Rubley, Mack D; Haase, Amaris C; Holcomb, William R; Girouard, Tedd J; Tandy, Richard D
The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of low-frequency, low-impact plyometric training on vertical jump (VJ) and kicking distance in female adolescent soccer players. Sixteen adolescent soccer players were studied (age 13.4 ± 0.5 years) across 14 weeks. The control group (general soccer training only) had 6 subjects, and the plyometric training (general soccer training plus plyometric exercise) group had 10 subjects. All subjects were tested for VJ and kicking distance on 3 occasions: pre-test, 7 weeks, and 14 weeks. Data were analyzed using a 2 (Training) × 3 (Test) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on the factor test. No significant difference in kicking distance was found between groups at pre-test (p = 0.688) or 7 weeks (p = 0.117). The plyometric group had significantly greater kicking distance after 14 weeks (p plyometric group had a significantly higher VJ after 14 weeks (p = 0.014). These results provide strength coaches with a safe and effective alternative to high-intensity plyometric training. Based on these findings, to increase lower-body power resulting in increased VJ and kicking distance, strength coaches should implement once-weekly, low-impact plyometric training programs with their adolescent athletes.
Full Text Available Abstract This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, calorie intake and menstrual cycles is most important to prevent such stress fractures. Athletes as well as their coaches or parents therefore need to understand female athlete triad.
Bone mineral density and menstrual function in adolescent female long-distance runners - A prospective comparative study of bone structure and menstrual function in adolescent female endurance athletes from five secondary schools in Pretoria.
This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values.
This study was initiated to compare the performance of male and female distance education students of the University of Education, Winneba in Integrated Science. This was done by randomly selecting the cumulated grades of male and female students of 2002, 2003 and 2004-year groups in Integrated Science for analysis ...
Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Møller, Merete
BACKGROUND: Previous studies report varying rates of time-loss injuries in adolescent female soccer, ranging from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures or 2.5 to 3.7 per 1000 hours of exposure. However, these studies collected data using traditional injury reports from coaches or medical staff......, with methods that significantly underestimate injury rates compared with players' self-reports. PURPOSE: The primary aim was to investigate the injury incidence in adolescent female soccer using self-reports via mobile telephone text messaging. The secondary aim was to explore the association between soccer...... exposure, playing level, and injury risk. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study and cohort study; Level of evidence, 2 and 3. METHODS: During a full adolescent female soccer season in Denmark (February-June 2012), a population-based sample of 498 girls aged 15 to 18 years was included...
Guinn, Bobby; Jorgensen, Layne; Semper, Tom; Vincent, Vern
Investigated the contribution of body size, self-esteem, age, mainstream acculturation, and athletic status to concern or preoccupation about weight among female Mexican American adolescents. Students had low acculturation, high body fatness, and moderate self-esteem. There was little difference between athletes and non-athletes. Greater body size…
Covey, Linda A.; Feltz, Deborah L.
Relationships between self-reported past and present physical activity levels and self-image, sense of mastery, gender role identity, self-perceived physical ability, and self-perceived attractiveness were studied for 149 female high school sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Results are discussed in terms of adolescent emotional health. (SLD)
Chisholm, June F
Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed.
Blagrove, Richard C; Howe, Louis P; Cushion, Emily J; Spence, Adam; Howatson, Glyn; Pedlar, Charles R; Hayes, Philip R
Strength training activities have consistently been shown to improve running economy (RE) and neuromuscular characteristics, such as force-producing ability and maximal speed, in adult distance runners. However, the effects on adolescent (training on several important physiological and neuromuscular qualities associated with distance running performance. Participants (n = 25, 13 female, 17.2 ± 1.2 yr) were paired according to their sex and RE and randomly assigned to a 10-wk strength training group (STG) or a control group who continued their regular training. The STG performed twice weekly sessions of plyometric, sprint, and resistance training in addition to their normal running. Outcome measures included body mass, maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max), speed at V˙O2max, RE (quantified as energy cost), speed at fixed blood lactate concentrations, 20-m sprint, and maximal voluntary contraction during an isometric quarter-squat. Eighteen participants (STG: n = 9, 16.1 ± 1.1 yr; control group: n = 9, 17.6 ± 1.2 yr) completed the study. The STG displayed small improvements (3.2%-3.7%; effect size (ES), 0.31-0.51) in RE that were inferred as "possibly beneficial" for an average of three submaximal speeds. Trivial or small changes were observed for body composition variables, V˙O2max and speed at V˙O2max; however, the training period provided likely benefits to speed at fixed blood lactate concentrations in both groups. Strength training elicited a very likely benefit and a possible benefit to sprint time (ES, 0.32) and maximal voluntary contraction (ES, 0.86), respectively. Ten weeks of strength training added to the program of a postpubertal distance runner was highly likely to improve maximal speed and enhances RE by a small extent, without deleterious effects on body composition or other aerobic parameters.
This study examines individual and family characteristics of a population of 29 adolescent females charged with homicide or attempted homicide in the juvenile justice system. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the limited knowledge about adolescent females charged with homicide. Data were collected including the MAYSI-2, a risk classification instrument, and social, educational and family histories. Findings include high rates of reported substance use, delinquent peers, early indicators of mental health problems, and limited control and supervision by parents. The most common weapon used was a car and the most common victim was a known person. A comparison was conducted on girls charged with homicide during the commission of another crime or committed during a conflict. The conflict group was found to victimize friends and family significantly more often than the crime group. The crime group showed higher use of alcohol and drugs, used a gun more and had co-offenders at a higher rate. A profile was developed to describe the typical adolescent female homicide offender found in this study. Treatment recommendations and future research were discussed. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).
Sanik, Margaret Mietus; Stafford, Kathryn
Develops a model to predict the contribution adolescent males and females make to household work, based upon family characteristics, human capital of the adolescent, geographic location, and societal expectations. Adolescent females worked longer than males, regardless of birth order. Time use for household work was largely unaffected by family…
Juliana Hilario Maranhão
Full Text Available This article came from the monographic study “Resilience and Sexual Violence: a study of adolescents victimized by sexual abuse assistance” (MARANHÃO, 2008, in which was investigated the building resilience in victimized adolescents. Resilience is characterized as overcoming adversity, setting up as something procedural, promoted by the interaction of personal and collective protection, in particular context of risk or social vulnerability. We made the trimming about the meanings and feelings of sexual victimization within the family from the perception of adolescents between 12 and 16 years of age that received care in a Specialized Reference Social Assistance in 2010. The research is qualitative, having as theoretical-methodological referential the Historic-Cultural Theory. Data collection was used by semi-structured interview. We realize that the profile of the victims are set up by females, the beginning of sexual abuse occurred between childhood and preadolescence. The profile of perpetrators are men, adults, acting the role of the stepfather, father and uncle. Despite an abject sense, adolescents could not break the cycle of violence. Friends, extended family, and the work of professionals emerged as support for the redefinition of the abusive relationships.
Predictors of Contraceptive use Among Female Adolescents in Ghana. ... contraceptive use amongst adolescent girls in Ghana using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). ... (Afr J Reprod Health 2014; 18: 102-109).
Sands, Toni; Howard-Hamilton, Mary
Research on depression among gifted adolescent females is reviewed. A psychotherapeutic model drawing on established feminist therapy strategies is presented for counselors working with gifted adolescent females. The model emphasizes recognizing harmful effects of patriarchal society, supporting females in self-exploration, and pursuing nonsexist…
Chuah, Irene; McRae, Alexandra; Matthews, Kim; Maguire, Ann M; Steinbeck, Katharine
Requests for assistance in menstrual management and menstrual suppression are a common, emotive and sometimes controversial aspect of adolescent disability care. To review the uptake and outcomes of menstrual suppression among adolescent patients with developmental delay. A retrospective review of the medical records of adolescent females with intellectual disability referred for menstrual management to the Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology Clinic, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, for the three-year period between January 1, 2010 and January 1, 2013. Eighty adolescent patients with developmental delay were identified. A third (n = 28) of the patients were pre-menarcheal at first review with parent/caregivers seeking anticipatory advice. Of the post-menarcheal patients, the median age of menarche was 12 years (range 10-15 years). First and second line interventions were documented as were reasons for change where applicable. The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) was the most frequently used therapy (67%), and 19 patients in total had a levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) inserted (31%). Our study population differs from similar previously published groups in the marked absence of the use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate or the subdermal etonogestrel releasing device. As a paediatrician, it is important to address menstrual management issues and allay caregiver concerns with appropriate advice. Our study supports the use of the COCP as sound first line management in achieving menstrual suppression. The LNG-IUS appears to be a favourable second line option. Further investigation into longer-term outcomes and potential complications of device insertion is recommended. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Scheele, Dirk; Striepens, Nadine; Güntürkün, Onur; Deutschländer, Sandra; Maier, Wolfgang; Kendrick, Keith M; Hurlemann, René
In humans, interpersonal romantic attraction and the subsequent development of monogamous pair-bonds is substantially predicted by influential impressions formed during first encounters. The prosocial neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been identified as a key facilitator of both interpersonal attraction and the formation of parental attachment. However, whether OXT contributes to the maintenance of monogamous bonds after they have been formed is unclear. In this randomized placebo-controlled trial, we provide the first behavioral evidence that the intranasal administration of OXT stimulates men in a monogamous relationship, but not single ones, to keep a much greater distance (~10-15 cm) between themselves and an attractive woman during a first encounter. This avoidance of close personal proximity occurred in the physical presence of female but not male experimenters and was independent of gaze direction and whether the female experimenter or the subject was moving. We further confirmed this unexpected finding using a photograph-based approach/avoidance task that showed again that OXT only stimulated men in a monogamous relationship to approach pictures of attractive women more slowly. Importantly, these changes cannot be attributed to OXT altering the attitude of monogamous men toward attractive women or their judgments of and arousal by pictures of them. Together, our results suggest that where OXT release is stimulated during a monogamous relationship, it may additionally promote its maintenance by making men avoid signaling romantic interest to other women through close-approach behavior during social encounters. In this way, OXT may help to promote fidelity within monogamous human relationships.
The objective of this study was mainly to ascertain the knowledge and practice of oral health and to determine the prevalence of dental caries among female adolescents. It is a descriptive crosssectional study. The study population consisted of female adolescents in senior secondary schools in Umuahia. Two hundred and ...
Klem, John; Owens, Andrea; Ross, Angela; Edwards, Lawanda; Cobia, Debra C.
The authors present an existential framework for conceptualizing and intervening with adolescent females who are in violent relationships. Interventions involve addressing the adolescent female's anxiety associated with I. D. Yalom's (1980) constructs of meaning, death, isolation, and freedom. The goal of therapy is to assist the abused adolescent…
Krabbendam, A.; Colins, O.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van der Molen, E.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.
This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed
Acknowledging that the ADHD literature is shaped by male experiences, the purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of female adolescents with ADHD and the impact of the label in their family relationships. Four Greek adolescents aged 13-18 with a diagnosis of combined-type ADHD were interviewed through a purposive criterion…
reproductive health services. Despite these efforts, adolescents still face a number of sexual and reproductive health problems. This paper uses data from the 2003 and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys to examine changes in contraceptive use among sexually active female adolescents (15-19 years old).
Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Simmendinger, Nicole; Klinkowski, Nora; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Pfeiffer, Ernst
This study investigated current comorbid Axis I diagnoses associated with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) in adolescents. The sample included 101 female adolescents treated at a psychiatric unit for primary DSM-IV diagnoses of AN. 73.3% of the AN patients were diagnosed as having a current comorbidity of at least one comorbid Axis I diagnosis, with no…
A considerable percentage of youth in the Netherlands has been victimized by rape during adolescence. The present research shows that adolescence rape is correlated with high levels of psychological distress, neurobiological dysregulations and increased risk for problems with sexual and pelvic floor
Moran, Rachel L.; Zhou, Muchu; Catchen, Julian M.; Fuller, Rebecca C.
Abstract Determining which reproductive isolating barriers arise first between geographically isolated lineages is critical to understanding allopatric speciation. We examined behavioral isolation among four recently diverged allopatric species in the orangethroat darter clade (Etheostoma: Ceasia). We also examined behavioral isolation between each Ceasia species and the sympatric rainbow darter Etheostoma caeruleum. We asked (1) is behavioral isolation present between allopatric Ceasia species, and how does this compare to behavioral isolation with E. caeruleum, (2) does male color distance and/or genetic distance predict behavioral isolation between species, and (3) what are the relative contributions of female choice, male choice, and male competition to behavioral isolation? We found that behavioral isolation, genetic differentiation, and male color pattern differentiation were present between allopatric Ceasia species. Males, but not females, discerned between conspecific and heterospecific mates. Males also directed more aggression toward conspecific rival males. The high levels of behavioral isolation among Ceasia species showed no obvious pattern with genetic distance or male color distance. However, when the E. caeruleum was included in the analysis, an association between male aggression and male color distance was apparent. We discuss the possibility that reinforcement between Ceasia and E. caeruleum is driving behavioral isolation among allopatric Ceasia species. PMID:28776645
Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren
Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…
Renes, Susan L.; Strange, Anthony T.
This article explores factors influencing adolescent female substance use in rural communities. Self-reported data gathered from females 12 to 15 years of age in two northwestern communities in the United States showed an association among gender identity, peer and parental relationships, and substance use. Aggressive masculinity had the strongest…
Mulrey, Colleen R; Shultz, Sandra J; Ford, Kevin R; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Taylor, Jeffrey B
To identify relationships between self-reported limb preferences and performance measures for determining limb dominance in adolescent female basketball players. Cross-sectional cohort study. Forty adolescent female basketball players. Participants provided self-reported preferred kicking and jumping limbs, then completed 3 trials of a single-limb countermovement hop (HOPVER) and unilateral triple hop for distance (HOPHOR) on each limb. Each test was used to independently define limb dominance by the limb that produced the largest maximum vertical height and horizontal distance, respectively. Chi-square tests for independence identified a significant relationship between self-reported preferred kicking and jumping legs (χ = 7.41, P = 0.006). However, no significant relationships were found when comparing self-reported preference to measures of performance during the HOPHOR (χ = 0.33, P = 0.57) or HOPVER (χ = 0.06, P = 0.80). In addition, the 2 performance measures did not consistently produce the same definition of limb dominance among individuals (χ = 1.52, P = 0.22). Self-selection of the dominant limb is unrelated to performance. Furthermore, limb dominance, as defined by vertical jump height, is unrelated to limb dominance defined by horizontal jump distance. The results of this study call into question the validity of consistently defining limb dominance by self-reported measures in adolescent female basketball players.
Fujisawa, Takashi X; Nishitani, Shota; Obara, Tatsuro; Shinohara, Kazuyuki
Loneliness is one of the psychological characteristics in adolescence, during which sex hormones are elevated. The elevation of sex steroid hormones is known to sculpture and remodel neuronal circuits, which cause behavioral characteristics in adolescence. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between loneliness and sex steroid hormones, testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2). Fifty-eight adolescents (28 boys and 30 girls) participated in this study. The salivary levels of T and E2 were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Loneliness was assessed by the UCLA loneliness scale, which is widely used as a self-administered questionnaire. The results showed that Salivary E2 levels had positive relevance to loneliness in females, whereas there was no relationship in males. Salivary T level was not shown to be relevant with loneliness in either sex group. These findings suggest that E2 has gender specific effects on loneliness in adolescent females.
Che, Chong Chin; Coomarasamy, Jeya Devi; Suppayah, Balakrishnan
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia, about one in 19 women being at risk. This study aimed to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination (BSE), as well as knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer amongst female adolescents in Malaysia. Subsequently, relationships between demographic characteristics and knowledge level of BSE, risk factors for breast cancer and BSE practice were assessed. A descriptive, cross sectional survey was conducted using a sample of 500 Malaysian adolescents from the age of 15 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather socio- demographic characteristics, knowledge of BSE, knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer and BSE practices. The findings of this study indicated that female adolescents in Malaysia demonstrated an inadequate knowledge level of BSE and risk factors for breast cancer. Only 27.8% of female adolescents performed BSE regularly. BSE practice, knowledge of BSE and knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer showed significant positive relationships. The study highlighted the importance of planning and implementing breast health education programs for female students in secondary schools in Malaysia. It will also provide the health care providers an avenue to stress on the importance of imparting breast health education to adolescents.
Biro, Frank M; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Franko, Debra L; Padgett, Justina; Bean, Judy A
Self-esteem is a major "predictor" of satisfaction with life. This longitudinal study examined mean and individual changes in self-esteem, and how self-esteem is affected by race and body mass. Girls were recruited at ages 9 and 10 years, and followed to age 22 years. The Harter Self-Perception Profile was administered every other year, analyzing scores from the Global Self-Worth Scale, by age or developmental phase: ages 9-12 (I), 13-16 (II), and 17-22 (III). Regression modeling included main effects and interactions between age/phase, race, and body mass index (BMI). Self-worth was greater in black than white women, and greater with lower BMI in both races. In the model with age ("traditional model") (with race and BMI), significant variables included BMI (inverse relationship) and the interactions between age and race, race and BMI, and the triple interaction between age, race, and BMI. In the model with phase ("transitional model") (with race and BMI), BMI, and the interactions between BMI and race, and race and phase, were significant. For example, self-worth was generally lower in Phase II (middle adolescence) for white women. Self-esteem tracked significantly (correlation 0.22, p self-esteem in adolescent girls, race and BMI are important predictors of self-esteem. Self-esteem is consistent across the phases of adolescence, and comparable with other personality traits. As noted by others, lower levels of self-esteem may increase the vulnerability of adolescents to risky behaviors.
Full Text Available Abstract Sexual behavior of HIV-positive youths, whether infected perinatally, through risky behavior or other ways, is not substantially different from that of HIV-uninfected peers. Because of highly active antiretroviral therapy, increasing number of children, infected perinatally, are surviving into adolescence and are becoming sexually active and need reproductive health services. The objective of this article is to review the methods of contraception appropriate for HIV-positive adolescents with a special focus on hormonal contraceptives. Delaying the start of sexual life and the use of two methods thereafter, one of which is the male condom and the other a highly effective contraceptive method such as hormonal contraception or an intrauterine device, is currently the most effective option for those who desire simultaneous protection from both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Health care providers should be aware of the possible pharmacokinetic interactions between hormonal contraception and antiretrovirals. There is an urgent need for more information regarding metabolic outcomes of hormonal contraceptives, especially the effect of injectable progestins on bone metabolism, in HIV-positive adolescent girls.
Hogben, Matthew; Liddon, Nicole; Pierce, Antonya; Sawyer, Mary; Papp, John R; Black, Carolyn M; Koumans, Emilia H
The highest rates of sexually transmitted infections in the U.S. occur among adolescent females. One prevention strategy promoted for sexually active adolescents is condom use: therefore, influences on correct and consistent condom use are worth examining. Because interventions and observational research into predicting and increasing condom use have yielded mixed results, we hypothesized that a theoretically driven model incorporating female adolescents' perceptions about partner sentiments along with their own perceptions, intentions, and behaviours would improve condom use predictions. We also measured condom use errors and consistency for a more precise estimate of effective use than is common in the literature. In three structural equation models tested on a sample of 519 female adolescents, we found that intentions were associated with both correct and consistent condom use; that females' expectancy beliefs about condom use were associated with intentions; and that females' expectancy beliefs about partners' sentiments reduced the impact of their expectancy beliefs about condom use. The implications of these relations upon condom use correctness and consistency are discussed with respect to informing interventions, among other future research.
The author combines a literature review with results from her school-based research to argue that the anti-sex rhetoric surrounding sex education and school-based clinics inhibits the development of sexual responsibility and subjectivity in female adolescents. Current practices lead to increased victimization, teenage pregnancy, and dropout rates.…
Green, Vicki; And Others
Examined relationship of cognitive capacity, cognitive egocentrism, and experience factors to decision making in contraceptive use. Findings from 50 sexually active, unmarried female adolescents revealed that cognitive capacity and cognitive egocentrism variables, not experience with contraceptives, were significantly related to, and predictive…
Rubin, Roger H.
Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…
Recently Mokabane et al. asserted that black female periurban adolescents exhibited low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviour, and that there is a causal, unidirectional, inverse relationship between physical activity and adiposity. However, contrary to their conclusions, the data they presented ...
There has been a paucity of research on gifted individuals' perceptions of gender stereotypes. The purpose of this study was to explore mathematically gifted adolescent females' perceptions of gender stereotypes through a research design of the qualitative multiple case study involving the constant comparison and the Three C's analysis scheme.…
Krauser, Barbara Z.; Ballif, Bonnie L.
Achievement attributions of adolescent females in the masculine domain of mathematics were investigated in relation to self-schemas for gender, expectancy of success, and mathematics achievement. The most important findings revealed by multiple regression analysis were that mathematics achievement and the self-schema for masculinity predicted…
Geophagia, the deliberate ingestion of soil, is a culturally sanctioned practice common to the world's more tribally oriented people. Widely reported among pregnant and lactating women, geophagia is also practised by female adolescents (FA). This article presents preliminary findings on the incidence and reasons of ...
Background: In the era of HIV/AIDS epidemic understanding the nature of sexual debuts among female adolescents is critical in developing effective preventive strategies. Objectives: The objectives of the study where to investigate the specific age at sex-debuts, to identify the specific reasons for sex-debuts, and to examine ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although some mechanisms of habitat adaptation of conspecific populations have been recently elucidated, the evolution of female preference has rarely been addressed as a force driving habitat adaptation in natural settings. Habitat adaptation of fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra, as found in Middle Europe (Germany, can be framed in an explicit phylogeographic framework that allows for the evolution of habitat adaptation between distinct populations to be traced. Typically, females of S. salamandra only deposit their larvae in small permanent streams. However, some populations of the western post-glacial recolonization lineage use small temporary ponds as larval habitats. Pond larvae display several habitat-specific adaptations that are absent in stream-adapted larvae. We conducted mate preference tests with females from three distinct German populations in order to determine the influence of habitat adaptation versus neutral genetic distance on female mate choice. Two populations that we tested belong to the western post-glacial recolonization group, but are adapted to either stream or pond habitats. The third population is adapted to streams but represents the eastern recolonization lineage. Results Despite large genetic distances with FST values around 0.5, the stream-adapted females preferred males from the same habitat type regardless of genetic distance. Conversely, pond-adapted females did not prefer males from their own population when compared to stream-adapted individuals of either lineage. Conclusion A comparative analysis of our data showed that habitat adaptation rather than neutral genetic distance correlates with female preference in these salamanders, and that habitat-dependent female preference of a specific pond-reproducing population may have been lost during adaptation to the novel environmental conditions of ponds.
Full Text Available Active commuting could contribute to increasing physical activity. The objective of this study was to characterise patterns of active commuting to and from schools in children and adolescents in Chile. A total of 453 Chilean children and adolescents aged between 10 and 18 years were included in this study. Data regarding modes of commuting and commuting distance was collected using a validated questionnaire. Commuting mode was classified as active commuting (walking and/or cycling or non-active commuting (car, motorcycle and/or bus. Commuting distance expressed in kilometres was categorised into six subgroups (0 to 0.5, 0.6 to 1, 1.1 to 2, 2.1 to 3, 3.1 to 5 and >5 km. Car commuting was the main mode for children (to school 64.9%; from school 51.2% and adolescents (to school 50.2%; from school 24.7%. Whereas public bus commuting was the main transport used by adolescents to return from school. Only 11.0% and 24.8% of children and adolescents, respectively, walk to school. The proportion of children and adolescents who engage in active commuting was lower in those covering longer distances compared to a short distance. Adolescents walked to and from school more frequently than children. These findings show that non-active commuting was the most common mode of transport and that journey distances may influence commuting modes in children and adolescents.
Latka, Mary H.; Kapadia, Farzana; Fortin, Princess
Data on adolescents' views regarding the female condom are limited. We conducted seven single-gender focus groups with 47 New York City boys and girls aged 15-20 years (72% African American; 43% ever on public assistance; 72% sexually active; 25% had either been pregnant or fathered a pregnancy). Conceptual mapping was performed by participants to…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of Open Distance Learning (ODL) on the female access to basic education. The population of the study consists of all lecturers/teachers of ODL centres in Benin City, Edo State. Five ODL/Community Resource Study centres were identified and used for the study.
Stress fractures of the pelvis should be included in the differential diagnosis of female distance runners who have prolonged groin pain increasing with exercise. Detailed medical history, physical examination, blood tests, and radiological images are keys to reach certain diagnosis. Treatment plan should include risk factor analysis and progressive training programs.
White, Rachel E; Kross, Ethan; Duckworth, Angela L
Experiments performed primarily with adults show that self-distancing facilitates adaptive self-reflection. However, no research has investigated whether adolescents spontaneously engage in this process or whether doing so is linked to adaptive outcomes. In this study, 226 African American adolescents, aged 11-20, reflected on an anger-related interpersonal experience. As expected, spontaneous self-distancing during reflection predicted lower levels of emotional reactivity by leading adolescents to reconstrue (rather than recount) their experience and blame their partner less. Moreover, the inverse relation between self-distancing and emotional reactivity strengthened with age. These findings highlight the role that self-distancing plays in fostering adaptive self-reflection in adolescence, and begin to elucidate the role that development plays in enhancing the benefits of engaging in this process. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Nyarko, Samuel H
Adolescence is a critical stage in the life course and evidence suggests that even though contraceptive use has been steadily increasing among women in Ghana over the past years, contraceptive prevalence and determinants among female adolescents is quite lacking. This paper examines the prevalence and correlates of contraceptive use among female adolescents in Ghana. The paper used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health survey. Bivariate analysis was carried out to determine the contraceptive prevalence among female adolescents while logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the correlates of female adolescent contraceptive use. The study founded that female adolescent contraceptive use was significantly determined by age of adolescent, education, work status, knowledge of ovulatory cycle, visit of health facility and marital status. This has implications for adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes in Ghana. It is therefore essential to intensify girl child education and strengthen the provision of family planning information and services for female adolescents in the country.
De Silva, Nirupama K
Breast development in the female is a process that becomes noticeable during puberty, and defines a girl's transition into adulthood. Various conditions can disrupt or alter the normal development, which may lead to abnormal breast changes and features. Further, the finding of a breast mass in adolescence can be unsettling to the patient and her family. While the majority of these breast changes and/or masses tend to be benign and self-limited, the appropriate evaluation is always warranted. This chapter will focus on the normal and abnormal development of breasts. We will also discuss the evaluation and management of breast masses that can be found in the adolescent female. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wren, Tishya A L; Mueske, Nicole M; Brophy, Christopher H; Pace, J Lee; Katzel, Mia J; Edison, Bianca R; VandenBerg, Curtis D; Zaslow, Tracy L
Study Design Retrospective cohort. Background Return to sport (RTS) protocols after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) often include assessment of hop distance symmetry. However, it is unclear if movement deficits are present regardless of hop symmetry. Objectives To assess biomechanics and symmetry of adolescent athletes following ACLR during a single leg hop for distance. Methods Forty-six patients with ACLR (5-12 months post-surgery; 27 female; age 15.6, SD 1.7 years) were classified as asymmetric (operative limb hop distance biomechanics were compared among operative and contralateral limbs and 24 symmetric controls (12 female; age 14.7, SD 1.5 years) using ANOVA. Results Compared to controls, asymmetric patients hopped a shorter distance on their operative limb (P<0.001), while symmetric patients hopped an intermediate distance on both sides (P≥0.12). During landing, operative limbs, regardless of hop distance, exhibited lower knee flexion moments compared to controls and the contralateral side (P≤0.04) with lower knee energy absorption than the contralateral side (P≤0.006). During take-off, both symmetric and asymmetric patients had less hip extension and smaller ankle range of motion on the operative side compared with controls (P≤0.05). Asymmetric patients also had lower hip range of motion on the operative, compared with the contralateral, side (P=0.001). Conclusion Both symmetric and asymmetric patients offloaded the operative knee; symmetric patients achieved symmetry in part by hopping a shorter distance on the contralateral side. Therefore, hop distance symmetry may not be an adequate test of single limb function and RTS readiness. Level of Evidence 2b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 30 Mar 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7817.
Sneha Mary Varghese; Suresh Sukumar; Abhimanyu Pradhan
Introduction: Sacral colpopexy is the gold standard procedure for pelvic organ prolapse. During sacral colpopexy, various complications such as haemorrhage can occur. Careful dissection of presacral space is essential to minimize complications. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare patient age and Body Mass Index (BMI) with Computed Tomography (CT) measured aorta-sacral promontory distance. Materials and Methods: From 172 samples data such as age and BMI of female patients aged 18 ye...
Tanaka, N; Ueno, T; Takama, Y; Yamanaka, H; Tazuke, Y; Bessho, K; Okuyama, H
Breast FA is the most common breast tumor diagnosed in young women. Female renal transplant recipients on CsA have an increased risk of developing FA. However, reports of FA after LDLT have not been described. Our objectives were to determine the incidence of FA, analyze risk factors for FA, and evaluate treatment strategies in adolescent females after LDLT. A total of 18 female patients aged 10-19 years who underwent LDLT and survived at least one year after transplantation were enrolled in our study. The incidence of FA was 11.1%. To determine pre- or post-transplant conditions that are associated with FA after transplantation, the patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of FA: FA group (n=2) and non-FA group (n=16). There were no differences in mean age at LDLT, mean age at breast evaluation, and mean duration between transplantation and breast evaluation between the two groups. However, there was a difference in the immunosuppressive regimen between the two groups. The FA group was maintained on CsA, whereas the non-FA group was maintained on tacrolimus. CsA might be implicated in FA development in adolescent females after LDLT. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yungblut, Hope E; Schinke, Robert J; McGannon, Kerry R
Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004). This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes.
Hope E. Yungblut
Full Text Available Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004. This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes.
Silverman, Jay G
A large number of female sex workers are children. Multiple studies demonstrate that up to 40% of women in prostitution started this work prior to age 18. In studies across India, Nepal, Thailand and Canada, young age at entry to sex work has been found to heighten vulnerability to physical and sexual violence victimisation in the context of prostitution, and relates to a two to fourfold increase in HIV infection. Although HIV risk reduction among adult female sex workers has been a major focus of HIV prevention efforts across the globe, no public health interventions, to date, have addressed the increased hazards and HIV risk faced by adolescent female sex workers. Beyond the structural barriers that limit access to this vulnerable group, historical tensions between HIV prevention and child protection agencies must be overcome in order to develop effective strategies to address this large scale yet little recognised human rights and HIV-related crisis.
This study determined whether female adolescents who were attempting weight loss (dieters) differ from those who were not (nondieters) with respect to a set of psychosocial factors. The sample consisted of 2,536 normal-weight and underweight female adolescents who participated in the National Longitudinal Adolescent Health Survey. Psychosocial factors examined included depression (four measures), self-esteem, trouble in school, school connectedness, family connectedness, sense of community (two measures), grades, autonomy, and protective factors. MANCOVA revealed significant differences between dieters and nondieters. Self-esteem was the strongest contributing factor differentiating dieters and nondieters. These results have implications for health education and health promotion with regard to both primary and secondary prevention. Self-esteem building should be incorporated within the parameters of a comprehensive school health program and certainly should be a component in any nutrition education program aimed at preventing unhealthy dieting behaviors. By understanding the factors associated with these behaviors, it may be easier to identify individuals attempting weight loss despite being of normal or low body weight.
Choi, HyeJeong; Van Ouytsel, Joris; Temple, Jeff R
This study aims to investigate whether experiences of offline sexual coercion are associated with adolescent females' involvement in different types of sexting behaviors. It draws on data from 450 ethnically diverse female adolescents with an average age of 19.02 years (SD = 0.74) who were originally recruited in southeast Texas. The participants were asked about their experiences with sexual coercion, and their engagement in sexting behavior (i.e., sending, requesting, and being asked for a sext, and receiving a sext without giving permission). Logistic regressions were used to analyze these relationships, while controlling for age, ethnicity, education level, living situation, and sexting behaviors in the year prior of the study. Offline sexual coercion was significantly associated with sending and being asked for a naked image, as well as receiving a naked image without giving permission. The results suggest that sexting could function as an online extension of offline forms of sexual coercion. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eliane Rodrigues de Faria
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study anthropometrical and body composition variables as predictors of risk for metabolic alterations and metabolic syndrome in female adolescents.METHODS: Biochemical, clinical and corporal composition data of 100 adolescents from 14 to 17 years old, who attended public schools in Viçosa, Southeastern Brazil, were collected.RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, 83, 11 and 6% showed eutrophia, overweight/obesity and low weight, respectively, and 61% presented high body fat percent. Total cholesterol presented the highest percentage of inadequacy (57%, followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL - 50%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL - 47% and triacylglycerol (22%. Inadequacy was observed in 11, 9, 3 and 4% in relation to insulin resistance, fasting insulin, blood pressure and glycemia, respectively. The highest values of the fasting insulin and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance(HOMA-IR were verified at the highest quartiles of body mass index (BMI, waist perimeter, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percent. Body mass index, waist perimeter, and waist-to-height ratio were the better predictors for high levels of HOMA-IR, blood glucose and fasting insulin. Waist-to-hip ratio was associated to arterial hypertension diagnosis. All body composition variables were effective in metabolic syndrome diagnosis.CONCLUSIONS: Waist perimeter, BMI and waist-to-height ratio showed to be good predictors for metabolic alterations in female adolescents and then should be used together for the nutritional assessment in this age range.
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001 and T3 (p=0.001. The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04. The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year.
Stock, Suzanne L; Goldberg, Eudice; Corbett, Shannon; Katzman, Debra K
To determine the prevalence of substance use in adolescents with eating disorders, compare the results with a data set of Ontario high school students, and explore why adolescents with eating disorders do, or do not, use various substances. From January 1999 to March 2000, 101 female adolescents who met the DSM-IV criteria for an eating disorder were followed up in a tertiary care pediatric treatment center. They were asked to participate in a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire assessing substance use and investigating reasons for use and nonuse; 95 agreed to participate and 77 completed the questionnaire (mean age, 15.2 years). The patients were divided into two groups: 63 with restrictive symptoms only, 17 with purging symptoms. The rates of drug use between subjects and their comparison groups were compared by z-scores, with the level of significance set at.05. During the preceding year, restrictors used significantly less tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis than grade- and sex-matched comparison populations, and purgers used these substances at rates similar to those of comparison subjects. Other drugs seen frequently in the purgers included hallucinogens, tranquilizers, stimulants, LSD, PCP, cocaine, and "ecstasy." Both groups used caffeine and laxatives, but few used diet pills. Restrictors said they did not use substances because they were bad for their health, tasted unpleasant, were contrary to their beliefs, and were too expensive. Purgers generally used substances to relax, relieve anger, avoid eating, and "get away" from problems. Female adolescents with eating disorders who have restrictive symptoms use substances less frequently than the general adolescent population but do not abstain from their use. Those with purging symptoms use substances with a similar frequency to that found in the general adolescent population. Because the sample size for the purging group was small, firm conclusions cannot be drawn from our analysis
Choi, HyeJeong; Ouytsel, Joris Van; Temple, Jeff R.
This study aims to investigate whether experiences of offline sexual coercion are associated with adolescent females’ involvement in different types of sexting behaviors. It draws on data from 450 ethnically diverse female adolescents with an average age of 19.02 years (SD = 0.74) who were originally recruited in southeast Texas. The participants were asked about their experiences with sexual coercion, and their engagement in sexting behavior (i.e., sending, requesting, and being asked for a sext, and receiving a sext without giving permission). Logistic regressions were used to analyze these relationships, while controlling for age, ethnicity, education level, living situation, and sexting behaviors in the year prior of the study. Offline sexual coercion was significantly associated with sending and being asked for a naked image, as well as receiving a naked image without giving permission. The results suggest that sexting could function as an online extension of offline forms of sexual coercion. PMID:27814493
Thamotharan, Sneha; Lange, Krista; Ramos, Ashley; Fields, Sherecce
Pediatric obesity is a growing public health concern that contributes to high rates of negative long-term physical and mental health outcomes. Research focused on identifying risk for pediatric obesity has linked delay discounting, or an inclination for immediate rewards, as well as weight concern to individuals with greater Body Mass Index (BMI). The current study seeks to fill a void in the literature by examining how these two variables interact to promote higher BMI in female adolescents. Adolescent (n=60) females between the ages of 13-19years (mage=17.45, SD=1.74) of age completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Delay Discounting Questionnaire. A mediation model examined whether delay discounting accounted for the relationship between weight concern and BMI. Results indicate that in the current study weight concern was negatively related to delay discounting and delay discounting was negatively related to BMI. The overall model revealed that a partial mediation occurred [b=1.28, t(60)=4.92, pconcerns contribute to greater BMI. Nevertheless, the results indicate that prevention and interventions should identify females with high levels of both weight concern and impulsivity as an increased risk for experiencing pediatric obesity and long-term negative health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stancil, Stephani L; Miller, Melissa; Briggs, Holley; Lynch, Daryl; Goggin, Kathy; Kearns, Gregory
Rates of adult women receiving contraceptive provision when simultaneously prescribed a known teratogen are alarmingly low. The prevalence of this behavior among pediatric providers and their adolescent patients is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe pediatric provider behaviors for prescribing teratogens concurrently with counseling, referral, and/or prescribing of contraception (collectively called contraceptive provision) in the adolescent population. A retrospective review was conducted examining visits in 2008-2012 by adolescents aged 14 to 25 years in which a known teratogen (US Food and Drug Administration pregnancy risk category D or X) was prescribed. The electronic medical records were queried for demographic information, evidence of contraceptive provision, and menstrual and sexual histories. The data were analyzed using standard statistical methods. Within 4172 clinic visits, 1694 females received 4506 prescriptions for teratogenic medications. The most commonly prescribed teratogens were topiramate, methotrexate, diazepam, isotretinoin, and enalapril. The subspecialties prescribing teratogens most frequently were neurology, hematology-oncology, and dermatology. Overall, contraceptive provision was documented in 28.6% of the visits. Whites versus nonwhites and older versus younger girls were more likely to receive contraceptive provision. The presence of a federal risk mitigation system for the teratogen also increased the likelihood of contraceptive provision. Our data demonstrate female adolescents prescribed teratogens receive inadequate contraception provision, which could increase their risk for negative pregnancy outcomes. Although the presence of a federal risk mitigation system appears to improve contraceptive provision, these systems are costly and, in some instances, difficult to implement. Efforts to improve provider practices are needed. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Azadbakht, Leila; Hajishafiee, Maryam; Golshahi, Jafar; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad
The high prevalence of obesity in the pediatric age groups draws attention to lifestyle factors including diet and physical activity. Data on obesity in adolescents and their snacking behavior are conflicting. This study aimed to assess the association of snacking behavior and obesity among female adolescents in Isfahan, Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 265 female Isfahanian students who were chosen by systematic cluster random sampling. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire that included 53 food items. Snacking behavior was defined by healthy snack score in combination with the frequency of snack intake. Individuals who consumed more healthy snacks and those with snacking frequency of 4 times a day or more had significantly lower weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (p associated with a greater chance of being overweight, generally obese, and abdominally obese among adolescents (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-3.14, ptrend = 0.04 and OR = 2.10; 95% CI, 1.01-3.13, ptrend = 0.04, respectively). Frequency of snack intake was inversely related to overweight, general obesity, and abdominal obesity (OR = 3.23; 95% CI, 1.73-5.61, ptrend = 0.03 and OR = 1.84; 95% CI, 1.05-3.20, ptrend = 0.04, respectively). Healthy snack score in combination with frequency of snacking showed that those in the lowest tertile of snacking who consumed snacks less than 4 times/day had the highest risk of obesity compared to other categories (OR = 2.09, 95% CI, 1.11-3.20, p associated with decreased prevalence of overweight, general obesity, and abdominal obesity in adolescents. Further studies, in particular of a prospective nature, are required to examine this association in other populations.
Jandrić, Slavica Đ
Physical activity and sport can influence the extent of the presence of the postural disturbances in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of differences in the postural disturbances in female adolescents in relation to team handball training. This investigation involved 150 female adolescents with the average age of 13.4 ± 1.5 years divided into two groups (50 adolescents trained handball and 100 did non train it). The study determined a statistically significant difference in the total number of postural disturbances between the two groups of adolescents (p 0.05). Handball adolescents players have less postural disturbances than untrained adolescents. Flat foot is significantly less frequent in female adolescents handball players than in untrained ones. Findings obtained in this investigation can help us in planning continuous prevention, observation and care for untrained and trained team handball female adolescents with postural disturbances.
Jandrić Slavica Đ.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Physical activity and sport can influence the extent of the presence of the postural disturbances in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of differences in the postural disturbances in female adolescents in relation to team handball training. Methods. This investigation involved 150 female adolescents with the average age of 13.4 ± 1.5 years divided into two groups (50 adolescents trained handball and 100 did non train it. Results. The study determined a statistically significant difference in the total number of postural disturbances between the two groups of adolescents (p 0.05. Conclusion. Handball adolescents players have less postural disturbances than untrained adolescents. Flat foot is significantly less frequent in female adolescents handball players than in untrained ones. Findings obtained in this investigation can help us in planning continuous prevention, observation and care for untrained and trained team handball female adolescents with postural disturbances.
King, Bryn; Van Wert, Melissa
Placement into foster care is driven by a number of factors, many of which are associated with adolescent childbirth. Yet, there are few studies that identify the experiences and characteristics that predict adolescent childbirth among girls who spend time in foster care. A longitudinal, population-based data set was constructed by probabilistically matching California child protective service records for female foster youth to maternal information available on vital birth records for children born between 2001 and 2010. Rates of childbirth among girls in foster care after their 10th birthday were generated. Chi-square tests assessed differences and survival models were specified to determine the rate of childbearing across key characteristics. Among the 30,339 girls who spent time in foster care as adolescents, 18.3% (5,567) gave birth for the first time before their 20th birthday. At a bivariate level, significant differences (p foster care placement experiences. In the fully adjusted survival model, the highest birth rates were observed among girls who entered care between ages 13 and 16 years; had been in care for relatively short periods of time; lived in congregate care at the estimated date of conception; had a history of running away; and were Latina, black, or Native American. The results suggest that there are identifiable risk factors associated with early childbirth among girls in foster care, which can help determine the timing and location of reproductive health services to minimize unintended pregnancy and maximize adolescent health and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abdul-Rahman, Lutuf; Marrone, Gaetano; Johansson, Annika
Within the past one and half decades many efforts have been made to improve the availability and access to adolescent sexual and reproductive health services. Despite these efforts, adolescents still face a number of sexual and reproductive health problems. This paper uses data from the 2003 and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys to examine changes in contraceptive use among sexually active female adolescents (15-19 years old). The results show that between 2003 and 2008 there was a significant increase in the current use of any contraceptive method (from 23.7% to 35.1%, p = 0.03). It also indicates a shift from modern to traditional contraceptive methods. Traditional methods recorded about 60% (7.8 percentage points) increase as compared to 5.5% (2.6 percentage points) for modern methods. Also ever use of any traditional method recorded a higher increase as compared to any modem method. There was a slight decline 7% (4.4 parentage points) in the number of non-users who intended to use contraceptives in the future. On the whole the findings indicate increasing unmet need for modern contraception due to barriers such as limited access, cost and misconceptions about the effects of contraceptives.
Mifflin, Katherine; Chorney, Jill; Dick, Bruce
Adolescents with chronic pain often report inattention and poor memory. There has been little research on cognitive function in this population. The goal of this preliminary pilot study was to examine differences in cognitive function between adolescents with chronic pain to pain-free adolescents. All participants completed baseline assessments of pain, school absences, depression, anxiety, and sleep habits. Standardized neurocognitive tests were used to examine cognitive function with a focus on working memory and attention. Recruitment from the chronic pain clinic resulted in a female sample of 13 individuals (largely reflective of the clinical population). Pain-free age-matched and sex-matched individuals (n=12) were therefore also recruited as controls. Individuals with chronic pain had significantly lower working memory scores than controls. Differences were found between groups on the most difficult selective attention task and not on tests of sustained attention, divided attention, or attentional switching. In a stepwise regression with baseline characteristics entered in the first step, pain accounted for approximately 15% of the variance in working memory and medication score counted for 49% of the variance. This pilot study is the first study to examine differences in working memory and attention between participants with chronic pain and pain-free adolescents. Our findings suggest that chronic pain may negatively affect adolescents' working memory function and highlights the risk for cognitive difficulties and problems with educational progression in addition to negative health and social effects associated with chronic pain. The study provides a starting point for more research and has the potential to direct better identification and treatment of these cognitive deficits.
The mechanisms producing the musculoskeletal injuries were rapid, rotational movement (33.3%) and poor landing (26.6%) (p<0.05). Female adolescent touch rugby players experience a high prevalence of acute musculoskeletal knee and ankle injuries. Keywords: Touch rugby, musculoskeletal injury, female adolescents.
Coleman, Katherine; Mills, Bethany
This psychoeducational counselling group is designed to explore the many facets of the emerging female adolescent identity and foster a high level of self-esteem. According to Powell (2004) adolescence is a time, and even more so for females, which can be marked by many identity conflicts and low levels of self-esteem. As such, this 14 week…
Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela
The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…
Shannonhouse, John L; DuBois, Dustin W; Fincher, Annette S; Vela, Alejandra M; Henry, Morgan M; Wellman, Paul J; Frye, Gerald D; Morgan, Caurnel
Initial antidepressant treatment can paradoxically worsen symptoms in depressed adolescents by undetermined mechanisms. Interestingly, antidepressants modulate GABAA receptors, which mediate paradoxical effects of other therapeutic drugs, particularly in females. Although the neuroanatomic site of action for this paradox is unknown, elevated GABAA receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens can disrupt motivation. We assessed fluoxetine's effects on motivated behaviors in pubescent female hamsters - anhedonia in the reward investigational preference (RIP) test as well as anxiety in the anxiety-related feeding/exploration conflict (AFEC) test. We also assessed accumbal signaling by RT-PCR and electrophysiology. Fluoxetine initially worsened motivated behaviors at puberty, relative to adulthood. It also failed to improve these behaviors as pubescent hamsters transitioned into adulthood. Low accumbal mRNA levels of multiple GABAA receptor subunits and GABA-synthesizing enzyme, GAD67, assessed by RT-PCR, suggested low GABAergic tone at puberty. Nonetheless, rapid fluoxetine-induced reductions of α5GABAA receptor and BDNF mRNA levels at puberty were consistent with age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine and disruption of the motivational state. Whole-cell patch clamping of accumbal slices also suggested low GABAergic tone by the low amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) at puberty. It also confirmed age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine. Specifically, fluoxetine potentiated mIPSC amplitude and frequency at puberty, but attenuated the amplitude during adulthood. These results implicate GABAergic tone and GABAA receptor plasticity in adverse motivational responses and resistance to fluoxetine during adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
To examine the relationship between female adolescent self-esteem, decision making, and contraceptive behavior in multiethnic, 14- to 17-year-olds, residing on the Big Island of Hawaii. This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey design using a convenience sample of 98 female adolescents aged 14-17 who came to five different clinics on the Big Island of Hawaii for health care. Along with a brief demographic questionnaire, global self-esteem was measured by Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, decision making was measured by the Flinders Adolescent Decision Making Questionnaire, and sexual activity and contraception use was measured by a nonnormed Sexual History and Contraceptive Use Questionnaire developed for this study. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression, and correlations were used to analyze associations and correlations between age, global self-esteem, decision self-esteem, decision coping (vigilant and maladaptive), and contraceptive use for sexually active female adolescents. No significant associations or correlations were found between age, global self-esteem, decision self-esteem, decision coping (vigilance), and the decision to use contraception in sexually active adolescent females. There was, however, significant negative correlation (p skills and stimulating thinking around not only sexual issues but also on relationship and communication in adolescent issues may facilitate more competent decision making. Understanding the relationship between female adolescent self-esteem, decision making, and contraceptive behavior has contributed to the knowledge base about female contraceptive behavior. Gaining further insight into these relationships will help healthcare professionals provide counseling and health care to female adolescents.
Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Tucker, Christine M; Bengtson, Angela; Kupper, Lawrence L; McLean, Samuel A; Martin, Sandra L
The objective of this study is to examine the association between physical and sexual violence exposure and somatic symptoms among female adolescents. We studied a nationally representative sample of 8,531 females, aged 11-21 years, who participated in the 1994-1995 Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Female adolescents were asked how often they had experienced 16 specific somatic symptoms during the past 12 months. Two summary categorical measures were constructed based on tertiles of the distributions for the entire female sample: (a) total number of different types of symptoms experienced, and (b) number of frequent (once a week or more often) different symptoms experienced. Groups were mutually exclusive. We examined associations between adolescents' violence exposure and somatic symptoms using multinomial logistic regression analyses. About 5 % of adolescent females reported both sexual and non-sexual violence, 3 % reported sexual violence only, 36 % reported non-sexual violence only, and 57 % reported no violence. Adolescents who experienced both sexual and non-sexual violence were the most likely to report many different symptoms and to experience very frequent or chronic symptoms. Likelihood of high symptomatology was next highest among adolescents who experienced sexual violence only, followed by females who experienced non-sexual violence only. Findings support an exposure-response association between violence exposure and somatic symptoms, suggesting that symptoms can be markers of victimization. Treating symptoms alone, without addressing the potential violence experienced, may not adequately improve adolescents' somatic complaints and well-being.
Zebis, Mette K.; Thorborg, Kristian; Andersen, Lars L.
BACKGROUND: The high injury incidence during match-play in female adolescent football is a major concern. In football, males and females play matches with the same football size. No studies have investigated the effect of football size on injury incidence in female adolescent football. Thus......, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of introducing a lighter, smaller football on the injury pattern in female adolescent football. METHODS We conducted a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial including 26 football teams representing 346 adolescent female football players (age...... 15-18 years). The teams were randomized to a new lighter, smaller football (INT, N.=12 teams) or a traditional FIFA size 5 football (CON, N.=14 teams) during a full match-season. Acute time-loss injuries and football-exposure during match-play were reported weekly by text-message questions...
Huppert, Jill S; Biro, Frank; Lan, Dongmei; Mortensen, Joel E; Reed, Jennifer; Slap, Gail B
To determine if urinary symptoms or urinary tract infections (UTI) were associated with sexually transmitted infections (STI) and which history, clinical, and laboratory findings could distinguish these infections in symptomatic women. A cross-sectional sample of 296 sexually active females aged 14-22 years attending a hospital-based teen health center or emergency department were recruited. Genitourinary symptoms, medical and sexual history, and urinalysis results were recorded. STI was defined as a vaginal swab positive for Trichomonas vaginalis or urine nucleic acid amplification test positive for Neisseria gonorrheae or Chlamydia trachomatis. A urine culture with >10,000 colonies of a single pathogen was considered a positive UTI. In the full sample, prevalence of UTI and STI were 17% and 33%, respectively. Neither urinary symptoms nor UTI was significantly associated with STI. Further analyses are reported for the 154 (51%) with urinary symptoms: Positive urine leukocytes, more than one partner in the last three months and history of STI predicted STI. Urinalysis results identified four groups: (1) Normal urinalysis-67% had no infection; (2) Positive nitrites or protein-55% had UTI; (3) Positive leukocytes or blood-62% had STI; and (4) Both nitrites/protein and leukocytes/blood positive-28% had STI and 65% had UTI. Those without a documented UTI were more likely to have trichomoniasis than those with a UTI, and 65% of those with sterile pyuria had STI, mainly trichomoniasis or gonorrhea. Adolescent females with urinary symptoms should be tested for both UTI and STIs. Urinalysis results may be helpful to direct initial therapy.
Ramona C. Krauss
Full Text Available This paper investigated weight misperceptions as determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in body mass index (BMI among adolescent females using data from the National Survey of Youth 1997. Compared to their white counterparts, higher proportions of black and Hispanic adolescent females underperceived their weight status; that is, they misperceived themselves to have lower weight status compared to their clinically defined weight status. Compared to their black counterparts, higher proportions of white and Hispanic adolescent females misperceived themselves to be heavier than their clinical weight status. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis showed that accounting for weight misperceptions, in addition to individual and contextual factors, increased the total explained portion of the black-white female BMI gap from 44.7% to 54.3% but only slightly increased the total explained portion of the Hispanic-white gap from 62.8% to 63.1%. Weight misperceptions explained 13.0% of the black-white female BMI gap and 3.3% of the Hispanic-white female BMI gap. The regression estimates showed that weight underperceptions were important determinants of adolescent female BMI, particularly among black and Hispanic adolescents. Education regarding identification and interpretation of weight status may play an important role to help reduce the incidence and racial disparity of female adolescent obesity.
Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela
The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that those with higher symptoms of anxiety and who had tried cigarettes were significantly more likely to have been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Findings indicate that Chilean female adolescents are at risk of eating disorders and that eating disorders, albeit maladaptive, may be a means to cope with negative affect, specifically anxiety. PMID:22121329
Jenni A. Shearston
These data demonstrate the magnitude of adolescent hookah use, particularly among adolescents who use electronic or traditional cigarettes. Most strikingly, rates of female adolescent use have increased much more rapidly than has male use, and adolescent females are for the first time more likely to smoke hookahs than adolescent males in the US nationwide. These findings urgently call for better understanding of the changing correlates of hookah use, including polytobacco use.
Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang
This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.
Full Text Available This learning exercise challenges clinicians and dermatopathologists to consider the differential diagnosis of an unevenly colored solitary papule over the upper back of an adolescent female.
Storch, Eric A.; Masia-Warner, Carrie
This study examined the relationship of overt and relational victimization to social anxiety, loneliness, and prosocial behaviours in a sample of female adolescents. The Social Experience Questionnaire, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 561 girls in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh grades of an…
Kosson, David S.; Neumann, Craig S.; Forth, Adelle E.; Salekin, Randall T.; Hare, Robert D.; Krischer, Maya K.; Sevecke, Kathrin
Despite substantial evidence for the fit of the 3- and 4-factor models of Psychopathy Checklist-based ratings of psychopathy in adult males and adolescents, evidence is less consistent in adolescent females. However, prior studies used samples much smaller than recommended for examining model fit. To address this issue, we conducted a confirmatory…
Page, Randy M.
Investigated relationship between perceived physical attractiveness and frequency of substance use among 1,297 adolescents. Female adolescents who rated themselves as unattractive were more likely to use illicit psychoactive substances than those who rated themselves as average or attractive. Perceived attractiveness did not contribute to…
Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John; Theriault, Chantal; Cinq-Mars, Caroline
This study investigated self-harming behaviors in 149 female adolescent victims of sexual abuse, first, by determining the rates of nine types of self-mutilating behavior at intake and nine months later and, second, by investigating comorbidity of clinical correlates associated with these behaviors. The adolescents were divided into three groups…
Abrams, Laura S.; Stormer, Colleen Cook
Investigated the influences of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and ethnic peer group composition on awareness and internalization of socially sanctioned standards of appearance using the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Adolescence Questionnaire. Findings for 208 adolescent females highlight the importance of multiple ecological factors in…
Cullen Karen W
Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical environments in which adolescents reside and their access to food stores may influence their consumption of fruit and vegetables. This association could either be direct or mediated via psychosocial variables or home availability of fruit and vegetables. A greater understanding of these associations would aide the design of new interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between distance to food stores and restaurants and fruit and vegetable consumption and the possible mediating role of psychosocial variables and home availability. Methods Fruit and vegetable consumption of 204 Boy Scouts was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire in 2003. Participant addresses were geo-coded and distance to different types of food stores and restaurants calculated. Fruit and vegetable preferences, home availability and self-efficacy were measured. Regression models were run with backward deletion of non-significant environmental and psychosocial variables. Mediation tests were performed. Results Residing further away from a small food store (SFS (convenience store and drug store was associated with increased fruit and juice and low fat vegetable consumption. Residing closer to a fast food restaurant was associated with increased high fat vegetable and fruit and juice consumption. Vegetable preferences partially mediated (26% the relationship between low fat vegetable consumption and distance to the nearest SFS. Conclusion Distance to SFS and fast food restaurants were associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among male adolescents. Vegetable preferences partially mediated the distance to low fat vegetable relationship. More research is needed to elucidate how environmental variables impact children's dietary intake.
Lo, Denise Swei; Shieh, Huei Hsin; Barreira, Eliane Roseli; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta; Gilio, Alfredo Elias
Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a rarely reported agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in the pediatric population. In our retrospective 3-year study, S. saprophyticus comprised 24.5% of 106 isolates of UTIs in female adolescents 12-15 years of age who attended an emergency department. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of this etiology when empirically treating UTIs in female adolescents.
Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin
The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965...
Full Text Available In this paper, we explored the in-group and outer-group social distance towards sex workers and its relations to authoritarianism, social dominance orientation and self-respect. The sample consisted of 92 participants from the general population and 45 female sex workers (age 18-50. The instruments used were the Bogardus social distance scale, the Authoritarianism scale UPA-S, the Social dominance orientation scale and the Rosenberg self-respect scale. The results indicate a rather high social distance towards sex workers, including the distance by the general population being higher than the distance of the sex workers towards their own group. The correlation of authoritarianism and social distance was significant, as was the correlation between authoritarian aggressiveness and stoicism and social distance. The relationship between social dominance orientation and self-respect and social distance in our research has been statistically insignificant, however it demonstrates the expected trends. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179002: Efekti egzistencijalne nesigurnosti na pojedinca i porodicu u Srbiji
Harput, Gulcan; Guney, Hande; Toprak, Ugur; Kaya, Tunca; Colakoglu, Fatma Filiz; Baltaci, Gul
Sport-specific adaptations at the glenohumeral joint could occur in adolescent athletes because they start participating in high-performance sports in early childhood. To investigate shoulder-rotator strength, internal-rotation (IR) and external-rotation (ER) range of motion (ROM), and acromiohumeral distance (AHD) in asymptomatic adolescent volleyball attackers to determine if they have risk factors for injury. Cross-sectional study. University laboratory. Thirty-nine adolescent high school-aged volleyball attackers (22 boys, 17 girls; age = 16.0 ± 1.4 years, height = 179.2 ± 9.0 cm, mass = 67.1 ± 10.9 kg, body mass index = 20.7 ± 2.6 kg/m 2 ). Shoulder IR and ER ROM, total-rotation ROM, glenohumeral IR deficit, AHD, and concentric and eccentric strength of the shoulder internal and external rotators were tested bilaterally. External-rotation ROM was greater (t 38 = 4.92, P 18°). We observed greater concentric internal-rotator (t 38 = 2.89, P = .006) and eccentric external-rotator (t 38 = 2.65, P = .01) strength in the dominant than in the nondominant shoulder. The AHD was less in the dominant shoulder (t 38 = -3.60, P volleyball attackers demonstrated decreased IR ROM, total ROM, and AHD and increased ER ROM in their dominant shoulder. Therefore, routine screening of adolescent athletes and designing training programs for hazardous adaptive changes could be important in preventing shoulder injuries.
Slotboom, A.; Hendriks, J.; Verbruggen, J.
In this study we investigated the prevalence of sexual aggression as reported by adolescent males and females in the Netherlands. Data were collected from a low-risk school-based sample (n= 219; 119 adolescent females and 100 adolescent males), a medium-risk school-based sample (vocational training)
Urban areas include large numbers of adolescents (ages 15-19) and young adults (ages 20-24) who may have unmet sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs. Worldwide, adolescents contribute 11% of births, many of which are in low and middle-income countries. This study uses recently collected longitudinal data ...
Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee E.; Garwick, Ann W.
Background: Initiation of sexual intercourse during early adolescence is a known risk factor for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Purpose: To examine young women's stories describing peer in?uences on their romantic and sexual decisions and behavior during early adolescence. Methods: Semistructured ethnographic interviews were…
Nichols, Michelle; Newman, Susan; Nemeth, Lynne S; Magwood, Gayenell
African American adolescent females have the highest prevalence rates of obesity among those age 18 and under. The long-term health effects and associated comorbidities of obesity within this cohort threaten the health and well-being of a major section of the U.S. population. There is a need to understand the influence of parental support in reducing obesity related health disparities. Using a social ecological framework to explore parental influence on adolescent obesity interventions allows for greater insight into the complex and dynamic influences affecting the lives of African American adolescent females who are obese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Body dysmorphic disorder is one of the common disorders in which adolescents give excessive attention to their appearances. In fact, it may causes disruptions in adolescents' individual and social life. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in female adolescents of Yazd. Method: In this cross-sectional study, the population consisted of all high school female students of Yazd (N= 10737 in 2012-2013, among which 371 students were selected as the study sample by using Cochran formula and cluster sampling method. Moreover, the participants completed a series of demographic questions as well as the questionnaire of Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Y-BOCS-BDD. Results: The findings revealed that 41% of sample were reported to have unusual concern about appearance and body shape in range of low to very severe. As a matter of fact, most of them experienced moderate severity and 7.1% showed severe body dysmorphic disorder that required immediate psychological intervention. The prevalence in female adolescents was estimated as 7.1% and most prevalent age of suffering was 17. Conclusion: In this research, it was endeavored to provide a more realistic image of body dysmorphic disorder in Yazd adolescents by utilizing a precise methodology. Considering the high prevalence of this disorder in female adolescents and its adverse consequences, some programs are recommended to be applied for diagnosis and early treatment of body dysmorphic disorder to promote adolescents mental health.
Richmond, Tracy K; Subramanian, S V
To determine whether school context influences the BMI of adolescent males and females. Our sample was 17,007 adolescents (aged 12-19) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We used gender-stratified multilevel modeling to examine the contribution of schools to the overall variance in adolescent BMIs, calculated from self-reported weight and height. We then examined the associations of individual attributes with BMI after controlling for the average BMI of the school and the association of two school-level variables with BMI. Participants attended schools that were segregated by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). In females, when controlling only for individual-level attributes, individual household income was inversely associated (beta = -0.043, P = 0.01) while Hispanic (beta = 0.89, P school racial/ethnic makeup and the school level median household income, the relationship between individual race/ethnicity and BMI was attenuated in both male and female adolescents. Higher school level median household income was associated with lower individual BMIs in adolescent girls (gamma = -0.37, P school. Male and female adolescents attending schools with higher median household incomes have on average lower BMIs. Resources available to or cultural norms within schools may constitute critical mechanisms through which schools impact the BMI of their students.
Full Text Available Self-harming behaviour most commonly begins in adolescence and is more frequent among adolescent females. We explored the hypothesis that adolescent females who deliberately selfharm were more likely to perform worse on a decision-making task. Previous research in adolescents who self-harm reported impaired decision-making. However, research put little emphasis on older adolescents and the emotional learning. In our research, we presented the Iowa Gambling Task to 35 adolescent females who self-harmed and were treated at a psychiatric clinic, and to 35 healthy female controls. Our results show that in comparison to the control group the adolescents who self-harm took more risky decisions and were less concerned about the outcome. In addition, the clinical group also focused more on immediate gains and showed a reduced ability to learn from poor decisions in the past. Further research is suggested to explore the potential neurological correlates of decision-making and selfharming behaviour.
Tschann, Jeanne M.; Adler, Nancy E.
Examined relationships among sexual self-acceptance, communication with sexual partners about sex and contraception, and contraceptive use in 201 adolescent females, ages 14 to 19. Found that females with greater sexual self-acceptance communicated more with partners about sex and contraception. Discussion about contraception, but not about sex,…
van der Molen, E.; Vermeiren, R. R. J. M.; Krabbendam, A. A.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Doreleijers, T. A. H.; Jansen, L. M. C.
Background: Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Method: Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 SD = 0.6) years later in young adulthood (mean age = 20.0,…
Welch, Chiquitia L.; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon
The rise in female delinquency has resulted in large numbers of girls being incarcerated in Youth Development Centers (YDC). However, there are few gender specific treatment programs for incarcerated female adolescent offenders, particularly for those with a history of substance dependency. In this article, we present a Multi-level Risk Model…
Monaco, Nanci M.; Gaier, Eugene L.
Suggests that, if high school environment reduces discrepancy between conflicting roles, adolescent females may place greater emphasis on achievement. Within this context, explores differential benefits of single-sex and coeducational schooling. Issue explored is not whether one is preferable for females; rather, the concern is how each of these…
Smith, Brittany L; Morano, Rachel L; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Myers, Brent; Solomon, Matia B; Herman, James P
The late adolescent period is characterized by marked neurodevelopmental and endocrine fluctuations in the transition to early adulthood. Adolescents are highly responsive to the external environment, which enhances their ability to adapt and recover from challenges when given nurturing influences, but also makes them vulnerable to aberrant development when exposed to prolonged adverse situations. Female rats are particularly sensitive to the effects of chronic stress in adolescence, which manifests as passive coping strategies and blunted hypothalamo-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) stress responses in adulthood. We sought to intervene by exposing adolescent rats to environmental enrichment (EE) immediately prior to and during chronic stress, hypothesizing that EE would minimize or prevent the long-term effects of stress that emerge in adult females. To test this, we exposed male and female rats to EE on postnatal days (PND) 33-60 and implemented chronic variable stress (CVS) on PND 40-60. CVS consisted of twice-daily unpredictable stressors. Experimental groups included: CVS/unenriched, unstressed/EE, CVS/EE and unstressed/unenriched (n = 10 of each sex/group). In adulthood, we measured behavior in the open field test and forced swim test (FST) and collected blood samples following the FST. We found that environmental enrichment given during the adolescent period prevented the chronic stress-induced transition to passive coping in the FST and reversed decreases in peak adrenocortical responsiveness observed in adult females. Adolescent enrichment had little to no effect on males or unstressed females tested in adulthood, indicating that beneficial effects are specific to females that were exposed to chronic stress.
Elkins, Irene J; Saunders, Gretchen R B; Malone, Stephen M; Keyes, Margaret A; Samek, Diana R; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G
This study examined the effects of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, on the development of smoking in male and female adolescents. Twin difference methods were used to control for shared genetic and environmental confounders in three population-based, same-sex twin samples (N=3,762; 64% monozygotic). One cohort oversampled female adolescents with ADHD beginning in childhood. Regressions of childhood inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were conducted to predict smoking outcomes by age 17. ADHD effects were divided into those shared between twins in the pair and those nonshared, or different within pairs. Adolescents who had more severe ADHD symptoms as children were more likely to initiate smoking and to start smoking younger. The association of ADHD symptoms with daily smoking, number of cigarettes per day, and nicotine dependence was greater in females than in males. Monozygotic female twins with greater attentional problems than their co-twins had greater nicotine involvement, consistent with possible causal influence. These effects remained when co-occurring externalizing behaviors and stimulant medication were considered. Hyperactivity-impulsivity, while also more strongly related to smoking for female adolescents, appeared primarily noncausal. Smoking initiation and escalation are affected differentially by ADHD subtype and gender. The association of inattention with smoking in female adolescents may be causal, whereas hyperactivity-impulsivity appears to act indirectly, through shared propensities for both ADHD and smoking.
Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin
The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965). The 152 items from selected multiple measures of body image were examined through factor analysis and for internal consistency. Correlations between Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale and body mass index (BMI), risk of eating disorders and self-esteem were assessed for construct validity. A seven factor model of a 62-item Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents with construct validity and good internal consistency was developed. The scale encompasses 1) preoccupation with thinness and dieting behavior, 2) appearance and body satisfaction, 3) body importance, 4) muscle increasing behavior, 5) extreme dieting behavior, 6) appearance importance, and 7) perception of size and shape dimensions. Besides, a multidimensional body image composite score was proposed to screen negative body image risk in female adolescents. The result found body image was correlated with BMI, risk of eating disorders and self-esteem in female adolescents. In short, the present study supports a multi-dimensional concept for body image and provides a new insight into its multi-dimensionality in Malaysian female adolescents with preliminary validity and reliability of the scale. The Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale can be used to identify female adolescents who are potentially at risk of developing body image disturbance through future intervention programs.
Algarroba, Gabriela N; Sanfilippo, Joseph S; Valli-Pulaski, Hanna
The 5-year survival rate for childhood cancer is over 80%, thereby increasing the number of young women facing infertility in the future because of the gonadotoxic effects of chemotherapy and radiation. The gonadotoxic effects of childhood cancer treatment vary by the radiation regimen and the chemotherapeutic drugs utilized. Although the American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines recommend fertility preservation for all patients, there are several barriers and ethical considerations to fertility preservation in the pediatric and adolescent female population. Additionally, the fertility preservation methods for pre- and postpubertal females differ, with only experimental methods available for prepubertal females. We will review the risk of chemotherapy and radiation on female fertility, the approach to fertility preservation in the pediatric and adolescent female population, methods of fertility preservation for both pre- and postpubertal females, barriers to fertility preservation, cost, and psychological and ethical considerations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Urban areas include large numbers of adolescents (ages 15-19) and young adults (ages 20-24) who may have unmet sexual and reproductive .... the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned. Action38. ...... World Health Organization.
Rebecca Pellett Madan
Full Text Available Genital secretions collected from adult women exhibit in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV and Escherichia coli (E. coli, but prior studies have not investigated this endogenous antimicrobial activity or its mediators in adolescent females.Anti-HSV and anti-E.coli activity were quantified from cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens collected from 20 sexually active adolescent females (15-18 years. Soluble immune mediators that may influence this activity were measured in CVL, and concentrations of Lactobacillus jensenii and crispatus were quantified by PCR from vaginal swabs. Results for adolescents were compared to those obtained from 54 healthy, premenopausal adult women. Relative to specimens collected from adults, CVL collected from adolescent subjects had significantly reduced activity against E. coli and diminished concentrations of protein, IgG, and IgA but significantly increased anti-HSV activity and concentrations of interleukin (IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Vaginal swabs collected from adolescent subjects had comparable concentrations of L. crispatus but significantly reduced concentrations of L. jensenii, relative to adult swabs.Biomarkers of genital mucosal innate immunity may differ substantially between sexually active adolescents and adult women. These findings warrant further study and may have significant implications for prevention of sexually transmitted infections in adolescent females.
Hock, R A; Curry, J F
The historical view of masculinity/femininity posited essentially bipolar opposites, with the presence of one set of characteristics precluding the other. More recent studies of sex-role stereotypes have defined sexual orientation within clusters of socially desirable attributes which males and females perceive as differentiating males from females. This view negates the contention that psychological sex roles are composed of bipolar opposites, and concludes that the constructs of masculinity and femininity are independent dimensions rather than a single bipolar dimension. Little is known about the sex-role functioning of adolescents, yet it is during adolescence that qualitative shifts occur in interpersonal relationships and concurrent changes occur in cognitive functioning, with adolescents shifting toward hypothetical thinking and abstract ideal notions. In view of these changes, much can be learned about adult functioning by studying the sex-role perceptions of adolescents related to familial and social variables. This study examines the sex-role perceptions that adolescents hold of fathers, mothers, ideal males, ideal females, and selves. Differences exist between male and female adolescents, and significant linkages exist between sex-role identification and academic achievement.
Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Lien, Yu-Fen; Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang; Wang, Ruey-Hsia
Traditional health education may not provide adequate sexual information to female adolescents. Sexual health education for female adolescents broadens opportunities for nurses to help female adolescents adopt appropriate sexual attitudes and make appropriate decisions. The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of sexual empowerment on sexual decision making in female adolescents. Twenty-nine female students with steady boyfriends were invited to participate in a sexual empowerment course. Course activities specifically related to sexual empowerment were audio-tape-recorded. Dialogue content was analyzed, and content provided by each study participant was reconfirmed in face-to-face interviews to understand the entire empowerment process in terms of how such may affect responses and to assess the possibility of correctly reinterpreting findings during the member check process. This study also took into consideration degrees of reliability and rigorousness. The four themes found to underlie participant perceptions of their sexual empowerment to make sex-related decisions were as follows: (a) proactively seeking sexual knowledge, (b) reexamining relationships with boyfriends, (c) the right to say "no" and to engage in self-protection, and (d) the need to change sexual attitudes and behaviors. Using the peer group intervention in sexual empowerment may positively impact sexual health decision making in adolescent girls. Nursing professionals may consider peer group intervention as a sexual empowering method in healthcare.
Rubino, Tiziana; Prini, Pamela; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Zamberletti, Erica; Trusel, Massimo; Melis, Miriam; Sagheddu, Claudia; Ligresti, Alessia; Tonini, Raffaella; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Parolaro, Daniela
Current concepts suggest that exposure to THC during adolescence may act as a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. However, the molecular underpinnings of this vulnerability are still poorly understood. To analyze this, we investigated whether and how THC exposure in female rats interferes with different maturational events occurring in the prefrontal cortex during adolescence through biochemical, pharmacological and electrophysiological means. We found that the endocannabinoid system undergoes maturational processes during adolescence and that THC exposure disrupts them, leading to impairment of both endocannabinoid signaling and endocannabinoid-mediated LTD in the adult prefrontal cortex. THC also altered the maturational fluctuations of NMDA subunits, leading to larger amounts of gluN2B at adulthood. Adult animals exposed to THC during adolescence also showed increased AMPA gluA1 with no changes in gluA2 subunits. Finally, adolescent THC exposure altered cognition at adulthood. All these effects seem to be triggered by the disruption of the physiological role played by the endocannabinoid system during adolescence. Indeed, blockade of CB1 receptors from early to late adolescence seems to prevent the occurrence of pruning at glutamatergic synapses. These results suggest that vulnerability of adolescent female rats to long-lasting THC adverse effects might partly reside in disruption of the pivotal role played by the endocannabinoid system in the prefrontal cortex maturation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maltby, John; Giles, David C; Barber, Louise; McCutcheon, Lynn E
The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between celebrity worship and body image within the theoretical perspective of intense para-social relationships with celebrities. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between celebrity worship and body image. Three samples, 229 (102 males and 127 females) adolescents, 183 (88 males and 95 females) full-time university undergraduate students, and 289 (126 males and 163 females) adults were administered an amended version of the Celebrity Attitude Scale, the Attention to Body Shape Scale, and the Body Shape Questionnaire-Revised. Significant relationships were found between attitudes toward celebrities and body image only among female adolescents. Multiple regression analyses suggested that Intense-personal celebrity worship accounted for unique variance in scores in body image. Findings suggest that in female adolescents, there is an interaction between Intense-personal celebrity worship and body image between the ages of 14 and 16 years, and some tentative evidence has been found to suggest that this relationship disappears at the onset of adulthood, 17 to 20 years. Results are consistent with those authors who stress the importance of the formation of para-social relationships with media figures, and suggest that para-social relationships with celebrities perceived as having a good body shape may lead to a poor body image in female adolescents.
Background. The increase in obesity levels in South African adolescents is attributed to an energy imbalance such that physical inactivity is causally related to adiposity. However, in some settings obesity occurs in spite of high physical activity levels. Objectives. To examine objectively measured physical activity levels of ...
Objective: The current study sought to explore body figure preference in a cross cultural South African sample, given the established relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. Methods: The sample comprised a community based, multi-racial adolescent population in both urban (n=1353) and rural ...
Marrone, Gaetano; Abdul-Rahman, Lutuf; De Coninck, Zaake; Johansson, Annika
Adolescent girls in Ghana still face a number of challenges accessing reproductive/sexual health services despite efforts to improve their accessibility. This paper explores the key socio-demographic factors associated with contraceptive use amongst adolescent girls in Ghana using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Data from the 2008 GDHS was analyzed. Socio-demographic variables were selected to assess their interaction with contraceptive use. Multivariable regression analyses were performed. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were computed. Place of residence and marital status were the most important predictors of contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents. Rural residents were less likely to use contraceptives compared to urban residents (OR 0.32, CI 0.12-0.84, p = 0.021) as well as married respondents compared to their unmarried peers (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.67, p = 0.005). The accessibility of reproductive/sexual health services needs to be improved and promoted in rural areas and among married adolescent women.
... adolescents in post-apartheid South Africa and its role as change agent. ... there is need to empower families to sustain a cohesive effective family unit in ... education to facilitate social transformation, citizenship and nation-building are other ...
Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Dennison, Meg; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B
Adolescence is a crucial period for the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Despite the fact that structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex during adolescence is often assumed to underlie the maturation of emotion regulation strategies, no longitudinal studies have directly assessed this relationship. This study examined whether use of cognitive reappraisal strategies during late adolescence was predicted by (i) absolute prefrontal cortical thickness during early adolescence and (ii) structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex between early and mid-adolescence. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans when they were aged approximately 12 and 16 years, respectively. FreeSurfer software was used to obtain cortical thickness estimates for three prefrontal regions [anterior cingulate cortex; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC); ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)]. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire was completed when adolescents were aged approximately 19 years. Results showed that greater cortical thinning of the left dlPFC and left vlPFC during adolescence was significantly associated with greater use of cognitive reappraisal in females, though no such relationship was evident in males. Furthermore, baseline left dlPFC thickness predicted cognitive reappraisal at trend level. These findings suggest that cortical maturation may play a role in the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies during adolescence. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Manish S Dalwani
Full Text Available Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate, valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum.We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8 toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in inhibition, conflict processing, valuation
Crosby, Richard A; Hanson, Amy; Rager, Kristin
This exploratory study compared the impact of sex education provided by parents to female adolescents against the same education provided in formal settings to female adolescents. Females, 16-24 years old, attending an adolescent medicine clinic in an urban area of the South were recruited prior to examination. Each patient completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Data from 110 respondents were analyzed to compare those indicating they had learned about each of four topics from parents to those not indicating learning about all four topics from a parent. The same process was repeated relative to learning about the four topics in formal educational settings. In controlled, multivariate, analyses, adolescents not communicating with parents on all four topics were nearly five times more likely to report having multiple sex partners in the past three months. Further, these adolescents were 3.5 times more likely to have low self-efficacy for condom negotiation, 2.7 times more likely to report ever using alcohol or drugs before sex, and about 70% less likely to have ever talked about HIV prevention with a partner before engaging in sex. Differences relative to learning about the four topics in formal settings were not found. Findings suggest that teen females (attending teen clinics) may experience a protective benefit based on communication with parents. This protective effect was not observed for education delivered in formal settings.
Rathleff, Michael S.; Samani, Afshin; Olesen, Jens L.
. A random subsample of 57 female adolescents was included and tested at baseline and after 3months. Neuromuscular control of the knee was quantified as the complexity of surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis during stair descent. Secondary outcomes were complexity of knee...... during stair descent than those receiving patient education alone. This suggest that exercise therapy has an effect not only on self-reported outcome measures but also on objective measures of thigh muscle function in female adolescents with patellofemoral pain....
Coupland, Ruth Louise
Psychopathy is often viewed as a unitary construct, however, research with adults and adolescent males has revealed two heterogeneous subtypes. Primary psychopathy is presumed to have biological underpinnings and is associated with low levels of anxiety and psychological distress. In contrast, secondary psychopathy is believed to result from exposure to adversity, including childhood maltreatment, and is associated with emotional reactivity, impulsivity, and comorbid psychological problems. T...
Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Ellenrieder, Birte; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald
"The aim of this study was to investigate whether the characteristics of anthropometry, training or previous performance were related to an Ironman race time in recreational female Ironman triathletes. These characteristics were correlated to an Ironman race time for 53 recreational female triathletes in order to determine the predictor variables, and so be able to predict an Ironman race time for future novice triathletes. In the bi-variate analysis, no anthropometric characteristic was related to race time. The weekly cycling kilometers (r = -0.35) and hours (r = -0.32), as well as the personal best time in an Olympic distance triathlon (r = 0.49) and in a marathon (r = 0.74) were related to an Ironman race time (marathon (P = 0.0030) were the best predictors for the Ironman race time (n = 28, r² = 0.53). The race time in an Ironman triathlon might be partially predicted by the following equation (r² = 0.53, n = 28): Race time (min) = 186.3 + 1.595 × (personal best time in an Olympic distance triathlon, min) + 1.318 × (personal best time in a marathon, min) for recreational female Ironman triathletes."
HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.; MYER, GREGORY D.; KIEFER, ADAM W.; FORD, KEVIN R.
ABSTRACT Purpose Knee abduction moment (KAM) is an injury risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury that shows divergent incidence between males and females during adolescence. The objective of this study was to determine the relation between skeletal growth and increased KAM. The hypotheses tested were that females would demonstrate peak KAM during landing at peak height velocity (PHV) and that they would diverge from males at PHV. Methods The subject pool consisted of 674 females and 218 males (1387 female and 376 male assessments) who participated in a preseason testing session before their basketball or soccer seasons. They were tested longitudinally for multiple years (2 ± 1 yr) to capture maturation via estimates of percent (%) adult stature and biomechanical analysis during a drop vertical jump maneuver. Data were analyzed using three-dimensional motion analysis that used a 37 retroreflective marker body model and inverse dynamics to calculate segment joint centers and peak KAM. Results Mature females, as defined as 92% adult stature or greater, displayed increased peak KAM and knee abduction angles relative to growing (≤91% adult stature) adolescent females (P injury in females. KAM peaked in females at PHV. Tracking longitudinal increases in peak KAM may be useful for the identification of females at increased risk of ACL injury. PMID:25970663
Diamond, Gary M.; Didner, Hila; Waniel, Ariela; Priel, Beatriz; Asherov, Jack; Arbel, Shosh
Levels of perceived parental care and control among 24 female Israeli adolescents presenting at emergency rooms after a self-poisoning act of low lethality were compared to those found among 23 non-self-harming, community controls. Adolescents' perceived levels of parental care and control were measured via both adolescents' self-report and…
Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md
Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, a...
Kasim, K; Al-Zalabani, A; Abd El-Moneim, E S; Abd El-Moneim, S
Adolescent smoking relates to numerous risk factors, of which beliefs and attitudes toward smoking may play a role. The study aimed to investigate the association between beliefs and attitudes and the risk of adolescent smoking. In a school-based cross-sectional study, 3,400 students were recruited from 34 intermediate and secondary schools in Madinah City, Al Madinah Region, Saudi Arabia. Data about sociodemographics, smoking-related factors, and beliefs and attitudes toward smoking were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of smoking was estimated and the studied beliefs and attitudes were compared by smoking status and sex using appropriate statistical analyses including multivariate logistic regression. Of the 3,322 respondents, 33.02% (38.9% males and 26.4% females) were current smokers. Beliefs and attitudes toward smoking significantly differed between smokers and nonsmokers in the studied male and female students. The adjusted risk of smoking was significantly increased among female adolescents who believed that male smokers were more attractive [odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-2.9] and among male smokers who believed that female smokers are more attractive (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.2). The risk was also increased among all adolescents who believed that smoking lent comfort in social gatherings. Belief that smoking is harmful, however, was negatively associated with the risk of smoking, particularly among females (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.35-0.91). The study revealed a considerable high prevalence of smoking among male and female adolescents. Addressing the beliefs and knowledge about smoking during childhood is crucial in any antismoking program.
Full Text Available Background: Adolescent smoking relates to numerous risk factors, of which beliefs and attitudes toward smoking may play a role. The study aimed to investigate the association between beliefs and attitudes and the risk of adolescent smoking. Materials and Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional study, 3,400 students were recruited from 34 intermediate and secondary schools in Madinah City, Al Madinah Region, Saudi Arabia. Data about sociodemographics, smoking-related factors, and beliefs and attitudes toward smoking were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of smoking was estimated and the studied beliefs and attitudes were compared by smoking status and sex using appropriate statistical analyses including multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of the 3,322 respondents, 33.02% (38.9% males and 26.4% females were current smokers. Beliefs and attitudes toward smoking significantly differed between smokers and nonsmokers in the studied male and female students. The adjusted risk of smoking was significantly increased among female adolescents who believed that male smokers were more attractive [odds ratio (OR = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.6-2.9] and among male smokers who believed that female smokers are more attractive (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.2. The risk was also increased among all adolescents who believed that smoking lent comfort in social gatherings. Belief that smoking is harmful, however, was negatively associated with the risk of smoking, particularly among females (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.35-0.91. Conclusions: The study revealed a considerable high prevalence of smoking among male and female adolescents. Addressing the beliefs and knowledge about smoking during childhood is crucial in any antismoking program.
Drosdzol, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec, Violetta; Plinta, Ryszard
The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of hirsutism on general quality of life, self-esteem and the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls. Fifty adolescent females with hirsutism, aged 13-18 years, were enrolled in the research group. The control group comprised 50 non-hirsute adolescents. A specific questionnaire was used as the research tool. It included self-evaluation inventories: Short Form-36 Health Survey Version 2, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Quality of life indices for hirsute girls scored lower than for the controls and statistically significantly so with regard to physical functioning (p = 0.04), general health (p = 0.002) and social functioning (p = 0.007). Anxiety was diagnosed in 26% in the group of hirsute girls as compared with 10% of the controls (p = 0.03). The study analysis revealed more clinically significant problems of low self-esteem in hirsute adolescents compared with non-hirsute girls (14% vs. 2%). Hirsutism is associated with a decreased quality of life, a higher prevalence of anxiety disorder and lower self-esteem in adolescent females. The mother's level of education is associated with the quality of life in adolescent girls.
Johnson, Sharon A.; Green, Vicki
Findings from 60 sexually active, unmarried females, ages 14 through 18, revealed that cognitive capacity and cognitive egocentrism variables as well as age, grade, and ethnic status significantly predicted 6 of 7 decision-making variables in contraceptive use model. One cognitive capacity variable and one sexual contraceptive behavior variable…
Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.
Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African…
Hornick, Joesph P.; And Others
Variables important in predicting female contraception usage were found to be those which involved dyadic commitment, conditions of love, self-esteem, and father's occupation (social class). The best predictors of male contraception usage involved experience in dating and internalization of role models via mother's and father's permissiveness.…
Cernkovich, Stephen A.; Lanctot, Nadine; Giordano, Peggy C.
Studies identifying the mechanisms underlying the causes and consequences of antisocial behavior among female delinquents as they transit to adulthood are scarce and have important limitations: Most are based on official statistics, they typically are restricted to normative samples, and rarely do they gather prospective data from samples of…
regression model to quantify the effects of a set of factors on female .... based on a weighing of benefits (such as school fees, .... urban areas are exposed to a more diverse life style .... received money or gift or favours in return for sex.
Colabianchi, Natalie; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Borawski, Elaine A
To examine the association between observer ratings of physical attractiveness and weight preoccupation for female adolescents, and to explore any ethnic differences between Caucasian, African-American, and Hispanic females. Normal-weight female adolescents who had participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in-home Wave II survey were included (n = 4,324). Physical attractiveness ratings were made in vivo by interviewers. Using logistic regression models stratified by ethnicity, the associations between observer-rated attractiveness and weight preoccupation were examined after controlling for demographics, measured body mass index (BMI) and psychosocial factors. Caucasian female adolescents perceived as being more attractive reported significantly greater weight preoccupation compared with those rated as being less attractive. Observed attractiveness did not relate to weight preoccupation among African-American or Hispanic youth when controlling for other factors. For Caucasian female adolescents, being perceived by others as more attractive may be a risk factor for disordered eating.
DeSilva Mousseau, Angela M.; Lund, Terese J.; Liang, Belle; Spencer, Renée; Walsh, Jill
This study examined the relationship between stress and sleep duration for adolescent females from affluent backgrounds. Participants were 218 students attending two independent single-sex secondary schools. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression models (cross-sectional and longitudinal) were run to examine the association between stress and…
Grimley, Diane M.; Lee, Patricia A.
Examines the sexual practices of 235 females aged 15 to 19 years and their readiness to use specific contraceptive methods. Results indicate that, despite the availability of newer contraceptive methods, most sexually active adolescents were least resistant to using condoms, perceiving the male condom as an acceptable preventative both for…
Keith, Judith B.; And Others
Examined sexual activity and contraception among urban, low-income African-American adolescent female clients who were not sexually active (n=50), sexually active/noncontracepting (n=20), or sexually active/contracepting (n=72). Not sexually active group was younger, more career motivated, had father at home, was more influenced by family values,…
Stachowitz, Annie L.
Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study sought to examine a commonly used social-emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition, Self-Report of Personality (BASC-2, SRP), for the emergence of a common profile of…
Pesa, J A; Syre, T R; Jones, E
To determine whether overweight female adolescents differ from normal and underweight female adolescents with respect to a set of psychosocial factors, while controlling for body image. Female participants of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 3197) were selected for analysis. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to test whether overweight subjects differed from normal and underweight subjects with respect to measures of depression, self-esteem, trouble in school, school connectedness, family connectedness, sense of community, autonomy, protective factors, and grades. Stepdown F-tests and discriminant function coefficients provided information regarding the strength of specific factors in contributing to overall differences. MANOVA revealed significant differences between groups on the combined set of psychosocial factors. Self-esteem defined the difference in a positive direction while grades defined the difference inversely. When controlling for body image, multidimensional group differences were still evident; however, self-esteem was no longer a significant contributing variable. While overweight female adolescents seem to suffer from low self-esteem, it may be explained by body image. Efforts should be directed toward encouraging and supporting healthy eating patterns and physical activity while encouraging students to recognize personal strengths not related to physique.
Tweedale, Charlotte; Kronborg, Leonie
The purpose of this research was to examine what contributes to gifted adolescent females' talent development at a high-achieving girls' school. Using Kronborg's (2010) Talent Development Model for Eminent Women as a theoretical framework, this research examined the conditions that supported and those that hindered the participants' talent…
Romeo, Katherine E.; Horn, Stacey S.
One hundred and fifty-six adolescents, drawn from a high school in a Midwestern suburb, provided judgments of a hypothetical incident of homophobic harassment with either a male or female victim. Participants also completed a revised version of the Macho Scale, measuring their endorsement of gender stereotypes (a = 0.75). Without the interaction…
Hollinger, Constance L.; Fleming, Elyse S.
Gifted female adolescents (N=284) completed comprehensive career assessment batteries. Examination of diagnostic criteria and associated personality dimensions revealed commonalities and differences among the six diagnostic groups. Findings suggest the need for encouraging the students with low assertiveness or low achievement motivation to…
Ali, Tazeen Saeed; Rizvi, Syeda Naghma
Menstruation is a normal physiological process that is managed differently according to various social and cultural understandings. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the menstrual practices among 1275 female adolescents of urban Karachi, Pakistan from April to October 2006 by using interviews. Data was entered and…
Linville, Deanna; O'Neil, Maya; Huebner, Angela
This study examined linkages between depression symptoms (DEP) and positive adult support (PAS) in female adolescents and the partially mediating influence of eating disturbances (ED). Structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement models for each of the latent constructs, determine the relationships among the latent constructs,…
Adeniran, Abiodun S; Ijaiya, Munirdeen A; Fawole, Adegboyega A; Balogun, Olayinka R; Adesina, Kikelomo T; Olatinwo, Abdul Waheed O; Olarinoye, Adebunmi O; Adeniran, Peace I
The central role of males in female reproductive health issues in patriarchal societies makes them an important group in the eradication of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). To determine knowledge about and attitudes to FGM/C among male adolescents, and their preparedness to protect their future daughters from it. A cross-sectional survey among male adolescent students in Ilorin, Nigeria. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire after consent had been obtained from them or their parents. Statistical analysis was with SPSS version 20.0 (IBM, USA). A p-value of <0.05 was taken as significant. Of 1 536 male adolescents (mean age 15.09 (standard deviation 1.84) years, range 14 - 19), 1 184 (77.1%) were aware of FGM/C, 514 (33.5%) supported female circumcision, 362 (23.6%) would circumcise their future daughters, 420 (27.3%) were of the opinion that FGM/C had benefits, mostly as a necessity for womanhood (109, 7.1%), and 627 (40.8%) perceived it as wickedness against females; 546 (35.5%) were aware of efforts to eradicate FGM/C, and 42.2% recommended education as the most important intervention to achieve this. Education and involvement in advocacy may transform male adolescents into agents for eradication of FGM/C.
Ciccocioppo, Anna-Lisa; Stewin, Leonard L.; Madill, Helen M.; Montgomerie, T. Craig; Tovell, Dorothy R.; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Fitzsimmons, George W.
Examines the factors that affected the career decision-making of adolescent females and young women in undergraduate science, engineering, and technology programs. Qualitative analysis was used to uncover seven themes: transition from high school, educational influences, family influences, academic issues, coursework management, gender issues, and…
Hollinger, Constance L.; Fleming, Elyse S.
The present study tests the applicability of Carlson's theory for a sample of gifted and talented female adolescents by examining three dimensions of possible self-esteem antecedents: actual talent ratings, self-perceptions of talent, and personality attributes. (Author/LMO)
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…
Turnage, Barbara F.
This study of 105 senior high school Southern African American adolescent females examined the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (body image), and ethnic identity. As predicted, the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (r = 0.46, p less than 0.001), and ethnic identity (r = 40, p less than…
Kim, Oksoo; Kim, Kyeha
Examined whether body mass index (BMI) and perception of a body weight problem predict level of self esteem and depression in Korean female adolescents. Results showed that perception of a weight problem, but not BMI, contributed significantly to the prediction of level of self esteem and depression. (BF)
Thun, Debra; Sims, Patricia L.; Adams, Mary Ann; Webb, Thomas
Explores treatment interventions for female sexual abuse survivors through a pilot study examining the relationship between group treatment and adolescent self-image. Results revealed that participants who received group therapy increased in levels of impulse control and that the experimental group had a decrease in self-reliance whereas the…
Ball, Joanna; Armistead, Lisa; Austin, Barbara-jeanne
Study provides a description of religiosity in a sample of African-American female teens and examines religion as a resource for these adolescents by focusing on the association between religiosity and sexual activity, self-esteem, and general psychological functioning. Results reveal that greater overall religiosity was associated with greater…
Joseph, Nicole M.; Viesca, Kara Mitchell; Bianco, Margarita
This article takes up the questions: (a) How do Black female adolescents define racism?, (b) What kind of experiences with racism to they report having in schools?, and (c) How can these perspectives and experiences inform educational reform efforts? The in-depth analysis of 18 student surveys and interviews revealed that most of the definitions…
Full Text Available Sexual and reproductive health is a critical focus area for adolescents and young adults (AYAs. Of the 20 million newly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs annually, nearly half of them are contracted by young people between the ages of 15 to 24. It has become increasingly necessary to improve awareness and prevention of STIs during adolescent years. The knowledge gained through appropriately relevant sexual and reproductive health education may persist as adolescents transition into adulthood. Community pharmacists interact with AYAs frequently and are therefore well positioned to engage this vulnerable population in conversations about their sexual and reproductive health through use innovative and interactive technologies. For instance, mobile applications are easily accessible to AYAs and can allow pharmacists to disseminate relevant medication information to smartphone users that download adolescent-tailored mobile applications. Although many medication adherence apps are currently available on the market, none of these apps are tailored towards sexual reproductive health information for female AYAs. A mobile-based program designed to provide a pharmacist-guided sexual and reproductive health education to female AYAs may help to address the lapses in current adolescent-aged school health classes. In the future, usage of this intervention would improve the accuracy and comprehension of female adolescents and young adults’ awareness and knowledge of their sexual and reproductive health. As a result, further research should be conducted to develop mobile applications conducive to adolescent and young adults to address sexual and reproductive health issues. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or
Mays, Darren; Gilman, Stephen E; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Niaura, Raymond S
Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males' excess risk for conduct problems and females' susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents' exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Adolescents completed baseline (2001-2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007-2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted.
This paper analyzes real-life moral dilemmas of Israeli city and kibbutz adolescents. The contribution of Gilligan's theory to our knowledge of adolescent moral development as originally conceived by Kohlberg is emphasized. It is suggested that Kohlberg's view of the adolescent as a moral philosopher limits the understanding of the moral development of female adolescents, who use both care and justice in their self-descriptions within existing relationships.
Ezer, Paulina; Leipert, Bev; Evans, Marilyn; Regan, Sandra
Rural female adolescents experience unique circumstances to sexual health care and information as compared to urban adolescents. These circumstances are largely due to their more isolated geographical location and rural sociocultural factors. These circumstances may be contributing factors to an incidence of adolescent pregnancy that is higher in rural areas than in urban cities. Thus, this higher incidence of pregnancy may be due to the ways in which rural adolescents make decisions regarding engagement in sexual intercourse. However, the rural female adolescent sexual decision-making process has rarely, if ever, been studied, and further investigation of this process is necessary. Focusing on rural female adolescents aged 16-19 years is especially significant as this age range is used for reporting most pregnancy and birth statistics in Ontario. Charmaz's guidelines for a constructivist grounded theory methodology were used to gain an in-depth understanding of eight Ontario rural female adolescents' decision-making process regarding sexual intercourse and pregnancy, and how they viewed rural factors and circumstances influencing this process. Research participants were obtained through initial sampling (from criteria developed prior to the study) and theoretical sampling (by collecting data that better inform the categories emerging from the data). Eight participants, aged 16-19 years, were invited to each take part in 1-2-hour individual interviews, and four of these participants were interviewed a second time to verify and elaborate on emerging constructed concepts, conceptual relationships, and the developing process. Data collection and analysis included both field notes and individual interviews in person and over the telephone. Data were analyzed for emerging themes to construct a theory to understand the participants' experiences making sexual decisions in a rural environment. The adolescent sexual decision-making process, Prioritizing Influences, that
Full Text Available Abstract Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence, in this sport that emphasizes leanness. Although, these athletes apparently have sufficient osteogenic stimuli to mitigate the effects of possible low energy availability on bone health, the extent or magnitude of bone accrual also varies with training effects, which differ among skater disciplines. Purpose We studied differences in total and regional bone mineral density in 36 nationally ranked skaters among 3 skater disciplines: single, pairs, and dancers. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD of the total body and its regions was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Values for total body, spine, pelvis and leg were entered into a statistical mixed regression model to identify the effect of skater discipline on bone mineralization while controlling for energy, vitamin D, and calcium intake. Results The skaters had a mean body mass index of 19.8 ± 2.1 and % fat mass of 19.2 ± 5.8. After controlling for dietary intakes of energy, calcium, and vitamin D, there was a significant relationship between skater discipline and BMD (p = 0.002, with single skaters having greater BMD in the total body, legs, and pelvis than ice dancers (p Conclusions Single and pair skaters have greater BMD than ice dancers. The osteogenic effect of physical training is most apparent in single skaters, particularly in the bone loading sites of the leg and pelvis.
Karimi-Shahanjarini, A; Omidvar, N; Bazargan3, M; Rashidian, A; Majdzadeh, R; Shojaeizadeh, D
Given the increasing prevalence of obesity among Iranian adolescents and the role of consumption of unhealthy snacks in this issue, interventions that focus on factors influencing food choice are needed. This study was designed to delineate factors associated with unhealthy snack use among female Iranian adolescents. The theory of Planned Behavior served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via nine focus group discussions in two middle schools (6(th) to 8(th) grades) in a socio-economically diverse district in the city of Tehran in spring 2008. The study sample included 90 female adolescents aged 12-15 years. The sampling strategy was purposive method. Data analyzed using the "framework" method. Major factors identified by the respondents were taste, peer pressure, parental influence, easy access to unhealthy snacks, limited availability of healthy snacks, appeal of snacks, habit, high price of healthy snacks, and media advertisements. Nutritional value and healthiness was not one of the first priorities when buying snacks, as adolescents thought it was too early for them to worry about illness and adverse consequences of eating junk foods. For developing culturally sensitive evidence-based interventions that can motivate adolescents to choose healthy snacks, a broad range of factors should be taken into account.
Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gayles, Jochebed G.
The current study tested a developmental-contextual model of depressive symptomatology among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin females and their mothers. The final sample was comprised of 271 dyads. We examined the interrelations among cultural (i.e., acculturation dissonance), developmental (i.e., pubertal development and autonomy expectation discrepancies), and interpersonal (i.e., mother-daughter conflict and maternal supportive parenting) factors in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms. For both early and middle adolescents, maternal support was negatively associated with mother-daughter conflict and depressive symptoms. Importantly, mother-daughter autonomy expectation discrepancies were positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but this association was found only among early adolescents. Further, mother-daughter acculturation dissonance was positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but only among middle adolescents. Findings call for concurrently examining the interface of developmental, relational, and cultural factors in predicting female adolescents’ depressive symptomatology and the potential differences by developmental stage (e.g., early vs. middle adolescence) PMID:21967564
Tork, Hanan Mohamed Mohamed; Al Hosis, Khalid Fahad
For many girls, the onset of puberty that occurs during adolescence marks a time of heightened vulnerability to early pregnancy, with its attendant complications and heightened risk of maternal mortality. National and international forums have recognized the need to address these problems through reproductive health education. This article assesses the reproductive-health-related knowledge and attitudes of female adolescents aged between 14 and 19 years. In addition, the authors assess the effectiveness of a reproductive health education program in improving the related knowledge of female adolescents. The study was conducted on female students in three secondary schools and in the preparatory year at Qassim University (N = 309). A 59-item structured questionnaire was used to test the knowledge and attitudes of all participants regarding reproductive health before and after the intervention program. Data collection was carried out between September and November 2012. A significant increase for the total sample in knowledge regarding puberty and menstruation was observed (p education program improves knowledge among adolescent girls regarding reproductive health.
Watson, Hunna J; Egan, Sarah J; Limburg, Karina; Hoiles, Kimberley J
Given the importance of assessing depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adolescents with eating disorders (EDs), the aim was to provide normative data on the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) for female adolescents presenting for treatment of an ED. The data source was the Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders (HOPE) Project registry (N = 1000), a prospective, ongoing registry study comprising consecutive pediatric tertiary ED referrals. Females (N = 256; 12-17 years) with DSM-5 EDs completed the CDI at intake. Results on the CDI revealed a pattern of increasing depressive scores with age and higher scores among patients with anorexic spectrum disorders. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was high and had the same pattern as CDI scores. The mean score on the CDI in the sample was higher than community samples and clinical samples of adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and other clinical disorders. Females adolescents with EDs are at high-risk of depression and suicidal ideation. These data provide information about variation in CDI scores to guide clinicians in interpretation of scores. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available ObjectivesPhysical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework.MethodsThis cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support, perceived barriers, and perceived affect. Interactions among the variables were examined using path analysis within a covariance modeling framework.ResultsThe final model accounted for an R2 value of 0.52 for physical activity and offered a good model-data fit. The results indicated that physical activity was predicted by self-esteem (β=0.46, p<0.001, perceived self-efficacy (β=0.40, p<0.001, social support (β=0.24, p<0.001, perceived barriers (β=-0.19, p<0.001, and perceived affect (β=0.17, p<0.001.ConclusionsThe findings of this study showed that the health promotion model was useful to predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian female adolescents. Information related to the predictors of physical activity behavior will help researchers plan more tailored culturally relevant health promotion interventions for this population.
Oshodi, Yewande; Macharia, Muiruri; Lachman, Anusha; Seedat, Soraya
Rape is considered a stressful trauma and often has long-lasting health consequences. Compared with adult females, limited data exist on the psychological impact of rape in adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of emotional distress in a cohort of adolescent rape survivors in Cape Town. Participants in this prospective longitudinal study were 31 adolescent female rape survivors recruited from a rape clinic in Cape Town and assessed within 2 weeks of the assault. Assessment measures included a sociodemographic questionnaire and initial screening with the Child and Adolescent Trauma Survey (CATS), the patient-rated Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), and the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). The CATS, CDI, and MASC were repeated at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post enrollment. Psychiatric diagnoses were made with the clinician-administered Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Child and Adolescent version (MINI-Kid). At baseline, on the MINI-Kid, a definitive diagnosis of major depressive episode was endorsed in 22.6% of the participants. Stress-related disorders were found in 12.9%, whereas 16.1% had anxiety disorders. There was no diminution of symptoms on self-reported psychopathology measures at follow-up assessment over the five follow-up time points, suggesting persistent psychopathology over a 1-year period despite repeated clinical assessments and supportive counseling. Symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder in this sample of adolescent female rape survivors were high at enrollment and found to be persistent, underlining the need for long-term support, screening, and evidence-based follow-up care.
Full Text Available While overall physical activity is clearly associated with a better short-term and long-term health, prolonged strenuous physical activity may result in a rise in acute levels of blood-biomarkers used in clinical practice for diagnosis of various conditions or diseases. In this study, we explored the acute effects of a full Ironman-distance triathlon on biomarkers related to heart-, liver-, kidney- and skeletal muscle damage immediately post-race and after one week's rest. We also examined if sex, age, finishing time and body composition influenced the post-race values of the biomarkers.A sample of 30 subjects was recruited (50% women to the study. The subjects were evaluated for body composition and blood samples were taken at three occasions, before the race (T1, immediately after (T2 and one week after the race (T3. Linear regression models were fitted to analyse the independent contribution of sex and finishing time controlled for weight, body fat percentage and age, on the biomarkers at the termination of the race (T2. Linear mixed models were fitted to examine if the biomarkers differed between the sexes over time (T1-T3.Being male was a significant predictor of higher post-race (T2 levels of myoglobin, CK, and creatinine levels and body weight was negatively associated with myoglobin. In general, the models were unable to explain the variation of the dependent variables. In the linear mixed models, an interaction between time (T1-T3 and sex was seen for myoglobin and creatinine, in which women had a less pronounced response to the race.Overall women appear to tolerate the effects of prolonged strenuous physical activity better than men as illustrated by their lower values of the biomarkers both post-race as well as during recovery.
Danielsson, Tom; Carlsson, Jörg; Schreyer, Hendrik; Ahnesjö, Jonas; Ten Siethoff, Lasse; Ragnarsson, Thony; Tugetam, Åsa; Bergman, Patrick
While overall physical activity is clearly associated with a better short-term and long-term health, prolonged strenuous physical activity may result in a rise in acute levels of blood-biomarkers used in clinical practice for diagnosis of various conditions or diseases. In this study, we explored the acute effects of a full Ironman-distance triathlon on biomarkers related to heart-, liver-, kidney- and skeletal muscle damage immediately post-race and after one week's rest. We also examined if sex, age, finishing time and body composition influenced the post-race values of the biomarkers. A sample of 30 subjects was recruited (50% women) to the study. The subjects were evaluated for body composition and blood samples were taken at three occasions, before the race (T1), immediately after (T2) and one week after the race (T3). Linear regression models were fitted to analyse the independent contribution of sex and finishing time controlled for weight, body fat percentage and age, on the biomarkers at the termination of the race (T2). Linear mixed models were fitted to examine if the biomarkers differed between the sexes over time (T1-T3). Being male was a significant predictor of higher post-race (T2) levels of myoglobin, CK, and creatinine levels and body weight was negatively associated with myoglobin. In general, the models were unable to explain the variation of the dependent variables. In the linear mixed models, an interaction between time (T1-T3) and sex was seen for myoglobin and creatinine, in which women had a less pronounced response to the race. Overall women appear to tolerate the effects of prolonged strenuous physical activity better than men as illustrated by their lower values of the biomarkers both post-race as well as during recovery.
David W. Foy
Full Text Available Background: While males constitute the majority, female adolescent offenders are a sizeable minority of the overall delinquent population. Further, those females who become involved in delinquent activities appear to be doing so at a younger age, and they are involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including violent offenses. Objective: The goal of this article is to consolidate an empirical base for our current knowledge about female juvenile offenders’ trauma-related mental health and rehabilitation issues. Method: We searched for studies using PILOTS, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost electronic databases. Results: Accordingly, we present a review of findings from 33 recent studies showing consistently high rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, and common comorbidities among female adolescent offenders. We also examined recent literature on risk and protective factors for female delinquency, as well as treatments for offenders, and found that there was some early representation of trauma and PTSD as important variables to be considered in etiology and treatment. Conclusion: Future plans for addressing the mental health needs of female offenders should be better informed by these recent findings about widespread trauma exposure and related psychological consequences.
Spriggs, Merle; Gillam, Lynn
Is Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder ever ethically justified? Cosmetic genital surgery (specifically labioplasty) for adolescent girls is one of the most ethically controversial forms of cosmetic surgery and Body Dysmorphic Disorder is typically seen as a contraindication for cosmetic surgery. Two key ethical concerns are (1) that Body Dysmorphic Disorder undermines whatever capacity for autonomy the adolescent has; and (2) even if there is valid parental consent, the presence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder means that cosmetic surgery will fail in its aims. In this article, we challenge, in an evidence-based way, the standard view that Body Dysmorphic Disorder is a contraindication for genital cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Our argument gathers together and unifies a substantial amount of disparate research in the context of an ethical argument. We focus on empirical questions about benefit and harm, because these are ethically significant. Answers to these questions affect the answer to the ethical question. We question the claim that there would be no benefit from surgery in this situation, and we consider possible harms that might be done if treatment is refused. For an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, the most important thing may be to avoid harm. We find ourselves arguing for the ethical justifiability of cosmetic labioplasty for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, even though we recognize that it is a counter intuitive position. We explain how we reached our conclusion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Clausen, M B; Tang, L; Zebis, M K; Krustrup, P; Hölmich, P; Wedderkopp, N; Andersen, L L; Christensen, K B; Møller, M; Thorborg, K
Knee injuries are common in adolescent female football. Self-reported previous knee injury and low Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are proposed to predict future knee injuries, but evidence regarding this in adolescent female football is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale score as risk factors for future knee injuries in adolescent female football. A sample of 326 adolescent female football players, aged 15-18, without knee injury at baseline, were included. Data on self-reported previous knee injury and KOOS questionnaires were collected at baseline. Time-loss knee injuries and football exposures were reported weekly by answers to standardized text-message questions, followed by injury telephone interviews. A priori, self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale scores (female football. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ishibashi, Aya; Maeda, Naho; Sumi, Daichi; Goto, Kazushige
Iron is essential for providing oxygen to working muscles during exercise, and iron deficiency leads to decreased exercise capacity during endurance events. However, the mechanism of iron deficiency among endurance athletes remains unclear. In this study, we compared iron status between two periods involving different training regimens. Sixteen female long-distance runners participated. Over a seven-month period, fasting blood samples were collected during their regular training period (LOW; middle of February) and during an intensified training period (INT; late of August) to determine blood hematological, iron, and inflammatory parameters. Three-day food diaries were also assessed. Body weight and lean body mass did not differ significantly between LOW and INT, while body fat and body fat percentage were significantly lower in INT ( p daily diet were significantly higher during INT than LOW ( p daily intake of iron.
Alexander R Gibson
Full Text Available The relative importance of genetic and socio-cultural influences contributing to the success of east Africans in endurance athletics remains unknown in part because the pre-training phenotype of this population remains incompletely assessed. Here cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity levels, distance travelled to school and daily energy expenditure in 15 habitually active male (13.9±1.6 years and 15 habitually active female (13.9±1.2 adolescents from a rural Nandi primary school are assessed. Aerobic capacity ([Formula: see text] was evaluated during two maximal discontinuous incremental exercise tests; physical activity using accelerometry combined with a global positioning system; and energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method. The [Formula: see text] of the male and female adolescents were 73.9±5.7 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1 and 61.5±6.3 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1, respectively. Total time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activities per day was 406±63 min (50% of total monitored time, 244±56 min (30%, 75±18 min (9% and 82±30 min (10%. Average total daily distance travelled to and from school was 7.5±3.0 km (0.8-13.4 km. Mean daily energy expenditure, activity-induced energy expenditure and physical activity level was 12.2±3.4 MJ(. day(-1, 5.4±3.0 MJ(. day(-1 and 2.2±0.6. 70.6% of the variation in [Formula: see text] was explained by sex (partial R(2 = 54.7% and body mass index (partial R(2 = 15.9%. Energy expenditure and physical activity variables did not predict variation in [Formula: see text] once sex had been accounted for. The highly active and energy-demanding lifestyle of rural Kenyan adolescents may account for their exceptional aerobic fitness and collectively prime them for later training and athletic success.
Chernick, Lauren Stephanie; Schnall, Rebecca; Stockwell, Melissa S; Castaño, Paula M; Higgins, Tracy; Westhoff, Carolyn; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S
Over 15 million adolescents use the emergency department (ED) each year in the United States. Adolescent females who use the ED for medical care have been found to be at high risk for unintended pregnancy. Given that adolescents represent the largest users of text messaging and are receptive to receiving text messages related to their sexual health, the ED visit represents an opportunity for intervention. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore interest in and preferences for the content, frequency, and timing of an ED-based text message intervention to prevent pregnancy for adolescent females. We conducted semistructured, open-ended interviews in one urban ED in the United States with adolescent females aged 14-19 years. Eligible subjects were adolescents who were sexually active in the past 3 months, presented to the ED for a reproductive health complaint, owned a mobile phone, and did not use effective contraception. Using an interview guide, enrollment continued until saturation of key themes. The investigators designed sample text messages using the Health Beliefs Model and participants viewed these on a mobile phone. The team recorded, transcribed, and coded interviews based on thematic analysis using the qualitative analysis software NVivo and Excel. Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (13/14; 93%), insured (13/14; 93%), ED users in the past year (12/14; 86%), and frequent text users (10/14; 71% had sent or received >30 texts per day). All were interested in receiving text messages from the ED about pregnancy prevention, favoring messages that were "brief," "professional," and "nonaccusatory." Respondents favored texts with links to websites, repeated information regarding places to receive "confidential" care, and focused information on contraception options and misconceptions. Preferences for text message frequency varied from daily to monthly, with random hours of delivery to maintain "surprise." No participant feared that text
Cibele Monteiro Macedo
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate and analyze in the scientific literature coping strategies for domestic violence against pregnant female adolescents. Method: This is an integrative literature review, conducted from July to August 2017 on LILACS, SciELO and PubMed, using the descriptors and the MeSH terms: confrontation, violence, adolescent, pregnant women, prenatal care. Result: The sample comprised 9 articles that were organized and characterized according to year, country of study and coping strategy used. The main forms of coping involved the active search for cases and the primary care approach with all family members. Conclusion: Individualized prenatal care, the change in professional training and networking activities were pointed out as important components of the strategies for coping with violence against pregnant adolescents.
Macedo, Cibele Monteiro; Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Barrientos, Dora Mariela Salcedo; Lopes, Gisele Almeida; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa
To investigate and analyze in the scientific literature coping strategies for domestic violence against pregnant female adolescents. This is an integrative literature review, conducted from July to August 2017 on LILACS, SciELO and PubMed, using the descriptors and the MeSH terms: confrontation, violence, adolescent, pregnant women, prenatal care. The sample comprised 9 articles that were organized and characterized according to year, country of study and coping strategy used. The main forms of coping involved the active search for cases and the primary care approach with all family members. Individualized prenatal care, the change in professional training and networking activities were pointed out as important components of the strategies for coping with violence against pregnant adolescents.
Luisa Del Río-Ospina
Full Text Available This study reports six HR-HPV types' infection prevalence discriminated by species and multiple infection in unvaccinated Colombian female adolescents, as well as some factors modulating the risk of infection. HPV DNA for six high-risk viral types was identified in cervical samples taken from 2,134 12-19 year-old females using conventional generic and type-specific PCR. Binomial logistical regression analysis was used for modelling HR-HPV infection and multiple infection risk. The interaction between variables in a stepwise model was also included in such analysis. Viral DNA was detected in 48.97% of the females; 28.52% of them had multiple infections, HPV-16 being the most frequently occurring type (37.44%. Cytological abnormality prevalence was 15.61%. Being over 16 years-old (1.66: 1.01-2.71 95%CI, white ethnicity (4.40: 1.16-16.73 95%CI, having had 3 or more sexual partners (1.77: 1.11-2.81 95%CI and prior sexually-transmitted infections (STI (1.65: 1.17-2.32 95%CI were associated with a greater risk of HPV infection. Having given birth was related to a higher risk of infection by A7 species and antecedent of abortion to less risk of coinfection. Where the females in this study came from also influenced the risk of infection by A7 species as female adolescents from the Andean region had a lower risk of infection (0.42: 0.18-0.99 95%CI. The presence of factors related to risky sexual behaviour in the study population indicated that public health services should pay special attention to female adolescents to modify the risk of infection by high-risk HPV types and decrease their impact on this age group.
Full Text Available Iron is essential for providing oxygen to working muscles during exercise, and iron deficiency leads to decreased exercise capacity during endurance events. However, the mechanism of iron deficiency among endurance athletes remains unclear. In this study, we compared iron status between two periods involving different training regimens. Sixteen female long-distance runners participated. Over a seven-month period, fasting blood samples were collected during their regular training period (LOW; middle of February and during an intensified training period (INT; late of August to determine blood hematological, iron, and inflammatory parameters. Three-day food diaries were also assessed. Body weight and lean body mass did not differ significantly between LOW and INT, while body fat and body fat percentage were significantly lower in INT (p < 0.05. Blood hemoglobin, serum ferritin, total protein, and iron levels, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation did not differ significantly between the two periods. Serum hepcidin levels were significantly higher during INT than LOW (p < 0.05. Carbohydrate and iron intakes from the daily diet were significantly higher during INT than LOW (p < 0.05. In conclusion, an elevated hepcidin level was observed during an intensified training period in long-distance runners, despite an apparently adequate daily intake of iron.
Introduction: Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males’ excess risk for conduct problems and females’ susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents’ exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Methods: Adolescents completed baseline (2001–2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007–2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. Results: At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. Conclusions: The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted. PMID:24590388
Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the main strategies for keeping health is having healthy life style. Due to important role of adolescent health in community health promotion, this study aimed to determine health promoting life style in female adolescents of high schools and its associated factors in Mashhad, Iran. Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted on 810 girls ranging in ages from 14to 18 years old, who were studying in high schools and selected using cluster sampling from in Mashhad, Iran in 2013. They completed questionnaires of demographic data and Adolescent Health Promoting AH scale. Data were analyzed by statistical tests of Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Freedman, Wilcoxon, Spearman correlation coefficient and General linear model. Results: The mean age of subjects was 15.51±0.98 and the mean score of life style was 63.92±12.01. The highest score of life style subscales was allocated to the “spiritual growth or life-appreciation (77.66±15.56 and the least to the physical and sport activities (51.66±22.49. There was a significant relationship between the life style score of adolescents with parents educational level (mother P=0.024, father P=0.014. However no significant relationship was found between adolescents' life style and their residential area and also parents' job. Among different dimension of life style, the highest correlation was seen between spiritual growth score and life style total score (p=0.01. Conclusion: Based on the findings, it is necessary to prioritize implementing of health-related educational programs in order to changing and modification of unhealthy life style related factors, with focus on sport activities as well as health and nutrition. Also it is needed to provide special facilities to select healthy living behaviors among Female adolescents.
Monaco, N M; Gaier, E L
For women, the nature and range of experiences during the high school years take on special significance, since it is during this period that they usually weigh their various roles and adjust their levels of aspirations accordingly. If the high school environment is successful in reducing the discrepancy between what are often viewed as conflicting roles, adolescent females may place greater emphasis on achievement. It is within this context that the present paper explored the differential benefits of single-sex and coeducational schooling. The issue explored is not whether one is preferable for females; rather, the concern here is how each of these settings influences both achievement and personal fulfillment.
Soleimanieh Naeini, Tahereh; Keshavarzi Arshadi, Farnaz; Hatamizadeh, Nikta; Bakhshi, Enayatollah
Although there are considerable researches on effectiveness of social skills training, little information is available on the effects of such training on perceived competence of adolescents with deafness. This study was conducted in special school settings to determine the effects of social skills training on perceived competence of female adolescents with deafness. A prepost quasi-experimental design was used to perform the study. Sixty nine female students with deafness who were enrolled in all of the four different special secondary schools in Tehran, Iran, between 2010 and 2011 participated in this research. Two of four secondary schools were randomly allocated to the intervention group (33 students), and the other two to the control group (36 students). The participants were between 11 and 21 years (Mean = 15.43; SD = 1.89), and more than three fourth of each groups ( i.e. 28 students in each groups) were affected by profound hearing impairment . The intervention group participated in twelve bi-weekly sessions. Pretest and posttest data were collected using the 'Hearing Impaired Children Self-Image Test'. The questionnaire was filled by an interviewer. This questionnaire asks students about their feeling toward their own competence in domains of cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and communication competence and school adjustment. The data was analyzed by using SPSS software, version 16. The intervention led to significant improvement in total perceived competence scores of adolescents with deafness (P social skills in adolescents with deafness would improve their sense of competence, and emotional well being.
Anderson, V; Reis, J; Stephens, Y
This report summarizes the experience of 61 female adolescents recruited through a private adolescent family planning clinic, and 183 9th through 12th-grade adolescents recruited from a private suburban high school regarding their experiences with dating relationships, sexual communication skills, and psychological status. The samples were predominantly white and middle to upper income. Perceptions of interpersonal communication skills were analyzed according to gender, clinic versus school, and history of sexual coercion. The adolescents were generally confident that they could assert their own preferences and stand up to other regarding sexual issues with the exception of the small group of high school males reporting having had experienced sexual coercion. This group (N = 20) expressed difficulty in talking to their partners about safer sex, getting their partner(s) to listen to them, or turning down alcohol or drugs prior to having sex. These boys were also more likely to report missing classes or having other kinds of trouble with school, to be concerned about use of alcohol and drugs, and about feeling unpopular. None of the female groups had this profile of communication and emotional problems. Implications for preventive education programming on interpersonal skills and sexuality are considered.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of learned optimism on achievement motivation and academic resilience in female adolescents. This study was a quasi design, pre- and post-test control group and the subjects were selected among adolescents who were members of the Center for Intellectual Development of Children and Adolescents in Isfahan. These subjects selected by randomly style and divided into two experimental and control groups. They were 20 female adolescents aged between 13 to 15 years. The experimental group received optimism training in 7 sessions. Measuring tools were Hermance Achievement motivation questionnaire and Samuel’s academic resilience questionnaire. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. The results showed that learned optimism had a significant effect on achievement motivation and it’s subscales (confidence and perseverance but it had no effect on other subscales (foresight and hard working. As well as learned optimism had no effect on academic resilience and it’s subscales (communication skills, orientation for the future, orientation for the problem-based. Based on these results focus on emotional and optimism in educational system leads to increase motivation in students and prevent failure and school drop.
Lal, M; Abraham, S
To study the relationship of adolescent development and eating disorder related quality of life in Indian females. 461 female school students (aged 12-17 yrs) were recruited from middle to high socio-economic status (SES), English speaking schools in Delhi, India. Adolescent development was measured by Tanner stage and months since menarche. Subjects completed the Quality of Life for Eating Disorders questionnaire (QOL ED), which included six subscores. Correlation and partial correlation coefficient analysis to control for Body Mass Index (BMI) were performed. After controlling for BMI, all adolescent development measures were correlated with the psychological feelings (PSY) subscore. This subscore contained items relating to confusion, social unease, sadness, difficulty coping, desiring perfection and loss of control. Tanner breast stage was correlated with the eating behaviour (EB) subscore. During adolescent development, Indian girls became more aware of their psychological feelings and emotions. Only those reporting breast development were using behaviours to control their body, weight and shape. These behaviours are not associated with the presence of disordered eating thoughts, such as preoccupation with food, eating, body weight or shape.
Reiner, Iris; Tibubos, Ana N; Hardt, Jochen; Müller, Kai; Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E
Problematic internet use may lead to serious psychosocial dysfunction. Recent studies have found comparable prevalence in both male and female adolescents. We pursue the neglected questions how male and female adolescents differ regarding their patterns of internet use and how gender, peer attachment and patterns of use are related to pathological internet use. In 2410 adolescents (1307 girls and 1103 boys) aged 12-18 years from different types of school we assessed peer attachment, frequency and use of eight specific applications and indicators of pathological internet use. Three patterns of internet use, 'social'; 'sex and games" and 'functional' were identified and connections between variables were modeled by ordered sequences of regression. We found that problematic internet use-sex and games as well as social usage-was more prevalent in boys. Insecure peer attachment predicted problematic internet use in both sexes. Also, excessive usage of internet games and sex mediated the influence of peer attachment insecurity on problematic internet use, but only for boys. Our study identified that adolescents with insecure peer attachment are at higher risk for problematic internet use. With regard to specific types of internet use, the consumption of online games and sex was identified as risk factor in boys with increasing age. Further studies are needed to understand and possibly subgroup problematic internet use behavior in girls. Our findings suggest that increasing the quality of peer relationships may be promising approach in the prevention and treatment of problematic internet use.
Emanuele Maria Merlo
Full Text Available Objective: the study identifies the presence of the signs of depression, teasing and self-esteem in obese female adolescents compared to a control group. Methods: the studied group consisted of female subjects (N= 106 obese adolescents and 106 control group aged from 12 to 18. In the study, the subjects were administered measures of body image, Montgomery Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS, Scale of perceived Teasing, Self-Liking (SL and Self-competence (SC to appraise self-esteem. Results: the comparative assessment highlighted that obese adolescents are significantly depressed. Regarding the teasing, the adolescents were affected from a physical viewpoint. A significant difference also emerged in relation to self-esteem. Conclusion: the emotional consequences should be carefully weighed in consideration of the possible psychopathologies that may arise, i.e. mood signs. In relation to the signs, the prevention with psychological interventions is important for eating disorders and improve psychosocial health.
Although adolescents with delinquency are known to have higher-than-average rates of depression or substance use disorder (SUD), research on the topic is inconsistent. It remains unclear weather depression or SUD leads to delinquency, whether delinquency leads to depression or SUD, or whether there is bi-directionality. Utilizing the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (Wave I: 2008–2009; Wave II: 18 months later: N = 5872), we used logistic regression to predict depression from delinquency (and vice versa), and SUD from delinquency (and vice versa). After inclusion of control variables, we found that females with minor theft in Wave I were more than 4 times as likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.34; 95% CI: 1.10–17.16) as females without minor theft to be depressed in Wave II, and those with public disorder in Wave I were almost 3 times as likely (aOR = 2.74; 95% CI: 1.03–7.30) as those without public disorder to have SUD in Wave II. Overall delinquency also predicted depression or SUD, and SUD predicted delinquency. Practitioners could address risk for depression or SUD among child welfare-involved adolescent females by focusing on overall delinquency or on specific types of delinquency (minor theft for depression and public disorder for SUD) and by offering interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) that have been shown to be effective in preventing depression or SUD. In addition, with respect to our finding that SUD predicts delinquency among adolescent females, practitioners can help prevent delinquency by offering interventions (e.g., intensive outpatient treatments) that have well documented effectiveness in addressing SUD. PMID:24060474
Mozhgan Javadnoori; Sanaz Zangeneh; Mitra Tadayon; Mohamadreza Akhoond
Background & aim: Sexual health education is one of the responsibilities of healthcare workers at schools, which can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS, unwanted pregnancy, abortion, substance abuse, sexual violence, and suicidal tendencies. This study aimed to investigate healthcare workers’ competence in sexual health education for female adolescents at schools. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 healthcare workers, responsible for sexual heal...
Eva M. Marco
Full Text Available Alcohol is a serious public health concern that has a differential impact on individuals depending upon age and sex. Patterns of alcohol consumption have recently changed: heavy episodic drinking—known as binge-drinking—has become most popular among the youth. Herein, we aimed to investigate the consequences of intermittent adolescent alcohol consumption in male and female animals. Thus, Wistar rats were given free access to ethanol (20% in drinking water or tap water for 2-h sessions during 3 days, and for an additional 4-h session on the 4th day; every week during adolescence, from postnatal day (pnd 28–52. During this period, animals consumed a moderate amount of alcohol despite blood ethanol concentration (BEC did not achieve binge-drinking levels. No withdrawal signs were observed: no changes were observed regarding anxiety-like responses in the elevated plus-maze or plasma corticosterone levels (pnd 53–54. In the novel object recognition (NOR test (pnd 63, a significant deficit in recognition memory was observed in both male and female rats. Western Blot analyses resulted in an increase in the expression of synaptophysin in the frontal cortex (FC of male and female animals, together with a decrease in the expression of the CB2R in the same brain region. In addition, adolescent alcohol induced, exclusively among females, a decrease in several markers of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission, in which epigenetic mechanisms, i.e., histone acetylation, might be involved. Taken together, further research is still needed to specifically correlate sex-specific brain and behavioral consequences of adolescent alcohol exposure.
Lalayants, Marina; Prince, Jonathan D
Although adolescents with delinquency are known to have higher-than-average rates of depression or substance use disorder (SUD), research on the topic is inconsistent. It remains unclear weather depression or SUD leads to delinquency, whether delinquency leads to depression or SUD, or whether there is bi-directionality. Utilizing the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (Wave I: 2008-2009; Wave II: 18 months later: N=5872), we used logistic regression to predict depression from delinquency (and vice versa), and SUD from delinquency (and vice versa). After inclusion of control variables, we found that females with minor theft in Wave I were more than 4 times as likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=4.34; 95% CI: 1.10-17.16) as females without minor theft to be depressed in Wave II, and those with public disorder in Wave I were almost 3 times as likely (aOR=2.74; 95% CI: 1.03-7.30) as those without public disorder to have SUD in Wave II. Overall delinquency also predicted depression or SUD, and SUD predicted delinquency. Practitioners could address risk for depression or SUD among child welfare-involved adolescent females by focusing on overall delinquency or on specific types of delinquency (minor theft for depression and public disorder for SUD) and by offering interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) that have been shown to be effective in preventing depression or SUD. In addition, with respect to our finding that SUD predicts delinquency among adolescent females, practitioners can help prevent delinquency by offering interventions (e.g., intensive outpatient treatments) that have well documented effectiveness in addressing SUD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tabatabaei, Mansooreh; Alavi, Mousa; Zolaktaf, Vahid
Introduction. Deprivation of parents might decrease self-esteem (SE) and result in affective and social incompatibility. In this randomized control trial, we examined the effect of aerobics exercise on SE among female adolescents living with no natural family. Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of all female adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (n: 72) who were covered by Isfahan Welfare organization. Participants were assigned into intervention and control groups by matched random sampling. Intervention included 8 weeks of aerobics exercise. Coppersmith SE inventory was administered before and after intervention as well as after one month follow-up. Results. No significant difference was seen between pre-SE scores of intervention (32.7 ± 8.4) and control (33.0 ± 6.7) groups (t = .16, P = .87). A significant difference was obtained in post-SE scores (40.2 ± 5.7 versus 34.7 ± 6.8, t = 3.58, P = .001) and in one month follow-up scores (36.4 ± 5.2 versus 33.0 ± 5.2, t = 2.25, P = .03). Discussion. The results demonstrated a low level of pre-SE in both groups. However, a significant improvement was seen in posttest of intervention group which persisted even one month after intervention. It supports the use of aerobics for female adolescents deprived from family life. PMID:25610905
Full Text Available Introduction. Deprivation of parents might decrease self-esteem (SE and result in affective and social incompatibility. In this randomized control trial, we examined the effect of aerobics exercise on SE among female adolescents living with no natural family. Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of all female adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (n: 72 who were covered by Isfahan Welfare organization. Participants were assigned into intervention and control groups by matched random sampling. Intervention included 8 weeks of aerobics exercise. Coppersmith SE inventory was administered before and after intervention as well as after one month follow-up. Results. No significant difference was seen between pre-SE scores of intervention (32.7±8.4 and control (33.0±6.7 groups (t=.16, P=.87. A significant difference was obtained in post-SE scores (40.2±5.7 versus 34.7±6.8, t=3.58, P=.001 and in one month follow-up scores (36.4±5.2 versus 33.0±5.2, t=2.25, P=.03. Discussion. The results demonstrated a low level of pre-SE in both groups. However, a significant improvement was seen in posttest of intervention group which persisted even one month after intervention. It supports the use of aerobics for female adolescents deprived from family life.
Escudero, Carolina A; Potts, James E; Lam, Pei-Yoong; De Souza, Astrid M; Mugford, Gerald J; Sandor, George G S
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with abnormalities in biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse-wave velocity (PWV), is also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aims of this study were to determine the stiffness of the aorta in female adolescents with AN and to determine if either the severity or the type of AN was associated with PWV. This was a retrospective case-control study. Adolescent patients with a clinical diagnosis of AN were included. Aortic diameter and pulse-wave transit time over a portion of the thoracic aorta were measured using Doppler echocardiography, and PWV was calculated. There were 94 female patients with AN and 60 adolescent female control subjects. There was no significant difference in age between patients with AN and control subjects (15.5 ± 1.7 vs 15.1 ± 2.6 years, P = .220). Body mass index (16.0 ± 2.4 vs 19.7 ± 2.7 kg/m 2 , P study suggests that patients with AN may be at increased risk for future cardiovascular disease. Future studies are required to determine the reversibility of these changes with weight restoration. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jansen Lucres MC
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the histories of detained adolescent females and to examine the relationship between teenage pregnancy on the one hand and mental health and sexuality related characteristics on the other. Methods Of 256 admitted detained adolescent females aged 12–18 years, a representative sample (N = 212, 83% was examined in the first month of detention. Instruments included a semi-structured interview, standardized questionnaires and file information on pregnancy, sexuality related characteristics (sexual risk behavior, multiple sex partners, sexual trauma, lack of assertiveness in sexual issues and early maturity and mental health characteristics (conduct disorder, alcohol and drug use disorder and suicidality. Results Approximately 20% of the participants reported having been pregnant (before detention, although none had actually given birth. Sexuality related characteristics were more prevalent in the pregnancy group, while this was not so for the mental health characteristics. Age at assessment, early maturity, sexual risk behavior, and suicidality turned out to be the best predictors for pregnancy. Conclusion The lifetime prevalence of pregnancy in detained adolescent females is high and is associated with both sexuality related risk factors and mental health related risk factors. Therefore, prevention and intervention programs targeting sexual risk behavior and mental health are warranted during detention.
Hasanpour, Marzieh; Tabatabaei, Mansooreh; Alavi, Mousa; Zolaktaf, Vahid
Deprivation of parents might decrease self-esteem (SE) and result in affective and social incompatibility. In this randomized control trial, we examined the effect of aerobics exercise on SE among female adolescents living with no natural family. The sample consisted of all female adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (n: 72) who were covered by Isfahan Welfare organization. Participants were assigned into intervention and control groups by matched random sampling. Intervention included 8 weeks of aerobics exercise. Coppersmith SE inventory was administered before and after intervention as well as after one month follow-up. No significant difference was seen between pre-SE scores of intervention (32.7 ± 8.4) and control (33.0 ± 6.7) groups (t = .16, P = .87). A significant difference was obtained in post-SE scores (40.2 ± 5.7 versus 34.7 ± 6.8, t = 3.58, P = .001) and in one month follow-up scores (36.4 ± 5.2 versus 33.0 ± 5.2, t = 2.25, P = .03). The results demonstrated a low level of pre-SE in both groups. However, a significant improvement was seen in posttest of intervention group which persisted even one month after intervention. It supports the use of aerobics for female adolescents deprived from family life.
Giedd Jay N
Full Text Available Abstract Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI literature of male/female brain differences with emphasis on studies encompassing adolescence – a time of divergence in physical and behavioral characteristics. Across all ages total brain size is consistently reported to be about 10% larger in males. Structures commonly reported to be different between sexes include the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum – all noted to have a relatively high density of sex steroid receptors. The direction and magnitude of reported brain differences depends on the methodology of data acquisition and analysis, whether and how the subcomponents are adjusted for the total brain volume difference, and the age of the participants in the studies. Longitudinal studies indicate regional cortical gray matter volumes follow inverted U shaped developmental trajectories with peak size occurring one to three years earlier in females. Cortical gray matter differences are modulated by androgen receptor genotyope and by circulating levels of hormones. White matter volumes increase throughout childhood and adolescence in both sexes but more rapidly in adolescent males resulting in an expanding magnitude of sex differences from childhood to adulthood.
Lee, Grace P; Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Martins, Silvia S
Adverse life events have been associated with gambling and substance use as they can serve as forms of escapism. Involvement in gambling and substance use can also place individuals in adversely stressful situations. To explore potential male-female differences in the association between addictive behavior and adverse life events among an urban cohort of adolescents. The study sample comprised of 515 adolescent participants in a randomized prevention trial. With self-reported data, four addictive behavior groups were created: nonsubstance users and nongamblers, substance users only, gamblers only, and substance users and gamblers. Multinomial logistic regression analyses with interaction terms of sex and adverse life events were conducted. Adverse life events and engaging in at least one addictive behavior were common for both sexes. Substance users and gamblers had more than twice the likelihood of nonsubstance users and nongamblers to experience any event as well as events of various domains (ie, relationship, violence, and instability). Neither relationship nor instability events' associations with the co-occurrence of substance use and gambling significantly differed between sexes. Conversely, females exposed to violence events were significantly more likely than similarly exposed males to report the co-occurrence of substance use and gambling. Findings from the current study prompt future studies to devote more attention to the development of effective programs that teach adaptive coping strategies to adolescents, particularly to females upon exposure to violence. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Junice Y S Ng
Full Text Available We assessed the proportion of and socio-ecological factors associated with ever having had sex with female sex workers (FSWs among heterosexual adolescents. We also described the characteristics of the adolescents who reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs.This is a cross-sectional study (response rate: 73% of 300 heterosexually active male adolescents of 16 to 19 years attending a national STI clinic in Singapore between 2009 and 2014. We assessed the ecological factors (individual, parental, peer, school and medial influences and sexual risk behaviors using a self-reported questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR and confidence intervals (CI.The proportion of heterosexual male adolescents who had ever had sex with FSWs was 39%. Multivariate analysis showed that significant factors associated with ever having had sex with FSWs were sex initiation before 16 years old (aPR 1.79 CI: 1.30-2.46, never had a sexually active girlfriend (aPR 1.75 CI 1.28-2.38, reported lower self-esteem score (aPR 0.96 CI: 0.93-0.98, higher rebelliousness score (aPR 1.03 CI: 1.00-1.07 and more frequent viewing of pornography (aPR 1.47 CI: 1.04-2.09. Lifetime inconsistent condom use with FSWs was 30%.A significant proportion of heterosexual male adolescents attending the public STI clinic had ever had sex with FSWs. A targeted intervention that addresses different levels of influence to this behavior is needed. This is even more so because a considerable proportion of adolescents reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs, who may serve as a bridge of STI transmission to the community. National surveys on adolescent health should include the assessment of frequency of commercial sex visits and condom use with FSWs for long-term monitoring and surveillance.
Tomlin, Kristl; Mirea, Lucia; Williamson, Amy
The American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have identified the menstrual cycle as essential in assessing overall health of adolescent girls. Menses should be considered a "vital sign" and documentation of last menstrual period (LMP) is recommended at every patient encounter. The aim of this study was to estimate and compare LMP documentation among adolescent and pediatric health care providers. A retrospective cohort study identified a random sample of 50 female patients seen in the general pediatrics (PEDS), adolescent medicine (AM), and pediatric and adolescent gynecology (PAG) ambulatory clinics at Phoenix Children's Hospital between January 1, 2016 and March 31, 2016. Rates of LMP documentation were compared between clinics using the Pearson χ 2 test. Multivariable logistic regression analyses quantified the association of clinic and LMP documentation, with adjustments for visit reason, provider gender, and age at presentation. Rates of LMP documentation were 100% for adolescent gynecologists, but significantly lower for general pediatricians (14%) and AM (60%) providers (P < .0001). These findings were confirmed in multivariable analyses (PAG vs PEDS: odds ratio [OR], 280; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32-2331; PAG vs AM: OR, 34; 95% CI, 4.4-270; AM vs PEDS: OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.3-11.0). Adolescent gynecologists document LMP routinely. In contrast, LMP documentation rates in AM, and especially in PEDS, were significantly lower. Quality improvement methods such as incorporation of an LMP section into the vitals portion of an electronic medical record could help improve rates of compliance. Copyright © 2018 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. © The Author(s) 2014.
Conclusions: Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better-coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents.
Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.
The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…
Harrington, Deirdre M.
Abstract Background Adolescent females have been highlighted as a particularly sedentary population and the possible negative effects of a sedentary lifestyle are being uncovered. However, much of the past sedentary research is based on self-report or uses indirect methods to quantity sedentary time. Total time spent sedentary and the possible intricate sedentary patterns of adolescent females have not been described using objective and direct measure of body inclination. The objectives of this article are to examine the sedentary levels and patterns of a group of adolescent females using the ActivPAL™ and to highlight possible differences in sedentary levels and patterns across the week and within the school day. A full methodological description of how the data was analyzed is also presented. Methods One hundred and eleven adolescent females, age 15-18 yrs, were recruited from urban and rural areas in the Republic of Ireland. Participants wore an ActivPAL physical activity monitor for a 7.5 day period. The ActivPAL directly reports total time spent sitting\\/lying every 15 seconds and accumulation (frequency and duration) of sedentary activity was examined using a customized MATLAB ® computer software programme. Results While no significant difference was found in the total time spent sitting\\/lying over the full 24 hour day between weekday and weekend day (18.8 vs. 18.9 hours; p = .911), significantly more sedentary bouts of 1 to 5 minutes and 21 to 40 minutes in duration were accumulated on weekdays compared to weekend days (p < .001). The mean length of each sedentary bout was also longer (9.8 vs. 8.8 minutes; p < .001). When school hours (9 am-3 pm) and after school hours (4 pm-10 pm) were compared, there was no difference in total time spent sedentary (3.9 hours; p = .796) but the pattern of accumulation of the sedentary time differed. There were a greater number of bouts of > 20 minutes duration during school hours than after school hours (4.7 vs. 3
Roberts, David W; Savage, Jason W; Schwartz, Daniel G; Carreon, Leah Y; Sucato, Daniel J; Sanders, James O; Richards, Benjamin Stephens; Lenke, Lawrence G; Emans, John B; Parent, Stefan; Sarwark, John F
Longitudinal cohort study. To compare functional outcomes between male and female patients before and after surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). There is no clear consensus in the existing literature with respect to sex differences in functional outcomes in the surgical treatment of AIS. A prospective, consecutive, multicenter database of patients who underwent surgical correction for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was analyzed retrospectively. All patients completed Scoliosis Research Society-30 (SRS-30) questionnaires before and 2 years after surgery. Patients with previous spine surgery were excluded. Data were collected for sex, age, Risser grade, previous bracing history, maximum preoperative Cobb angle, curve correction at 2 years, and SRS-30 domain scores. Paired sample t tests were used to compare preoperative and postoperative scores within each sex. Independent sample t tests were used to compare scores between sexes. A P value of Self-image/appearance had the greatest relative improvement. Males had better self-image/appearance scores preoperatively, better pain scores at 2 years, and better mental health and total scores both preoperatively and at 2 years. Both males and females were similarly satisfied with surgery. Males treated with surgery for AIS report better preoperative self-image, less postoperative pain, and better mental health than females. These differences may be clinically significant. For both males and females, the most beneficial effect of surgery is improved self-image/appearance. Overall, the benefits of surgery for AIS are similar for both sexes.
Quirk, Meghan E.; Schmotzer, Brian J.; Schmotzer, Brian J.; Singh, Rani H.
Resting energy expenditure (REE) is often used to estimate total energy needs. The Schofield equation based on weight and height has been reported to underestimate REE in female children with phenylketonuria (PKU). The objective of this observational, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the agreement of measured REE with predicted REE for female adolescents with PKU. A total of 36 females (aged 11.5-18.7 years) with PKU attending Emory University’s Metabolic Camp (June 2002 – June 2008) underwent indirect calorimetry. Measured REE was compared to six predictive equations using paired Student’s t-tests, regression-based analysis, and assessment of clinical accuracy. The differences between measured and predicted REE were modeled against clinical parameters to determine to if a relationship existed. All six selected equations significantly under predicted measured REE (P< 0.005). The Schofield equation based on weight had the greatest level of agreement, with the lowest mean prediction bias (144 kcal) and highest concordance correlation coefficient (0.626). However, the Schofield equation based on weight lacked clinical accuracy, predicting measured REE within ±10% in only 14 of 36 participants. Clinical parameters were not associated with bias for any of the equations. Predictive equations underestimated measured REE in this group of female adolescents with PKU. Currently, there is no accurate and precise alternative for indirect calorimetry in this population. PMID:20497783
Laufer, M E
The significance of the role played by masturbation in the female is examined from a developmental point of view in order to question the assumption, often made, that female masturbation has the same normal significance as masturbation for the male. In order to do so, the difference between attitudes to male and female masturbation is defined as a difference in attitude to the use of the hand for masturbatory activity and is related to the observation that it is that activity that female children give up post-oedipally and again in post-puberty. The unconscious meaning of the hand, as identified with the mother's active handling of the child's body, is examined to show that masturbation is needed by the child to internalize a positive narcissistic cathexis of the body as well as a means of separating from the mother's body. The continued use of the hand during adolescence and adulthood by the girl or woman is then seen as a defensive means of maintaining a positive relationship to her own sexual body once the girl's body has become identified with that of her mother. The failure of this defence when used by the girl as a means to maintain a positive relationship to her own sexual body is seen as leading to the unconsciously determined need to attack her body, as can be observed clinically in those adolescents who physically attack their body.
Elahi, S; Hassan, M.; Syed, Z.; Hyder, S.W.; Nazeer, L.; Nagra, S.A.
Objective: To study goiter and thyroid dysfunction in female adolescents residing in Lahore referred to Centre for Nuclear Medicine (CENUM), Mayo Hospital for thyroid scanning and thyroid function tests. Design: Retrospective study of thyroid size, thyroid scan patterns and serum FT/sub 4/ and TSH levels. Setting: Centre for Nuclear Medicine (CENUM), Mayo Hospital, Lahore. Patients: 350 female adolescent referred during September 2002 to April 2003. Main outcome measures: adolescent goiter, thyroid nodules, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, Graves' disease, toxic multi nodular goiter. Results: Among 350 adolescents 212(60.6%) had goiter of various grades mostly visible. Among goiterous patients 136(64.2%) had diffuse and 76 (35.8%) had nodular presentation. The number of patients with solitary nodular goiter (20.7%) was more than multi nodular goiter (15.1%) and number of patients with solitary cold nodule (16.5%) was more than functioning nodule (4.2%). The incidence of biochemical thyroid dysfunction, both overt and subclinical, was detected in 42(19.8%) patients and was significantly more frequent in patients with nodular than diffuse presentation (29% VS 14.7%; p<0.001) and in multinodular than solitary nodular goiter (p<0.005). More than 80% of the patients with solitary nodular goiter were euthyroid. Simple goiter was detected in 116(54.7%), Graves' disease in 5(2.4%) and toxic multinodular goiter in 4(1.9%) patients. Overall incidence of hypothyroidism was more than double as compared to hyperthyroidism. Incidence of nodularity and hypothyroidism was more in large goiter but duration of goiter was not significant in promoting nodularity. Conclusion: Goiterous adolescents need urgent attention because they don't have just diffuse hypertrophy with normal thyroid function. Many are afflicted with dysfunction and nodularity, particularly solitary cold nodule bearing risk of thyroid malignancy. (author)
Full Text Available Background: Mental health problems, as one of the most neglected issues among adolescents,are common during adolescence and emerging adulthood. The aim of present study was to investigate the determinants of psychological well being among female adolescents in Tabriz,Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to recruit 289 female high school students to participate in the study during 2013–2014. A 3-section questionnaire was applied to collect data. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was applied to illustrate the variations in psychological wellbeing score on the basis of socio-demographic and psychological variables.Results: Self-efficacy, hopefulness, happiness and life satisfaction were positively correlated (r> 0.400 and perceived stress was negatively associated with psychological well-being (r =-0.689. In the first model, satisfaction with family lifestyle (β = 0.168, P < 0.001 and perceived stress (β = -0.470, P < 0.001 were the most significant positive and negative predictors for psychological wellbeing, respectively (R2 = 0.595, P < 0.001. In the second model (step 6,physical activity (β = -0.109, P < 0.019, have/had boyfriend (β = 0.237, P < 0.001, hopefulness(β = -0.130, P < 0.05 and happiness (-β = 0.387, P < 0.001 were significant predictors for perceived stress (R2 = 0.453, P < 0.001.Conclusion: Considering the various behavioral, mental and social predictors of psychological wellbeing, it seems that perceived stress has overshadowed the influence of a majority of the other factors. Such influence may be due to the specific cultural and context-based rules enforced for female adolescents in the Iranian community.
Titilola M Pedro
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26, and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS. Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2. Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5% of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter. The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001. There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents.
Chui, Harold T; Christensen, Bruce K; Zipursky, Robert B; Richards, Blake A; Hanratty, M Katherine; Kabani, Noor J; Mikulis, David J; Katzman, Debra K
Abnormalities in cognitive function and brain structure have been reported in acutely ill adolescents with anorexia nervosa, but whether these abnormalities persist or are reversible in the context of weight restoration remains unclear. Brain structure and cognitive function in female subjects with adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa assessed at long-term follow-up were studied in comparison with healthy female subjects, and associations with clinical outcome were investigated. Sixty-six female subjects (aged 21.3 +/- 2.3 years) who had a diagnosis of adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa and treated 6.5 +/- 1.7 years earlier in a tertiary care hospital and 42 healthy female control subjects (aged 20.7 +/- 2.5 years) were assessed. All participants underwent a clinical examination, magnetic resonance brain scan, and cognitive evaluation. Clinical data were analyzed first as a function of weight recovery (n = 14, or=85% ideal body weight) and as a function of menstrual status (n = 18, absent/irregular menses; n = 29, oral contraceptive pill; n = 19, regular menses). Group comparisons were made across structural brain volumes and cognitive scores. Compared with control subjects, participants with anorexia nervosa who remained at low weight had larger lateral ventricles. Twenty-four-hour urinary free-cortisol levels were positively correlated with volumes of the temporal horns of the lateral ventricles and negatively correlated with volumes of the hippocampi in clinical participants. Participants who were amenorrheic or had irregular menses showed significant cognitive deficits across a broad range of many domains. Female subjects with adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa showed abnormal cognitive function and brain structure compared with healthy individuals despite an extended period since diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a specific relationship between menstrual function and cognitive function in this patient population. Possible mechanisms
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine differences in bone mineral density (BMD among adolescent female tennis players (TPs and nontennis players (NTPs and to assess body composition as a predictor variable of BMD. Nineteen female TPs and 19 female NTPs, ages 14 to 18 years, participated in this study. Lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearms BMD, and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Lumbar spine and total hip BMD measurements for TP were greater than NTP. However, these differences were not statistically significant (=0.37 and 0.12, resp.. TP had significantly greater femoral neck BMD than NTPs (=0.02. This difference might play an important role in preventing osteoporosis and decreasing the risk of fractures at the hip later in life.
Full Text Available Access to highly specialized health care services and support to meet the patient's specific needs is critical for health outcome, especially during age-related transitions within the health care system such as with adolescents entering adult medicine. Being affected by an orphan disease complicates the situation in several important respects. Long distances to dedicated institutions and scarcity of knowledge, even among medical doctors, may present major obstacles for proper access to health care services and health chances. This study is part of the BMBF funded TransCareO project examining in a mixed-method design health care provisional deficits, preferences, and barriers in health care access as perceived by female adolescents affected by the Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS, a rare (orphan genital malformation.Prior to a communicative validation workshop, critical elements of MRKHS related care and support (items were identified in interviews with MRKHS patients. During the subsequent workshop, 87 persons involved in health care and support for MRKHS were asked to rate the items using a 7-point Likert scale (7, strongly agree; 1, strongly disagree as to 1 the elements' potential importance (i.e., health care expected to be "best practice", or priority and 2 the presently experienced care. A gap score between the two was computed highlighting fields of action. Items were arranged into ten separate questionnaires representing domains of care and support (e.g., online-portal, patient participation. Within each domain, several items addressed various aspects of "information" and "access". Here, we present the outcome of items' evaluation by patients (attended, NPAT = 35; respondents, NRESP = 19.Highest priority scores occurred for domains "Online-Portal", "Patient participation", and "Tailored informational offers", characterizing them as extremely important for the perception as best practice. Highest gap scores yielded domains
Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md
This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents' risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia.
Huysentruyt, Koen; De Schepper, Jean; Vanbesien, Jesse; Vandenplas, Yvan
Albumin and pre-albumin are frequently used as nutritional markers in clinical practice. We examined whether serum albumin and pre-albumin were predicted by body mass index (BMI), hydration and/or inflammation in female adolescents with a recently diagnosed restrictive eating disorder (RED). This was a retrospective study of female adolescents with RED from 2002 to 2011. Low albumin and pre-albumin levels were defined as nutritional status in adolescents with RED. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Stefini, Annette; Salzer, Simone; Reich, Günter; Horn, Hildegard; Winkelmann, Klaus; Bents, Hinrich; Rutz, Ursula; Frost, Ulrike; von Boetticher, Antje; Ruhl, Uwe; Specht, Nicole; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas
The authors compared cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN) in female adolescents. In this randomized controlled trial, 81 female adolescents with BN or partial BN according to the DSM-IV received a mean of 36.6 sessions of manualized disorder-oriented PDT or CBT. Trained psychologists blinded to treatment condition administered the outcome measures at baseline, during treatment, at the end of treatment, and 12 months after treatment. The primary outcome was the rate of remission, defined as a lack of DSM-IV diagnosis for BN or partial BN at the end of therapy. Several secondary outcome measures were evaluated. The remission rates for CBT and PDT were 33.3% and 31.0%, respectively, with no significant differences between them (odds ratio [OR] = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.35-2.28, p = .82). The within-group effect sizes were h = 1.22 for CBT and h = 1.18 for PDT. Significant improvements in all secondary outcome measures were found for both CBT (d = 0.51-0.82) and PDT (d = 0.24-1.10). The improvements remained stable at the 12-month follow-up in both groups. There were small between-group effect sizes for binge eating (d = 0.23) and purging (d = 0.26) in favor of CBT and for eating concern (d = -0.35) in favor of PDT. CBT and PDT were effective in promoting recovery from BN in female adolescents. The rates of remission for both therapies were similar to those in other studies evaluating CBT. This trial identified differences with small effects in binge eating, purging, and eating concern. Clinical trial registration information-Treating Bulimia Nervosa in Female Adolescents With Either Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) or Psychodynamic Therapy (PDT). http://isrctn.com/; ISRCTN14806095. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C; Underwood, Mark D; Foltin, Richard W; Myers, Michael M; Walsh, B Timothy; Barrett, Jeffrey S; Marsteller, Douglas A
Activity-based anorexia is a translational rodent model that results in severe weight loss, hyperactivity, and voluntary self-starvation. The goal of our investigation was to identify vulnerable and resistant phenotypes of activity-based anorexia in adolescent female rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained under conditions of restricted access to food (N = 64; or unlimited access, N = 16) until experimental exit, predefined as a target weight loss of 30-35% or meeting predefined criteria for animal health. Nonlinear mixed effects statistical modeling was used to describe wheel running behavior, time to event analysis was used to assess experimental exit, and a regressive partitioning algorithm was used to classify phenotypes. Objective criteria were identified for distinguishing novel phenotypes of activity-based anorexia, including a vulnerable phenotype that conferred maximal hyperactivity, minimal food intake, and the shortest time to experimental exit, and a resistant phenotype that conferred minimal activity and the longest time to experimental exit. The identification of objective criteria for defining vulnerable and resistant phenotypes of activity-based anorexia in adolescent female rats provides an important framework for studying the neural mechanisms that promote vulnerability to or protection against the development of self-starvation and hyperactivity during adolescence. Ultimately, future studies using these novel phenotypes may provide important translational insights into the mechanisms that promote these maladaptive behaviors characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Sexual violence against females is a public health problem. This descriptive cross-sectional study sought to determine the prevalence of sexual violence among out-of-school female adolescents in Lagos, Nigeria and examine the context in which it occurs. Three hundred and fifty adolescents, between the ages of 10 and 19 years, working in Sandgrouse market, Lagos, were selected using cluster sampling. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Almost half (42.9% of the respondents have had sexual intercourse, and median age at initiation was 17 years. Forced initiation was reported by 15.8%, and 36.3% reported that first intercourse was due to coercion. Among the sexually active, only 12.3% stated that “it is what they desire.” Majority of respondents (64.1% believe that rape is common in their community, and 18% of the sexually active have experienced rape. Out-of-school adolescents in this community are at risk of sexual violence. The factors that make them vulnerable need to be addressed.
Al-Quaiz, Al-Joharah M; Raheel, Hafsa M
To determine the frequency, experiences and correlates of sexual violence among female adolescents in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2 schools in Riyadh city for adolescent females starting from January 2008 for 3 months. Five classes with 25 students in each were randomly selected from intermediate and secondary grade of each school. Four hundred and nineteen students were included. A self-answering questionnaire was distributed and collected after 15 minutes by 3 research assistants. Forty-two adolescent students (10%) were exposed to sexual violence. Only 31% of the students were taught how to react to sexual violence. Students whose order was > or = 5th among siblings and who had unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were more exposed to sexual violence (chi2=4.02, p=0.044, chi2=4.24, p=0.039). Being > or = 5th in order among siblings and having unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were correlates for exposure to sexual violence.
Ortega, Pablo; Leal, Jorymar; Amaya, Daysi; Chávez, Carlos
Female adolescents in reproductive age are a susceptible group to anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to know the nutritional, anthropometric and dietetic status, the prevalence of anemia, depletion of iron deposits (FeD) and Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in female adolescents. Seventy-eight not pregnant female adolescents (15.9 +/- 1.1 years old), from an urban and a periurban zone of Maracaibo, and a rural zone near this city, without infectious and inflammatory processes, were analyzed. Anemia in adolescents was considered when Hb zone showed significant lower values of weight (p = 0.0024), height (p = 0.0027), body mass index BMI (p = 0.0487), fatty area (p = 0.0183), MCV (p = 0.0241), MCH (p = 0.0488), MHCC (p = 0.0228), and the highest prevalence of anemia (66.67%), anemia+FeD (33.33%), and anemia+FeD+RVAD (5.56%), with respect to adolescents from the urban zone. Although, anemic adolescents from the rural zone showed a non significant decrease of the iron percentage adjustment. Iron requirements are increased during adolescence, reaching a maximum at the peak of growth and remaining almost as high in girls after menarche, to replace menstrual losses. The low iron status among adolescents from the rural zone determine that this is a high risk group to anemia and FeD and they require prevention, control and suplementation strategies.
Pace, Ugo; Cacioppo, Marco; Schimmenti, Adriano
The present study examined the association between quality of attachment, perception of the father's bond, and binge eating symptoms in a sample of female late adolescents. In total, 233 female students aged between 18 and 20 years completed measures on binge eating, quality of attachment and parent-child relationship. Data showed that respondents…
Ahmed, F; Hasan, N; Kabir, Y
To investigate the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among adolescent female factory workers in Bangladesh, and examine the association between various factors and vitamin A status. A cross-sectional study. Garment factories in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Three hundred and eighty eight adolescent girls aged 12-19 y from ten garment factories were selected randomly for the present study. Information on socio-economic conditions and usual pattern of dietary intake were obtained by interview. Anthropometric data and blood samples were collected following the interview. By NCHS reference standard, 15.5% of the participants were thin ( 120% Wt/Ht). In about 56%, serum vitamin A level was below the adequate level of 1.05 mumol/l, with 14% having vitamin A deficiency (Bangladesh, although the anthropometric indices suggest that they do not suffer from acute under nutrition. Consumption of DGLV appears to have an important relation with the vitamin A status of these girls.
Gonadal steroids, including androgens and oestrogens, play a critical part in bone metabolism, and conditions associated with a deficiency of gonadal steroids can reduce BMD in adults and impair bone accrual in adolescents. In addition, other associated hormone alterations, for example, insulin-like growth factor 1 deficiency or high cortisol levels, can further exacerbate the effect of hypogonadism on bone metabolism, as can factors such as calcium and vitamin D deficiency, low body weight and exercise status. This Review discusses the effects of different hypogonadal states on bone metabolism in female adolescents and young adults, with particular emphasis on conditions associated with low energy availability, such as anorexia nervosa and athletic amenorrhoea, in which many factors other than hypogonadism affect bone. In contrast to most hypogonadal conditions, in which replacement of gonadal steroids is sufficient to normalize bone accrual rates and BMD, gonadal steroid replacement may not be sufficient to normalize bone metabolism in these states of energy deficit.
Ramanathan, Subha; Crocker, Peter R E
In this study we explored the role of personal, familial, and cultural attitudes and social norms for physical activity (PA) on actual PA behavior among female adolescents of the Indian diaspora. Six girls, 15 to 19 years of age, from a spiritual center participated in interviews and a focus group. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Participants were high in familism, and felt that PA was important for physical and mental health, and to strengthen relationships with family. Fathers and brothers were considered most influential on PA patterns. Differentiated gender roles in PA emerged: boys were deemed more aggressive and competitive, and girls were perceived to promote fun-based learning environments. The importance of religion and spirituality as influences on PA emerged among participants with strong affinities for Indian cultures. Results show that cultural heritage impacts PA norms, attitudes, and patterns, and must be considered when evaluating adolescent PA participation in multicultural societies.
Kaplan, Sigal; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
Physical inactivity of children and adolescents is a major public health challenge of the modern era but, when adequately promoted and nurtured, active travel offers immediate health benefits and forms future sustainable and healthy travel habits. This study explores jointly the choice...... and the extent of active travel of young adolescents while considering walking and cycling as distinct travel forms, controlling for objective urban form measures, and taking both a "street-buffer" looking at the immediate home surroundings and a "transport-zone" looking at wider neighborhoods. A Heckman...... selection model represents the distance covered while cycling (walking) given the mode choice being bicycle (walk) for a representative sample of 10-15 year-olds from the Capital Region of Denmark extracted from the Danish national travel survey. Results illustrate the necessity of different urban...
Research involving adolescent and young African American (AA) females has demonstrated that they face uncontrollable obstacles which can interfere with the negotiation of safer sexual behaviors. If these obstacles are perceived as uncontrollable, then these females may be at risk for the development of Learned Helplessness (LH). As the LH model predicts, if these obstacles are believed not to be in their control, it may lead to deficits in motivational or cognitive decision-making, deficits that could certainly influence their sexual risk taking behaviors. Therefore, the primary objective for this pilot study was to trial the Learned Helplessness Scale (LHS) to examine the perceptions of LH in this population. A convenience sample of 50 adolescent and young AA females between the ages of 16 and 21 were recruited from two clinics in Southeast Michigan. Scores on the LHS ranged from 20 to 57, with a mean score of 39.1 (standard deviation = 10.49). The higher range of scores in the sample demonstrates a continuum of LH among the participants in the study.
Shenk, Chad E; Noll, Jennie G; Peugh, James L; Griffin, Amanda M; Bensman, Heather E
To evaluate the impact of contamination, or the presence of child maltreatment in a comparison condition, when estimating the broad, longitudinal effects of child maltreatment on female health at the transition to adulthood. The Female Adolescent Development Study (N = 514; age range: 14-19 years) used a prospective cohort design to examine the effects of substantiated child maltreatment on teenage births, obesity, major depression, and past-month cigarette use. Contamination was controlled via a multimethod strategy that used both adolescent self-report and Child Protective Services records to remove cases of child maltreatment from the comparison condition. Substantiated child maltreatment significantly predicted each outcome, relative risks = 1.47-2.95, 95% confidence intervals: 1.03-7.06, with increases in corresponding effect size magnitudes, only when contamination was controlled using the multimethod strategy. Contamination truncates risk estimates of child maltreatment and controlling it can strengthen overall conclusions about the effects of child maltreatment on female health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ancheta, Rosedelia; Hynes, Colin; Shrier, Lydia A
The objective of this study was to explore the associations of sources, content, and timing of reproductive health education with cognitive and behavioral sexual risk in a sample of high-risk female adolescents and young adults. Female adolescents and young adults (n=113, median age 17 years) receiving treatment for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) reported sources of reproductive health education, topics covered, and when first formal education occurred. Dependent variables included sexual risk knowledge; condom attitudes, negotiation skills, and use (consistent and at last sex); and number of sexual partners. Most participants reported receiving reproductive health education from both parental (80%) and formal sources (92%). Parents discussed the menstrual cycle (94%) more frequently than other sex education topics, while formal sources focused most on teaching about STDs (91%). Although median age of first formal instruction was 12 years, 26% of girls received their first formal education during or after the year they initiated coitus. Girls with a parental source of education and those receiving formal instruction on pregnancy reported greater ability to negotiate condom use. Girls who received education later in relation to the onset of sexual activity and those with a parental source of education reported more sexual partners. Early reproductive health education and education from both parental and formal sources is associated with reduced sexual risk among high-risk adolescent girls. Interestingly, receiving parental education is also associated with more sexual partners, suggesting that parental educational efforts may be reactive to their daughters' increasing sexual risk behavior. Future research should examine multiple sources of reproductive health education and the timing of education from these sources to enhance understanding the dynamic interactions between reproductive health education and adolescent sexual risk.
Ayissi, Claudine Akono; Wamai, Richard G; Oduwo, Geofrey O; Perlman, Stacey; Welty, Edith; Welty, Thomas; Manga, Simon; Ogembo, Javier Gordon
The purpose of this study is to assess awareness, knowledge and beliefs about HPV, cervical cancer HPV vaccine and willingness to vaccinate among adolescent females aged 12-26 years at clinics and schools in the North West Region of Cameroon where the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services (CBCHS) conducted a sensitization and education campaign. A questionnaire survey was administered among female adolescents in schools and clinics. Descriptive statistics including frequencies, percentages and proportions were generated for independent variables and bivariate analyses (Chi square test) were used to assess the relationship between independent and outcome variables. Data were analyzed using SAS Version 9.2. Out of a sample of 650 adolescent girls 553 willingly participated in this anonymous survey. Awareness of HPV (86.8%), cervical cancer (82.3%), and prevention of HPV infections through vaccination (75.9%) was significantly higher than in previous studies conducted in Cameroon and other developing countries. Higher perceptions of risk were associated with being sexually active (p = 0.0013), age (p = 0.0031) and level of education (p = 0.0274). Age and educational level were associated with HPV knowledge (p = 0.007 and p = 0.0008), respectively. The mean level of interest in HPV vaccination was 4.0 (SD = 1.27), which is above the mean. Our data indicate high awareness about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine among adolescents, and interest in receiving the vaccine and learning about the disease. CBCHS' community education strategy effectively raised acceptability and generated demand for HPV vaccine, making it a potential model for HPV immunization in Cameroon and other developing countries.
Toscano, Sharyl E
This paper describes the nature and characteristics of the dating relationships of adolescent females, including any of their experiences of abuse. A grounded theory approach was used with 22 theoretically sampled female adolescents ages 15-18. Several important themes emerged: Seven stages of dating consistently described the relationships of female adolescents. A circle consisting of two interacting same sex peer groups provided structure for each teen as they navigated the dating course. The circle was the central factor affecting a female adolescent's potential for risk or harm in dating relationships. Teens defined abuse as an act where the intention is to hurt. Having once succumbed to sexual pressure, teens felt unable to refuse sex in subsequent situations. An awareness of both the stages of dating and the dynamics of the circle will assist health care providers to plan and implement interventions in the female adolescent population. Study findings on factors and influences that support non-abusive versus abusive relationship might help identify female teens at risk and/or support interventions aimed at preventing dating violence.
Toscano Sharyl E
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the nature and characteristics of the dating relationships of adolescent females, including any of their experiences of abuse. Methods A grounded theory approach was used with 22 theoretically sampled female adolescents ages 15–18. Results Several important themes emerged: Seven stages of dating consistently described the relationships of female adolescents. A circle consisting of two interacting same sex peer groups provided structure for each teen as they navigated the dating course. The circle was the central factor affecting a female adolescent's potential for risk or harm in dating relationships. Teens defined abuse as an act where the intention is to hurt. Having once succumbed to sexual pressure, teens felt unable to refuse sex in subsequent situations. Conclusion An awareness of both the stages of dating and the dynamics of the circle will assist health care providers to plan and implement interventions in the female adolescent population. Study findings on factors and influences that support non-abusive versus abusive relationship might help identify female teens at risk and/or support interventions aimed at preventing dating violence.
Nicole L. Johnson
Full Text Available The non-medical use of prescription opiates, such as Vicodin® and MSContin®, has increased dramatically over the past decade. Of particular concern is the rising popularity of these drugs in adolescent female populations. Use during this critical developmental period could have significant long-term consequences for both the female user as well as potential effects on her future offspring. To address this issue, we have begun modeling adolescent opiate exposure in female rats and have observed significant transgenerational effects despite the fact that all drugs are withdrawn several weeks prior to pregnancy. The purpose of the current set of studies was to determine whether adolescent morphine exposure modifies postpartum care. In addition, we also examined juvenile play behavior in both male and female offspring. The choice of the social play paradigm was based on previous findings demonstrating effects of both postpartum care and opioid activity on play behavior. The findings revealed subtle modifications in the maternal behavior of adolescent morphine-exposed females, primarily related to the amount of time females’ spend nursing and in non-nursing contact with their young. In addition, male offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed mothers (MOR-F1 demonstrate decreased rough and tumble play behaviors, with no significant differences in general social behaviors (i.e. social grooming and social exploration. Moreover, there was a tendency toward increased rough and tumble play in MOR-F1 females, demonstrating the sex-specific nature of these effects. Given the importance of the postpartum environment on neurodevelopment, it is possible that modifications in maternal-offspring interactions, related to a history of adolescent opiate exposure, plays a role in the observed transgenerational effects. Overall, these studies indicate that the long-term consequences of adolescent opiate exposure can impact both the female and her future offspring.
Myrick, Jessica Gall; Noar, Seth M; Kelley, Dannielle; Zeitany, Alexandra E
Unlike other types of cancer, skin cancer incidence rates are on the rise and adolescent females are particularly likely to tan indoors, a major risk factor. However, little research has examined the role of media use in encouraging or discouraging this dangerous behavior in this population. To empirically assess the links between media use, indoor tanning-related outcome expectations, and behavioral intentions. A survey of adolescent females ( N = 510) ages 15 to 18 in the Southeastern United States assessed demographics, types of media use, and indoor tanning intentions. Significant correlations between media use and indoor tanning outcome expectations were found. Use of interpersonal and social media (i.e., talking on the phone, texting, and online social media) were positively associated with positive outcome expectations about indoor tanning and negatively associated with negative outcome expectations. A path analysis revealed that interpersonal/social media use had indirect associations with indoor tanning intentions via tanning outcome expectations. Mass media use (e.g., news media, entertainment media, and magazines) was not significantly associated with most indoor tanning outcome expectations but did have a direct negative association with behavioral intentions. There are important relationships between media use, indoor tanning outcome expectations, and behavioral intentions. Interpersonal and social media use may help cultivate outcome expectations that encourage indoor tanning, which in turn may increase intentions to tan, while news media consumption in particular may reduce intentions to tan. These findings highlight the social nature of adolescent females and point to specific intervention channels for reducing indoor tanning among this population.
Norton, Elizabeth; Holloway, Immy; Galvin, Kathleen
To generate a grounded theory about female adolescent behaviour in the sun. Nurses have key roles in health promotion and skin cancer prevention. Adolescents' resistance to sun safety messages and their vulnerability to sunburn are of concern internationally. Understanding why young women do as they do in the sun may enhance skin cancer prevention, but their behaviour has not been explained before in the UK. The study incorporated a qualitative grounded theory design using the approach of Glaser. Qualitative data were gleaned from group and one-to-one, semi-structured interviews with 20 female participants aged 14-17, research memos and literature. Sampling was purposive and theoretical. Data collection, analysis and theory generation occurred concurrently. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. Data collection ended when a substantive theory had been generated. Data analysis revealed five categories of findings: fitting in, being myself, being physically comfortable, slipping up and being comfortable (the core category). The theory generated around the core explains how young women direct their sun-related activities towards meeting their physical and psychosocial comfort needs. A contribution of this research is the grounded theory explaining the behaviour of young women in the sun. Further, the theory challenges assumptions that female adolescents necessarily take risks; it explains their sun-related activities in terms of comfort. The theory extends findings from other researchers' descriptive qualitative studies and also appears to apply to young people in countries other than the UK. Understanding the sun-related activity of young women in terms of physical and psychosocial comfort may help nurses to develop new approaches to skin cancer prevention. These could complement existing messages and humanise health promotion. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nilsson, Doris; Nordenstam, Carin; Green, Sara; Wetterhall, Annika; Lundin, Tom; Svedin, Carl Göran
Rape is considered a stressful trauma and often with durable consequences. How the aftermath of rape is for young adolescents' girls considering acute stress is an overlooked field and remains to be studied. In this study, we wanted to investigate acute stress among adolescent victims of rape and the psychometric properties of the Acute Stress Checklist for Children (ASC-Kids). A clinical sample (n = 79) of raped girls, 13-17 years old who had turned to a special rape victim unit for treatment, answered the ASC-Kids. ASC-Kids was also given to a group of minor stressed, non-raped adolescents in the same age range (n = 154) together with the University of California at Los Angeles Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA PTSD RI), and the Sense of Coherence Scale 13 (SOC-13). The scores from the groups were compared and showed significant differences in mean values on all the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder. In the clinical group, 36.7% obtained full ASD criteria. ASC-Kids could discriminate well between groups. Cronbach's alpha was found to be excellent, and the correlation between the UCLA PTSD RI and ASC-Kids found to be good; both ASC-Kids and UCLA PTSD RI had a good and moderate negative correlation with SOC-13. Adolescent female rape victims were shown to have a very high level of acute stress, and the ASC-Kids was found to have sound psychometrics and can be a valuable screening instrument to support clinicians in their assessments of an indication of adolescents after potentially stressful events such as rape.
Driesmans, Karolien; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven
Prior research has documented favorable effects of active and educational videogames among adolescents. However, research on potential negative effects of such games is limited. Scholars have called attention to games portraying sexualized female characters. The purpose of the current study was to experimentally investigate the effect of playing a videogame with a sexualized female character on adolescents' acceptance of rape myths and tolerance for sexual harassment. Fifty-seven secondary school pupils, 12-15 years of age, participated in a 2 (gender: boys versus girls)×2 (game character: nonsexualized versus sexualized female) factorial design experiment. Participants played a game for 15 minutes and were randomly assigned to one of the two game characters. Afterward, they completed established scales to assess rape myth acceptance and tolerance for sexual harassment. Analyses of variance showed greater acceptance of rape myths (P=0.039) and greater tolerance of sexual harassment (P=0.046) in adolescents who played with the sexualized woman compared with adolescents in the control condition. We did not find significant differences between boys and girls or any interaction effect between gender and game character. Findings suggest that gameplaying with a sexualized woman may increase adolescents' acceptance of rape myths and tolerance for sexual harassment. These findings highlight attention to the use of sexualized female game characters in (educational and active) videogames that target adolescents.
Grimley, D M; Lee, P A
This study examined the sexual practices of 235 females aged 15 to 19 years and their readiness to use specific contraceptive methods for birth control and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention. The investigation was based on the stages-of-change construct from the Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1983, 1984). Results demonstrated that despite the availability of newer contraceptive methods (e.g., Depo-Provera), most sexually active adolescents were least resistant to using condoms and were further along in the stages of change for condom use as compared with other contraceptive methods. Moreover, the females perceived the male condom as an acceptable method for prevention of both pregnancy and STDs. These findings suggest that interventions designed to target consistent and correct condom use may result in better compliance, reducing the number of unintended pregnancies and STD cases among this populations.
This case study features an Olympic-level female middle-distance runner implementing a science-based approach to body composition periodization. Data are emerging to suggest that it is not sustainable from a health and/or performance perspective to be at peak body composition year-round, so body composition needs to be strategically periodized. Anthropometric (n = 44), hematological, other health measures, and 1,500-m race performances (n = 83) were periodically assessed throughout a 9-year career. General preparation phase (September to April) featured the athlete at ∼2-4% over ideal competition phase body weight (BW) and body fat (%), with optimal energy availability being prioritized. The competition body composition optimization phase (May to August) included creating an individualized time frame and caloric deficit with various feedback metrics (BW, performance, and hunger) to guide the process. There were significant seasonal fluctuations in anthropometric outcomes between phases (47.3 ± 0.8 vs. 48.3 ± 0.9 kg BW; 53.6 ± 7.8 vs. 61.6 ± 9.7 mm International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry sum of 8 [So8] skinfolds; p career (r = -.838; p = .018). The range of body composition during the competition period was 46.0-48.0 kg BW and a So8 range was 42.0-55.9 mm. There were also significant positive correlations between slower 1,500-m race times and increasing So8 (r = .437; p career injuries. This case study demonstrates a body composition periodization approach that allowed for targeted peak yearly performances, which improved throughout her career, while maximizing training adaptation and long-term athlete health through optimal energy availability.
Schneider, Sophie C; Baillie, Andrew J; Mond, Jonathan; Turner, Cynthia M; Hudson, Jennifer L
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) was categorised in DSM-5 within the newly created 'obsessive-compulsive and related disorders' chapter, however this classification remains subject to debate. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test competing models of the co-occurrence of symptoms of BDD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety, and eating disorders in a community sample of adolescents, and to explore potential sex differences in these models. Self-report questionnaires assessing disorder symptoms were completed by 3149 Australian adolescents. The fit of correlated factor models was calculated separately in males and females, and measurement invariance testing compared parameters of the best-fitting model between males and females. All theoretical models of the classification of BDD had poor fit to the data. Good fit was found for a novel model where BDD symptoms formed a distinct latent factor, correlated with affective disorder and eating disorder latent factors. Metric non-invariance was found between males and females, and the majority of factor loadings differed between males and females. Correlations between some latent factors also differed by sex. Only cross-sectional data were collected, and the study did not assess a broad range of DSM-5 defined eating disorder symptoms or other disorders in the DSM-5 obsessive-compulsive and related disorders chapter. This study is the first to statistically evaluate competing models of BDD classification. The findings highlight the unique features of BDD and its associations with affective and eating disorders. Future studies examining the classification of BDD should consider developmental and sex differences in their models. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Marwa A. Mohamed
Full Text Available Background: Premenstrual syndrome is a current condition characterized by troublesome symptoms as tension, irritability, depression, headache, anxiety and loss of self-control, so the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of foot reflexology augmented with relaxation training on premenstrual syndrome in adolescent females. Methods: A sample of 50 volunteers, virgin females diagnosed as premenstrual syndrome was selected from the students of Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University. Their age was ranged between 19 to 23 years with mean value of (21.53±2.27 yrs and BMI was ≤28 Kg/m² with mean value of (24.04±2.41 Kg/m².A detailed medical history was obtained to screen other pathological conditions that may affect the results. Females were randomly assigned into two equal groups. Group (A consisted of 25 subjects who received foot reflexology in addition to relaxation training techniques twice a week for 8 weeks. Group (B consisted of 25 patients, who received relaxation training techniques only twice a week for 8 weeks. Assessment of all subjects in both groups was carried out before and after the treatment program through heart rate, respiratory rate in addition to plasma cortisol level and daily symptoms report chart. Results: Showed a statistical highly significant decrease (p<0.001 in heart rate, respiratory rate, plasma cortisol level as well as daily symptoms report score in group (A while there was a statistical significant decrease (p<0.05 in all variables in group (B. Conclusions: Adding foot reflexology to relaxation training had a great positive effect on premenstrual syndrome in adolescent females than relaxation training only.
Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md
Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Results: Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. Conclusion: The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia. PMID:24762359
Bühren, K; Schwarte, R; Fluck, F; Timmesfeld, N; Krei, M; Egberts, K; Pfeiffer, E; Fleischhaker, C; Wewetzer, C; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B
Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) exhibit high rates of psychiatric comorbidity. To disentangle the effects of duration of illness on comorbid psychiatric symptoms, we investigated the rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, suicidality and self-harm behaviour in adolescent patients with a first onset of AN. In adolescent females (n = 148) with a first onset of AN, body mass index, psychiatric comorbidity (according to DSM-IV), depressive symptoms, suicidality and self-injurious behaviour were assessed. Seventy patients (47.3%) met the criteria for at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. The binge-purging subtype was associated with increased rates of psychiatric comorbidity, suicidality and self-injurious behaviour. The severity of eating disorder-specific psychopathology influenced current psychiatric comorbidity and suicidal ideation. Prevalence rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders and suicidal ideation are considerably lower among adolescents with AN compared with adults. An early and careful assessment, along with adequate treatment of the eating disorder, might prevent the development of severe psychiatric comorbidities. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
da Silva, Simone Guerra L; Sarni, Roseli O S; de Souza, Fabíola I S; Molina, Juliana; Terreri, Maria Teresa R A; Hilário, Maria Odete E; Len, Claudio A
To assess eating disorders, nutritional status, body composition, and food intake in adolescents presenting with fibromyalgia. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the nutritional status (z score of body mass index [ZBMI]), waist circumference, body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance analysis, symptoms of disordered eating, and possible eating disorders (Kids' Eating Disorders Survey [KEDS]) of 23 female adolescents with fibromyalgia and 23 matched healthy control subjects. Median age for both groups was 15 years. In the fibromyalgia group, the median time for diagnosis was 13.5 months. We did not observe a statistically significant difference between the control and fibromyalgia groups in relation to ZBMI, fat mass percentage, food intake, and symptoms of disordered eating (KEDS). In the fibromyalgia group, there was a significant correlation between fat mass percentage and the total KEDS score (r = .587, p = .003); the same correlation was observed for ZBMI (r = .0778, p fibromyalgia that, in addition to the correlation between adiposity indexes and KEDS total score, emphasizes the importance of nutritional and body composition assessment, allowing an early and adequate nutritional intervention. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Nutritional obesity is the most common cause of obesity (95% in childhood and adolescence. Morbid obesity (5%, which usually begins at an early age, can be caused by monogenic disorders, various genetic syndromes, endocrine diseases-disorders, central nervous system lesions or iatrogenic causes. Presentation of the patient: A female adolescent aged 13 is presented who was due to obesity referred to the Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity in children and adolescents at the Special Hospital “Cigota” at Mt. Zlatibor. Low height/stature and dysmorphic features: a face with a narrow bifrontal diameter, almond-shaped eyes, strabismus, small hands and feet, delay in puberty development and lagging in psychomotor development have indicated the morbid obesity. Anamnestic data on hypotonia and difficulty in feeding, psychomotor lagging behind, obesity since the third year of age, triggered a suspicion of Prader Willy’s syndrome. The suspicion of this syndrome was confirmed by a molecular DNA analysis which indicated a deletion on the long arm 15q11.2. Conclusion: Obesity, endocrinolopathies, retardation in psychomotor development and behavioral disorders in people with Prader Willy’s syndrome require a complex multidisciplinary treatment. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment prevent the occurrence of complications and improve the quality and length of life of the patients.
Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Coelho, Fernanda Dias; Paes, Santiago Tavares; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo
To evaluate the influence of self-esteem on levels of body dissatisfaction among adolescent females. A group of 397 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were enrolled in the study. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was applied to assess body dissatisfaction. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to assess self-esteem. Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were also measured. These anthropometric data were controlled in the statistical analyses. The multiple regression model indicated influence of "positive self-esteem" (R(2)=0.16; p=0.001) and "negative self-esteem" (R(2)=0.23; p=0.001) subscales on the BSQ scores. Univariate analysis of covariance demonstrated differences in BSQ scores (p=0.001) according to groups of self-esteem. It was concluded that self-esteem influenced body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls from Juiz de Fora, MG. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Tahmasebi, Kobra; Amani, Reza; Nazari, Zahra; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Moazzen, Sara; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali
Among various factors influencing mood disorders, the impact of micronutrient deficiencies has attracted a great attention. Zinc deficiency is considered to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of mood disorders in different stages of life. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc levels and mood disorders in high school female students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 100 representative high school female students. The participants completed 24-h food recall questionnaires to assess the daily zinc intakes. Serum zinc status was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and zinc deficiency was defined accordingly. Mood disorders were estimated by calculating the sum of two test scores including Beck's depression inventory (BDI) and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS) tests. General linear model (GLM) and Pearson's regression test were applied to show the correlation of serum zinc levels and mood disorder scores and the correlation between zinc serum levels and BDI scores, respectively. Dietary zinc intake was higher in subjects with normal zinc concentrations than that of zinc-deficient group (p = 0.001). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with BDI and HADS scores (p zinc levels led to 0.3 and 0.01 decrease in depression and anxiety scores, respectively (p zinc levels were inversely correlated with mood disorders including depression and anxiety in adolescent female students. Increasing serum levels of zinc in female students could improve their mood disorders.
Wong, J.C.H.; Lewindon, P.J.; Mortimer, R.; Sheperd, R.W.; Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, QLD
Full text: Osteopenia/osteoporosis and fractures have been shown to occur with anorexia nervosa (AN). This study evaluated adolescent females diagnosed with AN less than 12 months previously to determine the presence of any significant bone mass reduction at this early stage of diagnosis and to evaluate the correlation between total body (TB) and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral densities (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and nutritional indices (body weight, body mass index (BMI), lean mass, fat mass and percentage fat). The subjects were 22 adolescent females aged 12-17 years (mean= 14.3 years) diagnosed with AN less than 12 months earlier (range 2.5-11 months; mean = 6.7 months). They had bone density measurements of the TB and LS using a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. Comparison was made with values of age-matched controls in the Lunar normative database. Although there was a tendency towards low TB and LS bone mass, these changes were not statistically significant. Bivariate analyses showed significant correlation between TB BMD and lean mass (P < 0.001) and weight (P < 0.001) and between TB BMC and lean mass (P < 0.001) and weight (P < 0.01). There was similar significant correlation between LS BMD and lean mass (P < 0.01) and weight (P<0.01), and between LS BMC and lean mass (P < 0.01) and weight (P < 0.01). With stepwise regression analysis, only lean mass remained significantly correlated with TB BMD and BMC and LS BMD and BMC. There was no longer any significant correlation with weight. In this study, the weight percentile was found to be correlated highly with the LS BMD Z-score (P < 0.01). Therefore, during adolescence, the lean mass in particular, but also body weight, are good indicators of bone densities. Adolescent females do not appear to show bone mass reduction in the early stages of diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. This suggests early intervention may preserve bone gain and attainment of normal peak bone mass
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Growth retardation is an established complication of anorexia nervosa (AN. However, findings concerning final height of AN patients are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess these phenomena in female adolescent inpatients with AN. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all 211 female adolescent AN patients hospitalized in an inpatient eating disorders department from 1/1/1987 to 31/12/99. Height and weight were assessed at admission and thereafter routinely during hospitalization and follow-up. Final height was measured in 69 patients 2-10 years after discharge. Pre-morbid height data was available in 29 patients. RESULTS: Patients' height standard deviation scores (SDS on admission (-0.285±1.0 and discharge (-0.271±1.02 were significantly (p<0.001 lower than expected in normal adolescents. Patients admitted at age ≤13 years, or less than 1 year after menarche, were more severely growth-impaired than patients admitted at an older age, (p = 0.03. Final height SDS, available for 69 patients, was -0.258±1.04, significantly lower than expected in a normal population (p = 0.04, and was more severely compromised in patients who were admitted less than 1 year from their menarche. In a subgroup of 29 patients with complete growth data (pre-morbid, admission, discharge, and final adult height, the pre-morbid height SDS was not significantly different from the expected (-0.11±1.1, whereas heights at the other time points were significantly (p = 0.001 lower (-0.56±1.2, -0.52±1.2, and -0.6±1.2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that whereas the premorbid height of female adolescent AN patients is normal, linear growth retardation is a prominent feature of their illness. Weight restoration is associated with catch-up growth, but complete catch-up is often not achieved.
Full Text Available Objectives: African-American women are affected by disproportionately high rates of violence and sexually transmitted infections (STI/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. It is imperative to address the intersection of these two urgent public health issues, particularly as these affect African-American adolescent girls. This study assessed the prevalence of rape victimization (RV among a sample of African-American adolescent females and examined the extent to which participants with a history of RV engage in STI/HIV associated risk behaviors over a 12-month time period.Methods: Three hundred sixty-seven African-American adolescent females ages 15-21, seeking sexual health services at three local teenager-oriented community health agencies in an urban area of the Southeastern United States, participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI at baseline, six- and 12-month follow-up. We assessed sociodemographics, history of RV and sexual practices. At baseline, participants indicating they had experienced forced sex were classified as having a history of RV.Results: Twenty-five percent of participants reported a history of RV at baseline. At six- and 12-months, victims of RV had significantly lower proportions of condom-protected sex (p=.008, higher frequency of sex while intoxicated (p=.005, more inconsistent condom use (p=.008, less condom use at last sex (p=.017, and more sex partners (p=.0001 than non-RV victims. Over the 12-month follow-up period, of those who did not report RV at baseline, 9.5% reported that they too had experienced RV at some point during the 12-month time frame.Conclusion: African-American adolescent females who experience RV are engaging in more risky sexual behaviors over time than non-RV girls, thereby placing themselves at higher risk for contracting STIs. In light of the results from this unique longitudinal study, we discuss considerations for
Full Text Available Gulsen Unlu, Burcu Cakaloz Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey Purpose: Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI in these cases. Patients and methods: Data of 254 sexually abused female adolescents between the ages of 12–18 years were evaluated. The cases were classified into three groups, namely “sexual dating violence”, “incest”, and “other child sexual abuse”, according to the identity of the perpetrator. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features. Results: Major depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, which was present in 44.9% of the cases. Among all victims, 25.6% had attempted suicide, 52.0% had suicidal ideation, and 23.6% had NSSI during the postabuse period. A logistic regression analysis revealed that attempted suicide was predicted by dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.053; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.473, 6.330 and depression (AOR =2.238; 95% CI =1.226, 4.086. Dating violence victimization was also the strongest predictor of subsequent suicidal ideation (AOR =3.500; 95% CI =1.817, 6.741. In addition, revictimization was determined to be an important risk factor for both suicidal ideation (AOR =2.897; 95% CI =1.276, 6.574 and NSSI (AOR =3.847; 95% CI =1.899, 7.794. Conclusion: Perpetrator identity and revictimization are associated with negative mental health outcomes in sexually victimized female adolescents. Increased risk of suicidality and NSSI should be borne in mind while assessing cases with dating
This study was an investigation of female adolescents' perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and reading science-related texts. Three surveys were used to collect data from 253 middle school students in Grade 7 and Grade 8 and six interviews were conducted with students. The interviews allowed a deeper analysis of the value students placed on science and on reading science-related texts. The quantitative data were collected through the following surveys: Test of Science Related Attitudes, Motivation for Reading Informational Books in School adapted, and Metacognitive Awareness Reading Strategies Inventory adapted. The purpose of the surveys was to provide a comprehensive picture of students' self-reported perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and the motivation to engage. Literacy processes and practices make engagement and learning in science possible; however, intrinsic motivation and cognitive strategies are critical influential components that educators cannot overlook. The female adolescents in this study expressed greater competence when involved in learning science through inquiry experimentation integrated with literacy presented in different formats.
Roggen, Inge; Vanbesien, Jesse; Gies, Inge; Van den Eede, Ursula; Lampo, Annik; Louis, Olivia; De Schepper, Jean
Data available on bone mineralization by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in adolescents with an early onset anorexia nervosa (AN) is limited. We investigated whether a disturbed bone mineralization can be observed at the distal radius in recently diagnosed female adolescents with AN and a premenarchal onset of this disease. Twenty-four premenarchal patients with AN and 22 healthy females which were age and height matched, were selected from our reference database; both groups underwent a pQCT bone assessment at the distal radius of the nondominant arm. The patients age ranged between 13.3 and 18.4 years. Their percent weight loss ranged between 5 and 36% (median 23%) and occurred within the preceding 3 to 44 months. Trabecular volumetric bone mineral density of the patient group was significantly lower than the comparison group (185.6 ± 30.2 vs.209.3 ± 34.0 mm(2) ; p = 0.02). Bone cross-sectional area, bone mineral content, total volumetric bone mineral density and periosteal circumference were also lower, albeit not significantly. The bone parameters were unrelated to the under nutrition severity and duration. In premenarchal patients with AN the trabecular bone mineralization of the forearm is significantly reduced, this might be an early indicator of altered bone mineral accrual. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:809-812). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available This study explored the correlates for consistency of contraceptive use among sexually active female adolescents in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. Overall, 164 female adolescents who had engaged in sexual behavior within the last 6 months and were not pregnant at the time of the study were selected from two vocational high schools in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. An anonymous questionnaire was used to measure demographic data, contraceptive attitudes, contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive self-efficacy, perception of peers' use of contraceptives, sexual history, and contraceptive use. The results showed that 45.7% of subjects had sex once or more per week, and that 39.6% of subjects always used contraceptives while 15.2% never used contraceptives. Condoms were the most popular contraceptives (51.2% and the withdrawal method was the second most popular (23.8%. Stepwise logistic regression showed that higher contraceptive attitudes (odds ratio, OR, 1.148 and previous contraceptive education in school (OR, 3.394 increased the probability of consistently using contraceptives, correctly classifying 67.2% of the sample.
Ballester, Rafael; Huertas, Florentino; Yuste, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Francesc; Sanabria, Daniel
The present study investigated the relationship between regular sport participation (soccer) and vigilance performance. Two groups of male and female adolescents differentiated in terms of their sport participation (athletes, n = 39, and non-athletes, n = 36) took part in the study. In one session, participants performed the Leger Multi-stage fitness test to estimate their aerobic fitness level. In the other session, participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) to evaluate their vigilance performance. Perceived arousal prior to the task and motivation toward the task were also measured in the PVT session. The results revealed that athletes had better cardiovascular fitness and showed better performance in the PVT. However, correlation analyses did not show any significant relationship between cardiovascular fitness and performance in the PVT. Athletes showed larger scores in motivation and perceived arousal measures with respect to non-athletes, although, once again, these variables were not correlated with PVT performance. Gender differences were observed only in the Leger test, with males showing greater fitness level than females. The major outcome of this research points to a positive relationship between regular sport participation and vigilance during adolescence. This relationship did not seem to be influenced by gender, perceived arousal, motivation toward the task or cardiovascular fitness. We discuss our results in terms of the different hypotheses put forward in the literature to explain the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning.
Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between regular sport participation (soccer and vigilance performance. Two groups of male and female adolescents differentiated in terms of their sport participation (athletes, n = 39, and non-athletes, n = 36 took part in the study. In one session, participants performed the Leger Multi-stage fitness test to estimate their aerobic fitness level. In the other session, participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT to evaluate their vigilance performance. Perceived arousal prior to the task and motivation toward the task were also measured in the PVT session. The results revealed that athletes had better cardiovascular fitness and showed better performance in the PVT. However, correlation analyses did not show any significant relationship between cardiovascular fitness and performance in the PVT. Athletes showed larger scores in motivation and perceived arousal measures with respect to non-athletes, although, once again, these variables were not correlated with PVT performance. Gender differences were observed only in the Leger test, with males showing greater fitness level than females. The major outcome of this research points to a positive relationship between regular sport participation and vigilance during adolescence. This relationship did not seem to be influenced by gender, perceived arousal, motivation toward the task or cardiovascular fitness. We discuss our results in terms of the different hypotheses put forward in the literature to explain the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning.
Alley, Thomas R; Hicks, Catherine M
This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in one of three sports. A total of 12 different descriptive paragraphs were used in a 2 (race) x 2 (sex) x 3 (sport) design. Each of these paragraphs, although short, ascribed a variety of traits that could be seen by raters as the independent variables: name (initials only), age, race, gender, hours of practice per week, number of competitions/performances per year, sport, and self-confidence. For this reason, raters were highly unlikely to surmise that sex and sport were the primary independent variables in the study. As predicted, there was a consistent decrease in rated femininity and increase in masculinity for both male and female adolescent targets as they switched from participating in a "feminine" (ballet) to a neutral (tennis) to a "masculine" (karate) sport. These results suggest that sex stereotypes for certain sports may influence who elects to participate and how participants are viewed by others.
Escudero, Carolina A; Potts, James E; Lam, Pei-Yoong; De Souza, Astrid M; Mugford, Gerald J; Sandor, George G S
This retrospective case-control study investigated cardiac dimensions and ventricular function in female adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) compared with controls. Echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular (LV) dimensions, LV mass index, left atrial size and cardiac index were made. Detailed measures of systolic and diastolic ventricular function were made including tissue Doppler imaging. Patients were stratified by body mass index ≤10th percentile (AN ≤ 10th) and >10th percentile (AN > 10th). Ninety-five AN patients and 58 controls were included. AN and AN ≤ 10th groups had reduced LV dimensions, LV mass index, left atrial size and cardiac index compared with controls. There were no differences between groups in measures of systolic function. Measures of diastolic tissue Doppler imaging were decreased in AN and AN ≤ 10th. No differences in echocardiographic measurements existed between controls and AN > 10th. Female adolescents with AN have preserved systolic function and abnormalities of diastolic ventricular function. AN ≤ 10th may be a higher risk group. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Fernando B. R. da Silva
Full Text Available Over the last years, heavy ethanol consumption by teenagers/younger adults has increased considerably among females. However, few studies have addressed the long-term impact on brain structures’ morphology and function of chronic exposure to high ethanol doses from adolescence to adulthood in females. In line with this idea, in the current study we investigated whether heavy chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence to adulthood may induce motor impairments and morphological and cellular alterations in the cerebellum of female rats. Adolescent female Wistar rats (35 days old were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v during 55 days by gavage. At 90 days of age, motor function of animals was assessed using open field (OF, pole, beam walking and rotarod tests. Following completion of behavioral tests, morphological and immunohistochemical analyses of the cerebellum were performed. Chronic ethanol exposure impaired significantly motor performance of female rats, inducing spontaneous locomotor activity deficits, bradykinesia, incoordination and motor learning disruption. Moreover, histological analysis revealed that ethanol exposure induced atrophy and neuronal loss in the cerebellum. These findings indicate that heavy ethanol exposure during adolescence is associated with long-lasting cerebellar degeneration and motor impairments in female rats.
Full Text Available Purpose: To identify factors that explain differences in HPV vaccination rates for male and female adolescents and to determine self-reported barriers by parents affecting vaccination decisions. Methods: The sample included adolescents 13–17 years old with a vaccination record documented in the 2012 and 2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen dataset. A logistic regression model was developed with 13 socio-demographic factors and survey year, along with significant interaction pairs with gender. Results: Subjects included 20,355 and 18,350 adolescent boys and girls, respectively. About half of the females (56% received at least one dose of HPV vaccine, compared to 28% of males. Several factors differed between males and females, including higher vaccination rates among non-Hispanic Black males and lower vaccination rates for non-Hispanic Black females compared to Whites; and a stronger association with health care provider recommendation among males. The most common parental reasons for not vaccinating their children included ‘not recommended by a health care provider’ for males (24%, and ‘unnecessary’ for females (18%. Conclusion: We found a significant gender interaction with several socio-demographic variables in predicting vaccination uptake. These gender differences may be partially an artifact of timing, because male vaccination became routine approximately five years after female vaccination. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Adolescent health, Vaccination, NIS-Teen, Gender interaction
Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J
IMPORTANCE Sexual violence can emerge in adolescence, yet little is known about youth perpetrators-especially those not involved with the criminal justice system. OBJECTIVE To report national estimates of adolescent sexual violence perpetration and details of the perpetrator experience. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data were collected online in 2010 (wave 4) and 2011 (wave 5) in the national Growing Up With Media study. Participants included 1058 youths aged 14 to 21 years who at baseline read English, lived in the household at least 50% of the time, and had used the Internet in the last 6 months. Recruitment was balanced on youths' biological sex and age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Forced sexual contact, coercive sex, attempted rape, and completed rape. RESULTS Nearly 1 in 10 youths (9%) reported some type of sexual violence perpetration in their lifetime; 4% (10 females and 39 males) reported attempted or completed rape. Sixteen years old was the mode age of first sexual perpetration (n = 18 [40%]). Perpetrators reported greater exposure to violent X-rated content. Almost all perpetrators (98%) who reported age at first perpetration to be 15 years or younger were male, with similar but attenuated results among those who began at ages 16 or 17 years (90%). It is not until ages 18 or 19 years that males (52%) and females (48%) are relatively equally represented as perpetrators. Perhaps related to age at first perpetration, females were more likely to perpetrate against older victims, and males were more likely to perpetrate against younger victims. Youths who started perpetrating earlier were more likely than older youths to get in trouble with caregivers; youths starting older were more likely to indicate that no one found out about the perpetration. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Sexual violence perpetration appears to emerge earlier for males than females, perhaps suggesting different developmental trajectories. Links between perpetration and violent sexual
Sisco, Katherine M; Martins, Summer L; Kavanagh, Erin K; Gilliam, Melissa L
To identify correlates of parent-daughter communication about abortion among nonpregnant adolescents. Nonpregnant African-American females aged 14-17 years attending one of three charter schools on Chicago's South Side were recruited and surveyed regarding parental relationship quality, attitudes toward sexual health, and communication about sexual health. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for ever discussing abortion using multivariable logistic regression. Of the 265 adolescents, 43.0% had ever discussed abortion with a parent. While 72.3% would voluntarily tell a parent about an abortion plan, 19.2% feared a parent would physically hurt her, punish her, or evict her. Ever communicating about abortion was significantly associated with having a mother who had a teen pregnancy (OR, 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-3.78); having a prochoice abortion attitude (OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.29-8.25); having discussed sexually transmitted infections (OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.13-7.77) or birth control (OR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.35-6.47) with a parent; and perceived parental approval of adolescent sexual activity (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.20-7.88). Ever communicating about abortion was inversely related to being sexually experienced (OR, .48; 95% CI, .23-.99) or anticipating supportive parental reactions to an abortion decision (OR, .31; 95% CI, .13-.75). Although almost half of our sample was sexually active, the majority had never talked to their parents about abortion. Some reported fears of harm should the situation arise. Public policy should focus on promoting parent-daughter communication before an unwanted pregnancy rather than forcing communication after it occurs. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kolar, David R; Hammerle, Florian; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Huss, Michael; Bürger, Arne
Current models of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) emphasize the role of emotion regulation. Aversive tension, described as a state of intense arousal and negative valence, is considered to be a link between emotional events and disordered eating. Recent research focused only on adult patients, and mainly general emotion regulation traits were studied. However, the momentary occurrence of aversive tension, particularly in adolescents with AN, has not been previously studied. 20 female adolescents with AN in outpatient treatment and 20 healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years participated in an ecological momentary assessment using their smartphones. Current states of aversive tension and events were assessed hourly for two consecutive weekdays. Mean and maximum values of aversive tension were compared. Multilevel analyses were computed to test the influence of time and reported events on aversive tension. The effect of reported events on subsequent changes of aversive tension in patients with AN were additionally tested in a multilevel model. AN patients showed higher mean and maximum levels of aversive tension. In a multilevel model, reported food intake was associated with higher levels of aversive tension in the AN group, whereas reported school or sport-related events were not linked to specific states of aversive tension. After food intake, subsequent increases of aversive tension were diminished and decreases of aversive tension were induced in adolescents with AN. Aversive tension may play a substantial role in the psychopathology of AN, particular in relation with food intake. Therefore, treatment should consider aversive tension as a possible intervening variable during refeeding. Our findings encourage further research on aversive tension and its link to disordered eating. German register of clinical trials (DRKS): DRKS00005228 (Date of registration: September 2, 2013).
Misterska, Ewa; G?owacki, Maciej; Panek, S?awomir; Igny?-O?Byrne, Anna; G?owacki, Jakub; Igny?, Iwona; Krauss, Hanna; Pi?tek, Jacek
Summary Background There are many factors influencing postoperative health-related quality of life of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, including the degree of the deformity, culture, differences in geography, rural versus urban living environments, and social factors. The objective of this study was to analyze the significance of geographic factors and their differences influencing the postoperative quality of life in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis residing in urban and...
Russell, Melissa; Misra, Madhusmita
Adolescent female athletes are at increased risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) secondary to exercise-induced hypogonadism. Of particular concern is that the adolescent years are also a critical time for bone accrual, and deficits incurred during this period could lead to suboptimal peak bone mass acquisition and subsequent fracture risk in later life. Although weight bearing exercise is typically associated with an increase in BMD, amenorrheic athletes have lower BMD than eumenorrheic at...
Full Text Available Jill Thein-Nissenbaum,1 Erin Hammer2 1Department of Family Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA; 2Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation has dramatically increased. The benefits of physical activity, including decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes as well as improved body image and self-esteem, far outweigh the risks. However, a select population of adolescent and young adult females may experience symptoms related to the female athlete triad (Triad, which refers to the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density (BMD. These conditions often manifest clinically as disordered eating behaviors, menstrual irregularity, and stress fractures; an individual may suffer from 1 or all of the Triad components simultaneously. Because of the complex nature of the Triad, treatment is challenging and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Team members often include a physician, psychologist or psychiatrist, nutritionist or dietitian, physical therapist, athletic trainer, coach, family members, and most importantly, the patient. A thorough physical examination by a primary care physician is essential to identify all organs/systems that may be impacted by Triad-related conditions. Laboratory tests, assessment of bone density, nutritional assessment, and behavior health evaluation guide the management of the female athlete with Triad-related conditions. Treatment of the Triad includes adequate caloric consumption to restore a positive energy balance; this is often the first step in successful management of the Triad. In addition, determining the cause of menstrual dysfunction (MD and resumption of menses is very important. Nonpharmacologic interventions are the first choice; pharmacologic treatment for MD is reserved only for those patients with symptoms of
Erin K. Kirschmann
Full Text Available Marijuana is a prevalent illicit substance used by adolescents, and several studies have indicated that adolescent use can lead to long-term cognitive deficits including problems with attention and memory. However, preclinical animal studies that observe cognitive deficits after cannabinoid exposure during adolescence utilize experimenter administration of doses of cannabinoids that may exceed what an organism would choose to take, suggesting that contingency and dose are critical factors that need to be addressed in translational models of consequences of cannabinoid exposure. Indeed, we recently developed an adolescent cannabinoid self-administration paradigm in male rats, and found that prior adolescent self-administration of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN resulted in improved working memory performance in adulthood. In addition, the doses self-administered were not as high as those that are found to produce memory deficits. However, given known sex differences in both drug self-administration and learning and memory processes, it is possible that cannabinoid self-administration could have different cognitive consequences in females. Therefore, we aimed to explore the effects of self-administered vs. experimenter-administered WIN in adolescent female rats on adult cognitive function. Female rats were trained to self-administer WIN daily throughout adolescence (postnatal day 34–59. A control group self-administered vehicle solution. The acute effects of adolescent WIN self-administration on memory were determined using a short-term spatial memory test 24 h after final SA session; and the long-term effects on cognitive performance were assessed during protracted abstinence in adulthood using a delayed-match-to-sample working memory task. In a separate experiment, females were given daily intraperitoneal (IP injections of a low or high dose of WIN, corresponding to self-administered and typical experimenter
Kirschmann, Erin K; McCalley, Daniel M; Edwards, Caitlyn M; Torregrossa, Mary M
Marijuana is a prevalent illicit substance used by adolescents, and several studies have indicated that adolescent use can lead to long-term cognitive deficits including problems with attention and memory. However, preclinical animal studies that observe cognitive deficits after cannabinoid exposure during adolescence utilize experimenter administration of doses of cannabinoids that may exceed what an organism would choose to take, suggesting that contingency and dose are critical factors that need to be addressed in translational models of consequences of cannabinoid exposure. Indeed, we recently developed an adolescent cannabinoid self-administration paradigm in male rats, and found that prior adolescent self-administration of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) resulted in improved working memory performance in adulthood. In addition, the doses self-administered were not as high as those that are found to produce memory deficits. However, given known sex differences in both drug self-administration and learning and memory processes, it is possible that cannabinoid self-administration could have different cognitive consequences in females. Therefore, we aimed to explore the effects of self-administered vs. experimenter-administered WIN in adolescent female rats on adult cognitive function. Female rats were trained to self-administer WIN daily throughout adolescence (postnatal day 34-59). A control group self-administered vehicle solution. The acute effects of adolescent WIN self-administration on memory were determined using a short-term spatial memory test 24 h after final SA session; and the long-term effects on cognitive performance were assessed during protracted abstinence in adulthood using a delayed-match-to-sample working memory task. In a separate experiment, females were given daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of a low or high dose of WIN, corresponding to self-administered and typical experimenter-administered doses, respectively, or
Comunian, Anna Laura
According to Duke and Newicki, the distance maintained by a subject towards an approach stimulus is closely related to the internal structures of his personality. The test puts the subject's projective personality and the perception that the group has of the subject into relief. Duke and Newiski's "Comfortable Interpersonal Distance"…
Hall, Randon; Barber Foss, Kim; Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D
To determine if sport specialization increases the risk of anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes. Retrospective cohort epidemiology study. Female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players (N = 546) were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of 5 middle schools and 4 high schools. A total of 357 multisport and 189 single-sport (66 basketball, 57 soccer, and 66 volleyball) athlete subjects were included due to their diagnosis of patellofemoral pain (PFP) on physical exam. Testing consisted of a standardized history and physician-administered physical examination to determine the presence of PFP. This study compared self-reported multisport athletes with sport-specialized athletes participating in only 1 sport. The sports-participation data were normalized by sport season, with each sport accounting for 1 season of exposure. Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and used to determine significant differences between athletes who specialized in sport in early youth and multisport athletes. Specialization in a single sport increased the relative risk of PFP incidence 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.0-2.2, P = .038) for cumulative PFP diagnoses. Specific diagnoses such as Sinding Larsen Johansson/ patellar tendinopathy (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = .005) and Osgood Schlatter disease (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = .005) demonstrated a 4-fold greater relative risk in single-sport compared with multisport athletes. Incidence of other specific PFP diagnoses such as fat pad, plica, trauma, pes anserine bursitis, and iliotibial-band tendonitis was not different between single-sport and multisport participants (P > .05). Early sport specialization in female adolescents is associated with increased risk of anterior knee-pain disorders including PFP, Osgood Schlatter, Sinding Larsen-Johansson compared with multisport athletes.
Bodiba, P; Madu, S N; Ezeokana, J O; Nnedum, O A U
The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods). Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised. First year female students from three different Schools and Faculties at the University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus, South Africa, participated in the study. Using the availability and convenient sampling method, 75 students were selected for this study. For the quantitative aspect of the study, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Measure was used to measure self-esteem. For the qualitative part, a topic guide was used for the focus group discussions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Pearson's Product Moment Correlation were used to analyse the quantitative data, while the phenomenological principle of open coding used for the thematic analysis. Results showed that there is a relationship between body mass and self-concept and that overweight participants tend to have a low self-esteem. Low self-esteem was perceived to be aggravated by a number of factors, like the attitude of the media and the society. Participants who are overweight also indicated that they are limited in certain activities of daily living (e.g., sports) as a result of their body mass. They expressed mixed feelings and frustration when it comes to such activities. The above results did not differ from those reported from western cultures. Support groups, life-skills programmes and psychotherapy should be
Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan
Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (p<0.05). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers and cues to action were predictors of physical puberty health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health.
Laghi, Fiorenzo; Pompili, Sara; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto
Although different personality traits have been associated with the onset and maintenance of binge eating, the role of sensation seeking is still not well documented. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sensation seeking and motivations for eating in male and female adolescents who binge eat. 336 adolescents (196 boys and 140 girls, mean age 17.48) completed a survey composed of Binge Eating Scale, Motivation for Eating Scale, and Brief Sensation Seeking Scale. Our results showed that for female adolescents, binge eating was significantly correlated with age, body mass index (BMI), Environmental and Emotional Eating. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that BMI was a significant positive predictor of binge eating; Emotional and Physical Eating accounted for 34% of the variance. For male adolescents, binge eating was significantly correlated with age, BMI, Boredom susceptibility, Experience seeking, environmental, Social and Emotional Eating. The most significant variables that contribute to binge symptoms, were age and BMI (that accounted for 16% of the variance), Experience seeking and Boredom susceptibility (11%) and emotional eating (18%). Our results provided support for emotional motivations as significant triggers for binge eating behavior in both male and female adolescents. Although two sensation seeking dimensions were significant predictors of binge eating in males, sensation seeking was not associated to binge eating in the female subsample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walker, Rachel A; Andreansky, Christopher; Ray, Madelyn H; McDannald, Michael A
Childhood adversity is associated with exaggerated threat processing and earlier alcohol use initiation. Conclusive links remain elusive, as childhood adversity typically co-occurs with detrimental socioeconomic factors, and its impact is likely moderated by biological sex. To unravel the complex relationships among childhood adversity, sex, threat estimation, and alcohol use initiation, we exposed female and male Long-Evans rats to early adolescent adversity (EAA). In adulthood, >50 days following the last adverse experience, threat estimation was assessed using a novel fear discrimination procedure in which cues predict a unique probability of footshock: danger (p = 1.00), uncertainty (p = .25), and safety (p = .00). Alcohol use initiation was assessed using voluntary access to 20% ethanol, >90 days following the last adverse experience. During development, EAA slowed body weight gain in both females and males. In adulthood, EAA selectively inflated female threat estimation, exaggerating fear to uncertainty and safety, but promoted alcohol use initiation across sexes. Meaningful relationships between threat estimation and alcohol use initiation were not observed, underscoring the independent effects of EAA. Results isolate the contribution of EAA to adult threat estimation, alcohol use initiation, and reveal moderation by biological sex. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN, especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation.In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12 and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12 were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded.After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants' attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG.The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients' body image disturbance.
This study was designed to construct a structural model explaining alienation, depression, and suicidal thoughts in male and female adolescents. Data was collected by questionnairs from 204 male and 208 female students selected randomly in high schools in K city. This study found that depression was significantly affected by alienation, and was indirectly affected through alienation by school attachment, peer relationships, and academic performance. Suicidal thoughts were greatly affected by depression, and were directly and indirectly influenced by alienation. It was confirmed that alienation turned out to be a important mediating variable, while it had a effect significant on depression and suicidal thoughts. Also there were significant differences in affecting factors among male and female students. Intervention strategies for preventing alienation, depression and suicidal thoughts should be different according to gender. In addition, specific nursing intervention plans, including parent education and role training programs, fostering of humanistic and achievement-focused educational environment, peer support programs, and individual counselling, need to be developed and implemented to lessen a feeling of alienation from family and school.
Francis, Jenny; Presser, Liandra; Malbon, Katherine; Braun-Courville, Debra; Linares, Lourdes Oriana
We examine the association between depressive symptoms and contraceptive method choice among adolescents initiating prescription contraception. This cross-sectional study analyzes baseline data of 220 urban, minority adolescent females (ages 15-19 years) presenting for prescription contraceptive initiation at a comprehensive, free-of-cost, adolescent health center in New York City. All participants met with a health care provider who provided standard contraception counseling before initiating contraception. Each participant then selected a short- or long-acting contraceptive: a 3-month supply of the pill, patch, ring or a medroxyprogesterone acetate depot injection (short-acting), or placement/referral for an intrauterine device (IUD; long-acting). We assess the independent association between contraceptive method selection and symptoms of depression [assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression (CES-D) scale]. Ten percent (n=21/220) of adolescent females selected an IUD. Bivariate analysis revealed that those with elevated levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to select an IUD as compared to those with minimal symptoms (mean CES-D score 20 vs. 13; t=3.052, p=.003). In multivariate logistic regressions, adolescent females had increased odds of selecting an IUD if they reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio=4.93; confidence interval, 1.53-15.83; p=.007) after controlling for ethnicity/race, education, number of lifetime partners and gravidity. Inner-city, minority adolescents with elevated symptoms of depression who present for prescription contraceptive initiation may be more likely to select an IUD rather than shorter-acting methods. By recognizing adolescent females with depressive symptoms, providers can strategize their approach to effective contraception counseling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI is included as conditions for further study in the DSM-5. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the proposed diagnostic criteria and the diagnostic and clinical correlates for the validity of a diagnostic entity. The authors investigated the characteristics of NSSI disorder and the proposed diagnostic criteria. A sample of 73 female inpatient adolescents and 37 nonclinical adolescents (aged 13 to 19 years was recruited. Patients were classified into 4 groups (adolescents with NSSI disorder, adolescents with NSSI without impairment/distress, clinical controls without NSSI, and nonclinical controls. Adolescents were compared on self-reported psychopathology and diagnostic cooccurrences. Results indicate that adolescents with NSSI disorder have a higher level of impairment than adolescents with other mental disorders without NSSI. Most common comorbid diagnoses were major depression, social phobia, and PTSD. There was some overlap of adolescents with NSSI disorder and suicidal behaviour and borderline personality disorder, but there were also important differences. Results further suggest that the proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for NSSI are useful and necessary. In conclusion, NSSI is a highly impairing disorder characterized by high comorbidity with various disorders, providing further evidence that NSSI should be a distinct diagnostic entity.
Padfield, Gareth J; Escudero, Carolina A; DeSouza, Astrid M; Steinberg, Christian; Gibbs, Karen; Puyat, Joseph H; Lam, Pei Yoong; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Sherwin, Elizabeth; Potts, James E; Sandor, George; Krahn, Andrew D
Patients with anorexia nervosa exhibit abnormal myocardial repolarization and are susceptible to sudden cardiac death. Exercise testing is useful in unmasking QT prolongation in disorders associated with abnormal repolarization. We characterized QT adaptation during exercise in anorexia. Sixty-one adolescent female patients with anorexia nervosa and 45 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers performed symptom-limited cycle ergometry during 12-lead ECG monitoring. Changes in the QT interval during exercise were measured, and QT/RR-interval slopes were determined by using mixed-effects regression modeling. Patients had significantly lower body mass index than controls; however, resting heart rates and QT/QTc intervals were similar at baseline. Patients had shorter exercise times (13.7±4.5 versus 20.6±4.5 minutes; Panorexia nervosa. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Ferrari, J R; Olivette, M J
Late adolescent females (N = 86; M age = 19.1 years) completed reliable and valid self-report measures on their perception of both parents' authority style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) and their own tendency toward decisional procrastination. Households where daughters perceived both parents as high authoritarian (n = 32) were significantly more likely to raise daughters with strong indecision tendencies than were parents perceived as low authoritarian (n = 23). Mothers and fathers perceived as high (n = 22) or low (n = 22) authoritative, and high (n = 32) or low (n = 24) permissive, did not produce significant differences in daughters' self-reported decisional procrastination. Results suggest that parental authority characterized by stern inflexibility and overcontrol has the greatest influence on daughters who develop chronic indecision tendencies.
Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods. Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised.
Thompson, Ann; Toe, Aimee; Ungureanu, Elena; Wolf, M.; Wirth, Andrew
Breast cancer is amongst the leading radiation-associated, second malignancies that develop in patients after treatment for Hodgkin's disease. This risk is affected by two main factors: 1. The age of the patient at the time of radiotherapy; and 2. The dose received by the breast tissue The adolescent female thus faces an exceptionally high risk, as breast tissue at this age is undergoing rapid developmental growth and small doses of radiation exposure could be carcinogenic. This case report of a fifteen-year-old girl who received radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease demonstrates how radiation therapists worked together with the radiation oncologists and medical physicists to provide an optimal treatment plan for a high-risk patient. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Radiography
Knopik, Valerie S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Waldron, Mary
Genetic and environmental contributions to the observed correlations among DSM-IV ADHD problems [inattentive (INATT) and hyperactive/impulsive (HYP/IMP) behaviors], conduct problems (CDP) and alcohol problems (AlcProb) were examined by fitting multivariate structural equation models to data from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study [N=2892 twins (831 monozygotic pairs, 615 dizygotic pairs)]. Based on results of preliminary regression models, we modified the structural model to jointly estimate (i) the regression of each phenotype on significant familial/prenatal predictors, and (ii) genetic and environmental contributions to the residual variance and covariance. Results suggested that (i) parental risk factors, such as parental alcohol dependence and regular smoking, increase risk for externalizing behavior; (ii) prenatal exposures predicted increased symptomatology for HYP/IMP (smoking during pregnancy), INATT and CDP (prenatal alcohol exposure); (iii) after adjusting for measured familial/prenatal risk factors, genetic influences were significant for HYP/IMP, INATT, and CDP; however, similar to earlier reports, genetic effects on alcohol dependence symptoms were negligible; and (iv) in adolescence, correlated liabilities for conduct and alcohol problems are found in environmental factors common to both phenotypes, while covariation among impulsivity, inattention, and conduct problems is primarily due to genetic influences common to these three behaviors. Thus, while a variety of adolescent problem behaviors are significantly correlated, the structure of that association may differ as a function of phenotype (e.g., comorbid HYP/IMP and CDP vs. comorbid CDP and AlcProb), a finding that could inform different approaches to treatment and prevention. PMID:19341765
Mhaidat, Fatin; ALharbi, Bassam H. M.
This study aimed at identifying the level of depression and sense of insecurity among a sample of female refugee adolescents, and the impact of an indicative program for reducing cognitive distortions in reducing depression and their sense of insecurity. The study sample consisted of 220 female refugee adolescents, 7th to 1st secondary stage, at…
van der Put, C.E.
Background: This study adds to the scarce literature on female adolescent sexual offenders by examining differences between female adolescent sexual and nonsexual violent offenders in the prevalence and impact of dynamic risk and protective factors for general recidivism. Method: The sample
Barlow, Christopher; Lovetri, Jeannette
Although quantifiable assessment of the singing voice is now commonplace, research on young (child and adolescent) voices is still in its infancy. There is still insufficient data on young people's voices based on which, "norms" in behavior could be modeled, particularly for contemporary commercial music (CCM), such as musical theater (MT). The objective of this study was to assess if quantifiable differences in vocal production and acoustic output of young singers exist between "classical" and "MT" styles. The study was a prospective cohort study of 20 adolescent female singers aged 12-17 years training their voices using a system, which includes both "classical" and "MT" styles. The study examined laryngographically derived closed quotient (CQ), average vowel spectra (AVS) and long-term average spectra (LTAS) measures of the sung voices of singers in "classical" and "MT" styles. The spectral slope was shallower for the MT voice, and the mean CQ was significantly higher across the pitch range when singing in an MT style than in a "classical" style. The second to fifth harmonics were stronger in the MT style than in classical, with a significant difference between the two styles. The increase in relative intensity in the first five harmonics was disproportionately higher than the increase in CQ. Results, therefore, suggested that MT singing primarily uses change in resonance strategy rather than raised vocal tension to achieve the tonal changes associated with the genre. (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Archundia-Herrera, Carolina; Macias-Cervantes, Maciste; Ruiz-Muñoz, Bernardo; Vargas-Ortiz, Katya; Kornhauser, Carlos; Perez-Vazquez, Victoriano
Exercise stimulates the production of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), which is cleaved to release a protein called irisin. This protein induces browning of white adipose tissue resulting in increased thermogenesis. Different studies have measured circulating irisin at baseline and in response to exercise among a wide variety of individuals; yet, regarding the effect of different exercise intensities in obese adolescent girls, limited insight is available. This study compares the effect of acute aerobic exercise of moderate intensity and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on irisin levels in skeletal muscle and plasma of sedentary overweight or obese female adolescents. The aerobic group (n = 15) and HIIT group (n = 15) underwent anthropometric and metabolic measurements, electrocardiogram, peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak ), and two vastus lateralis muscle biopsies before and after session of workout. The session of aerobic exercise included cycling at 65% of their peak heart rate (HRpeak) for 40 min. In the HIIT group, exercise included six bouts of 1 min at 85-95% HRpeak separated by 1 min of recovery. Irisin levels were evaluated in samples of skeletal muscle (western blot) and plasma (ELISA). The levels of expression of irisin in skeletal muscle increased significantly after a session of HIIT (p HIIT session. No increases in plasma irisin concentration were observed.
Ahmed, Magdy R; Shaaban, Mohamed M; Meky, Heba K; Amin Arafa, Mohamed E; Mohamed, Tamer Y; Gharib, Waleed F; Ahmed, Abeer B
Worldwide, at least 200 million women and girls have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM). The medical and sexual consequences have been documented, but the psychological impact has not been studied to the same extent. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between FGM and psychiatric problems among adolescent girls. A total of 204 girls, aged 14-19 years, were included in a cross-sectional study conducted at Suez Canal University Hospitals. All participants completed an Arabic-validated, structured questionnaire covering nine symptom scales. Sociodemographic data were also collected. Main outcome measures were the prevalence of psychiatric problems among adolescent girls who had undergone FGM. Overall, 66.2% of girls had undergone FGM. The percentage in rural areas was 91.8%, compared with 43.0% in urban areas. There were no significant differences between the FGM and non-FGM groups as regards religion, educational and socioeconomic levels. FGM girls had a significantly higher level of psychological problems with regard to somatisation, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety and hostility compared with non-FGM girls (p < .0001). FGM is a traumatic experience that may leave a lasting psychological mark and a negative impact on the psychological status of affected girls.
Farideh Zafari Zangeneh
Full Text Available Early life events influence life-long patterns of emotionality and stress responsiveness and alter the rate of brain and body aging. Much research attention has focused on the programming effects of the hypothalamus pituitary axis (HPA in early life and on understanding HPA function in response to stressors in adulthood. In comparison, there has been relatively little research on adolescence, a time of significant brain development particularly in the frontal lobe and a time which is of great importance for mental and physical health. The hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex undergo stress-induced structural remodeling, which alters behavioral and physiological responses. During adolescence, HPA function is characterized by a prolonged activation in response to stressors compared to adulthood, which may render ongoing development of the brain vulnerable. Stress reactivity is markedly influenced by both the pubertal maturation and the experience of the individual. The frequency of the pulses is increased in chronic stress, since the neuroendocrine system is such a good candidate for mediators of many diseases linked to chronic stress. The activity of HPA axis in life time of female, sex maturity, pregnancy or lactation is a plasticity of the diurnal rhythm of pulse amplitude; chronic stress can change this program for formation disorder in behavioral and physiological responses.
Di Guglielmo, Matthew; Savage, Jillian; Gould, Sharon; Murphy, Stephen
Abdominal pain in female adolescents is a common presentation to both the emergency department and the outpatient pediatric clinic. The broad differential diagnosis for abdominal pain requires a high index of suspicion to make an accurate diagnosis of foreign body ingestion as the etiology. Foreign body ingestion occurs in all age groups, but sequelae of gastrointestinal tract perforation in children are rare. Treatment for perforation requires consultation of the pediatric general surgeon. Clinicians should take care to not overlook subtle imaging findings or dietary/exposure history, even in the context of a patient with known history of abdominal pain. We report the accidental ingestion of a wire bristle from a grill cleaning brush by a female adolescent. The patient, previously treated and seen for constipation and irritable bowel syndrome in the outpatient gastroenterology clinic, was referred to the emergency department after identification of a foreign body on abdominal radiography. Emergency department physicians discovered the history of grilling and consumption of grilled food, facilitating diagnosis of a wire bristle as the foreign body. The metallic foreign body had migrated to the colon, where it perforated and lodged into the abdominal wall, causing acute, focal symptoms. Observation in the hospital with pain control and infection management allowed for elective laparoscopy. The surgical team removed the object with minimal morbidity and avoided laparotomy. Reports of unintended ingestion of wire bristles have been increasingly reported in the literature; however, most focus on injury to the upper airway or upper digestive tract and subsequent endoscopic or laryngoscopic removal. Most reports detail injury in adult patients, pediatric case reports with digestive tract injury are uncommon, and foreign body removal after lower digestive tract injury in children from a wire bristle has not been reported. We caution pediatric emergency medicine and
Smith, Jennifer L; Skinner, S Rachel; Fenwick, Jennifer
The findings presented in this paper describe the beliefs and attitudes of three different groups of adolescent females about teen motherhood. These were elicited from a larger analysis that explored and theorized contraceptive pathways in a sample of young Australian women. A purposive sample of females aged 14 to 19 years was recruited from three distinct populations in the city of Perth, Western Australia: (1) never-pregnant; (2) pregnant-terminated; and (3) pregnant-continued. Grounded theory principles were used to analyze data generated from 69 semi-structured interviews conducted over a 21 month period (2006-2008). Two categories that described teenagers' attitudes to pregnancy and motherhood were elicited from the analysis. These explained the level of priority that teenagers placed on using contraception and postponing the transition to parenthood. The category labeled 'life derailment' represented how those who had never had a pregnancy or had terminated a pregnancy constructed teen motherhood as potentially restricting their personal, career and social transition to adulthood. The alternative category, 'life-line', reflected how those who continued with their pregnancy perceived teen motherhood as a positive and transformative experience that fostered personal growth. The findings from this study contribute further insight into the complex nature of adolescent contraceptive use and pregnancy risk. The analysis has strengthened evidence of the critical role of self-perceptions of pregnancy and childbearing on teenagers' fertility outcomes. It has also emphasized the broader life circumstances that shape these attitudes, intentions and related behavior. Strategies directed toward academic support and vocational skill development may broaden teenage girls' perceived future options and achievement capacity, thus influencing key reproductive health outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Williams, Paul T.
Although cross-sectional studies show active individuals areleaner than their sedentary counterparts, it remains to be determined towhat extent this is due to initially leaner men and women choosing toexercise longer and more intensely (self-selection bias). In this reportwalking volume (weekly distance) and intensity (speed) were compared tocurrent BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at the start of walking (BMIstarting) in20,353 women and 5,174 men who had walked regularly for exercise for 7.2and 10.6 years,respectively. The relationships of BMIcurrent andBMIstarting with distance and intensity were nonlinear (convex). Onaverage, BMIstarting explained>70 percent of the association betweenBMIcurrent and intensity, and 40 percent and 17 percent of theassociation between BMIcurrent and distance in women and men,respectively. Although the declines in BMIcurrent with distance andintensity were greater among fatter than leaner individuals, the portionsattributable to BMIstarting remained relatively constant regardless offatness. Thus self-selection bias accounts for most of the decline in BMIwith walking intensity and smaller albeit significant proportions of thedecline with distance. This demonstration of self-selection is germane toother cross-sectional comparisons in epidemiological research, givenself-selection is unlikely to be limited to weight or peculiar tophysical activity.
Stachowitz, Annie L.; Choi, Hee-Sook; Schweinle, Amy
Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study examined the potential use of a commonly used social--emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2), for detecting the presence of possible eating disorders in…
Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Armstrong, Kay; Rossi, Joseph S.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Sun, Xiaowu; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Yin, Hui-Qing; Coviello, Donna; Evers, Kerry; Velicer, Wayne F.
Smoking and sexual risk behaviors in urban adolescent females are prevalent and problematic. Family planning clinics reach those who are at most risk. This randomized effectiveness trial evaluated a transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored intervention to increase condom use and decrease smoking. At baseline, a total of 828 14- to 17-year-old females…
Michael, Heather; Mitton-Kükner, Jennifer
The purpose of this work is to explore the experiences of four adolescent females who assumed leadership roles in service learning projects, in order to understand more about how those projects inspired and informed their understanding of themselves as leaders in the school and community. What became clear through this study is that age and gender…
Bui, H.N.; Schagen, S.E.; Klink, D.T.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.
Introduction: In our hospital, female-To-male (FtM) transgender adolescents from the age of 16 are treated with two- or four-weekly intra-muscular injections of testosterone-esters. Some patients treated with four-weekly injections have complaints of fatigue and experience mood swings towards the
Meuwissen, L.E.; Gorter, A.C.; Segura, Z.; Kester, A.D.M.; Knottnerus, J.A.
BACKGROUND: To meet the needs of female adolescents from low-income urban areas for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care, vouchers providing free-of-charge access to SRH care at 19 primary care clinics were distributed in Managua, Nicaragua. These vouchers substantially increased the use of
Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Fang, Hong-Ning
This study found that lack of involvement in prosocial institutions, affiliation with other troubled youth, and indifference regarding personal safety partially mediate the relationship between depression and delinquency among justice-involved female adolescents. The results suggest that depression may not be the primary conduit to delinquency.…
Bhalla, Jennifer A.; Weiss, Maureen R.
Little is known about parental socialization processes for youth participants from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine parental influence on self-perceptions, task values, and achievement behaviors among female adolescents from two cultures using Eccles' expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983). Twelve…
Chin, Young Ran; Choi, Kyungwon
Using data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, this study seeks to investigate associations of suicide attempts with family, individual, and behavioral factors on the basis of gender. Among male adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, who had poor subjective academic achievement, depression, experiences of smoking and sexual coitus, drug abuse, suicidal ideation and plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Among the female adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, had depression, low self-rated health, experiences of drug abuse and sexual coitus, and expressed unhappiness, suicidal ideation and suicide plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Thus, the development of a suicide prevention program for Korean adolescents requires different approaches for males and females.
Baladi, Michelle G; Koek, Wouter; Aumann, Megan; Velasco, Fortino; France, Charles P
Dopamine systems vary through development in a manner that can impact drugs acting on those systems. Dietary factors can also impact the effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems. This study examined whether eating high fat chow alters locomotor effects of cocaine (1-56 mg/kg) in adolescent and adult female rats. Cocaine was studied in rats (n = 6/group) with free access to standard (5.7% fat) or high fat (34.3%) chow or restricted access to high fat chow (body weight matched to rats eating standard chow). After 1 week of eating high fat chow (free or restricted access), sensitivity to cocaine was significantly increased in adolescent and adult rats, compared with rats eating standard chow. Sensitivity to cocaine was also increased in adolescent rats with restricted, but not free, access to high fat chow for 4 weeks. When adolescent and adult rats that previously ate high fat chow ate standard chow, sensitivity to cocaine returned to normal. In adolescent and adult female rats eating high fat chow, but not those eating standard chow, sensitivity to cocaine increased progressively over once weekly tests with cocaine (i.e., sensitization) in a manner that was not statistically different between adolescents and adults. These results show that eating high fat chow alters sensitivity of female rats to acutely administered cocaine and also facilitates the development of sensitization to cocaine. That the type of food consumed can increase drug effects might have relevance to vulnerability to abuse cocaine in the female population.
Kerrigan, Deanna; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Chung, Shang-en; Glass, Barbara; Ellen, Jonathan
The importance of gender within HIV/STI prevention has become widely recognized. However, gender ideologies associated with vulnerability to HIV/STI are often examined and addressed without sufficient attention to the larger socioeconomic context within which they arise and evolve. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 155 female, African-American adolescents recruited from two health clinics in Baltimore, Maryland. Multivariate logistic regression was utilized to assess the relationships between HIV/STI vulnerability resulting from male partner concurrency, adherence to traditional female gender norms, using a measure of hyperfemininity, and perceived socioeconomic opportunity structures. The likelihood of reported partner concurrency increased significantly among participants reporting higher levels of hyperfemininity (OR = 2.08; 95%CI = 1.01-4.30). Hyperfeminine thinking and behavior was significantly lower in the context of higher perceived socioeconomic opportunity structures (OR = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.79-0.95). Interventions seeking to promote gender equity and reduce HIV/STI may be more effective when the socioeconomic context of gender ideologies is assessed and addressed. Programs and policies to increase educational and professional opportunity structures, particularly among marginalized communities, should be actively integrated into HIV/STI prevention planning.
Lennard, Katie; Dabee, Smritee; Barnabas, Shaun L; Havyarimana, Enock; Blakney, Anna; Jaumdally, Shameem Z; Botha, Gerrit; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Lewis, David A; Gray, Glenda; Mulder, Nicola; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Jaspan, Heather B
Young African females are at an increased risk of HIV acquisition, and genital inflammation or the vaginal microbiome may contribute to this risk. We studied these factors in 168 HIV-negative South African adolescent females aged 16 to 22 years. Unsupervised clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed three clusters (subtypes), one of which was strongly associated with genital inflammation. In a multivariate model, the microbiome compositional subtype and hormonal contraception were significantly associated with genital inflammation. We identified 40 taxa significantly associated with inflammation, including those reported previously ( Prevotella , Sneathia , Aerococcus , Fusobacterium , and Gemella ) as well as several novel taxa (including increased frequencies of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium 1 [BVAB1], BVAB2, BVAB3, Prevotella amnii , Prevotella pallens , Parvimonas micra , Megasphaera , Gardnerella vaginalis , and Atopobium vaginae and decreased frequencies of Lactobacillus reuteri , Lactobacillus crispatus , Lactobacillus jensenii , and Lactobacillus iners ). Women with inflammation-associated microbiomes had significantly higher body mass indices and lower levels of endogenous estradiol and luteinizing hormone. Community functional profiling revealed three distinct vaginal microbiome subtypes, one of which was characterized by extreme genital inflammation and persistent bacterial vaginosis (BV); this subtype could be predicted with high specificity and sensitivity based on the Nugent score (≥9) or BVAB1 abundance. We propose that women with this BVAB1-dominated subtype may have chronic genital inflammation due to persistent BV, which may place them at a particularly high risk for HIV infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Asker, Martin; Holm, Lena W; Källberg, Henrik; Waldén, Markus; Skillgate, Eva
Shoulder problems are frequent among senior elite handball players. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of shoulder problems among adolescent elite handball players and to investigate potential differences in gender, school grade, playing position and playing level. During the 2014 and 2015 pre-season periods, 471 players (age 15-18 years, 54% female) completed a comprehensive baseline questionnaire regarding history of any shoulder pain and shoulder problems experienced during the past season. The players were monitored weekly for one competition season (September-April) regarding shoulder problems and the amount of match and training. Generalised linear models with a binomial link function were used to calculate a prevalence ratio (PR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) to compare the subgroups of players. In total, 110 players (23%) reported having substantial shoulder problems (defined as moderate/severe reduction in training volume, or moderate/severe reduction in performance, or complete inability to participate) at some point during the follow-up season, of which almost half reported complete inability to participate. Of those players reporting substantial problems, 43% (95% CI 39-48) did so for at least 3 consecutive weeks during the season. The prevalence was significantly higher in female players (PR 1.46, 95% 1.04-2.06) and in backcourt players (PR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.32), but no differences were found for school grade (PR 1.21 95% CI 0.88-1.67) or playing level (PR 1.09 95% CI 0.76-1.56). The prevalence of substantial shoulder problems in adolescent elite handball players is high, especially among females, and this warrants further studies on risk factors for shoulder injury and the development of prevention strategies in handball players already before the age of 15. These findings also highlight the importance of introducing a clinical monitoring programme on a routine basis and improving the medical support, taking gender
Barber Foss, Kim D; Myer, Gregory D; Chen, Stephen S; Hewett, Timothy E
Anterior knee pain is a common disorder in female athletes with an undefined cause. The relative prevalence of specific patellofemoral disorders associated with anterior knee pain in adolescent females remains undetermined. To determine the prevalence of specific patellofemoral disorders obtained using the differential diagnosis of anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes during preparticipation screening. Descriptive epidemiology study. Preparticipation screening evaluations at a county public school district in Kentucky. A total of 419 unique middle and high school-aged female athletes. Participants were evaluated by physicians for anterior knee pain over 3 consecutive basketball seasons. Given the longitudinal nature of this study, some participants were tested longitudinally over multiple years. Over the course of 3 basketball seasons, 688 patient evaluations were performed. Of these, 183 (26.6%) were positive for anterior knee pain. A statistically significant difference was noted in the prevalence of anterior knee pain by school level, with 34.4% (n = 67) in high school-aged athletes versus 23.5% (n = 116) in middle school-aged athletes (P patellar tendinopathy, with 38 cases (9.7%) in high school-aged and 31 (3.1%) in middle school-aged athletes (P < .05). Anterior knee pain was present in 26.6% of the adolescent female athletes screened over 3 years. Symptoms of anterior knee pain likely persist after middle school-aged onset and reach peak prevalence during the high school years.
Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Roos, Ewa Maria; Olesen, Jens Lykkegaard
to the manifestations of pain. The objective of this study was to compare the change in localised and distal hyperalgesia among female adolescents with Patellofemoral Pain (PFP) deeming themselves recovered compared to those not recovered 3 months after patient education with or without exercise therapy. METHODS......: This is an ancillary analysis of a cluster randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of patient education with or without exercise therapy on self-reported recovery in 121 adolescents with PFP. PPTs were measured at four sites around the knee and on tibialis anterior in a random subsample of 57 female...... adolescents (68%) were available for follow-up at three months and 10 adolescents reported being recovered. Recovered adolescents had a 68▒kPa (95%CI: 1;136, P=0.047) larger improvement in PPT around the knee and a 76▒kPa (95%CI: -29;181, P=0.16) non-significant improvement in PPT on the tibialis anterior...
Full Text Available Wendee M Wechsberg,1–4 Irene A Doherty,1 Felicia A Browne,1,5 Tracy L Kline,1 Monique G Carry,6 Jerris L Raiford,6 Jeffrey H Herbst6 1Substance Abuse Treatment Evaluations and Interventions Research Program, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, 2Gillings Global School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 3Psychology in the Public Interest, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 4Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, 5Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 6Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001. The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04. Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02. Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40], experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5], report emotional abuse from
Shoko, Mercy; Ibisomi, Latifat; Levin, Jonathan; Ginsburg, Carren
SummaryThis study examined the relationship between orphanhood status, living arrangements and sexual debut. The study is important in the context of southern Africa, where a substantial number of children live apart from their parents because the parent is dead or living elsewhere, and where female adolescents face disproportionate sexual and reproductive health risks. Data for female adolescents were taken from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in seven southern African countries. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios of sexual debut were estimated using Cox Proportional Hazard models. The results from multivariate analyses showed that non-co-residence with biological parents was significantly associated with higher risk of sexual debut in five of the seven countries. Using pooled data, the results showed that father absence was associated with higher risk of sexual debut - whether the father was deceased or living elsewhere. Interventions to delay sexual debut among female adolescents should seek to promote father-adolescent co-residence and improve access to education.
Full Text Available Objective: In Nigeria the rate of contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents is about 30%, considerably lower than the rates reported for developed countries. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, perception and practice of emergency contraception among female adolescent hawkers in Rigasa community, a suburb of Kaduna town.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study of 1200 adolescent female hawkers aged 15–29 years was carried out in 2008, using both self and interviewer administered questionnaires. Results: Vast majority of the respondents are divorcees, constituting 92%. About 46% of them have never attended formal school before marriage. Of the 18 participants who were aware of emergency contraception; none correctly identified 72 hours as the time limit for the method’s use. Antibiotics or home remedies such as dye Robin Blue mixed with Coca cola or mixed with lime or lime mixed with potash and salt water were mentioned as unlisted methods of emergency contraception by responders. Conclusion: It is glaring that there exist a yawning gap of information and knowledge on contraception in general and emergency contraception in particular among female adolescent hawkers. The need to inform this target group about reproductive health generally and unwanted pregnancy in particular would not be out of place.
Ensign, Josephine; Panke, Aileen
The purpose of this study was to conduct an assessment of reproductive health-seeking behaviours, sources of advice, and access to care issues among a sample of clinic-based homeless adolescent women. Adolescent women are among the most vulnerable and medically underserved subgroups within the homeless population in the United States. Homeless youth are rarely invited to participate in research aimed at improving their access to appropriate health care. Also, the culture in which they live and the personal experience of being homeless are often not addressed. The research was descriptive, using focus groups and individual interviews with a purposeful sample of 20 female youth, aged 14-23 years. The women said that they seek health advice from other women, including their mothers even while they are homeless. They reported first trying self-care interventions, and going to clinics when self-care actions no longer worked. They stated that the main barriers to health care were lack of insurance, confusion over consent, transportation problems, lack of respect (from providers) for their own self-knowledge, and judgementalism from providers. Using the concept of cultural competency, the results provide insights into how to improve communication and health care services for these women. Health care providers need to recognize and appreciate the lifestyle, beliefs, and adaptive attitudes of homeless youth, rather than labelling them as 'deviant'. All personnel who interact with and on behalf of homeless youth must be adequately trained in general knowledge regarding the health of homeless youth as well as in an understanding of the role that culture plays in their health-seeking behaviours.
Exposure to social defeat stress in adolescence improves the working memory and anxiety-like behavior of adult female rats with intrauterine growth restriction, independently of hippocampal neurogenesis.
Furuta, Miyako; Ninomiya-Baba, Midori; Chiba, Shuichi; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo; Kunugi, Hiroshi
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for memory impairment and emotional disturbance during growth and adulthood. However, this risk might be modulated by environmental factors during development. Here we examined whether exposing adolescent male and female rats with thromboxane A2-induced IUGR to social defeat stress (SDS) affected their working memory and anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. We also used BrdU staining to investigate hippocampal cellular proliferation and BrdU and NeuN double staining to investigate neural differentiation in female IUGR rats. In the absence of adolescent stress, IUGR female rats, but not male rats, scored significantly lower in the T-maze test of working memory and exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test compared with controls. Adolescent exposure to SDS abolished these behavioral impairments in IUGR females. In the absence of adolescent stress, hippocampal cellular proliferation was significantly higher in IUGR females than in non-IUGR female controls and was not influenced by adolescent exposure to SDS. Hippocampal neural differentiation was equivalent in non-stressed control and IUGR females. Neural differentiation was significantly increased by adolescent exposure to SDS in controls but not in IUGR females. There was no significant difference in the serum corticosterone concentrations between non-stressed control and IUGR females; however, adolescent exposure to SDS significantly increased serum corticosterone concentration in control females but not in IUGR females. These results demonstrate that adolescent exposure to SDS improves behavioral impairment independent of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats with IUGR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Sisay, Mitike Molla
Adolescence in girls has been recognized as a special period marked with the onset of menarche. Even though menstruation is a natural process, it is associated with misconceptions, malpractices and challenges among girls in developing countries. However, much is not documented; school-absenteeism and dropout are a common problem among girls in rural Ethiopia. Focusing among school girls, this study has examined knowledge about menstruation, determinants of menstrual management and its influence on school-attendance in Northeast Ethiopia. We conducted a mixed-method research combining quantitative and qualitative methods in Northeast Ethiopia. The quantitative study was conducted among 595 randomly selected adolescent school girls. Nine in-depth interviews; five school-dropout girls and four female teachers, and four focus group discussions among school girls were conducted in 2013. The mean age at menarche was 13.98 (±1.17) years. About 51% of girls had knowledge about menstruation and its management. Only a third of the girls used sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent during their last menstruation. Girls from urban areas, had mothers of secondary and above education and, families of higher monthly expenditure had more chance of using sanitary napkins than their counterparts. More than half of the girls reported to have been absent from school during their menstruation period. Those who did not use sanitary napkins were more likely to be absent from school [AOR-95% C.I: 5.37 (3.02 - 9.55)]. Fifty eight percent of girls reported that their school-performance had declined after they had menarche. In addition, the qualitative study indicated that school-dropout was common among girls who experienced teasing and humiliation by classmates when their clothes were stained with blood as they do not use sanitary napkins. Though there is an effort to increase girls' school enrollment, lack of basic needs, like sanitary napkins that facilitate routine activates of girls
Durner, George M.; Whiteman, J.P.; Harlow, H.J.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Regehr, E.V.; Ben-David, M.
Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) prefer to live on Arctic sea ice but may swim between ice floes or between sea ice and land. Although anecdotal observations suggest that polar bears are capable of swimming long distances, no data have been available to describe in detail long distance swimming events or the physiological and reproductive consequences of such behavior. Between an initial capture in late August and a recapture in late October 2008, a radio-collared adult female polar bear in the Beaufort Sea made a continuous swim of 687 km over 9 days and then intermittently swam and walked on the sea ice surface an additional 1,800 km. Measures of movement rate, hourly activity, and subcutaneous and external temperature revealed distinct profiles of swimming and walking. Between captures, this polar bear lost 22% of her body mass and her yearling cub. The extraordinary long distance swimming ability of polar bears, which we confirm here, may help them cope with reduced Arctic sea ice. Our observation, however, indicates that long distance swimming in Arctic waters, and travel over deep water pack ice, may result in high energetic costs and compromise reproductive fitness.
Pisitsungkagarn, Kullaya; Taephant, Nattasuda; Attasaranya, Ploychompoo
Body image satisfaction significantly influences self-esteem in female adolescents. Increased reports of lowered satisfaction in this population have raised concerns regarding their compromised self-esteem. This research study, therefore, sought to identify a culturally significant moderator of the association between body image satisfaction and self-esteem in Thai female adolescents. Orientation toward self-compassion, found to be particularly high in Thailand, was examined. A total of 302 Thai female undergraduates from three large public and private universities in the Bangkok metropolitan area responded to a set of questionnaires, which measured demographic information, body image satisfaction, self-compassion, and self-esteem. Data were analyzed using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Self-compassion was tested as a moderator of the relationship between body image satisfaction and self-esteem. Although its effect was relatively small, self-compassion significantly moderated the positive relationship between body image satisfaction and self-esteem. The relationship became less stringent for those with high self-compassion. The cultivation of self-compassion was recommended in female adolescents. In addition to moderating the association between body image satisfaction and self-esteem, the benefits to health and well-being of generalizing this cultivation are discussed.
Lian, Min; Madden, Pamela A.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Colditz, Graham A.; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Schootman, Mario; Heath, Andrew C.
Objective Despite well-known adverse health effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSP), it is still unclear if MSP varies geographically and if neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation (SED) plays an important role in MSP. This study aims to investigate small-area geographic variation in MSP and examine the association of SED with MSP. Methods The Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study (MOAFTS) is a cohort study of female like-sex twins born in Missouri to Missouri-resident parents during 1975–1985. Biological mothers completed a baseline interview in 1995–1998 and reported MSP with the twins. Residential address of the mother at birth was geocoded. We developed a census tract-level SED index using a common factor approach based on 21 area-level socioeconomic variables from the 1980 Census data. Multilevel logistic regressions estimated geographic heterogeneity (random effect) in MSP and the odds ratios (ORs, fixed effects) of neighborhood SED associated with MSP. Results Of 1658 MOAFTS mothers, 35.2% reported any MSP and 21.9% reported MSP beyond the first trimester. Neighborhood SED was associated with any MSP (the highest vs. the lowest quartile: OR = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40–2.57, Ptrendalcohol use, and parents’ cohabitation), neighborhood SED was not associated with MSP, but geographic variation still persisted in MSP (variance = 0.41, P = 0.003) and in MSP beyond the first trimester (variance = 0.82, P<0.001). Conclusions Neighborhood SED was associated with MSP in unadjusted analyses but this association could be explained by individual socioeconomic conditions. Nonetheless, significant geographic variation in MSP persisted and was not accounted for by differences in neighborhood SED. To develop effective interventions to reduce MSP, further studies are necessary to explore underlying reasons for its geographic variation. PMID:27100091
Wolfe, Kristin L; Nakonezny, Paul A; Owen, Victoria J; Rial, Katherine V; Moorehead, Alexandra P; Kennard, Beth D; Emslie, Graham J
We examined hopelessness as a predictor of suicide ideation in depressed youth after acute medication treatment. A total of 158 depressed adolescents were administered the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) as part of a larger battery at baseline and at weekly visits across 6 weeks of acute fluoxetine treatment. The Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) was administered at baseline and week 6. A negative binomial regression model via a generalized estimating equation analysis of repeated measures was used to estimate suicide ideation over the 6 weeks of acute treatment from baseline measure of hopelessness. Depression severity and gender were included as covariates in the model. The negative binomial analysis was also conducted separately for the sample of males and females (in a gender-stratified analysis). Mean CDRS-R total scores were 60.30 ± 8.93 at baseline and 34.65 ± 10.41 at week 6. Mean baseline and week 6 BHS scores were 9.57 ± 5.51 and 5.59 ± 5.38, respectively. Per the C-SSRS, 43.04% and 83.54% reported having no suicide ideation at baseline and at week 6, respectively. The analyses revealed that baseline hopelessness was positively related to suicide ideation over treatment (p = .0027), independent of changes in depression severity. This significant finding persisted only for females (p = .0024). These results indicate the importance of early identification of hopelessness. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.
Javdani, Shabnam; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn
Women and girls’ engagement in antisocial behavior represents a psychological issue of great concern given the radiating impact that women’s antisociality can have on individuals, families, and communities. Despite its importance and relevance for psychological science, this topic has received limited attention to date and no systematic review of risk factors exists. The present paper aims to systematically review the empirical literature informing risk factors relevant to women’s antisocial behavior, with a focus on adolescence and adulthood. Primary aims are to 1) review empirical literatures on risk factors for female antisocial behavior across multiple levels of influence (e.g., person-level characteristics, risky family factors, and gender-salient contexts) and fields of study (e.g., psychology, sociology); 2) evaluate the relevance of each factor for female antisocial behavior; and 3) incorporate an analysis of how gender at both the individual and ecological level shapes pathways to antisocial behavior in women and girls. We conclude that women’s antisocial behavior is best-understood as being influenced by person-level or individual vulnerabilities, risky family factors, and exposure to gender-salient interpersonal contexts, and underscore the importance of examining women’s antisocial behavior through an expanded lens that views gender as an individual level attribute as well as a social category that organizes the social context in ways that may promote engagement in antisocial behavior. Based on the present systematic review, an integrative pathway model is proposed toward the goal of synthesizing current knowledge and generating testable hypotheses for future research. PMID:22001339
Arango Tobón, Olber E.; Olivera-La Rosa, Antonio; Restrepo Tamayo, Viviana; Puerta Lopera, Isabel C.
Objective: Most studies on conduct disorder (CD) have focused on male adolescents, disregarding analysis of this psychopathology in women. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in empathy and theory of mind (ToM) in a group of adolescent women with CD and a control group. Method: Thirty-six adolescent women were selected from an initial sample of 239 adolescents (CD group = 18, control group = 18). Empathy and ToM were evaluated through objective instruments. Mean comparisons...
Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad
Background Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape) among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years), who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR) 2.05, confidence intervals (CI) 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46), and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60) contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services. PMID:25967381
Full Text Available Background & aim: Sexual health education is one of the responsibilities of healthcare workers at schools, which can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS, unwanted pregnancy, abortion, substance abuse, sexual violence, and suicidal tendencies. This study aimed to investigate healthcare workers’ competence in sexual health education for female adolescents at schools. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 healthcare workers, responsible for sexual health education at schools in 2015. A valid and reliable researcher-made questionnaire was completed by the healthcare workers in order to assess their competence in sexual health education at healthcare centers of Khuzestan, Iran. To assess the competence of the participants (i.e., knowledge, attitude, confidence, and performance, descriptive statistics were calculated for quantitative variables. Also, mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage were calculated for qualitative variables. Pearson’s correlation test was performed to assess the relationship between the subjects’ knowledge, attitude, confidence, and performance. Also, the association between demographic variables and participants’ knowledge, attitude, confidence, and performance was evaluated, using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Data were analyzed, using SPSS version 21.0. Results: Knowledge, attitude, and confidence of healthcare workers in sexual health education were desirable. However, the subjects showed a poor performance in teaching students the required skills to control their emotions, instincts, homosexual tendencies, and masturbation. There was a significant correlation between performance, attitude, and confidence, knowledge and attitude, performance and confidence, and confidence, performance, and attitude (P
Powwattana, Arpaporn; Thammaraksa, Pimrat; Manora, Sroy
Teenage pregnancy-prevention interventions have fallen short in significantly decreasing risk of pregnancy for Thai populations. The "breaking the voice" ("rak luk khun tong pood") culture-appropriate teenage pregnancy-prevention program was developed using community-based research. Qualitative analyses of focus group data identified salient factors related to sexual communication and behavior. The integration of focus group results with theoretical constructs guided the development of an intervention to reduce risky sexual behavior by increasing communication between mothers and their adolescent daughters. A total of 157 mother-daughter dyads from congested areas in Bangkok participated in pilot testing of the intervention by the use of a survey. The findings indicated a significant increase in the frequency of and number of sexual risk communication (P assertiveness, and ability to decrease sexual risk among daughters (P < .05). "Breaking the voice" represents a female-focused and culturally-relevant intervention to combat teenage pregnancy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Iva A. E. Bicanic
Full Text Available Background: Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods: Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years, who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results: In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR 2.05, confidence intervals (CI 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46, and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60 contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion: The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services.
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone growth and growth mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8–10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 in response to P. umbrosa administration in either growth plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial growth plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in growth plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the growth plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway.
Infurna, Maria Rita; Brunner, Romuald; Holz, Birger; Parzer, Peter; Giannone, Francesca; Reichl, Corinna; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael
This study examined a broad variety of adverse childhood experiences in a consecutive sample of female adolescent inpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 44) compared with a clinical control (CC; n = 47) group with mixed psychiatric diagnoses. BPD was diagnosed using a structured clinical interview; different dimensions of childhood adversity were assessed using the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Family Assessment Device. A history of childhood adversity was significantly more common in patients with BPD than in the CC group. Using a multivariate model, sexual abuse (OR = 13.8), general family functioning (OR = 8.9), and low maternal care (OR = 7.6) were specific and independent predictors of adolescent BPD. The results increase our knowledge of the specific role of different dimensions of childhood adversity in adolescent BPD. They have important implications for prevention and early intervention as they highlight the need for specific strategies for involving the family.
Hoffmann, Svenja; Warschburger, Petra
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of age and weight status on adolescents' body dissatisfaction and its change over 20 months in a gender-comparing design. The influence of body image concern on eating concern was also investigated. In a prospective study, 675 male and female adolescents aged 12-16 were assessed using self-report questionnaires on weight, shape, muscularity, and eating concerns. Height and weight measurements were taken by trained personnel. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Analyses of latent means revealed more pronounced weight/shape concern in females than males and more pronounced muscularity concern in males than females. Weight/shape concern increased in females over time, whereas muscularity concern remained stable in both genders. Baseline levels of weight/shape concern could be predicted by age and weight status in females and by weight status in males. The only predictor of change in weight/shape concern was weight status in males. Baseline levels of muscularity concern could be predicted by age in females and by weight status in males. Similar effects were found for changes in muscularity concern in both genders. Increases in weight/shape and muscularity concern were associated with more pronounced eating concern. The results confirm gender differences in distinctive facets of body image concern and its prediction. The relevance of increase in body image concern in adolescents is underlined by its association with eating concern in both genders. Further explanatory variables for change in body dissatisfaction should be examined in future studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:139-147). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Powell-Young, Yolanda M
Having an excess of body fat has been identified as a predictor for participatory frequency in physical activity, a behavior that influences the development and persistence of obesity. However, the psychological factors that contribute to this pathway have not been as easily identified. This is particularly significant for population subgroups that are not only uniquely impacted by obesity-related morbidities but who are underrepresented in research as well. This study sample consisted of African-American adolescent females (N = 310), from 14 to 18 years of age, who were recruited from the urban South. Data obtained from self-reported and demographic questionnaires, as well as from anthropometric measurements, were analyzed to explore the mediating effect of global self-worth between BMI and physical activity. Mediation analysis revealed that 2% of the influence that BMI exerts on how frequently African-American adolescent females engaged in physical activity can be attributed to global self-worth.
Adolescents who suffer from depression early in life, have an increase in suicidal tendency, anxiety, conduct disorders, substance abuse, and continue to be depressed, later on in life. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescent girls in Riyadh city in order to carry out early intervention. A cross-sectional, school-based survey was conducted among 1028 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in secondary schools of Riyadh city. Riyadh was divided into clusters and within each cluster, both public and private schools were enrolled. From the selected schools students from grade 10-12 were surveyed. Survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire including the beck depression inventory-II, and questions exploring the correlates of depression. About 30% of participants were found to be depressed. Depression was more prevalent among female adolescents whose household income was Saudi Riyal/month (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, confidence interval [CI] 0.97-6.84), did not have a good relationship with peers and family members (OR 4.63, CI 2.56-8.41), lived with single parent or alone (OR 1.77, CI 0.97-3.23), been emotionally abused (OR 3.45, CI 2.56-8.41), and those who had been subjected to physical violence, at least once (OR 3.34, CI 1.89-5.91). Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better-coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents.
Full Text Available Background: Globally, domestic violence against females is common across culture, religion, class and ethnicity. There are various reasons for domestic violence and it might have serious health outcomes. Objectives: The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, characteristics, reasons and the socio-demographic correlates of domestic violence, if any, and to find out the perceptions of the females to cope with the act of violence and to overcome the situation. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was undertaken by interviewing 141 adult and adolescent females residing in a village of West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions and tests of significance (Chi-square test. Results: Out of 141 respondents, 33 (23.4% adult and adolescent females in this village were exposed to domestic violence in the past year. Among the demographic characteristics, statistically significant maximum prevalence was observed among 30-39 years age group, illiterate and unmarried females. For most of the females who were exposed to domestic violence, their husbands acted as the perpetrators (72.73% and they reported slapping as the specific act of physical assault (72.73%. Majority of the respondents reported that opportunity of education (31.9%, being economically productive (31.9% and better family income (23.4% would help them to overcome the situation. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need for justified female empowerment and this calls for multidisciplinary approach to develop public health measures, which would most effectively address the problem of domestic violence.
Full Text Available Sex trafficking has been a long-standing concern in Nepal. Very little has been achieved, however, in terms of actual reduction in the number of victims despite numerous anti-sex trafficking programs. This situation may be attributable to a lack of empirical evidence upon which to formulate anti-sexual trafficking interventions. This study aimed to assess sex trafficking-related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns among adolescent female students in Nepal.A cross-sectional study was conducted between August-September 2013 among 292 adolescent female students (>10 years old using systematic random sampling from three high schools in Sindhupalchowk district, Nepal. As an initial step, descriptive analyses were employed to characterize the data and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and related attitudes.Seventy-six percent of sampled students reported that they were aware of sex trafficking and 94.6% indicated media (i.e., radio or television as the primary sources of their knowledge. Fifty-one percent mentioned relatives/friends as mediators of sex trafficking, 60.4% reported promise for better jobs as the primary attraction behind sex trafficking, and 48.6% mentioned adolescent females as the most vulnerable group for sex trafficking. Over half (56.8% of the respondents had positive attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns. Age (OR = 3.38, 95% CI:2.51-4.55, parents' occupation (OR = 3.89, 95% CI:1.58-9.58, and having a radio/TV at home (OR = 6.67, 95% CI:3.99-9.54 were significantly associated with awareness, whereas being younger (OR = 0.67, 95% CI:0.55-0.79 and having joint-family (OR = 2.67, 95% CI:1.49-4.80 were significantly associated with having a positive attitudes towards
Leslie, L A
This study explores adolescent females' assessments of the rewards and costs of employment and parenthood, and the impact of these assessments on their plans for organizing their adult lives. 549 young women enrolled in the 11th and 12 grades at public schools in New York City completed questionnaires addressing their future work and fertility plans, characteristics of their present family life, and their assessments of how rewarding and costly the roles of employee and parent would be to them. Results suggest that daughters of homemakers and daughters of employed women differ in their assessment of each role, and take different factors into consideration when making these assessments. In evaluating work, daughters whose mothers are employed were likely to depend on their mothers' experiences for guidance. On the other hand, daughters whose mothers are homemakers have to go through a more elaborate process of deduction. They appear to assess whether their mothers are happy where they are now and then project whether another role would be more satisfying. These young women also tend to incorporate the opinion of the father more than do daughters of employed mothers. In evaluating the impact of children, the young woman's relation with her own mother is a critical factor affecting both group' assessments of the costs of children as well as the employed group's assessments of the rewards of children. Finally, the limitations of the sample should be kept in mind when discussing the results. Though the sample was large numerically, the overall response rate was low. In addition, the sample consisted of a large number of Catholic respondents.
Seth, Puja; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J; Crosby, Richard A; Salazar, Laura F; Rose, Eve S; Sales, Jessica M
An important policy question is whether high-risk populations can be identified and prioritised for human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation. Data collection included an audio computer-assisted survey interview and testing of Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and HPV among 295 African-American adolescent females. The results indicated that 43.1% tested positive for HPV. Logistic regression analyses indicated that HPV prevalence was not associated with other sexually transmissible infections (prevalence ratio (PR)=0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.51-1.41), unprotected vaginal sex (PR=1.04, 95% CI=0.56-1.92), having sex with an older male partner (PR=1.12, 95% CI=0.64-1.96), and having a casual partner (PR=0.89, 95% CI=0.54-1.48). Additionally, t-tests indicated that HPV prevalence was not associated with frequency of vaginal sex (t=0.17, P=0.87), protected sex (t=-0.16, P=0.87), number of recent (t=0.40, P=0.69) or lifetime (t=1.45, P=0.15) sexual partners. However, those testing positive for HPV were younger (t=1.97, P=0.05) and reported current use of birth control pills (PR=2.38, 95% CI=1.00-5.63). It may not be possible to identify those with elevated risk of HPV acquisition. Thus, HPV vaccination, regardless of risk indicators, may be the most efficacious public health strategy.
GILETTA, MATTEO; HASTINGS, PAUL D.; RUDOLPH, KAREN D.; BAUER, DANIEL J.; NOCK, MATTHEW K.; PRINSTEIN, MITCHELL J.
Poor physiological self-regulation has been proposed as a potential biological vulnerability for adolescent suicidality. This study tested this hypothesis by examining the effect of parasympathetic stress responses on future suicide ideation. In addition, drawing from multilevel developmental psychopathology theories, the interplay between parasympathetic regulation and friendship support, conceptualized as an external source of regulation, was examined. At baseline, 132 adolescent females (M age = 14.59, SD = 1.39) with a history of mental health concerns participated in an in vivo interpersonal stressor (a laboratory speech task) and completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms and perceived support within a close same-age female friendship. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was measured before and during the speech task. Suicide ideation was assessed at baseline and at 3, 6, and 9 months follow-up. The results revealed that females with greater relative RSA decreases to the laboratory stressor were at higher risk for reporting suicide ideation over the subsequent 9 months. Moreover, parasympathetic responses moderated the effect of friendship support on suicide ideation; among females with mild changes or higher relative increases in RSA, but not more pronounced RSA decreases, friendship support reduced risk for future suicide ideation. Findings highlight the crucial role of physiological and external regulation sources as protective factors for youth suicidality. PMID:28031059
Ranney, Megan L; Choo, Esther K; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Spirito, Anthony; Thorsen, Margaret; Mello, Michael J; Morrow, Kathleen
To elucidate key elements surrounding acceptability/feasibility, language, and structure of a text message-based preventive intervention for high-risk adolescent females. We recruited high-risk 13- to 17-year-old females screening positive for past-year peer violence and depressive symptoms, during emergency department visits for any chief complaint. Participants completed semistructured interviews exploring preferences around text message preventive interventions. Interviews were conducted by trained interviewers, audio-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. A coding structure was iteratively developed using thematic and content analysis. Each transcript was double coded. NVivo 10 was used to facilitate analysis. Saturation was reached after 20 interviews (mean age 15.4; 55% white; 40% Hispanic; 85% with cell phone access). (1) Acceptability/feasibility themes: A text-message intervention was felt to support and enhance existing coping strategies. Participants had a few concerns about privacy and cost. Peer endorsement may increase uptake. (2) Language themes: Messages should be simple and positive. Tone should be conversational but not slang filled. (3) Structural themes: Messages may be automated but must be individually tailored on a daily basis. Both predetermined (automatic) and as-needed messages are requested. Dose and timing of content should be varied according to participants' needs. Multimedia may be helpful but is not necessary. High-risk adolescent females seeking emergency department care are enthusiastic about a text message-based preventive intervention. Incorporating thematic results on language and structure can inform development of future text messaging interventions for adolescent girls. Concerns about cost and privacy may be able to be addressed through the process of recruitment and introduction to the intervention. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Burns, Con; Murphy, John J; MacDonncha, Ciaran
Knowledge of the physical activity correlate profile of adolescent females will provide insight into decreasing physical activity patterns among adolescent females. Correlates of physical activity and physical activity stage of change were assessed during 2007-2008 among 871 Irish adolescent females in years 1-6 in secondary schools (15.28 ± 1.8 years). Multivariate Analysis of Variance was used to identify whether differences in correlates of physical activity could be detected across year in school and physical activity stages of change. Significant differences (P physically active (partial eta range (ηp2) .21-.25) to be the most important predictors of physical activity stage of change. Females in more senior years in school and in earlier physical activity stages of change reported a significantly less positive physical activity correlate profile than females in junior years and in later physical activity stages of change. This finding supports the construct validity of the physical activity stages of change.
Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri
Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using…
Wherry, Jeffrey N.; And Others
Differences in family trauma, stressors, and dysfunction among adolescent psychiatric inpatients grouped by sexual abuse self-reports were investigated. Family trauma/dysfunction was determined from a composite score derived from the Traumatic Antecedents Scale. The results indicated that sexually abused adolescents reported more family…
Smith, Chad E.; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Lieberth, Ann
Adolescent health and health literacy are critical health topics recognized in Healthy People 2020. Evidence indicates that adolescents who are d/Deaf have unique health-related needs, yet health communication efforts have not reached them. Despite the Internet's exponential growth and the growth of online health information-seeking behavior among…
Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.; McArthur, Sherell A.
Identity formation is a critical process shaping the lives of adolescents and can present distinct challenges for Black adolescent girls who are positioned in society to negotiate ideals of self when presented with false and incomplete images representing Black girlhood. Researchers have found distorted images of Black femininity derived from…
Johns, Michelle Marie; Lowry, Richard; Demissie, Zewditu; Robin, Leah
Sexual minority girls (lesbian/bisexual) and girls with overweight/obesity experience high rates of discrimination and mental distress. This study explored whether BMI or perceived weight status might compound sexual minority girls' risk for harassment and mental distress. Data on female students from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 7,006) were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine differences in bullying, harassment, and mental distress across sexual identity/BMI groups: heterosexual/normal-weight, heterosexual/overweight, sexual minority/normal-weight, and sexual minority/overweight. Procedures were repeated with four analogous groups created from sexual identity and perceived weight. Across sexual identity/BMI groups, being overweight increased heterosexual females' odds of being bullied or experiencing suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Regardless of weight status, sexual minority females had greater odds for each outcome than heterosexual females. Sexual minority females who perceived themselves as overweight had greater odds of suicidality than all other sexual minority/perceived weight groups. Double jeopardy may exist for sexual minority female students who perceive themselves as overweight. Professional development with school staff on how to create a positive climate for sexual minorities and those with overweight/obesity and addressing positive identity and body image within school-based suicide prevention efforts may be important to the well-being of adolescent girls. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Full Text Available The introduction of vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV in adolescent girls in 2006 has focused virological surveillance on this age group. As few studies have evaluated HPV infections in young populations, further data are needed in order to improve and extend prophylactic policy and to monitor epidemiological changes. The present study aimed at evaluating overall and type-specific HPV prevalence in both female and male adolescents in Italy. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed on urine samples collected from 870 unvaccinated adolescents (369 females, 501 males, 11-18 years of age in five cities in Italy. Following DNA extraction by means of a commercial kit (NucliSENS(®-miniMAG(®, bioMérieux, the L1 gene fragment was PCR amplified and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HPV DNA was detected in 1.5% of all samples, and in 3% and 0.4% of samples from females and males, respectively. In approximately 70% of HPV DNA positive adolescents, the infection was due to a single genotype, with 88.9% of genotypes belonging to the HR-clade. The only two HPV-positive boys (14 and 18 years old had HPV-70 genotype. Only one of the 11 HPV-infected girls was in the 11-14 age-group. HPV prevalence was 4.2% in girls aged 15-18 years and 60% of infections were due to vaccine types HPV-16 or HPV-6/-11. This is one of the few studies, the first conducted in Italy, on HPV infection in adolescents. Urine testing is the easier way of detecting HPV infection in younger populations. Our data revealed a very low HPV prevalence, and no infections were observed in the 12-year-old vaccine target population. The majority of infections were seen in females aged 15-18 years. Overall, more than 50% and 30% of the potentially persistent HPV infections detected in this group could have been prevented by the quadrivalent and the bivalent vaccines, respectively.
Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Panatto, Donatella; Martinelli, Marianna; Amicizia, Daniela; Zotti, Carla Maria; Martinese, Morena; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Masia, Giuseppina; Meloni, Angelo; Castiglia, Paolo; Piana, Andrea; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta
The introduction of vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in adolescent girls in 2006 has focused virological surveillance on this age group. As few studies have evaluated HPV infections in young populations, further data are needed in order to improve and extend prophylactic policy and to monitor epidemiological changes. The present study aimed at evaluating overall and type-specific HPV prevalence in both female and male adolescents in Italy. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed on urine samples collected from 870 unvaccinated adolescents (369 females, 501 males, 11-18 years of age) in five cities in Italy. Following DNA extraction by means of a commercial kit (NucliSENS(®)-miniMAG(®), bioMérieux), the L1 gene fragment was PCR amplified and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HPV DNA was detected in 1.5% of all samples, and in 3% and 0.4% of samples from females and males, respectively. In approximately 70% of HPV DNA positive adolescents, the infection was due to a single genotype, with 88.9% of genotypes belonging to the HR-clade. The only two HPV-positive boys (14 and 18 years old) had HPV-70 genotype. Only one of the 11 HPV-infected girls was in the 11-14 age-group. HPV prevalence was 4.2% in girls aged 15-18 years and 60% of infections were due to vaccine types HPV-16 or HPV-6/-11. This is one of the few studies, the first conducted in Italy, on HPV infection in adolescents. Urine testing is the easier way of detecting HPV infection in younger populations. Our data revealed a very low HPV prevalence, and no infections were observed in the 12-year-old vaccine target population. The majority of infections were seen in females aged 15-18 years. Overall, more than 50% and 30% of the potentially persistent HPV infections detected in this group could have been prevented by the quadrivalent and the bivalent vaccines, respectively.
Pratt, Keeley J; McRitchie, Susan; Collier, David N; Lutes, Lesley D; Sumner, Susan
RTI International is acknowledged for supporting the time of Susan McRitchie, Keeley Pratt and Susan Sumner to participate in the design, execution, or analysis of this study. East Carolina University would like to acknowledge Brittney France for being a triangulated investigator for the qualitative analysis and to the Pitt Memorial Hospital Foundation for financial support of the healthy lifestyles camp. Our purpose was to evaluate the views of obese African-American (AA) female adolescents concerning parent and family factors relating to obesity and a healthy lifestyle. Obese AA female adolescents enrolled in a residential healthy lifestyle program completed inventories measuring family functioning and perceptions of parenting styles, and participated in focus groups to identify themes regarding parent and family involvement in healthy lifestyle change. The majority of participants' mothers were scored as "inductive/authoritative" and fathers were "indulgent". Mothers reportedly were seen as more likely to encourage dieting to control weight than fathers. Common themes of the focus groups included a desire for family involvement, identification of family behaviors that were supportive as well as those which were perceived as unhelpful. Though generalizability of these results is limited by a homogenous small sample size, our results suggest that obese adolescents seeking weight loss treatment desire significant family involvement in their efforts. © 2015 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wartman, Brianne C; Keeley, Robin J; Holahan, Matthew R
Estrogen levels in rats are positively correlated with enhanced memory function and hippocampal dendritic spine density. There is much less work on the long-term effects of estradiol manipulation in preadolescent rats. The present work examined how injections of estradiol during postnatal days 19-22 (p19-22; preadolescence) affected water maze performance and hippocampal phosphorylated ERK labeling. To investigate this, half of the estradiol- and vehicle-treated female rats were trained on a water maze task 24h after the end of estradiol treatment (p23-27) while the other half was not trained. All female rats were tested on the water maze from p40 to p44 (adolescence) and hippocampal pERK1/2 labeling was assessed as a putative marker of neuronal plasticity. During adolescence, preadolescent-trained groups showed lower latencies than groups without preadolescent training. Retention data revealed lower latencies in both estradiol groups, whether preadolescent trained or not. Immunohistochemical detection of hippocampal pERK1/2 revealed elevations in granule cell labeling associated with the preadolescent trained groups and reductions in CA1 labeling associated with estradiol treatment. These results show a latent beneficial effect of preadolescent estradiol treatment on adolescent spatial performance and suggest an organizational effect of prepubescent exogenously applied estradiol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
mohamad hasan Eftekhari
Full Text Available Background : Adolescence is one of the most critical growth periods in the human's life. Eating disorder is one of the most common nutritional-psychological disorders in this period, which can lead to acute and chronic physical and mental problems. Therefore, regarding the importance of the topic, the present study was designed to determine the prevalence of weight – controlling attitude and eating disorders, and their association with anthropometric indices in female adolescent school students. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional descriptive analytical study. 594 high school adolescent girls were selected using multi-stage random sampling method. Nutritional attitude was assessed by use of a nutritional attitude questionnaire. Another specific questionnaire was used to gather demographic and anthropometric information. Data analysis was done using SPSS software, independent t- test and Chi-square (P˂0.05. Results: The information shows that 80% of the studied population are at risk of eating disorders. The number of the obese , over weight and underweight students were significantly more in the group with nutritional attitude disorders. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of eating disorders in adolescent girls, and the concomitant obesity and underweight with these disorders, the correction of these attitude could be mentioned as a health priority in this city
Larsen, Gunvor Riber
Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...
Leader, Amy E; Cashman, Rebecca; Voytek, Chelsea D; Baker, Jillian L; Brawner, Bridgette M; Frank, Ian
When the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was approved in 2006, an extensive direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising campaign raised awareness and promoted vaccination. This study explores adolescents' exposure to and understanding of the messages in these advertisements. Sixty-seven African American females participated in a focus group about DTC advertising for the HPV vaccine. Virtually all adolescents had seen an HPV vaccine DTC advertisement, but most did not understand the health information contained in it. If DTC advertising is to be an effective source of health information for adolescents in the future, it must take into account the unique features of an adolescent audience.
Romeo, Russell D; Patel, Ravenna; Pham, Laurie; So, Veronica M
Adolescent development is marked by many changes in neuroendocrine function, resulting in both immediate and long-term influences on an individual's physiology and behavior. Stress-induced hormonal responses are one such change, with adolescent animals often showing different patterns of hormonal reactivity following a stressor compared with adults. This review will describe the unique ways in which adolescent animals respond to a variety of stressors and how these adolescent-related changes in hormonal responsiveness can be further modified by the sex and previous experience of the individual. Potential central and peripheral mechanisms that contribute to these developmental shifts in stress reactivity are also discussed. Finally, the short- and long-term programming effects of chronic stress exposure during adolescence on later adult hormonal responsiveness are also examined. Though far from a clear understanding of the neurobehavioral consequences of these adolescent-related shifts in stress reactivity, continued study of developmental changes in stress-induced hormonal responses may shed light on the increased vulnerability to physical and psychological dysfunctions that often accompany a stressful adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jamison, T. Rene; Schuttler, Jessica Oeth
A majority of social skills research in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and interventions target school age males and no published studies target adolescent females with ASD or related disabilities. Females with ASD are at risk for internalizing symptoms, and experience greater challenges in socialization and communication as social demands become…
Sidibe, Turquoise; Turner, Kea; Sparks, Alicia; Woods-Jaeger, Briana; Lightfoot, Alexandra
African Americans have the highest rate of new HIV infection in the United States. This photovoice study explored the perspectives and experiences of African American female youth and sought to understand how adolescent development impacts HIV risk. This study used the photovoice methodology with seven African American or Biracial female youth, in…
Laramée, Catherine; Drapeau, Vicky; Valois, Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Jacob, Raphaëlle; Provencher, Véronique; Lamarche, Benoît
To evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention to reduce the intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among adolescent female athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Aesthetic sport teams of adolescent female athletes aged 12-17 years. Two teams (n = 37 athletes) in the intervention group and 3 teams (n = 33) in the comparison group. The 2 groups received nutrition education during 3 weekly 60-minute sessions. The intervention group was further exposed to a theory-based intervention targeting the specific determinant of intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight, namely attitude. Difference over time between groups in intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight and in nutrition knowledge. Mixed models for repeated measures. The theory-based intervention contributed to maintaining a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight over time in the intervention group compared with the comparison group (P theory-based behavior change intervention may help maintain a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among female high school athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Alquaiz, Aljoharah M; Almuneef, Maha A; Minhas, Hafsa R
To investigate the knowledge and sources of knowledge among Saudi female adolescent students, attending public and private schools in the city of Riyadh with regard to sexuality and reproductive health. This cross sectional survey was conducted from January to April 2009. Female adolescents between 11 and 21 years of age were invited to participate in the survey. Five classes of intermediate and secondary levels were randomly selected from 2 schools in Riyadh city. A total of 417 female students were included into the sample. Students were asked to answer a self-administrated questionnaire. Forty-two percent of the participants reported that they discussed sexual matters with their friends. Only 15.8% discussed these matters with their parents (mothers). Interestingly, 17.3% discussed sexual matters with the domestic helper. Most (61%) reported that their teachers had negative attitudes toward questions related to sexual issues. Only 33.3%, 37.9% and 14.5% knew that syphilis, gonorrhea, and hepatitis B, are sexually transmitted diseases. No significant differences were found between students in private schools and public schools. Formal sexual education should be introduced in the curriculum of the schools within the context of our religion and culture. Parents and teachers should be more open to discuss sexual issues with their children and students.
Lemia H. Shaban
Full Text Available Background. The State of Kuwait has a growing obesity epidemic in both genders and all age groups; however, obesity rates in the young seem to be rising. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 169 Kuwaiti female adolescents attending both private and public schools spanning the six governorates in the State of Kuwait in order to explore female adolescents’ self-image, body dissatisfaction, type of school (private versus public, TV viewing, and computer games and their relationship to body mass index. Results. Approximately half the students classified as obese perceived their body image to lie in the normal range. Females in the obese category were the most dissatisfied with their body image, followed by those in the overweight category. Eating behavior, level of physical activity, school type, television viewing, computer/video usage, and desired BMI were not significantly associated with level of obesity. Conclusion. This study was one of the few studies to assess adolescent females’ body image dissatisfaction in relation to obesity in the State of Kuwait. The results suggest that including body image dissatisfaction awareness into obesity prevention programs would be of value.
Chung, Tammy; Ye, Feifei; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Miller, Elizabeth; Borrero, Sonya; Hawk, Mary
Some types of sexually transmitted infection (STI) have higher prevalence in females than males, and among black, relative to white, females. Identifying mechanisms of STI risk is critical to effective intervention. The authors tested a model in which alcohol and marijuana use serve as mediating factors in the associations between depression and conduct problems with sexual risk behavior (SRB) and STI in adolescent females. The Pittsburgh Girls Study is a longitudinal observational study of females who have been followed annually to track the course of mental and physical health conditions. The 3 oldest cohorts (N = 1750; 56.8% black, 43.2% white) provided self-reports of substance use, depression and conduct problems, SRB, and STI at ages 16-18. A path model tested alcohol and marijuana use at age 17 as mechanisms that mediate the associations of depression and conduct problems at age 16 with SRB and STI at age 18. Race was involved in 2 risk pathways. In one pathway, white females reported greater alcohol use, which was associated with greater SRB. In another pathway, black females reported earlier sexual onset, which was associated with subsequent SRB. Public assistance use was independently associated with early sexual onset and STI. SRB, but not substance use, mediated the association of depression and conduct problems with STI. Differences by race in pathways of risk for SRB and STI, involving, for example, alcohol use and early sexual onset, were identified for young white and black females, respectively. Depression and conduct problems may signal risk for SRB and STI in young females, and warrant attention to improve health outcomes.
Chan, Kara; Ng, Yu-Leung; Prendergast, Gerard
A study was conducted to examine how interpersonal norms, media norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy had an influence on healthy eating intention among adolescents. A probability sample of 544 adolescents aged 12 to 18 was conducted. Results indicated that girls had a more favorable attitude and intention toward healthy eating than boys. Healthy eating intention among boys was predicted by attitude, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy, and among girls was predicted by perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Different marketing strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescent boys and girls should be adopted.
Chuang, Jie-Yu; J Whitaker, Kirstie; Murray, Graham K; Elliott, Rebecca; Hagan, Cindy C; Graham, Julia Me; Ooi, Cinly; Tait, Roger; Holt, Rosemary J; van Nieuwenhuizen, Adrienne O; Reynolds, Shirley; Wilkinson, Paul O; Bullmore, Edward T; Lennox, Belinda R; Sahakian, Barbara J; Goodyer, Ian; Suckling, John
Depression in adolescence is debilitating with high recurrence in adulthood, yet its pathophysiological mechanism remains enigmatic. To examine the interaction between emotion, cognition and treatment, functional brain responses to sad and happy distractors in an affective go/no-go task were explored before and after Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) in depressed female adolescents, and healthy participants. Eighty-two Depressed and 24 healthy female adolescents, aged 12-17 years, performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) affective go/no-go task at baseline. Participants were instructed to withhold their responses upon seeing happy or sad words. Among these participants, 13 patients had CBT over approximately 30 weeks. These participants and 20 matched controls then repeated the task. At baseline, increased activation in response to happy relative to neutral distractors was observed in the orbitofrontal cortex in depressed patients which was normalised after CBT. No significant group differences were found behaviourally or in brain activation in response to sad distractors. Improvements in symptoms (mean: 9.31, 95% CI: 5.35-13.27) were related at trend-level to activation changes in orbitofrontal cortex. In the follow-up section, a limited number of post-CBT patients were recruited. To our knowledge, this is the first fMRI study addressing the effect of CBT in adolescent depression. Although a bias toward negative information is widely accepted as a hallmark of depression, aberrant brain hyperactivity to positive distractors was found and normalised after CBT. Research, assessment and treatment focused on positive stimuli could be a future consideration. Moreover, a pathophysiological mechanism distinct from adult depression may be suggested and awaits further exploration. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Matson, Pamela A; Chung, Shang-En; Ellen, Jonathan M
This research examined the association between a novel measure of perceived partner availability and discordance between ideal and actual partner characteristics as well as trajectories of ideal partner preferences and perceptions of partner availability over time. A clinic-recruited cohort of adolescent females (N = 92), aged 1619 years, were interviewed quarterly for 12 months using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Participants ranked the importance of characteristics for their ideal main sex partner and then reported on these characteristics for their current main partner. Participants reported on perceptions of availability of ideal sex partners in their neighborhood. Paired t-tests examined discordance between ideal and actual partner characteristics. Random-intercept regression models examined repeated measures. Actual partner ratings were lower than ideal partner preferences for fidelity, equaled ideal preferences for emotional support and exceeded ideal preferences for social/economic status and physical attractiveness. Discordance on emotional support and social/economic status was associated with sex partner concurrency. Participants perceived low availability of ideal sex partners. Those who perceived more availability were less likely to be ideal/actual discordant on fidelity [OR = .88, 95% CI: .78, 1.0]. Neither ideal partner preferences nor perceptions of partner availability changed over 12 months. Current main sex partners met or exceeded ideal partner preferences in all domains except fidelity. If emotional needs are met, adolescents may tolerate partner concurrency in areas of limited partner pools. Urban adolescent females who perceive low availability may be at increased risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI) because they may be more likely to have nonmonogamous partners. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Notter, Kathryn Betz
The decreasing number of women who are graduating in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields continues to be a major concern. Despite national support in the form of grants provided by National Science Foundation, National Center for Information and Technology and legislation passed such as the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 that encourages women to enter the STEM fields, the number of women actually graduating in these fields is surprisingly low. This research study focuses on a robotics competition and its ability to engage female adolescents in STEM curricula. Data have been collected to help explain why young women are reticent to take technology or engineering type courses in high school and college. Factors that have been described include attitudes, parental support, social aspects, peer pressure, and lack of role models. Often these courses were thought to have masculine and "nerdy" overtones. The courses were usually majority male enrollments and appeared to be very competitive. With more female adolescents engaging in this type of competitive atmosphere, this study gathered information to discover what about the competition appealed to these young women. Focus groups were used to gather information from adolescent females who were participating in the First Lego League (FLL) and CEENBoT competitions. What enticed them to participate in a curriculum that data demonstrated many of their peers avoided? FLL and CEENBoT are robotics programs based on curricula that are taught in afterschool programs in non-formal environments. These programs culminate in a very large robotics competition. My research questions included: What are the factors that encouraged participants to participate in the robotics competition? What was the original enticement to the FLL and CEENBoT programs? What will make participants want to come back and what are the participants' plans for the future? My research mirrored data of previous findings such as lack
Shokoohi, Roya; Weitkamp, Gerd; Dijksterhuis, Chris; de Jong, Johan
Introduction The change from primary to secondary school has a negative impact on physical activity levels of adolescents. Cycling is an easy way of integrating physical activity into adolescents’ daily life. In the Netherland, cycling is rather common and around 80% of adolescents are cycling to
Arango Tobón, Olber E; Olivera-La Rosa, Antonio; Restrepo Tamayo, Viviana; Puerta Lopera, Isabel C
Most studies on conduct disorder (CD) have focused on male adolescents, disregarding analysis of this psychopathology in women. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in empathy and theory of mind (ToM) in a group of adolescent women with CD and a control group. Thirty-six adolescent women were selected from an initial sample of 239 adolescents (CD group = 18, control group = 18). Empathy and ToM were evaluated through objective instruments. Mean comparisons and multivariate analysis were performed to ascertain differences between cases and controls and to propose a prediction model based on clinical status. Significant differences in empathic abilities and ToM were found between the groups. The model that differentiated both groups was composed of eye-reading ability, perspective taking, and personal distress. These findings are consistent with previous studies. Capacity to take the other's perspective and the recognition of emotions in the face are protective factors against CD in women.
Gowey, Marissa A.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Becnel, Jennifer; Peugh, James; Mitchell, James E.; Zeller, Meg H.
Objective Severe obesity is the fastest growing pediatric subgroup of excess weight levels. Psychological dysregulation (i.e., impairments in regulating cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral processes) has been associated with obesity and poorer weight loss outcomes. The present study explored associations of dysregulation with weight-related variables among adolescent and young adult (AYA) females with severe obesity. Methods Fifty-four AYA females with severe obesity (MBMI=48.71 kg/m2; Mage=18.29, R=15–21 years; 59.3% White) completed self-report measures of psychological dysregulation and weight-related constructs including meal patterns, problematic eating behaviors, and body and weight dissatisfaction, as non-surgical comparison participants in a multi-site study of adolescent bariatric surgery outcomes. Pearson and bivariate correlations were conducted and stratified by age group to analyze associations between dysregulation subscales (affective, behavioral, cognitive) and weight-related variables. Results Breakfast was the most frequently skipped meal (consumed 3–4 times/week). Eating out was common (4–5 times/week) and mostly occurred at fast-food restaurants. Evening hyperphagia (61.11%) and eating in the absence of hunger (37.04%) were commonly endorsed, while unplanned eating (29.63%), a sense of loss of control over eating (22.22%), eating beyond satiety (22.22%), night eating (12.96%), and binge eating (11.11%) were less common. Almost half of the sample endorsed extreme weight dissatisfaction. Dysregulation was associated with most weight-related attitudes and behaviors of interest in young adults but select patterns emerged for adolescents. Conclusions Higher levels of psychological dysregulation are associated with greater BMI, problematic eating patterns and behaviors, and body dissatisfaction in AYA females with severe obesity. These findings have implications for developing novel intervention strategies for severe obesity in AYAs that may
Fisher, M; Schneider, M; Pegler, C; Napolitano, B
In order to determine whether adolescent females with abnormal eating attitudes display lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of anxiety than their peers, and whether these adolescents participate in health-risk behaviors to a greater or lesser degree than their peers, we administered a series of questionnaires to the females attending a suburban high school in New York State. The questionnaires, completed by 268 students (mean age, 16.2 years), included data on health-risk behaviors and weight attitudes, an Eating Attitudes Test, a self-esteem scale, and an anxiety inventory. Results indicated that almost two-thirds of the students described themselves as overweight, almost three-quarters felt they were above the healthiest weight for their age and height, and almost four-fifths were above the weight at which they would be most happy; 18% of the students scored 30 or more on the Eating Attitudes Test, a score suggestive of an eating disorder. Use of Spearman-rank correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analysis revealed that those with more unhappiness with their weight and higher scores on the eating attitudes test were more likely to have lower self-esteem and higher anxiety and to participate more in health-risk behaviors, including cigarette smoking, alcohol use, drug use, and sexual activity with more total partners. The data from this study further corroborate the growing belief that health-risk behaviors tend to cluster together in vulnerable adolescents and demonstrate that abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors may be part of this cluster, especially in females with low self-esteem and high levels of anxiety.
Chernick, Lauren S; Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Stockwell, Melissa; Castaño, Paula; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S
Objective Over 15 million adolescents, many at high risk for pregnancy, use emergency departments (ED) in the United States annually, but little is known regarding reasons for failure to use contraceptives in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to and enablers of contraceptive use among adolescent females using the ED and determine their interest in an ED-based pregnancy prevention intervention. Study Design We conducted semi-structured, open-ended interviews with females in an urban ED. Eligible females were 14-19 years old, sexually active, presenting for reproductive health complaints, and at risk for pregnancy, defined as non-use of effective (per the World Health Organization) contraception. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded based on thematic analysis. Enrollment continued until no new themes emerged. A modified Health Belief Model guided the organization of the data. Results Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (93%), insured (93%), and in a sexual relationship (86%). The primary barrier to contraceptive use was perceived health risk, including effects on menstruation, weight, and future fertility. Other barriers consisted of mistrust in contraceptives, ambivalent pregnancy intentions, uncertainty about the future, partner's desire for pregnancy, and limited access to contraceptives. Enablers of past contraceptive use included the presence of a school-based health clinic and clear plans for the future. All participants were receptive to ED-based pregnancy prevention interventions. Conclusions The identified barriers and enablers influencing hormonal contraceptive use can be used to inform the design of future ED-based adolescent pregnancy prevention interventions. PMID:25499588
Pfeiffer, Constanze; Ahorlu, Collins K; Alba, Sandra; Obrist, Brigit
In Tanzania, teenage pregnancy rates are still high despite the efforts being made to reduce them. Not enough is known about how adolescents experience and cope with sexuality and teenage pregnancy. Over the past few decades, most studies have focused on vulnerability and risk among youth. The concept of 'reproductive resilience' is a new way of looking at teenage pregnancy. It shifts the perspective from a deficit-based to a strength-based approach. The study presented here aimed to identify factors that could contribute to strengthening the reproductive resilience of girls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Using a cross-sectional cluster sampling approach, 750 female adolescents aged 15-19 years were interviewed about how they mobilize resources to avoid or deal with teenage pregnancy. The main focus of the study was to examine how social capital (relations with significant others), economic capital (command over economic resources), cultural capital (personal dispositions and habits), and symbolic capital (recognition and prestige) contribute to the development of adolescent competencies for avoiding or dealing with teenage pregnancy and childbirth. A cumulative competence scale was developed to assess reproductive resilience. The cumulative score was computed based on 10 competence indicators that refer to the re- and pro-active mobilization of resources. About half of the women who had never been pregnant fell into the category, 'high competence' (50.9%), meaning they could get the information and support needed to avoid pregnancies. Among pregnant women and young mothers, most were categorized as 'high competence' (70.5%) and stated that they know how to avoid or deal with health problems that might affect them or their babies, and could get the information and support required to do so. Cultural capital, in particular, contributed to the competence of never-pregnant girls [OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.06 to 3.07, p = 0.029], pregnant adolescents and young mothers
Mishra, Ram Manohar; Dube, Madhulika; Saggurti, Niranjan; Pandey, Arvind; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Ramesh, Sowmya
This study examines the relationship between entry into the trucking industry during adolescence and both sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among long-distance truck drivers in India. Data were sourced from a cross-sectional survey (sample size: 2066) undertaken in 2007 among long-distance truck drivers. The survey spread across major transshipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes. Participants were interviewed about sexual behaviors and were tested for HIV and STIs. The present authors constructed two synthetic cohorts based on the participants' duration of employment in the trucking industry: (1) low (duration ≤ 6 years) and (2) high experience (duration ≥ 7 years). Based on age at entry into the trucking industry, participants were termed as either adolescent (age at entry 4.0%, respectively; adjusted OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-3.1) and syphilis (5.7% versus 3.5%, respectively; adjusted OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.1). These results suggest the need for focused behavioral change programs in HIV prevention interventions for adolescent truckers in India and elsewhere.
Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U; Oshi, Daniel C; Ndimele, Eugene C; Chuku, Nneoma C; Onyemuchara, Ifunanya L; Ezekwere, Sandra C; Oshi, Sarah N; Emelumadu, Obiageli F
Prevalence of adolescent sexual activity is on the increase globally, resulting in increased risk of adverse reproductive health outcomes among them. Sources of sex information are key factors that influence female adolescents' sexual decision-making. Consequently, this study is aimed at identifying adolescents' sources of sexuality information, and its likely effect on their sexual practices among in-school female adolescents in Osisioma LGA, in southeastern Nigeria. A total of 304 girls selected by multi-stage sampling technique were studied. Responses were elicited from them using pretested, semi-structured, self administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using MS Excel and Epi-6. Primary and subsequent sources of sexuality information were mainly the media and peers. Families and schools mostly were not involved in provision of early sex education. Media and peer influence were predominantly negative. Female adolescents' knowledge of issues of sex was low. Premarital sex, early sexual initiation, and unprotected sex was common among them. Consequently, adverse implication of negative sexual behavior, such as unplanned pregnancies and induced abortion, was prevalent. The study highlights the need for increased roles of parents and teachers in early sexuality education of adolescent girls. This can be done by increasing capacity of parents to discuss sexuality issues with their children. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hosová, Dominika; Spear, Linda Patia
The still maturing adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to lasting consequences of ethanol (EtOH) exposure. Yet, human adolescents are the age group most likely to engage in binge drinking (a pattern of drinking leading to blood EtOH concentrations (BECs) of 80 mg/dl or greater). Most studies to date assessing the long-term effects of adolescent EtOH exposure in outbred rodent populations have either used experimenter-administered EtOH to produce BECs in the binge range or assessed voluntary intake of EtOH at well below binge levels. Beginning with a modified schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) procedure, this study examined the suitability of several approaches to induce voluntary binge-like consumption during adolescence in an outbred rat strain. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats were food deprived to 85% projected free-feeding weights beginning on postnatal day (P) 24 and were given 30 minutes of access to 10% EtOH in chocolate Boost ® or Boost ® alone daily from P28 to P41 (followed later by their daily allocation of food). Animals were tested within operant chambers (Exp. 1a, 1b and Exp. 2) or home and novel cages (Exp. 3). Animals received either scheduled delivery of banana pellets to examine SIP (Exp. 1a,b) or massed pellet presentation (Exp. 2 and Exp. 3). Blood samples were collected via the lateral tail vein on P33 and P41. Intakes produced BECs frequently in the binge range (>80 mg/dl) and modeled binge-like consumption patterns, with high consumption days typically followed by 1 to 2 days of lower consumption; this variability was less evident with Boost ® alone. Consumption was not schedule induced and was generally high across all studies, although consumption in males appeared to be particularly pronounced when animals were tested in the presence of their cage mate. Binge-like patterns of EtOH consumption were produced using these procedures in adolescent Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes and may prove to be a useful
Ehrlich, David E.; Neigh, Gretchen N.; Bourke, Chase H.; Nemeth, Christina L.; Hazra, Rimi; Ryan, Steven J.; Rowson, Sydney; Jairam, Nesha; Sholar, Courtney; Rainnie, Donald G.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Owens, Michael J.
Depression during pregnancy has been linked to in utero stress and is associated with long-lasting symptoms in offspring, including anxiety, helplessness, attentional deficits, and social withdrawal. Depression is diagnosed in 10-20% of expectant mothers, but the impact of antidepressant treatment on offspring development is not well documented, particularly for females. Here, we used a prenatal stress model of maternal depression to test the hypothesis that in utero antidepressant treatment could mitigate the effects of prenatal stress. We also investigated the effects of prenatal stress and antidepressant treatment on gene expression related to GABAergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the amygdala, which may underlie behavioral effects of prenatal stress. Nulliparous female rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps delivering clinically-relevant concentrations of escitalopram and mated. Pregnant dams were exposed to 12 days of mixed-modality stressors, and offspring were behaviorally assessed in adolescence (postnatal day 28) and adulthood (beyond day 90) to determine the extent of behavioral change. We found that in utero stress exposure, regardless of escitalopram treatment, increased anxiety-like behavior in adolescent females and profoundly influenced amygdala expression of the chloride transporters KCC2 and NKCC1, which regulate GABAergic function. In contrast, prenatal escitalopram exposure alone elevated amygdala expression of 5-HT1A receptors. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior returned to baseline and gene expression effects in the amygdala abated, whereas deficits emerged in novel object recognition for rats exposed to stress during gestation. These findings suggest prenatal stress causes age-dependent deficits in anxiety-like behavior and amygdala function in female offspring, regardless of antidepressant exposure. PMID:26032436
Full Text Available Anthropologists recognized the tallness of nations in the Dinaric Alps long time ago (Popovic et al, 2013. As the modern Montenegrins fall partly into the Dinaric racial classification (Bjelica et al., 2012, the purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Montenegrin female adolescents from central region as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height, which would vary from region to region in Montenegro. Method: Our investigation analyses 593 female adolescents from the central region in Montenegro. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Means and standard deviations regarding the anthropometric measurements were obtained. A comparison of means of body heights and arm spans within this gender group were carried out using a t-test. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. Results: The results displayed that female Central-Montenegrins are 169.24±11.61cm tall and have an arm span of 168.03±10.34cm. Discussion: Compared to other studies, the results of this study have shown that this gender made Central-Macedonians the tall population, taller than general female population in Montenegro (Bjelica et al., 2012. On the other hand, expectably, the arm span reliably predicts body height in this gender. However, the estimation equations which have been obtained in Central-Montenegrins are, different alike in general population, since arm span was shorter than the body heights (1.21±1.27 centimetres, much more than in general population (Bjelica et al., 2012. This confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Montenegro.
Lommel, Karen; Bamford, Jaime; Jhavari, Malhar; Martin, Catherine; Crofford, Leslie
This study was designed to assess the presence of pain and impaired functioning in the maternal relatives of adolescent females in an inpatient adolescent psychiatric population. We compared the relatives of adolescents who met the criteria for juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome (JPFS) to relatives of adolescents who did not meet the criteria for JPFS. A total of 55 biological maternal relatives of adolescent females admitted to a psychiatric unit were recruited to participate in the study. Participants completed four self-administered questionnaires: Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Survey (SF36v2), and the EPIFUND Health Survey. The maternal relatives of adolescents who met the criteria for JPFS did not score higher than the maternal relatives of adolescents who did not meet the criteria for JPFS. However, all maternal relatives consistently scored higher on self-reported measures of pain, impaired functioning, fatigue, and fibromyalgia symptoms than the average patient diagnosed with fibromyalgia or a chronic pain syndrome. Mood disorders and pain disorders share genetic risk factors and vulnerability. Future research is needed to further delineate other factors impacting the maternal caregivers' functioning. These could include stress associated with an adolescent child with psychiatric issues severe enough to warrant hospitalization.
Wright, Lisa D; Muir, Katherine E; Perrot, Tara S
In order to characterize the short- and long-term effects of repeated stressor exposure during adolescence, and to compare the effects of using two sources of cat odor as stressor stimuli, male and female adolescent rats (postnatal day (PND) ∼ 38-46) were exposed on five occasions to either a control stimulus, a cloth stimulus containing cat hair/dander, or a section of cat collar previously worn by a cat. Relative to control stimulus exposure, activity was suppressed and defensive behavior enhanced during exposure to either cat odor stimulus (most pervasively in rats exposed to the collar). Only cloth-exposed rats showed elevated levels of corticosterone (CORT), and only after repeated stressor exposure, but interestingly, rats exposed to the collar stimulus during adolescence continued to show increased behavioral indices of anxiety in adulthood. In this group, the time an individual spent in physical contact with a cagemate during the final adolescent exposure was negatively related to stress-induced CORT output in adulthood, which suggests that greater use of social support during adolescent stress may facilitate adult behavioral coping, without necessitating increased CORT release. These findings demonstrate that adolescent male and female rats respond defensively to cat odor stimuli across repeated exposures and that exposure to such stressors during adolescence can augment adult anxiety-like behavior in similar stressful conditions. These findings also suggest a potential role for social behavior during adolescent stressor exposure in mediating long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wagner, Gudrun; Wagner, Gudrun; Penelo, Eva; Nobis, Gerald; Mayerhofer, Anna; Schau, Johanna; Spitzer, Marion; Imgart, Hartmut; Karwautz, Andreas
This study aims to evaluate the long-term outcome of new technology assisted guided self-help in adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN). One hundred and twenty-six patients with BN (29 adolescents and 97 adults) were randomly allocated to a cognitive behavioural therapy-based self-help program delivered by the Internet or bibliotherapy, both accompanied by e-mail guidance. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, month 4, 7 and 18 including remission rates and eating disorder associated psychopathology. In all, 44% of adolescents vs. 38.7% of adults were in remission at month 7, and 55% of adolescents vs. 62.5% of adults were in remission at follow-up. Objective binge eating and compensatory behaviour improved significantly over time in both groups, with the highest decrease during the first 4 months. A significant decrease over time and no group differences have been found in almost all EDI-2 subscales. E-mail guided self-help (delivered via the Internet or bibliotherapy) is equally effective for adolescents as for adults with BN, and can be recommended as an initial step of treatment for this younger age group.
Bitzer, Johannes; Abalos, Virginia; Apter, Dan; Martin, Ricardo; Black, Amanda
Sexual and reproductive health care should empower and enable all individuals to have a sex life that is as safe and pleasurable as possible. Achievement of this goal for adolescents is often impeded by regional and sociocultural barriers. To review global barriers to provision of effective counselling and care of adolescents seeking advice on contraception and sexual and reproductive health and identify elements of best practice that can be adapted to meet their needs at regional level. Experts with clinical experience and a scholarly background in the provision of contraceptive services to adolescents participated in a stepwise process of literature review and discussion according to the agreed objectives. The Global CARE (Contraception: Access, Resources, Education) group identified barriers to the access, availability and acceptance of contraception by adolescents, not only at the political and sociocultural level but also within health care practice. The group collected and summarized successful local strategies and tools suitable for adaptation in other regions. Elements of best practice for providing contraception regardless of setting or regional constraints, including required skills, knowledge, and attitudes, were also proposed. Sharing of evidence-based best practice in delivering contraceptive services, improvements in health care provider education, and sharing of experience between countries will hopefully help to overcome the barriers to appropriate and effective counselling and care of adolescents.
Keeley, Robin J; Bye, Cameron; Trow, Jan; McDonald, Robert J
The acute effects of marijuana consumption on brain physiology and behaviour are well documented, but the long-term effects of its chronic use are less well known. Chronic marijuana use during adolescence is of increased interest, given that the majority of individuals first use marijuana during this developmental stage , and adolescent marijuana use is thought to increase the susceptibility to abusing other drugs when exposed later in life. It is possible that marijuana use during critical periods in adolescence could lead to increased sensitivity to other drugs of abuse later on. To test this, we chronically administered ∆ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to male and female Long-Evans (LER) and Wistar (WR) rats directly after puberty onset. Rats matured to postnatal day 90 before being exposed to a conditioned place preference task (CPP). A subthreshold dose of d-amphetamine, found not to induce place preference in drug naïve rats, was used as the unconditioned stimulus. The effect of d-amphetamine on neural activity was inferred by quantifying cfos expression in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal hippocampus following CPP training. Chronic exposure to THC post-puberty had no potentiating effect on a subthreshold dose of d-amphetamine to induce CPP. No differences in cfos expression were observed. These results show that chronic exposure to THC during puberty did not increase sensitivity to d-amphetamine in adult LER and WR rats. This supports the concept that THC may not sensitize the response to all drugs of abuse.
Rhea, Deborah J; Thatcher, W Gregory
The purpose of this study was two-fold: to determine the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem as dimensions of one's self-concept; and to determine if differences exist among one's ethnicity, ethnic identity, and/or self-esteem when examining at-risk eating disordered behaviors. A total of 893 urban adolescent females completed three behavioral subscales: the Eating Disorder Inventory, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and Phinney's Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. As hypothesized, ethnic identity was significantly associated with self-esteem to form one's self-concept. When compared to Mexican American and White females, only Black females who were in the higher ethnic identity and self-esteem categories had significantly lower at-risk eating disordered scores. Our findings suggest eating disorder status in Mexican American and White females may not be associated as much with ethnic identity as with other acculturation and self-concept factors. Further, this study demonstrated ethnicity, self-esteem, and ethnic identity play significant roles in eating disorder risks.
Bynion, Teah-Marie; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Bilsky, Sarah A; Cloutier, Renee M; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W
Social anxiety is the most common anxiety disorder among youth; theoretical and empirical work suggest specific parenting behaviors may be relevant. However, findings are inconsistent, particularly in terms of maternal as compared to paternal effects. In the current study, we evaluated the indirect effects of perceived psychological control on the relation between anxious rearing behaviors and child social anxiety among 112 community-recruited girls (ages 12-15 years). In addition to self-report, adolescent participants completed a laboratory-based social stress task. In line with hypotheses, results indicated indirect effects of psychological control on the relation between anxious rearing behaviors and child social anxiety in maternal but not paternal models. Findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and empirical implications for clarifying the role of parental relations in adolescent social anxiety. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wilson, Andrew N; Dollman, James
Social support is a consistent correlate of youth physical activity (PA) but few studies have examined this in cultural sub-groups. Female adolescents (n=113; 13.9+/-0.6years) from a metropolitan single sex private school participated in this study. PA was estimated using the 3 Day Physical Activity Recall (3dPAR), and aspects of social support using a specifically designed questionnaire. Anglo-Australians (n=74), whose parents were both born in Australia, were compared with Vietnamese-Australians (n=39), whose parents were both born in Vietnam. There were non-significant trends towards higher engagement in all measures of PA among Anglo-Australians. Anglo-Australians perceived higher levels of social support to be physically active. In the whole sample and in cultural sub-groups, support by mothers was a consistent predictor of PA. Among Vietnamese-Australians, activities shared with the mother predicted moderate to vigorous PA. Interventions targeting PA among adolescent females should consider interactions of social support and cultural background.
McFillin, Roger K; Cahn, Stacey C; Burks, Virginia Salzer; Levine, Martha Peaslee; Loney, Susan Lane; Levine, Richard L
The objective of this study was to examine differences in social information-processing and coping strategies between adolescent females in treatment for an eating disorder and asymptomatic peers. Adolescent females in treatment for an eating disorder (n = 50) were compared to asymptomatic control participants (n = 59) on a measure of social information-processing. Participants were presented with 4 hypothetical, ambiguous social dilemmas in which the intent of a peer provocateur was unclear. Questions followed each dilemma assessing intent attributions, the participant's emotional reaction, the intensity of the emotion, and coping strategies. The participants in treatment for an eating disorder were significantly more likely to perceive hostile intent from a peer provocateur, reported a greater intensity of negative emotions, and identified a significantly greater number of avoidant coping strategies. Specifically, the eating disorder group identified significantly more intrapunitive avoidant coping strategies that reflect maladaptive and self-destructive means of coping with distressing events. Results indicate social cognitive processing biases and maladaptive coping strategies may be instrumental in perceived loss of control and influence the development/maintenance of eating disorders.
Jorquera, Mercedes; Baños, Rosa María; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Rasal, Paloma; Etchemendy, Ernestina
The purpose of the present study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the 'Questionnaire of Sociocultural Influences on the Aesthetic Body Shape Model' (CIMEC-26) in a Spanish adolescent population. This questionnaire measures the influence of agents and situations that transmit the current aesthetic model, and assesses environmental influences favouring thinness. The CIMEC-26 was administered to a sample of 4031 female primary and secondary school students ranging in age from 10 to 17 years (M = 14, SD = 1.34). Results suggested that the CIMEC-26 has acceptable internal consistency (α = .93). The oldest group (15-17 years) had the highest scores on all factors and the highest total scores, suggesting greater influence of the aesthetic body shape model and higher vulnerability to social pressure to achieve it. Factor analysis suggested three moderately interrelated components of the scale. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that both the three-factor solution and the original five-factor structure had good fit indices, although the latter showed the best fit. The CIMEC-26 proved to be an effective instrument for research on the social influence on the aesthetic body model in female adolescents. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Steffen, K; Bakka, H M; Myklebust, G; Bahr, R
The injury rate in football is high, and effective injury prevention methods are needed. An exercise program, the "11," has been designed to prevent the most common injury types in football. However, the effect of such a program on performance is not known. The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to investigate the effect of the "11" on performance after a 10-week training period. Thirty-four adolescent female football players were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n=18) or a control group (n=16). The "11" is a 15-min program consisting of ten exercises for core stability, lower extremity strength, balance and agility. Performance tests included isokinetic and isometric strength protocols for the quadriceps and hamstrings, isometric hip adduction and abduction strength, vertical jump tests, sprint running and soccer skill tests. There was no difference between the intervention and control groups in the change in performance from the pre- to post-test for any of the tests used. In conclusion, no effect was observed on a series of performance tests in a group of adolescent female football players using the "11" as a structured warm-up program.
Full Text Available Introduction: Bullying is a form of low-level violence in the school environment that if unnoticed to become dangerous forms of violence occurs. The aim of this study was examining the relationship between anxiety, stress and depression and female adolescents' suicidal thoughts with the meditating role of the victim of bullying. Materials and Methods: This study is descriptive and has used the correlation method. For this purpose in the academic year 2016-2017, 300 students of high school girl students (seventh and eighth grade of public schools of Pakdasht city were selected by random cluster sampling method and they filled in the suicidal thoughts, anxiety, stress, depression and victim of bullying questionnaire. For data analysis, Pearson’s correlation method and structural equation modeling were used by using SPSS-19 and LISRELV8.80 software. Results: Pearson’s correlational results showed that there is a positive and meaningful relation between anxiety, stress, depression and victim of bullying with suicidal thoughts (P≤0.01. Also the victim of bullying variable has a meditating role in relation among research variable and all of the direct and indirect effects of anxiety, stress, depression and victim of bullying on suicidal thoughts are meaningful. Conclusion: The results indicate that anxiety, stress, depression along with victim of bullying in female adolescents cause suicidal thoughts therefore preventing and reducing the risk at schools is absolutely necessary.
Zhang, Di-qing; Chen, Zi-qiang; Li, Ming
To investigate the reliability of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) and to verify the possibility in the growth evaluation of female adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients as a helpful supplementary to the Risser sign. Coronal and lateral full-length spine X-ray film and left hand-wrist radiographs of 77 female adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis were selected from January 2010 to October 2010. The interval period between lateral length of the spine and left hand-wrist radiographs did not exceed 3 months. The CVM was assessed by a method developed by Baccetti and co-workers, whereas hand-wrist maturation was assessed by Fishman's method. The results were analyzed by Spearman correlation with patients Risser sign, chronological age, and menarche period. There were strong correlations between CVM and SMI or Risser sign (r = 0.862 and 0.762, P < 0.01). While in 26 patients whose Risser sign were 0-I, the correlation between CVM and SMI was more pronounced (r = 0.761, P < 0.01), compared with the correlation between Risser sign and SMI (r = 0.641, P < 0.01). CVM is a valid indicator of skeletal growth evaluation and can be used as a helpful supplementary to Risser sign.
Larkina, Marina; Merrill, Natalie A; Bauer, Patricia J
Autobiographical memories contribute continuity and stability to one's self yet they also are subject to change: they can be forgotten or be inconsistently remembered and reported. In the present research, we compared the consistency of two reports of recent and distant personal events in adolescents (12- to 14-year-olds) and young adults (18- to 23-year-olds). In line with expectations of greater mnemonic consistency among young adults relative to adolescents, adolescents reported the same events 80% of the time compared with 90% consistency among young adults; the significant difference disappeared after taking into consideration narrative characteristics of individual memories. Neither age group showed high levels of content consistency (30% vs. 36%); young adults were more consistent than adolescents even after controlling for other potential predictors of content consistency. Adolescents and young adults did not differ in consistency of estimating when their past experiences occurred. Multilevel modelling indicated that the level of thematic coherence of the initial memory report and ratings of event valence significantly predicted memory consistency at the level of the event. Thematic coherence was a significant negative predictor of content consistency. The findings suggest a developmental progression in the robustness and stability of personal memories between adolescence and young adulthood.
Full Text Available Alexandre Faisal-Cury,1 Karen M Tabb,2 Guilherme Niciunovas,3 Carrie Cunningham,4 Paulo R Menezes,1 Hsiang Huang4,5 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2School of Social Work, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA; 3School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge Health Alliance, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA; 5Department of Psychiatry, Laboratory of Psychopathology and Psychiatric Therapeutics (LIM-23, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Adolescent pregnancy has social, economic, and educational consequences and is also linked to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, studies show a positive relationship between pregnancy and increased social status among low-income adolescents. This study aims to assess the association between planned pregnancy and years of schooling among low-income Brazilian adolescents. This is a secondary analysis of a cohort study conducted from May 2005 to March 2007 in public primary care clinics in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants (n=168 completed a detailed structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between years of schooling and planned pregnancy. After adjusting for the covariates income, wealth score, crowding, age, marital status, and race, planned pregnancy was independently associated with lower years of education (odds ratio: 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.02–3.23. Although this finding may be related to these adolescents having less access to information and health services, another possible explanation is that they have a greater desire to have children during adolescence. Keywords: adolescent pregnancy, planned pregnancy, Brazil, low-income population, women
West Patrick B
Full Text Available Abstract Background By mid adolescence there is an excess in female physical and/or psychosomatic, as well as psychological morbidity. This paper examines the contribution of a range of factors (self-esteem, body image, gender-role orientation, body mass index, smoking and physical activity to explaining the female excess in three psychosomatic symptoms (headaches, stomach ache/sickness, and dizziness and depressive mood at age 15. Methods A cohort of 2,196 school pupils (analyses restricted to 2,005 with complete data surveyed at age 15. All measures were obtained via self-completion questionnaires, apart from body mass index, derived from measured height and weight. Analyses examined (a sex differences in each potential explanatory factor; (b their associations with the health measures; (c the effect of adjustment for these factors on sex differences in the health measures; and (d the existence of interactive effects between sex and the explanatory factors on the health measures Results Each potential explanatory factor was significantly differentiated by sex. Self-esteem, body image (represented by weight-related worries, smoking and physical activity were related to the health measures. These factors accounted for one third of the female excess in headaches and stomach problems, half the excess in dizziness and almost all that in respect of depressive mood. Self-esteem and body image were the factors most consistently related to health, and adjustment for these resulted in the largest reductions in the odds of a female excess in both the psychosomatic symptoms and depressive mood. Conclusion Adjustment for a range of potential psychosocial and behavioural factors largely explains (statistically excess female depressive mood. These factors also partially explain the female excess in certain psychosomatic symptoms.
Schwieger, Traci; Campo, Shelly; Weinstein, Stuart L; Dolan, Lori A; Ashida, Sato; Steuber, Keli R
The Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial (BrAIST) included skeletally immature high-risk patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with moderate curve sizes (20°- 40°). BrAIST was a multicenter, controlled trial using both randomized and preference treatment arms into either an observation group or a brace treatment group. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare body image and quality-of-life (QOL) in female AIS patients who were observed or treated with a brace. Brace treatment is an effective means for controlling progressive scoliosis and preventing the need for surgery, but there is no consensus regarding the effect of brace treatment on body image or on QOL in adolescents with AIS. Data from female BrAIST patients in the randomized (n = 132) or preference (n = 187) arms and were observed (n = 120) or brace treated (n = 199) were analyzed. Patients completed the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQOL) 4.0 Generic Scales at baseline and 6 month follow-up visits up to 2 years. Items on the SAQ measured three body image constructs (self, ideal, and overall). The PedsQOL measured health, activities, feelings, social factors, and school. . In general, there were no significant differences within or between study arms or treatments regarding body image or QOL through 2 years of follow-up. Poorer body image was significantly correlated with poorer QOL during the first 2 years of follow-up regardless of study arm or treatment. Patients who crossed-over to a different treatment and patients with largest Cobb angles ≥ 40 degrees had significantly poorer body image, in particular self-body image, compared with those that did not. This study does not support findings from previous research indicating that wearing a brace has a negative impact on or is negatively impacted by body image or QOL. 2.
Cornick, Shayla L.
Experiences that females have during middle and high school have been found to influence the perceptions that they have of their ability to be successful as an engineer and the value that they place on participating in engineering education. Engineering education continues to suffer from a lack of female participation. Several efforts have been…
Latha, K. S.; Hegde, Supriya; Bhat, S. M.; Sharma, P. S. V. N.; Rai, Pooja
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine whether Body Mass Index (BMI) and the subjective perception of body weight, and body shape satisfaction predict level of self-esteem and depression among female college students. Method: The sample comprised of 124 female college students ranging in age from 16-21 years. Self perception of…
This paper involves focus group research with adolescent women from coeducational and single sex independent schools. First, it discusses research that finds girls who attend single sex institutions to be at a distinct advantage with respect to gender issues and academics. In order to obtain a better understanding of these differences, a study is…
Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John
The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge of dating violence behaviors among adolescent victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), first, by determining the prevalence of psychological and physical dating violence and the reciprocity of violence, and second, by investigating the influence of certain CSA characteristics to dating violence.…
Olber E. Arango Tobón
Full Text Available Objective: Most studies on conduct disorder (CD have focused on male adolescents, disregarding analysis of this psychopathology in women. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in empathy and theory of mind (ToM in a group of adolescent women with CD and a control group. Method: Thirty-six adolescent women were selected from an initial sample of 239 adolescents (CD group = 18, control group = 18. Empathy and ToM were evaluated through objective instruments. Mean comparisons and multivariate analysis were performed to ascertain differences between cases and controls and to propose a prediction model based on clinical status. Results: Significant differences in empathic abilities and ToM were found between the groups. The model that differentiated both groups was composed of eye-reading ability, perspective taking, and personal distress. Conclusion: These findings are consistent with previous studies. Capacity to take the other’s perspective and the recognition of emotions in the face are protective factors against CD in women.
Ledoux, Sylvie; And Others
Adolescents (n=3,287) completed questionnaire concerning eating behaviors. Found that binge eaters had disorderly eating habits (skipping meals, snacking, eating sweets, unbalanced diets), concern with body shape (feeling too fat), and depressive symptoms more often than nonbinge eaters did. Relationship between binging episodes and eating habits,…
Hart, Roger; Doherty, Dorota A; Frederiksen, Hanne
weeks of gestation in 1989-91, 1377 had antenatal serum stored without thawing at -80°C. An unselected subset was evaluated in the early follicular phase for PCO and PCOS by ultrasound and serum evaluation in adolescence. Serum was analysed for Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH), inhibin B, sex...
Inyang, Mfrekemfon P.
Most adolescents engage in indiscriminate sexual experimentations. This practice exposes them to the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndromes (AIDS) are among the deadly diseases that exist globally. Twice as many girls, compared to boys…
Ickovics, Jeanette R.; Meade, Christina S.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Ethier, Kathleen A.
Urban teens face many traumas, with implications for potential growth and distress. This study examined traumatic events, posttraumatic growth, and emotional distress over 18 months among urban adolescent girls (N = 328). Objectives were to (a) describe types of traumatic events, (b) determine how type and timing of events relate to profiles of…
Background: Adolescent risky behaviours are major public health concern globally because they are the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality in youths and adults. Available evidence show that these behaviours are interrelated, but most previous studies and intervention measures have focused on single ...
Heikura, Ida A; Stellingwerff, Trent; Mero, Antti A; Uusitalo, Arja Leena Tuulia; Burke, Louise M
Contemporary nutrition guidelines promote a variety of periodized and time-sensitive recommendations, but current information regarding the knowledge and practice of these strategies among world-class athletes is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate this theme by implementing a questionnaire on dietary periodization practices in national/international level female (n = 27) and male (n = 21) middle- and long-distance runners/race-walkers. The questionnaire aimed to gain information on between and within-day dietary choices, as well as timing of pre- and posttraining meals and practices of training with low or high carbohydrate (CHO) availability. Data are shown as percentage (%) of all athletes, with differences in responses between subgroups (sex or event) shown as Chi-square x 2 when p nutrition recovery recommendations. However, very few athletes deliberately undertake some contemporary dietary periodization approaches, such as training in the fasted state or periodically restricting CHO intake. This study suggests mismatches between athlete practice and current and developing sports nutrition guidelines.
Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of major physical, hormonal and psychological change. It is also characterized by a significant increase in the incidence of psychopathologies and this increase is gender-specific. Likewise, stress during adolescence is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. Previously, using a rat model of psychogenic stress (exposure to predator odor followed by placement on an elevated platform during the pre-pubertal period (postnatal days 28-30, we reported sex-specific effects on auditory and contextual fear conditioning. Here, we study the short-term impact of psychogenic stress before and during puberty (postnatal days 28-42 on behavior (novelty seeking, risk taking, anxiety and depression and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis activation during late adolescence (postnatal days 45-51. Peri-pubertal stress decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased risk taking and novelty seeking behaviors during late adolescence (measured with the elevated plus maze, open field and exposure to novel object tests and intake of chocopop pellets before or immediate after stress. Finally neither depressive-like behavior (measured at the forced swim test nor HPA response to stress (blood corticosterone and glucose were affected by peri-pubertal stress. Nevertheless, when controlling for the basal anxiety of the mothers, animals exposed to peri-pubertal stress showed a significant decrease in corticosterone levels immediate after an acute stressor. The results from this study suggest that exposure to mild stressors during the peri-pubertal period induces a broad spectrum of behavioral changes in late adolescence, which may exacerbate the independence-building behaviors naturally happening during this transitional period (increase in curiosity, sensation-seeking and risk taking behaviors.
Eastabrook, Suzette; Chang, Paul; Taylor, Myra F
Suntanning increases skin cancer risk and prematurely ages skin. Photoageing photography is an effective means of increasing adult ultraviolet radiation (UVR) awareness and skin-protection practices. While adults' largely positive suntanning-deterrence responses to photoageing photography are well-documented, comparatively little is known about the deterrence effectiveness of photoageing photography with adolescents. To help fill this knowledge gap, in-depth interviews were collected from 10 adolescent females and were subsequently subjected to interpretive phenomenological analysis. The emergent central theme - Having a tan and looking good in the short-term is okay, however, in the longer-term you can end up looking far worse… but still a tan is worth it - and its component subthemes reveal that the adolescent female's desire for a suntan is largely appearance driven. While photoaged photography is effective in increasing their awareness of the skin damage that UVR exposure causes, it does not alter their suntanning intentions. The analysis also revealed that one of the major barriers to adolescent females' adoption of skin-protective behaviours is their belief in their own invincibility. Hence, skin-protection interventions that lessen the aura of invincibility around adolescent females' understanding of their risk for developing skin cancers are vital to reducing the incidence of malignant melanoma.
Lindstrom. 4. ABSTRACT. BACKGROU D: Female genital mutilation/cutting ... METHODS: This study used data collected in the first round of Jimma Longitudinal Family Survey of Youth. .... on ethnicity, place of residence (City, small town and.
Aalsma, Matthew C.; Woodrome, Stacy E.; Downs, Sarah M.; Hensel, Devon; Zimet, Gregory D.; Orr, Don P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis
Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity. PMID:24215966
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ developed for female adolescents in the Suihua area of North China. The FFQ was evaluated against the average of 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HRs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 168 female adolescents aged 12 to 18 completed nine three consecutive 24-HRs (one three consecutive 24 HRs per month and two FFQs over nine months. The reproducibility of the FFQ was estimated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs, and its relative validity was assessed by comparing it with the 24-HRs. The mean values of the 24-HRs were lower than those of the FFQs, except for protein (in FFQ1 and iron (in FFQ2. The ICCs for all nutrients and food groups in FFQ1 and FFQ2 were moderately correlated (0.4-0.8. However, all the ICCs decreased after adjusting for energy. The weighted κ statistic showed moderate agreement (0.40-0.6 for all nutrients and food groups, except for niacin and calcium, which showed poor agreement (0.35. The relative validity results indicate that the crude Spearman's correlation coefficients of FFQ1 and the 24-HRs ranged from 0.41 (for Vitamin C to 0.65 (for fruit. The coefficients of each nutrient and food group in FFQ2 and the 24-HRs were higher than those in FFQ1 and the 24-HRs, indicating good correlation. Although all energy-adjusted Spearman's correlation coefficients were lower than the crude coefficients, de-attenuation to correct for intra-individual variability improved the correlation coefficients. The weighted κ coefficients of nutrients and food groups ranged from 0.32 for beans to 0.52 for riboflavin in FFQ1 and the 24-HRs, and 0.32 for Vitamin C to 0.54 for riboflavin in FFQ2 and the 24-HRs. CONCLUSION: The FFQ developed for female adolescents in the Suihua area is a reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study.
Gowey, Marissa A; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Becnel, Jennifer; Peugh, James; Mitchell, James E; Zeller, Meg H
Severe obesity is the fastest growing pediatric subgroup of excess weight levels. Psychological dysregulation (i.e., impairments in regulating cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral processes) has been associated with obesity and poorer weight loss outcomes. The present study explored associations of dysregulation with weight-related variables among adolescent and young adult (AYA) females with severe obesity. Fifty-four AYA females with severe obesity (MBMI = 48.71 kg/m(2); Mage = 18.29, R = 15-21 years; 59.3% White) completed self-report measures of psychological dysregulation and weight-related constructs including meal patterns, problematic eating behaviors, and body and weight dissatisfaction, as non-surgical comparison participants in a multi-site study of adolescent bariatric surgery outcomes. Pearson and bivariate correlations were conducted and stratified by age group to analyze associations between dysregulation subscales (affective, behavioral, cognitive) and weight-related variables. Breakfast was the most frequently skipped meal (consumed 3-4 times/week). Eating out was common (4-5 times/week) and mostly occurred at fast-food restaurants. Evening hyperphagia (61.11%) and eating in the absence of hunger (37.04%) were commonly endorsed, while unplanned eating (29.63%), a sense of loss of control over eating (22.22%), eating beyond satiety (22.22%), night eating (12.96%), and binge eating (11.11%) were less common. Almost half of the sample endorsed extreme weight dissatisfaction. Dysregulation was associated with most weight-related attitudes and behaviors of interest in young adults but select patterns emerged for adolescents. Higher levels of psychological dysregulation are associated with greater BMI, problematic eating patterns and behaviors, and body dissatisfaction in AYA females with severe obesity. These findings have implications for developing novel intervention strategies for severe obesity in AYAs that may have a multidimensional
Xia, Wei; Sun, Caihong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Jiajia; Wang, Hui; Wu, Lijie
Background This study aims to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed for female adolescents in the Suihua area of North China. The FFQ was evaluated against the average of 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HRs). Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 168 female adolescents aged 12 to 18 completed nine three consecutive 24-HRs (one three consecutive 24 HRs per month) and two FFQs over nine months. The reproducibility of the FFQ was estimated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and its relative validity was assessed by comparing it with the 24-HRs. The mean values of the 24-HRs were lower than those of the FFQs, except for protein (in FFQ1) and iron (in FFQ2). The ICCs for all nutrients and food groups in FFQ1 and FFQ2 were moderately correlated (0.4–0.8). However, all the ICCs decreased after adjusting for energy. The weighted κ statistic showed moderate agreement (0.40–0.6) for all nutrients and food groups, except for niacin and calcium, which showed poor agreement (0.35). The relative validity results indicate that the crude Spearman's correlation coefficients of FFQ1 and the 24-HRs ranged from 0.41 (for Vitamin C) to 0.65 (for fruit). The coefficients of each nutrient and food group in FFQ2 and the 24-HRs were higher than those in FFQ1 and the 24-HRs, indicating good correlation. Although all energy-adjusted Spearman's correlation coefficients were lower than the crude coefficients, de-attenuation to correct for intra-individual variability improved the correlation coefficients. The weighted κ coefficients of nutrients and food groups ranged from 0.32 for beans to 0.52 for riboflavin in FFQ1 and the 24-HRs, and 0.32 for Vitamin C to 0.54 for riboflavin in FFQ2 and the 24-HRs. Conclusion The FFQ developed for female adolescents in the Suihua area is a reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study. PMID:21589932
Aalsma, Matthew C; Woodrome, Stacy E; Downs, Sarah M; Hensel, Devon J; Zimet, Gregory D; Orr, Don P; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oldach, Benjamin R.; Katz, Mira L.
Public health departments (n=48) serving the 32 counties of Ohio Appalachia were contacted to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability and to assess patient and parental attitudes, perceived barriers, and decisional differences about vaccination for male and female adolescents. Nurses or nursing supervisors in 46 of 48 health departments agreed to participate with 45 (97.8%) reporting that HPV vaccines were available for males and females. HPV vaccination barriers reported mo...
Full Text Available Erythromelanosis follicularis faciei et colli (EFFC is a rare disease characterized by a triad of reddish-brown pigmentation, erythema and follicular papules localized on face and neck and is usually described in males. Erythrosis pigmentosa mediofacialis (also known as Brocq or erythrosis pigmentosa peribuccalis is a similar disorder of the mediofacial area but with female predominance. We report a case of simultaneous occurrence of erythrosis pigmentosa peribuccalis and EFFC associated with keratosis pilaris in an adolescent female.
Misterska, Ewa; Głowacki, Maciej; Panek, Sławomir; Ignyś-O'Byrne, Anna; Głowacki, Jakub; Ignyś, Iwona; Krauss, Hanna; Piątek, Jacek
There are many factors influencing postoperative health-related quality of life of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, including the degree of the deformity, culture, differences in geography, rural versus urban living environments, and social factors. The objective of this study was to analyze the significance of geographic factors and their differences influencing the postoperative quality of life in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis residing in urban and rural environments, by use of the Polish version of the SRS-24 questionnaire. Forty urban and 20 rural postoperative patients with adolescent scoliosis with a minimum 2-year follow-up period after surgery were included in the study. The process of cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the IQOLA Project. General results of the Polish SRS-24 equalled 4.1 (SD 0.5) and 4.0 (SD.0.5) in the rural and urban groups of patients, respectively. The 2 groups do not differ in incidence of floor and ceiling effects. The Cronbach's alpha values are excellent for the general result of SRS-24 in urban and rural groups (0.85 and 0.85, respectively). The sub-groups differed significantly in the self-image after surgery domain (p=0.048). Patients from the rural group scored higher in the self-image after surgery domain but reported higher pain levels when compared to urban patients. The associations between SRS-24 results and radiographic parameters in the rural group of patients were strong, compared with moderate relations reported in the urban group.
Sharp, Carla; Kim, Sohye; Herman, Levi; Pane, Heather; Reuter, Tyson; Strathearn, Lane
Prior research has identified reduced reward-related brain activation as a promising endophenotype for the early identification of adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is unclear whether reduced reward-related brain activation constitutes a true vulnerability for MDD. One way of studying vulnerability is through a high-risk design. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine whether reward-related activation of the ventral striatum is reduced in nondepressed daughters of mothers with a history of MDD (high-risk) similarly to currently depressed adolescent girls, compared with healthy controls. By directly comparing groups with a shared risk profile during differing states, we aimed to shed light on the endophenotypic nature of reduced reward processing for adolescent depression. We compared reward-related neural activity through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) between three groups of female biological offspring (N = 52) of mothers with differential MDD status: (a) currently depressed daughters of mothers with a history of MDD (MDD group; n = 14), (b) age- and socioeconomic status (SES)-matched never-depressed daughters of mothers with a history of MDD (high-risk group; n = 19), and (c) age- and SES-matched control daughters of mothers with no past or current psychopathology in either the mother or the daughter (healthy control group; n = 19). For the outcome phase of the reward task, right-sided ventral striatum activation was reduced for both currently depressed and high-risk girls compared with healthy controls. This ventral striatal activity correlated significantly with maternal depression scores. These findings provide further evidence of aberrant functioning for the United States Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC)-defined domain of positive valence systems as a vulnerability factor for MDD and a
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee injuries in football are common regardless of age, gender or playing level, but adolescent females seem to have the highest risk. The consequences after severe knee injury, for example anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury, are well-known, but less is known about knee injury prevention. We have designed a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate the effect of a warm-up program aimed at preventing acute knee injury in adolescent female football. Methods In this cluster randomized trial 516 teams (309 clusters in eight regional football districts in Sweden with female players aged 13–17 years were randomized into an intervention group (260 teams or a control group (256 teams. The teams in the intervention group were instructed to do a structured warm-up program at two training sessions per week throughout the 2009 competitive season (April to October and those in the control group were informed to train and play as usual. Sixty-eight sports physical therapists are assigned to the clubs to assist both groups in data collection and to examine the players' acute knee injuries during the study period. Three different forms are used in the trial: (1 baseline player data form collected at the start of the trial, (2 computer-based registration form collected every month, on which one of the coaches/team leaders documents individual player exposure, and (3 injury report form on which the study therapists report acute knee injuries resulting in time loss from training or match play. The primary outcome is the incidence of ACL injury and the secondary outcomes are the incidence of any acute knee injury (except contusion and incidence of severe knee injury (defined as injury resulting in absence of more than 4 weeks. Outcome measures are assessed after the end of the 2009 season. Discussion Prevention of knee injury is beneficial for players, clubs, insurance companies, and society. If the warm-up program is proven to
Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus; Atroshi, Isam
Knee injuries in football are common regardless of age, gender or playing level, but adolescent females seem to have the highest risk. The consequences after severe knee injury, for example anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, are well-known, but less is known about knee injury prevention. We have designed a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effect of a warm-up program aimed at preventing acute knee injury in adolescent female football. In this cluster randomized trial 516 teams (309 clusters) in eight regional football districts in Sweden with female players aged 13-17 years were randomized into an intervention group (260 teams) or a control group (256 teams). The teams in the intervention group were instructed to do a structured warm-up program at two training sessions per week throughout the 2009 competitive season (April to October) and those in the control group were informed to train and play as usual. Sixty-eight sports physical therapists are assigned to the clubs to assist both groups in data collection and to examine the players' acute knee injuries during the study period. Three different forms are used in the trial: (1) baseline player data form collected at the start of the trial, (2) computer-based registration form collected every month, on which one of the coaches/team leaders documents individual player exposure, and (3) injury report form on which the study therapists report acute knee injuries resulting in time loss from training or match play. The primary outcome is the incidence of ACL injury and the secondary outcomes are the incidence of any acute knee injury (except contusion) and incidence of severe knee injury (defined as injury resulting in absence of more than 4 weeks). Outcome measures are assessed after the end of the 2009 season. Prevention of knee injury is beneficial for players, clubs, insurance companies, and society. If the warm-up program is proven to be effective in reducing the incidence of knee
Zebis, Mette K; Thorborg, Kristian; Andersen, Lars L; Møller, Merete; Christensen, Karl B; Clausen, Mikkel B; Hölmich, Per; Wedderkopp, Niels; Andersen, Thomas B; Krustrup, Peter
The high injury incidence during match-play in female adolescent football is a major concern. In football, males and females play matches with the same football size. No studies have investigated the effect of football size on injury incidence in female adolescent football. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of introducing a lighter, smaller football on the injury pattern in female adolescent football. We conducted a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial including 26 football teams representing 346 adolescent female football players (age 15-18 years). The teams were randomized to a new lighter, smaller football (INT, N.=12 teams) or a traditional FIFA size 5 football (CON, N.=14 teams) during a full match-season. Acute time-loss injuries and football-exposure during match-play were reported weekly by text-message questions and verified subsequently by telephone interview. In total, 46 acute time-loss injuries were registered (5 severe injuries), yielding an incidence rate of 15.2 injuries per 1000 hours of match-play (95% CI: 8.5-27.2) in INT and 18.6 injuries per 1000 hours of match-play (95% CI: 14.0-24.8) in CON. The estimated 22% greater injury incidence rate risk (IRR: 1.22 [95% CI: 0.64-2.35]) in the CON group was not significant. With an IRR of 1.22, a future RCT main study would need to observe 793 acute time-loss injuries during match-play, in order to have a power of 80%. A large-scaled RCT is required to definitively test for beneficial or harmful effects of a lighter, smaller football in adolescent female football.
Grauvogl, Andrea; Peters, Madelon L; Evers, Silvia M A A; van Lankveld, Jacques J D M
The Sexual Competence and Interaction Competence in Youth is a self-report questionnaire that aims to measure sexual competence and interaction competence in adolescents. The study sample consisted of 276 female undergraduate students (M = 20.95 years, SD = 2.00 years). The factor structure of the questionnaire was calculated on full sample data. A subsample was used to calculate the validity and internal consistency (N = 236; M = 20.88 years, SD = 1.96). The test-retest reliability was also calculated in a subsample (N = 82; M = 21.45 years, SD = 1.74 years). On the basis of an exploratory factor analysis, 8 factors were extracted: (a) communication about sex, (b) refusing sex, (c) positive sexual attitudes, (d) male role in sexual interaction, (e) contraceptive use, (f) not suppressing problems and desires regarding sex, (g) sexual assertiveness, and (h) sexual hedonism. The subscales possess adequate internal consistency and moderate to excellent test-retest reliability. A higher order principal component analysis revealed a 2-factor structure that appears to adequately represent the sexual competence and interaction competence constructs. Furthermore, convergent and discriminant validity were considered to be good. The results indicate that the Sexual Competence and Interaction Competence in Youth may be a useful instrument to measure sexual and interaction competence among adolescents.
Perez-Felkner, Lara; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn; Schneider, Barbara; Grogan, Erin
Although important strides toward gender parity have been made in several scientific fields, women remain underrepresented in the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences (PEMCs). This study examines the effects of adolescents' subjective orientations, course taking, and academic performance on the likelihood of majoring in PEMC in college. Results indicate that racial-ethnic and gender underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are interrelated and should be examined with attention to the intersecting factors influencing female and racial-ethnic minority adolescents' pathways toward careers in these fields. Among those who major in PEMC fields, women closely resemble men with respect to their subjective orientations. The effects of subjective orientations on women's chances of majoring in PEMC vary by their secondary school mathematics course completion levels. Women who take more mathematics courses are more likely to major in PEMC; however, course taking alone does not attenuate gender disparities in declaring these majors. High mathematics ability (as measured by standardized test scores in the 10th grade) appears to be positively associated with women's selection of social, behavioral, clinical, and health science majors. This association is less robust (and slightly negative) for women in PEMC. While advanced course taking appears to assist women in selecting PEMC majors, women who enter these fields may not be as strong as those who select other, less male-dominated scientific fields.
Ruder, Elizabeth H; Hartman, Terryl J; Rovine, Michael J; Dorgan, Joanne F
Birth characteristics and adult hormone concentrations influence breast cancer risk, but little is known about the influence of birth characteristics on hormone concentrations, particularly during adolescence. We evaluated the association of birth characteristics (birth weight, birth length, and gestational age) with serum sex hormone concentrations during late childhood and adolescence in 278 female participants of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children. Repeated measures analysis of variance models were used to assess the relationships of birth characteristics and serum estrogens and androgens at five different time points over a mean period of 7 years. In analyses that did not take into account time from blood draw until menarche, birth weight was inversely associated with pre-menarche concentrations of estradiol, estrone sulfate, androstenedione, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). In the post-menarche analyses, birth weight was not significantly associated with concentration of any of the hormones under investigation. Birth length and gestational age were not associated with hormone concentrations before or after menarche. Birth weight is inversely associated with sex hormone concentrations before menarche in the model unadjusted for time from blood draw until menarche. The in utero environment has long-term influences on the hormonal milieu, which could potentially contribute to breast cancer risk.
Full Text Available Kleine-Levine Syndrome (KLS is a disorder characterized by a triad of periodic hypersomnia, hyperphagia, and hypersexuality. KLS, although more common in young males, it has also been seen in females. Treatment options available for its management include mood stabilisers like lithium, stimulants like amphetamines, antidepressants and other options including electroconvulsive therapy. Modafinil is one of the new stimulant medications approved for narcolepsy. Herein, we report a young female with KLS and showing favorable response to modafinil. More data is required to establish the effectiveness of modafinil in this syndrome.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Primary dysmenorrhea is a common problem among women, resulting in a decline in their performance level and quality of life. Previous studies have not indicated a definite relationship between body mass index (BMI and dysmenorrhea. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the severity of dysmenorrhea and investigate its relationship with BMI among female adolescents in Hamadan, Iran. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 579 single, female adolescents in schools of Hamadan, Iran in 2011. Students with primary dysmenorrhea (without any other conditions were selected, using random cluster sampling. Demographic characteristics and menstrual cycle information were collected, using two separate questionnaires. BMI was recorded in all participants and visual analogue scale was applied for pain assessment. Chi-square, t-test, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between variables. Data were analyzed, using SPSS version 16. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age, BMI and age at menarche in participants were 15.94±1.17 years, 21.16±3.36 kg/m2 and 12.92± 1.05 years, respectively. The frequency of dysmenorrhea was estimated to be 85.31%. The frequency and severity of dysmenorrhea was higher in the normal-weight group than other subjects. No relationship was seen between the severity and duration of dysmenorrhea with BMI. But dysmenorrhea had a significant relationship with age at menarche and premenstrual syndrome (P
Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Norozi Khalili, Mina; Shakeri Chenarani, Maryam; Hamidi, Mahin; Akaberi, Arash; Rezaei Ardani, Amir
Parental substance abuse confronts children with a variety of psychological, social, and behavioral problems. Children of substance abusing parents show higher levels of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression and exert lower levels of communication skills. Weak social skills in this group of adolescents put them at a higher risk for substance abuse. Many studies showed school based interventions such as life skill training can effective on future substance abusing in these high risk adolescences. The participants consisted of 57 middles schools girls, all living in rural areas and having both parents with substance dependency. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=28) and control (n=29) groups. The data were collected before and six weeks after training in both group. The intervention group received eight sessions of group assertiveness training. Participants were compared in terms of changes in scores on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire and the Gambrills-Richey Assertion Inventory. The total score for happiness change from 43.68 ±17.62 to 51.57 ±16.35 and assertiveness score changed from 110.33±16.05 to 90.40±12.84. There was a significant difference in pretest-posttest change in scores for intervention (7.89±4.13) and control (-2.51±2.64) groups; t (55) =2.15, p = 0.049. These results suggest that intervention really does have an effect on happiness and assertiveness. Determining the effectiveness of these school based interventions on other life aspects such as substance abuse calls for further study on these rural adolescent girls.
Caruso, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Cavigelli, Sonia A
Rodent models provide valuable insight into mechanisms that underlie vulnerability to adverse effects of early-life challenges. Few studies have evaluated sex differences in anxiogenic or depressogenic effects of adolescent social stress in a rodent model. Furthermore, adolescent stress studies often use genetically heterogeneous outbred rodents which can lead to variable results. The current study evaluated the effects of adolescent social stress in male and female inbred (BALB/cJ) mice. Adolescent mice were exposed to repeat cycles of alternating social isolation and social novelty for 4 weeks. Adolescent social stress increased anxiety-related behaviors in both sexes and depression-related behavior in females. Locomotion/exploratory behavior was also decreased in both sexes by stress. Previously stressed adult mice produced less basal fecal corticosteroids than controls. Overall, the novel protocol induced sex-specific changes in anxiety- and depression-related behaviors and corticoid production in inbred mice. The chronic variable social stress protocol used here may be beneficial to systematically investigate sex-specific neurobiological mechanisms underlying adolescent stress vulnerability where genetic background can be controlled. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
King, Alissa R.
The goals of this study were to highlight the often stigmatized and invisible identities of six female participants who identify as multiracial/biracial-bisexual/pansexual, focusing on the pre-college context. Findings, using in-depth interviews, indicated that the primary socializing agents within the pre-college context strongly influenced…
Lai, Ching-Yi; Wu, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Shao-Yu; Cheng, Su-Fen; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Liang, Shu-Yuan
Background: Lack of education is a known barrier to vaccination, but data on the design and effectiveness of interventions remain limited. Objective: This study aims to identify the effectiveness of a Facebook-assisted teaching method on female adolescents' knowledge and attitudes about cervical cancer prevention and on their human papillomavirus…
Eberhardt, Carolyn A.; Schill, Thomas
Compared sexual permissiveness attitudes and likely behaviors of father-absent vs. father-present Black, lower-socioeconomic female adolescents (N=100). Father-absent subjects were not found to be more sexually permissive, but had significantly greater inconsistency between behavioral and attitudinal scores in which the reported behavior was more…
Family Rejection, Social Isolation, and Loneliness as Predictors of Negative Health Outcomes (Depression, Suicidal Ideation, and Sexual Risk Behavior) among Thai Male-to-Female Transgender Adolescents
Yadegarfard, Mohammadrasool; Meinhold-Bergmann, Mallika E.; Ho, Robert
This study examined the influence of family rejection, social isolation, and loneliness on negative health outcomes among Thai male-to-female transgender adolescents. The sample consisted of 260 male respondents, of whom 129 (49.6%) were self-identified as transgender and 131 (50.4%) were self-identified as cisgender (nontransgender). Initial…
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Henry, David B.
The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven…
Betts, Lucy R; Spenser, Karin A; Gardner, Sarah E
Young people are spending increasing amounts of time using digital technology and, as such, are at great risk of being involved in cyber bullying as a victim, bully, or bully/victim. Despite cyber bullying typically occurring outside the school environment, the impact of being involved in cyber bullying is likely to spill over to school. Fully 285 11- to 15-year-olds (125 male and 160 female, M age = 12.19 years, SD = 1.03) completed measures of cyber bullying involvement, self-esteem, trust, perceived peer acceptance, and perceptions of the value of learning and the importance of school. For young women, involvement in cyber bullying as a victim, bully, or bully/victim negatively predicted perceptions of learning and school, and perceived peer acceptance mediated this relationship. The results indicated that involvement in cyber bullying negatively predicted perceived peer acceptance which, in turn, positively predicted perceptions of learning and school. For young men, fulfilling the bully/victim role negatively predicted perceptions of learning and school. Consequently, for young women in particular, involvement in cyber bullying spills over to impact perceptions of learning. The findings of the current study highlight how stressors external to the school environment can adversely impact young women's perceptions of school and also have implications for the development of interventions designed to ameliorate the effects of cyber bullying.
Kjelsås, Einar; Bjørnstrøm, Christian; Götestam, K Gunnar
The main aim of the present study is to establish the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) in adolescents of both genders. To our knowledge, such data have not previously been published using both DSM-IV and DSM-III-R criteria. The study sample consisted of 1960 adolescents (1026 girls and 934 boys), 14-15 years of age. The participants completed the Survey for Eating Disorders (SEDs), including DSM-III-R and DSM-IV diagnoses for all subcategories of ED. Lifetime prevalence of any ED among girls was 17.9% anorexia nervosa (AN) 0.7%, bulimia nervosa (BN) 1.2%, binge eating disorder (BED) 1.5%, and EDs not otherwise specified (EDNOS) 14.6%. Corresponding numbers for boys for any ED is 6.5%, AN 0.2%, BN 0.4%, BED 0.9%, and EDNOS 5.0%. Our prevalence rates on AN, BN, and BED largely support previous school/community-based studies, while our figures on EDNOS were rather high. Generally, we found high numbers for boys with ED.
Crosby, R; DiClemente, R J; Wingood, G M; Sionean, C; Cobb, B K; Harrington, K; Davies, S; Hook, E W; Oh, M K
To assess condom application ability and the relationship between perceived ability and demonstrated ability. Also, to examine the association between high-demonstrated condom application ability and recent sexual risk behaviors and laboratory-diagnosed sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among African-American adolescent females. A purposeful sample of sexually active African-American females (n = 522) completed a structured interview and provided vaginal swab specimens for STD testing. Subsequent to the interview, adolescents demonstrated their condom application skills using a penile model. A 9-item scale assessed adolescents' perceived self-efficacy to apply condoms. Sexual risk behaviors assessed by interview were noncondom use at last intercourse and the last five intercourse occasions for steady and casual sex partners as well as any unprotected vaginal sex in the past 30 days and the past 6 months. Approximately 28% of the sample tested positive for at least one STD and nearly 26% self-reported a history of STDs. Controlled analyses indicated that adolescents' self-efficacy for correct use was not related to demonstrated skill. Adolescents' demonstrated ability was not related to any of the sexual risk behaviors. Likewise, recent experience applying condoms to a partner's penis and demonstrated ability were not related to laboratory-diagnosed STDs or self-reported STD history. Adolescents may unknowingly be at risk for human immunodeficiency virus and STD infection owing to incorrect condom application. Further, high-demonstrated ability to apply condoms was not related to safer sex or STDs. Reducing sexual risk behaviors may require more than enhancing adolescent females' condom application skills and may require addressing other relational skills.
Anahita khodabakhshi koolaee1
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Adolescence, period of transition from childhood to adulthood, is time with changes in social, psychological, behavioral, and physical situations. These changes combined with the cultural, social and family backgrounds’ adolescents, can lead to social problems such as social deviations (delinquency.This study aims to compare the components of perceived social support and early maladaptive schemas in adolescents (male and female delinquent and non-delinquent.Materials and Methods: This research was based on comparative and causal method. In this research, 100 delinquent adolescents (80 male and 20 female using convenience sampling method and 100 non-delinquent adolescents (80 male and 20 female using Cluster sampling method were selected. They completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS questionnaires and Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF. Data analysis was performed via descriptive statistics (Mean and SD. and analytic methods such as independent T-test.Results: Delinquent adolescents had higher mean of early maladaptive schemas and instead had lower level of social support. In addition, delinquent boys had higher early maladaptive schemas mean compared to non-delinquent boys and they had different levels of social support. There was a significant difference in perceived social support between delinquent and non-delinquent girls. Also, there was a significant difference between early maladaptive schemas of delinquent and non-delinquent girls. Conclusion: The findings showed the importance of providing background for strengthening of social support. Identification of early maladaptive schemas as patterns of emotional and cognitive damage in adolescence can be useful to provide appropriate psychological services to improve the quality of life and increased health-related behaviors of delinquent individual.
Pantelis Theo Nikolaidis
Full Text Available Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b the relationship between body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage (BF and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min -1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT, sit-and-reach test (SAR, handgrip strength test (HST and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ. Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28 of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7 of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027. BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women. Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively. Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women. Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs.
Smart, Joan E Hunter; Cumming, Sean P; Sherar, Lauren B; Standage, Martyn; Neville, Helen; Malina, Robert M
This study tested a mediated effects model of psychological and behavioral adaptation to puberty within the context of physical activity (PA). Biological maturity status, physical self-concept, PA, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed in 222 female British year 7 to 9 pupils (mean age = 12.7 years, SD = .8). Structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation and bootstrapping procedures supported the hypothesized model. Maturation status was inversely related to perceptions of sport competence, body attractiveness, and physical condition; and indirectly and inversely related to physical self-worth, PA, and HRQoL. Examination of the bootstrap-generated bias-corrected confidence intervals representing the direct and indirect paths between suggested that physical self-concept partially mediated the relations between maturity status and PA, and maturity status and HRQoL. Evidence supports the contention that perceptions of the physical self partially mediate relations maturity, PA, and HRQoL in adolescent females.
Kuzawa, C W; Adair, L S
To test the hypothesis that the balance between fetal nutritional demand and maternal nutritional supply during pregnancy will predict lipid profiles in offspring measured in adolescence. A total of 296 male and 307 female Filipino offspring (aged 14-16 y) and mothers enrolled in a longitudinal birth cohort study (begun in 1983-84) had lipid profiles measured. Data on maternal height (as a proxy for offspring growth potential and thus fetal nutritional demand) and third trimester maternal arm fat area (as a proxy for maternal supply) were used to create four groups hypothesized to reflect a gradient of fetal energy sufficiency. As fetal energy sufficiency increased among males, there was a decrease in total cholesterol (TC) (Psupply-demand model did not predict any lipid outcome or clinical risk criteria. Our findings in males support the hypothesis that the balance between fetal nutritional demand and maternal nutritional supply has implications for future lipid profiles. The lack of significant associations in females adds to mounting evidence for sex differences in lipid metabolism programming, and may reflect sex differences in fetal nutritional demand. The National Science Foundation, the Mellon Foundation, the Nestle Foundation, and the Emory University Internationalization Program.
marshmallows , etc.) gained more weight than did the rats that were provided standard chow. The animals with access to the activity wheel (activity...salami, cheese, bananas, marshmallows , milk chocolate, and peanut butter (Sclafani & Springer, 1976). In fact, adult female rats given constant...them foods that are high in fat and sugar through foods usually used for human consumption such as cream filled cookies, marshmallows , milk chocolate
Gaughran, Margaret; Asgary, Ramin
Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancy are high in Kenya, and limited reproductive health education exists in schools. We designed and implemented a 6-week reproductive health curriculum in Laikipia District, Kenya, in 2011, which included didactic sessions, educational games, and open discussions. We applied a mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate this curriculum including a comprehensive 35-item survey to assess pre- and post-training knowledge, attitudes, and practices of female teenagers regarding STIs/HIV and family planning using paired t-test as well as complementary focus groups (n=42) and individual interviews (n=20). Average age for 42 female teenagers was 16.5 (± 1.31) years. Pre-test questionnaires revealed lack of knowledge about different types of STIs, specifically chlamydia, but adequate knowledge of basic contraception including abstinence and condom use. By the conclusion of the study, we observed improvement in following educational domains: general knowledge of HIV/AIDS (85% ± 7.5% to 94% ± 5.6%) (pmasturbation and its perceived consequences, and issues surrounding female circumcision. Important misconceptions and gaps in reproductive practices were identified and addressed using a mixed methods approach. Despite prior basic knowledge and positive attitudes on STI prevention and family planning, complementary teaching approaches were instrumental in improving overall knowledge of STIs other than HIV as well as family planning. The curriculum was feasible, well received, and achieved its educational goals.
Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Azahara; Montalvo, Alicia; Latinjak, Alexander; Unnithan, Viswanath
There were two aims of this study: first, to investigate physical fitness and match performance differences between under-16 (U16) and under-18 (U18) female basketball players, and second, to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and game-related performances. Twenty-three young, female, elite Spanish basketball players (16.2 1.2 years) participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: U16 and U18 players. The average scores from pre- and post-season physical fitness measurements were used for subsequent analyses. Anthropometric variables were also measured. To evaluate game performance, game-related statistics, including the number of games and minutes played, points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks per game, were recorded for every competitive match in one season. When anthropometric and physical performance variables were compared between groups, the U18 group demonstrated significantly (pagility, anaerobic power, repeated sprint ability and aerobic power (p ≤ 0.005). These findings can help optimize training programs for young, elite female basketball players.
Full Text Available There were two aims of this study: first, to investigate physical fitness and match performance differences between under-16 (U16 and under-18 (U18 female basketball players, and second, to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and game-related performances. Twenty-three young, female, elite Spanish basketball players (16.2 1.2 years participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: U16 and U18 players. The average scores from pre- and post-season physical fitness measurements were used for subsequent analyses. Anthropometric variables were also measured. To evaluate game performance, game-related statistics, including the number of games and minutes played, points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks per game, were recorded for every competitive match in one season. When anthropometric and physical performance variables were compared between groups, the U18 group demonstrated significantly (p<0.05 higher values in upper (+21.2% and lower (+27.11% limb strength compared to the U16 group. Furthermore, no significant differences between groups were observed in match performance outcomes. Only two performance variables, steals and assists per game, correlated significantly with jump capacity, speed, agility, anaerobic power, repeated sprint ability and aerobic power (p ≤ 0.005. These findings can help optimize training programs for young, elite female basketball players.
Montalvo, Alicia; Latinjak, Alexander; Unnithan, Viswanath
Abstract There were two aims of this study: first, to investigate physical fitness and match performance differences between under-16 (U16) and under-18 (U18) female basketball players, and second, to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and game-related performances. Twenty-three young, female, elite Spanish basketball players (16.2 1.2 years) participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: U16 and U18 players. The average scores from pre- and post-season physical fitness measurements were used for subsequent analyses. Anthropometric variables were also measured. To evaluate game performance, game-related statistics, including the number of games and minutes played, points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks per game, were recorded for every competitive match in one season. When anthropometric and physical performance variables were compared between groups, the U18 group demonstrated significantly (pjump capacity, speed, agility, anaerobic power, repeated sprint ability and aerobic power (p ≤ 0.005). These findings can help optimize training programs for young, elite female basketball players. PMID:28149421
Pace Bauab, S. de
Thirty-six patients whose ages varied from 10 to 21 years have been examined: 35 by ultrasound mammography (USM) and one by ductography. On USM, 16 patients presented fluidifield lesions, 17 showed solid masses and the remaining 2 cases presented diffuse disease. The radiological findings on the patient who have undergone ductography were suggestive of intraductal papillomas. Seventeen lesions were biopsied: 13 solid masses, 2 fluid-filled, and 2 diffuse lesions. The purpose of this paper is to show other diseases than fibroadenoma, which occur in this age range, and to present the usefulness of USM in order to understand the sonographic patterns of the diseases of the adolescent breast. (author) [pt
Full Text Available Mental health problems including emotional and behavioral problems during puberty may be under influence of different risk factors including cultures, living in urban or rural areas and ethnic factors which may vary between different countries. The main aim of this study is to investigate the profile of emotional and behavioral problems and the role of factors such as age, stage of puberty, ethnicity, rurality and living in urban area, as risk factors in Iranian girls. As a part of a large national study we evaluated the emotional and behavioral problems in different stages of puberty in a community sample of Iranian adolescent girls from public schools that were selected by clustered random sampling method. In all subjects, demographic characteristics, and pubertal stages were measured. Emotional and behavioral problems were evaluated using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The associations of age, pubertal development indices, socioeconomic and demographic factors with the behavioral problems were assessed. A total number of 4576 students enrolled the study and responded to the questions. The mean age of participants was 13.83 2.19 years. The mean total score of difficulties in participants was 14.34 5.81. According to these results 813 (17.8% adolescents had total problem scores higher than Goodmans cutoff points and the most frequent problem domain was conduct problems (20.5%. According to the results the most related variable with the total difficulty score of SDQ were ethnicity, residency in urban areas and development of menstrual cycle respectively. The results of this study showed that the most correlated factors with mental health problems in Iranian girls during puberty are ethnicity, urbanity and development of menstrual cycle.
Wang, L; Wang, Y P; Yu, B; Zhang, J G; Shen, J X; Qiu, G X; Li, Y
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a pathology which affects the individual's functioning in the widely understood physical, psychic, and social aspects. More attention should be paid to patients' perception of self-image when evaluating the spine deformity. The present retrospective study evaluated the associations between the deformity measures and self-image score as determined by the SRS-22 questionnaire in Chinese female AIS patients. The self-image score correlates significantly with deformity measures. The location of main curve apex and the number of curve could affect the self-image score. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 202 female patients, collected data on patient's age, body mass index, radiographic and physical measures and self-image score of SRS-22 questionnaire. According to the location of main curve apex and the number of curve, the patients were divided to different subgroups. Correlations between deformity measures and self-image score of different groups were evaluated by the Spearman correlation test. The self-image score correlated negatively with the main Cobb angle, apical vertebral translation (AVT), and razor hump height. There is no significant difference of self-image score between thoracic curve (TC) and thoracolumbar curve (TL/LC) subgroups. And the self-image scores of one-curve, two-curve and three-curve subgroups are similar. For Chinese female AIS patients in our study, self-image was found to correlate negatively with the main Cobb angle, AVT and razor hump height. And the location of scoliosis apex and the number of curve are not influencing factors of self-image perception. Level IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Oldach, Benjamin R; Katz, Mira L
Public health departments (n = 48) serving the 32 counties of Ohio Appalachia were contacted to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability and to assess patient and parental attitudes, perceived barriers, and decisional differences about vaccination for male and female adolescents. Nurses or nursing supervisors in 46 of 48 health departments agreed to participate with 45 (97.8 %) reporting that HPV vaccines were available for males and females. HPV vaccination barriers reported most frequently were lack of knowledge about the vaccines, concerns about potential side effects, the newness of the HPV vaccines, and parents believing their children were not sexually active or were too young to receive an HPV vaccine. Provider reports of the primary differences in the acceptability of an HPV vaccine among parents of males compared to the parents of females were lack of awareness that an HPV vaccine was available for males, not understanding why the vaccine should be given to males, and fear of vaccination increasing sexual promiscuity among female adolescents. Half of the health departments (n = 24) reported that parents of females were more receptive toward HPV vaccination, 16 health departments reported no difference in acceptability based on gender of the child, and 5 health departments reported that parents of males were more receptive. This study suggests that there are different informational needs of males and females and parents of male and female children when making an informed decision about HPV vaccination. Findings highlight content to include in strategies to increase HPV vaccination rates among Appalachia Ohio residents.
Skinner, S Rachel; Smith, Jennifer; Fenwick, Jennifer; Hendriks, Jacqueline; Fyfe, Sue; Kendall, Garth
Despite decades of research, development and evaluation of educational and promotional strategies to prevent teenage pregnancy, we have only a limited understanding of the strategies that are effective and why. This study sought to explore female teenagers' attitudes, perceptions and experiences of contraceptive use, and describe the influence of this on pregnancy risk. A qualitative approach was used to explore the contraceptive behaviour in a purposive sample of sexually active Australian females aged 14-19 years. Teenagers were drawn from three sub-groups: antenatal and postnatal services (pregnant-continuing); termination services (pregnant-terminating); and sexual health clinics (never-pregnant). Sixty-eight individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse the data and generate a rich, description of contraceptive behaviour. Whilst participants were familiar with contraception, many used it inconsistently. Commitment to pregnancy prevention was firmly located within participants' attitudes toward teenage pregnancy and parenthood, perceptions of pregnancy risk and perceptions of the costs and benefits of using contraception. Further, motivation to use contraception fluctuated in different contexts, such as romantic relationships. Our research highlights the importance of attitudes toward contraception, pregnancy and parenthood in shaping teenagers' motivation to use contraception. Educational and prevention programs must address the spectrum of attitudes underlying teenagers' contraceptive and reproductive decisions in order to alter pathways to teenage pregnancy and early parenting.
Amodeo, Leslie R.; Greenfield, Venuz Y.; Humphrey, Danielle E.; Varela, Veronica; Pipkin, Joseph A.; Eaton, Shannon E.; Johnson, Jelesa D.; Plant, Christopher P.; Harmony, Zachary R.; Wang, Li; Crawford, Cynthia A.
Rationale The SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine is one of the few drugs that is effective at treating depression in adolescent humans. In contrast, the SSRI paroxetine has limited efficacy and is more at risk for inducing suicidal behavior. Objective The purpose of the present study was to more fully characterize the differential actions of paroxetine and fluoxetine. Methods In Experiment 1, male and female rats were injected with paroxetine (2.5 or 10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), or vehicle for 10 days starting on postnatal day (PD) 35, and affective behaviors were assessed using sucrose preference and elevated plus maze tasks. A separate set of rats were used to examine monoamine levels. In Experiment 2, rats were injected with paroxetine (2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg), or vehicle during the same time frame as Experiment 1 and anxiety-like behaviors were measured using elevated plus maze, light/dark box, and acoustic startle. Results Repeated SSRI treatment failed to alter sucrose preference, although both paroxetine and fluoxetine reduced time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze and light compartment of the light/dark box. Paroxetine, but not fluoxetine, enhanced acoustic startle and interfered with habituation. Serotonin turnover was decreased by both acute and repeated fluoxetine treatment but unaltered by paroxetine administration. Discussion These results show that repeated treatment with paroxetine and fluoxetine has dissociable actions in adolescent rats. In particular, paroxetine, but not fluoxetine, increases acoustic startle at low doses and may increase sensitivity to environmental stressors. PMID:26141193
Russell, Melissa; Misra, Madhusmita
Adolescent female athletes are at increased risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) secondary to exercise-induced hypogonadism. Of particular concern is that the adolescent years are also a critical time for bone accrual, and deficits incurred during this period could lead to suboptimal peak bone mass acquisition and subsequent fracture risk in later life. Although weight-bearing exercise is typically associated with an increase in BMD, amenorrheic athletes have lower BMD than eumenorrheic athletes and nonathletic controls as a consequence of low energy availability and subsequent hypogonadism. It is important to recognize that critical interactions exist between net energy availability and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (H-P-G) axis that are key to the development of a hypogonadal state when energy intake cannot keep pace with expenditure. While the link between energy availability and gonadtotropin pulsatility patterns is well established, the actual metabolic signals that link the two are less clear. Decreased energy availability in athletes is associated with decreases in fat mass, and alterations in adipokines (such as leptin and adiponectin) and fat-regulated hormones (such as ghrelin and peptide YY). These hormones impact the H-P-G axis in animal models, and it is possible that in athletes alterations in fat-related hormones signal the state of energy availability to the hypothalamus and contribute to suppression of gonadotropin pulsatility, hypothalamic amenorrhea and consequent decreased BMD. A better understanding of pathways linking low energy availability with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and low BMD is critical for the development of future therapeutic strategies addressing these issues in amenorrheic athletes. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Beck, Kathryn L; Mitchell, Sarah; Foskett, Andrew; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R
Ballet dancing is a multifaceted activity requiring muscular power, strength, endurance, flexibility, and agility; necessitating demanding training schedules. Furthermore dancers may be under aesthetic pressure to maintain a lean physique, and adolescent dancers require extra nutrients for growth and development. This cross-sectional study investigated the nutritional status of 47 female adolescent ballet dancers (13-18 years) living in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants who danced at least 1 hr per day 5 days per week completed a 4-day estimated food record, anthropometric measurements (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and hematological analysis (iron and vitamin D). Mean BMI was 19.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 and percentage body fat, 23.5 ± 4.1%. The majority (89.4%) of dancers had a healthy weight (5th-85th percentile) using BMI-for-age growth charts. Food records showed a mean energy intake of 8097.3 ± 2155.6 kJ/day (48.9% carbohydrate, 16.9% protein, 33.8% fat, 14.0% saturated fat). Mean carbohydrate and protein intakes were 4.8 ± 1.4 and 1.6 ± 0.5 g/kg/day respectively. Over half (54.8%) of dancers consumed less than 5 g carbohydrate/kg/day, and 10 (23.8%) less than 1.2 g protein/kg/day. Over 60% consumed less than the estimated average requirement for calcium, folate, magnesium and selenium. Thirteen (28.3%) dancers had suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin (SF) ballet dancers are at risk for iron deficiency, and possibly inadequate nutrient intakes.
Dunbar, Megan S; Maternowska, M Catherine; Kang, Mi-Suk J; Laver, Susan M; Mudekunye-Mahaka, Imelda; Padian, Nancy S
This study tested the feasibility of a combined microcredit and life-skills HIV prevention intervention among 50 adolescent female orphans in urban/peri-urban Zimbabwe. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on intervention delivery, HIV knowledge and behavior, and economic indicators. The study also tested for HIV, HSV-2, and pregnancy. At 6 months, results indicated improvements in knowledge and relationship power. Because of the economic context and lack of adequate support, however, loan repayment and business success was poor. The results suggest that microcredit is not the best livelihood option to reduce risk among adolescent girls in this context.
Overby, K J; Kegeles, S M
This study's purpose was to describe acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related concerns, risk behaviors, and psychosocial/situational determinants of condom use among an urban minority population of sexually active, adolescent girls. In addition we sought to define the accuracy of personal AIDS risk-assessment, the relative importance of AIDS in relation to other concerns, and the broader context of sexual experience and attitudes in this population. A cross-sectional interview study was conducted involving sexually active female adolescents attending a pediatric clinic in an inner-city university-affiliated community hospital. Sixty-nine subjects (ages 13-19 yr, 90% African-American) were enrolled. While the goals of this study were primarily descriptive, subject characteristics felt to impact on condom use were identified prior to data collection and were examined against several measures of usage including: use at the time of last sexual intercourse, overall frequency of condom use, and reported behavior change to include initiation of or increased condom usage. Forty-one percent of participants reported knowing someone with AIDS. Global concern regarding this disease was high, although worry about poverty-related issues was often greater. Despite concern and high measures of AIDS risk (median number of sex partners, 3; past sexually transmitted disease, 55%; past pregnancy 77%), most participants perceived themselves to be at low personal risk owing to current monogamy, lack of intravenous drug use, and implicit trust in their partner's safety. Discussion with their partner about actual risk and awareness of the importance of past behaviors was generally lacking. Although 98% were aware that condoms may prevent AIDS, 64% used condoms half of the time or less when they had sex and use appeared to be primarily for contraception. Several intrinsic cognitive/psychological and extrinsic social/situational factors were found to correlate with measures of
Full Text Available Background: Adolescents pay more attention to their appearance and body.Irregular nutritional patterns, eating certain types of food, and consuming more protein-containing food are more common in this age group. Considering the importance of this issue and lack of adequate studies in Iran, especially in Fars province, we aimed to assess the relationship between weight-controlling attitudes and eating disorders with dietary intake in female adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 600 female students aged 14-17 years from the four educational districts of Shiraz, southern Iran, during 2011-2012 using the stratified random sampling method. Data were collected using three questionnaires as follows: demographic data questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 to assess eating attitude disorders in students, and the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 13 and the NUT 4 software. Results: Six (1% EAT-26 questionnaire were omitted from analysis for being incomplete. Also, 556, 446, and 491 questionnaires were evaluated in meat, bread, and fat groups, respectively; and the rest were omitted because of not being complete. The mean±SD age of the students was 15.8±0.9 years. According to the EAT-26, we found that 80.1% of the students were at risk of eating attitude disorders (CI=95%, 76.9-83.3. By comparing the results of the FFQ and the EAT-26 and weight controlling behaviors, we found that consumption of meat and fat was significantly higher in students with eating attitude disorder (P=0.027 and P=0.003 respectively. Bread intake was significantly higher in the groups with no disorder (P=0.08. (This P value is not significant. Moreover, the mean consumption of sandwiches was higher in students with eating attitude disorders (P=0.002. Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of eating attitude disorders in our study, assessing the underlying reasons and implementing preventive
Scarborough, Donna Moxley; Linderman, Shannon; Berkson, Eric M.; Oh, Luke S.
Objectives: Unilateral partial squat tasks are often used to assess athletes’ lower extremity (LE) neuromuscular control. Single squat biomechanics such as lateral drop of the non-stance limb’s pelvis have been linked to knee injury risk. Yet, there are limited studies on the factors contributing to pelvic instability during the unilateral partial squat such as anatomical alignment of the knee and hip strength. The purpose of this study was 1) to assess the influence of leg dominance on pelvic drop among female athletes during the repeated unilateral partial squat activity and 2) to investigate the contributions that lower limb kinematics and hip strength have on pelvis drop. Methods: 42 female athletes (27= softball pitchers, 15=gymnasts, avg age=16.48 ± 2.54 years) underwent lower limb assessment. The quadriceps angle (Q angle) and the average of 3 trials for hip abduction and extension strength (handheld dynamometer measurements) were used for analyses. 3D biomechanical analysis of the repeated unilateral partial squat activity followed using a 20 motion capture camera system which created a 15 segment model of each subject. The subject stood on one leg at the lateral edge of a 17.78 cm box with hands placed on the hips and squatted so that the free hanging contralateral limb came as close to the ground without contact for 5 continuous repetitions. One trial for each limb was performed. Peak pelvic drop and ankle, knee and hip angles and torques (normalized by weight) at this time point were calculated using Visual 3D (C-Motion) biomechanical software. Paired T-test, Spearman correlations and multiple regression model statistical analyses were performed. Results: Peak pelvic drop during the unilateral partial squat did not differ significantly on the basis of limb dominance (p=0.831, Dom: -3.40 ± 5.10° , ND: -3.46 ± 4.44°). Peak pelvic drop displayed a Spearman correlation with the functional measure of hip abduction/adduction (ABD/ADD) angle (rs= 0
Bonomi, Amy E; Nemeth, Julianna M; Altenburger, Lauren E; Anderson, Melissa L; Snyder, Anastasia; Dotto, Irma
No prior study has empirically characterized the association between health risks and reading popular fiction depicting violence against women. Fifty Shades--a blockbuster fiction series--depicts pervasive violence against women, perpetuating a broader social narrative that normalizes these types of risks and behaviors in women's lives. The present study characterized the association between health risks in women who read and did not read Fifty Shades; while our cross-sectional study design precluded causal determinations, an empirical representation of the health risks in women consuming the problematic messages in Fifty Shades is made. Females ages 18 to 24 (n=715), who were enrolled in a large Midwestern university, completed a cross-sectional online survey about their health behaviors and Fifty Shades' readership. The analysis included 655 females (219 who read at least the first Fifty Shades novel and 436 who did not read any part of Fifty Shades). Age- and race-adjusted multivariable models characterized Fifty Shades' readers and nonreaders on intimate partner violence victimization (experiencing physical, sexual and psychological abuse, including cyber-abuse, at some point during their lifetime); binge drinking (consuming five or more alcoholic beverages on six or more days in the last month); sexual practices (having five or more intercourse partners and/or one or more anal sex partner during their lifetime); and using diet aids or fasting for 24 or more hours at some point during their lifetime. One-third of subjects read Fifty Shades (18.6%, or 122/655, read all three novels, and 14.8%, or 97/655, read at least the first novel but not all three). In age- and race-adjusted models, compared with nonreaders, females who read at least the first novel (but not all three) were more likely than nonreaders to have had, during their lifetime, a partner who shouted, yelled, or swore at them (relative risk [RR]=1.25) and who delivered unwanted calls/text messages
Yoo, Sang Bae; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Kim, Jin Young; Ryu, Vitaly; Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jahng, Jeong Won
This study was conducted to examine if fluoxetine, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, would reverse adverse behavioral effects of neonatal maternal separation in female rats. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam daily for 3h during postnatal day (PND) 1-14 (maternal separation; MS) or left undisturbed (non-handled; NH). Female NH and MS pups received intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine (10mg/kg) or vehicle daily from PND 35 until the end of the whole experimental period. Rats were either subjected to behavioral tests during PND 44-54, or sacrificed for neurochemical analyses during PND 43-45. Daily food intake and weight gain of both NH and MS pups were suppressed by fluoxetine, with greater effects in MS pups. MS experience increased immobility and decrease swimming in forced swim test. Swimming was increased, although immobility was not significantly decreased, in MS females by adolescence fluoxetine. However, adolescence fluoxetine increased immobility during forced swim test and decreased time spent in open arms during elevated plus maze test in NH females. Fluoxetine normalized MS-induced decrease of the raphe 5-HT levels and increased 5-HT metabolism in the hippocampus in MS females, and increased the hypothalamic 5-HT both in NH and MS. Fluoxetine decreased the raphe 5-HT and increased the plasma corticosterone in NH females. Results suggest that decreased 5-HTergic activity in the raphe nucleus is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression-like behaviors, and increased 5-HTergic activities in the raphe-hippocampus axis may be a part of anti-depressant efficacy of fluoxetine, in MS females. Also, an extra-hypothalamic 5-HTergic activity may contribute to the increased anorectic efficacy of fluoxetine in MS females. Additionally, decreased 5-HT in the raphe and elevated plasma corticosterone may be related with fluoxetine-induced depression- and/or anxiety-like behaviors in NH females. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd
Full Text Available There is a dearth of data regarding changes in dietary intake and physical activity over time that lead to inpatient medical treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN. Without such data, more effective nutritional therapies for patients cannot be devised. This study was undertaken to describe changes in diet and physical activity that precede inpatient medical hospitalization for AN in female adolescents. This data can be used to understand factors contributing to medical instability in AN, and may advance rodent models of AN to investigate novel weight restoration strategies. It was hypothesized that hospitalization for AN would be associated with progressive energy restriction and increased physical activity over time. 20 females, 11-19 years (14.3±1.8 years, with restricting type AN, completed retrospective, self-report questionnaires to assess dietary intake and physical activity over the 6 month period prior to inpatient admission (food frequency questionnaire, Pediatric physical activity recall and 1 week prior (24 hour food recall, modifiable activity questionnaire. Physical activity increased acutely prior to inpatient admission without any change in energy or macronutrient intake. However, there were significant changes in reported micronutrient intake causing inadequate intake of Vitamin A, Vitamin D, and pantothenic acid at 1 week versus high, potentially harmful, intake of Vitamin A over 6 months prior to admission. Subject report of significantly increased physical activity, not decreased energy intake, were associated with medical hospitalization for AN. Physical activity and Vitamin A and D intake should be carefully monitored following initial AN diagnosis, as markers of disease progression as to potentially minimize the risk of medical instability.
A study reviewing the existing Army Distance Learning Plan (ADLP) and current Distance Learning practices, with a focus on the Army's training and educational challenges and the benefits of applying Distance Learning techniques...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in oxygen uptake kinetics and oxygen deficit existed between normal weight and severely overweight adolescent girls. Subjects included 10 normal weight and 8 severely overweight girls. The participants performed a leg cycling VO2 peak test and a constant load leg cycling test at 80% of the ventilatory threshold (T-vent. In the constant workload test O2 kinetics as indicated by Phase I (VO2 L at 20 sec and Phase II time constants (t were determined. Also, the O2 deficit (VO2 L was measured. As expected significant differences were noted in body composition and VO2 peak relative to mass with normal weight body mass averaging 55.3 ± 7.0 kg, severely overweight 90.5 ± 18.0 kg, % fat normal weight 27.3 ± 3.9%, severely overweight 49.7 ± 4.9% and VO2 peak (ml·kg-1·min-1 normal weight 32.0 ± 2.7 and severely overweight 22.0 ± 5.3. VO2 peak (l·min-1 and T-vent (%VO2 max were similar between groups. Results revealed similar O2 kinetic responses between groups; phase I kinetics normal weight 0.72 ± 0.15 L; severely overweight 0.75 ± 0.13L, phase II (t normal weight 41.5 ± 21.3 sec; severely overweight 33.9 ± 22.7 sec. However, the O2 deficit was significantly higher in the severely overweight (0.75 ± 0.15L when compared to the normal weight group (0.34 ± 0.13L. Correlations ranged from r = -0.15 to 0.51 between VO2 peak (L·min-1 or fat weight and phase I, t and O2 deficit. These data generally support previous research concerning the independence of O2 uptake response and body size
Ramathuba, Dorah U
Although sexual issues are openly discussed in the media, sexuality and reproductive functions are treated as taboo. Menstruation is a normal physiologic process, but carries various meanings within cultures and is rarely discussed amongst families and communities. This study sought to assess the knowledge and practices of secondary school girls towards menstruation in the Thulamela municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by means of convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls. The sample consisted of 273 secondary school girls doing Grades 10-12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12). The findings revealed that respondents experienced menarche at 13 years and that menstruation is a monthly bleeding (80%) that happens to every female; it is a sign of adulthood (91%). 15% reported that it is the removal of dirt from the stomach and abdomen, 67% indicated the source of menstruation being the uterus, 65% the vagina and 13% from the abdomen. 73% reported having fear and anxiety at the first experience of bleeding and that they could not maintain adequate hygienic practices due to a lack of privacy and sanitary towels. Interventions are needed to increase girls' opportunities to discuss menstruation and access information from adults including mothers, parents and guardians. School-based sexuality education should be comprehensive, begin early and be regularly repeated.
McHugh, Matthew D
To determine if readiness for change (RFC) at admission predicted length of stay (LOS) and short-term outcomes among female adolescents in residential treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN). Using a prospective cohort design to collect data from participants (N = 65) at admission and discharge, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression tested whether RFC on admission predicted time in LOS to a favorable short-term outcome--a composite endpoint based on minimum criteria for weight gain, drive for thinness, depression, anxiety, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Participants with low RFC had a mean survival time to a favorable short-term outcome of 59.4 days compared to 34.1 days for those with high RFC (log rank = 8.44, df = 1, p = .003). The probability of a favorable short-term outcome was 5.30 times greater for participants with high RFC. Readiness for change is a useful predictor of a favorable short-term outcome and should be considered in the assessment profile of patients with AN. (c) 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mellor, David; Waterhouse, Monique; Mamat, Norul Hidayah Bt; Xu, Xiaoyan; Cochrane, Jamie; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina
This study investigated how dissatisfaction with various aspects of the body is associated with overall body dissatisfaction among female adolescents in Western and Asian cultures. Data used in the study were obtained from 58 Malaysian Malays, 95 Malaysian Chinese, 242 Chinese from China, and 81 non-Asian Australians aged 12-19 years (M=15.72, SD=1.72) who were recruited from high schools. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing dissatisfaction with their body overall, and dissatisfaction with varying aspects of their body. Malaysian Chinese were the most dissatisfied with their bodies. After controlling for body mass index (BMI), age and dissatisfaction with weight/shape, upper, middle and lower body, and muscles, dissatisfaction with the face was positively correlated with overall body dissatisfaction among Malaysian Malays and Australians. These findings demonstrate the importance of using assessment measures that address all possible areas of body focus as well as being tailored to the relevant culture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hulland, Erin N; Brown, Jennifer L; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; DiClemente, Ralph J
Heightened psychosocial stress coupled with maladaptive coping may be associated with greater sexual risk engagement. This study examined the association between stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of sexual risk behavior engagement over 24 months among African-American adolescent females (N = 701; M = 17.6 years) enrolled in an STI/HIV risk-reduction intervention program. Participants completed audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) measures of global stress, interpersonal stress, coping strategy use, and sexual behaviors prior to intervention participation. Follow-up ACASI assessments were conducted at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-intervention. Generalized estimated equation models examined associations between baseline stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of condom use (past 90 days, last sex) and multiple partners during follow-up. Global stress and individual coping strategy usage were not associated with differences in condom use. Higher interpersonal stress was associated with lower proportion condom use (p = .018), inconsistent condom use (p = .011), and not using a condom at last sex (p = .002). There were no significant associations between stress levels, coping strategy use, and multiple partners. Future research should explore mechanisms that may underlie the association between elevated interpersonal stress and decreased condom use among this population.
Reardon, J P; Tosi, D J
This study examined the effect of four treatment conditions on self-concept and reduction of psychological stress in adolescent delinquent females. The treatments were Rational State Directed Imagery, a cognitive behavioral approach that utilized intensive muscle relaxation and vivid-emotive-imagery, a rational (cognitive) restructuring treatment, a placebo condition, and a no treatment control. Ss were assigned randomly to one of these treatment groups, which met 1 hour per week for 6 consecutive weeks, with in-vivo homework assignments also utilized. Statistically scale were noted for the RSDI group at the posttest and at a 2-month follow-up, which supports the therapeutic efficacy of this treatment. Support was found for the effectiveness of the rational (cognitive) restructuring approach immediately posttreatment; however these effects disappeared at the 2-month follow-up. The placebo and control groups showed no significant effects at either posttreatment or the follow-up. These results suggest that RSDI has potential for use as a short-term psychotherapeutic approach when self-concept modification is a primary goal.
da Silva Carla Cristiane
Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the alterations in physiological and biochemical markers, after 17 weeks of ballet training in high level ballet dancers. Twenty four female ballet dancers from 12 to 15 years old took part in the study. The study followed 17 weeks of ballet training and analyzed changes in body composition, the autonomic nervous system and biochemical variables before and after (post training. The internal training load was obtained using the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE method, calculated as the mean weekly session-RPE, monotony and strain. After 17 weeks of training there were significant increases in body mass, height, lean body mass, total protein, urea, hemoglobin concentration, testosterone and thyroxine. During this period, decreases in relative body fat, uric acid, red blood cells, C-reactive protein, and ferritin were also found. After the training period, the autonomic modulation demonstrated significant positive alterations, such as increases in parasympathetic related indices. Based on the results obtained we concluded that ballet training led to improvements in body composition and autonomic modulation. In general hematological and biochemical variables demonstrated that the training did not have adverse effects on the health state of the adolescents.
Richards, Tara N; Branch, Kathryn A; Ray, Katherine
Little is known about the role social support may play in reducing the risk of adolescent dating violence perpetration and victimization. This study is a longitudinal analysis of the independent impact of social support from friends and parents on the risk of emotional and physical dating violence perpetration and victimization among a large sample of female youth (n = 346). Findings indicate that 22% of the sample indicated perpetrating physical dating violence against a partner, whereas almost 16% revealed being the victim of physical dating violence; 34% of the sample indicated perpetrating emotional dating violence against a partner, whereas almost 39% revealed being the victim of emotional dating violence. Negative binomial regression models indicated that increased levels of support from friends at Time 1 was associated with significantly less physical and emotional dating violence perpetration and emotional (but not physical) dating violence victimization at Time 2. Parental support was not significantly related to dating violence in any model. Implications for dating violence curriculum and future research are addressed.
Swartzendruber, Andrea; Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; Murray, Colleen C; DiClemente, Ralph J
Social networks directly and indirectly influence sexually transmitted infections (STIs) risk. The objective was to explore associations between sex with a male recently released from incarceration and sexual risk and intimate partner violence (IPV) among African American adolescent females. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, and sexual behavior data were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months from African American females, aged 15-21 years, participating in an HIV/STI prevention trial. Among 653 participants with ≥1 follow-up assessments, generalized estimating equations tested associations during follow-up between having a recently released partner and STI acquisition, sexual risk behaviors, and IPV, adjusting for age, treatment assignment, and corresponding baseline measure. Eighty-three (13.6%) participants had a recently released partner at 6 months and 56 (9.3%) at 12 months. Participants with a recently released partner were more likely to have the following: vaginal (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 5.48), anal (AOR: 2.43), and oral (AOR: 1.51) sex, a casual partner (AOR: 1.66), sex while high/drunk (AOR: 1.57) or with a high/drunk partner (AOR: 2.27); use condoms inconsistently (AOR: .58); acquire Chlamydia (AOR: 1.80), and experience emotional (AOR: 4.09), physical (AOR: 2.59), or sexual abuse (AOR: 4.10) by a boyfriend. They had a greater number of sex partners, lower partner communication and refusal self-efficacy, were high/drunk during sex more frequently, and used condoms during oral sex less frequently. A recently released sex partner is associated with sexual risk and IPV among African American adolescent females. Prevention programs should inform adolescents about potential risks associated with recently released partners as well as provide adolescents with skills to establish and maintain healthy sexual relationships. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pedersen, Court; Petaja, Tiina; Strauss, Gitte
will require prophylactic vaccination against oncogenic HPV 16 and 18 before the onset of sexual activity in early adolescent girls. To establish the feasibility of vaccination in girls 10-14 years of age, we compared the immunogenicity and safety in early adolescent female individuals to those 15-25 years...... measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Vaccine safety was assessed at 7 or 30 days after each dose; serious adverse events were recorded during the entire study period. RESULTS: Both age groups achieved 100% seroconversion for HPV 16 and 18. Participants in the group aged 10-14 years were not only......PURPOSE: In female individuals 15-25-years of age, the AS04-containing human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine is highly immunogenic and provides up to 100% protection against HPV-16/18 persistent infection and associated cervical lesions up to 4.5 years. Optimal cervical cancer prevention...
Bajoghli, Hafez; Joshaghani, Narges; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
Experiencing romantic love is important in individual development. Little is known about romantic love among adolescents in non-Western countries. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore romantic love among Iranian female adolescents. Eighty-six females (mean age: 17.97 years) took part in the study; 38 of them (44%) indicated they were experiencing romantic love at the time of survey, and 48 (56%) indicated they were not in love. Participants completed questionnaires related to affective states and physical activity, and a sleep log for seven consecutive nights. Compared to controls, participants in love had higher scores for hypomanic-like states, positive mood, physical activity, but not for better sleep quality or for depressive symptoms. Against expectations, hypomania scores increased with the duration of the romantic relationship, suggesting that culture-related issues might shape the way romantic love may be experienced.
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between depressive symptoms and eating disorders in female adolescents. The sample included 371 girls ranging from 12 to 16 years of age in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and Major Depression Inventory (MDI to evaluate eating disorders and depressive symptoms, respectively. The linear regression model showed that 18% of the EAT-26 scores were influenced by MDI (F(1, 370 = 14.18; p = 0.001. Moreover, the findings indicated a statistically significant association between depressive symptoms and eating disorders (χ2 = 14.71; Wald = 12.90; p = 0.001. The authors concluded that depressive symptoms were related to eating disorders in female adolescents. Thus, girls with some level of depression showed a greater tendency to adopt disordered eating as a daily habit.
Dorah U. Ramathuba
Full Text Available Background: Although sexual issues are openly discussed in the media, sexuality and reproductive functions are treated as taboo. Menstruation is a normal physiologic process, but carries various meanings within cultures and is rarely discussed amongst families and communities.Purpose: This study sought to assess the knowledge and practices of secondary school girls towards menstruation in the Thulamela municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods: A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by means of convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls. The sample consisted of 273 secondary school girls doing Grades 10–12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12. Findings: The findings revealed that respondents experienced menarche at 13 years and that menstruation is a monthly bleeding (80% that happens to every female; it is a sign of adulthood (91%. 15% reported that it is the removal of dirt from the stomach and abdomen, 67% indicated the source of menstruation being the uterus, 65% the vagina and 13% from the abdomen. 73% reported having fear and anxiety at the first experience of bleeding and that they could not maintain adequate hygienic practices due to a lack of privacy and sanitarytowels. Conclusion: Interventions are needed to increase girls’ opportunities to discuss menstruation and access information from adults including mothers, parents and guardians. School-based sexuality education should be comprehensive, begin early and be regularly repeated.
Landry, Scott C; McKean, Kelly A; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L; Stanish, William D; Deluzio, Kevin J
Female athletes are 2 to 8 times more likely than male athletes to injure the anterior cruciate ligament during a non-contact athletic maneuver. Identifying anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors in female athletes may help with the development of preventive training programs aimed at reducing injury rates. Differences between genders in lower limb kinematics, kinetics, and neuromuscular patterns will be identified in an adolescent soccer population during an unanticipated side-cut maneuver. Controlled laboratory study. Forty-two elite adolescent soccer players (21 male and 21 female) performed an unanticipated side-cut maneuver, with the 3-dimensional kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic lower limb data being analyzed using principal component analysis. The female athletes had higher gastrocnemius activity, normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contractions, and a mediolateral gastrocnemius activation imbalance that was not present in the male athletes during early stance to midstance of the side-cut. Female athletes demonstrated greater rectus femoris muscle activity throughout stance, and the only hamstring difference identified was a mediolateral activation imbalance in male athletes only. Female athletes performed the side-cut with less hip flexion and more hip external rotation and also generated a smaller hip flexion moment compared with the male athletes. This is the first study to identify gender-related differences in gastrocnemius muscle activity during an unanticipated cutting maneuver. The increased and imbalanced gastrocnemius muscle activity, combined with increased rectus femoris muscle activity and reduced hip flexion angles and moments in female subjects, may all have important contributing roles in the higher noncontact ACL injury rates observed in female athletes.
Mekuria, Aleme; Nigussie, Aderajew; Abera, Muluemebet
Background Childhood sexual abuse is a major social problem in Africa including Ethiopia. Moreover, little has been explored about the pattern of childhood sexual abuse in the context of high school students in Ethiopia in general and in Arbaminch town in particular. Thus, the present study aims to assess the prevalence and associated factors of childhood sexual abuse among adolescent female high school students in Arbaminch town. Methods A school- based, cross-sectional study was conducted a...
Butler, Tracy R; Carter, Eugenia; Weiner, Jeffrey L
Clinically, early life stress and anxiety disorders are associated with increased vulnerability for alcohol use disorders. In male rats, early life stress, imparted by adolescent social isolation, results in long-lasting increases in a number of behavioral risk factors for alcoholism, including greater anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol (EtOH) intake. Several recent studies have begun to use this model to gain insight into the relationships among anxiety measures, stress, EtOH intake, and neurobiological correlates driving these behaviors. As prior research has noted significant sex differences in the impact of adolescent stress on anxiety measures and EtOH drinking, the current study was conducted to determine if this same model produces an "addiction vulnerable" phenotype in female rodents. Female Long Evans rats were socially isolated (SI; 1/cage) or group housed (GH; 4/cage) for 6 weeks during adolescence. After this housing manipulation, behavioral assessment was conducted using the elevated plus maze, response to novelty in an open field environment, and the light/dark box. After behavioral testing, home cage EtOH drinking was assessed across an 8-week period. No group differences were detected in any of the behavioral measures of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior. Greater EtOH intake and preference were observed in SI females but these differences did not persist. The SI/GH model, which results in robust and enduring increases in anxiety measures and EtOH self-administration in male Long Evans rats, did not result in similar behavioral changes in female rats. These data, and that of others, suggest that adolescent social isolation is not a useful model with which to study neurobiological substrates linking antecedent anxiety and addiction vulnerability in female rats. Given the compelling epidemiological evidence that the relationship between chronic adolescent stress and alcohol addiction is particularly strong in women, there is clearly an urgent need
Jones, Andrew D; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Cantoral, Alejandra; Levy, Teresa Shamah
We aimed to determine the association between household food insecurity (HFI) and the co-occurrence of overweight and anemia among women of reproductive age in the Mexican population. We analyzed data on 4,039 nonpregnant female adolescents (15-19 years) and 10,760 nonpregnant adult women of reproductive age (20-49 years) from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey of Mexico. The survey uses a two-stage sampling design, stratified by rural and urban regions. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to assess HFI. We assessed overweight and obesity in women based on World Health Organization classifications for body mass index, and BMI-for-age Z-scores for female adolescents, and defined anemia as an altitude-adjusted hemoglobin (Hb) concentration insecure households, respectively, experiencing concurrent anemia and overweight were 48% (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.91) and 49% (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.06) higher than among women from food-secure households. Severe HFI was not associated with concurrent overweight and anemia among female adolescents or women. HFI may be a shared mechanism for dual forms of malnutrition within the same individual, simultaneously contributing to overconsumption and dietary inadequacy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sun, Caihong; Wang, Hui; Wang, Dong; Chen, Yanping; Zhao, Yan; Xia, Wei
The present study aimed to (i) evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a designed FFQ, (ii) apply the FFQ for estimating the dietary intakes of four flavonols and two flavones in female adolescents and (iii) explain their major dietary sources. The reproducibility between the first and second FFQ administrations (1 year interval) was estimated using the intra-class correlation coefficient. The validity of the first FFQ relative to the average of four three-day 24 h dietary recalls (24-HR) from four seasons was assessed using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Using a flavonoid content database, the individual flavonol and flavone intakes were calculated and the major food sources were estimated. Middle school in Suihua area of Heilongjiang Province, northern China. Female adolescents (n 887) aged 12-18 years. Better reproducibility and validity were obtained in the present study. The flavonol and flavone intakes were 16.29 and 4.31 mg/d, respectively. Quercetin and kaempferol were the major contributors (26.8 % and 23.7 %, respectively) to the total intake of flavonols and flavones. The main food sources of flavonols and flavones were apples (14.1 %), followed by potatoes (7.5 %), lettuce (7.3 %) and oranges (7.3 %). The dietary flavonol and flavone intakes among female adolescents in northern China were similar to those reported in several countries, but significant differences were observed in the food sources ascribed to the geographical location and dietary characteristics.
Maleki, Farzaneh; Hosseini Nodeh, Zahra; Rahnavard, Zahra; Arab, Masoume
Since type-2 diabetes is the most common chronic disease among Iranian female adolescents, we applied theory of planned behavior to examine the effect of training to intention to preventative nutritional behaviors for type-2 diabetes among female adolescents. In this experimental study 200 (11-14 year old) girls from 8 schools of Tehran city (100 in each intervention and control group) were recruited based on cluster sampling method during two stages. For intervention group, an educational program was designed based on the theory of planned behavior and presented in 6 workshop sessions to prevent type-2 diabetes. The data were collected before and two months after the workshops using a valid and reliable (α=0.72 and r=0.80) authormade questionnaire based on Ajzens TPB questionnaire manual. The data were analyzed using t-test, chi-square test and analysis of covariance. Findings indicate that the two groups were homogeneous regarding the demographic characteristics before education, but the mean score of the theory components (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) was higher in the control group. Also, results showed all of the theory components significantly increased after the education in the intervention group (p=0.000). Training based on the theory of planned behavior enhances the intention to adherence preventative nutritional behaviors for type-2 diabetes among the studied female adolescents.
Lai, Ching-Yi; Wu, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Shao-Yu; Cheng, Su-Fen; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Liang, Shu-Yuan
Lack of education is a known barrier to vaccination, but data on the design and effectiveness of interventions remain limited. This study aims to identify the effectiveness of a Facebook-assisted teaching method on female adolescents' knowledge and attitudes about cervical cancer prevention and on their human papillomavirus vaccination intention. A quasi-experimental time series research design was used. Two hundred female adolescents at a senior high school in Taipei were recruited into two groups. Following a classroom lecture, one group was provided a Facebook-assisted online discussion, and the other group was provided an in-person discussion forum. A demographic questionnaire and cervical cancer prevention questionnaire were distributed. Data were analyzed for descriptive statistics and generalized estimation equations. Improvement from T0 to T2 in knowledge and attitude scores was 4.204 and 4.496 points, respectively. The Facebook group's improvement in vaccination intention from T0 to T2 was 2.310 times greater than the control group's improvement under conditions of out-of-pocket expenses and 2.368 times greater under conditions of free vaccination. School-based cervical cancer prevention education can be effective. The Facebook-assisted discussion method was more effective than the in-person discussion. Providing the human papillomavirus vaccine free of charge would increase female adolescents' intention to be vaccinated. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Olesti-Baiges, Montserrat; Martín-Vergara, Nuria; Riera-Solé, Alba; de la Fuente-García, Marta; Bofarull-Bosch, Josep M; Ricomá-de Castellarnau, Gabriela; Piñol Moreso, Josep Lluís
To assess the degree of body image distortion in female adolescents and evaluate its association with the social esthetic model and the adoption of dietary measures. We performed a cross sectional, observational study in a random sample of female adolescents aged 12 to 21 years old. Information was gathered via two different sources. A structured questionnaire including sociodemographic and anthropometric items was administered to determine adolescents' desire to resemble advertising models, their satisfaction with trouser size, and whether they would follow an unsupervised diet, etc. A game consisting of 9 images of female shapes of increasing size was used to evaluate self-perceived body image. The subjects chose the shape they believed most closely resembled their own. A sample of 401 subjects with a mean age of 17.6 (standard deviation = 2.6) years was evaluated. Seventy-five percent had normal weight, 11% were overweight, 13% were obese, and 0.8% were underweight. A total of 76.8% of the subjects had distorted body image and wished to look like advertising models (p body image. A distorted body image translates into wanting to resemble advertising models and dissatisfaction with trouser size, which in turn leads to following unsupervised diets.
Heikura, Ida A; Burke, Louise M; Bergland, Dan; Uusitalo, Arja L T; Mero, Antti A; Stellingwerff, Trent
We investigated the effects of sex, energy availability (EA), and health status on the change in hemoglobin mass (ΔHbmass) in elite endurance athletes over ~3 to 4 weeks of Live-High/Train-High altitude training (Flagstaff, AZ, 2135m; n=27 females; n=21 males; 27% 2016 Olympians). Pre- and post-camp Hbmass (optimized CO re-breathing method) and iron status were measured, EA was estimated via food and training logs and Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q) and a general injury/illness questionnaire was completed. Hypoxic exposure (hours) was calculated with low (600h) groupings. Absolute and relative percentage ΔHbmass (%ΔHbmass) was significantly greater in females (6.2±4.0%, paltitude training, while emphasizing the importance of athlete health and indices of EA on an optimal baseline Hbmass and hematological response to hypoxia.
Calhoun, Casey D.; Hastings, Paul D.; Rudolph, Karen D.; Nock, Matthew K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Adopting a multi-level approach, this study examined risk factors for adolescent suicidal ideation, with specific attention to (a) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress responses and (b) the interplay between HPA-axis and other risk factors from multiple domains (i.e., psychological, interpersonal and biological). Participants were 138 adolescent females (Mage=14.13 years, SD=1.40) at risk for suicidal behaviors. At baseline, lifetime suicidal ideation and a number of risk factors were assessed (i.e., depressive symptoms, impulsiveness, pubertal status and peer stress). Participants were exposed to a psychosocial stress task and HPA-axis responses were assessed by measuring cortisol levels pre- and post-stressor. At 3 months post-baseline, suicidal ideation again was assessed. Using group-based trajectory modeling, three groups of cortisol stress-response patterns were identified (i.e., hyporesponsive, normative, and hyperresponsive). As compared to females in the normative and hyporesponsive group, females in the hyperresponsive group were more likely to report a lifetime history of suicidal ideation at baseline, above and beyond the effects of the other predictors. Moreover, as compared to females in the normative group, females in the hyperresponsive group were at increased risk for reporting suicidal ideation 3 months later, after controlling for prior ideation. No interactions between cortisol group and the other risk factors were significant, with the exception of a non-significant trend between impulsiveness and cortisol group on lifetime suicidal ideation. Findings highlight the importance of HPA-axis responses to acute stressors as a risk factor for suicidal ideation among adolescents. PMID:24958308
Chen, Yi-Wen; Actor-Engel, Hannah; Aoki, Chiye
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an animal model of anorexia nervosa, a mental illness with highest mortality and with onset that is most frequently during adolescence. We questioned whether vulnerability of adolescent mice to ABA differs between sexes and whether individual differences in resilience are causally linked to alpha4betadelta-GABA A R expression. C57BL6/J WT and α4-KO adolescent male and female mice underwent ABA induction by combining wheel access with food restriction. ABA vulnerability was measured as the extent of food restriction-evoked hyperactivity on a running wheel and body weight losses. alpha4betadelta-GABA A R levels at plasma membranes of pyramidal cells in dorsal hippocampus were assessed by electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. Temporal patterns and extent of weight loss during ABA induction were similar between sexes. Both sexes also exhibited individual differences in ABA vulnerability. Correlation analyses revealed that, for both sexes, body weight changes precede and thus are likely to drive suppression of wheel running. However, the suppression was during the food-anticipatory hours for males, while for females, suppression was delayed by a day and during food-access hours. Correspondingly, only females adaptively increased food intake. ABA induced up-regulation of alpha4betadelta-GABA A Rs at plasma membranes of dorsal hippocampal pyramidal cells of females, and especially those females exhibiting resilience. Conversely, α4-KO females exhibited greater food restriction-evoked hyperactivity than WT females. In contrast, ABA males did not up-regulate alpha4betadelta-GABA A Rs, did not exhibit genotype differences in vulnerability, and exhibited no correlation between plasmalemmal alpha4betadelta-GABA A Rs and ABA resilience. Thus, food restriction-evoked hyperactivity is driven by anxiety but can be suppressed through upregulation of hippocampal alpha4betadelta-GABA A Rs for female but not for males. This knowledge of sex
Farahani, Farideh Khalaj Abadi; Shah, Iqbal; Cleland, John; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza
Despite cultural and religious prohibitions against premarital heterosexual relationships and intimacy, some recent evidence suggests some rise in premarital heterosexual interactions and relationships among young people. On the other hand, although HIV in Iran is a concentrated epidemic and mainly reported among high risk groups such as injecting drug users (IDUs), but there are evidences that the mode of transmission is shifting towards sexual contacts. This trend has caused concern among health policy makers in terms of prevention of STDs and HIV/AIDS particularly, among young people. This paper was prepared with the aim of highlighting how gender contributes to variation in reproductive health needs and conduct of young people in Iran. This paper is based on a secondary analysis and compares comparable reproductive beliefs and conducts of women and men based on the data of two surveys conducted in Tehran in 2002 and 2005. A survey among 1385 adolescent males and another survey among 1743 female undergraduate students in four multidisciplinary universities in Tehran. Both surveys used anonymous self-administered questionnaires. To make the two samples comparable, the data of unmarried female university undergraduate students who resided in Tehran were merged with the data of adolescent male students who intended to pursue higher education. Common variables of the two surveys were identified, homogenized, merged and analysed. Reproductive health knowledge among male adolescents was poor compared to that of their female peers. Although premarital friendships were moderately acceptable from view points of both males and females, the majority were against premarital sex, particularly among female participants. There were evidences of gender-based double standards in perceptions of premarital sexuality among both males and females; particularly, it was stronger among males than females. Male adolescents reported earlier and greater experiences of premarital
Rahma M. Msoffe
Open and Distance Learning could not only help in gender equality and women empowerment, but also may facilitate the effectiveness and strengthening of women education. However, there is little knowledge on how gender roles affect performance of girls/women education. The paper set out to examine whether inequality in gender roles affect women’s education, find out types of domestic chores that women normally engage with and how they affect their academic progress and assess whether women hav...
Erin K. Kirschmann; Daniel M. McCalley; Caitlyn M. Edwards; Caitlyn M. Edwards; Mary M. Torregrossa; Mary M. Torregrossa
Marijuana is a prevalent illicit substance used by adolescents, and several studies have indicated that adolescent use can lead to long-term cognitive deficits including problems with attention and memory. However, preclinical animal studies that observe cognitive deficits after cannabinoid exposure during adolescence utilize experimenter administration of doses of cannabinoids that may exceed what an organism would choose to take, suggesting that contingency and dose are critical factors tha...
Linares, Lourdes Oriana; Shankar, Viswanathan; Diaz, Angela; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Strickler, Howard D; Peake, Ken; Weiss, Jocelyn; Burk, Robert D; Schlecht, Nicolas F
This study investigated the association of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection with cumulative psychosocial risk reflecting family disadvantage, psychological distress, and unhealthy lifestyle. The sample (N = 745) comprised sexually active female adolescent patients (12-19 yr), primarily ethnic minorities, enrolled in a free HPV vaccination program. Subjects completed questionnaires and provided cervical swabs for HPV DNA testing. Unweighted and weighted principal component analyses for categorical data were used to derive multisystemic psychosocial risk indices using 9 indicators: low socioeconomic status, lack of adult involvement, not attending high school/college, history of treatment for depression/anxiety, antisocial/delinquent behavior, number of recent sexual partners, use of alcohol, use of drugs, and dependency risk for alcohol/drugs. The association between cervical HPV (any type, high-risk types, vaccine types) assayed by polymerase chain reaction and self-reported number of psychosocial risk indicators was estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Subjects had a median of 3 psychosocial risk indicators. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed associations with unweighted and weighted number of psychosocial indicators for HPV any type (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.2), with the strongest associations between weighted drug/alcohol use, drug/alcohol dependency risk, and antisocial/delinquent behavior and detection of HPV vaccine types (aOR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0) independent of number of recent sexual partners and vaccine dose (0-3). Increased HPV infections including HPV vaccine types were associated with greater number of psychosocial risk indicators even after controlling for demographics, sexual behavior, history of chlamydia, and vaccine dose.
Linares, Lourdes Oriana; Shankar, Viswanathan; Diaz, Angela; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Strickler, Howard D.; Peake, Ken; Weiss, Jocelyn; Burk, Robert D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.
Objective This study investigated the association of cervical Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection with cumulative psychosocial risk reflecting family disadvantage, psychological distress, and unhealthy life style. Methods The sample (N=745) was comprised of sexually-active female adolescent patients (12-19 years), primarily ethnic minorities, enrolled in a free HPV vaccination program. Subjects completed questionnaires and provided cervical swabs for HPV DNA testing. Unweighted and weighted Principal Component Analyses (PCA) for categorical data were used to derive multi-systemic psychosocial risk indices using nine indicators: low socioeconomic status, lack of adult involvement, not attending high-school/college, history of treatment for depression/anxiety, antisocial/delinquent behavior, number of recent sexual partners, use of alcohol, use of drugs, and dependency risk for alcohol/drugs. The association between cervical HPV (any-type, high risk-types, vaccine-types) assayed by polymerase chain reaction and self-reported number of psychosocial risk indicators was estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results Subjects had a median of three psychosocial risk indicators. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed associations with unweighted and weighted number of psychosocial indicators for HPV any-type (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.2 ); with the strongest associations between weighted drug/alcohol use, drug/alcohol dependency risk, and antisocial/delinquent behavior and detection of HPV vaccine-types (aOR=1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.0) independent of number of recent sexual partners and vaccine dose (0-3). Conclusion Increased HPV infections including HPV vaccine-types were associated with greater number of psychosocial risk indicators even after controlling for demographics, sexual behavior, history of chlamydia, and vaccine dose. PMID:25985216
Daly, Patricia; Pace, Thaddeus; Berg, Judith; Menon, Usha; Szalacha, Laura A
While pediatric anti-obesity lifestyle interventions have received considerable attention, few show sustained impact on body mass index (BMI). Using the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Theory as a framework, we examined the effects of a satiety-focused mindful eating intervention (MEI) on BMI, weight and mindful awareness. Utilizing a two-group, repeated measures design, 37 adolescent females with a BMI >90th percentile, recruited from a public high school in a Latino community in the Southwestern United States, were randomized 2:1, one third to the group receiving a 6-week MEI and two thirds to the comparison group (CG) receiving the usual care (nutrition and exercise information). During six weekly 90-min after school MEI group sessions, the behavioral skills of slow intentional eating were practiced with foci on satiety cues and triggers to overeat. Feasibility and acceptability were measured as participant retention (goal ≥55%) and evaluative comments from those in the MEI group, respectively. BMI and mindful awareness were measured on site at baseline, immediately post intervention, and at 4-week follow-up (week 10). Fifty-seven and 65% of those in the MEI and CG were retained throughout the study, respectively. MEI participants showed significantly lowered BMI compared with CG participants, whose weight increased (p90th percentile standard growth projections). Initial and sustained decline of BMI in the MEI group supports further study of this theory-guided approach, and the value of practicing satiety-focused mindful eating behavioral skills to facilitate health behavior change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gold, Melanie A; Tzilos, Golfo K; Stein, L A R; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D; Ryan, Christopher M; Zuckoff, Allan; DiClemente, Carlo
To examine a computer-assisted, counselor-guided motivational intervention (CAMI) aimed at reducing the risk of unprotected sexual intercourse. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We conducted a 9-month, longitudinal randomized controlled trial with a multisite recruitment strategy including clinic, university, and social referrals, and compared the CAMI with didactic educational counseling in 572 female adolescents with a mean age of 17 years (SD = 2.2 years; range = 13-21 years; 59% African American) who were at risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. The primary outcome was the acceptability of the CAMI according to self-reported rating scales. The secondary outcome was the reduction of pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease risk using a 9-month, self-report timeline follow-back calendar of unprotected sex. The CAMI was rated easy to use. Compared with the didactic educational counseling, there was a significant effect of the intervention which suggested that the CAMI helped reduce unprotected sex among participants who completed the study. However, because of the high attrition rate, the intent to treat analysis did not demonstrate a significant effect of the CAMI on reducing the rate of unprotected sex. Among those who completed the intervention, the CAMI reduced unprotected sex among an at-risk, predominantly minority sample of female adolescents. Modification of the CAMI to address methodological issues that contributed to a high drop-out rate are needed to make the intervention more acceptable and feasible for use among sexually active predominantly minority, at-risk, female adolescents. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Crouch, A; Degelman, D
In contrast to earlier studies suggesting that self-concept is stable by late adolescence and therefore resistant to change, this study found that adolescent girls' ratings of self-attractiveness were significantly higher following exposure to printed advertisements employing attractive models who were overweight compared to those exposed to models who were not overweight. Implications for further research are discussed.
Young, Janet A.; Symons, Caroline M.; Pain, Michelle D.; Harvey, Jack T.; Eime, Rochelle M.; Craike, Melinda J.; Payne, Warren R.
In light of the importance attributed to the presence of positive role models in promoting physical activity during adolescence, this study examined role models of adolescent girls and their influence on physical activity. Seven hundred and thirty two girls in Years 7 and 11 from metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions of Victoria, Australia,…
Caruso, M J; Reiss, D E; Caulfield, J I; Thomas, J L; Baker, A N; Cavigelli, S A; Kamens, H M
Anxiety disorders and nicotine use are significant contributors to global morbidity and mortality as independent and comorbid diseases. Early-life stress, potentially via stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysregulation, can exacerbate both. However, little is known about the factors that predispose individuals to the development of both anxiety disorders and nicotine use. Here, we examined the relationship between anxiety-like behaviors and nicotine responses following adolescent stress. Adolescent male and female BALB/cJ mice were exposed to either chronic variable social stress (CVSS) or control conditions. CVSS consisted of repeated cycles of social isolation and social reorganization. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior and social avoidance were measured using the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and social approach-avoidance test, respectively. Nicotine responses were assessed with acute effects on body temperature, corticosterone production, locomotor activity, and voluntary oral nicotine consumption. Adolescent stress had sex-dependent effects on nicotine responses and exploratory behavior, but did not affect anxiety-like behavior or social avoidance in males or females. Adult CVSS males exhibited less exploratory behavior, as indicated by reduced exploratory locomotion in the EPM and social approach-avoidance test, compared to controls. Adolescent stress did not affect nicotine-induced hypothermia in either sex, but CVSS males exhibited augmented nicotine-induced locomotion during late adolescence and voluntarily consumed less nicotine during adulthood. Stress effects on male nicotine-induced locomotion were associated with individual differences in exploratory locomotion in the EPM and social approach-avoidance test. Relative to controls, adult CVSS males and females also exhibited reduced corticosterone levels at baseline and adult male CVSS mice exhibited increased corticosterone levels following an acute nicotine injection. Results
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the experiences of unintended pregnancies and poor birth outcomes among adolescents aged 15–19 years in the general population are well documented, there is limited understanding of the same among those who are living with HIV. This paper examines the factors associated with experiencing unintended pregnancies, poor birth outcomes, and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya. Methods Data are from a cross-sectional study that captured information on pregnancy histories of HIV-positive female adolescents in four regions of Kenya: Coast, Nairobi, Nyanza and Rift Valley provinces. Study participants were identified through HIV and AIDS programs in the four regions. Out of a total of 797 female participants, 394 had ever been pregnant with 24% of them experiencing multiple pregnancies. Analysis entails the estimation of random-effects logit models. Results Higher order pregnancies were just as likely to be unintended as lower order ones (odds ratios [OR]: 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8–2.0 while pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to be unintended compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.1; 95% CI: 0.1–0.2. Higher order pregnancies were significantly more likely to result in poor outcomes compared to lower order ones (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6–4.0. In addition, pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to result in poor outcomes compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1–0.9. However, experiencing unintended pregnancy was not significantly associated with adverse birth outcomes (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 0.5–3.3. There was also no significant difference in the likelihood of post-partum contraceptive use by whether the pregnancy was unintended (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.5–1.5. Conclusions The experience of repeat unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive female adolescents
Obare, Francis; van der Kwaak, Anke; Birungi, Harriet
Although the experiences of unintended pregnancies and poor birth outcomes among adolescents aged 15-19 years in the general population are well documented, there is limited understanding of the same among those who are living with HIV. This paper examines the factors associated with experiencing unintended pregnancies, poor birth outcomes, and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya. Data are from a cross-sectional study that captured information on pregnancy histories of HIV-positive female adolescents in four regions of Kenya: Coast, Nairobi, Nyanza and Rift Valley provinces. Study participants were identified through HIV and AIDS programs in the four regions. Out of a total of 797 female participants, 394 had ever been pregnant with 24% of them experiencing multiple pregnancies. Analysis entails the estimation of random-effects logit models. Higher order pregnancies were just as likely to be unintended as lower order ones (odds ratios [OR]: 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8-2.0) while pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to be unintended compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.1; 95% CI: 0.1-0.2). Higher order pregnancies were significantly more likely to result in poor outcomes compared to lower order ones (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6-4.0). In addition, pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to result in poor outcomes compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.9). However, experiencing unintended pregnancy was not significantly associated with adverse birth outcomes (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 0.5-3.3). There was also no significant difference in the likelihood of post-partum contraceptive use by whether the pregnancy was unintended (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.5-1.5). The experience of repeat unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive female adolescents in the sample is partly due to inconsistent use of contraception to prevent
Crandall, AliceAnn; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Day, Randal D; Riley, Anne W
Prior research links poor maternal emotion regulation to maladaptive parenting and child behaviors, but little research is available on these relationships during the adolescent period. We use structural equation modeling to assess the influence of poor maternal emotion regulation, measured as emotional reactivity and distancing, on adolescent behaviors (measured as aggression and prosocial behaviors) among 478 adolescents (53 % female; baseline age 10-13 years) and their mothers over a 5 year period. We also tested the possible mediating roles of family functioning and parenting behaviors between maternal emotion regulation and adolescent behaviors. Results indicated that higher baseline maternal emotional distancing and reactivity were not directly predictive of adolescents' behaviors, but they were indirectly related through family functioning and parenting. Specifically, indulgent parenting mediated the relationship between maternal emotional reactivity and adolescent aggression. Maternal-reported family functioning significantly mediated the relationship between maternal emotional distancing and adolescent aggression. Family functioning also mediated the relationship between emotional distancing and regulation parenting. The results imply that poor maternal emotion regulation during their child's early adolescence leads to more maladaptive parenting and problematic behaviors during the later adolescent period. However, healthy family processes may ameliorate the negative impact of low maternal emotion regulation on parenting and adolescent behavioral outcomes. The implications for future research and interventions to improve parenting and adolescent outcomes are discussed.
Bajoghli, Hafez; Joshaghani, Narges; Gerber, Markus; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
Experiencing romantic love is important in individual development. Little is known about romantic love among adolescents in non-Western countries. The aim of the present study was to explore romantic love among Iranian male and female adolescents. A total of 201 adolescents (mean age: 17.73 years) took part in the study; of these, 81 indicated they were experiencing romantic love at the time of survey, and 120 indicated they were not in love. Participants answered questionnaires related to affective states (hypomania, depressive symptoms, state and trait anxiety) and exercise, and completed a sleep log for seven consecutive nights. Compared to controls, participants in love displayed favourable hypomania scores, fewer depressive symptoms and increased concentration during the day. However, participants in love also had higher state anxiety scores. Moreover, hypomanic-like stages increased with duration of relationship in female, but not in male participants. The pattern of results suggests a favourable association between being currently in love and emotional and cognitive processes. Sleep, however, seemed unrelated to this specific state.
Sumarah, Sumarah; Widyasih, Hesty
Objective: To determine the effect of vaginal hygiene module to attitudes and behavior of pathological vaginal discharge prevention in adolescent girls in Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Materials and methods: This present study is a quasi experiment with pretest and post-test control group design. A total of 80 female students was selected randomly from two secondary schools at the study site and then distributed equally to control and experimental group. Only participants in the experimental group were given self-learning vaginal hygiene module to maintain vaginal cleanliness. A questionnaire was used as an instrument to measure the attitudes and behavior of vaginal discharge prevention. Paired and independent sample t-tests with significance level (p value) at 0.05 and Confidence Interval (CI) of 95%were employed to compare the mean difference. Results: There is a significant difference in the students' attitude and practice of pathological vaginal discharge prevention between intervention and control group. The students who have been exposed to vaginal hygiene module for six months showed better attitudes and practice in pathological vaginal discharge prevention compared to their counterpart in control group who do not receive any module. Conclusion: The present study implied that vaginal hygiene module can be provided widely for female adolescents at their early puberty. District health officers may work closely with schools' health promoter to reach the students and create a supportive environment for reproductive health discussion and forum in order to achieve better adolescents' reproductive health status.
Full Text Available Marijuana is currently the most commonly abused illicit drug. According to recent studies, cannabinoid use occurring prior to pregnancy can impact brain plasticity and behavior in future generations. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether adolescent exposure of female rats to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC induces transgenerational effects on the reward-facilitating effects of Δ9-THC and d-amphetamine in their adult male offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received Δ9-THC (0.1 or 1 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle during postnatal days 28–50. As adults, females were mated with drug-naïve males. We then assessed potential alterations of the Δ9-THC’s (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg, i.p. and d-amphetamine’s (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg, i.p. reward-modifying effects using the curve-shift variant of the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS procedure in their adult male F1 offspring. The reward-facilitating effect of the 0.1 mg dose of Δ9-THC was abolished in the F1 offspring of females that were exposed to Δ9-THC (0.1 or 1 mg/kg, whereas the reward-attenuating effect of the 1 mg dose of Δ9-THC remained unaltered. The reward-facilitating effects of 0.5 and 1 mg of d-amphetamine were significantly decreased in the F1 offspring of females that were exposed to Δ9-THC (1 mg/kg and 0.1 or 1 mg, respectively. The present results reveal that female Δ9-THC exposure during adolescence can diminish the reward-facilitating effects of Δ9-THC and d-amphetamine in the adult male offspring. These transgenerational effects occur in the absence of in utero exposure. It is speculated that Δ9-THC exposure during female adolescence may affect neural mechanisms that are shaping reward-related behavioral responses in a subsequent generation, as indicated by the shifts in the reward-facilitating effects of commonly used and abused drugs.
Kersten, Linda; Prätzlich, Martin; Mannstadt, Sandra; Ackermann, Katharina; Kohls, Gregor; Oldenhof, Helena; Saure, Daniel; Krieger, Katrin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Popma, Arne; Freitag, Christine M; Trestman, Robert L; Stadler, Christina
In Europe, the number of females exhibiting oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is growing. Many of these females live in youth welfare institutions. Consequently, there is a great need for evidence-based interventions within youth welfare settings. A recently developed approach targeting the specific needs of girls with ODD and CD in residential care is START NOW. The aim of this group-based behavioural skills training programme is to specifically enhance emotional regulation capacities to enable females with CD or ODD to appropriately deal with daily-life demands. It is intended to enhance psychosocial adjustment and well-being as well as reduce oppositional and aggressive behaviour. We present the study protocol (version 4.1; 10 February 2016) of the FemNAT-CD intervention trial titled 'Group-Based Treatment of Adolescent Female Conduct Disorders: The Central Role of Emotion Regulation'. The study is a prospective, confirmatory, cluster-randomised, parallel-group, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial with 128 institutionalised female adolescents who fulfil the diagnostic criteria of ODD and/or CD. Institutions/wards will be randomised either to provide the 12-week skills training as an add-on intervention or to provide treatment as usual. Once the first cycle is completed, each institution will run a second cycle with the opposite condition. Primary endpoints are the pre-post change in number of CD/ODD symptoms as assessed by a standardised, semi-structured psychiatric interview (Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime, CD/ODD section) between baseline and the end of intervention, as well as between baseline and a 3-month follow-up point. Secondary objectives include pre-post change in CD/ODD-related outcome measures, most notably emotional regulation on a behavioural and neurobiological level after completion of START NOW compared with treatment as usual. To our