multiple health behaviour change in adolescent boys and girls. PMID:19624822
Muula, Adamson S; Siziya, Seter; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel
Mental health and injury are neglected public health issues especially in low-income nations. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury in the last 12 months. The study used data of the 2007 Djibouti Global School-based Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish associations. Of the 1, 777 respondents, 61.1% (63.2% males and 57.8% females) reported having sustained serious injury (SSI). Compared to participants who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied 3-9 days per month were more likely to have sustained serious injury in the last 12 months (AOR = 1.27; 95% CI [1.06, 1.52] for 3-5 days of bullying victimization per month, and AOR = 3.19; 95% CI [2.28, 4.47] for 6-9 days per month. Adolescents who were engaged in physical fighting were 47% (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI [1.40, 1.55] more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who were not engaged in the fighting. Meanwhile, adolescents who used substances (cigarettes, other forms of tobacco or drugs) were 30% (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.19, 1.42]) more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who did not use substances. Serious injury is common among adolescents in Djibouti, and we suggest that health workers attending to injured adolescents explore the patients' psycho-social environment. Further, we suggest longitudinal studies where reduction of substance use and bullying may be assessed if they have an impact in reducing serious injury among adolescents.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health and injury are neglected public health issues especially in low-income nations. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury in the last 12 months. Findings The study used data of the 2007 Djibouti Global School-based Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish associations. Of the 1, 777 respondents, 61.1% (63.2% males and 57.8% females reported having sustained serious injury (SSI. Compared to participants who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied 3-9 days per month were more likely to have sustained serious injury in the last 12 months (AOR = 1.27; 95% CI [1.06, 1.52] for 3-5 days of bullying victimization per month, and AOR = 3.19; 95% CI [2.28, 4.47] for 6-9 days per month. Adolescents who were engaged in physical fighting were 47% (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI [1.40, 1.55] more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who were not engaged in the fighting. Meanwhile, adolescents who used substances (cigarettes, other forms of tobacco or drugs were 30% (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.19, 1.42] more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who did not use substances. Conclusions Serious injury is common among adolescents in Djibouti, and we suggest that health workers attending to injured adolescents explore the patients' psycho-social environment. Further, we suggest longitudinal studies where reduction of substance use and bullying may be assessed if they have an impact in reducing serious injury among adolescents.
Reijneveld, S.A.; de Boer, J.B.; Bean, T.; Korfker, D.G.
We assessed the effects of a stringent reception policy on the mental health of unaccompanied adolescent asylum seekers by comparing the mental health of adolescents in a restricted campus reception setting and in a setting offering more autonomy (numbers [response rates]: 69 [93%] and 53 [69%],
Elisabeta Ioana Hiriscau
Full Text Available Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors.
Hiriscau, Elisabeta Ioana; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Wasserman, Danuta; Reiter-Theil, Stella
Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI) was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors.
Hiriscau, Elisabeta Ioana; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Wasserman, Danuta; Reiter-Theil, Stella
Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI) was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors. PMID:27187425
Full Text Available A survey of sleep schedules, sleep health, and the impact on school performance was conducted in 585 adolescents in a high school in China. A high level of early and circadian-disadvantaged sleep/wake schedules during weekdays was observed. Significantly shorter sleep duration on weekdays was reported ( P < 0.0001. Older teenagers slept significantly less than the younger teenagers ( P < 0.0001. Complaints of inadequate sleep and sleepiness during weekdays were prevalent. Night awakenings were reported in 32.2% of students. Students with a sleep length of less than 7 hours, complaint of inadequate sleep, or excessive daytime sleepiness during weekdays were more likely to report an adverse effect of poor sleep on performance. The present observations are qualitatively similar to those reported in our study in American adolescents, particularly with respect to Chinese adolescents exhibiting a similar sleep deficiency on weekdays. We concluded that sleep deficiency and sleep health problems were prevalent in the participating adolescents in China, and were perceived to adversely affect school performance.
de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Avanci, Joviana Quintes; Pesce, Renata Pires; Ximenes, Liana Furtado
This article reflects about the situation of mental health and violence against Brazilian children and adolescents, proposing a discussion about the need for public health policies including these extremely relevant issues in their priority agenda. In Brazil, the debate about this problem has occurred in a fragmented and not very consistent way. This article presents a non-systematic selection of epidemiological investigations on this subject conducted in Brazilian schools and communities. The great variety and prevalence of familiar and community violence and of mental health problems is pointed out and the methodological differences between the studies and the concentration of studies in the South and Southeastern regions of the country are emphasized. The article still highlights to the scarce service network for dealing with this kind of problem and the lack of concern with the prevention of mental disorders and promotion of mental health.
Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P; Faulkner, Guy E; Irving, Hyacinth M
To examine the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress in a school-based sample of Canadian adolescents. Self-reported data of demographics, weight status, physical activity, screen-time, diet, substance use, and psychological distress were derived from a representative sample of 2935 students in grades 9 to 12 (M(age) = 15.9 years) from the 2009 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Overall prevalence of psychological distress was 35.1%. Significant associations were shown between psychological distress and the following: being female, tobacco use, not meeting physical activity and screen-time recommendations, and inadequate consumption of breakfast and vegetables. These findings highlight the need for targeting greater physical health promotion for adolescents at risk of mental health problems.
Paukste, Ernesta; Harris, Neil
Alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATODs) usage among adolescents, particularly those living in lower socioeconomic communities, is a population health problem in Australia that requires innovative health promotion strategies. There is a growing recognition of the potential of arts-based approaches to engage youth in health promoting activities. This paper presents the process evaluation of the pilot VoxBox intervention that used rap to build adolescents' awareness of risks associated with ATODs. The VoxBox intervention was piloted in Logan, Queensland, at five high schools with 18 adolescents completing the intervention. Data collection methods included observation, focus groups, semi-structured interviews and a survey of adolescent participants. The intervention was well received by participants and stakeholders. Three factors characterising the project's successful engagement of adolescents were: participate - go with the flow, learning from the real deal and resourced to make some noise. In VoxBox, the emphasis on engaging adolescents in an activity of real interest that was appropriately resourced and delivered was central to credibility and success. SO WHAT?: The findings highlight the importance of interventions matching the interests of the targeted population group.
Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Beach, Steven R H; Kogan, Steven M; Windle, Michael; Philibert, Robert A
This study was designed to examine the prospective relations of harsh parenting during preadolescence, anger across adolescence, and a health phenotype at late adolescence among African American youths living in the rural South. A second purpose was to determine whether, for genetic reasons, some youths will be more sensitive than others to a harsh parenting to anger to poor health pathway. Participants were 368 youths (age 11.2 at the first assessment) who provided data on receipt of harsh parenting during preadolescence (ages 11 to 13), anger across adolescence (ages 16 to 18), and a health phenotype consisting of C Reactive Protein, depressive symptoms, and health problems at age 19. Youths were genotyped at the 5-HTTLPR at age 16. The data analysis revealed that (a) harsher parenting was associated positively across time with anger and poor health, (b) anger across adolescence also was associated positively across time with poor health, (c) anger served as a mediator connecting harsh parenting and poor health, and (d) the harsh parenting to anger to poor health pathway was significant only for youths carrying one or two copies of a short allele at the 5-HTTLPR. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that harsh parent-child interactions presage health through effects on emotion regulation, particularly anger. This mediational pathway pertained only to youths carrying a gene that confers sensitivity and reactivity to harsh family processes and the negative emotional states they occasion. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Tuinstra, J; Groothoff, JW; Van den Heuvel, WJA; Post, D
Socio-economic differences in risk behaviors in adolescence can be seen as a prelude to the re-emergence of socio-economic health differences in adulthood. We studied whether or not socio-economic differences in health risk behaviors are present in male and female adolescents in The Netherlands. The
... House to prevent employers from denying coverage of contraceptives on the basis of moral objections. Call for JAH Editor-in-Chief SAHM has opened a call for a new editor-in-chief of its official scholarly journal, the Journal of Adolescent Health (JAH). Applications are due December 15, 2017 , ...
Chen, Kevin H; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T
Internet gaming is a legitimate leisure activity worldwide; however, there are emerging concerns that vast numbers of gamers are becoming addicted. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) classified Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) as a condition warranting more clinical research ahead of formalizing it as a mental disorder. Proposed as a behavioral addiction, IGD shares many similarities in both physical and psychosocial manifestations with substance use disorder, including cerebral changes on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Among the gaming population, compared to females, adolescent and adult males demonstrate far more addictive internet gaming use in terms of screen hours, craving, and negative impacts on health, which have, in isolated incidents, also caused death. The current article draws findings from a scoping review of literature related to IGD as a means to raising awareness about an emergent men's health issue. Included are three themes: (a) unveiling the nature, impacts and symptoms of IGD; (b) conceptualizing IGD through neuroscience; and (c) treatment approaches to IGD. Afforded by these themes is an overview and synthesis of the existing literature regarding IGD as a means of providing direction for much needed research on gaming addiction and orientating primary care providers (PCPs) to the specificities of IGD in men's health. The findings are applied to a discussion of the connections between IGD and masculinity and the importance of recognizing how behaviors such as social isolation and game immersion can be maladaptive coping strategies for males.
Byford, M; Abbott, R A; Maughan, B; Kuh, D; Richards, M
Adolescent mental health problems are associated with a range of adverse outcomes in adulthood but little is known about the effects on adult parenting practices. This study aimed to examine prospective associations between adolescent conduct and emotional problems and subsequent parenting behaviours in adulthood. The study sample comprised 1110 members from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Prospective data were collected from teacher reports of conduct and emotional problems at age 13 and 15 years and adult outcome measures of parenting included intellectual environment, cognitive stimulation, coercive discipline, parental interest and parental aspiration. In regression models adjusted for the confounding effects of social background, cognition and education, adolescent conduct problems predicted coercive parenting behaviours in adulthood. The effects of adolescent emotional problems on the development of coercive discipline practices were explained by covariates. Likewise, the inability of parents who displayed conduct problems in adolescence to provide an intellectually stimulating home environment was fully explained by the adjustment for education. Adolescents who exhibit conduct problems are more likely to develop coercive styles of parenting.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite extensive use of self-rated health questions in youth studies, little is known about what such questions capture among adolescents. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore how adolescents interpret and reason when answering a question about self-rated health. Methods A qualitative study using think-aloud interviews explored the question, “How do you feel most of the time?”, using five response options (“Very good”, “Rather good”, “Neither good, nor bad”, “Rather bad”, and “Very bad”. The study involved 58 adolescents (29 boys and 29 girls in lower secondary school (7th grade and upper secondary school (12th grade in Sweden. Results Respondents’ interpretations of the question about how they felt included social, mental, and physical aspects. Gender differences were found primarily in that girls emphasized stressors, while age differences were reflected mainly in the older respondents’ inclusion of a wider variety of influences on their assessments. The five response options all demonstrated differences in self-rated health, and the respondents’ understanding of the middle option, “Neither good, nor bad”, varied widely. In the answering of potential sensitive survey questions, rationales for providing honest or biased answers were described. Conclusions The use of a self-rated health question including the word ‘feel’ captured a holistic view of health among adolescents. Differences amongst response options should be acknowledged when analyzing self-rated health questions. If anonymity is not feasible when answering questions on self-rated health, a high level of privacy is recommended to increase the likelihood of reliability.
Stefansson, Lilja S.; Webb, M. Elizabeth; Hebert, Luciana E.; Masinter, Lisa; Gilliam, Melissa L.
Background: Adolescents experience numerous barriers to obtaining sexual and reproductive health care (SRHC). Mobile Health Units (MHUs) can remove some barriers by traveling to the community. This pilot study developed Mobile SRHC through an iterative process on an existing MHU and evaluated it among adolescents and providers. Methods: Mobile…
de Wit, M; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Pouwer, F
Particularly in chronic conditions, monitoring health related quality of life (HRQoL) of adolescents in clinical practice is increasingly advocated. We set out to identify and review the clinical utility of available generic and diabetes specific HRQoL questionnaires suitable for use in adolescents...
Klemera, Ellen; Brooks, Fiona M; Chester, Kayleigh L; Magnusson, Josefine; Spencer, Neil
The aim of this paper was to examine if the multiple environments of the adolescent including family, peers, school and neighbourhood might function as protective health assets against self-harming behaviour during adolescence. The present study utilised data collected from 1608 respondents aged 15 years as part of the England WHO Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study. Multilevel modelling was undertaken using the package MLwiN (version 2.33) to investigate the potential domains and dimensions of family life, school culture and environment, and neighbourhood factors that may operate as protective health assets. The results indicated that while peer support did not appear to operate as a protective health asset in the context of self-harm, key dimensions of adolescent/parent interaction and adolescent experience of the school culture and their neighbourhood were associated with reduced likelihood of self-harming behaviours during adolescence. The Findings highlight the significance of belonging and connectedness as important constituent elements of protective health assets for young people. Interventions that address the multiple environments of the young person, may offer an effective means to reduce the levels of self-harm.
Shoshani, Anat; Nakash, Ora; Zubida, Hani; Harper, Robin A
This study aimed to explore the role of school engagement and the mediation effect of acculturation in predicting 1.5 and second-generation migrant adolescents' mental health and risk behaviors. Participants included 448 seventh to tenth grade Israeli students (mean age 14.50, 53% boys): 128 non-Jewish 1.5 generation migrant adolescents (children of migrants living in Israel), 118 second-generation migrants (children of migrants born and living in Israel), and an age-matched sample of 202 native-born Jewish adolescents. All participants completed a battery of questionnaires assessing mental health symptoms, engagement in risk behaviors, social adjustment, and school engagement. Both migrant adolescent groups also completed an acculturation questionnaire. Differences between groups in school engagement, mental health symptoms, and risk behavior were examined, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate the hypothesized mediating effect of acculturation. Findings revealed substantially higher levels of mental health symptoms (p mental health symptoms and risk behaviors-older participants engaged in more risk behaviors (p = .02), and females had elevated mental health symptoms (p = .007). Identification with the host country mediated the relationships between school engagement and mental health symptoms (ps .006 and .008) and risk behaviors (ps .001 and .004) in 1.5 generation and second-generation migrants, respectively. The results are discussed in reference to current theories and research, as well as practical implications for prevention and intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Gontijo, Daniela Tavares; de Sena e Vasconcelos, Anna Carolina; Monteiro, Rosana Juliet Silva; Facundes, Vera Lúcia Dutra; Trajano, Maria de Fátima Cordeiro; de Lima, Luciane Soares
Occupational therapy can contribute to sexual and reproductive health through health education. The purpose of this study was to describe an occupational therapy intervention aimed at sexual and reproductive health promotion in adolescents. Fifty-eight adolescents were involved in the study, before, during and after the interventions. Educative activities such as puzzles, storytelling, mime and board games were used, which occupational therapy faculty and students had constructed. The games were employed as mediators for gaining knowledge in sexual and reproductive health. Outcome was measured using a questionnaire, audio recordings and field diaries. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis. The results showed the adolescents' increased knowledge of sexual and reproductive health information immediately after the intervention. The thematic analysis was grouped into three categories: the adolescents' initial expectations regarding the project, reflections on the process experienced during the interventions and use of educational games by occupational therapists. The importance of rapport and dialogue was highlighted in the construction of interventions based on participatory methods. The absence of a longitudinal follow-up is a limitation in this study. Further research is important to systematically assess sexual health promotion strategies in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wong, Charlene A.; Merchant, Raina M.; Moreno, Megan A.
We focus on the potential of social media related to the health of adolescent and young adults, who are nearly ubiquitous social media users but difficult to engage with their health and relatively low healthcare utilizers. Opportunities to better engage adolescents and young adults through social media exist in healthcare delivery, health education and health policy. However, challenges remain for harnessing social media, including making a clear value proposition and developing evidence-based frameworks for measuring the impact of social media on health. PMID:25984444
Crossin, Rose; Cairney, Sheree; Lawrence, Andrew J; Duncan, Jhodie R
Abuse of inhalants containing the volatile solvent toluene is a significant public health issue, especially for adolescent and Indigenous communities. Adolescent inhalant abuse can lead to chronic health issues and may initiate a trajectory towards further drug use. Identification of at-risk individuals is difficult and diagnostic tools are limited primarily to measurement of serum toluene. Our objective was to identify the effects of adolescent inhalant abuse on subsequent drug use and growth parameters, and to test the predictive power of growth parameters as a diagnostic measure for inhalant abuse. We retrospectively analysed drug use and growth data from 118 Indigenous males; 86 chronically sniffed petrol as adolescents. Petrol sniffing was the earliest drug used (mean 13 years) and increased the likelihood and earlier use of other drugs. Petrol sniffing significantly impaired height and weight and was associated with meeting 'failure to thrive' criteria; growth diagnostically out-performed serum toluene. Adolescent inhalant abuse increases the risk for subsequent and earlier drug use. It also impairs growth such that individuals meet 'failure to thrive' criteria, representing an improved diagnostic model for inhalant abuse. Implications for Public Health: Improved diagnosis of adolescent inhalant abuse may lead to earlier detection and enhanced health outcomes. © 2016 The Authors.
Barger, Jordan; Vitale, Patty; Gaughan, John P; Feldman-Winter, Lori
To create a valid tool to measure adolescent resilience, and to determine if this tool correlates with current participation in risk behaviors and prior adverse childhood events. One hundred adolescents were recruited from primary care clinics in New Jersey for this cross-sectional study. A "7Cs tool" was developed to measure resilience using the 7Cs model of resilience. All participants completed the 7Cs tool, the Adverse Childhood Events Survey, and the Health Survey for Adolescents to identify current risk behaviors. Demographic and background data were also collected. To assess the validity of the 7Cs tool, Cronbach alpha, principal factor analysis, Spearman coefficients, and sensitivity analyses were conducted. The χ 2 test and ORs were used to determine if any relationships exist between resilience and prior adverse childhood events and risk taking behaviors. Participants ranged from 13 to 21 years old (65% female). Internal consistency was established using Cronbach alpha (0.7). Lower resilience correlated with higher adverse childhood events (P = .008) and Health Survey for Adolescents scores (P resilience was associated with increased problems in school (OR 2.6; P = .021), drug use (OR 4.0; P = .004), violent behavior (OR 3.7; P = .002), recent depression (OR 5.0; P resilience was associated with participation in exercise (P = .001) and activities (P = .01). The 7Cs tool is an internally validated tool that may be used to screen adolescent resilience and guide pediatricians' counseling against risk behaviors. Further studies will evaluate resilience-building interventions based on results from this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stikkelbroek, Yvonne; Bodden, Denise H M; Reitz, Ellen; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; van Baar, Anneloes L
The death of a parent or sibling (family bereavement) is associated with mental health problems in approximately, 25 % of the affected children. However, it is still unknown whether mental health problems of family-bereaved adolescents are predicted by pre-existing mental health problems, pre-loss family functioning, or multiple bereavements. In this study, a prospective longitudinal assessment of change in mental health following bereavement was done in a large representative sample from the 'Tracking Adolescents Individual Lives Survey' (TRAILS). This is a four-wave prospective cohort study of Dutch adolescents (n = 2230) of whom 131 (5.9 %) had experienced family bereavement at the last wave (T4). Family-bereaved adolescents reported more internalizing problems, within 2 years after family bereavement, compared to the non-bereaved peers, while taking into account the level of internalizing problems before the bereavement. A clinically relevant finding was that 22 % new cases were found in family-bereaved, in comparison to 5.5 % new cases in non-bereaved. Low SES predicted more internalizing problems in family-bereaved but not in non-bereaved adolescents. Family functioning, reported by the adolescent, did not predict mental health problems within 2 years. Multiple family bereavements predicted fewer externalizing problems. In conclusion, internalizing problems increase in adolescents after family bereavement in comparison to non-bereaved and these can be predicted by pre-loss factors. Awareness among professionals regarding the risks for aggravation of mental health problems after family loss is needed.
Baird, Sarah; de Hoop, Jacobus; Ozler, Berk
We investigate the effects of a positive income shock on mental health among adolescent girls using evidence from a cash transfer experiment in Malawi. Offers of cash transfers strongly reduced psychological distress among baseline schoolgirls. However, these large beneficial effects declined with increases in the transfer amount offered to the…
Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C
The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses. © The Author(s) 2016.
It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Nov 11, 2003 ... Department of Community Health and Primary Health Care ... percent approved of teaching sex education to adolescents in schools, 55.6% approved of contraceptive use by the ..... own biases in the light of scientific facts.
Recommendations are made to promote ethical integrity in conducting mental health research with adolescents. A balance is needed between protecting adolescents from exploitation and permitting access to benefits of research. Requiring parental consent for all research does not necessarily give effect to policy. For the ...
Zhang, Jixiang; Song, Jianwei; Wang, Jing
This study aims to define the characteristics of adolescents who have engaged in self-harm behavior and ascertain the risk factors. From January 2013 to January 2014, 4,176 adolescents from senior middle schools in Linyi, China, were administered four questionnaire surveys to ascertain the following: incidence of self-harm behavior regarding the frequency of different self-harm behaviors by group (never/one to five times/greater than five times in the last 6 months) and then comparing the self-harm behavior of the different subgroups; symptom self-check, comparing the differences between the adolescents with self-harm behavior and without in nine subscales (somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, fear, paranoid, and psychosis); Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List scores; and Egna Minnenav Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU) scores. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors of self-harm in adolescents. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was 27.60%; the occurrence of adolescent self-harm was closely related to their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU. Being female, an urban student, or an only child; having poor school performance or experiences of stressful life events, harsh parenting styles, or excessive interference; and poor mental health were the risk factors for adolescent self-harm. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was high, and their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU affected the occurrence of adolescent self-harm, which is an issue that needs greater attention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Coneus, Katja; Laucht, Manfred
This paper investigates the impact of early noncognitive skills on social outcomes in adolescence. The child's attention span, approach, prevailing mood and distractibility in early childhood may be crucial predictors for school achievements, health risk behavior, delinquency and autonomy as adolescent. We investigate this issue using a…
Marceau, Kristine; Ruttle, Paula L; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Essex, Marilyn J; Susman, Elizabeth J
Substantial research has implicated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes independently in adolescent mental health problems, though this literature remains largely inconclusive. Given the cross-talk between the HPA and HPG axes and their increased activation in adolescence, a dual-axis approach that examines both axes simultaneously is proposed to predict the emergence and persistence of adolescent mental health problems. After briefly orienting readers to HPA and HPG axis functioning, we review the literature examining associations between hormone levels and changes with behavior during adolescence. Then, we provide a review of the literature supporting examination of both axes simultaneously and present the limited research that has taken a dual-axis approach. We propose future directions including consideration of between-person and within-person approaches to address questions of correlated changes in HPA and HPG hormones. Potential moderators are considered to increase understanding of the nuanced hormone-behavior associations during key developmental transitions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mohammadzadeh, Marjan; Awang, Hamidin; Kadir Shahar, Hayati; Ismail, Suriani
This study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of depression, anxiety, stress and low self-esteem among institutional Malaysian adolescents. This cross-sectional descriptive study included 287 adolescents aged 12-18 years living in six selected orphan homes. Study's instruments included Socio-demographic questionnaire, validated Malay version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The findings revealed that 85.2, 80.1 and 84.7% of participants had depression, anxiety and stress respectively. Females were more likely to be depressed. Furthermore, anxiety was significantly associated with race and age but no significant associations between stress and the demographic factors were found. The study also showed that 70.8% of males and 69.2% of females had low self-esteem and the self-esteem was associated with depression, anxiety and stress.Therefore, mental health problems are very common among adolescents in Malaysian orphanages. Results reveal the urgency of immediate actions to reduce the mental health