Fathers' and Mothers' Involvement with Their Adolescents
Phares, Vicky; Fields, Sherecce; Kamboukos, Dimitra
We explored mothers' and fathers' time spent with their adolescents and found that mothers reported spending more time with their adolescents than did fathers. Developmental patterns were found for some aspects of time involvement, with both mothers and fathers reporting higher involvement with younger adolescents. Ratings of time-spent were not…
Mother, father, and adolescent self-control and adherence in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes.
Lansing, Amy Hughes; Crochiere, Rebecca; Cueto, Carrie; Wiebe, Deborah J; Berg, Cynthia A
This study explored whether shared self-control across a family system, including adolescent, mother, and father self-control, as well as the interaction of mother and father self-control, was associated with ease of completing adherence tasks and the completion of adherence behaviors related to the Type 1 diabetes (T1D) regimen. One hundred thirty-seven adolescents (M = 13.48 years), mothers, and fathers completed a self-report measure of self-control, while adolescents also self-reported on ease of completing adherence tasks and the frequency with which they completed adherence tasks. Higher adolescent, mother, father, and the interaction of mother and father self-control were each associated with greater adolescent perceptions of ease of completing adherence tasks. Also, greater adolescent perception of ease of adherence mediated the association of higher adolescent, father, and the interaction of mother and father self-control on more frequent adherence behaviors. The results are consistent with the idea that family members may share the load of self-control within the family system. The results point to the importance of assessing and intervening within the entire family system to support improved quality of life and better adherence to the medical regimen in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Like father, like son: the intergenerational cycle of adolescent fatherhood.
Sipsma, Heather; Biello, Katie Brooks; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Kershaw, Trace
Strong evidence exists to support an intergenerational cycle of adolescent fatherhood, yet such a cycle has not been studied. We examined whether paternal adolescent fatherhood (i.e., father of study participant was age 19 years or younger when his first child was born) and other factors derived from the ecological systems theory predicted participant adolescent fatherhood. Data included 1496 young males who were interviewed annually from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Cox regression survival analysis was used to determine the effect of paternal adolescent fatherhood on participant adolescent fatherhood. Sons of adolescent fathers were 1.8 times more likely to become adolescent fathers than were sons of older fathers, after other risk factors were accounted for. Additionally, factors from each ecological domain-individual (delinquency), family (maternal education), peer (early adolescent dating), and environment (race/ethnicity, physical risk environment)-were independent predictors of adolescent fatherhood. These findings support the need for pregnancy prevention interventions specifically designed for young males who may be at high risk for continuing this cycle. Interventions that address multiple levels of risk will likely be most successful at reducing pregnancies among partners of young men.
Parenting style of mothers and fathers of adolescent eyes
The thesis titled "Parenting style of mothers and fathers eyes adolescents' explores the differences of perception and evaluation of educational access of mothers and fathers to daughters and sons. The theoretical part contains basic information about the family, types of families, developmental characteristics during adolescence, types of educational styles. Part of this work is to present the research results of the educational style of mothers and fathers in terms of girls and boys. Data w...
ADOLESCENT FATHERS: EXPLORING THEIR PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR ROLE AS PARENT
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Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy is one of the socio-economic challenges which South Africa faces, with 35% of young women under the age of 20 falling pregnant or having had at least one child (Jewkes, Vundule, Maforah & Jordaan, 2001:733. Research has also highlighted that African youths lack access to sexual health information and services, and this makes them more vulnerable to engaging in risky sexual activity (Ashford, 2000; Bezuidenhout, 2004; Osei-Hwedi & Namutosi, 2004. In trying to address this challenge most of the focus has been on adolescent mothers, while the needs and experiences of adolescent fathers have been neglected. Adolescent fathers, like their female counterparts, also have to work through their developmental tasks while at the same time trying to adjust to their role of being a father. It is essential that the experiences and perceptions of adolescent fathers be understood as this knowledge can be utilised in the design of appropriate support programmes or measures for these fathers
Fathering and adolescents' psychological adjustment: the role of fathers' involvement, residence and biology status.
Studies on fathering and child mental health are now increasingly looking for specificity in children's psychological adjustment, indicating whether the impact of fathering is diagnostically specific or non-specific. Data from 435 fathers of secondary school-aged children in Britain were used to explore the association between resident biological fathers', non-resident biological fathers' and stepfathers' involvement and children's total difficulties, prosocial behaviour, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity and peer problems (all measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) in adolescence. After controlling for child-, father- and family-related factors, fathers' involvement was negatively associated with children's total difficulties and hyperactivity, was positively associated with children's prosocial behaviour, and was unrelated with children's emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems. There was no non-resident biological father effect. Compared with resident biological fathers, stepfathers reported more total difficulties, conduct problems and hyperactivity in their children even after adjusting for involvement. Whether this reflects stepfathers' low tolerance levels or biological fathers' complacency, as sociobiologists would argue, or whether this is due to pre-existing predispositions of children in families which separate and restructure, to the effects of these multiple family changes or to the high exposure of children in restructured families to parental risk factors, is, given the data available and the study design, unclear. However, this study showed that, compared with their peers in biological father families, adolescents in stepfather families are perceived to be at higher risk of behaviour problems, and that father involvement is related to specific aspects of child adjustment.
Family Economic Stress, Quality of Paternal Relationship, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescent Fathers
Hunt, Tenah K. A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Assari, Shervin
This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed. PMID:26617454
Mothers' and fathers' autonomy-relevant parenting: longitudinal links with adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behavior.
Lansford, Jennifer E; Laird, Robert D; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A
The goal of this study was to advance the understanding of separate and joint effects of mothers' and fathers' autonomy-relevant parenting during early and middle adolescence. In a sample of 518 families, adolescents (49 % female; 83 % European American, 16 % African American, 1 % other ethnic groups) reported on their mothers' and fathers' psychological control and knowledge about adolescents' whereabouts, friends, and activities at ages 13 and 16. Mothers and adolescents reported on adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behaviors at ages 12, 14, 15, and 17. Adolescents perceived their mothers as using more psychological control and having more knowledge than their fathers, but there was moderate concordance between adolescents' perceptions of their mothers and fathers. More parental psychological control predicted increases in boys' and girls' internalizing problems and girls' externalizing problems. More parental knowledge predicted decreases in boys' externalizing and internalizing problems. The perceived levels of behavior of mothers and fathers did not interact with one another in predicting adolescent adjustment. The results generalize across early and late adolescence and across mothers' and adolescents' reports of behavior problems. Autonomy-relevant mothering and fathering predict changes in behavior problems during early and late adolescence, but only autonomy-relevant fathering accounts for unique variance in adolescent behavior problems.
Adolescent fathers: knowledge of and involvement in the breast feeding process in Brazil.
Torres de Lacerda, Ana Catarina; Lucena de Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete; Nascimento de Alencar, Eloine; Osório, Mônica Maria; Pontes, Cleide Maria
to understand the ways in which adolescent fathers participate in the breast feeding process in the family environment in North-eastern Brazil. a descriptive, exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken involving 10 couples with infants aged 6-8 months living in a single community in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with questions to guide the interviewer. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis, and interpreted under the theoretical reference of being an adolescent father within the context of breast feeding. from the data collected, three themes were identified: knowledge of the benefits of breast feeding for the child's health; discontinued participation of the father in breast feeding during the pregnancy-childbearing cycle; and exclusion of the adolescent father from the breast feeding process. The adolescent fathers knew about the benefits of breast feeding in terms of the child's health, but did not mention benefits for the mother, the family or society. For some adolescent fathers, their participation in the breast feeding process started during pregnancy, whereas for others, it was only initiated after the infant was born. One of the fathers was prevented, by his wife and mother-in-law, from participating in the breast feeding process. the involvement of adolescent fathers in the breast feeding process oscillated during the pregnancy-childbearing cycle. This may be due to the patriarchal cultural heritage, Brazilian paternity laws, and the fact that these fathers were adolescents. This study showed that adolescent parents were knowledgeable about breast feeding. Finally, fathers want a new model of parenting in which the man participates in child care. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
'He supported me 100%': Mexican-immigrant fathers, daughters, and adolescent sexual health.
Coleman-Minahan, Kate; Samari, Goleen
First and second generation Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. face social and economic disadvantage and sexual health disparities. Although fathers can support child and adolescent development, the literature has portrayed Mexican-origin immigrant fathers as emotionally distant and sexist. This study aims to treat migration as a social determinant of health to examine father-daughter relationships and adolescent sexual health in Mexican-origin immigrant families. Integrating qualitative data from life history interviews with 21 Mexican-origin young women in immigrant families with quantitative data on first and second generation Mexican-origin young women in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, this study describes father-daughter relationships, examines the association between father-daughter relationships and daughters' early sexual initiation, and considers the impact of migration on the father-daughter relationship and sexual health among Mexican-origin young women. Qualitative data identify four types of father-daughter relationships: 'good,' hostile, distant, and conflicted. Supporting the qualitative patterns, quantitative data find that positive or 'good' father-daughter relationship quality is significantly associated with reduced risk of early sexual initiation. Importantly, father-daughter separation across borders and economic inequality facing immigrant families is associated with hostile or distant father-daughter relationship quality and increased risk of early sexual initiation. Reports of good father-daughter relationships are common and may protect against early sexual initiation in Mexican-origin immigrant families. Policies that keep families together and reduce economic inequality among immigrants may also reduce sexual health disparities among immigrant adolescents.
Post-Divorce Maternal Disclosure and the Father-Adolescent Relationship: Adolescent Emotional Autonomy and Inter-Reactivity as Moderators
Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Koerner, Susan Silverberg
Utilizing longitudinal data from a project that examined the post-divorce lives of mothers and adolescents, we addressed two questions: (a) Does exposure to negative maternal disclosure about the ex-husband/father impact adolescents' perceptions of the father-adolescent relationship? and (b) Are adolescents with low emotional autonomy and high…
Father-child separation, retrospective and current views of attachment relationship with father, and self-esteem in late adolescence.
McCormick, C B; Kennedy, J H
Relationships between paternal separation in childhood and adult measures of self-esteem, paternal acceptance and independence-encouragement were investigated with 236 nonparent college students as subjects. Current relationship with father was measured by a modified version of Epstein's Mother-Father-Peer Scale. Self-esteem was measured by Coopersmith's Self-esteem Inventory. Individuals who experienced separation for all reasons from their fathers during childhood recounted less acceptance by their fathers in late adolescence but not less independence-encouragement. Individuals whose parents had divorced (whether or not they had experienced a significant separation) reported lower acceptance by their fathers in both childhood and in late adolescence, and they attained lower scores on self-esteem.
Emotion Socialization in Adolescence: The Roles of Mothers and Fathers
Brand, Ann E.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
This chapter provides a review of the literature that examines the role of mothers and fathers in socializing emotion in their sons and daughters during adolescence. Within the context of this chapter, we focus on mother-father similarities, differences, and coordinated efforts in socializing the emotion of their adolescent children. Empirical…
Adolescent fathers and mothers in the parenting exercise
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Doris Amparo Parada-Rico
Full Text Available Introduction: In general, parenting has been considered as the actions of socialization led by adults, which consider teenagers as unable people to achieve trajectories of the expected ideal development for girls and boys; on the other side the State despite of making progress about equity of these people, often turns their rights and necessities invisible. Materials and Methods: Through a systematic review of documents and databases such as cienceDirect, Scopus, Dialnet, Pubmed, Proquest, Adolec; information in Spanish, English and Portuguese of the last ten years was gathered with keywords: parenting practices and teenagers, teenage mothers-fathers, public policies in adolescence; this review returned 84 publications with the pointed aspects. Results: Perceptions of the adolescent mothers and fathers are identified, their social interactions in the parenting xercise, guidelines and practices of parenting and the contributions that regarding their recognition as adolescent parents, the State establishes. Conclusions: It is necessary to identify the perceptions in both adolescent fathers and mothers, and build jointly Public Politics that lead to the increase of support networks to assume the new tasks of care and continue with the activities that the models and social systems impose.
The Noncustodial Father-Child Relationship from Adolescence into Young Adulthood
Aquilino, William S.
The relationship between adult children aged 18-24 and noncustodial fathers was explored with longitudinal data from the National Survey of Families and Households (n = 359). Noncustodial fathers' commitment to their adolescent children (contact, involvement in childrearing decisions) was strongly associated with father-child relations in early…
Co-Parenting, Relationship Quality, and Father Involvement in African American and Latino Adolescents
Varga, Colleen M.; Gee, Christina B.
The study of adolescent childbearing is a major public policy concern in the United States, and father involvement is particularly important. The current study examined 94 African American and Latino adolescent mothers and their children's fathers (47 co-parents) to determine whether co-parenting was a better predictor of father involvement than…
The role of fathers in child and adolescent psychopathology: make room for daddy.
Phares, V; Compas, B E
This review summarizes research concerning the relation between paternal factors and child and adolescent psychopathology. When compared with mothers, fathers continue to be dramatically underrepresented in developmental research on psychopathology. However, findings from studies of children of clinically referred fathers and nonreferred samples of children and their fathers indicate that there is substantial association between paternal characteristics and child and adolescent psychopathology. Findings from studies of fathers of clinically referred children are stronger for fathers' effects on children's externalizing than internalizing problems. In most cases the degree of risk associated with paternal psychopathology is comparable to that associated with maternal psychopathology. Evidence indicates that the presence of paternal psychopathology is a sufficient but not necessary condition for child or adolescent psychopathology.
Community Reintegration Outcomes for Formerly Incarcerated Adolescent Fathers and Nonfathers.
Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul
Data from the study, Transition Research on Adjudicated Youth in Community Settings, were used to examine community integration outcomes for the subgroup of adolescent fathers. Juvenile offenders who were fathers were found to return to the correctional system at a higher rate than nonfathers, but fathers who remained in the community were…
Fathers who abuse drugs and their adolescent children: longitudinal predictors of adolescent aggression.
Brook, Judith S; Duan, Tao; Brook, David W
This longitudinal study examines the relationship between earlier paternal drug abuse, environmental factors, paternal child-rearing practices, and adolescent vulnerable personality attributes and later adolescent aggressive behavior. Data were collected at two points in time, one year apart, via individual, structured interviews. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to assess the interrelationship of the earlier factors with respect to later adolescent aggression. Interviews took place in an inner-city community, within the schools and the participants' homes. Participants included low-income, predominantly African American and Hispanic adolescents (N = 296) whose fathers abused drugs. The fathers were recruited from drug-abuse treatment programs in several U.S. cities. The outcome measure was adolescent aggressive behavior at Time 2 (T2). The findings showed that paternal drug abuse, environmental factors, and paternal child-rearing practices were mediated by the adolescent's vulnerable personality attributes. The adolescent's vulnerable personality attributes were the most proximal constructs to later adolescent aggressive behavior. Both paternal drug abuse and environmental factors were mediated by paternal child-rearing practices. The findings suggest that earlier environmental stresses, paternal drug abuse, paternal child-rearing practices, and adolescent vulnerable personality attributes are associated with later adolescent aggression.
Father absence and depressive symptoms in adolescence: findings from a UK cohort.
Culpin, I; Heron, J; Araya, R; Melotti, R; Joinson, C
Previous studies suggest a link between parental separation or divorce and risk of depression in adolescence. There are, however, few studies that have prospectively examined the effects of timing of biological father absence on risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence while controlling for a range of confounding factors. We examine the association between father absence occurring in early (the first 5 years) and middle childhood (5-10 years) and adolescent depressive symptoms in a sample comprising 5631 children from the UK-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Self-reported depressive symptoms at 14 years were assessed using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). Father absence was assessed from maternal questionnaires completed at regular intervals from the birth of the study child up to 10 years. There was evidence for an association between father absence in early childhood and increased odds of depressive symptoms at 14 years. This association was stronger in girls than in boys and remained after adjusting for a range of socio-economic, maternal and familial confounders assessed prior to the father's departure. Conversely, there was no evidence for an association between father absence in middle childhood and depressive symptoms at 14 years. Father absence in early childhood increases risk for adolescent depressive symptoms, particularly in girls. Future research should be aimed at identifying possible biological and psychosocial mechanisms linking father absence to depressive symptomatology to enable the development of family-based early prevention and intervention programmes targeting young children at risk.
Perceptions and Satisfaction with Father Involvement and Adolescent Mothers' Postpartum Depressive Symptoms
Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong
This study examined the associations between adolescent mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms and their perceptions of amount of father care giving and satisfaction with father involvement with the baby. The sample included 100 adolescent mothers (ages 13-19; mainly African-American and Latina) whose partners were recruited for a randomized…
Neighborhood Qualification of the Association Between Parenting and Problem Behavior Trajectories Among Mexican-Origin Father-Adolescent Dyads.
White, Rebecca M B; Liu, Yu; Gonzales, Nancy A; Knight, George P; Tein, Jenn-Yun
To address the combined importance of fathers and neighborhoods for adolescent adjustment, we examined whether associations between fathers' parenting and adolescents' problem behaviors were qualified by neighborhood adversity. We captured both mainstream (e.g., authoritative) and alternative (e.g., no-nonsense, reduced involvement) parenting styles and examined parenting and neighborhood effects on changes over time in problem behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin father-adolescent dyads (N = 462). Compared to their counterparts in low-adversity neighborhoods, adolescents in high-adversity neighborhoods experienced greater initial benefits from authoritative fathering, greater long-term benefits from no-nonsense fathering, and fewer costs associated with reduced involvement fathering. The combined influences of alternative paternal parenting styles and neighborhood adversity may set ethnic and racial minority adolescents on different developmental pathways to competence. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Father Involvement, Dating Violence, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a National Sample of Adolescent Females.
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. © The Author(s) 2014.
Adolescent Fathers: An Approach for Intervention.
Joshi, Neela P.; Battle, Stanley F.
Still scarce, research findings on adolescent fathers reveal that many are trapped by limited education, family instability, and judgmental behavior of families, schools, and agencies. They have multiple anxieties and concerns and lack ability to cope psychologically and emotionally with their children. More attention to their needs in research…
Neighborhood Qualification of the Association between Parenting and Problem Behavior Trajectories among Mexican-origin Father-Adolescent Dyads
White, Rebecca M. B.; Liu, Yu; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Knight, George P.; Tein, Jenn-Yun
To address the combined importance of fathers and neighborhoods for adolescent adjustment, we examined whether associations between fathers' parenting and adolescents' problem behaviors were qualified by neighborhood adversity. We captured both mainstream (e.g., authoritative) and alternative (e.g., no-nonsense, reduced involvement) parenting styles and examined parenting and neighborhood effects on changes over time in problem behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin father-adolescent dyads (N = 462). Compared to their counterparts in low-adversity neighborhoods, adolescents in high-adversity neighborhoods experienced greater initial benefits from authoritative fathering, greater long-term benefits from no-nonsense fathering, and fewer costs associated with reduced involvement fathering. The combined influences of alternative paternal parenting styles and neighborhood adversity may set ethnic and racial minority adolescents on different developmental pathways to competence. PMID:28453217
Differences in Sexual Attitudes and Likeliness of Sexual Behaviors of Black Lower-Socioeconomic Father-Present vs. Father-Absent Female Adolescents.
Eberhardt, Carolyn A.; Schill, Thomas
Compared sexual permissiveness attitudes and likely behaviors of father-absent vs. father-present Black, lower-socioeconomic female adolescents (N=100). Father-absent subjects were not found to be more sexually permissive, but had significantly greater inconsistency between behavioral and attitudinal scores in which the reported behavior was more…
Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Fathers' Involvement: Significance to School Attitudes.
Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann; Bream, Victoria
Based on data from 2,722 British adolescents, this study explores whether perceived father involvement can be associated with school attitudes. Multiple regression analysis showed that both father involvement and mother involvement contributed significantly and independently to positive school attitudes. Furthermore, the association between father…
Trivariate Modeling of Interparental Conflict and Adolescent Emotional Security: An Examination of Mother-Father-Child Dynamics.
Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Cummings, E Mark; Zhang, Zhiyong; Davies, Patrick T
Recognizing the significance of interacting family subsystems, the present study addresses how interparental conflict is linked to adolescent emotional security as a function of parental gender. A total of 272 families with a child at 12.60 years of age (133 boys, 139 girls) were invited to participate each year for three consecutive years. A multi-informant method was used, along with trivariate models to test the associations among mothers, fathers, and their adolescent children's behaviors. The findings from separate models of destructive and constructive interparental conflict revealed intricate linkages among family members. In the model of destructive interparental conflict, mothers and fathers predicted each other's conflict behaviors over time. Moreover, adolescents' exposure to negativity expressed by either parent dampened their emotional security. Consistent with child effects models, adolescent emotional insecurity predicted fathers' destructive conflict behaviors. As for the model of constructive interparental conflict, fathers predicted mothers' conflict behaviors over time. Adolescents' exposure to fathers' constructive conflict behaviors also enhanced their sense of emotional security. Consistent with child effects models, adolescent emotional security predicted mothers' and fathers' constructive conflict behaviors. These findings extended the family and the adolescent literature by indicating that family processes are multiidirectional, involving multiple dyads in the study of parents' and adolescents' functioning. Contributions of these findings to the understanding of interparental conflict and emotional security in adolescence are discussed.
PATTERNS OF CONTACT AND INVOLVEMENT BETWEEN ADOLESCENTS AND THEIR NON-RESIDENT FATHERS
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De Wit, Estelle
Full Text Available This study examined the patterns of contact and involvement between adolescents and their non-resident fathers after divorce. The data were analysed to determine the role of Lamb, Pleck and Levine’s (1986 three constructs in the involvement of non-resident fathers, i.e. interaction, availability and responsibility. The results indicated that the majority of male and female adolescents reported continued direct and indirect contact with their fathers, regardless of paternal remarriage and the lapse of time since the divorce. Boys reported higher levels of communication and feelings of emotional closeness than girls. Overall, the study postulates that non-resident fathers play a less significant role in providing parental guidance to their children.
Relationship of Marital Satisfaction, Family Support and Family-Work Conflict Factors Among Malaysian Fathers with Adolescents
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Full Text Available The study on contextual factors in Malaysian family is more concentrated among mothers compared to the fathers. Malaysian fathers are often influenced by these factors embedded in the family. This study examines the level of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The survey was conducted using a simple sampling method, on a group of 413 fathers with adolescent children from all districts in the state of Selangor, West Peninsular of Malaysia. A set of questionnaires was used to derive data from the fathers̕ contextual factors which are marriage satisfaction, family support and work-family conflict among fathers of adolescents. Analysis on frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, analysis of Variance (ANOVA and the Pearson correlations were used to investigate the level and correlation of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The Pearson correlation shows that there is a significant correlation between work-family conflict and marriage satisfaction and between family support and marriage satisfaction. However, there is no significant correlation between family support and work-family conflict. The study proficiently contributes towards the exploration of influencing factors for the involvement of fathers in parenting.
Neighborhood Qualification of the Association between Parenting and Problem Behavior Trajectories among Mexican-origin Father-Adolescent Dyads
White, Rebecca M. B.; Liu, Yu; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Knight, George P.; Tein, Jenn-Yun
To address the combined importance of fathers and neighborhoods for adolescent adjustment, we examined whether associations between fathers' parenting and adolescents' problem behaviors were qualified by neighborhood adversity. We captured both mainstream (e.g., authoritative) and alternative (e.g., no-nonsense, reduced involvement) parenting styles and examined parenting and neighborhood effects on changes over time in problem behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin father-adolescent dyad...
Father- and Mother-Adolescent Decision-Making in Mexican-Origin Families
Perez-Brena, Norma; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.
Understanding the prevalence and correlates of decisional autonomy within specific cultural contexts is necessary to fully understand how family processes are embedded within culture. The goals of this study were to describe mothers’ and fathers’ decision-making with adolescents (M = 12.51 years, SD = 0.58; 51% female), including parent-unilateral, joint, and youth-unilateral decision-making, and to examine the socio-cultural and family characteristics associated with these different types of decision-making in 246 Mexican-origin families. Mothers reported more joint and youth-unilateral decision-making and less parent-unilateral decision-making than did fathers. Fathers reported more youth-unilateral decision-making with sons than with daughters. Further, for mothers, more traditional gender role attitudes and higher levels of mother-adolescent conflict were associated with more parent-unilateral and less joint decision-making. In contrast, for fathers, lower levels of respect values were associated with more youth-unilateral decision-making with sons, and higher levels of parent-adolescent warmth was associated with more youth-unilateral decision-making with daughters. The importance of understanding the different correlates of mothers’ and fathers’ decision-making with sons versus daughters is discussed. PMID:21484288
The effects of prenatal education intervention on unwed prospective adolescent fathers.
Westney, O E; Cole, O J; Munford, T L
This study assesses the impact of a prenatal education program dealing with human sexuality, pregnancy, prenatal care, labor, delivery, and infant and child care on the unwed expectant adolescent father. It also assesses the relationship between the father's knowledge in these areas and his supportive behaviors toward the adolescent mother and the expected infant. The 28 black 15-18-year-old adolescent males who volunteered to participate in the study were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 13). Each was pretested (T-1) with Form A of a 75-item prenatal questionnaire, and posttested (T-2) with Form B of the same instrument after an intervention for the experimental group, or 4 weeks after the initial assessment for the comparison group. Findings suggest significant gains in knowledge for the experimental group at T-2 versus T-1 with regard to 1) pregnancy and prenatal care, and 2) infant development and child care. The data also suggest that fathers who were more informed tended to report more supportive behaviors toward the mother and the infant.
Perceived parenting style of fathers and adolescents' locus of control in a collectivist culture of Malaysia: the moderating role of fathers' education.
Keshavarz, Somayeh; Baharudin, Rozumah; Mounts, Nina S
The authors investigated the moderating role of father's education on the associations between perceived paternal parenting styles and locus of control among 382 Malaysian adolescents with an average age of 14.27. Data were collected by means of adolescents' self-report using standardized instruments (i.e., parental authority questionnaire and Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale for Children). Results revealed that there were significant negative relationships between fathers' authoritative parenting style (r = -.243, p parenting style (r = -.130, p parenting and locus of control (b = -0.147, p parents' education when assessing the links between parenting styles and adolescents' locus of control.
Attachment representations in mothers, fathers, adolescents, and clinical groups : A meta-analytic search for normative data.
IJzendoorn, van M.H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.
This meta-analysis on 33 studies, including more than 2,000 Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications, presents distributions of AAI classifications in samples of nonclinical fathers and mothers, in adolescents, in samples from different cultures, and in clinical groups. Fathers, adolescents,
Nonresident Fathers' Parenting Style and the Adjustment of Late-Adolescent Boys
Karre, Jennifer K.; Mounts, Nina S.
This study investigates the relation between nonresident fathers' parenting style, mothers' parenting style and behaviors, and depression and antisocial behavior in a sample of late-adolescent boys (n = 177). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Maternal psychological well-being was associated with fewer adolescent depression symptoms.…
The importance of family management, closeness with father and family structure in early adolescent alcohol use.
Habib, Cherine; Santoro, Joseph; Kremer, Peter; Toumbourou, John; Leslie, Eva; Williams, Joanne
To examine the importance of family management, family structure and father-adolescent relationships on early adolescent alcohol use. Cross-sectional data was collected across 30 randomly selected Australian communities stratified to represent a range of socio-economic and regional variation. Data were collected during school time from adolescents attending a broad range of schools. The sample consisted of a combined 8256 students (aged 10-14 years). Students completed a web-based survey as part of the Healthy Neighbourhoods project. Family management-which included practices such as parental monitoring and family rules about alcohol use-had the strongest and most consistent relationship with alcohol use in early adolescence. Adolescents reporting higher family management were less likely to have drunk alcohol in their life-time, less likely to drink alcohol in the preceding 30 days and less likely to have had an alcohol binge. Adolescents reporting emotionally close relationships with their fathers were less likely to have drunk alcohol in their life-time and less likely to have had an alcohol binge in the preceding fortnight. Findings indicate that family management practices may contribute to alcohol abstinence in adolescents. Furthermore, emotionally close father-adolescent relationships may also foster abstinence; however, fathers' drinking behaviours need to be considered. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Longitudinal Links between Fathers' and Mothers' Harsh Verbal Discipline and Adolescents' Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptoms
Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah
This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline at age 13 predicted an increase in adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms between ages 13 and 14. A child effect was also present, with adolescent misconduct at age 13 predicting increases in mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline between ages 13 and 14. Furthermore, maternal and paternal warmth did not moderate the longitudinal associations between mothers' and fathers' use of harsh verbal discipline and adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. PMID:24001259
What is the influence of self-image and perceived parenting role expectations on adolescent fathers' perceived role performance?
Background: "Adolescent pregnancy is one of the most pressing, persistent, and poignant problems facing society" (Yoos, 1987, p. 247). Manitoba's teen pregnancy rates are among the highest in Canada. Yet, little is known about adolescent fathers and their parenting involvement. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to explore variables which may influence teen fathers' participation in parenting.Methods: A convenience sample of 30 adolescent fathers, whose partners were attending an Adolescent Prenatal Clinic, completed two questionnaires: Offer Self-Image-Revised, and Perceived Parenting Role Performance. Guided by family role theory, four hypotheses were examined utilizing a quantitative research method.Results: Data analysis revealed that 30% of these respondents had a low to very low self-image. Pearson's correlation coefficient, which facilitated hypotheses testing, failed to validate a relationship between teen fathers' perceived role performance and self-image, and perceived parenting role expectations. Nevertheless, a moderate negative correlation was noted between teen fathers' self-image and their perceived parenting role expectations (r = -.35, p adolescence with the responsibilities of fatherhood increase their vulnerability to parenting failure.
Discrimination and Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Adjustment: The Moderating Roles of Adolescents', Mothers', and Fathers' Cultural Orientations and Values
Delgado, Melissa Y.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Roosa, Mark W.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.
Drawing on Garcia Coll et al.'s integrative framework and the risk and resilience model, this study examined the relationships between adolescents' perceived discrimination and psychosocial adjustment and the moderating roles of adolescents', mothers', and fathers' cultural orientations and values, and adolescent gender in a sample of 246…
Differences between Fathers and Mothers in the Treatment of, and Relationship with, Their Teenage Children: Perceptions of Chinese Adolescents.
Shek, Daniel T. L.
Chinese adolescents' perceptions of differences between mothers and fathers in parenting styles, parent-adolescent communication, and quality of the parent-adolescent relationship were assessed. Fathers, as compared with mothers, were perceived to be less responsive, less demanding, demonstrating less concern, and more harsh; and paternal…
Perceptions of Vietnamese fathers' acculturation levels, parenting styles, and mental health outcomes in Vietnamese American adolescent immigrants.
Nguyen, Peter V
Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. MostVietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Inventory, this exploratory study surveyed 290Vietnamese American adolescents in a major metropolitan area to examine the relationship between their fathers' acculturation levels and parenting styles and the relationships among parenting styles and self-esteem levels and depression scores of the adolescents. Findings revealed that most of the adolescents perceived that their fathers have not acculturated to the U.S. culture and continue to practice the traditional authoritarian parenting style, regardless of the amount of time spent in the United States. Furthermore, results indicate that adolescents who perceived their fathers as using the authoritarian parenting style reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher depression scores when compared with those who perceived their fathers as using the authoritative parenting style.
Early Childhood Predictors of Mothers' and Fathers' Relationships with Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities
Mitchell, D. B.; Hauser-Cram, P.
Background: The importance of positive parent-adolescent relationships is stressed in research on adolescents, although very little is known about this relationship when a teen has developmental disabilities (DD). We investigated the relationships of adolescents with disabilities with their mothers and their fathers in order to answer a number of…
Father-Child Longitudinal Relationship: Parental Monitoring and Internet Gaming Disorder in Chinese Adolescents.
Su, Binyuan; Yu, Chengfu; Zhang, Wei; Su, Qin; Zhu, Jianjun; Jiang, Yanping
Although empirical studies have indicated that parents have an important role in preventing Internet gaming disorder in adolescents, longitudinal research on the parental predictors of Internet gaming disorder is lacking. We used a three-wave cross-lagged panel model to explore the reciprocal association between parental monitoring and Internet gaming disorder, and examined the different impacts of mother- and father-child relationships on this association. A sample of 1490 adolescents aged 10-15 years ( M = 12.03, SD = 1.59; 45.4% female) completed assessments at all three points. The cross-lagged model revealed that (a) parental monitoring at T1 predicted lower Internet gaming disorder at T2, and greater Internet gaming disorder at T2 predicted lower parental monitoring at T3; (b) father-child relationship had a reciprocal, indirect effect on the relationship between parental monitoring and Internet gaming disorder, while mother-child relationship did not. These findings suggest that the parental effects (e.g., higher parental monitoring and better father-child relationship) might play a vital role in preventing Internet gaming disorder in adolescents.
Fathers' parenting, adverse life events, and adolescents' emotional and eating disorder symptoms: the role of emotion regulation.
McEwen, Ciara; Flouri, Eirini
To investigate the role of emotion regulation in the relation between fathers' parenting (specifically warmth, behavioral control and psychological control) and adolescents' emotional and eating disorder symptoms, after adjustment for controls. A total of 203 11-18 year-old students from a school in a socio-economically disadvantaged area in North-East London completed questionnaires assessing emotional symptoms (measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire's (SDQ) Emotional Symptoms Scale), eating disorder symptoms (measured with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26)), difficulties in emotion regulation (measured with the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS)), and fathers' overprotection and warmth, measured with the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), as well as behavioral and psychological control. The confounding variables considered were number of proximal (i.e., during the last year) adverse life events experienced, gender, age, and socio-economic status (eligibility for free school meals). Adolescents' difficulties in emotion regulation mediated the link between fathers' psychological control and adolescents' emotional symptoms, but not the link between fathers' parenting and adolescents' eating disorder symptoms, which appeared to be more directly linked to fathers' psychological control and number of proximal adverse life events experienced. Proximal adverse life events experienced were also strongly associated with difficulties in emotion regulation. The study findings have implications for intervention programs which may prove more fruitful in addressing adolescent emotional problems by targeting underlying emotion regulation abilities, and in addressing adolescent eating disorder symptoms by protecting adolescents with a recent experience of multiple adverse life events. Parenting programs also stand to benefit from the evidence presented in this study that paternal psychological control may have uniquely harmful consequences for
Mexican-Origin Mothers' and Fathers' Involvement in Adolescents' Peer Relationships: A Pattern-Analytic Approach
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Baril, Megan E.; McHale, Susan M.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.
Using latent profile analysis, the authors examined patterns of mother-father involvement in adolescents' peer relationships along three dimensions--support, guidance, and restrictions--in 240 Mexican-origin families. Three profiles were identified: (a) High Mother Involvement (mothers higher than fathers on all three dimensions), (b) High…
Short-Term Natural Course of Depressive Symptoms and Family-Related Stress in Adolescents After Separation From Father.
Gobbi, Gabriella; Low, Nancy C P; Dugas, Erika; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Contreras, Gisèle; O'Loughlin, Jennifer
To determine if separation from a father is associated with short-term changes in mental health or substance use in adolescents. Every 3 months, during a 5-year period, we followed 1160 Grade 7 students participating in the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study who were living with both parents. Participants who reported not living with their father for 6 or more consecutive months during follow-up were categorized as separated from father. Pooled regressions within the framework of generalized estimating equations were used to model the associations between separation from father and indicators of mental health (depressive symptoms, and worry and [or] stress about family relationships or the family situation) and substance use (alcohol use and cigarette smoking) 4 to 6 and 7 to 9 months postseparation, controlling for age, sex, and baseline level of the outcome variable. Compared with adolescents living with both parents, adolescent offspring separated from their fathers were more likely to report depressive symptoms (β = 0.17, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.33) 4 to 6 months postseparation, as well as worry and (or) stress about their parents separating or divorcing (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.29 to 4.43), a new family (OR 4.25, 95% CI 2.33 to 7.76), and the family financial situation (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.53 to 3.60). Separation from father was also marginally significantly related to worry and (or) stress about their relationship with their father (OR 1.53; 95% CI 0.98 to 2.39). At 7 to 9 months postseparation, separation from father continued to be associated with worry and (or) stress about their parents separating or divorcing, a new family, and the family financial situation. Separation from father was no longer associated with worry and (or) stress about their relationship with their father, but it was associated with worry and (or) stress about their relationship with their mother. Separation from father was not related to use of alcohol or cigarettes. Adolescent offspring
Perceived Parenting Style of Fathers and Adolescents' Locus of Control in a Collectivist Culture of Malaysia: The Moderating Role of Fathers' Education
Keshavarz, Somayeh; Baharudin, Rozumah
The authors investigated the moderating role of father's education on the associations between perceived paternal parenting styles and locus of control among 382 Malaysian adolescents with an average age of 14.27. Data were collected by means of adolescents' self-report using standardized instruments (i.e., parental authority questionnaire and…
Adult generativity and the socialization of adolescents: relations to mothers' and fathers' parenting beliefs, styles, and practices.
Pratt, M W; Danso, H A; Arnold, M L; Norris, J E; Filyer, R
Mothers, fathers, and their adolescent children participated in two studies investigating the relations between Erikson's concept of generativityin adulthood and patterns of parenting. Study 1 involved 77 mothers and 48 fathers of 1st-year university students; Study 2 was part of an investigation of socialization processes in 35 families with an adolescent, aged 14-18. Parental generative concern was assessed by the Loyola Generativity Scale (LGS) of McAdams and de St. Aubin (1992) in each study. In both studies, mothers demonstrated positive relations between scores on the LGS and an authoritative style of parenting, as well as between generativity and more positive, optimistic views of adolescent development. In Study 2, these more positive views in turn mediated some aspects of autonomy-fostering practices used with the adolescent. Variations in fathers' levels of generative concern were less consistently related to these indices of parenting, however.
Marital Satisfaction and Parenting Experiences of Mothers and Fathers of Adolescents and Adults with Autism
Hartley, Sigan L.; Barker, Erin T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.
The association of marital satisfaction with parenting burden and quality of the parent-child relationship was examined in 91 married mothers and fathers of co-residing adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders. Within-couple differences between mothers and fathers in how child characteristics related to these parenting experiences…
Adolescents', mothers', and fathers' gendered coping strategies during conflict: Youth and parent influences on conflict resolution and psychopathology.
Marceau, Kristine; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Schreiber, Jane E; Hastings, Paul; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
We observed gendered coping strategies and conflict resolution outcomes used by adolescents and parents during a conflict discussion task to evaluate associations with current and later adolescent psychopathology. We studied 137 middle- to upper-middle-class, predominantly Caucasian families of adolescents (aged 11-16 years, 65 males) who represented a range of psychological functioning, including normative, subclinical, and clinical levels of problems. Adolescent coping strategies played key roles both in the extent to which parent-adolescent dyads resolved conflict and in the trajectory of psychopathology symptom severity over a 2-year period. Gender-prototypic adaptive coping strategies were observed in parents but not youth, (i.e., more problem solving by fathers than mothers and more regulated emotion-focused coping by mothers than fathers). Youth-mother dyads more often achieved full resolution of conflict than youth-father dyads. There were generally not bidirectional effects among youth and parents' coping across the discussion except boys' initial use of angry/hostile coping predicted fathers' angry/hostile coping. The child was more influential than the parent on conflict resolution. This extended to exacerbation/alleviation of psychopathology over 2 years: higher conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents' use of problem-focused coping with decreases in symptom severity over time. Lower conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents' use of angry/hostile emotion coping with increases in symptom severity over time. Implications of findings are considered within a broadened context of the nature of coping and conflict resolution in youth-parent interactions, as well as on how these processes impact youth well-being and dysfunction over time.
The Participation of Mothers, Fathers, and Siblings in Family-Based Treatment for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa.
Hughes, Elizabeth K; Burton, Claire; Le Grange, Daniel; Sawyer, Susan M
In family-based treatment (FBT) for adolescent anorexia nervosa, all family members are encouraged to attend sessions with the understanding that absences negatively impact treatment. There are, however, many obstacles to family members' attendance, and there is no research to indicate whether family member attendance improves treatment outcomes. We examined attendance patterns of 198 families who participated in FBT at a specialist pediatric eating disorders program and assessed the extent to which participation by mothers (n = 194), fathers (n = 175), and siblings (n = 165; 50% female) predicted outcome. All mothers attended at least one session, and 74% attended all sessions. By comparison, 95% of fathers and 73% of siblings attended at least one session, and 33% of fathers and 1% of siblings attended all sessions. The mean proportion of sessions attended was 94% for mothers, 72% for fathers, and 20% for siblings. Over 6 months of treatment, the proportion of mothers who attended each session was largely stable; fathers' attendance declined slowly, and siblings' attendance declined more rapidly. Greater attendance by fathers predicted higher weight and lower eating disorder symptoms in adolescents at end of treatment. Remission at end of treatment was associated with higher attendance by fathers (M = 81% vs. M = 69%). Achieving sustained engagement of the whole family system in FBT is a considerable challenge. However, this study demonstrates that implementing processes that encourage and enable family members to attend treatment sessions could have significant benefits for patient outcomes.
The inter-relations of mother and father attachment, self-esteem and aggression during late adolescence.
Gomez, Rapson; McLaren, Suzanne
This study examined three models depicting the relations between mother and father attachment, self-esteem and aggression. A total of 385 participants (173 males and 212 females), aged from 18 to 20 years, completed self-rating questionnaires covering mother and father attachment, self-esteem and aggression. Results showed that self-esteem had additive and mediation effects on both the father attachment-aggression and mother attachment-aggression relationships, and also moderated the mother attachment-aggression relation. These findings are discussed in terms of different models for the inter-relations of mother and father attachment, self-esteem and aggression in late adolescence. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Emotion socialization in the context of risk and psychopathology: Mother and father socialization of anger and sadness in adolescents with depressive disorder.
Shortt, Joann Wu; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Allen, Nicholas; Leve, Craig; Davis, Betsy; Sheeber, Lisa
This study examined parental emotion socialization processes associated with adolescent unipolar depressive disorder. Adolescent participants (N=107; 42 boys) were selected either to meet criteria for current unipolar depressive disorder or to be psychologically healthy as defined by no lifetime history of psychopathology or mental health treatment and low levels of current depressive symptomatology. A multisource/method measurement strategy was used to assess mothers' and fathers' responses to adolescent sad and angry emotion. Each parent and the adolescents completed questionnaire measures of parental emotion socialization behavior, and participated in meta-emotion interviews and parent-adolescent interactions. As hypothesized, parents of adolescents with depressive disorder engaged in fewer supportive responses and more unsupportive responses overall relative to parents of nondepressed adolescents. Between group differences were more pronounced for families of boys, and for fathers relative to mothers. The findings indicate that parent emotion socialization is associated with adolescent depression and highlight the importance of including fathers in studies of emotion socialization, especially as it relates to depression.
Resilience in high-risk adolescents of mothers with recurrent depressive disorder: The contribution of fathers.
Mahedy, Liam; Harold, Gordon T; Maughan, Barbara; Gardner, Frances; Araya, Ricardo; Bevan Jones, Rhys; Hammerton, Gemma; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan
This study examines the role of paternal emotional support as a resilience promoter in offspring of mothers with depression by considering the role of fathers' mental health and the quality of the couple relationship. Two hundred and sixty-five mothers with recurrent unipolar depression, partners and adolescents from Wales were assessed. Paternal emotional support, couple relationship quality, and paternal depression were assessed at baseline; adolescent mental health symptoms were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment at follow-up. Results showed evidence of an indirect pathway whereby couple relationship quality predicted paternal emotional support (β = -.21, 95% CI [-.34, -.08]; p = .002) which in turn predicted adolescent depression (β = -.18, 95% CI [-.33, -.04]; p = .02), but not disruptive behaviours (β = -.08, 95% CI [-.22, .07]; p = .30), after controlling for relevant confounders. The findings highlight that fathers and the broader family system play an important role in enhancing resilience to depression symptoms in at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Perceived Parenting Style of Fathers and Iranian Adolescents' Self-efficacy: The Moderating Role of Gender and Education.
Keshavarz, Somayeh; Mounts, Nina S
The authors examined the moderating role of adolescent's gender and father's education on the associations between perceived paternal parenting styles and self-efficacy in a socioeconomical diverse sample of Iranian ado-lescents (n = 382). Results revealed that paternal authoritative parenting was significantly and positively related to self-efficacy. Interestingly, a significant and positive relation was also found between paternal authoritarian parenting and self-efficacy. This finding might have been the result of the fact that this study was conducted as part of a collectivist culture. In addition, the results indicated that boys who perceived their fathers as highly authoritative indicated higher self-efficacy than girls did. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that higher educational levels attenuate the negative impact of the permissive parenting style on self-efficacy. The present findings underscore the need to focus on the role of gender and father's education when assessing the link between parenting style and adolescents' self-efficacy.
Family Health Climate and Adolescents' Physical Activity and Healthy Eating: A Cross-Sectional Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads.
Niermann, Christina Y N; Kremers, Stef P J; Renner, Britta; Woll, Alexander
The importance of the family environment for children's and adolescents' health behavior has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of this influence remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between family environmental and individual determinants. It was hypothesized that the Family Health Climate (FHC) is associated with adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior and that intrinsic motivation mediates this association. Cross-sectional data were collected from 198 families (mother, father, and child) using questionnaires. Perceptions of FHC of mothers, fathers, and their children were assessed using the FHC-scales for physical activity (FHC-PA) and nutrition (FHC-NU). The adolescents also rated their intrinsic motivation for exercise and healthy eating, their physical activity and consumption of healthful food. A structural equation model was analyzed and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test direct and indirect effects. The FHC-PA was related to the amount of weekly physical activity and the FHC-NU to the consumption of fruit, vegetables and salad. These effects were mediated by adolescents' intrinsic motivation; the indirect effects were significant for both behaviors. These results emphasize the importance of the FHC in shaping adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior. Individual motivational factors are potential mediators of family and parental influences. Considering family-level variables and their interaction with individual factors contributes to the understanding of adolescents' health behavior.
Family Health Climate and Adolescents' Physical Activity and Healthy Eating: A Cross-Sectional Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christina Y N Niermann
Full Text Available The importance of the family environment for children's and adolescents' health behavior has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of this influence remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between family environmental and individual determinants. It was hypothesized that the Family Health Climate (FHC is associated with adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior and that intrinsic motivation mediates this association.Cross-sectional data were collected from 198 families (mother, father, and child using questionnaires. Perceptions of FHC of mothers, fathers, and their children were assessed using the FHC-scales for physical activity (FHC-PA and nutrition (FHC-NU. The adolescents also rated their intrinsic motivation for exercise and healthy eating, their physical activity and consumption of healthful food. A structural equation model was analyzed and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test direct and indirect effects.The FHC-PA was related to the amount of weekly physical activity and the FHC-NU to the consumption of fruit, vegetables and salad. These effects were mediated by adolescents' intrinsic motivation; the indirect effects were significant for both behaviors.These results emphasize the importance of the FHC in shaping adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior. Individual motivational factors are potential mediators of family and parental influences. Considering family-level variables and their interaction with individual factors contributes to the understanding of adolescents' health behavior.
Adolescent fathers in the justice system: hoping for a boy and making him a man.
Shade, Kate; Kools, Susan; Pinderhughes, Howard; Weiss, Sandra J
Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, we explored the development of father identity among boys involved in the juvenile justice system. Youth were recruited from a juvenile detention center and school district in a northern California county with a high teen birth rate. The participants were expecting a child or parenting an infant and had been arrested, incarcerated, or had committed a crime. We collected data through observations and individual interviews. Using constant comparative and dimensional analysis, we found that expectant adolescent fathers hoped for a boy and envisioned their central role as father to be making their son a man. This article contributes to greater understanding of father identity development for youth involved in the justice system. We suggest that teen parenting policies and programs include interventions sensitized by gender, accounting for the influence masculine ideals of manhood have on the development of father identity and the father-child relationship.
The Transmission of Parenting from Fathers to Sons
Hofferth, Sandra L.; Pleck, Joseph H.; Vesely, Colleen K.
SYNOPSIS Objective We address the extent to which parenting practices of fathers and mothers are associated with their sons’ parenting behaviors as young adults and whether adolescent behavior explains this association. Design Data come from 409 young men interviewed in the 2006 Young Adult study of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results Men whose fathers were positively involved with them when growing up report more positive parenting of their own children, a direct effect. Less harsh mothering and more positive fathering are associated with reduced adolescent behavior problems, and positive mothering is associated with positive adjustment of these young men as adolescents. However, neither adolescent problem behavior nor positive adjustment is associated with young men’s fathering of their own children, and thus does not explain the association between the fathering young men received and their own fathering behavior. Conclusions Men’s parenting of their sons can have a long-term direct effect on how their sons parent their own children. Although parenting is associated with both positive and negative behaviors of sons during adolescence, these adolescent behaviors are not directly linked to later parenting behavior when sons have their own children. More research is needed to examine mediation mechanisms for the intergenerational transmission of parenting. PMID:23284271
Associations between general parenting, restrictive snacking rules, and adolescent's snack intake. The roles of fathers and mothers and interparental congruence.
Gevers, Dorus W M; van Assema, Patricia; Sleddens, Ester F C; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J
Little research has been done on the role of fathers and parenting congruence between mothers and fathers. This study aimed to clarify the roles of general parenting and restrictive snacking rules set by fathers and mothers, and to explore parenting congruence in explaining adolescents' snack intake. Adolescents aged 11 to 15 completed a questionnaire assessing their perception of general parenting constructs (i.e. nurturance, structure, behavioral control, coercive control, and overprotection), restrictive snacking rules set by their fathers and mothers, and their own energy-dense snack intakes between meals. Scores for mothers were significantly higher on all constructs than for fathers, except for coercive control. Generally, higher scores on general parenting constructs were associated with higher scores on restrictive snacking rules (most of the associations being significant). Most general parenting constructs were unrelated to the respondents' number of snacks consumed. The use of restrictive snacking rules by both fathers and mothers was significantly and negatively related to respondents' snack intake. Moderation analyses indicated that high levels of incongruence between parents attenuated the favorable impact of fathers' rules and nurturance on their children's snacking, but interactions of congruence with three other paternal scales and all maternal scales were absent. Our findings indicate that both paternal and maternal general parenting and restrictive snacking rules play important roles in adolescents' snacking, and that high parental incongruence regarding restrictive snacking rules and nurturance could be undesirable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parent-child communication and substance use among adolescents: do father and mother communication play a different role for sons and daughters?
Luk, Jeremy W; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J; Simons-Morton, Bruce G
The purpose of this study was to investigate gender-specific variations in the associations between communication with father and mother, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and marijuana use in male and female adolescents. Cross-sectional data were collected from a national sample of 1308 tenth graders who participated in the 2005/06 U.S. HBSC. Outcome variables were self-reported substances used in the past 30 days. Logistic regression analyses controlling for race/ethnicity, family structure and socioeconomic status showed that the association of mother and father communication with adolescent substance use varied by substance and gender. Among sons, father communication was protective against marijuana use and mother communication was protective against smoking. Neither father nor mother communication was protective against substance use by daughters. Research is needed to understand gender-specific differences in correlates of adolescent substance use and the implications for prevention and intervention. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility Across Early Adolescence.
Weymouth, Bridget B; Buehler, Cheryl
Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51 % girls, 91 % European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships.
Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility across Early Adolescence
Weymouth, Bridget B.; Buehler, Cheryl
Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51% girls, 91% European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships. PMID:26346035
African-American Fathers' Perspectives on Facilitators and Barriers to Father-Son Sexual Health Communication.
Randolph, Schenita D; Coakley, Tanya; Shears, Jeffrey; Thorpe, Roland J
African-American males ages 13 through 24 are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), accounting for over half of all HIV infections in this age group in the United States. Clear communication between African-American parents and their youth about sexual health is associated with higher rates of sexual abstinence, condom use, and intent to delay initiation of sexual intercourse. However, little is known about African-American fathers' perceptions of what facilitates and inhibits sexual health communication with their preadolescent and adolescent sons. We conducted focus groups with 29 African-American fathers of sons ages 10-15 to explore perceived facilitators and barriers for father-son communication about sexual health. Participants were recruited from barbershops in metropolitan and rural North Carolina communities highly affected by STIs and HIV, and data were analyzed using content analysis. Three factors facilitated father-son communication: (a) fathers' acceptance of their roles and responsibilities; (b) a positive father-son relationship; and (c) fathers' ability to speak directly to their sons about sex. We also identified three barriers: (a) fathers' difficulty in initiating sexual health discussions with their sons; (b) sons' developmental readiness for sexual health information; and (c) fathers' lack of experience in talking with their own fathers about sex. These findings have implications for father-focused prevention interventions aimed at reducing risky sexual behaviors in adolescent African-American males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Attachment Styles To The Father and Coping Strategies Among Early Adolescents In Banda Aceh City
Fatmawati, Fatmawati; Muhammad Alwi Zainuddin, Nuzsep Almigo Bin
This present study sought to investigate the relationship between attachment styles to the father and coping strategies among early adolescents. The population that has been studied was the seventh grade students ofin one of junior high school in Banda Aceh city that meet the established criteria, specifically at least 12 years old and still have father. The sampling technique applied was universal sampling because the number of eligible population was only 81 students. Total of samples taken...
[Impact of Different Types of Fathers on Family Climate in Young Adulthood: A Multi-perspective Longitudinal Study on 14 to 27 Year Olds and their Fathers].
Escher, Fabian J; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge
Impact of Different Types of Fathers on Family Climate in Young Adulthood: A Multi-perspective Longitudinal Study on 14 to 27 Year Olds and their Fathers In a 13 year longitudinal study, the influence of three types of fathers on the family climate was analyzed. In a sample of 213 subjects, their 169 fathers and their 210 mothers, the family environment ( Family Environment Scales) was examined when the subjects were young adults (M = 26.89, SD = 1.32). The results of the study point to significant changes in family climate in those young adults who described their father as increasingly negative (N = 28) or distant (N = 11) when in adolescence. These two groups showed a more negative family environment and greater differences between the perspectives of fathers and their young adult children than the group of young adults who described their father as normative (N = 174) when in adolescence. The highest discrepancies were described by young adults with a negative relationship with their father in adolescence. The findings show a long lasting importance of father-child interactions in adolescence.
How do Mothers, Fathers, and Friends Influence Stages of Adolescent Smoking?
Stanton, Cassandra A.; Papandonatos, George; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Kazura, Alessandra; Shiu, Shang-Ying; Niaura, Raymond
Parent and friend influences may differentially promote or deter adolescent smoking at discrete stages. Drawing from national (Add Health) data, a partial proportional odds ordinal regression model was utilized to examine the multivariate influence of parent and friend variables and their interactions on transitions across smoking stages (Never Smokers, Experimenters, Intermittent, Regular/Established) separately for mother-child pairs (N = 15,983) and father-child pairs (N = 1,142). Friend s...
God attachment, mother attachment, and father attachment in early and middle adolescence.
Sim, Tick Ngee; Yow, Amanda Shixian
The present study examined the interplay of attachment to God, attachment to mother, and attachment to father with respect to adjustment (hope, self-esteem, depression) for 130 early and 106 middle adolescents in Singapore. Results showed that the parental attachments were generally linked (in expected directions) to adjustment. God attachment, however, had unique results. At the bivariate level, God attachment was only linked to early adolescents' self-esteem. When considered together with parental attachments (including interactions), God attachment did not emerge as the key moderator in attachment interactions and yielded some unexpected results (e.g., being positively linked to depression). These results are discussed viz-a-viz the secure base and safe haven functions that God and parental attachments may play during adolescence.
The influence of the absence of fathers and the timing of separation on anxiety and self-esteem of adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.
Luo, J; Wang, L-G; Gao, W-B
Many rural children in China have been experiencing life without fathers since the 1990s, when their fathers left the rural areas for the urban areas to find a job that would allow them to continue to support their family. However, to date, knowledge and understanding of the effects of the absence of fathers and timing of separation on the mental health of adolescents are limited. A total of 2233 students, ranging in age from 11 to 23 years, from five provinces of China, including 1024 adolescents who experienced the absence of their fathers, were recruited for this study. The data were collected using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, which were self-report questionnaires. Findings from a structured questionnaire showed that the subjects who experienced life without fathers have increased state-anxiety (t=-5.80, P self-esteem (t= 39.54, P state-anxiety scores [F(3,992) = 2.26, P= 0.05], and post test also revealed that the self-esteem of female scores in the 0-2 timing group was higher than other timing group's [F(3,992) = 4.58, P= 0.004]. The influence of the absence of fathers on the anxiety and self-esteem of adolescents seems to be more serious than our expectation, and the influence will be different according to the timing of father absence. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Father's parenting and father-child relationship among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Chang, Li-Ren; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Western literature documents impaired father-child interactions in addition to strong evidence of impaired mother-child interactions in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the parenting process of fathers and their engagement in the Asian family with children with ADHD remain unexplored. The authors compared fathering and father-child relationships between children with ADHD and those without ADHD and identified the correlates of these paternal measures. Fathering and father-child relationships were compared between 296 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 229 children without ADHD in Taiwan. All child participants and their parents received psychiatric interviews for the diagnosis of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders of the children, and their fathers were assessed for ADHD, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Both the fathers and children reported on the father's parenting style, father-child interactions, behavioral problems at home, and perceived family support. The results showed that children with ADHD received less affection/care and more overprotection and authoritarian control from their fathers. They had less active interactions with their fathers, more severe behavioral problems at home; and perceived less family support than children without ADHD. Correlates for impaired father-child interactions included childhood ADHD symptoms, any comorbidity, age at assessment, and the father's neurotic personality and depressive symptoms. In addition, the children reported more negatively on fathering and father-child interactions than the fathers. Our findings suggest the negative impacts of ADHD on the father's parenting style and father-child interactions. Clinical interventions aimed at improving father-child interactions warrant more attention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Addressing a Critical Gap in U.S. National Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs: The Acceptability and Feasibility of Father-Based Sexual and Reproductive Health Interventions for Latino Adolescent Males.
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bowman, Alex S; Santa Maria, Diane; Kabemba, Francesca; Geronimo, Yoyce
The purpose of the research was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a father-based sexual and reproductive health intervention designed to reduce sexual and reproductive (SRH) disparities and increase correct and consistent condom use among Latino adolescent males. The current study conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with Latino father-son dyads (N=30) designed to elicit perspectives on communication regarding sex and condom use. In addition, the interview protocol included father-son preferences regarding paternal involvement in condom instruction and perceived obstacles and advantages of father direct involvement in education efforts designed to increase correct and consistent condom use among their adolescent sons. Three independent coders conducted both vertical and horizontal analyses of the data to identify emergent themes and reach theoretical saturation. The main findings from this study suggest that Latino fathers can be impactful in shaping Latino adolescent male sexual decision-making and correct and consistent condom use. However, our data highlight that while both feasible and acceptable, Latino fathers identify needing additional support in how best to communicate and seek opportunities to master their own knowledge and skills regarding condom use and effective communication with their adolescent sons about sex. Latino father-based interventions represent an acceptable and feasible option for building upon the recent success of U.S. national efforts to reduce teen pregnancy rates and STI disparities among Latino youth. However, there exists a need for father-based programs that will support Latino fathers in best educating their sons about condom use and better addressing their SRH. Ongoing national efforts to reduce Latino teen SRH disparities warrant the consideration of father-son interventions for Latino adolescent males in the United States. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Health-Related Quality of Life in adolescent survivors of burns : Agreement on self-reported and mothers' and fathers' perspectives
Pan, R.; Egberts, M.; Nascimento, L.C.; Rossi, L.A.; Vandermeulen, E.; Geenen, R.; Van Loey, N.E.E.
AIM: This study examined the agreement on self-reported Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) between adolescents with burns and their mother's and father's observation at 6 and 18 months after the burn. Moreover, factors potentially influencing discrepancies between the adolescent and proxy
Co-Parenting Relationship Experiences of Black Adolescent Mothers in Active Romantic Partnerships With the Fathers of Their Children.
Nelson, LaRon E; Thach, Chia T; Shelton, Melissa M; Boyer, Cherrie B
We conducted an interpretive description of co-parenting relationship experiences of romantically involved Black adolescent mothers and fathers with shared biological children. The study was conducted in Brooklyn, New York, using data from individual in-depth interviews with adolescent mothers and fathers (n = 10). Four themes were identified: (a) putting our heads together; (b) balancing childhood and parenthood; (c) less money, more problems; and (d) if we use condoms, it is for contraception. The co-parenting couples managed very complex relationships, but their mutual interest in the welfare of their children was a relational asset. Co-parents had sparse financial resources but used a moral economy strategy to provide mutual support. Future research is needed that focuses on identifying other co-parent relationship assets and integrating and evaluating their utility for enhancing interventions for adolescent families. © The Author(s) 2014.
Fathers Are Important People: A Study of Father-Son Sexual Communication
DiIorio, Colleen; Lehr, Sally; Wasserman, Jill L.; Eichler, Michelle; Cherry, Chauncey; Denzmore, Pamela
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived role of African-American fathers in educating their sons about sex and HIV prevention. Given that some studies have shown a relationship between parent-adolescent sexual communication and adolescent sexual behavior, and the disproportionately high rates of teen pregnancy and HIV (and other…
Do Mothers' and Fathers' Authoritative and Authoritarian Parenting Interact? An Exploration on Schooling Aspects with a Singapore Adolescent Sample
Sim, Tick N.; Chin, Jeffery E. H.
Our study sought mainly to examine interactions between mothers' and fathers' authoritative and authoritarian parenting. A total of 284 adolescents (mean age 13.5) from 2 Singapore schools contributed self-report data on their parents' parenting and various schooling aspects. Prior to testing for interactions, adolescents with two authoritative…
Economic hardship and Mexican-origin adolescents' adjustment: examining adolescents' perceptions of hardship and parent-adolescent relationship quality.
Delgado, Melissa Y; Killoren, Sarah E; Updegraff, Kimberly A
Studies examining economic hardship consistently have linked family economic hardship to adolescent adjustment via parent and family functioning, but limited attention has been given to adolescents' perceptions of these processes. To address this, the authors investigated the intervening effects of adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship and of parent-adolescent warmth and conflict on the associations between parental economic hardship and adolescent adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, risky behaviors, and school performance) in a sample of 246 Mexican-origin families. Findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' reports of economic hardship were positively related to adolescents' reports of economic hardship, which in turn, were negatively related to parent-adolescent warmth and positively related to parent-adolescent conflict with both mothers and fathers. Adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship were indirectly related to (a) depressive symptoms through warmth with mothers and conflict with mothers and fathers, (b) involvement in risky behaviors through conflict with mothers and fathers, and (c) GPA through conflict with fathers. Our findings highlight the importance of adolescents' perceptions of family economic hardship and relationships with mothers and fathers in predicting adolescent adjustment.
Understanding the Impact of Having a Military Father with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) on Adolescent Children
have mental health , in the same way that we all have physical health . We worry about our physical fitness probably now more than we ever have before...families where the father does not have PTSD. Initial analyses have shown a moderately high level of adolescent mental health problems (approximately...Military Families, Adolescents, Mental Health , Emotional Wellbeing, Family Functioning, Natural Language Processing 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17
Negative parental attribution and emotional dysregulation in Chinese early adolescents: Harsh fathering and harsh mothering as potential mediators.
Wang, Mingzhong; Wang, Jing
The current study examined the potential mediating roles of harsh fathering and harsh mothering in the association between negative parental attribution and emotional dysregulation in Chinese adolescents and explored the moderating role of child gender on this indirect association. 864 students (367 girls, mean age = 13.55 years) with their parents were recruited as participants from two middle schools in Shandong Province, People's Republic of China. The results demonstrated that both harsh fathering and harsh mothering could partially mediate the association between negative maternal attribution and child emotional dysregulation, whereas only harsh fathering could partially mediate the association between negative paternal attribution and child emotional dysregulation. Moreover, we found the moderating role of child gender only for the association between harsh fathering and child emotional dysregulation, in that harsh fathering could be associated with higher levels of emotional dysregulation in girls. These results shed light on efforts to prevent harsh parenting and child emotional dysregulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Differential impact of fathers' authoritarian parenting on early adolescent adjustment in conservative protestant versus other families.
Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner; Hetherington, E Mavis; Reiss, David
The purpose of the study was to determine whether well-established associations between authoritarian parenting and adolescent adjustment pertain to conservative Protestant (CP) families. Structural equation modeling was used to test paths from biological fathers' authoritarian parenting to adolescent adjustment in 65 CP versus 170 comparison families in the Nonshared Environment and Adolescent Development Study (NEAD; D. Reiss et al., 1994). The hypothesis that adolescents in CP families would be less harmed by authoritarian parenting than would adolescents in control families was partially supported: Authoritarian parenting directly predicted greater externalizing and internalizing for adolescents in control families but not for adolescents in CP families. In contrast, parents' religious affiliation failed to moderate the negative associations between authoritarian parenting and positive adjustment. Understanding family processes specific to the CP subculture is important for helping these families raise competent children. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
A review of the father-child relationship in the development and maintenance of adolescent anorexia and bulimia nervosa.
Gale, Christopher J; Cluett, Elizabeth R; Laver-Bradbury, Cathy
There are disproportionately fewer studies examining the role of the father in the development of child and adolescent psychopathology. This is pertinent in the field of eating disorders, where there is a wealth of research related to family influences and the value of family-based interventions. This article reviews the key themes within the literature around the potential impact of the father-child relationship on the development and maintenance of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa in young people. The critical review searched relevant health and social care databases, as well as manually searching key journals in the eating disorder field. In these results, 13 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were critiqued, with 8 being taken forward for discussion. The 8 studies identified key themes within the relationship of the father and child (particularly daughters) around conflict and communication, parental protection and psychological control, emotional regulation and self-esteem, and self-perfectionism. All of these factors appear to influence the child's level of self-determining autonomy, which in turn can impact maladaptive eating attitudes and psychopathology. Tentative recommendations are made around working with fathers to encourage free expression of ideas and foster a sense of autonomy through compromise and collaboration with their adolescent child. Further research around these themes in relation to other family members is also suggested.
ROLE OF PARENTS' ADJUSTMENT IN EXPLAINING PERCEPTION OF ADOLESCENTS' NEGATIVE INTERACTIONS WITH MOTHER AND FATHER
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Full Text Available The research was conducted with the aim of examining the contribution of facets of the adjustment of mother and father for explaining the adolescents’ perception of negative relations with parents. The following adjustment measures were used in this research: anxiety, hypersensitivity, inner coherence, interpersonal orientation and aggression of mother and father individually. The measures of negative interactions between adolescents and parents are conceptualized through the dimension of negative relations with parents, which includes adolescents’ assessment regarding the rejection by father and mother and the assessment of negative relations with father and mother. The research was conducted on a sample including 273 subjects in total: 47 female subjects, 44 male subjects and their parents. For testing the hypotheses, the multiple regression analysis was used. The obtained results show that adjustment facets are important predictors for explaining the perception of negative relations with father. The facet of aggression stands as the most significant predictor among adjustment factors for the group of fathers. For the group of mothers, adjustment did not prove a significant predictor for explaining perception of negative relations. Possible explanations for a modest contribution of mother’s adjustment can be found in the possibility for the quality of family interactions with mother is more explained by an emotional relation that is established between her and the child in early childhood and does not change its quality at later development stages.
The plight of absent fathers caused by migrant work: Its traumatic impact on adolescent male children in Zimbabwe
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Ananias K. Nyanjaya
Full Text Available This article revealed the degree of trauma experienced by male adolescents when their fathers are absent. The cost of this absence could not be balanced with the material benefits the children have enjoyed, for the benefits have been outweighed by the trauma that children experience in the absence of their fathers. The emotions and tears expressed during the research journey have revealed that material support cannot compensate for the love and presence children expect from their fathers. The deep hurt instilled in their hearts by the periods of absence angered them and led to traumatic experiences. The protracted period of living with only one primary caregiver has imprisoned them into the feminised environment, thereby robbing them of a male identity. Therefore, this article was devoted to creating a shepherding model of caring for boys whose fathers are absent.
Dining with dad: Fathers' influences on family food practices.
Scholars have documented multiple influences on family food practices. This article examines an overlooked contributor to family diet: fathers. Using 109 in-depth interviews with middle and upper-middle class mothers, adolescents, and fathers in the United States, I show how fathers can undermine mothers' efforts to provision a healthy diet. While family members perceive mothers as committed to provisioning a healthy diet, many fathers are seen as, at best, detached and, at worst, a threat to mothers' dietary aspirations. Fathers not only do little foodwork; they are also viewed as less concerned about their own and other family members' dietary health. When tasked with feeding, many fathers often turn to quick, unhealthy options explicitly avoided by mothers. Mothers report efforts to limit fathers' involvement in foodwork to ensure the healthiness of adolescents' diets, with variation across families by mothers' employment status. Fathers' dietary approaches reflect and reinforce traditional gender norms and expectations within families. In highlighting how and why fathers can undermine mothers' efforts to provision a healthy diet, this study deepens our understanding of the myriad dynamics shaping family food practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The association between characteristics of fathering in infancy and depressive symptoms in adolescence: A UK birth cohort study.
Scourfield, Jonathan; Culpin, Iryna; Gunnell, David; Dale, Caroline; Joinson, Carol; Heron, Jon; Collin, Simon M
Evidence suggests that the quality of fathers' parenting has an impact on psychological outcomes during adolescence, but less is known about which aspects of fathering have the strongest effects. This study, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), considers which paternal attitudes towards and experiences of child care in infancy are most strongly associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence, and whether father effects are independent of maternal influence and other risk factors. Primary exposures were fathers' attitudes to and experiences of child care at 8 weeks, 8 months and 21 months coded as continuous scores; the primary outcome was self-reported depressive symptoms at 16 years (Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire score ≥11). Multivariable logistic regression models showed reasonably strong evidence that parental reports indicating potential paternal abuse when children were toddlers were associated with a 22% increased odds of depressive symptoms at age 16 (odds ratio [OR] 1.22 [95% CI 1.11, 1.34] per SD). There was some evidence for an interaction with social class (p=0.04): for children living in higher social class households (professional, managerial and technical classes), an increase in the potential abuse scale increased the odds of depressive symptoms by 31% (OR 1.31 [1.13, 1.53] per SD), whereas there was no effect in the lower social class categories. The potential paternal abuse measure needs to be validated and research is needed on what circumstances predict anger and frustration with child care. Effective interventions are needed to help fathers cope better with parenting stress. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
The Role of Father Involvement in Children's Later Mental Health.
Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann
Explores links between father involvement at age 7 and emotional and behavioral problems at age 16, and between father involvement at age 16 and psychological distress at age 33. Father involvement at age 7 protected against psychological maladjustment in adolescents from non-intact families, and father involvement at age 16 protected against…
Inter-Relationships among Attachment to Mother and Father, Self-Esteem, and Career Indecision
This study investigated the mediating role of adolescents' global self-esteem, based on the relationship between adolescents' mother or father attachment and their career indecision; as well as the mediating role of adolescents' career indecision on the relationship between mother or father attachment and self-esteem. Two hundred and forty-one…
Latent profiles of nonresidential father engagement six years after divorce predict long-term offspring outcomes.
Modecki, Kathryn Lynn; Hagan, Melissa J; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene A
This study examined profiles of nonresidential father engagement (i.e., support to the adolescent, contact frequency, remarriage, relocation, and interparental conflict) with their adolescent children (N = 156) 6 to 8 years following divorce and the prospective relation between these profiles and the psychosocial functioning of their offspring, 9 years later. Parental divorce occurred during late childhood to early adolescence; indicators of nonresidential father engagement were assessed during adolescence, and mental health problems and academic achievement of offspring were assessed 9 years later in young adulthood. Three profiles of father engagement were identified in our sample of mainly White, non-Hispanic divorced fathers: Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict, Low Involvement/Moderate Conflict, and High Involvement/High Conflict. Profiles differentially predicted offspring outcomes 9 years later when they were young adults, controlling for quality of the mother-adolescent relationship, mother's remarriage, mother's income, and gender, age, and offspring mental health problems in adolescence. Offspring of fathers characterized as Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict had the highest academic achievement and the lowest number of externalizing problems 9 years later compared to offspring whose fathers had profiles indicating either the highest or lowest levels of involvement but higher levels of conflict. Results indicate that greater paternal psychosocial support and more frequent father-adolescent contact do not outweigh the negative impact of interparental conflict on youth outcomes in the long term. Implications of findings for policy and intervention are discussed.
Fathers see stronger family resemblances than non-fathers in unrelated children's faces.
Bressan, Paola; Dal Pos, Stefania
Even after they have taken all reasonable measures to decrease the probability that their spouses cheat on them, men still face paternal uncertainty. Such uncertainty can lead to paternal disinvestment, which reduces the children's probability to survive and reproduce, and thus the reproductive success of the fathers themselves. A theoretical model shows that, other things being equal, men who feel confident that they have fathered their spouses' offspring tend to enjoy greater fitness (i.e., leave a larger number of surviving progeny) than men who do not. This implies that fathers should benefit from exaggerating paternal resemblance. We argue that the self-deceiving component of this bias could be concealed by generalizing this resemblance estimation boost to (1) family pairs other than father-child and (2) strangers. Here, we tested the prediction that fathers may see, in unrelated children's faces, stronger family resemblances than non-fathers. In Study 1, 70 men and 70 women estimated facial resemblances between children paired, at three different ages (as infants, children, and adolescents), either to themselves or to their parents. In Study 2, 70 men and 70 women guessed the true parents of the same children among a set of adults. Men who were fathers reported stronger similarities between faces than non-fathers, mothers, and non-mothers did, but were no better at identifying childrens' real parents. We suggest that, in fathers, processing of facial resemblances is biased in a manner that reflects their (adaptive) wishful thinking that fathers and children are related.
How do Mothers, Fathers, and Friends Influence Stages of Adolescent Smoking?
Stanton, Cassandra A; Papandonatos, George; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E; Kazura, Alessandra; Shiu, Shang-Ying; Niaura, Raymond
Parent and friend influences may differentially promote or deter adolescent smoking at discrete stages. Drawing from national (Add Health) data, a partial proportional odds ordinal regression model was utilized to examine the multivariate influence of parent and friend variables and their interactions on transitions across smoking stages (Never Smokers, Experimenters, Intermittent, Regular/Established) separately for mother-child pairs (N = 15,983) and father-child pairs (N = 1,142). Friend smoking status was by far the strongest predictor across smoking stages. Gender differences indicated males with one or more daily smoking friends are at higher risk for regular smoking relative to females. Fathers' smoking status had a direct effect on teen smoking across all stages, whereas mothers' smoking was significant in influencing which stage of smoking teens exhibited. Moreover, maternal smoking status had an indirect effect by moderating the association between teen smoking and the closeness of the mother-teen relationship. Mothers who smoke were found to have a stronger impact on the transition to regular smoking compared to mothers who do not smoke regardless of the number of smoking friends the teen reports. Results have implications for stage-matched and family-based prevention and intervention programs.
Latent profiles of non-residential father engagement six years after divorce predict long term offspring outcomes
Modecki, Kathryn Lynn; Hagan, Melissa; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene
This study examined profiles of non-residential father engagement (i.e., support to the adolescent, contact frequency, remarriage, relocation, and interparental conflict) with their adolescent children (N = 156) six to eight years following divorce and the prospective relation between these profiles and the psychosocial functioning of their offspring, nine years later. Parental divorce occurred during late childhood to early adolescence; indicators of non-residential father engagement were assessed during adolescence, and mental health problems and academic achievement of offspring were assessed nine years later in young adulthood. Three profiles of father engagement were identified in our sample of mainly White, non-Hispanic divorced fathers: Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict, Low Involvement/Moderate Conflict, and High Involvement/High Conflict. Profiles differentially predicted offspring outcomes nine years later when they were young adults, controlling for quality of the mother-adolescent relationship, mother’s remarriage, mother’s income, and gender, age and offspring mental health problems in adolescence. Offspring of fathers characterized as Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict had the highest academic achievement and the lowest number of externalizing problems nine years later compared to offspring whose fathers had profiles indicating either the highest or lowest levels of involvement but higher levels of conflict. Results indicate that greater paternal psychosocial support and more frequent father-adolescent contact do not outweigh the negative impact of interparental conflict on youth outcomes in the long-term. Implications of findings for policy and intervention are discussed. PMID:24484456
A Limited Population of Unmarried Adolescent Fathers: A Preliminary Report of Their Views on Fatherhood and the Relationship with the Mothers of Their Children.
Hendricks, Leo E.; Montgomery, Teresa
Studied the attitudes of unwed Black adolescent fathers in Tulsa (N=20) and Chicago (N=27). Most of the respondents were accepting of young fatherhood and perceived their relationship with the child's mother as one of love. Nearly all fathers were concerned about the child's future and unconcerned about having a child out of wedlock. (JAC)
Parental employment status and adolescents' health: the role of financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescents' resilience.
Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Benka, Jozef; Orosova, Olga
The paper deals with parental employment status and its relationship to adolescents' self-reported health. It studies the role of the financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent resilience in the relationship between parental employment status and adolescents' self-rated health, vitality and mental health. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse questionnaire data obtained from 2799 adolescents (mean age 14.3) in 2006. The results show a negative association of the father's, but not mother's unemployment or non-employment with adolescents' health. Regression analyses showed that neither financial strain nor a poor parent-adolescent relationship or a low score in resilience accounted for the relationship between the father's unemployment or non-employment and poorer adolescent health. Furthermore, resilience did not work as a buffer against the negative impact of fathers' unemployment on adolescents' health.
Quality of life and adolescents' communication with their significant others (mother, father, and best friend): the mediating effect of attachment to pets.
Marsa-Sambola, Ferran; Williams, Joanne; Muldoon, Janine; Lawrence, Alistair; Connor, Melanie; Currie, Candace
The relationship between adolescents' communication with their significant others (mother, father, and best friend) and quality of life (KIDSCREEN) was investigated in 2262 Scottish adolescent pet owners. The variable attachment to pets was also tested and assessed as a mediator of this relationship. A positive relationship between adolescents' communication with their significant other (mother, father, and best friend) and quality of life decreased when controlling for attachment to dogs. In cat owners, a positive relationship between communication with a best friend and quality of life decreased when controlling for attachment to cats. In cat and dog owners, attachment to these pets predicted higher levels of quality of life. Higher attachment to dogs and cats was explained by good best friend (IV) and attachment to pets (DV) and best friends. Mediation effects of attachment to dogs and cats might be explained in terms of the caring activities associated with these types of pets.
A conceptual model of incarcerated adolescent fatherhood: adolescent identity development and the concept of intersectionality.
Shade, Kate; Kools, Susan; Weiss, Sandra J; Pinderhughes, Howard
Little is known about teen fathers though they are found to be disproportionately represented among incarcerated youth. SOURCE USED: This article is developed from a qualitative pilot study of adolescent fathers in the justice system. The authors theorize about teen fathers and the process by which they accept, reject, or are "barriered" from a father identity and role. Adolescence as a developmental period during which an identity is forming is viewed in concert with the concept of hegemonic masculinity and the concept of intersectionality. Risk factors in childhood and adolescence complete the conceptual model through which incarcerated adolescent fathers can be examined. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Marital stress and children's externalizing behavior as predictors of mothers' and fathers' parenting.
Elam, Kit K; Chassin, Laurie; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L
Previous research suggests that mothers' and fathers' parenting may be differentially influenced by marital and child factors within the family. Some research indicates that marital stress is more influential in fathers' than mothers' parenting, whereas other research shows that children's difficult behavior preferentially affects mothers' parenting. The present study examined marital stress and children's externalizing behavior in middle childhood as predictors of mothers' versus fathers' consistency, monitoring, and support and care in early adolescence, and the subsequent associations of these parenting behaviors with externalizing behavior 1.5 years later. Pathways were examined within a longitudinal mediation model testing for moderation by parent gender (N = 276 mothers, N = 229 fathers). Children's externalizing behavior in middle childhood was found to more strongly inversely predict mothers' versus fathers' monitoring in early adolescence. In contrast, marital stress more strongly predicted low monitoring for fathers than for mothers. Regardless of parent gender, marital stress predicted lower levels of parental consistency, and children's externalizing behavior predicted lower levels of parental support. Mothers' monitoring and fathers' support in early adolescence predicted lower levels of externalizing behavior 1.5 years later. The results are discussed with respect to family transactions relative to parent gender and implications for intervention.
Adolescent mothers' sexual, contraceptive, and emotional relationship content with the fathers of their children following a first diagnosis of sexually transmitted infection.
Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, J Dennis
A sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis may profoundly change the meaning of adolescent women's relationships, particularly when the relationship involves a shared child. This study explored the sexual, contraceptive, and emotional characteristics of sexual partners with whom adolescent women had and did not have children in the 3 months after the first STI diagnosis. Adolescent women (n = 387; age: 14-17 years at enrollment) were tested quarterly for STI and completed partner-specific items on emotional and sexual relationship content. We used nonparametric statistics (SPSS/18.0) to compare these characteristics between partners with whom these adolescent women did (n = 20) or did not (n = 118) share a child. Rates of condom use at last sex, overall condom use, and condom insistence were lower with sexual partners involving shared children as compared with childless sexual partners. Relationship status, commitment to partner, and using no method of contraception were more common in parous sexual relationships as compared with nulliparous sexual relationships after an STI. After an STI, adolescent women have different sexual risk behaviors with the fathers of their children, even after a signal event such as a recent STI diagnosis. Tailored counseling may specifically address the challenges of STI prevention with partners who have the unique status of being the "father of the baby." Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Father's Migration and Leaving the Parental Home in Rural Mozambique
Chae, Sophia; Hayford, Sarah R.; Agadjanian, Victor
Migration is an increasingly common demographic phenomenon and has important implications for the well-being of family members left behind. Although extensive research has examined the impact of parental labor migration on school-age children, less is known about its effect on adolescents. In this study, the authors used longitudinal survey data collected in rural Mozambique (N = 515) to assess the association between father's migration and adolescent children's leaving the parental home, an important component of the transition to adulthood. The results showed that father's migration delays home-leaving for adolescent girls and that these effects are not mediated by school enrollment. The results for boys were inconclusive. The authors also found that remittances and longer durations of paternal migration were negatively associated with the transition out of the home. On the basis of the findings, they argue that father's migration delays girls’ marriage. PMID:27499554
Parent-Adolescent Conflict and Adolescent Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study in a Chinese Context.
Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Hing Keung
Examined the relationships between parent-adolescent conflict and antisocial and prosocial behavior in Chinese adolescents. Results showed that father-adolescent conflict and mother-adolescent conflict were concurrently related to adolescent antisocial and prosocial behavior. Findings suggest that the linkage between father-adolescent conflict and…
Longitudinal Links between Fathers' and Mothers' Harsh Verbal Discipline and Adolescents' Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptoms
Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah
This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers'…
Single Custodial Fathers' Involvement and Parenting: Implications for Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood
Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Scott, Mindy E.; Lilja, Emily
Using a sample of 3,977 youths from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), this study examines the unique characteristics of single-custodial-father families with adolescents and the effects of single fathers' involvement and parenting on outcomes in emerging adulthood. Findings suggest that single-custodial-father families are…
The role of God in the father/son relationship during identity formation – a Gestalt theoretical perspective
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Full Text Available This article is based on research done within the Afrikaansspeaking community in the area of the Drakenstein Municipality, Western Cape province, South Africa. The focus falls specifically on one concept that was outlined during the research, namely the perceptions of fathers and adolescent sons on identity formation within their relationship as well as the role that God plays. Combined qualitative/quantitative research was conducted with emphasis on semi-structured interviews with fathers (n=4 and adolescent boys (n=4 and an auto-ethnography of the author as the dominant component. The lessdominant quantitative component consisted of questionnaires completed by fathers (n=42 and adolescent boys (n=180. Metatheoretical assumptions and theoretical assumptions as grounding for the male identity are discussed as part of the author’s paradigmatic perspective. Furthermore, empirical findings are discussed and recommendations are made. From the discussions with fathers and their sons it was clear that both fathers and sons have a need to stand in close relationship to each other and to God. It is within this relationship where their identities are formed. However, fathers seemed to be resistant of transferring their beliefs to their sons. Adolescent boys also indicated no need to one day transfer learned behaviour from their fathers to their sons.
The Moderating Role of Father's Care on the Onset of Binge Eating Symptoms among Female Late Adolescents with Insecure Attachment
Pace, Ugo; Cacioppo, Marco; Schimmenti, Adriano
The present study examined the association between quality of attachment, perception of the father's bond, and binge eating symptoms in a sample of female late adolescents. In total, 233 female students aged between 18 and 20 years completed measures on binge eating, quality of attachment and parent-child relationship. Data showed that respondents…
Diet Quality and Satisfaction with Life, Family Life, and Food-Related Life across Families: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads.
Schnettler, Berta; Lobos, Germán; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Denegri, Marianela; Ares, Gastón; Hueche, Clementina
Family is a major determinant of children's and adolescents' eating behavior. The objectives of the present study were to assess diet quality, eating habits, satisfaction with life, family life, and food-related life in mother-father-adolescent triads, and to identify profiles of families according to family members' diet quality. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 300 two-parent families with one child over the age of 10 in the city of Temuco (Chile), including the Adapted Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFoL) scale, Satisfaction with Family Life (SWFaL) scales, and questions relating to their eating habits. Positive relationships were found between the diet quality of the family members, particularly between mothers and adolescents. Three family profiles with different diet qualities were identified: "families with an unhealthy diet" (39.3%), "families in which mothers and adolescents have healthy diets, but the fathers' diets require changes" (14.3%), and "families that require changes in their diet" (46.4%). These findings stress the key role of mothers in determining family diet quality and suggest a positive relationship between diet quality and satisfaction with life.
NEW FATHER'S EXPERIENCES WITH THEIR OWN FATHERS AND ATTITUDES TOWARD FATHERING
Guzzo, Karen Benjamin
Using the baseline father sample of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n=3,525), I consider how father type and presence and biological father involvement is associated with new father's attitudes toward fathering, testing the modeling and compensatory hypotheses. Results generally support the modeling hypothesis. Relative to new fathers who had a very involved coresidential father, men whose father was less involved are less likely to support the notion that fathers serve as authority figures. Men who had neither a coresidential father nor a father figure and whose biological father was not very involved are less agreeable to the idea that fathers are important sources of financial support or direct care. Weak support for the compensatory hypothesis is found for more global attitudes toward fatherhood and in results suggesting men with a father-figure have more favorable father attitudes than men who did not have a father-figure. PMID:23144595
Physical abuse during adolescence: Gender differences in the adolescents' perceptions of family functioning and parenting.
Sunday, Suzanne; Labruna, Victor; Kaplan, Sandra; Pelcovitz, David; Newman, Jennifer; Salzinger, Suzanne
To examine the relationship between physical abuse of adolescents and parenting by mothers and fathers and whether the association differs by gender. Subjects were adolescents, 51 girls and 45 boys, documented by Child Protective Services (CPS) as physically abused during adolescence. Comparison subjects were non-abused adolescents, 47 girls and 48 boys, from the same suburban communities. Subjects completed the following: Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale, Parental Bonding Instrument, modified Conflict Tactics Scale (assessing physical abuse/punishment by each parent). Although CPS generally cited fathers as the abuse perpetrators, abused boys and girls often reported experiencing physical maltreatment from both parents. Not surprisingly, comparison subjects rated parents more positively than abused subjects. For both groups, mothers were perceived as more caring and less controlling, were reported to have closer relationships with their adolescents, and were less likely to use abuse/harsh punishment than were fathers. Differences between the adolescents' perceptions of mothers and fathers were more pronounced for abused than for comparison subjects. Boys' and girls' perceptions of parenting were generally similar except that girls, especially the abused girls, reported feeling less close to fathers. Abused girls also viewed mothers as less caring than the other groups viewed mothers. Abused girls were also less likely than abused boys to perceive that either parent, but particularly fathers, had provided them with an optimum style of parenting. Adolescents who experienced relatively mild physical abuse reported dysfunctional family relationships, which may place them at risk of poor adult outcomes. Adolescents' reports suggest that CPS reports may underestimate physical maltreatment by mothers.
Mexican-origin parents' work conditions and adolescents' adjustment.
Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Crouter, Ann
Mexican-origin parents' work experiences are a distal extrafamilial context for adolescents' adjustment. This 2-wave multiinformant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents' work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents' adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of parental work conditions on adolescent adjustment through parents' psychological functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, role overload) and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship (i.e., parental solicitation, parent-adolescent conflict), as well as moderation by adolescent gender. Participants were 246 predominantly immigrant, Mexican-origin, 2-parent families who participated in home interviews when adolescents were approximately 13 and 15 years of age. Results supported the positive impact of fathers' occupational self-direction on all 3 aspects of adolescents' adjustment through decreased father-adolescent conflict, after controlling for family socioeconomic status and earner status, and underemployment. Parental work pressure and discrimination were indirectly linked to adolescents' adjustment, with different mechanisms emerging for mothers and fathers. Adolescents' gender moderated the associations between fathers' self-direction and girls' depressive symptoms, and fathers' experiences of discrimination and boys' risk behavior. Results suggest that Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' perceptions of work conditions have important implications for multiple domains of adolescents' adjustment across the transition to high school. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
The differential influence of absent and harsh fathers on juvenile delinquency.
Simmons, Cortney; Steinberg, Laurence; Frick, Paul J; Cauffman, Elizabeth
Researchers have identified father absence as a contributor to juvenile delinquency. Consequently, politicians and community leaders are making efforts to re-engage fathers. However, it is possible that the presence of fathers is not, in itself, a substantial protective factor and, in some cases, can even be more detrimental than father absence. Employing a diverse sample of male juvenile offenders in the U.S. (ages 13-17), the present study examined the differential effects of absent fathers and harsh fathers on delinquency. Results indicated that youth in the harsh-father group engaged in more offending behaviors and used more substances than youth in the absent-father group. This difference remained even after controlling for the mother-child relationship. Implications of these findings for future research and delinquency prevention programs are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Young, disadvantaged fathers' involvement with their infants: an ecological perspective.
Gavin, Loretta E; Black, Maureen M; Minor, Sherman; Abel, Yolanda; Papas, Mia A; Bentley, Margaret E
To investigate fathers' involvement with their children using an ecological model, multiple respondents, and a comprehensive definition of fathers' involvement. The study's primary objectives were: (a) to describe the characteristics of fathers whose infants are born to low-income, urban, African-American adolescent mothers; (b) to describe the ways in which fathers are involved with their children; and (c) to identify factors associated with fathers' involvement. A total of 181 first-time mothers (aged parenting. Mothers provided the name of their infant's father; 109 (60%) of the fathers also agreed to participate. Baseline interviews of mothers, fathers, and grandmothers addressed demographic characteristics, relationships, and the father's involvement with his child. Three multivariate regression models were used to identify factors associated with paternal involvement, explaining 35% to 51% of the variability in father involvement. Regardless of the respondent (mother, father, or grandmother), paternal involvement was predicted most strongly by the quality of the parents' romantic relationship. The father's employment status, the maternal grandmother's education, and the father's relationship with the baby's maternal grandmother were also associated with paternal involvement. The study confirmed the value of an ecological perspective that uses multiple informants and a comprehensive definition of father involvement that includes multiple role functions. Efforts to increase paternal involvement should help young parents separate the father's relationship with their child from the romantic relationship between the mother and father, address the roles played by maternal grandmothers, and assist fathers to complete their education, and obtain and keep jobs.
Substance Use and Sexual Behaviors of Adolescents in Multicultural Families in Korea.
To investigate the substance use and sexual behavior of adolescents in multicultural families compared with adolescents in Korean families in South Korea. Data from the 2013 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey collected from 66,591 adolescents aged 12-18 years (mean age 14.89±1.76 years) were analyzed. We classified the adolescents into four groups: those whose father and mother were born in South Korea, those whose father was born in South Korea but whose mother was not, those whose mother was born in South Korea but whose father was not, and those whose father and mother were not born in South Korea. Experiences with alcohol, cigarette, and drug use and sexual relations were investigated. Compared with adolescents whose fathers and mothers were born in Korea, adolescents whose fathers were born in Korea but whose mothers were not were less likely to use alcohol and cigarettes. Adolescents whose mothers were born in Korea but whose fathers were not and adolescents whose fathers and mothers were both born outside Korea were more likely to use cigarettes and drugs and to have sexual relations. These results indicate that adolescents whose fathers were not born in Korea and whose fathers and mothers were both born outside Korea are at greater risk for cigarette and drug use and risky sexual behaviors. For these high risk groups, health education should include dependency prevention program, safety issue, and health screening as well as programs aimed at preventing substance use and sexual activity.
Father's Incarceration and Youth Delinquency and Depression: Examining Differences by Race and Ethnicity
Swisher, Raymond R.; Roettger, Michael E.
This article examines associations between biological father's incarceration and internalizing and externalizing outcomes of depression and serious delinquency, across White, Black, and Hispanic subsamples of youth in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Among respondents whose father was first incarcerated during childhood or…
"Changing for My Kid": Fatherhood Experiences of Mexican-Origin Teen Fathers Involved in the Justice System
Parra-Cardona, Jose Ruben; Sharp, Elizabeth A.; Wampler, Richard S.
A descriptive phenomenological study was conducted with six adolescent fathers of Mexican origin on juvenile probation for a variety of serious offenses. All participants successfully completed a parenting program designed especially for teen fathers. In a series of consecutive in-depth interviews, teen fathers were asked to discuss their…
Paternal investment and status-related child outcomes: timing of father's death affects offspring success.
Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A
Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence.
Family Functioning and Relationship Quality for Adolescents in Family-based Treatment with Severe Anorexia Nervosa Compared with Non-clinical Adolescents.
Wallis, Andrew; Miskovic-Wheatley, Jane; Madden, Sloane; Rhodes, Paul; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Touyz, Stephen
This longitudinal study explored family functioning and relationship quality for adolescents with severe anorexia nervosa (AN). An important outcome given healthy family functioning supports effective adolescent development. Fifty-four female adolescents and their parents, treated with family-based treatment after inpatient admission, and 49 non-clinical age-matched adolescents and their parents were compared at assessment and 6 months after session 20. At baseline, AN group mothers and fathers reported poorer family function. AN adolescents were notably similar to controls, reporting poorer function in only one domain. There were no changes for adolescents, an improvement for mothers in the AN group, but an increase in perceived impairment for fathers in both groups, with AN fathers more affected. The similarity in adolescent reports and the increase for fathers over time may indicate that normal adolescent family processes occur even in the midst of serious illness. There is a need to provide intervention to ameliorate the impact of treatment on parents. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
A Survey on Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents with
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Full Text Available Objective: The impact of alcohol and other drugs increase dramatically in adolescent's lives when their parents are dependent drug users. Not only the children are at risk of developing drug users, but also they are at risk of developing drug related problems later in their life. They may also suffer other social and psychological problems. Matetials & Methods: The present study focusing on psychosocial problems of adolescents with addicted father, Uses the (s.c.l-90 and educational conditions Questionnaires. It is a "Case-control" study. Our samples include 40 adolescents with "addicted father" and 80 with "non-addicted father". The addicted fathers were chosen randomly from Gharchak rehabilitation center. The adolescents ages were between 12-18 years old chosen randomly and matched by variables such as sex, age, education. Results: The result of the study shows a significant differences between the psychosocial problems of adolescents with "addicted father" and "non-addicted" ones, (p<0.05. So such that in our case group we see a higher drop in school subject anxiety and interactional disorders. Conclusion: It seems that there is a correlation between the addiction of father and psychosocial problems of their children.
Parental knowledge of adolescent activities: links with parental attachment style and adolescent substance use.
Jones, Jason D; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Lejuez, C W; Cassidy, Jude
Parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents' attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents' alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (M age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in 2-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers' and fathers' insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all 3 reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers' and fathers' attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Nonresident Father Involvement: Do Mothers and Fathers See Eye-to-Eye? An Investigation of the Impact of Reporting Discrepancies on Parameter Estimates
styles ( Baumrind , 1968) Authoritarian parenting is characterized by high levels of parental demands, supervision, and discipline and a relative...Being of Mothers, Fathers, and Children." Demography 37(2). Baumrind , D. (1968). "Authoritarian vs. authoritative parental control." Adolescence 3
Father enrollment and participation in a parenting intervention: personal and contextual predictors.
Wong, Jessie J; Roubinov, Danielle S; Gonzales, Nancy A; Dumka, Larry E; Millsap, Roger E
Fathers are an important, though often underrepresented, population in family interventions. Notably, the inclusion of ethnic minority fathers is particularly scarce. An understanding of factors that promote and hinder father participation may suggest strategies by which to increase fathers' presence in studies designed to engage the family unit. The current research examined Mexican origin (MO) fathers' involvement in a family-focused intervention study. Participants included 495 fathers from eligible two-parent MO families with an adolescent child. Individual, familial, and culturally relevant predictors based on father, mother, and/or child report data were collected through pretest interviews and included in two separate logistic regression analyses that predicted the following: (1) father enrollment in the study and (2) father participation in the intervention. Results indicated that higher levels of maternal education and lower levels of economic stress and interparental conflict were associated with increased father enrollment in the study. Rates of father participation in the intervention were higher among families characterized by lower levels of interparental conflict, economic stress, and Spanish language use. Results highlight the relevancy of the familial and environmental context to MO fathers' research participation decisions. These findings as well as their implications for future research and practice are discussed. © FPI, Inc.
Father attachment, father emotion expression, and children's attachment to fathers: The role of marital conflict.
Bi, Shuang; Haak, Eric A; Gilbert, Lauren R; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy S
The current study examined relations between father attachment to spouses and child attachment to fathers in middle childhood, focusing on father emotion expressions in father-child interactions as mediators and marital conflict as a moderator of relations. Participants were 199 children between 6 and 12 years of age and their fathers. Fathers completed questionnaires about their attachment to their spouses, and both fathers and mothers reported on their marital conflict. Fathers also discussed a difficult topic with their children for 5 min, and fathers' positive and negative emotion expression during the discussions were coded. Children completed questionnaires through an interview about their attachment to their father. Father insecure attachment interacted with marital conflict in predicting more negative emotions and less positive emotions during father-child interactions. Specifically, in the context of higher marital conflict in this community sample, fathers who reported greater preoccupied attachment to their spouses exhibited more negative emotions and less positive emotions when interacting with their children. In turn, more father negative emotions and less positive emotions were associated with children's less secure attachment to fathers. In contrast, father fearful attachment interacted with marital conflict to predict less negative emotion and more positive emotion during interactions with children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Engaging the Disengaged Father in the Treatment of Eating Disordered Adolescents.
Maine, Margo D.
Although the mental health field tends to underestimate the father's role in the psychological development of the child, eating disordered women reveal a consistent pattern of paternal distance and disengagement that is fundamental to their developmental problems. To examine how the father's emotional and/or physical absence contributed to the…
Relational and Social-Cognitive Correlates of Early Adolescents' Forgiveness of Parents
Christensen, Katherine J.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Busby, Dean M.; Hardy, Sam A.; Day, Randal D.
This study examined how mother and father-child relationship quality and marital forgiveness were related to early adolescents' forgiveness of mothers and fathers. Adolescents' social-cognitive skills (empathy and emotional regulation) and parents' forgiveness of child were examined as mediators. Mother, father, and child self-reported…
Fathers' personality and its interaction with children's personality as predictors of perceived parenting behavior six years later
Prinzie, Peter; Dekovic, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L.; de Haan, Amaranta D.; Stoltz, Sabine E. M. J.; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn
We investigated fathers' personality and its interaction with children's personality as predictors of adolescent perceived parenting behavior. Data were used from the Flemish Study on Parenting, Personality and Development including 353 children. At Time 1 fathers rated their personality whereas
Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy?
Ellis, Bruce J.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pettit, Gregory S.; Woodward, Lianne
Longitudinal studies in two countries investigated impact of father absence on girls' early sexual activity (ESA) and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicated that greater exposure to father absence strongly related to elevated ESA and adolescent pregnancy risk. Elevated risk was not explained (U.S. sample) or only partly explained (New Zealand…
Choosing fatherhood: how teens in the justice system embrace or reject a father identity.
Shade, Kate; Kools, Susan; Pinderhughes, Howard; Weiss, Sandra J
The purpose of this qualitative study was to further the understanding of father identity and role development among adolescents involved in the justice system. Youth who were expecting a child or parenting an infant and who were incarcerated, arrested, or had admitted to criminal behavior participated in interviews and observations in a juvenile detention center and in the community. Data analysis revealed 4 patterns of fathering intentions: (a) embracing fatherhood, (b) being barred from fatherhood, (c) being ambivalent about fatherhood, or (d) rejecting fatherhood. Community health nurses can use this information to assess father identity status and address factors that interfere with father engagement. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Adolescents' Competence and the Balance of Adolescent Autonomy and Adolescent and Parent Well-Being in the Context of Type 1 Diabetes
Butner, Jonathan; Berg, Cynthia A.; Osborn, Peter; Butler, Jorie M.; Godri, Carine; Fortenberry, Katie T.; Barach, Ilana; Le, Hai; Wiebe, Deborah J.
This study examined whether intrafamily discrepancies in perceptions of the adolescent's competence and independence were associated with autonomy and well-being for adolescents and parents. The ways in which mothers and fathers consistently differed from their adolescent across measures of independence and competence regarding Type 1 diabetes, a…
Concealed concern: fathers' experiences of having a child with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
Waite-Jones, J M; Madill, A
Despite increased research into families of chronically ill children, more needs to be known about the father's experience. We address this issue through asking: 'What is it like to be the father of a child with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis?' (JIA). Four members of eight families with an adolescent diagnosed with JIA, including seven fathers, were interviewed and transcripts analysed using grounded theory. This study suggests that fathers of children with JIA experience several severe losses which are exacerbated through comparisons they make between their own situation and that of fathers of healthy children. In addition, the fathers faced several constraints which reduced their opportunities to communicate with their ill child through shared activities. Fathers appeared to conceal their distress by adopting strategies of denial and distraction however their adjustment was facilitated, to some extent, by social support. They could also develop greater acceptance of their situation over time as the care of their ill child became assimilated into family life and constraints upon their life gradually reduced through the increased maturity of their son or daughter with JIA. These findings have implications for healthcare professionals and voluntary organisations.
Associations Between Fathers' and Sons' Sexual Risk in Rural Kenya: The Potential for Intergenerational Transmission.
Giusto, Ali M; Green, Eric P; Puffer, Eve S
Despite high rates of HIV in areas of Sub-Saharan Africa and men's role in driving the epidemic, little is known about whether or how sexual risk-both behaviors and beliefs-may be passed down through generations of males. This study examined associations between sexual risk behaviors and sex-related beliefs of adolescent males and those of their male caregivers in Kenya, as well as the potential moderating effects of parenting characteristics and father-son relationship quality. Cross-sectional linear regression analysis was applied to baseline data from a trial of a family- and church-based intervention for families in rural Kenya that followed a stepped-wedge cluster randomized design. Our subsample consisted of 79 male caregiver and son (aged 10-16 years) dyads. Results demonstrated a direct relationship between fathers' and sons' sex-related beliefs that was not moderated by parenting or quality of father-son relationship. Parenting/relationship characteristics did moderate the relationship between fathers' and sons' sexual behavior; if fathers did not engage in high-risk sex and exhibited more positive parenting/higher relationship quality, their sons were less likely to be sexually active. Among fathers having high-risk sex, parenting was unrelated to sons' behavior except at very high levels of positive parenting/relationship quality; at these levels, sons were actually more likely to have had sex. Findings support recommendations to include male caregivers in youth HIV prevention efforts, potentially by targeting fathers' parenting strategies and their individual risk. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adolescent Reproductive Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs and Future Fatherhood.
Garfield, Craig F; Duncan, Greg; Peters, Sarah; Rutsohn, Joshua; McDade, Thomas W; Adam, Emma K; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Chase-Lansdale, Patricia Lindsay
With a growing focus on the importance of men's reproductive health, including preconception health, the ways in which young men's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB) predict their reproductive paths are understudied. To determine if reproductive KAB predicts fatherhood status, timing and residency (living with child or not). Reproductive KAB and fatherhood outcomes were analyzed from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a 20-year, nationally representative study of individuals from adolescence into adulthood. Four measures of reproductive KAB were assessed during adolescence in waves I and II. A generalized linear latent and mixed model predicted future fatherhood status (nonfather, resident/nonresident father, adolescent father) and timing while controlling for other socio-demographic variables. Of the 10,253 men, 3,425 were fathers (686 nonresident/2,739 resident) by wave IV. Higher risky sexual behavior scores significantly increased the odds of becoming nonresident father (odds ratio [OR], 1.30; p fatherhood and residency status. Strategies that address adolescent males' reproductive KAB are needed in the prevention of unintended reproductive consequences such as early and nonresident fatherhood. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lesbian and heterosexual two-parent families: adolescent-parent relationship quality and adolescent well-being
Bos, H.; van Gelderen, L.; Gartrell, N.
This study compared 51 adolescents from intact two-mother planned lesbian families (all conceived through donor insemination) with 51 adolescents from intact mother-father families on their relationships with their parents (parental control, disclosure to parents, and adolescent-parent relationship
The father and the schooling of children
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Full Text Available Several studies have been investigating the relationship between families and school. Those studies, especially in the field of Sociology of education seek to describe and analyse family-school relationships to contribute to the improvement of knowledge about the schooling process of children, adolescents and young people. However, survey results about the schooling process and the relationship between family and school, published in books by academics or scientific journals in the fields of education, sociology, anthropology and psychology, show that studies considering the father figure tend to be scarce. This article focuses on the construction of fatherhood, in an attempt to discuss its representations, seeking to contribute and clarify the reasons for the relative scarcity of analyses about the father's role in studies about the family and the children's schooling process.
Adolescent Age Moderates Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Adolescent Positivity and Negativity: Implications for Genotype-Environment Correlation
Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David
In the present study we examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and non-passive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. Findings indicated that non-passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father- adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than families with younger adolescents, and that passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed. PMID:25924807
Parent-child relationships between Korean American adolescents and their parents.
Choi, Heeseung; Kim, Minju; Park, Chang Gi; Dancy, Barbara L
This cross-sectional correlational study examined the association between Korean American adolescents' and their parents' reports of parent-child relationships. A total of 61 Korean American families completed a questionnaire assessing parental knowledge, parental/filial self-efficacy, parent-child communication, and parent-child conflicts. T tests, Pearson's correlations, a scatter diagram, and bivariate regression were used to analyze the data. Both Korean American adolescents and their parents reported that fathers were less knowledgeable about their child's school life and less likely to communicate with their children than were mothers. Fathers reported a significantly lower level of parental self-efficacy than mothers, and adolescents also reported a significantly higher level of filial self-efficacy in mother-child relationships than in father-child relationships. Positive correlations between parents' and adolescents' reports of parent-child relationships were observed. These findings indicated a need for parent education programs or counseling services for Korean American parents of adolescents, particularly fathers with inadequate parental skills and limited communication with their children. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
How Neighborhood Effects Vary: Childbearing and Fathering among Latino and African American Adolescents
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Jessica L. Lucero
Full Text Available This study examines what neighborhood conditions experienced at age 15 and after are associated with teen childbearing and fathering among Latino and African American youth and whether these neighborhood effects vary by gender and/or ethnicity. Administrative and survey data from a natural experiment are used for a sample of 517 Latino and African American youth whose families were quasi-randomly assigned to public housing operated by the Denver (CO Housing Authority (DHA. Characteristics of the neighborhood initially assigned by DHA to wait list applicants are utilized as identifying instruments for the neighborhood contexts experienced during adolescence. Cox Proportional Hazards (PH models reveal that neighborhoods having higher percentages of foreign-born residents but lower levels of social capital robustly predict reduced odds of teen parenting though the magnitude of these effects was contingent on gender and ethnicity. Specifically, the presence of foreign-born neighbors on the risk of teen parenting produced a stronger dampening effect for African American youth when compared to Latino youth. Additionally, the effects of social capital on teen parenting were stronger for males than females.
Adolescents' Intergenerational Narratives across Cultures
Reese, Elaine; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie; Wang, Qi; McAnally, Helena
Adolescents' intergenerational narratives--the stories they tell about their mothers' and fathers' early experiences--are an important component of their identities (Fivush & Merrill, 2016; Merrill & Fivush, 2016). This study explored adolescents' intergenerational narratives across cultures. Adolescents aged 12 to 21 from 3 cultural…
Chinese adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles of fathers and mothers.
Shek, D T
Father Treated and Mother Treated subscales of the Parent Image Differential were used to assess recalled parental treatment styles of 2,150 Chinese secondary school students. Results from reliability and factor analyses showed that both scales were internally consistent, and two factors (Concern and Restrictiveness) were abstracted from each of these scales. The data on gender differences in parenting revealed significant differences, across socioeconomic classes, between paternal and maternal treatment styles, with the fathers perceived to be relatively more restrictive and showing less concern than the mothers. The data suggest that differences between paternal and maternal treatment styles exist in the Chinese context but that signs of gradual change in the differences are appearing.
Parental communication and life satisfaction in adolescence.
Cava, María-Jesús; Buelga, Sofía; Musitu, Gonzalo
This study aims to analyze the influence of communication with the mother and father on adolescents' life satisfaction, as well as possible indirect effects through self-esteem, feelings of loneliness, and perceived classroom environment. These relationships, and possible gender differences, were analyzed in a sample of 1,795 adolescents (52% male, 48% female) aged 11 to 18 years-old (M = 14.2, SD = 1.68), using structural equation modeling. Results indicate a direct effect of communication-mother (girls: β = .19, p communication-father (girls: β = .22, p communication-mother: girls, β = .18, p communication-father: girls: β = .28, p communication-mother: girls: β = -.19, p communication-father: girls: β = -.31, p < .001; boys: β = -.20, p < .01). The results and implications of this study are discussed.
Family Perceptions of Adolescent Self-Image.
Offer, Daniel; And Others
Relationships between adolescents' self-image and perceptions of these adolescents held by their parents indicated that parents accurately perceive their adolescent children's self-image. Results further showed that mother-father agreement is associated with positive adolescent attitudes toward family and vocational/educational goals. (Author/PN)
Adolescents' aggression to parents: longitudinal links with parents' physical aggression.
Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R
To investigate whether parents' previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents' subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents' concurrent physical aggression (CPA) and to investigate whether adolescents' emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1-3 on four types of parents' PPA (mother to adolescent, father to adolescent, mother to father, and father to mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents' emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression and on parents' CPA. Parents' PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15-1.6, p controlling for adolescents' sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents' CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82-17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents' parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0-3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated the effects. Adolescents' parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents' physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early signal of aggression into adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Society for
Parental divorce, adolescents' feelings toward parents and drunkenness in adolescents.
Tomcikova, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P
The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness and the contribution of adolescents' feelings toward their parents to this association. Cross-sectional data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3, 49.0% males; response rate 93%) were obtained. Respondents completed questionnaires on how often they had been drunk in the previous 4 weeks, whether their parents were divorced and a measure of their feelings toward their parents. Parental divorce was found to have an effect on adolescent drunkenness in the previous month, as were the high rates of negative and low rates of positive feelings toward both parents. The effect of divorce on drunkenness strongly decreased if adjusted for the affect of the adolescent toward the father, but not the mother. Our findings indicate that to keep the father positively involved after divorce might be a protective factor with regard to a higher probability of adolescent drunkenness in divorced families. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Perceived parent-adolescent relationship, perceived parental online behaviors and pathological internet use among adolescents: gender-specific differences.
Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan
This study examined the associations between adolescents' perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People's Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents' age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention.
Latino Parent and Adolescent Perceptions of Hoped-for and Feared Possible Selves for Adolescents
Halfond, Raquel; Corona, Rosalie; Moon, Anya
The authors examined Latino parent and adolescent reports of hoped-for and feared possible selves for adolescents. Twenty-nine Latino parents (18 mothers, 11 fathers) and their 18 adolescents participated in semistructured individual interviews. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and coded for themes via content analysis. Themes that…
Discrepancies Between Perceptions of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: An Illustration of Polynomial Regression Analysis.
Nelemans, S A; Branje, S J T; Hale, W W; Goossens, L; Koot, H M; Oldehinkel, A J; Meeus, W H J
Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their relationship may be particularly important to consider. In the present study, we therefore examined how discrepancies in parents' and adolescents' perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship were associated with early adolescent depressive symptoms, both concurrently and longitudinally over a 1-year period. Our sample consisted of 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys, M age = 13.03 years), residing in the western and central regions of the Netherlands, and their mothers and fathers, who all completed several questionnaires on two occasions with a 1-year interval. Adolescents reported on depressive symptoms and all informants reported on levels of negative interaction in the parent-adolescent relationship. Results from polynomial regression analyses including interaction terms between informants' perceptions, which have recently been proposed as more valid tests of hypotheses involving informant discrepancies than difference scores, suggested the highest adolescent depressive symptoms when both the mother and the adolescent reported high negative interaction, and when the adolescent reported high but the father reported low negative interaction. This pattern of findings underscores the need for a more sophisticated methodology such as polynomial regression analysis including tests of moderation, rather than the use of difference scores, which can adequately address both congruence and discrepancies in perceptions of adolescents and mothers/fathers of the parent-adolescent relationship in detail. Such an analysis can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of risk factors for early adolescent depressive symptoms.
Parent-Adolescent Conflict in African American Families.
Skinner, Olivenne D; McHale, Susan M
Parent-adolescent conflict is frequent in families and has implications for youth adjustment and family relationships. Drawing on a family systems perspective, we examined mothers', fathers', and two adolescent-aged siblings' (50.5 % females) reports of parent-adolescent conflict in 187 African American families. Using latent profile analysis in the context of an ethnic homogeneous design, we identified three family types based on levels of and differences between parent and youth conflict reports: low conflict, father high conflict, and younger sibling high conflict. Compared to low conflict families, youth in younger sibling high conflict families reported more depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. The results for parents' acceptance revealed that, in comparison to low conflict families, older siblings in father high conflict families reported lower acceptance from mothers, and mothers in these families reported lower acceptance of their children; further, older siblings in younger sibling high conflict families reported less acceptance from fathers, and fathers in these families reported less acceptance of their children. Results underscore the significance of levels of and both differences between and direction of differences in parents' and youth's reports of their "shared" experiences, as well as the importance of examining the larger family contexts of dyadic parent-relationships.
Coparenting in immigrant Chinese Canadian families: the role of discrepancies in acculturation and expectations for adolescent assistance.
Chance, Lauren J; Costigan, Catherine L; Leadbeater, Bonnie J
For immigrant families, differential acculturation between mothers and fathers may present challenges to parenting adolescents. The current study investigated the concurrent relations among discrepancies in parental acculturation, discrepancies in parental expectations for adolescents, and coparenting quality with a sample of 162 married immigrant Chinese Canadian couples with adolescents (mean age = 14.94 years; SD = 1.73). Acculturation was assessed as parents' behavioral involvement in both Canadian and Chinese cultures. As predicted, mother-father differences in acculturation (in relation to both cultures) were related to discrepant expectations for how much adolescents should assist the family. Further, mother-father differences in Chinese acculturation were related to fathers' perceptions of a poorer coparenting relationship. Finally, this relation was partially mediated by discrepant parental expectations for adolescent assistance. Implications for parenting roles, enculturation, family dynamics, and intervention are considered.
Involvement of Fathers in Pediatric Obesity Treatment and Prevention Trials: A Systematic Review.
Morgan, Philip J; Young, Myles D; Lloyd, Adam B; Wang, Monica L; Eather, Narelle; Miller, Andrew; Murtagh, Elaine M; Barnes, Alyce T; Pagoto, Sherry L
Despite their important influence on child health, it is assumed that fathers are less likely than mothers to participate in pediatric obesity treatment and prevention research. This review investigated the involvement of fathers in obesity treatment and prevention programs targeting children and adolescents (0-18 years). A systematic review of English, peer-reviewed articles across 7 databases. Retrieved records included at least 1 search term from 2 groups: "participants" (eg, child*, parent*) and "outcomes": (eg, obes*, diet*). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing behavioral interventions to prevent or treat obesity in pediatric samples were eligible. Parents must have "actively participated" in the study. Two authors independently extracted data using a predefined template. The search retrieved 213 eligible RCTs. Of the RCTs that limited participation to 1 parent only (n = 80), fathers represented only 6% of parents. In RCTs in which participation was open to both parents (n = 133), 92% did not report objective data on father involvement. No study characteristics moderated the level of father involvement, with fathers underrepresented across all study types. Only 4 studies (2%) suggested that a lack of fathers was a possible limitation. Two studies (1%) reported explicit attempts to increase father involvement. The review was limited to RCTs published in English peer-reviewed journals over a 10-year period. Existing pediatric obesity treatment or prevention programs with parent involvement have not engaged fathers. Innovative strategies are needed to make participation more accessible and engaging for fathers. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Parent-specific reciprocity from infancy to adolescence shapes children's social competence and dialogical skills.
Feldman, Ruth; Bamberger, Esther; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv
Reciprocity - the capacity to engage in social exchange that integrates inputs from multiple partners into a unified social event - is a cornerstone of adaptive social life that is learned within dyad-specific attachments during an early period of neuroplasticity. Yet, very little research traced the expression of children's reciprocity with their mother and father in relation to long-term outcomes. Guided by evolutionary models, we followed mothers, fathers, and their firstborn child longitudinally and observed mother-child and father-child reciprocity in infancy, preschool, and adolescence. In preschool, children's social competence, aggression, and prosocial behavior were observed at kindergarten. In adolescence, children's dialogical skills were assessed during positive and conflict interactions with same-sex best friends. Father-child and mother-child reciprocity were individually stable, inter-related at each stage, and consisted of distinct behavioral components. Structural equation modeling indicated that early maternal and paternal reciprocity were each uniquely predictive of social competence and lower aggression in preschool, which, in turn, shaped dialogical skills in adolescence. Father-adolescent reciprocity contributed to the dialogical negotiation of conflict, whereas mother-adolescent reciprocity predicted adolescents' dialogical skills during positive exchanges. Results highlight the role of parent-child reciprocity in shaping children's social collaboration and intimate relationships with non-kin members of their social world.
Adolescents conceived by IVF: parenting and psychosocial adjustment.
Colpin, H; Bossaert, G
A follow-up study was conducted in mid-adolescence on parenting and the child's psychosocial development after in vitro fertilization (IVF). The first phase of the study had compared 31 IVF families and 31 families with a naturally conceived child when the children were 2 years old (Colpin et al., 1995). Of these, 24 IVF families and 21 control families participated again when the children were 15-16 years old. Fathers, mothers and adolescents completed questionnaires assessing parenting style and stress, and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. No significant differences were found in self- or adolescent-reported parenting style, or in parenting stress between IVF mothers and mothers in the control group, nor between IVF fathers and fathers in the control group. Neither did we find significant differences in self- or parent-reported behavioural problems between adolescents conceived by IVF and those conceived naturally. Comparison of behavioural problems between IVF adolescents informed or not informed about the IVF conception did not reveal significant differences. Parenting and 15-16-year-old adolescents' psychosocial adjustment did not differ significantly between IVF families and control families. This study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first psychosocial follow-up in mid-adolescence, and adds to the evidence that IVF children and their parents are well-adjusted. Large-scale studies in adolescence are needed to support these findings.
Adolescents' reasoning about parental gender roles.
Brose, Sara J; Conry-Murray, Clare; Turiel, Elliot
In an examination of how adolescents reason about several factors related to division of childcare labor, 38 adolescents, including 20 girls (M age = 16.36 years, SD = .50) and 18 boys (M age = 16.59 years, SD = .62) were interviewed about conflicts between a mother and a father over which parent should stay home with the child, the authority of the father, and similar issues in a traditional culture. The relative income of each parent was varied. Participants considered the needs of the child most when reasoning about infants, and the right to work most frequently when reasoning about preschoolers (p gender equity and adolescents' future goals were discussed.
When Is the Father Really There? A Conceptual Reformulation of Father Presence
Krampe, Edythe M.
The article reconceptualizes father presence as the psychological presence of the father in the child. The article explicates the components of father presence as comprised of the following: (a) an inner sense of father in the child that orients him or her to the father; (b) the child's relationship with the personal father; (c) other family…
Paternal influences on adolescent sexual risk behaviors: a structured literature review.
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida; Lee, Jane; McCarthy, Katharine; Michael, Shannon L; Pitt-Barnes, Seraphine; Dittus, Patricia
To date, most parent-based research has neglected the role of fathers in shaping adolescent sexual behavior and has focused on mothers. The objective of this study was to conduct a structured review to assess the role of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior and to assess the methodological quality of the paternal influence literature related to adolescent sexual behavior. We searched electronic databases: PubMed, PsychINFO, Social Services Abstracts, Family Studies Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies published between 1980 and 2011 that targeted adolescents 11 to 18 years and focused on paternal parenting processes were included. Methodological quality was assessed by using an 11-item scoring system. Thirteen articles were identified and reviewed. Findings suggest paternal factors are independently associated with adolescent sexual behavior relative to maternal factors. The most commonly studied paternal influence was emotional qualities of the father-adolescent relationship. Paternal communication about sex was most consistently associated with adolescent sexual behavior, whereas paternal attitudes about sex was least associated. Methodological limitations include a tendency to rely on cross-sectional design, nonprobability sampling methods, and focus on sexual debut versus broader sexual behavior. Existing research preliminarily suggests fathers influence the sexual behavior of their adolescent children; however, more rigorous research examining diverse facets of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior is needed. We provide recommendations for primary care providers and public health practitioners to better incorporate fathers into interventions designed to reduce adolescent sexual risk behavior.
Paternal Influences on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors: A Structured Literature Review
Bouris, Alida; Lee, Jane; McCarthy, Katharine; Michael, Shannon L.; Pitt-Barnes, Seraphine; Dittus, Patricia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To date, most parent-based research has neglected the role of fathers in shaping adolescent sexual behavior and has focused on mothers. The objective of this study was to conduct a structured review to assess the role of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior and to assess the methodological quality of the paternal influence literature related to adolescent sexual behavior. METHODS: We searched electronic databases: PubMed, PsychINFO, Social Services Abstracts, Family Studies Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies published between 1980 and 2011 that targeted adolescents 11 to 18 years and focused on paternal parenting processes were included. Methodological quality was assessed by using an 11-item scoring system. RESULTS: Thirteen articles were identified and reviewed. Findings suggest paternal factors are independently associated with adolescent sexual behavior relative to maternal factors. The most commonly studied paternal influence was emotional qualities of the father-adolescent relationship. Paternal communication about sex was most consistently associated with adolescent sexual behavior, whereas paternal attitudes about sex was least associated. Methodological limitations include a tendency to rely on cross-sectional design, nonprobability sampling methods, and focus on sexual debut versus broader sexual behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Existing research preliminarily suggests fathers influence the sexual behavior of their adolescent children; however, more rigorous research examining diverse facets of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior is needed. We provide recommendations for primary care providers and public health practitioners to better incorporate fathers into interventions designed to reduce adolescent sexual risk behavior. PMID:23071205
Approaching the adolescent-headed family: a review of teen parenting.
Savio Beers, Lee A; Hollo, Ruth E
In the USA, as many as 1 in 6 women nationwide become adolescent mothers, making adolescent pregnancy and childbearing issues a frequently encountered occurrence by pediatricians and adolescent medicine health care providers. Both social and medical programs focus on prevention and management of adolescent pregnancies; however, caring for the adolescent-headed family is less well understood. For many teen parents, various environmental and behavioral risks contributed to early childbearing and parenting. Following delivery of the infant, many of these same psycho-social, environmental, and educational factors continue to play a role in the teen's ability to parent effectively. This review explores these factors in relation to teen parenting as well as describes the limited data available on outcomes of adolescent mothers and their infants. Despite negative social stereotypes regarding adolescent fathers, research suggesting that most fathers desire involvement with their infants and the impact of and factors influencing father involvement is explored. Understanding the dynamics of the coparenting relationship, an expanding field of study, will aid practitioners in strengthening and supporting teen parenting by both mothers and fathers. As most teen parents continue to reside with their families, teen parenting has an important impact on the multi-generational family structure. These relationships can serve both to support and at times to hinder the adolescent parents' development as an individual and as a parent. Successful interventions and programs to support the adolescent-headed family take on various forms but are usually comprehensive and multidisciplinary and consider the developmental status of both the parent and the child. To best care for adolescent-headed families, pediatricians and adolescent medicine providers should understand the psychosocial, developmental, educational, and relationship issues that influence adolescent parenting.
Female college students' negative feelings toward their fathers : Comparison of present feelings with recollections of their junior high school days
石丸, 綾子; Ishimaru, Ayako
An adolescent daughter’s relationship with her father is strained owing to her negative feelings, such as opposition, defiant attitude, and hatred, toward father. However, further details regarding these feelings and how they evolve during a daughter’s growing years have not been examined yet. In this study, a questionnaire survey was administered to female college students, asking about their negative feelings toward their fathers in the present and during their junior high school days. The ...
Daddy's Little Girl Goes to College: An Investigation of Females' Perceived Closeness with Fathers and Later Risky Behaviors
Rostad, Whitney L.; Silverman, Paul; McDonald, Molly K.
Objective: The present study investigated the extent to which father-daughter relationships predicted risk-taking in a sample of female college students. Specifically, this study examined whether female adolescents' models of father psychological presence predicted substance use and sexual risk-taking, over and above impulsivity, depression,…
Perceived Sibling Relationships and Adolescent Development.
Yeh, Hsiu-Chen; Lempers, Jacques D.
Utilizing longitudinal, 3-wave data collected from multiple informants (fathers, mothers, and target children) in 374 families, the potential effects of sibling relationships on adolescent development across early and middle adolescence were investigated. Adolescents who perceived their sibling relationships more positively at Time 1 tended to…
Economic Hardship and Mexican-Origin Adolescents’ Adjustment: Examining Adolescents’ Perceptions of Hardship and Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality
Delgado, Melissa Y.; Killoren, Sarah E.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.
Studies examining economic hardship consistently have linked family economic hardship to adolescent adjustment via parent and family functioning, but limited attention has been given to adolescents’ perceptions of these processes. To address this, the authors investigated the intervening effects of adolescents’ perceptions of economic hardship and of parent-adolescent warmth and conflict on the associations between parental economic hardship and adolescent adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, risky behaviors, and school performance) in a sample of 246 Mexican-origin families. Findings revealed that both mothers’ and fathers’ reports of economic hardship were positively related to adolescents’ reports of economic hardship, which in turn, were negatively related to parent-adolescent warmth and positively related to parent-adolescent conflict with both mothers and fathers. Adolescents’ perceptions of economic hardship were indirectly related to a) depressive symptoms through warmth with mothers and conflict with mothers and fathers, b) involvement in risky behaviors through conflict with mothers and fathers, and c) GPA through conflict with fathers. Our findings highlight the importance of adolescents’ perceptions of family economic hardship and relationships with mothers and fathers in predicting adolescent adjustment. PMID:23937419
Peer relations in adolescents: effects of parenting and adolescents' self-concept.
Deković, M; Meeus, W
In this study we examined the link between the parent-adolescent relationship and the adolescent's relationship with peers. The proposed model assumes that the quality of the parent-child relationship affects the adolescent's self-concept, which in turn affects the adolescent's integration into the world of peers. The sample consisted of 508 families with adolescents (12- to 18-years-old). The data were obtained at the subjects' homes, where a battery of questionnaires was administered individually to mothers, fathers and adolescents. Several constructs relating to the quality of parent-child relationship were assessed: parental acceptance, attachment, involvement, responsiveness, love withdrawal and monitoring of the child. The measures of the adolescent's self-concept included Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Adolescents and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The indicators of the quality of peer relations were: degree of peer activity, having a best friend, perceived acceptance by peers and attachment to peers. Assessment of the hypothesized model showed that the adolescent's self-concept serves a mediating role in the relationship between maternal child-rearing style and involvement with peers. The mediating role of self-concept was greatest for maternal acceptance. Paternal child-rearing style, however, appeared to have an independent effect on the adolescent's involvement with peers that is not accounted for by the adolescent's self-concept. The prediction of the quality of adolescents' peer relations yielded similar results for both mothers and fathers. The results suggest that a positive self-concept and warm supportive parenting each contribute unique variance to satisfactory peer relations.
Intraindividual Variability in Adolescents' Perceived Relationship Satisfaction: The Role of Daily Conflict
Van Doorn, Muriel D.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Hox, Joop J.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
A daily diary method was used to examine the daily dynamics of adolescent conflict and perceived relationship satisfaction with mothers, fathers, and best friends among a sample of 72 Dutch adolescents (M = 15.59 years). Multilevel analyses revealed that perceived relationship satisfaction with mothers, fathers, and best friends was lower on days…
Mothers' and fathers' ratings of family relationship quality: associations with preadolescent and adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms in a clinical sample.
Queen, Alexander H; Stewart, Lindsay M; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Pincus, Donna B
This study examined the independent associations among three family relationship quality factors--cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict--with youth self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms in a clinical sample of anxious and depressed youth. Ratings of family relationship quality were obtained through both mother and father report. The sample included families of 147 preadolescents and adolescents (56.6 % female; 89.8 % Caucasian), 11-18 years old (M = 13.64, SD = 1.98) assigned a principal diagnosis of an anxiety or depressive disorder. When controlling for age and concurrent anxiety symptoms, regression analyses revealed that for boys, both father- and mother-rated family cohesion predicted depressive symptoms. For girls, mother-rated family expressiveness and conflict predicted depressive symptoms. Youth anxiety symptoms were not significantly associated with any family relationship variables, controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that parent-rated family relationship factors may be more related to youth depressive than anxiety symptoms in this clinical sample. In addition, family cohesion, as perceived by parents, may be more related to boys' depression, whereas expressiveness and conflict (as rated by mothers) may be more related to girls' depression. Clinical implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Transitioning to adolescence: how changes in child personality and overreactive parenting predict adolescent adjustment problems.
van den Akker, Alithe L; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter
The present study examined how changes in child Big Five personality characteristics and overreactive parenting during the transition from childhood to adolescence predict adolescent adjustment problems. The sample included 290 children, aged 8-9 years. At three moments, with 2-year intervals, mothers, fathers, and a teacher reported on the child's personality, and mothers and fathers reported on their parenting behavior. At the third measurement moment, mothers, fathers, and children reported on the child's adjustment problems. Rank-order stability of the personality dimensions and overreactive parenting were high. Univariate latent growth models revealed mean-level decreases for extraversion, conscientiousness, and imagination. Mean levels of benevolence, emotional stability, and overreactive parenting were stable. Multivariate latent growth models revealed that decreases in extraversion and emotional stability predicted internalizing problems, whereas decreases in benevolence, conscientiousness, and emotional stability predicted externalizing problems. Increases in overreactive parenting predicted externalizing, but not internalizing problems. The associations were similar for boys and girls. The results indicate that changes in child personality and overreactive parenting during the transition to adolescence are associated with adolescent adjustment problems. Overall, child personality was more important than overreactive parenting, and children were more likely to "act out" than to "withdraw" in reaction to overreactive parenting.
"Other Teens Drink, But Not My Kid": Does Parental Awareness of Adolescent Alcohol Use Protect Adolescents from Risky Consequences?
Bogenschneider, Karen; Wu, Ming-yeh; Raffaelli, Marcela; Tsay, Jenner C.
Examines white mothers (n=199) and white fathers (n=144) of adolescents reporting regular alcohol use. Less than one third of parents were aware of their adolescents' drinking. Parental awareness of adolescent alcohol use served to protect adolescents by moderating the reaction of parents' responsiveness to episodes of drinking and driving.…
Perceived Parent-Adolescent Relationship, Perceived Parental Online Behaviors and Pathological Internet Use among Adolescents: Gender-Specific Differences
Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan
This study examined the associations between adolescents’ perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People’s Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents’ age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention. PMID:24098710
Neighborhood Contexts, Fathers, and Mexican American Young Adolescents' Internalizing Symptoms
White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.
The family stress model posits that contextual stressors, such as neighborhood danger, negatively influence youth adjustment, including internalizing symptoms, via disruptions in parenting and family processes. The current study examined a culturally and contextually modified family stress model in a diverse sample of Mexican-origin fathers and…
Effects of perceived support from mothers, fathers, and teachers on depressive symptoms during the transition to middle school.
Rueger, Sandra Yu; Chen, Pan; Jenkins, Lyndsay N; Choe, Hyung Joon
The transition to middle school can be a significant stressor for young adolescents, leading to increases in depression for those who are vulnerable. The current study examined how perceived support from mothers, fathers, and teachers independently and interactively predicted developmental patterns of depressive symptoms during adolescents' transition to middle school, and gender differences in these effects of social support. Four timepoints of data were collected from 1,163 participants (48.5 % boys) enrolled in an ethnically diverse suburban middle school in the Midwest between 1.25 and 20.50 months after these participants entered the 7th grade. The results from growth curve modeling indicated that levels of depressive symptoms decreased over time for boys but remained stable for girls during the developmental period examined. There is also evidence that support from mothers, fathers, and teachers independently and inversely predicted levels of depressive symptoms at the beginning of the 7th grade, and support from both mothers and fathers predicted changes in these symptoms. Effects of mothers' support and teachers' support, but not the effect of fathers' support, remained significant in reducing levels of depressive symptoms at 20.50 months from middle school entry. Furthermore, the protective effect of mothers' support was stronger for girls than for boys. Finally, mothers' support interacted with fathers' support and teachers' support to predict levels of depressive symptoms. Specifically, the protective effect of mothers' support was more salient when fathers' support was low, and vice versa. In contrast, support from mothers and teachers had an amplifying, synergistic effect.
Influences of maternal postpartum depression on fathers and on father-infant interaction.
Goodman, Janice H
Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) has been shown to negatively influence mother-infant interaction; however, little research has explored how fathers and father-infant interaction are affected when a mother is depressed. This study examined the influence of maternal PPD on fathers and identified maternal and paternal factors associated with father-infant interaction in families with depressed as compared with nondepressed mothers. A convenience sample of 128 mother-father-infant triads, approximately half of which included women with significant symptoms of PPD at screening, were recruited from a screening sample of 790 postpartum women. Mothers and fathers completed measures of depression, marital satisfaction, and parenting stress at 2 to 3 months' postpartum and were each videotaped interacting with their infants. Results indicate that maternal PPD is associated with increased paternal depression and higher paternal parenting stress. Partners of depressed women demonstrated less optimal interaction with their infants, indicating that fathers do not compensate for the negative effects of maternal depression on the child. Although mother-infant interaction did not influence father-infant interaction, how the mother felt about her relationship with the infant did, even more so than maternal depression. The links between maternal PPD, fathers, and father-infant interaction indicate a need for further understanding of the reciprocal influences between mothers, fathers, and infants. Copyright © 2008 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Cultural Predictors of the Parenting Cognitions of Immigrant Chinese Mothers and Fathers in Canada
Costigan, Catherine; Su, Tina F.
This study explored the predictors of parenting cognitions among 94 married immigrant Chinese couples with early-adolescent children in Canada. Mothers and fathers separately completed questionnaires assessing their culturally based parenting cognitions (interdependent childrearing goals, family obligation expectations and Chinese parent role…
Parental Qualities as Predictors of Adolescent Conformity: Perceptions from Adolescents, Mothers, and Fathers.
Henry, Carolyn S.; Peterson, Gary W.
The purpose of this study was to examine how adolescent and parental perceptions of selected parental qualities predicted adolescent conformity to parental expectations, using symbolic interaction as a conceptual foundation. Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 326 families with adolescents. Four separate multiple…
Psychological functioning and predictors of father-infant relationship in IVF fathers and controls.
Hjelmstedt, Anna; Collins, Aila
The psychological functioning of fathers with children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF) has received little attention. Among men in general, little is known about predictors of early father-infant relationship (here also defined as attachment). The first aim was to compare IVF fathers and control fathers regarding personality traits, state anxiety, depressive symptoms and early father-infant attachment. The second aim was to assess whether early father-infant relationship is explained by the father's prenatal relationship with the unborn infant, his personality traits, state anxiety and symptoms of depression. Fifty-three IVF fathers and 36 controls filled in self-rating scales measuring father-infant attachment, personality, anxiety and symptoms of depression at 2 months postpartum. At gestational week 26 their prenatal relationship to the unborn infant was assessed. It was found that IVF fathers rated more somatic and psychic anxiety, indirect aggression and less assertiveness. They were as strongly attached to their infant as the controls. Fathers, who had rated higher attachment to their unborn infant during pregnancy, who were less anxious, more assertive and less irritable, were more attached to their infants than men who had been less attached to their unborn infants and who were more anxious, less assertive and more irritable. In conclusion, although IVF fathers are as strongly attached to their infants as other fathers, they may benefit from emotional support as they have elevated levels of anxiety proneness and indirect aggression. It is important to pay attention during pregnancy to fathers who have a less optimal attachment to their unborn infant and who have high levels of anxiety and irritability, as those three factors are related to a weak emotional father-infant relationship.
Family Processes in Child Anxiety: the Long-Term Impact of Fathers and Mothers.
Stuart Parrigon, Kaela L; Kerns, Kathryn A
The current study investigated links between parent and child anxiety, and family process factors, over a 9 year period. Specifically, we examined the role of partner conflict, attachment security and parental autonomy granting in explaining changes in child, father, and mother anxiety symptoms. We utilized data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 661), from when target children were in first grade (6 years), fifth grade (10 years), and 15 years of age. We tested a longitudinal path model including both fathers and mothers, and found that the model was a good fit for the data. We also found that lower attachment security to fathers and a restriction of maternal autonomy granting predicted which children maintained anxiety into adolescence. Partner conflict explained the association between earlier and later parental anxiety, which is a novel finding in the literature. Together, these findings suggest that fathers play an important long-term role in child anxiety, alongside the role of mothers.
Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development: the role of adolescents' gender and nativity and parents' gender role attitudes.
Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A
Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican-American adolescents (N = 246; 51 % female), using four phases of longitudinal data across 8 years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers' and fathers' gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents' nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males' attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers', fathers', and adolescents' gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers' and adolescents' gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers' more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters', but not sons', more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective.
Mothers' and Fathers' Personality and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Sense of Competence
De Haan, Amaranta D.; Prinzie, Peter; Dekoviv, Maja
This prospective longitudinal study addressed 3 key questions regarding the processes of parenting in a large community sample of mothers (n = 589) and fathers (n = 518). First, the collective impact of parental Big Five personality dimensions on overreactive and warm parenting, assessed 6 years later by adolescents, was examined. Second,…
Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.
Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L
We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage.
Mothers', fathers', and siblings' perceptions of parents' differential treatment of siblings: Links with family relationship qualities.
Jensen, Alexander C; McHale, Susan M
A family systems perspective directs attention to the potentially different experiences and perspectives of family members. This study examined parents' differential treatment (PDT) of siblings, discrepancies between parent and youth reports of PDT, and their links with relationships between adolescents and their mothers and fathers across three years. Participants were first- (Time 1 M age = 15.71, SD = 1.07) and secondborn (Time 1 M age = 13.18, SD = 1.29) siblings from 381, predominately white, working and middle class families. Analyses revealed that siblings' perceptions of being favored predicted less conflict with and greater warmth from both mothers and fathers, primarily for secondborn adolescents. Larger discrepancies between maternal and youth reports of differential affection were linked to more maternal conflict and less warmth for firstborns. These findings may suggest a hierarchy within families: parents may serve as referents for firstborns and firstborns as referents for secondborns. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tales from the "hood:" placing reproductive health communication between African American fathers and children in context.
Ohalete, Nnenna; Georges, Jane; Doswell, Willa
To evaluate reproductive health communication between African American fathers and their children. In this qualitative ethnographic study, data were collected through tape-recorded individual interviews about the content and timing of reproductive health communication, the reproductive health values fathers intended to impart to their children, and their comfort level in doing so. A total sample of 19 African-American fathers participated. Data were coded according to the qualitative analytic principles established by Miles and Huberman (1994), and analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis approaches. Although 10 fathers reported feeling uncomfortable having these conversations, 18 reported having reproductive health communication with their children, and most encouraged their sons and daughters to delay sex until adulthood. These conversations were primarily driven by the fear of HIV/AIDS and the negative consequences of sex; however, some conversations were inappropriate for developmental age. African-American fathers may benefit from education to help them have age appropriate reproductive health communication with their children. Registered Nurses and Nurse Practitioners are well positioned to educate African American adolescents and their fathers on reproductive health. Future dyadic African American father-child studies are needed to explore more fully African-American children's perceptions of reproductive health communication and the effect on delaying sex.
Effects of parenting style on personal and social variables for Asian adolescents.
Ang, Rebecca P
Impact of perceived parenting style on adolescents' self-reliance, interpersonal relations, sense of inadequacy, and attitude to school, after controlling for effects of adolescents' self-esteem, was examined in a sample of 548 Asian adolescents. Fathers' perceived parenting style was significantly associated with adolescents' sense of inadequacy for the entire sample as well as for Chinese adolescents. Fathers' perceived parenting style was also significantly associated with Malay adolescents' self-reliance. Mothers' perceived parenting style was significant only for Malay adolescents' attitude to school. The meaning and consequences of parenting styles, in particular, the authoritarian parenting style, and the differential impact of paternal parenting style versus maternal parenting style on adolescent outcomes in an Asian context will be discussed. Implications for educators and mental health practitioners working with adolescents and their families will also be explored. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved
The Perceived Impact of Conflict on Adolescent Relationships.
Examined adolescents' perceptions of their daily conflicts in relationships with mothers, fathers, siblings, friends, romantic partners, and other peers and adults. Most adolescent conflicts were perceived as benign events with few positive or negative consequences for the relationship. Results suggest that adolescents recognize the fluidity and…
Are mothers' and fathers' parenting characteristics associated with emerging adults' academic engagement?
Waterman, Emily A; Lefkowitz, Eva S
Although parenting is clearly linked to academic engagement in adolescence, less is known about links between parenting and academic engagement in emerging adulthood. A diverse sample of college students ( N = 633; 53.1% female, 45.7% White/European American, 28.3% Asian American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 26.4% Hispanic/Latino American, 21.6% Black/African American, and 2.8% Native American/American Indian) answered surveys about mothers' and fathers' parenting style, parent-offspring relationship quality, academic attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic performance. Emerging adults with more permissive mothers viewed grades as less important than emerging adults with less permissive mothers. Mothers' authoritarian parenting, mothers' permissive parenting, and relationship quality with father were differentially related to academic engagement depending on emerging adults' gender. Both mothers' and fathers' parenting characteristics may impact the academic engagement of emerging adults via past parenting behaviors and current quality of the parent-offspring relationship, despite decreased physical proximity of emerging adults and their parents.
Adolescent males, fatherhood, and abortion.
Rothstein, A A
The event of elective abortion to terminate unplanned pregnancies brought to the fore and allowed exploration of issues of fatherliness normally latent and, therefore, not observable in adolescence. This is consistent with the psychoanalytic view that fatherly development is an ongoing process begun long before actual parenthood, encompassing an array of conflicts and themes which are conscious to varying degrees in different developmental stages. Issues expressed by the group of adolescent boys studied were compared with those described in the psychoanalytic literature. Most prominent were regressive wishes for nurturance, competition with one's own father, and efforts to meet paternal ego ideals of maturity and responsibility. Parturition envy and strivings for immortality through offspring were not expressed in this group. Themes of fatherliness were not exclusive; they became intertwined with normal tasks of adolescence and individual dynamics as is illustrated with a clinical case.
... themselves from Mom and Dad. The march toward autonomy can take myriad forms: less overt affection, more ... learning to anticipate the shifting currents of adolescent emotion, mothers and fathers may be struggling with some ...
Modelling the fathering role: Experience in the family of origin and father involvement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Full Text Available The study presented in this paper deals with the effects of experiences with father in the family of origin on the fathering role in the family of procreation. The results of the studies so far point to great importance of such experiences in parental role modelling, while recent approaches have suggested the concept of introjected notion or an internal working model of the fathering role as the way to operationalise the transgenerational transfer. The study included 247 two-parent couple families whose oldest child attended preschool education. Fathers provided information on self-assessed involvement via the Inventory of father involvement, while both fathers and mothers gave information on introjected experiences from the family of origin via the inventory Presence of the father in the family of origin. It was shown that father’s experiences from the family of origin had significant direct effects on his involvement in child-care. Very important experiences were those of negative emotional exchange, physical closeness and availability of the father, as well as beliefs about the importance of the father as a parent. Although maternal experiences from the family of origin did not contribute significantly to father involvement, shared beliefs about father’s importance as a parent in the parenting alliance had an effect on greater involvement in child-care. The data provide confirmation of the hypotheses on modelling of the fathering role, but also open the issue of the factor of intergenerational maintenance of traditional forms of father involvement in families in Serbia.
Physical activity among adolescents
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M
The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... to understand why some adolescents are physically active and others are not....
Influence of father-infant relationship on infant development: A father-involvement intervention in Vietnam.
Rempel, Lynn A; Rempel, John K; Khuc, Toan Nang; Vui, Le Thi
We examined the extent to which fathers can be taught and encouraged to develop positive relationships with their children, especially in infancy, and the effects of this fathering intervention on infant development. A multifaceted relationally focused intervention was used to assist fathers in Vietnam to engage in responsive direct and indirect involvement with their infants and work together with the mother as part of a parenting team. Fathers and mothers from 13 communes in a rural and semiurban district were recruited to the intervention group. Intervention fathers received group and individual counseling before and after birth, an interactive print resource, community messages about fathering, and the opportunity to participate in a Fathers Club. Couples from 12 comparable communes in a noncontiguous district were recruited to the control group. Fathers and mothers completed questionnaires at the prebirth recruitment and at 1-, 4-, and 9-months postbirth. Intervention fathers demonstrated greater increase in knowledge and attitudes regarding father-infant relationships. Both fathers and mothers reported that fathers engaged in more affection, care-taking, and play in the early months of their infants' lives and fathers felt more attached to their infants right from birth. A developmental assessment at 9 months showed that intervention infants demonstrated higher levels of motor, language, and personal/social development. This study demonstrated that fathers can be taught to interact more sensitively, responsively, and effectively with their newborn infants. Their increased interaction and emotional attachment appears to lay the foundation for enhanced infant development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Within-family conflict behaviors as predictors of conflict in adolescent romantic relations.
Darling, Nancy; Cohan, Catherine L; Burns, Andrew; Thompson, Louisa
Continuity in conflict behaviors from (a) adolescents' behavior with parents and their behavior with romantic partners and (b) from parents' marriage to adolescents' romantic relationships were examined in a sample of 58 mother-father-adolescent families and the adolescents' romantic partners. The social relations model was used to analyze within-family reports of own and partner conflict behavior. Mother-father consensus about adolescents' use of physical aggression was associated with romantic partners' reports of adolescents' physical aggression. Less functional behaviors observed during observed marital conflict were associated with a range of less functional conflict behaviors in adolescents' observed interactions with romantic partners, including withdrawal, verbal aggression, negativity, ineffective problem solving, and low cohesion. Within-family conflict and methodological issues in the use of partner and self-reports of conflict behaviors are discussed.
Blood pressure pattern of adolescent offsprings of hypertensive ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Blood pressure pattern of adolescent offsprings of hypertensive fathers in Lagos ... in adults which emphasizes the need to track blood pressure in children. ... are hypertensive while among adolescents with normotensive parents, 11.0% for ...
Father Involvement, Paternal Sensitivity, and Father-Child Attachment Security in the First Three Years
Brown, Geoffrey L.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia
To reach a greater understanding of the early father-child attachment relationship, this study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations among father involvement, paternal sensitivity, and father-child attachment security at 13 months and 3 years of age. Analyses revealed few associations among these variables at 13 months of age, but involvement and sensitivity independently predicted father-child attachment security at age 3. Moreover, sensitivity moderated the association between involvement and attachment security at 3 years. Specifically, involvement was unrelated to attachment security when fathers were highly sensitive, but positively related to attachment security when fathers were relatively less sensitive. Father involvement was also moderately stable across the two timepoints, but paternal sensitivity was not. Furthermore, there was significant stability in father-child attachment security from 13 months to 3 years. Secure attachment at 13 months also predicted greater levels of paternal sensitivity at 3 years, with sensitivity at age 3 mediating the association between 13 month and 3 year attachment security. In sum, a secure father-child attachment relationship a) was related to both quantity and quality of fathering behavior, b) remained relatively stable across early childhood, and c) predicted increased paternal sensitivity over time. These findings further our understanding of the correlates of early father-child attachment, and underscore the need to consider multiple domains of fathers’ parenting and reciprocal relations between fathering behavior and father-child attachment security. PMID:22468691
Pedersen, Frank A.; And Others
This document reports a study investigating the effects of father absence on measures of cognitive, social, and motivational development in infancy. The sample included 54 black infants, 27 of whom were classified "father-absent." This classification was based on two indices, (1) a dichotomy of father-absent or father-present based on…
Fathers matter: The role of father parenting in preschoolers' executive function development.
Meuwissen, Alyssa S; Carlson, Stephanie M
Although previous work has shown that mothers' parenting influences the development of child executive function (EF; important self-control skills developed during the preschool years), the role of fathers' parenting has not been thoroughly investigated. We observed fathers' autonomy support and control in dyadic play with their 3-year-old children (N pairs=110) and measured father and child EF independently with laboratory tasks. We found that fathers' controlling parenting was significantly inversely related to the child EF composite, above and beyond family income and child verbal ability. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fathers are important for the development of EF in their children and suggest that fathers should be included in both research and parenting interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hong Kong Chinese adolescents' self-reported smoking and perceptions of parenting styles.
Wang, Yun; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lo, Wing Sze; Lai, Hak Kan; Lam, Tai Hing
Adolescent smoking has been associated with general parenting style, although potential differences between fathers and mothers were seldom investigated, especially in non-Western populations. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between Hong Kong adolescents' smoking and their perceptions of paternal and maternal parenting styles. In a school-based survey in 2006-2007, 33,408 adolescents (44.6 % boys; mean age 14.5 ± 1.3 years) provided information on smoking and the frequency of care and control by each parent, who was classified into one of four adolescent-reported parenting styles: authoritative (high care, high control), authoritarian (low care, high control), permissive (high care, low control), or neglectful (low care, low control). Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of current smoking (past 30 days) for parenting variables, considering potential effect modification by age, sex and parental smoking. Maternal care and control were strongly and significantly associated with lower odds of adolescent current smoking. However, such association was weak for paternal care and observed only in girls. Conversely, paternal control was positively associated with current smoking, especially if the father smoked. The lowest AORs of current smoking were associated with authoritative mothers, permissive fathers and combinations of maternal and paternal parenting styles with an authoritative mother whether or not the father was authoritative. Maternal care, control and authoritative parenting were associated with lower odds of adolescent smoking in Hong Kong. Paternal care was only weakly associated with lower odds of adolescent smoking, and paternal control was even associated with higher odds of smoking.
How do post-divorce paternal and maternal family trajectories relate to adolescents' subjective well-being?
Bastaits, Kim; Pasteels, Inge; Mortelmans, Dimitri
Previous research on adolescents' well-being has focused mainly on the differences between married and divorced families. Recently, interest has shifted towards the cumulative effects of the various family transitions experienced by children. To contribute to this literature, we investigate the relationship of maternal and paternal family trajectories following divorce with adolescents' well-being by analyzing two dyadic subsamples of the 'Divorce in Flanders' study: mothers-adolescents (n = 515) and fathers-adolescents (n = 365). Results from the sequence analyses and structural equation models show that adolescents' well-being was lower if their mothers were in less stable partnership situations, namely if they had never repartnered, were in a LAT (living apart together) relationship or had had several relationships since their divorce. For fathers, the opposite result was found: adolescents' well-being was lower when their fathers were in seemingly stable partnership situations, i.e. if they had remarried or begun living with a new partner since their divorce. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parenting Stress of Parents of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Wiener, Judith; Biondic, Daniella; Grimbos, Teresa; Herbert, Monique
This study examined parenting stress among parents of adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 138 adolescents (84 ADHD, 52 boys, 32 girls; 54 non-ADHD, 24 boys, 30 girls) age 13 to 18 and their parents. Mothers (n = 135) and fathers (n = 98) of participating teens completed the Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents. Mothers and fathers of adolescents with ADHD reported more stress than parents of adolescents without ADHD with regard to their children's challenging behaviors (Adolescent domain stress). Mothers of adolescents with ADHD also reported that they experienced elevated levels of stress in terms of role restrictions, feelings of social alienation, conflict with their partner, feelings of guilt and incompetence (Parent domain stress), and relationship with their children (Adolescent-Parent Relationship domain stress; APR). The extent to which clinical levels of adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) symptoms or externalizing behavior in general were associated with parenting stress depended on the rater of these behaviors. Parenting stress was associated with higher levels of ODD and other externalizing behaviors when these behaviors were rated by parents but not when they were rated by teachers. In addition, over and above adolescent ADHD classification, mothers' self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with higher parenting stress in the Adolescent and Parent domains, and fathers' self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with lower APR stress. The results suggest directions that should be considered for addressing parenting stress when designing interventions for families of adolescents with ADHD.
Parent–Child Acculturation, Parenting, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Immigrant Families
Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Li, Jing; Huang, Xuan; Moon, Ui Jeong
Using a sample of 388 father–adolescent and 399 mother–adolescent dyads in Chinese immigrant families, the current investigation tested Portes and Rumbaut's (1996) assertion that generational dissonance may indicate a family context that places children at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Study findings suggest that a high discrepancy in father–adolescent acculturation levels relates significantly to more adolescent depressive symptoms. The study further demonstrates that the quality of the parenting relationship between fathers and adolescents operates as a mediator between father–adolescent acculturation discrepancy and adolescent depressive symptoms. Specifically, a high level of discrepancy in American orientation between fathers and adolescents is associated with unsupportive parenting practices, which, in turn, are linked to more adolescent depressive symptoms. These relationships are significant even after controlling for the influence of family socioeconomic status and parents’ and adolescents’ sense of discrimination within the larger society. PMID:19586205
Masculinities fathering and health: the experiences of African-Caribbean and white working class fathers.
Williams, Robert Alan
There is a developing body of research that investigates the links between masculinities and men's health experiences, but the links between masculinities and the health of fathers has been a neglected focus for research in the UK. This paper presents some of the findings drawn from a parent study which investigated African-Caribbean and white working class fathers' experiences of fathering, health and social connectedness. Data are drawn from interviews with 13 men (6 African-Caribbean and 7 White working class) living in a city in the West Midlands area of the UK. In this paper, I analyse and discuss African-Caribbean and white working class fathers' stories about the meaning of health, the influences upon their health, and their health practices. It was found that for the African-Caribbean fathers specifically, anticipated or perceived racist prejudice, abuse or discrimination influenced their health experiences. However, the meaning of health for both ethnic groups of fathers was as functional capacity, that is health was an asset that allowed fathers to meet the obligations of paid work and fathering. These obligations were also associated with a restricted sense of personal agency for the men interviewed, and the associated constraints were linked to transgressive consumption of alcohol, food and tobacco. In addition, fathers were also involved in solitary ways of dealing with their vulnerability, vulnerability that was associated with fathers' health concerns, and other difficult life experiences. Fathers' solitary experiences of vulnerability were also mediated by hegemonic forms of masculinity. Nevertheless, the experience of fathering within the lifecourse influenced men's health experiences: reflexivity and challenges to both transgressive consumption and solitary experiences were linked to fathers' perceived obligations to children. The significance of gender, ethnicity and social class for theory and future research with working class fathers and boys
Parent-adolescent relationships and its association to adolescents' self-esteem.
Yaacob, Mohd Jamil Bin
Psychoanalysts believed that early mother-child relationships form the prototype of all future relationships and the outcome of adolescents development depends on their ego-strength. Object relations theory believed that intrapsychic process mediates interpersonal interaction to develop a sense of secure self and adolescents must relinquish the internalized other in order to develop a more mature sense of self. Social-relation theory believed that mothers and fathers provide different socialization experiences. Self-esteem depends on the functioning of the whole family in which adolescent is intimately related to the dyadic relationship in a family. There is an association between interparental conflict and adolescent's self-esteem and problem behaviour.
Socioeconomic Differences in Parenting Strategies to Prevent Adolescent Smoking: A Case Study from the Netherlands
Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; Haal, Sylke; Kunst, Anton E.
Purpose This study aimed to identify possible socioeconomic differences in the use of anti-smoking parenting strategies. Methods In 2012, survey data of adolescents (N?=?225) aged 13 to 17?years and their mothers (N?=?122) and fathers (N?=?105) were collected in Haarlem, the Netherlands. Questions on smoking behaviour and eleven anti-smoking parenting strategies were answered by adolescents, mothers and fathers. School tracks of adolescents and educational level of parents were measured as in...
Comparison of mothers', fathers', and teachers' reports on problem behavior in 5-to 6-year-old children
Grietens, H; Onghena, P; Prinzie, P; Gadeyne, E; Van Assche, Kristof; Ghesquiere, P; Hellinckx, W
Evidence exists that there is low agreement between multiple informants reporting on children's and adolescents' behavior problems. Few studies, however, focus on agreement between informants in specific age groups. This study examined correspondence and disagreement between mother, father, and
Parent-Adolescent Conversations about Eating, Physical Activity and Weight: Prevalence across Sociodemographic Characteristics and Associations with Adolescent Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors
Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
This paper aims to describe the prevalence of parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight across sociodemographic characteristics and to examine associations with adolescent BMI, dietary intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Data from two linked epidemiological studies were used for cross-sectional analysis. Parents (n=3,424; 62% females) and adolescents (n=2,182; 53.2% girls) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Fathers reported more parent-adolescent conversations about healthful eating and physical activity with their sons and mothers reported more weight-focused conversations with their daughters. Parents of Hispanic/Latino and Asian/Hmong youth and parents from lower SES categories engaged in more conversations about weight and size. Adolescents whose mothers or fathers had weight-focused conversations with them had higher BMI percentiles. Adolescents who had two parents engaging in weight-related conversations had higher BMI percentiles. Healthcare providers may want to talk about the types of weight-related conversations parents are having with their adolescents and emphasize avoiding conversations about weight specifically. PMID:24997555
Heterogeneity in Perceptions of Parenting Among Arab Refugee Adolescents in Jordan.
Smetana, Judith G; Ahmad, Ikhlas
Heterogeneity in parenting was examined in 883 Arab refugee adolescents in Jordan (M age = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60). Latent profile analyses of five parenting dimensions rated separately for mothers and fathers yielded authoritative, authoritarian, indifferent, punitive, and for mothers, permissive profiles, with most mothers (60%) and fathers (66%) classified as authoritative. Parenting was more often authoritative for women than men and punitive (for fathers) or permissive (for mothers) of boys than girls. Authoritative fathers and authoritarian mothers were better educated than punitive parents, whose offspring reported more norm breaking and internalizing symptoms and lower academic achievement than other youth. Adjustment was better when adolescents had at least one authoritative parent than when parents were either consistent or discrepant but nonauthoritative. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Father Involvement, Nurturant Fathering, and the Psychological Well-Being of Young Adult Daughters
Peterson, Camille C.
The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between father involvement, nurturant fathering, and the psychological well-being among young adult women. A total of 99 young adult, female, university students completed retrospective measures of nurturant fathering, father involvement, and measures of current psychological well-being (measured in terms of self-esteem, life satisfaction, and psychological distress). Results indicated that retrospective perceptions of both fat...
Parental influences of sexual risk among urban African American adolescent males.
Harris, Allyssa L; Sutherland, Melissa A; Hutchinson, M Katherine
This study examined the influence of parental marital status, parent-child sexual communication, parent-child closeness on the HIV-related knowledge, safer-sex intentions, and behaviors of late adolescent urban African American males. The study employed a cross-sectional design with retrospective recall of salient parental influences and behaviors. Data were collected via paper-and-pencil questionnaire from 134 late adolescent African American males, 18 to 22 years of age, recruited from urban communities in and around Boston, Massachusetts. Data were analyzed using bivariate correlations, paired t tests, and regression modeling. Young men reported greater amounts of sexual communication with mothers than fathers (p fathers (p permissive sexual attitudes (p father-son communication and develop strategies to help parents communicate effectively with sons. Evidence has shown that African American adolescent males are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Understanding the sexual risk communication between African American adolescent males and their parents is important to developing strategies in reducing sexual risk behavior. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Family functioning and quality of parent-adolescent relationship: cross-sectional associations with adolescent weight-related behaviors and weight status.
Haines, Jess; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Horton, Nicholas J; Kleinman, Ken; Bauer, Katherine W; Davison, Kirsten K; Walton, Kathryn; Austin, S Bryn; Field, Alison E; Gillman, Matthew W
Little is known about how factors within the general family environment are associated with weight and related behaviors among adolescents/young adults. We studied 3768 females and 2614 males, 14-24 years old in 2011, participating in the Growing Up Today Study 2. We used generalized mixed models to examine cross-sectional associations of family functioning and quality of mother- and father-adolescent relationship with adolescent/young adult weight status, disordered eating, intake of fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages, screen time, physical activity, and sleep duration. In all models, we included participant's age and family structure. Eighty percent of participants reported high family functioning and 60% and 50% of participants reported high-quality mother and father relationship, respectively. Among both males and females, high family functioning was associated with lower odds of disordered eating (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] females = 0.53; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.45-0.63; AOR males = 0.48; CI = 0.39-0.60), insufficient physical activity, i.e., less than 1 h/day, (AOR females = 0.74; CI = 0.61-0.89; AOR males = 0.73; CI = 0.58-0.92), and insufficient sleep, i.e., less than 7 h/day, (AOR females = 0.56; CI = 0.45-0.68; AOR males = 0.65; CI 0.5-0.85). High family functioning was also associated with lower odds of being overweight/obese (AOR = 0.73; CI = 0.60-0.88) and eating fast food one or more times/week (AOR = 0.74; CI = 0.61-0.89) among females only. Among females, high-quality mother and father relationship were both associated with lower odds of being overweight/obese and disordered eating, eating fast food, and insufficient sleep and the magnitude of associations were similar for mother and father relationship quality (AOR range 0.61-0.84). Among males, high-quality mother and father relationship were both associated with lower odds of disordered eating, insufficient physical activity
Differential Parenting between Mothers and Fathers: Implications for Late Adolescents
McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly
Although the relationship between parenting and outcomes for children and adolescents has been examined, differences between maternal and paternal parenting styles have received less attention, particularly in the case of late adolescents. As a result, this article examines the relationship between late adolescents' perceptions of their mothers'…
Mothers and fathers of young Dutch adolescents with Down syndrome: Health related quality of life and family functioning.
Marchal, Jan Pieter; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Grootenhuis, Martha A
Like any child, children with Down syndrome (DS) affect the lives of their families. Most studies focus on the adaptation of parents and families of young children with DS, while relatively few studies include the perspective of fathers. To determine 1) whether mothers and fathers of 11 to 13-year-olds with DS differ from reference parents in health related quality of life (HRQoL) and family functioning, and 2) whether HRQoL in parents of children with DS changes over time, from when the child was 6-8 years old to when the child was 11-13 years old. 80 mothers and 44 fathers completed HRQoL and family functioning questionnaires. 58 parents (53 mothers) had completed the HRQoL-questionnaire in a previous study. Mothers differed from reference mothers in one HRQoL-domain (Sexuality), while fathers' HRQoL did not significantly differ from reference fathers. Both mothers and fathers scored in the (sub)clinical range more frequently than reference parents in Total family functioning, and in the domains Partner relation and Social network. Furthermore, fathers scored in the (sub)clinical range more frequently than reference parents in Responsiveness and Organization. HRQoL showed no significant change over time. Our findings indicate frequent family functioning problems but few HRQoL problems in parents and families of children with DS. In offering care, a family based approach with special attention for partner relation and social functioning is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Predictors of Involvement and Warmth of Custodial Fathers in Israel: Comparison with Married and Noncustodial Divorced Fathers.
Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Cohen, Orna
This study compared the levels and predictors of paternal warmth and involvement of 218 custodial fathers to 222 married fathers and 105 noncustodial (NC) divorced fathers in Israel. The examined predictors were fathers' perceptions of their own fathers; their own caregiving behaviors and parental self-efficacy; and child characteristics and coparental coordination. Results indicated that being a custodial father was associated with more involvement than being a married or NC divorced father. Regression analyses revealed that experience of care with own father predicted fathers' involvement, whereas own father control was related to lower paternal warmth. Lower avoidant caregiving and high paternal self-efficacy predicted both paternal involvement and warmth, whereas perceiving the child as more difficult predicted lower paternal warmth. Higher levels of coparental coordination were associated with more paternal involvement, whereas low coparental coordination was associated with less involvement, primarily among NC divorced fathers. These interactions highlight the distinct paternal behavior of custodial fathers. Unlike married and NC divorced fathers, they showed more warmth, regardless of their avoidant caregiving. Results are discussed in light of the different roles played by fathers in the three groups. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
The Development of Adolescents' Self-Concept of Ability through Grades 7-9 and the Role of Parental Beliefs
Pesu, Laura; Aunola, Kaisa; Viljaranta, Jaana; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study examined the development of adolescents' self-concept of ability in mathematics and literacy during secondary school, and the role that mothers' and fathers' beliefs concerning their child's abilities play in this development. Also examined was whether the role of mothers' and fathers' beliefs about their adolescent child's ability in…
Perceived relational support in adolescence: Dimensions, configurations, and adolescent adjustment
Scholte, R.H.J.; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Aken, M.A.G. van
The perceived relational support from four key providers (father, mother, special sibling, and best friend) on five provisions (quality of information, respect for autonomy, emotional support, convergence of goals, and acceptance) was examined for 2,262 adolescents (aged 12 – 18 years). In a
Care provided by the father to the child with cancer under the influence of masculinities: qualitative meta-synthesis
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Naiara Barros Polita
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To synthesize and interpret findings and conclusions of qualitative research addressing the experience of the father in the care of the child with cancer. Method: Meta-synthesis of 16 qualitative studies from six databases, analyzed through taxonomic analysis. Results: Child and adolescent cancer have several repercussions on the daily life of the father, especially related to the stigma around the disease, the fear of the unknown and the social and family role. Faced with the illness and the need to care for the child, the father seeks to recover normality in the family and transitions between hegemonic masculine behaviors and practices culturally recognized as female. Final Considerations: The complex experience of the father, influenced by masculinities, was evidenced. The limitations regard the restricted understanding of the contextual specificities of the experiences, due to the limited characteristics of the parents and children described in the studies. The knowledge produced is useful to promote involvement of fathers in the care of the child, as well as to strengthen and assist him in this task.
Associations of Adolescents' Cigarette, Waterpipe, and Dual Tobacco Use With Parental Tobacco Use.
Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Dierking, Leah; Kheriallah, Khalid; Mzayek, Fawaz; Pbert, Lori; Ward, Kenneth D
Previous studies have demonstrated the influence of parental (both mother and father) cigarette smoking on adolescents' cigarette smoking. Little is known, however, about how parental tobacco use is related to waterpipe and dual waterpipe/cigarette use, which is increasing dramatically in the Arab countries. Study data (n = 34 788, N = 6 109 572) were obtained from nationally representative Global Youth Tobacco Surveys in 17 Arab countries. Study outcome was adolescents' tobacco use categorized into none, cigarette smoking only, waterpipe smoking (WPS) only, and dual use. Primary exposure included parental tobacco use categorized into 10 groups-maternal (mother) cigarette smoking only, maternal WPS only, maternal dual use, paternal (father) cigarette smoking only, paternal WPS only, paternal dual use, parental (both mother and father) cigarette smoking only, parental WPS only, parental dual use, and none. Weighted multinomial regression models were conducted to assess the relationships. Adolescents reported smoking WPS only (5.7%), cigarettes only (2.9%), and dual use (3.5%). Compared to adolescent with no exposure to parental tobacco use, adolescent exposure to parental dual use was associated with significant increase in WPS only (OR = 6.08, 95% CI = 2.38-15.51) and dual use (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 1.43-10.43). Effect modification of the relationship by adolescents' sex was observed. This is the first study to examine adolescent cigarette, waterpipe, and dual use with parental tobacco use. Study findings may help development of cessation interventions targeting parental tobacco use to prevent the rising waterpipe and dual use strain of the global tobacco epidemic. (1) Influence of parents' cigarette smoking on adolescents' smoking has been demonstrated in earlier studies, however, little is known about how tobacco use behaviors of mother and father influences an adolescent's cigarette, waterpipe and dual cigarette/waterpipe use. (2) Associations of parental (both
Quality of life and parental styles assessed by adolescents suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases and their parents.
Jelenova, Daniela; Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Latalova, Klara; Karaskova, Eva; Hruby, Radovan; Kamaradova, Dana; Mihal, Vladimir
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in adolescents are chronic medical conditions with a substantial influence on the quality of life (QoL) of the families. A total of 27 adolescents suffering from IBD, 39 healthy adolescents, and their parents were included in the cross-sectional study. The adolescents completed the questionnaires ADOR (parenting styles), KidScreen-10 (QoL), SAD (The Scale of Anxiety in Children), and CDI (Children's Depression Inventory). The parents completed the BAI (Beck Anxiety Inventory), BDI-II (Beck Depression Inventory, second version), and PedsQL (Pediatrics Quality of Life) Family Impact Module. The parental styles of the parents of the IBD adolescents and controls were without significant differences. The only exception was that fathers' positive parental style was significantly higher in the fathers of the controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the IBD children and controls in the QoL assessed using KidScreen-10. However, the QoL of the parents of the ill children was significantly lower than that of the parents of the controls (PedsQL total scores in mothers 66.84±14.78 vs 76.17±14.65 and in fathers 68.86±16.35 vs 81.74±12.89, respectively). The mothers of the IBD adolescents were significantly more anxious (BAI scores 9.50±10.38 vs 5.26±4.75) and the fathers more depressed (BDI-II scores 7.23±6.50 vs 3.64±3.51) than the parents of the controls, but there was no difference in the levels of anxiety or depression between the IBD adolescents and the controls. The positive parental style of both the parents of the children suffering from IBD positively correlated with the QoL of the adolescents evaluated by KidScreen-10. The positive parental style of the fathers negatively correlated with the children's state and trait anxiety and negatively correlated with the severity of childhood depression. The fathers of the IBD adolescents may exhibit low levels of positive parenting style and be mildly
Yang, Chen Ning
Father (K. C. Yang (楊克純), 1896-1973) was a high school teacher in Anqing (安慶) in 1922 when I was born in Hefei (合肥). Anqing was then also called Huaining (懷寧). Father gave me the name Chen Ning, of which Chen was the name of my generation in our family, and Ning was derived from Huaining. Before I was one year old Father won an Anhui (安徽) Provincial Fellowship for studying in the USA. We had a family picture (Figure 1) taken in the courtyard outside our bedroom a few days before he left home. Father had on the traditional robe and coat, standing stiff and erect. He had probably up to that point never worn a western suit. Two years later he sent a picture (Figure 2) to Mother from the University of Chicago, in which his attire and bearing had both entered the twentieth century. Father was a handsome man. The exuberance and optimism of his youth were clearly captured in this photograph...
Intraindividual variability in adolescents' perceived relationship satisfaction: the role of daily conflict.
Van Doorn, Muriel D; Branje, Susan J T; Hox, Joop J; Meeus, Wim H J
A daily diary method was used to examine the daily dynamics of adolescent conflict and perceived relationship satisfaction with mothers, fathers, and best friends among a sample of 72 Dutch adolescents (M = 15.59 years). Multilevel analyses revealed that perceived relationship satisfaction with mothers, fathers, and best friends was lower on days on which conflict occurred with mothers, fathers, and best friends than on days on which no conflict occurred. More specifically, perceived relationship satisfaction was highest in a particular relationship on days when no conflict occurred, second highest on days on which constructive conflict occurred, and lowest on days on which unconstructive conflict occurred. Whereas in adolescents' relationships with their parents, conflict and perceived relationship satisfaction were not found to be related to each other one day later, conflict with their best friends-and especially unconstructive conflict-was found to be related to higher perceived relationship satisfaction one day later.
A Teenager Revisits Her Father's Death during Childhood: A Study in Resilience and Healthy Mourning
Hurd, Russell C.
"Debbie," 14, was 8 when her father died. During 4 interviews over 3 months, Debbie described the impact of his death as she progressed from childhood to adolescence. Themes drawn from her experience were related to theories of development, bereavement, and resilience. Triangulating interviews with her mother and brother established validity.…
Disagreement in Parental Reports of Father Involvement
Charles, Pajarita; Spielfogel, Jill; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Schoeny, Michael; Henry, David; Tolan, Patrick
Despite agreement on the value of father involvement in children’s lives, research has been limited due to the exclusion of fathers in studies, questionable validity of mothers’ reports on father involvement, and simple measures of fathering behavior. Our study extends previous research by comparing reports of father involvement using robust, multidimensional father involvement measures. Data from 113 fathers and 126 mothers reporting on 221 children were used to assess father involvement. Results indicate that fathers reported significantly higher levels of involvement than mothers reported. Findings from hierarchical linear models suggest that race/ethnicity and mothers’ reports of positive relationship quality were associated with smaller discrepancies in reports of father involvement, whereas nonmarried partnerships, older children, father residence, and biological status predicted larger discrepancies. Our study demonstrates the importance of obtaining father involvement reports directly from fathers and why father involvement should be assessed as a multidimensional construct to examine fathering behavior. PMID:29515272
The Longitudinal Relation between Academic Support and Latino Adolescents' Academic Motivation
Alfaro, Edna C.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.
This study examined whether longitudinal trajectories of academic support from mothers, fathers, and teachers predicted trajectories of Latino adolescents' (N = 323) academic motivation. Findings indicated those boys' perceptions of mothers' and fathers' academic support and girls' perceptions of mothers' academic support declined throughout high…
Parent-Child Shared Time From Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates
Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. Additionally, secondborns’ social time declined more slowly than firstborns’, and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. PMID:22925042
[Family communication styles, attitude towards institutional authority and adolescents' violent behaviour at school].
Estévez López, Estefanía; Murgui Pérez, Sergio; Moreno Ruiz, David; Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo
The purpose of present study is to analyse the relationship among certain family and school factors, adolescents' attitude towards institutional authority, and violent behaviour at school. The sample is composed of 1049 adolescents of both sexes and aged from 11 to 16 years old. Statistical analyses were carried out using structural equation modelling. Results indicate a close association between negative communication with father and violent behaviour in adolescence. Moreover, data suggest that teachers' expectations affect students' attitude towards institutional authority, which in turn is closely related to school violence. Finally, findings show an indirect influence of father, mother and teacher in adolescents' violent behaviour, mainly through their effect on family- and school-self-concept.
Adopted Adolescents' Preoccupation with Adoption: The Impact on Adoptive Family Relationships.
Kohler, Julie K.; Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.
Examines relationship between intensity of adopted adolescents' thinking about their adoptions and their adoptive family relationships in 135 adopted adolescents. Adolescents with extremely high levels of preoccupation reported significantly higher levels of alienation and significantly lower levels of trust for their adoptive mothers and fathers.…
Who are the fathers in Healthy Families Arizona? An examination of father data in at-risk families.
Shapiro, Alyson F; Krysik, Judy; Pennar, Amy L
Despite substantial research documenting the importance of father-child relations, little is known about fathers in families considered at risk for child abuse, and this lack of information makes adequate targeting of fathers in interventions challenging. This research aims to provide information that will aid interventions in targeting fathers and addressing father-related family issues through: (a) providing descriptive information regarding fathers in families at risk for child abuse, and (b) examining aspects of family well-being relative to father involvement. Analyses were conducted on mother-report data in families eligible for the Healthy Families Arizona prevention program (N = 197). Results indicated that although only 15% of parents in the sample were married, 47% of families had resident fathers, and 77% of fathers had some contact with their new babies. Families with greater father involvement had better prenatal care, higher incomes, less maternal involvement in Child Protective Services, less physical domestic violence (DV), and greater maternal mental health reflected through less loneliness. These findings have implications for targeting nonresident as well as resident fathers in families at risk for child abuse and for exploring DV issues in families with noninvolved fathers. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer
involved’ perform better during the early years than their peers with less involved fathers. This paper analyses data of four OECD countries — Australia; Denmark; United Kingdom; United States — to describe how leave policies may influence father’s behaviours when children are young and whether...... their involvement translates into positive child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. This analysis shows that fathers’ leave, father’s involvement and child development are related. Fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when...
Identification and Prediction of Drinking Trajectories in Early and Mid-Adolescence
Van Der Vorst, Haske; Vermulst, Ad A.; Meeus, Wim H. J.; Dekovic, Maja; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of early and mid-adolescents with different drinking trajectories. In addition, we examined whether gender, parental, and peer factors predicted adolescents' membership of these drinking trajectories. We used longitudinal data of 428 families (fathers, mothers, mid-adolescents, and their younger…
Fathers Matter: The Role of Father Autonomy Support and Control in Preschoolers' Executive Function Development
Meuwissen, Alyssa S.; Carlson, Stephanie M.
Although previous work has shown that mothers' parenting influences the development of child executive function (important self-control skills developed in the preschool years) the role of fathers' parenting has not been thoroughly investigated. We observed fathers' autonomy support and control in dyadic play with their 3-year-old children (N pairs = 110), and measured father and child EF independently with laboratory tasks. We found that fathers' controlling parenting was significantly inversely related to the child EF composite, above and beyond family income and child verbal ability. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fathers are important for the development of EF in their children, and suggest fathers should be included in both research and parenting interventions. PMID:26209884
When Fathering Fails: Violence, Narcissism, and the Father Function in Ancient Tales and Clinical Analysis.
Diamond, Michael J
Manifestations of failures in both symbolic and actual flesh-and-blood fathering reveal the inescapable role played by the father's unconscious transmissions in the ever present triadic matrix. Perelberg's crucial distinction between the murdered narcissistic father and the dead symbolic father suggests the problematic internalizations that fail to uphold the paternal law required for oedipal resolution. Three father-child narratives derived from classical literature and mythology are presented in order to elucidate significant unconscious paternal fantasies pertaining to lethal rivalry and neglect of the child's otherness. These narratives suggest how the father's insufficient management of rivalrous, envious, and murderously aggressive impulses-as well as narcissistic needs that fail to take into account the child's alterity-combine with the child's intrapsychic propensities to constrict triangular space and restrict development. Consequently, unavoidable father-child rivalries, absences, neglect, and desires often make it vital to recover the "missing" paternal function in analytic space. A clinical example illustrates the impact of this absence on the analyst's countertransference.
Southeast Asian Fathers’ Experiences with Adolescents: Challenges and Change
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Daniel F. Detzner
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the fathering experiences of Southeast Asian immigrant men who are parenting their adolescent children in the United States. Focus group discussions were conducted with twenty-two Cambodian, Hmong, Lao, and Vietnamese immigrant fathers. The study found that most fathers wanted to become closer to their children and be more involved in their children’s daily activities. Common fathering roles such as the family provider, teacher, supervisor, and disciplinarian also emerged from the analyses. Parent educators, social service providers, policy makers, and practitioners who work with Southeast Asian families should understand the complex and critical roles of fathers and includethem when designing, developing, and delivering programs and services for families.
Values that Fathers Communicate to Sons about Sex, Sexuality, Relationships, and Marriage.
Coakley, Tanya M; Randolph, Schenita D; Shears, Jeffrey; Collins, Patrick
African American males between ages 13 and 24 are disproportionately affected by unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV/AIDS; indeed, they account for 50% of HIV infections among all youth. Clear communication between parents and their youth about sex is associated with higher rates of sexual abstinence, condom use, and intent to delay initiation of sexual intercourse, which can prevent STIs and unintended pregnancy. However, barriers exist for parents to educate their youth about sexual health. The purpose of this article is to explore the values fathers communicate to their sons to prevent their risky sexual behaviors that lead to STIs, HIV, and adolescent parenthood. This was a qualitative study conducted from May and June 2015. African American fathers (N = 29) who had sons, ages 10 to 15 years, participated in five focus groups across metropolitan and rural North Carolina communities in barbershops. A qualitative content analysis revealed four themes regarding areas that fathers imparted their values onto their sons to protect them from sexual health risks: (a) sex, (b) sexuality, (c) relationships, and (d) marriage. The findings have implications for social work and public health practice.
Father Involvement with Three-to-Four-Year Olds at Home: Giving Fathers a Chance
Betawi, Iman Amy; Abdel Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil; AL Jabery, Mohammad. A.; Zaza, Haidar Ibrahim; Al-Shboul, Muhannad
This study examined fathers' perceptions regarding their home-based activities (HBA) and the influence of fathers' demographic characteristics on their perceptions and practices at home. A total of 396 fathers completed a survey questionnaire describing their demographic information, perceptions and their practices regarding their involvement in…
Full-Time, Part-Time Full-Time, and Part-Time Fathers: Father Identities Following Divorce
Troilo, Jessica; Coleman, Marilyn
This grounded theory study examined how 20 newly divorced, nonresidential fathers manage their fatherhood identities. The theory created from this study proposes that fathers' perceptions of (a) father-child relationships, (b) how their children's fiscal needs are met, and (c) barriers to their physical interactions with their children influence…
Influence of Father-Infant Relationship on Infant Development: A Father-Involvement Intervention in Vietnam
Rempel, Lynn A.; Rempel, John K.; Khuc, Toan Nang; Vui, Le Thi
We examined the extent to which fathers can be taught and encouraged to develop positive relationships with their children, especially in infancy, and the effects of this fathering intervention on infant development. A multifaceted relationally focused intervention was used to assist fathers in Vietnam to engage in responsive direct and indirect…
Does Research on Children Reared in Father-absent Families Yield Information on Father Influences?
Pedersen, Frank A.
The most frequently employed research design for studying paternal influences on child development has been to compare children reared in father-absent families to those reared in father-present families. Research should be directed to the study and conceptualization of the more specific components of experience in the father-child and…
QUALITY OF FAMILY INTERACTIONS AND ADOLESCENT'S PERSONALITY TRAITS
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Full Text Available Family as the basic social unit is the primary environment of the development of an individual. In the family setting an individual satisfies (or should satisfy the basic human needs such as the need for safety and love. In the studies of patterns of unadapted behavior of children and adolescents, temperament is most often stated as the key human characteristic feature that is the most important predictor in the development of unadapted and antisocial forms of behavior. The survey of dispositional empirically identified and inheritance-determined characteristics has been described in detail by Eysenck’s dimensional model of personality through mutually orthogonal and bipolar characteristics: Neuroticism, Extraversion and Psychoticism. The formation of these dispositional characteristics is closely related to parents’ sensitivity to child’s needs and the level of parents’ engagement in their parental role. Therefore, the aim of this research was to examine to what extent the assessment of the quality of the relationship with parents is an important predictor for explaining the basic dimensions of adolescents’ personalities. The research was conducted on an appropriate sample of 135 adolescents, students of the Faculty of Philosophy in Tuzla. The results confirm that the aspects of negative relationships with mother and father are important predictors for explaining dimensions of Neuroticism and Psychoticism, which are very significant correlations of unadapted and antisocial behavior. Also, the results indicate less significant importance of positive relations with mother and father for explaining dependent research variables since it is presumed that positive relations act more as a protective factor whereas the assessment of negative relationships with parents is certainly more important, especially for the dimensions related to bad adaptation of adolescents. The results also indicate equal importance of mother and father in the
Parenting characteristics in the home environment and adolescent overweight: a latent class analysis.
Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Bauer, Katherine W; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Parenting style and parental support and modeling of physical activity and healthy dietary intake have been linked to youth weight status, although findings have been inconsistent across studies. Furthermore, little is known about how these factors co-occur, and the influence of the coexistence of these factors on adolescents' weight. This article examines the relationship between the co-occurrence of various parenting characteristics and adolescents' weight status. Data are from Project EAT (eating among teens), a population-based study of 4,746 diverse adolescents. Theoretical and latent class groupings of parenting styles and parenting practices were created. Regression analyses examined the relationship between the created variables and adolescents' BMI. Having an authoritarian mother was associated with higher BMI in sons. The co-occurrence of an authoritarian mother and neglectful father was associated with higher BMI for sons. Daughters' whose fathers did not model or encourage healthy behaviors reported higher BMIs. The co-occurrence of neither parent modeling healthy behaviors was associated with higher BMIs for sons, and incongruent parental modeling and encouraging of healthy behaviors was associated with higher BMIs in daughters. Although, further research into the complex dynamics of the home environment is needed, findings indicate that authoritarian parenting style is associated with higher adolescent weight status and incongruent parenting styles and practices between mothers and fathers are associated with higher adolescent weight status.
Cabrera, Natasha J; Roggman, Lori
Both mothers and fathers play with their children, but research on parent-child play interactions is conducted with mothers three times more often than it is with fathers. The articles in this special issue address this gap by focusing on the nature and quality of father-child play, across cultural contexts, and considering whether father play offers something unique and special for early human development, in infancy or early childhood. The studies show that fathers can be just as developmentally supportive as are mothers in terms of being playful and engaged with their children in ways that are related to greater child socioemotional competence, emotion regulation, and vocabulary, and to less aggression, anxiety, and negativity. We encourage future research to examine the cultural influences, family system dynamics, and specificity of timing and types of father-child play in relation to children's developmental competence. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Involving fathers in teaching youth about farm tractor seatbelt safety--a randomized control study.
Jinnah, Hamida Amirali; Stoneman, Zolinda; Rains, Glen
Farm youth continue to experience high rates of injury and deaths as a result of agricultural activities. Farm machinery, especially tractors, is the most common cause of casualties to youth. A Roll-Over Protection Structure (ROPS) along with a fastened seatbelt can prevent almost all injuries and fatalities from tractor overturns. Despite this knowledge, the use of seatbelts by farmers on ROPS tractors remains low. This study treats farm safety as a family issue and builds on the central role of parents as teachers and role models of farm safety for youth. This research study used a longitudinal, repeated-measures, randomized-control design in which youth 10-19 years of age were randomly assigned to either of two intervention groups (parent-led group and staff-led group) or the control group. Fathers in the parent-led group were less likely to operate ROPS tractors without a seatbelt compared with other groups. They were more likely to have communicated with youth about the importance of wearing seatbelts on ROPS tractors. Consequently, youth in the parent-led group were less likely to operate a ROPS tractor without a seatbelt than the control group at post-test. This randomized control trial supports the effectiveness of a home-based, father-led farm safety intervention as a promising strategy for reducing youth as well as father-unsafe behaviors (related to tractor seatbelts) on the farm. This intervention appealed to fathers' strong motivation to practice tractor safety for the sake of their youth. Involving fathers helped change both father as well as youth unsafe tractor-seatbelt behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Family meals. Associations with weight and eating behaviors among mothers and fathers.
Berge, Jerica M; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Few studies have looked at the relationship between family meals and adult weight and health behaviors. The current study investigates the association between frequency of family meals and mothers' and fathers' body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, dieting behaviors and binge eating. Data from Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current analysis. Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse mothers and fathers (n=3488) of adolescents participating in a multi-level population-based study (EAT 2010) completed surveys mailed to their homes. Predicted means or probabilities were calculated for each outcome variable at each level of family meal frequency. Interactions between race/ethnicity and marital status with family meals were evaluated in all models. Overall, results indicated that having more frequent family meals was associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables for mothers and fathers, after adjusting for age, educational attainment, marital status and race/ethnicity. Other findings including less fast food intake for fathers and fewer dieting and binge eating behaviors for mothers were significantly associated with family meal frequency, but not consistently across all family meal categories or with BMI. Interactions by race/ethnicity and marital status were non-significant, indicating that family meals may be important for more healthful dietary intake across race and marital status. Future research should confirm findings in longitudinal analyses to identify temporality and strength of associations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fathers and the well-child visit.
Garfield, Craig F; Isacco, Anthony
Societal and economic shifts have expanded the roles that fathers play in their families. Father involvement is associated with positive cognitive, developmental, and sociobehavioral child outcomes such as improved weight gain in preterm infants, improved breastfeeding rates, higher receptive language skills, and higher academic achievement. However, father involvement in health care has been studied little, especially among nonmarried, minority fathers. Fathers are a significant part of the child's medical home, and comprehensive involvement of both parents is ideal for the child's well-being and health. Well-child visits (WCVs) represent opportunities for fathers to increase their involvement in their child's health care while learning valuable information about the health and development of their child. The objective of this study was to explore fathers' involvement in, experience and satisfaction with, and barriers to WCVs using qualitative methods. In-depth, semistructured, qualitative interviews were conducted in 2 cities with a subsample of fathers who were participating in the national Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. The 32 fathers who participated in our study come from a nested qualitative study called Time, Love, and Cash in Couples with Children. Fathers in our study reside in Chicago or Milwaukee and were interviewed about health care issues for 1.5 hours when the focal child was 3 years of age. Questions focused on the father's overall involvement in his child's health care, the father's attendance and experiences at the doctor, health care decision-making between mother and father, assessment of focal child's health, gender/normative roles, and the father's health. The open-ended questions were designed to allow detailed accounts and personal stories as told by the fathers. Coding and analysis were done using content analysis to identify themes. Particular themes that were used for this study focused on ideals of father involvement and
Parent-child shared time from middle childhood to late adolescence: developmental course and adjustment correlates.
Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C
The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. In addition, secondborns' social time declined more slowly than firstborns', and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Fathers' Representation in Observational Studies on Parenting and Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review and Content Analysis.
Davison, Kirsten K; Gicevic, Selma; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Ganter, Claudia; Simon, Christine L; Newlan, Sami; Manganello, Jennifer A
The involvement of fathers in caregiving has increased substantially over the past 30 years. Yet in child and adolescent psychopathology, few studies include fathers as research participants and few present results for fathers separate from those for mothers. We test for the first time whether a similar pattern exists in research on parenting and childhood obesity. To conduct a systematic review and quantitative content analysis of observational studies on parenting and childhood obesity to (1) document the inclusion of fathers, relative to mothers, as research participants and (2) examine characteristics of studies that did and did not include fathers. This study presents new data on the number and gender of parent research participants. We searched title, abstract, and Medical Subject Headings term fields in 5 research databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Academic Search Premier, PsycINFO, and CINAHL) using terms combining parents or parenting (e.g., mother, father, caregiver, parenting style, food parenting) and obesity (e.g., obesity, body weight, overweight) or obesity-related lifestyle behaviors (e.g., diet, snacking, physical activity, outdoor play, exercise, media use). We identified and screened studies as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) published between January 2009 and December 2015, examining links between parenting and childhood obesity, including parents or caregivers as research participants, and written in English. We excluded interventions, nonhuman studies, dissertations, conference abstracts, and studies on youths with specific medical conditions. Of 5557 unique studies, 667 studies were eligible. For each of the 667 studies, 4 coders were trained to code characteristics of the study (e.g., publication year, geographic region, journal, study focus) and parent research participants (e.g., parent gender, demographic background, biological relationship with child, and residential status). We established
A Single Father's Shopping Bag: Purchasing Decisions in Single-Father Families
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Using data from the 1980 to 2003 panels of the Consumer Expenditure Survey, this article examines purchasing decisions in father-headed single-parent families. Single-father expenditures are compared to both married-parent expenditures and single-mother expenditures on 17 broad categories of household-level goods and services. Multivariate…
75 FR 35947 - Father's Day, 2010
... and love. Fathers are our first teachers and coaches, mentors and role models. They push us to succeed... in many forms, and children may be raised by a father and mother, a single father, two fathers, a... liberties of all American children. For the character they build, the doors they open, and the love they...
Identification and Prediction of Drinking Trajectories in Early and Mid-Adolescence
Vorst, H. van der; Vermulst, A.A.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Dekovic, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of early and mid-adolescents with different drinking trajectories. In addition, we examined whether gender, parental, and peer factors predicted adolescents' membership of these drinking trajectories. We used longitudinal data of 428 families (fathers,
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORPHANHOOD STATUS, LIVING ARRANGEMENTS AND SEXUAL DEBUT: EVIDENCE FROM FEMALES IN MIDDLE ADOLESCENCE IN SOUTHERN AFRICA.
Shoko, Mercy; Ibisomi, Latifat; Levin, Jonathan; Ginsburg, Carren
SummaryThis study examined the relationship between orphanhood status, living arrangements and sexual debut. The study is important in the context of southern Africa, where a substantial number of children live apart from their parents because the parent is dead or living elsewhere, and where female adolescents face disproportionate sexual and reproductive health risks. Data for female adolescents were taken from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in seven southern African countries. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios of sexual debut were estimated using Cox Proportional Hazard models. The results from multivariate analyses showed that non-co-residence with biological parents was significantly associated with higher risk of sexual debut in five of the seven countries. Using pooled data, the results showed that father absence was associated with higher risk of sexual debut - whether the father was deceased or living elsewhere. Interventions to delay sexual debut among female adolescents should seek to promote father-adolescent co-residence and improve access to education.
Hopelessness, Parent-Adolescent Communication, and Suicidal Ideation among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong
Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. Lai; Shek, Daniel T. L.
Based on the responses of 5,557 Chinese secondary students in Hong Kong, the relationships among perceived hopelessness, family functioning, and suicidal ideation were examined. Results showed that suicidal ideation was positively related to hopelessness, but negatively related to parent-adolescent communication. Compared with father-adolescent…
Father Beliefs as a Mediator between Contextual Barriers and Father Involvement
Freeman, Harry; Newland, Lisa A.; Coyl, Diana D.
Fathers' beliefs were examined as mediators between multiple risk factors and involvement practices with children age zero to five enrolled in Head Start or Early Head Start. A diverse sample of 101 fathers, living in rural Midwestern communities of the USA completed questionnaires assessing "mediators" (i.e. parenting efficacy, role beliefs, and…
The Relationship between Academic Stress and Two Aspects of Father Involvement among University Student Fathers
Masciadrelli, Brian P.; Milardo, Robert M.
This study investigated the associations between academic stress experienced by university student fathers and the behavioral and cognitive involvement these fathers had with their children. Fifty-three fathers enrolled in university classes and residing with at least one child less than 12 years of age responded to questionnaire measures of…
Smoking practices and nicotine dependence among adolescents in Pakistan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Objective: To find out the smoking prevalence and associated factors among in-school and out-of-school adolescents and their nicotine dependence. Method: The cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2008 comprising 1014 adolescents aged 12-18 years residing in two rural districts of Sindh and Punjab. Trained interviewers collected information from the adolescents regarding age, ethnicity, religion, occupation and education of parents, smoking behaviour, smoking history of family/friend, type of family system, number of siblings and place of residence. Statistical package Epi-Info version 6 was used to enter the data and analysis was performed by using SPSS version 12. Results: Overall smoking prevalence among the 1014 adolescents was 15.2%, with significant gender stratification (7.9% among girls versus 20.2% among boys). Of these, 50% were moderately nicotine dependent. However, the prevalence among in-school adolescents (14.6%) was not significantly different from out-of-school adolescents (16.1%). The factors associated with adolescents smoking were father's illiteracy (adjusted odds ratio [OR]= 8.2), friend's smoking (adjusted OR=6.8), father's smoking (adjusted OR=5.4) and nuclear family setup (adjusted OR=3.6). When explored for the first place of smoking, friend's home was mentioned by majority of adolescents boys and girls. Conclusion: Although there was a significant difference found between the prevalence of smoking among adolescent males and females, but any difference among in-school and out-of-school adolescents smoking prevalence could not be established. (author)
Parenting Practices, Parental Attachment and Aggressiveness in Adolescence: A Predictive Model
Gallarin, Miriam; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar
The aim of this study was twofold: a) to test the mediation role of attachment between parenting practices and aggressiveness, and b) to clarify the differential role of mothers and fathers with regard to aggressiveness. A total of 554 adolescents (330 girls and 224 boys), ages ranging between 16 and 19, completed measures of mothers' and fathers'…
Parenting Needs of Urban, African American Fathers.
Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L
Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers. © The Author(s) 2014.
Are fathers underused advocates for breastfeeding?
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Fathers\\' knowledge base and attitudes influence breastfeeding practice. We aimed to evaluate if Irish fathers felt included in the breastfeeding education and decision process. 67 fathers completed questionnaires, which assessed their role in the decision to breastfeed, knowledge regarding the benefits of breastfeeding and attitude towards breastfeeding.Forty-two (62.7%) of their partners were breastfeeding. Antenatal classes were attended by 38 (56.7%); 59 (88.1%) discussed breastfeeding with their partners and 26 (38.8%) felt that the decision was made together. Twelve (48%) fathers of formula fed infants were unaware that breastfeeding was healthier for the baby. Most fathers (80.6%) felt that breastfeeding was the mother\\'s decision and most (82.1%) felt that antenatal information was aimed at mothers only. Irish fathers remain relatively uninformed regarding the benefits of breastfeeding. This may contribute to their exclusion from the decision to breastfeed. Antenatal education should incorporate fathers more, and this may result in an improvement in our breastfeeding rates.
The development of personality extremity from childhood to adolescence: relations to internalizing and externalizing problems.
Van den Akker, Alithe L; Prinzie, Peter; Deković, Maja; De Haan, Amaranta D; Asscher, Jessica J; Widiger, Thomas
This study investigated the development of personality extremity (deviation of an average midpoint of all 5 personality dimensions together) across childhood and adolescence, as well as relations between personality extremity and adjustment problems. For 598 children (mean age at Time 1 = 7.5 years), mothers and fathers reported the Big Five personality dimensions 4 times across 8 years. Children's vector length in a 5-dimensional configuration of the Big Five dimensions represented personality extremity. Mothers, fathers, and teachers reported children's internalizing and externalizing problems at the 1st and final measurement. In a cohort-sequential design, we modeled personality extremity in children and adolescents from ages 6 to 17 years. Growth mixture modeling revealed a similar solution for both mother and father reports: a large group with relatively short vectors that were stable over time (mother reports: 80.3%; father reports: 84.7%) and 2 smaller groups with relatively long vectors (i.e., extreme personality configuration). One group started out relatively extreme and decreased over time (mother reports: 13.2%; father reports: 10.4%), whereas the other group started out only slightly higher than the short vector group but increased across time (mother reports: 6.5%; father reports: 4.9%). Children who belonged to the increasingly extreme class experienced more internalizing and externalizing problems in late adolescence, controlling for previous levels of adjustment problems and the Big Five personality dimensions. Personality extremity may be important to consider when identifying children at risk for adjustment problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Parenting behaviors of homosexual and heterosexual fathers.
Bigner, J J; Jacobsen, R B
Responses of 33 homosexual (gay) fathers were compared with those of 33 heterosexual (nongay) fathers on the Iowa Parent Behavior Inventory, an empirical measure of dimensions of parenting behavior. Gay fathers did not differ significantly from nongay fathers in their reported degree of involvement nor in intimacy level with children. Gay fathers tended to be more strict, more responsive to children's needs, and to provide reasons for appropriate behavior to children more consistently than nongay fathers. Several explanations are explored for these similarities and differences in parenting styles.
Transmission of values from adolescents to their parents: the role of value content and authoritative parenting.
Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K
The intergenerational transmission of values is a bidirectional process. To date, however, adolescents' influence on parental values has rarely been investigated. In the present study, we analyzed the transmission of values from adolescents (aged 11 to 17 years) to their mothers and fathers across a one-year interval in 431 mother-child dyads and 346 father-child dyads. Transmission of values from adolescents to parents was observed regarding topics that are salient in adolescence (the usefulness of new technology, beliefs concerning the traditional way of life, the importance of religion) but not regarding topics that become salient later. In addition, the transmission of adolescents' values to their parents was mainly observed in families with above-average levels of authoritative parenting (i.e., parents are receptive and supportive). However, adolescents' religious values were also transmitted to their parents in families with below-average levels of authoritative parenting. Transmission of values from parents to adolescents was also investigated.
The Relation between Family Structure and Young Adolescents' Appraisals of Family Climate and Parenting Behavior.
Kurdek, Lawrence A.; Fine, Mark A.
Young adolescents who lived with both biological parents, single divorced mother, single divorced father, mother and stepfather, father and stepmother, or multiply divorced parent appraised dimensions of family climate and dimensions of parenting. Differences among family structures were found on warmth, conflict, permissive parenting, and…
Fathers online: learning about fatherhood through the internet.
Stgeorge, Jennifer M; Fletcher, Richard J
In the transition to fatherhood, men face numerous challenges. Opportunities to learn new practices and gain support are limited, although the provisions of father-specific spaces such as fathers' antenatal classes or "responsible fathering" programs are important advances. This article explores how men use the social space of a father-specific Internet chat room to learn about fathering. Messages to an Australian-hosted, father-specific chat room (for fathers of infants or young children) were examined, and three overlapping themes illustrated men's perceptions of their transition to fatherhood. The themes concerned recognition of and response to a lack of social space, services, and support for new fathers. The implications for fathers' perinatal education are discussed.
Planned gay father families in kinship arrangements
The current study examined whether there are differences between gay father families (n = 36) and heterosexual families (n = 36) on father-child relationship, fathers' experiences of parental stress and children's wellbeing. The gay fathers in this study all became parents while in same-sex
Fathers in Context: Comparative Analysis of Father Involvement in Bulgaria and the Netherlands
N.A. Conkova (Nina); B.E. Ory (Brett)
markdownabstractThis report compares father involvement with their children in Bulgaria and the Netherlands by examining country differences in family formation patterns, policy context, and cultural prescriptions regarding family life. In studying the time fathers spend with their children, it is
Addressing the needs of first-time fathers in Tasmania: A qualitative study of father-only antenatal groups.
To examine how first-time fathers in rural Tasmania experienced father-only antenatal support/education groups. Semistructured interviews with expectant fathers were used for this study. Purposive sampling was used to recruit fathers in 2014. Participants were recruited face-to-face via email through a government health service and not-for-profit organisation that runs a state-wide fatherhood program. Several participants were recruited through a company that holds antenatal education classes for men in a pub. Data were analysed thematically. Three rural Tasmanian areas (South, Central Coast and Northern Midlands) PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five men from three rural areas of Tasmania, ≥18 years, about to become first-time father with partner at least 20 weeks pregnant. Semistructured interviews explored men's experiences of father-only antenatal education groups. Four themes emerged from the thematic analysis: (i) motivations for attending antenatal groups; (ii) the effect of the group setting on men's experiences; (iii) masculine stereotypes in antenatal groups; and (iv) strategies to support fathers. Data show men wanted to join the groups and learn about being an involved father. They often felt uncomfortable sharing experiences in discussion-based groups. They tended to prefer information-based groups which were not premised on sharing emotions. Men offered strategies to improve father-only antenatal education groups. Tasmanian antenatal education/support programs need improvement. Providing men with multiple opportunities to connect with other fathers is critical to improving support. Groups can be improved by accounting for multiple and complex constructions of masculinity, increasing the number of sessions offered and altering the structure. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Development and Validation of the Family Beliefs Inventory: A Measure of Unrealistic Beliefs among Parents and Adolescents.
Roehling, Patricia Vincent; Robin, Arthur L.
Evaluated the criterion-related validity of the Family Beliefs Inventory, a new self-report measure of unreasonable beliefs regarding parent-adolescent relationships. Distressed fathers displayed more unreasonable beliefs concerning ruination, obedience, perfectionism, and malicious intent than nondistressed fathers. Distressed adolescents…
Maternal and paternal parenting styles: unique and combined links to adolescent and early adult delinquency.
Hoeve, Machteld; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R M; van der Laan, Peter H; Smeenk, Wilma
The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and mothers were linked to delinquency. A significant parenting style by sex interaction was found: neglectful parenting was related to higher levels of delinquency in males and permissive parenting was linked to delinquency in females. A long term relationship was found between fathers' neglectful parenting style and delinquency in males. Furthermore, results revealed that levels of delinquency were the lowest in families with at least one authoritative parent and highest in families with two neglectful parents, indicating that the level of delinquency was dependent on the combination of mother's and father's parenting styles. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Turkish Adolescents' Conflict Resolution Strategies toward Peers and Parents as a Function of Loneliness
Ciftci, Ayse; Demir, Ayhan; Bikos, Lynette Heim
This study investigated the effect of loneliness on the conflict resolution strategies of adolescents toward their friends, mothers, and fathers. High school students (N = 180) from 8 different schools in Ankara, Turkey, completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale and Conflict Resolution Questionnaire with respect to their friends, mothers, and fathers.…
Tipping points in adolescent adjustment: predicting social functioning from adolescents' conflict with parents and friends.
Ehrlich, Katherine B; Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude
Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents' experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents' experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semistructured discussions about areas of parent-adolescent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents' social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
The father's parenting experience in divorce.
Friedman, H J
The author discusses the father-child relationship as it is influenced by divorce. Psychiatrists are often consulted by individuals considering dovorce who are concerned about its probable impact on their children. Data gathered from the treatment of fathers during divorce indicate that there can be positive changes in their parental bonds as a result of increased opportunities to relate to children in a conflict-free atmosphere. In such a setting, the father's nurturing experience provides him with a new perspective on parenting. Psychotherapeutic help can lead to a strengthening of parental bonds, with subsequent benefits to both father and child. The author encourages professionals to support men in improving their fathering during the postdivorce period.
Father Attendance in Nurse Home Visitation
Holmberg, John R.; Olds, David L.
Our aim was to examine the rates and predictors of father attendance at nurse home visits in replication sites of the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP). Early childhood programs can facilitate father involvement in the lives of their children, but program improvements require an understanding of factors that predict father involvement. The sample consisted of 29,109 low-income, first-time mothers who received services from 694 nurses from 80 sites. We conducted mixed-model multiple regression analyses to identify population, implementation, site, and nurse influences on father attendance. Predictors of father attendance included a count of maternal visits (B = 0.12, SE = 0.01, F = 3101.77), frequent contact between parents (B = 0.61, SE = 0.02, F = 708.02), cohabitation (B = 1.41, SE = 0.07, F = 631.51), White maternal race (B = 0.77, SE = 0.06, F = 190.12), and marriage (B = 0.42, SE = 0.08, F = 30.08). Random effects for sites and nurses predicted father-visit participation (2.7 & 6.7% of the variance, respectively), even after controlling for population sociodemographic characteristics. These findings suggest that factors operating at the levels of sites and nurses influence father attendance at home visits, even after controlling for differences in populations served. Further inquiry about these influences on father visit attendance is likely to inform program-improvement efforts. PMID:25521707
The importance of perceived care and connectedness with friends and parents for adolescent social anxiety.
Van Zalk, Nejra; Van Zalk, Maarten
Nonclinical social anxiety in adolescence can be highly problematic, as it likely affects current and especially new social interactions. Relationships with significant others, such as close friends, mothers, and fathers, could aid socially anxious adolescents' participation in social situations, thereby helping reduce feelings of social anxiety. We examined whether making friends as well as high friendship quality help reduce social anxiety over time, and whether friends', mothers', and fathers' care interact in reducing social anxiety. Using longitudinal data from 2,194 participants in a social network (48% girls; Mage = 13.58) followed for 3 years, we estimated friendship selection and influence processes via a continuous time-modeling approach using SIENA. We controlled for the effects of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, gender, age, and family structure. Our findings suggest that perceived care by friends mediated the effect of making friends on social anxiety. Perceptions of mother and father, as well as friend care and connectedness, respectively, did not interact in decreasing social anxiety. Nonetheless, care and connectedness with mothers, fathers, and friends jointly predicted decreases in social anxiety. Caring relationships with friends and parents each play a role in mutually protecting early adolescents against increasing in social anxiety over time. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Links between Adolescents' Closeness to Adoptive Parents and Attachment Style in Young Adulthood.
Grant-Marsney, Holly A; Grotevant, Harold D; Sayer, Aline G
This study examined whether adolescents' closeness to adoptive parents (APs) predicted attachment styles in close relationships outside their family during young adulthood. In a longitudinal study of domestic infant adoptions, closeness to adoptive mother and adoptive father was assessed in 156 adolescents ( M = 15.7 years). Approximately nine years later ( M = 25.0 years), closeness to parents was assessed again as well as attachment style in their close relationships. Multilevel modeling was used to predict attachment style in young adulthood from the average and discrepancy of closeness to adolescents' adoptive mothers and fathers and the change over time in closeness to APs. Less avoidant attachment style was predicted by stronger closeness to both APs during adolescence. Increased closeness to APs over time was related to less anxiety in close relationships. Higher closeness over time to either AP was related to less avoidance and anxiety in close relationships.
Childhood and adolescent predictors of leisure time physical activity during the transition from adolescence to adulthood: a population based cohort study.
Jose, Kim A; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terry; McKercher, Charlotte; Venn, Alison J
Few studies have investigated factors that influence physical activity behavior during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. This study explores the associations of sociodemographic, behavioral, sociocultural, attitudinal and physical factors measured in childhood and adolescence with physical activity behavior during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Childhood and adolescent data (at ages 7-15 years) were collected as part of the 1985 Australian Health and Fitness Survey and subdivided into sociodemographics (socioeconomic status, parental education), behavioral (smoking, alcohol, sports diversity, outside school sports), sociocultural (active father, active mother, any older siblings, any younger siblings, language spoken at home), attitudinal (sports/recreational competency, self-rated health, enjoyment physical education/physical activity, not enjoying school sports) and physical (BMI, time taken to run 1.6 km, long jump) factors. Physical activity between the ages 15 and 29 years was reported retrospectively using the Historical Leisure Activity Questionnaire at follow-up in 2004-2006 by 2,048 participants in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study (CDAH). Australia's physical activity recommendations for children and adults were used to categorize participants as persistently active, variably active or persistently inactive during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. For females, perceived sports competency in childhood and adolescence was significantly associated with being persistently active (RR=1.88, 95% CI=1.39, 2.55). Smoking (RR=0.31 CI=0.12, 0.82) and having younger siblings (RR=0.69 CI=0.52, 0.93) were inversely associated with being persistently active after taking physical and attitudinal factors into account. For males, playing sport outside school (RR=1.47 CI=1.05, 2.08), having active fathers (RR=1.25 CI=1.01, 1.54) and not enjoying school sport (RR=4.07 CI=2.31, 7.17) were associated with being persistently
Development of family and dietary habits questionnaires: the assessment of family processes, dietary habits and adolescents' impulsiveness in Norwegian adolescents and their parents.
Bjelland, Mona; Hausken, Solveig E S; Sleddens, Ester F C; Andersen, Lene F; Lie, Hanne C; Finset, Arnstein; Maes, Lea; Melbye, Elisabeth L; Glavin, Kari; Hanssen-Bauer, Merete W; Lien, Nanna
There is a need for valid and comprehensive measures of parental influence on children's energy balance-related behaviours (EBRB). Such measures should be based on a theoretical framework, acknowledging the dynamic and complex nature of interactions occurring within a family. The aim of the Family & Dietary habits (F&D) project was to develop a conceptual framework identifying important and changeable family processes influencing dietary behaviours of 13-15 year olds. A second aim was to develop valid and reliable questionnaires for adolescents and their parents (both mothers and fathers) measuring these processes. A stepwise approach was used; (1) preparation of scope and structure, (2) development of the F&D questionnaires, (3) the conducting of pilot studies and (4) the conducting of validation studies (assessing internal reliability, test-retest reliability and confirmatory factor analysis) using data from a cross-sectional study. The conceptual framework includes psychosocial concepts such as family functioning, cohesion, conflicts, communication, work-family stress, parental practices and parental style. The physical characteristics of the home environment include accessibility and availability of different food items, while family meals are the sociocultural setting included. Individual characteristics measured are dietary intake (vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages) and adolescents' impulsivity. The F&D questionnaires developed were tested in a test-retest (54 adolescents and 44 of their parents) and in a cross-sectional survey including 440 adolescents (13-15 year olds), 242 mothers and 155 fathers. The samples appear to be relatively representative for Norwegian adolescents and parents. For adolescents, mothers and fathers, the test-retest reliability of the dietary intake, frequencies of (family) meals, work-family stress and communication variables was satisfactory (ICC: 0.53-0.99). Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-Brief (BIS-Brief) was included
Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Factors Associated with Autonomous Motivation in Adolescents' After-School Activities
Beiswenger, Krista L.; Grolnick, Wendy S.
This study explored interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with the level of autonomous motivation adolescents experience for their after-school activities. A total of 142 seventh-grade adolescents completed measures of peer relatedness, autonomy within friendships, mother and father autonomy support, perceived activity competence,…
Research brief: sexual communication and knowledge among Mexican parents and their adolescent children.
Gallegos, Esther C; Villarruel, Antonia M; Gómez, Marco Vinicio; Onofre, Dora Julia; Zhou, Yan
This study describes the sexual knowledge and communication of Mexican parents and adolescents. Preintervention data were analyzed from 829 high school students (ages 14-17) and one of the parents of each. Differences were found between parents and adolescents in sexual knowledge (M = 16.16 vs. M = 14.92; t = 7.20, p knowledge related to sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, and condom use. Parents perceived more general communication (t  = 6.33, p education levels scored higher in HIV knowledge and general communication. Fathers had higher total sexual knowledge, whereas mothers perceived higher sexual communication than fathers. There were no differences in knowledge and communication by parental socioeconomic level. Results suggest health care providers need to assist parents in developing specific knowledge and skills to support their adolescents' sexual decision-making.
Maternal and paternal psychosocial risk factors for clinical depression in a Norwegian community sample of adolescents.
Agerup, T; Lydersen, S; Wallander, J; Sund, A M
Parental characteristics can increase the risk of the development of adolescent depression. In this study, we focus on the parental factors of parents in a non-intact relationship, dissatisfaction with personal economy, physical illness or disability, and internalizing and externalizing problems. The aim is to examine which of these parental risk factors, separately for mothers and fathers, are associated with clinical depression in adolescents in a community sample. In the Youth and Mental Health study, 345 adolescents (mean age ± standard deviation 15.0 ± 0.6 years, range 13.8-16.6 years; 72.5% girls) and their parents (79% at least one parent) completed questionnaires and the diagnostic interview Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). Adolescents were classified into current major depressive disorder or dysthymia (n = 46), depression not otherwise specified (n = 48), or no depression (n = 251). The parental risk factors were based on interview and the Adult Self-Report. Risk factors associated with mothers (n = 267) and fathers (n = 167) were separately analyzed using ordinal logistic regression with current depression category as the dependent variable. All analyses were adjusted for youth sex and age. Mothers' economical dissatisfaction, physical illness/disability, internalizing problems and externalizing problems were associated with adolescent current depression (P ≤ 0.02). Adjusting for all other factors, only mothers' internalizing problems (P depression. Fathers' risk factors were not associated with adolescent depression. Characteristics of mothers are associated with adolescent current depression. Mothers' internalizing problems is independently strongly associated with increased risk of current adolescent depression. Clinicians should assess mothers' mental health when treating depressed adolescents.
Practitioner review: Engaging fathers--recommendations for a game change in parenting interventions based on a systematic review of the global evidence.
Panter-Brick, Catherine; Burgess, Adrienne; Eggerman, Mark; McAllister, Fiona; Pruett, Kyle; Leckman, James F
Despite robust evidence of fathers' impact on children and mothers, engaging with fathers is one of the least well-explored and articulated aspects of parenting interventions. It is therefore critical to evaluate implicit and explicit biases manifested in current approaches to research, intervention, and policy. We conducted a systematic database and a thematic hand search of the global literature on parenting interventions. Studies were selected from Medline, Psychinfo, SSCI, and Cochrane databases, and from gray literature on parenting programs, using multiple search terms for parent, father, intervention, and evaluation. We tabulated single programs and undertook systematic quality coding to review the evidence base in terms of the scope and nature of data reporting. After screening 786 nonduplicate records, we identified 199 publications that presented evidence on father participation and impact in parenting interventions. With some notable exceptions, few interventions disaggregate 'father' or 'couple' effects in their evaluation, being mostly driven by a focus on the mother-child dyad. We identified seven key barriers to engaging fathers in parenting programs, pertaining to cultural, institutional, professional, operational, content, resource, and policy considerations in their design and delivery. Barriers to engaging men as parents work against father inclusion as well as father retention, and undervalue coparenting as contrasted with mothering. Robust evaluations of father participation and father impact on child or family outcomes are stymied by the ways in which parenting interventions are currently designed, delivered, and evaluated. Three key priorities are to engage fathers and coparenting couples successfully, to disaggregate process and impact data by fathers, mothers, and coparents, and to pay greater attention to issues of reach, sustainability, cost, equity, and scale-up. Clarity of purpose with respect to gender-differentiated and coparenting
Resident Black Fathers' Involvement: A Comparative Analysis of Married and Unwed, Cohabitating Fathers
Perry, Armon R.; Harmon, Dana K.; Leeper, James
Increasing fathers' involvement with their children has become a priority in recent years. Marriage promotion programs have been offered as the primary vehicles for increasing paternal involvement. Although marriage is likely to provide fathers with increased access and opportunity for paternal involvement, much less is known about the ways in…
Delivering services to incarcerated teen fathers: a pilot intervention to increase the quality of father-infant interactions during visitation.
Barr, Rachel; Morin, Marisa; Brito, Natalie; Richeda, Benjamin; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Shauffer, Carole
The absence of a father figure has been linked to very poor developmental outcomes for the child. During incarceration, there are limited opportunities for visitation between fathers and their children. The Baby Elmo Program provides incarcerated teen fathers with parenting training and visitation with their children with the stated goal of enhancing father-child interactional quality. Forty-one incarcerated teen fathers and their infants ranging from 1 to 15 months of age participated in the present study. During individual sessions, a trained facilitator prepared fathers for visits with their children by introducing key concepts such as following the child's lead, using developmentally appropriate media to illustrate those concepts. After each training session, the incarcerated teen father interacted with his infant and the visit was video recorded. Analysis of the visit sessions focused on father's time use on different activities, the quality of father-infant interactions, and father's integration of target skills introduced in the intervention. The time-use analysis revealed that time use changed as a function of infant age. Growth linear modeling indicated that there were significant positive increases in the amount of parent support and infant engagement as a function of the number of sessions. Follow-up analyses indicated that changes between specific sessions mapped onto the target skills discussed during specific training sessions. This study's preliminary findings suggest that an intervention integrating visitation and appropriate media may be effective for incarcerated teen fathers. Due to the lack of a randomized control group, the present findings are exploratory and are discussed with a focus on further program development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Fathers of children with cancer: involvement, coping, and adjustment.
Bennett Murphy, Laura M; Flowers, Stacy; McNamara, Kelly A; Young-Saleme, Tammi
This study examined the role of fathers caring for children with cancer. Psychological adjustment, coping, and work patterns of mothers and fathers were described. Twenty fathers of children with cancer were compared with 20 mothers of children with cancer and 20 control fathers of healthy children. Questionnaire data were collected regarding coping, parental adjustment, child adjustment, and family involvement. Fathers did not differ from mothers or control fathers in terms of psychological adjustment or coping. However, fathers of children with cancer spent more hours at work and more hours caring for children than did control fathers. Paternal adjustment was significantly related to child adjustment only when the child had cancer. Coping was related to work outside the home for fathers and adjustment for mothers. Models of family adaptation may be different for fathers and mothers. Treatment teams must attend to the unique needs of fathers.
Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study.
Olivari, Maria Giulia; Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Confalonieri, Emanuela
Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents' retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES and these perceptions. Swedish, Italian and Greek adolescents (N = 702; 30.9% Swedish, 39.6% Italian and 29.5% Greek) participated in the study. To test the principal effects three mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVAs were conducted separately for each parenting style. To verify the interaction effects, a mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVA was tested on authoritative style. Regarding authoritarian and permissive two mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece) ANOVAs were tested. Mothers, as compared to fathers, were perceived as more authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Moreover, boys perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than girls. Swedish parents were perceived as significantly less authoritarian than Italian and Greek parents and more permissive than Italian parents; Greek parents were perceived as less authoritarian and more permissive than Italian parents. The study provides an interesting contribution to parenting styles literature, showing how country legislation concerning family matters and SES are related the perception of parenting behaviours.
Parental social status and intrasexual competitiveness among adolescents.
Buunk, Abraham P; Stulp, Gert; Ormel, Johan
A study among 1,881 adolescents (52.3% girls) with a mean age of 19.1 years examined the effects of parental social status upon intrasexual competitiveness. Whereas females were consistently more intrasexually competitive the higher the socio-economic status of their parents, males with parents of the lowest socio-economic status tended to be more intrasexually competitive than those with parents of medium socio-economic status, and nearly as intrasexually competitive as those with parents of high socio-economic status. Only among adolescents with parents of low socio-economic status were males more intrasexually competitive than females. Among males and females, higher levels of intrasexual competitiveness were related to a higher family income, to a higher occupational status of the father as well as of the mother, and to a higher educational level of the mother. Only among females were higher levels of intrasexual competitiveness associated with a higher educational level of the father. Males whose fathers had only elementary education had a relatively high level of intrasexual competitiveness. The results are discussed in the context of the multifaceted nature of human status, and the potential relevance of intrasexual competitiveness for individuals of high versus low social status.
Parental rearing practices from the perspective of adolescents
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Full Text Available This paper discusses the phenomenon of parenting in families with adolescents. Special emphasis is placed on the exploration of the concept of parenting rearing practices through the dimensions of parental emotional warmth, control and monitoring. Based on that, starting from the standpoint about the importance of child's perception of parental behaviour, this paper presents the results of the research aimed at examining adolescents' view of parental rearing practices. The instrument used in the research consisted of three subscales (emotional warmth, monitoring, control, as well as the questions about socio-demographic variables. The sample included 154 second grade students of secondary school, i.e. adolescents. The findings have shown that adolescents perceived parental warmth as the most present and parental monitoring and control as less present parental rearing practice. Mother's parental rearing practices were perceived as significantly more present compared to those of the father. Also, it was found that the gender of respondents is a significant variable in the perception of parental rearing practices, while family characteristics (family social status, family structure, parent's educational level and the number of children in the family have not been proved as statistically significant variables. The concluding part emphasizes the need for further research of the factors that determine father's role in the family with adolescents, and the need to develop parent's awareness of the benefits related to adolescent's self-disclosure in the process of parental monitoring.
The Perceptions of Mexican-American Men as Fathers
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Full Text Available This qualitative study explores the lived experience of self-identified Mexican men as fathers. The sample consists of 47 biological fathers of children residing in Denver, Colorado, all whom are participating in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project. The data suggests that these fathers engaged in traditionally conceptualized fathering roles. These men expressed the importance of being there, teaching, meeting the child’s needs, being a role model, offering emotional support, and giving affection and love. The fathers reported taking more responsibility, decreasing substance use, and limiting their leisure activities as a result of becoming a parent. The results suggest that, fathering in and of itself, may create resiliency and may have powerful positive influences on the lives of fathers.
Fathers' behaviors and children's psychopathology.
The psychological literature on how fathers' behaviors may be related to children's psychopathology has grown substantially in the last three decades. This growth is the result of research asking the following three overarching questions: (1) what is the association between family structure, and particularly biological fathers' non-residence, and children's psychopathology, (2) what is the association between fathers' parenting and children's psychopathology, and (3) what is the association between fathers' psychopathology and children's psychopathology. The three broad theoretical perspectives relevant to this literature are the standard family environment model, the passive genetic model, and the child effects model. The evidence from studies comparing the first two models seems to suggest that the origin of the association between parental divorce and children's emotional and behavioral problems is largely shared environmental in origin, as is the association between resident fathers' parenting and children's emotional and behavioral problems, according to studies comparing the standard family environment model with the child effects model. However, research needs to compare appropriately all theoretical perspectives. The paper discusses this, and also points to the importance of considering theory-driven specificity in modeling effects. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Student-Perceived Mothers' and Fathers' Beliefs, Mathematics and English Motivations, and Career Choices.
Lazarides, Rebecca; Watt, Helen M G
According to Eccles and Jacobs' (1986) parent socialization model, parents' gendered ability and value beliefs influence girls' and boys' interpretations of those beliefs, and hence students' domain-specific valuing of tasks and competence beliefs and subsequent career plans. Studies have rarely analyzed how both student-perceived mothers' and fathers' beliefs affect girls' and boys' task values, success expectancies, and career plans across domains. This study analyzed survey data of 459 students (262 boys) assessed through Grades 9, 10, and 11 from three coeducational secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. Longitudinal structural equation models revealed gendered value transmission pathways for girls in mathematics. Although mathematics test scores did not vary statistically significantly, girls reported statistically significantly lower mothers' ability beliefs for them in mathematics than boys at Time 1, which led to their statistically significantly lower mathematics intrinsic value at Time 2 and mathematics-related career plans at Time 3. Such gendered pathways did not occur in English. Matched same-gender effects and gendered pathways in parent socialization processes were evident; perceived mothers' value beliefs were more strongly related to girls' than boys' importance values in English. Student-perceived fathers' ability beliefs positively predicted boys', not girls', importance value in mathematics. Implications for educational practice emphasize the need to target girls' and boys' interest when aiming to enhance their mathematical career motivations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Another Baby? Father Involvement and Childbearing in Fragile Families
Kotila, Letitia E.; Dush, Claire M. Kamp
An historic number of women in the US have children outside of marriage, and with more than one father, yet little research has examined the association between family process and women’s childbearing decisions. Using a subsample of unmarried women from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2028), a study of primarily low-income unmarried parents, we conducted discrete-time survival analysis models to predict whether women had another child with the focal child’s father (same-father birth) or with a new father (new-father birth). Father involvement was measured by engagement, indirect care, accessibility, and financial support. Overall, mothers who reported greater engagement and indirect care from the focal child’s father were more likely to have a same-father birth even when he was not living in her home, and were also less likely to have a new-father birth. Further, mothers who reported greater accessibility and stable financial support from the focal child’s nonresident father were also less likely to have a new-father birth. One pathway through which this may have occurred was that single mothers who perceived less indirect care and accessibility from the focal child’s nonresident father were more likely to begin new romantic relationships. Indeed, whether or not the mother had a new romantic partner partially mediated the association between indirect care and a same-father birth, and fully mediated the association between accessibility and a new-father birth, suggesting that one pathway linking father involvement to a new-father birth was through maternal repartnering. Clinical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:23244460
Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles: Unique and Combined Links to Adolescent and Early Adult Delinquency
Hoeve, Machteld; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Smeenk, Wilma
The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and…
Father Loss and Child Telomere Length.
Mitchell, Colter; McLanahan, Sara; Schneper, Lisa; Garfinkel, Irv; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Notterman, Daniel
Father loss during childhood has negative health and behavioral consequences, but the biological consequences are unknown. Our goal was to examine how father loss (because of separation and/or divorce, death, or incarceration) is associated with cellular function as estimated by telomere length. Data come from the 9-year follow-up of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of children in 20 large American cities ( N = 2420). Principal measures are as follows: salivary telomere length (sTL), mother reports of father loss, and polymorphisms in genes related to serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling. At 9 years of age, children with father loss have significantly shorter telomeres (14% reduction). Paternal death has the largest association (16%), followed by incarceration (10%), and separation and/or divorce (6%). Changes in income partially mediate these associations (95% mediation for separation and/or divorce, 30% for incarceration, and 25% for death). Effects are 40% greater for boys and 90% greater for children with the most reactive alleles of the serotonin transporter genes when compared with those with the least reactive alleles. No differences were found by age at father loss or a child's race/ethnicity. Father loss has a significant association with children's sTL, with the death of a father showing the largest effect. Income loss explains most of the association between child sTL and separation and/or divorce but much less of the association with incarceration or death. This underscores the important role of fathers in the care and development of children and supplements evidence of the strong negative effects of parental incarceration. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Parental attachment style: examination of links with parent secure base provision and adolescent secure base use.
Jones, Jason D; Cassidy, Jude
The secure base construct represents one of attachment theory's most important contributions to our understanding of parent-child relationships and child development. The present study represents the first examination of how parents' self-reported attachment styles relate to parental secure base provision and adolescent (mean age = 16.6 years, SE = .59) secure base use during an observed parent-adolescent interaction. Further, the present study is the first to examine how fathers', as well as mothers', attachment styles relate to observed behavior in a parent-child interaction. At the bivariate level, maternal avoidance, but not anxiety, was negatively associated with observed adolescent secure base use. In addition, path analysis revealed that maternal avoidance was indirectly related to less adolescent secure base use through mothers' self-reported hostile behavior toward their adolescents and through adolescents' less positive perceptions of their mothers. Further, paternal anxiety, but not avoidance, was indirectly related to less adolescent secure base use through fathers' self-reported hostile behavior toward their adolescents. No significant findings emerged in relation to parental secure base provision. We discuss these results in the context of attachment theory and suggest directions for future research.
Figuring in the Father Factor. For Parents Particularly.
Ballantine, Jeanne H.
Discusses the importance of father's involvement in childcare for the child's success and presents guidelines for successful fathering. Notes the difference between authoritative and authoritarian parenting. Suggest that fathers be a part of the child's day, show acceptance, use positive parenting, share parenting, and see fathering as worthwhile…
Hispanic Immigrant Father Involvement with Young Children in the United States: A Comparison with US-Born Hispanic and White non-Hispanic Fathers.
Guendelman, Sylvia; Nussbaum, Juliet; Soliday, Ann; Lahiff, Maureen
Objectives Fathering is known to foster child development and health, yet evidence on Hispanic immigrant fathers' involvement with their young children is sparse. This study assessed disparities in pregnancy intendedness and father involvement with children ages 0-4 among Hispanic immigrant co-resident fathers versus two reference groups: US-born Hispanic and US-born White fathers. We hypothesized that differentials in involvement were associated with socioeconomic and cultural factors. Methods Using 2011-2013 data from the National Survey of Family Growth (N = 598), we performed bivariate, logistic and linear regression analyses to assess disparities in pregnancy intendedness and five father involvement outcomes (physical care, warmth, outings, reading and discipline). The models controlled for socio-economic, structural, health and cultural covariates. Results Pregnancy intendedness did not differ significantly between Hispanic immigrant fathers and the two reference groups. Compared with US-born Hispanics, unadjusted models showed that immigrant fathers were less likely to engage in physical care, warmth and reading, (p ≤ 0.05) though the differences were attenuated when controlling for covariates. Hispanic immigrant fathers were less likely than US-born White fathers to engage in each of the father involvement outcomes (p ≤ 0.05), with the disparity in reading to their child persisting even after controlling for all covariates. Conclusions for Practice We found marked socio-economic and cultural differences between Hispanic immigrant and US-born Hispanic and White fathers which contribute to disparities in father involvement with their young children. Hispanic immigrant status is an important determinant of involved fathering and should be taken into account when planning public health policies and programs.
Association of parental self-esteem and expectations with adolescents' anxiety about career and education.
Salimi, Seyed-Hossein; Mirzamani, Seyed-Mahmoud; Shahiri-Tabarestani, Mostafa
The views of students in their last year of high school on the effects of parental expectations on students' anxiety about education and a career were studied with 214 boys and girls from six single-sex high schools. Participants were asked to reply to two questionnaires, the Educational and Career Anxiety Questionnaire and the Parent's Self-esteem and Expectancy Questionnaire as well as to respond to a personal informational form. Analysis yielded negative significance for relations between parental self-esteem and expectations and students' anxiety about education and career. Moreover, the study showed that adolescent girls had significantly higher self-esteem than boys. In addition, comparing adolescents' views by their fathers' education showed that fathers with high education were more likely to have children with high parental self-esteem and rational expectations and lower anxiety about education and careers than those whose fathers had only primary education.
Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study.
Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J
This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We modelled the association between perceived parental warmth and rejection at age eleven and personality resemblance to parents at about age sixteen. Parenting experienced during early adolescence was related to the degree and direction in which adolescents resembled their parents five years later in life. Rejection, especially from fathers, significantly predicted a smaller resemblance to both the parents. Girls were more strongly affected by parental quality than boys, and there was some indication that adolescents responded in opposite ways to parenting from mothers and fathers. This study is a first step in uncovering the complex interplay between parenting, gender, and the current generation's ability to develop personality traits independent from the previous generation. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quality of life and parental styles assessed by adolescents suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases and their parents
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Full Text Available Daniela Jelenova,1 Jan Prasko,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Eva Karaskova,2 Radovan Hruby,3 Dana Kamaradova,1 Vladimir Mihal21Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University, University Hospital, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 3Private Practice, Martin, Slovak RepublicBackground: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs in adolescents are chronic medical conditions with a substantial influence on the quality of life (QoL of the families.Methods: A total of 27 adolescents suffering from IBD, 39 healthy adolescents, and their parents were included in the cross-sectional study. The adolescents completed the questionnaires ADOR (parenting styles, KidScreen-10 (QoL, SAD (The Scale of Anxiety in Children, and CDI (Children’s Depression Inventory. The parents completed the BAI (Beck Anxiety Inventory, BDI-II (Beck Depression Inventory, second version, and PedsQL (Pediatrics Quality of Life Family Impact Module.Results: The parental styles of the parents of the IBD adolescents and controls were without significant differences. The only exception was that fathers’ positive parental style was significantly higher in the fathers of the controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the IBD children and controls in the QoL assessed using KidScreen-10. However, the QoL of the parents of the ill children was significantly lower than that of the parents of the controls (PedsQL total scores in mothers 66.84±14.78 vs 76.17±14.65 and in fathers 68.86±16.35 vs 81.74±12.89, respectively. The mothers of the IBD adolescents were significantly more anxious (BAI scores 9.50±10.38 vs 5.26±4.75 and the fathers more depressed (BDI-II scores 7.23±6.50 vs 3.64±3.51 than the parents of the controls, but there was no difference in the levels of anxiety or depression between the IBD adolescents and the controls. The positive parental style of both the parents of the children suffering from
Parents' and Adolescents' Perspectives on Parenting: Evaluating Conceptual Structure, Measurement Invariance, and Criterion Validity.
Janssens, Annelies; Goossens, Luc; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine; Van Leeuwen, Karla
Uncertainty persists regarding adequate measurement of parenting behavior during early adolescence. The present study aimed to clarify the conceptual structure of parenting by evaluating three different models that include support, psychological control, and various types of behavioral control (i.e., proactive, punitive, and harsh punitive control). Furthermore, we examined measurement invariance of parenting ratings by 1,111 Flemish adolescents from Grade 7 till 9, their mother, and father. Finally, criterion validity of parenting ratings was estimated in relation to adolescent problem behavior. Results supported a five-factor parenting model indicating multiple aspects of behavioral control, with punitive and harsh punitive control as more intrusive forms and proactive control as a more supportive form. Similar constructs were measured for adolescents, mothers, and fathers (i.e., configural and metric invariance), however on a different scale (i.e., scalar noninvariance). Future research and clinical practices should acknowledge these findings in order to fully grasp the parenting process. © The Author(s) 2014.
Problem solving, loneliness, depression levels and associated factors in high school adolescents.
Sahin, Ummugulsum; Adana, Filiz
To determine problem solving, loneliness, depression levels and associated factors in high school adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a city west of Turkey (Bursa) in a public high school and the population was 774 and the sampling was 394 students. Students to be included in the study were selected using the multiple sampling method. A personal Information Form with 23 questions, Problem Solving Inventory (PSI), Loneliness Scale (UCLA), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used as data collection tools in the study. Basic statistical analyses, t-test, Kruskall Wallis-H, One Way Anova and Pearson Correlation test were used to evaluate the data. Necessary permissions were obtained from the relevant institution, students, parents and the ethical committee. The study found significant differences between "problem solving level" and family type, health assessment, life quality and mothers', fathers' siblings' closeness level; between "loneliness level" and gender, family income, health assessment, life quality and mothers', fathers', siblings' closeness level; between "depression level" and life quality, family income, fathers' closeness level. Unfavorable socio-economic and cultural conditions can have an effect on the problem solving, loneliness and depression levels of adolescents. Providing structured education to adolescents at risk under school mental health nursing practices is recommended.
Mexican-origin parents' differential treatment and siblings' adjustment from adolescence to young adulthood.
Padilla, Jenny; McHale, Susan M; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J
Parents' differential treatment is a common family dynamic that has been linked to youth's well-being in childhood and adolescence in European American families. Much less is known, however, about this family process in other ethnic groups. The authors examined the longitudinal associations between parents' differential treatment (PDT) and both depressive symptoms and risky behaviors of Mexican-origin sibling pairs from early adolescence through young adulthood. They also tested the moderating roles of cultural orientations as well as youth age, gender and sibling dyad gender constellation in these associations. Participants were mothers, fathers, and 2 siblings from 246 Mexican-origin families who participated in individual home interviews on 3 occasions over 8 years. Multilevel models revealed that, controlling for dyadic parent-child relationship qualities (i.e., absolute levels of warmth and conflict), adolescents who had less favorable treatment by mothers relative to their sibling reported more depressive symptoms and risky behavior, on average. Findings for fathers' PDT emerged at the within-person level indicating that, on occasions when adolescents experienced less favorable treatment by fathers than usual, they reported more depressive symptoms and risky behavior. However, some of these effects were moderated by youth age and cultural socialization. For example, adolescents who experienced relatively less paternal warmth than their siblings also reported poorer adjustment, but this effect did not emerge for young adults; such an effect also was significant for unfavored youth with stronger but not weaker cultural orientations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Father-Inclusive Perinatal Parent Education Programs: A Systematic Review.
Lee, Joyce Y; Knauer, Heather A; Lee, Shawna J; MacEachern, Mark P; Garfield, Craig F
Fathers contribute to their children's health starting at the beginning of life. Few parent education programs include fathers. Among those that do, there is little effort to report program effects on father outcomes. In this systematic review, we examined father-inclusive perinatal parent education programs in the United States as they relate to a range of father outcomes. The databases searched were PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, Ovid Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and PsycINFO. Studies were included if they included an evaluation of a parent education program and a report of father outcomes measured within 1 year of the child's birth and were conducted within the United States. Of 1353 total articles, 21 met study criteria. The overall state of the father-inclusive perinatal parent education program literature was poor, with few interventions available to fathers. Available programs were associated with increased father involvement, coparenting relationship, partner relationship quality, father's mental health, and father's supportive behaviors. Program effects on father-infant interaction, parenting knowledge, and attitudes and parenting self-efficacy were inconclusive. Three programs emerged as best evidence-based interventions. Risk of bias was high for many studies. Outcome variability, small sample size, and publication bias contributed to the weak evidence base. There is a need for more evidence-based interventions to support fathers. Clinicians play a key role in engaging fathers in early parent education programs and health care settings. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017050099. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Calero, Juan del Rey
The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions.
Family Relationships and Adolescent Self-Concept.
Massey, Catherine J.
Previous research relating the quality of the relationship with the mother, father, and sibling to adolescent self-concept only investigated social and general self-concept and not various social and cognitive dimensions of self-concept. This study investigated family relationships and their link to the several domains of self-concept.…
Associations between parenting style, physical discipline, and adjustment in adolescents' reports.
Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner
Recollections of physical discipline as absent, age-delimited (ages 2-11), or present into adolescence were associated with youths' evaluations of their mothers' and fathers' parenting styles and their own adjustment. Data were from the Portraits of American Life Study-Youth (PALS-Y) a diverse, national sample of 13- to 18-year-olds (N = 158). The modal experience of youth with authoritative parents was age-delimited spanking; the modal experience of youth with permissive parents was no spanking; the modal experience of youth with authoritarian or disengaged parents was physical discipline into adolescence. The age-delimited group reported the best adjustment (less maladjustment than the adolescent group; greater competence than both other groups). The positive association between fathers' age-delimited spanking and youths' academic rank persisted even after accounting for parenting styles. The eschewing of spanking should not be listed as a distinguishing characteristic of authoritative parenting, which was more often associated with age-delimited spanking than with zero-usage.
Father's and Mother's Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment
Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene
Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…
Disordered eating and emotion dysregulation among adolescents and their parents.
Hansson, Erika; Daukantaité, Daiva; Johnsson, Per
Research on the relationships between adolescent and parental disordered eating (DE) and emotion dysregulation is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether mothers' and fathers' own DE, as measured by SCOFF questionnaire, and emotion dysregulation, as measured by the difficulties in emotion regulation scale (DERS), were associated with their daughters' or sons' DE and emotion dysregulation. Furthermore, the importance of shared family meals and possible parent-related predictors of adolescent DE were explored. The total sample comprised 1,265 adolescents (M age = 16.19, SD = 1.21; age range 13.5-19 years, 54.5% female) whose parents had received a self-report questionnaire via mail. Of these, 235 adolescents (18.6% of the total sample) whose parents completed the questionnaire were used in the analyses. Parents' responses were matched and compared with those of their child. Adolescent girls showed greater levels of DE overall than did their parents. Furthermore, DE was associated with emotion dysregulation among both adolescents and parents. Adolescent and parental emotion dysregulation was associated, although there were gender differences in the specifics of this relationship. The frequency of shared dinner meals was the only variable that was associated to DE and emotion dysregulation among adolescents, while parental eating disorder was the only variable that enhanced the probability of adolescent DE. The present study contributes to the literature by demonstrating that there are significant associations between parents and their adolescent children in terms of DE, emotion dysregulation, and shared family meals. Future studies should break down these relationships among mothers, fathers, girls, and boys to further clarify the specific associational, and possibly predictive, directions.
Family Meals: Associations with Weight and Eating Behaviors Among Mothers and Fathers
Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Few studies have looked at the relationship between family meals and adult weight and health behaviors. The current study investigates the association between frequency of family meals and mothers’ and fathers’ body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, dieting behaviors and binge eating. Data from Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current analysis. Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse mothers and fathers (n = 3,488) of adolescents participating in a multi-level population-based study (EAT 2010) completed surveys mailed to their homes. Predicted means or probabilities were calculated for each outcome variable at each level of family meal frequency. Interactions between race/ethnicity and marital status with family meals were evaluated in all models. Overall, results indicated that having more frequent family meals was associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables for mothers and fathers, after adjusting for age, educational attainment, marital status and race/ethnicity. Other findings including less fast food intake for fathers and fewer dieting and binge eating behaviors for mothers were significantly associated with family meal frequency, but not consistently across all family meal categories or with BMI. Interactions by race/ethnicity and marital status were non-significant, indicating that family meals may be important for more healthful dietary intake across race and marital status. Future research should confirm findings in longitudinal analyses to identify temporality and strength of associations. PMID:22425759
Multivariate differential analyses of adolescents' experiences of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Aggression is reasoned to be dependent on aspects such as self-concept, moral reasoning, communication, frustration tolerance and family relationships. To analyse the data from questionnaires of 101 families (95 adolescents, 95 mothers and 91 fathers) Cronbach Alpha, various consecutive first and second order factor ...
Provider expectations and father involvement: learning from ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Dec 17, 2013 ... in Gauteng's poor and black communities with fathers that did not ... affect fathers' ability to live up to provider expectations. ... On the contrary, father absence can exacerbate household poverty and “can ... socio-emotional development of the children, although such effects are not uniformly .... explanation.
The Influence of Witnessing Inter-parental Violence and Bullying Victimization in Involvement in Fighting among Adolescents: Evidence from a School-based Cross-sectional Survey in Peru.
Sharma, Bimala; Nam, Eun Woo; Kim, Ha Yun; Kim, Jong Koo
Witnessing inter-parental violence and bullying victimization is common for many children and adolescents. This study examines the role of witnessing inter-parental violence and bullying victimization in involvement in physical fighting among Peruvian adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,368 randomly selected adolescents in 2015. We conducted logistic regression analyses to obtain crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for involvement in fighting among male and female adolescents. Among all adolescents, 35.8% had been involved in fighting in the last 12 months, 32.9% had been victim of verbal bullying and 37.9% had been the victim of physical bullying. Additionally, 39.2% and 27.8% of adolescents witnessed violence against their mother and father, respectively, at least once in their lives. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that late adolescence, participation in economic activities, being the victim of verbal bullying, stress, and witnessing violence against the father among male adolescents, and self-rated academic performance and being the victim of physical or verbal bullying among female adolescents were associated with higher odds of being involved in fighting. Verbal bullying victimization and witnessing violence against the father in males and bullying victimization in females were associated with greater odds of adolescents being involved in fighting. Creating a non-violent environment at both home and school would be an effective strategy for reducing fighting among the adolescent population.
Childbirth - an emotionally demanding experience for fathers.
Johansson, Margareta; Rubertsson, Christine; Rådestad, Ingela; Hildingsson, Ingegerd
While attending birth mostly has a positive impact on becoming a father, it has also been described as including feelings of discomfort and is more demanding than expected. The objective was to explore Swedish fathers' birth experiences, and factors associated with a less-positive birth experience. Mixed methods including quantitative and qualitative data were used. Two months after birth 827 fathers answered a questionnaire and 111 (13%) of these commented on the birth experience. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, chi-square test for independence, risk ratios with a 95% confidence interval, logistic regression and content analysis. In total, 604 (74%) of the fathers had a positive or very positive birth experience. Used method identified a less-positive birth experience associated with emergency caesarean section (RR 7.5; 4.1-13.6), instrumental vaginal birth (RR 4.2; 2.3-8.0), and dissatisfaction with the partner's medical care (RR 4.6; 2.7-7.8). Healthcare professionals' competence and approach to the fathers were also related to the birth experience. As the fathers' birth experiences were associated with mode of birth and experiences of the intrapartum medical care fathers should be respectfully and empathically treated during labour and birth. It is essential to better engage fathers during the intrapartum period through involvement and support to improve the likelihood of a positive birth experience. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Links between Adolescents' Relationships with Peers, Parents, and Their Values in Three Cultural Contexts
Tamm, Anni; Kasearu, Kairi; Tulviste, Tiia; Trommsdorff, Gisela
The study examined associations among adolescents' perceived mother-child and father-child relationship quality (intimacy, conflict, and admiration), perceived peer acceptance, and their values (individualism and collectivism) in a sample of 795 Estonian, German, and Russian 15-year-olds. Adolescents from the three cultural contexts differed in…
Reciprocal relationships between parent and adolescent internalizing symptoms.
Hughes, Elizabeth K; Gullone, Eleonora
Previous investigations of the association between parent and adolescent internalizing problems have been largely restricted to the unidirectional effect of parent symptoms on their children. This study therefore aimed to investigate potential reciprocal relationships between parent and adolescent internalizing symptoms. One-hundred and seventy-seven adolescents ages 14 to 18 years and their parents (172 mothers, 124 fathers) completed measures of depressive and anxiety symptoms at two time points, 6 months apart. Results supported reciprocity between maternal and adolescent internalizing symptoms but not between paternal and adolescent internalizing symptoms. In addition, the relationship between maternal symptoms and later adolescent symptoms was found to be partially mediated by maternal parenting self-esteem. The study highlights the potential impact of adolescent internalizing problems on maternal well-being, a phenomenon previously neglected in the literature. 2010 APA, all rights reserved
From controlling to letting go: what are the psychosocial needs of parents of adolescents with a chronic illness?
Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles
While one of the main objectives of adolescence is to achieve autonomy, for the specific population of adolescents with a chronic illness (CI), the struggle for autonomy is accentuated by the limits implied by their illness. However, little is known concerning the way their parents manage and cope with their children's autonomy acquisition. Our aim was to identify the needs and preoccupations of parents of adolescents with CI in coping with their children's autonomy acquisition and to determine whether mothers and fathers coped differently. Using a qualitative approach, 30 parents of adolescents with CI participated in five focus groups. Recruitment took place in five specialized pediatric clinics from our university hospital. Thematic analysis was conducted. Transcript analyses suggested four major categories of preoccupations, those regarding autonomy acquisition, giving or taking on autonomy, shared management of treatment and child's future. Some aspects implied differences between mothers' and fathers' viewpoints and ways of experiencing this period of life. Letting go can be hard for the father, mother, adolescent or all three. Helping one or the other can in turn improve family functioning as a whole. Reported findings may help health professionals better assist parents in managing their child's acquisition of autonomy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development over Time
Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Jochem, Rachel; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Katherine J.
We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time, as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59…
Does adolescent gambling co-occur with young fatherhood?
Lee, Grace P; Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Martins, Silvia S
Young fatherhood is associated with various adverse outcomes. This study aims to describe the relationship of adolescent gambling with young fatherhood (by age 20) while adjusting for several young fatherhood antecedents. Data were from 294 males who have been followed for 16 years since entering first grade in nine inner city public schools (86% African Americans, 81% of the original male cohort). Self-reports of impregnation (including age) and gambling were collected during late adolescence. Nelson-Aalen curves and Cox regression models assessed the hazard of young fatherhood among adolescent nongamblers, social gamblers, and problem gamblers. More young fathers than nonfathers reported adolescent social (49.2% vs. 42.5%) and problem gambling (28.3% vs. 13.2%, p fatherhood, followed by social gambling (aHR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.30, 2.94, p = .001), high school dropout (aHR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.14, 2.70, p = .01), and subsidized lunch status (aHR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.01, 2.38, p = .04). Adolescent male gamblers, particularly problem gamblers, were more likely than their nongambling peers to become fathers by the age of 20. Such a result shows that there is a subpopulation of males who are at high risk for adverse outcomes such as young parenthood and problem behaviors. Only through further studies could the needs of this subpopulation be better assessed so that appropriate assistance could be delivered to better the lives of such individuals. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: gender differences in factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics.
Wilson, Ellen K; Koo, Helen P
In the United States, nearly half of high school students are sexually active, and adolescents experience high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Parents can have an important influence on their children's sexual behaviour, but many parents do not talk with their children about sexual topics. Research has shown significant differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics depending on the gender of both the parent and the child. Little is known, however, about the reasons for these gender differences. The purpose of this paper is to describe how factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics differ by gender. Data are from a nationwide online survey with 829 fathers and 1,113 mothers of children aged 10 to 14. For each of the four gender groups (fathers of sons, fathers of daughters, mothers of sons, mothers of daughters), we calculated the distribution of responses to questions assessing (1) parent-child communication about sex-related topics, and (2) factors associated with that communication. We used chi-square tests to determine whether the distributions differed and the false discovery rate control to reduce the likelihood of type I errors. With both sons and daughters, fathers communicated less about sexual topics than mothers did. Fathers also had lower levels of many characteristics that facilitate communication about sex (e.g., lower self-efficacy and lower expectations that talking to their children about sex would have positive outcomes). Compared with parents of sons, parents of daughters (both mothers and fathers) talked more about sexual topics, were more concerned about potential harmful consequences of sexual activity, and were more disapproving of their child having sex at an early age. Using a large national sample, this study confirms findings from previous studies showing gender differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics and identifies gender differences in
Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: gender differences in factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics
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Koo Helen P
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, nearly half of high school students are sexually active, and adolescents experience high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Parents can have an important influence on their children's sexual behaviour, but many parents do not talk with their children about sexual topics. Research has shown significant differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics depending on the gender of both the parent and the child. Little is known, however, about the reasons for these gender differences. The purpose of this paper is to describe how factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics differ by gender. Methods Data are from a nationwide online survey with 829 fathers and 1,113 mothers of children aged 10 to 14. For each of the four gender groups (fathers of sons, fathers of daughters, mothers of sons, mothers of daughters, we calculated the distribution of responses to questions assessing (1 parent-child communication about sex-related topics, and (2 factors associated with that communication. We used chi-square tests to determine whether the distributions differed and the false discovery rate control to reduce the likelihood of type I errors. Results With both sons and daughters, fathers communicated less about sexual topics than mothers did. Fathers also had lower levels of many characteristics that facilitate communication about sex (e.g., lower self-efficacy and lower expectations that talking to their children about sex would have positive outcomes. Compared with parents of sons, parents of daughters (both mothers and fathers talked more about sexual topics, were more concerned about potential harmful consequences of sexual activity, and were more disapproving of their child having sex at an early age. Conclusions Using a large national sample, this study confirms findings from previous studies showing gender differences in parent
Financial stress, parent functioning and adolescent problem behavior: an actor-partner interdependence approach to family stress processes in low-, middle-, and high-income families.
The family stress model proposes that financial stress experienced by parents is associated with problem behavior in adolescents. The present study applied an actor-partner interdependence approach to the family stress model and focused on low-, middle-, and high-income families to broaden our understanding of the pathways by which the financial stress of mothers and fathers are related to adolescent outcomes. The study uses dyadic data (N = 798 heterosexual couples) from the Relationship between Mothers, Fathers and Children study in which two-parent families with an adolescent between 11 and 17 years of age participated. Path-analytic results indicated that in each of the families the association between parents' financial stress and problem behavior in adolescents is mediated through parents' depressive symptoms, interparental conflict, and positive parenting. Family stress processes also appear to operate in different ways for low-, middle-, and high-income families. In addition to a higher absolute level of financial stress in low-income families, financial stress experienced by mothers and fathers in these families had significant direct and indirect effects on problem behavior in adolescents, while in middle- and high-income families only significant indirect effects were found. The financial stress of a low-income mother also had a more detrimental impact on her level of depressive feelings than it had on mothers in middle-income families. Furthermore, the study revealed gender differences in the pathways of mothers and fathers. Implications for research, clinical practice, and policy are also discussed.
Fathers' Stress in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Noergaard, Betty; Ammentorp, Jette; Garne, Ester
BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) tend to focus attention on the mothers and the newborn infants. Thus, fathers may find it difficult to establish an optimal father-child relationship and their stress may increase and persist during hospitalization...... and expect fathers to be involved, and support them to establish a father-child relationship, although they might become more stressed. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH: More adequate outcome measures are needed to determine the effect of interventions on paternal stress.This is an open-access article distributed....... PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of a more father-friendly NICU on paternal stress and their participation in childcare. METHODS: A quasiexperimental design was conducted on Danish-speaking fathers of newborn infants 28 or more weeks' gestational age. The Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care...
The Role of Fathers in Language Maintenance and Language Attrition: The Case of Korean-English Late Bilinguals in New Zealand
Kim, Sun Hee Ok; Starks, Donna
The father's role in children's L1 maintenance and L2 learning is a relatively unexplored area. This study considers the L1 and L2 proficiency of 30 Korean-English late bilinguals who immigrated to New Zealand during their adolescence and how their L1 and L2 proficiency is influenced by the language use of family members. Data were collected…
Nutritional status of adolescents in the context of the Moroccan nutritional transition: the role of parental education.
López, Pilar Montero; Anzid, Karim; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; Baali, Abdellatif; Lopez, Santiago Rodriguez
In Morocco, the beginning of the nutritional transition is closely linked to social and economic transformations and changes in behaviour and traditional lifestyles. The objective of this study is to describe the current pattern of food consumption and the nutritional status of adolescents in the province of Ouarzazate and its association with parents' educational level. The sample comprises 327 high school students from Ouarzazate: 135 (41.3%) boys and 192 (58.7%) girls (age range 15-20 years). For both boys and girls, the results show lower height and BMI z-scores than the WHO reference values. Adolescents whose parents have a low educational level have lower height/age and BMI/age z-scores than those whose fathers have a high educational level. No differences are observed in total daily energy intake depending on fathers' educational level, but the energy provided by lipids is higher in adolescents whose fathers have a high educational background. The quality of fats consumed (MUFA+PUFA/SFA) is better among those boys whose fathers have low education, but no differences are observed for girls. The process of nutritional transition is not uniform in the sample, but depends on the socioeconomic characteristics of population groups, which include, among others, accessibility of certain food, differences in habits and lifestyles related to energy expenditure, and higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in more favoured groups.
Tattoo removal in the typical adolescent
Background Although popular tattoos are often regretted later on for different reasons. Nevertheless, tattoo removal is a complicated and costly procedure seldom providing satisfactory results. The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness of the implications of tattoo removal among a substantial sample of Italian secondary school adolescents. Findings Students were recruited by a stratified convenience sample and surveyed by a self administered questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was performed, reporting adjusted Odds Ratios (OR), with 95% Confidence Interval (CI). 4,277 pupils returned a usable questionnaire. Piercings were more frequently undertaken than tattoos. Only 40% of the respondents were aware of the issues related to tattoo removal. Males and pupils with younger fathers were less likely to be aware, whereas students satisfied with their physical appearance and those with a positive attitude towards body art were more likely to be aware. Conclusions Male adolescents with younger fathers can be regarded as the ideal target of corporate health education programs driven by school counsellors and primary care physicians. PMID:21693015
Tattoo removal in the typical adolescent
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Mazzoleni Francesco F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although popular tattoos are often regretted later on for different reasons. Nevertheless, tattoo removal is a complicated and costly procedure seldom providing satisfactory results. The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness of the implications of tattoo removal among a substantial sample of Italian secondary school adolescents. Findings Students were recruited by a stratified convenience sample and surveyed by a self administered questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was performed, reporting adjusted Odds Ratios (OR, with 95% Confidence Interval (CI. 4,277 pupils returned a usable questionnaire. Piercings were more frequently undertaken than tattoos. Only 40% of the respondents were aware of the issues related to tattoo removal. Males and pupils with younger fathers were less likely to be aware, whereas students satisfied with their physical appearance and those with a positive attitude towards body art were more likely to be aware. Conclusions Male adolescents with younger fathers can be regarded as the ideal target of corporate health education programs driven by school counsellors and primary care physicians.
Adolescents' perceptions of paternal and maternal parenting styles in a Chinese context.
Shek, D T
Chinese secondary school students (N = 429) were asked to respond to instruments measuring their perception of parents' global parenting styles and specific parenting practices. Results showed that there were significant differences between reported paternal parenting and maternal parenting characteristics, with fathers perceived as relatively less responsive, less demanding, less concerned, and more harsh. Adolescent girls' perceptions of fathers' parenting characteristics generally did not differ from those of the boys, but the girls tended to perceive their mothers as more demanding but less harsh. The present findings provide some support for the popular Chinese saying, "strict father, kind mother," but they also suggest that it requires redefinition.
Mothering, fathering, and the regulation of negative and positive emotions in high-functioning preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder.
Hirschler-Guttenberg, Yael; Golan, Ofer; Ostfeld-Etzion, Sharon; Feldman, Ruth
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit difficulties in regulating emotions and authors have called to study the specific processes underpinning emotion regulation (ER) in ASD. Yet, little observational research examined the strategies preschoolers with ASD use to regulate negative and positive emotions in the presence of their mothers and fathers. Forty preschoolers with ASD and 40 matched typically developing children and their mothers and fathers participated. Families were visited twice for identical battery of paradigms with mother or father. Parent-child interactions were coded for parent and child behaviors and children engaged in ER paradigms eliciting negative (fear) and positive (joy) emotions with each parent. ER paradigms were microcoded for negative and positive emotionality, ER strategies, and parent regulation facilitation. During free play, mothers' and fathers' sensitivity and warm discipline were comparable across groups; however, children with ASD displayed lower positive engagement and higher withdrawal. During ER paradigms, children with ASD expressed less positive emotionality overall and more negative emotionality during fear with father. Children with ASD used more simple self-regulatory strategies, particularly during fear, but expressed comparable levels of assistance seeking behavior toward mother and father in negative and positive contexts. Parents of children with ASD used less complex regulation facilitation strategies, including cognitive reappraisal and emotional reframing, and employed simple tactics, such as physical comforting to manage fear and social gaze to maintain joy. Findings describe general and parent- and emotion-specific processes of child ER and parent regulation facilitation in preschoolers with ASD. Results underscore the ability of such children to seek parental assistance during moments of high arousal and the parents' sensitive adaptation to their children's needs. Reduced positive emotionality
Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Its Association to Adolescents’ Self-Esteem
Yaacob, Mohd Jamil bin
Psychoanalysts believed that early mother-child relationships form the prototype of all future relationships and the outcome of adolescents development depends on their ego-strength. Object relations theory believed that intrapsychic process mediates interpersonal interaction to develop a sense of secure self and adolescents must relinquish the internalized other in order to develop a more mature sense of self. Social-relation theory believed that mothers and fathers provide different sociali...
Fathers: A Placement Resource for Abused and Neglected Children?
Greif, Geoffrey L.; Zuravin, Susan J.
Investigated 17 custodial and 18 noncustodial fathers of abused or neglected children to determine: (1) how fathers get custody; (2) how situations in which fathers get custody differ from those in which they do not; and (3) the degree to which father placements are satisfactory. (SAK)
Infant Development in Father-Absent Families.
Pedersen, Frank A.; And Others
Father role in infancy was examined through a comparison of the stimulus responses of 27 infants reared by their mothers in single-parent families with the stimulus responses of 28 infants in father-present families. (CM)
Parent-child acculturation profiles as predictors of Chinese American adolescents' academic trajectories.
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chen, Qi; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang
Acculturation plays a critical role in the adjustment of Asian Americans, as a large proportion of them are immigrants in the US. However, little is known about how acculturation influences Asian American adolescents' academic trajectories over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 444 Chinese American families (54% female children), the current study explored the effect of mothers', fathers', and adolescents' individual acculturation profiles and parent-child acculturation dissonance on adolescents' academic trajectories from 8th to 12th grade. Academic performance was measured by grade point average (GPA), and by standardized test scores in English language arts (ELA) and Math every year. Latent growth modeling analyses showed that adolescents with a Chinese-oriented father showed faster decline in GPA, and Chinese-oriented adolescents had lower initial ELA scores. Adolescents whose parents had American-oriented acculturation profiles tended to have lower initial Math scores. These results suggest that Chinese and American profiles may be disadvantageous for certain aspects of academic performance, and bicultural adolescents and/or adolescents with bicultural parents are best positioned to achieve across multiple domains. In terms of the role of parent-child acculturation dissonance on academic trajectories, the current study highlighted the importance of distinguishing among different types of dissonance. Adolescents who were more Chinese-oriented than their parents tended to have the lowest initial ELA scores, and adolescents experiencing more normative acculturation dissonance (i.e., who were more American-oriented than their parents) had the highest initial ELA scores. No effects of parent-child acculturation dissonance were observed for GPAs or standardized Math scores. Altogether, the current findings add nuances to the current understanding of acculturation and adolescent adjustment.
Latino Adolescents Perception of Parenting Behaviors and Self-Esteem: Examining the Role of Neighborhood Risk
Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Shin, Nana; Alfaro, Edna C.
We examined the relations among parenting behaviors, adolescents' self-esteem, and neighborhood risk with a Midwestern sample of 324 Latino adolescents. The findings suggest that boys' self-esteem is influenced by both mothers' and fathers' parenting behaviors, whereas girls' self-esteem is influenced by mothers' behaviors only. In addition, the…
Sex and Sibling Structure: Interaction Effects upon the Accuracy of Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Orientations.
Smith, Thomas Ewin
Surveyed 291 mother-child and 221 father-child dyads to examine adolescent perceptions of parental educational goals. Results showed family size and student's age had no effect, but birth order and sibling sex composition interact with sex of the parent and the adolescent in effects on accuracy of perception. (JAC)
Association between father involvement and attitudes in early child-rearing and depressive symptoms in the pre-adolescent period in a UK birth cohort.
Opondo, Charles; Redshaw, Maggie; Quigley, Maria A
Much of the research on parenting and its influence on child development has emphasised the mother's role. However, increasing evidence highlights the important role of fathers in the development, health and well-being of their children. We sought to explore the association between paternal involvement in early child-rearing and depressive symptoms in 9 and 11 year-old children. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort recruited in the southwest of England. The outcome was depressive symptoms measured using the short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (sMFQ) score. The main exposure was father involvement measured through factor analysis of fathers' responses on their participation in, understanding of, and feelings about their child's early upbringing. Scores on factor 1 measured fathers' emotional response to the child; scores on factor 2 measured the frequency of father involvement in domestic and childcare activities; scores on factor 3 measured fathers' feelings of security in their role as parent and partner. Children of fathers with high scores on factors 1 and 3 had 13% (OR 0.87, 95%CI 0.77-0.98, p = 0.024) and 9% (OR 0.91, 95%CI 0.80-1.03, p = 0.129) respectively lower adjusted odds of depressive symptoms at 9 and 11 years. For factor 2, there was weak evidence of a 17% increase in odds of depressive symptoms associated with 1 unit higher factor scores at both ages (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.00-1.37, p = 0.050). In these observational data, the possibility of residual confounding in the association between the exposure and the outcome cannot be ruled out. Positive psychological and emotional aspects of father involvement in children's early upbringing, but not the quantity of direct involvement in childcare, may protect children against developing symptoms of depression in their pre-teen years. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Study protocol for a randomized clinical trial of a fatherhood intervention for African American non-resident fathers: Can we improve father and child outcomes?
Julion, Wrenetha A; Sumo, Jen'nea; Bounds, Dawn T; Breitenstein, Susan M; Schoeny, Michael; Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis
African American (AA) fathers who live apart from their children face multiple obstacles to consistent and positive involvement with their children. Consequently, significant numbers of children are bereft of their father's positive involvement. Intervention research that is explicitly focused on promoting the positive involvement of non-resident AA fathers with their young children is limited. The purpose of this article is to describe the study protocol of a randomized trial (RCT) designed to test the Building Bridges to Fatherhood program against a financial literacy comparison condition; and discuss early implementation challenges. Fathers (n=180) are recruited to attend 10 group meetings, reimbursed for transportation, given dinner and activity vouchers for spending time with their child, and incentivized with a $40 gift card at each data collection time point. Mothers are incentivized ($40 gift card) at data collection and must be amenable to father child interaction. Intervention targets include father psychological well-being, parenting competence, communication, problem-solving ability; father-mother relationship quality; and child behavioral and emotional/social development. To date, 57 fathers have been randomized to study condition. Recruitment has been influenced by father and mother hesitancy and the logistics of reaching and maintaining contact with participants. Strategies to surmount challenges to father and mother recruitment and engagement have been developed. The prospective benefits of positive father involvement to children, fathers and families outweigh the challenges associated with community-based intervention research. The findings from this RCT can inform the body of knowledge on engaging AA non-resident fathers in culturally relevant fatherhood programming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
How are they doing? Listening as fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder compare themselves to fathers of children who are typically developing.
Cheuk, Samantha; Lashewicz, Bonnie
The growing prevalence of autism spectrum disorder is accompanied by ongoing efforts to understand and support parents in the face of challenges related to their child's autism spectrum disorder. Although fathers are increasingly hands-on in raising children, research focus on parenting children with autism spectrum disorder continues to be skewed toward experiences of mothers. Our purpose in this article is to contribute understandings of how fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder perceive themselves to be managing, and we undertake this by examining comparisons fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder make between their parenting experiences and experiences of fathers of typically developing children. A purposive sample of 28 fathers of children (aged 2-13 years) with autism spectrum disorder living in an urban center in Western Canada participated in in-depth interviews about their parenting successes and challenges. We found fathers speak of universal fathering experiences yet articulate their own sense of loss and efforts to come to terms with unanticipated demands associated with autism spectrum disorder. Fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder feel "pangs of jealousy" toward fathers of typically developing children, yet they are keenly attentive to their own child's development and convey a sense of gratitude for their child's capabilities and personality amidst an appreciation for trials and triumphs of fathering in general and fathering a child with autism spectrum disorder in particular. © The Author(s) 2015.
Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Child Conflict and Child Depression Through Late Adolescence
Samek, Diana R.; Wilson, Sylia; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.
Objective Few studies have investigated potential gender differences in the genetic and environmental influences on the prospective associations between parent-child conflict and later depression, a notable gap given substantial gender differences in rates of depression and suggestive evidence of differences in the etiology of depression among females and males. To fill this gap, we evaluated whether the prospective relationship between parent-child conflict and major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms varied as a function of parent-child gender composition. Method A combined twin and adoption sample was used (53% female; 85% European ancestry), containing 1,627 adolescent sibling pairs (789 monozygotic twin pairs, 594 dizygotic/full-biological pairs, 244 genetically unrelated pairs) with assessments at two time points in adolescence (ages ~15 to ~18). Results Prospective associations between parent-child conflict and subsequent adolescent depression were explained predominately through common genetic influences for mother-daughter and mother-son pairs, but less so for father-daughter and father-son pairs. Conclusion Processes of gene-environment correlation involved in the prospective associations between parent-child conflict and later adolescent depression appear to be less relevant to father-child relationships in comparison to mother-child relationships. Notably, results did not show parent-child conflict was more relevant to the etiology of MDD for girls than boys; gender differences in depression do not appear to be due to differences in the associations between parent-child conflict and child depression. PMID:27043719
Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Child Conflict and Child Depression Through Late Adolescence.
Samek, Diana R; Wilson, Sylia; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G
Few studies have investigated potential gender differences in the genetic and environmental influences on the prospective associations between parent-child conflict and later depression, a notable gap given substantial gender differences in rates of depression and suggestive evidence of differences in the etiology of depression among females and males. To fill this gap, we evaluated whether the prospective relationship between parent-child conflict and major depressive disorder symptoms varied as a function of parent-child gender composition. A combined twin and adoption sample was used (53% female; 85% European ancestry), containing 1,627 adolescent sibling pairs (789 monozygotic twin pairs, 594 dizygotic/full-biological pairs, 244 genetically unrelated pairs) with assessments at two time points in adolescence (approximate ages 15 and 18). Prospective associations between parent-child conflict and subsequent adolescent depression were explained predominately through common genetic influences for mother-daughter and mother-son pairs but less so for father-daughter and father-son pairs. Results support the notion that processes of gene-environment correlation involved in the prospective associations between parent-child conflict, and later adolescent depression appear to be less relevant to father-child relationships in comparison to mother-child relationships. Notably, results did not show that parent-child conflict was more relevant to the etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) for girls than boys; gender differences in depression do not appear to be due to differences in the associations between parent-child conflict and child depression.
[Father involvement in childbirth].
Villalón, H; Toro, R; Riesco, I; Pinto, M; Silva, C
Recent initiatives have promoted the participation of fathers in the early care of their children. To assess the results of a program to encourage parental involvement in childbirth. Parents of healthy term newborns were randomly allocated to participate either in the birth experience or control. The protocol included: to dry the skin, umbilical cord cutting off, weight, height, and finally give him/her to the mother for the skin-to-skin contact. Heart rate (HR), respiratory (RR) and temperature were evaluated one hour later. In the first outpatient clinic assessment, mothers completed a questionnaire. 127 fathers participated either in the birth experience or control. 62 followed the protocol and 65 the control. Both newborn groups were comparable. Also were fathers in age, education and rurality; mothers in primiparity. Significant differences: night care (37/62, 10/65 59.6% vs 15.4%, pfathers at birth, even belonging to a discouraging socio cultural environment.
Representations of Self and Parents, and Relationship Themes, in Adolescents with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
Shafran, Naama; Shahar, Golan; Berant, Ety; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva
Negative perceptions of self and others have lately become one of the criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among adults and adolescents. Drawing from theories of mental representations in psychopathology, this study examined self-reported negative cognitions, self and parental representations, and relationship themes among adolescents with and without PTSD. Thirty one adolescents with PTSD (11 boys, mean age = 14.06, SD = 2.24) were matched with 29 adolescents who had no psychiatric diagnosis (11 boys, mean age = 14.96, SD = 1.78). Adolescents completed self-report measures, wrote a description of self, mother and father, and were interviewed about positive and negative relationship episodes with mother, father, and peers. Adolescents with PTSD reported more self-criticism and performance evaluation than did controls. Their self-representation exhibited a lower sense of agency, which was related to structural variables (i.e., less integrative description). Although parental representations of adolescents with PTSD were not generally less benevolent or more punitive than those of controls, their relationship themes revealed a higher proportion of the wish to be distant from others. Adolescents with PTSD exhibited more passive responses and perceived more dominant or controlling responses from their parents. Findings point out to a serious impairment in representations of self and relationship patterns in adolescent PTSD.
Baby Elmo Leads Dads Back to the Nursery: How a Relationship-Based Intervention for Incarcerated Fathers Enhances Father and Child Outcomes
Richeda, Benjamin; Smith, Kelly; Perkins, Emily; Simmons, Sydney; Cowan, Philip; Cowan, Carolyn Pape; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Shauffer, Carole
Although children's contact with involved, committed, nonresidential fathers can improve social, emotional, cognitive, and academic outcomes, fathers have largely been absent from parenting interventions that overlook men's role as a critical parenting partner. This article details research showing that young incarcerated fathers' attitudes…
The characteristics of internet addiction adolescents and their families
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Full Text Available The goal of the study was to identify specific personality characteristics of adolescents who have a problem with 'internet addiction', as well as the characteristics of their parents' personalities and of thefunctioning of their families. The sample consisted of 60 adolescents of both genders, agedbetween 15 and18. There were 30'internet addicts' belonging to the clinical group and 30 participants from the general population as the control group. Also, 120 parentswere examined; there were 30 parent couples of eachof the two groups of adolescents. The following measures were used in the research: Young's Internet Addiction Test -IAT, the Belgrade Adolescent Personality Inventory - BAPI, the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revisited -TCI-R (for the assessment of parental personality and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale -FACES IV.The results indicate that adolescents with internet addiction difficulties exhibit a high degree of impulsiveness, low persistence, and immaturity in the personality domains which regulate responsible, goal-directed and co-operative behaviour. The fathers of adolescents from the clinical group were highly ambitious and less available to their children, while their mothers were more impulsive and prone to change versus continuity, which means that they were also less accessible to their children, albeit in a different way than the fathers. All dimensions associated with the positive aspects of family functioning, such as Cohesiveness, Flexibility, Communication and Satisfaction were lower in the clinical group, while the dimension of Chaotic relations was higher. The results have shownthat the parents of adolescents from the clinical group have formed a specific kindof disengaged and distant parenting style that has resultedin avoiding behaviours of adolescents and their withdrawal into the 'virtual world'. These findings could have a significant role in understanding the originsof internet
Self-rated health and mental health of lone fathers compared with lone mothers and partnered fathers: a population-based cross-sectional study.
Chiu, Maria; Rahman, Farah; Kurdyak, Paul; Cairney, John; Jembere, Nathaniel; Vigod, Simone
Lone parenthood is associated with poorer health; however, the vast majority of previous studies have examined lone mothers and only a few have focused on lone fathers. We aimed to examine the self-rated health and mental health status among a large population-based cross-sectional sample of Canadian lone fathers compared with both partnered fathers and lone mothers. We investigated differences in self-rated health and mental health among 1058 lone fathers compared with 20 692 partnered fathers and 5725 lone mothers using the Ontario component of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2001-2013). Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare the odds of poor/fair self-rated health and mental health between the study groups while adjusting for a comprehensive list of sociodemographic factors, stressors and lifestyle factors. Lone fathers and lone mothers showed similar prevalence of poor/fair self-rated health (11.6% and 12.5%, respectively) and mental health (6.2% and 8.4%, respectively); the odds were similar even after multivariable adjustment. Lone fathers showed higher odds of poor/fair self-rated health (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.17) and mental health (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.46) than partnered fathers after adjustment for sociodemographic factors; however, these differences were no longer significant after accounting for stressors, including low income and unemployment. In this large population-based study, lone fathers had worse self-rated health and mental health than partnered fathers and similarly poor self-rated health and mental health as lone mothers. Interventions, supports and social policies designed for single parents should also recognise the needs of lone fathers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
What matters for working fathers? Job characteristics, work-family conflict and enrichment, and fathers' postpartum mental health in an Australian cohort.
Cooklin, Amanda R; Giallo, Rebecca; Strazdins, Lyndall; Martin, Angela; Leach, Liana S; Nicholson, Jan M
One in ten fathers experience mental health difficulties in the first year postpartum. Unsupportive job conditions that exacerbate work-family conflict are a potential risk to fathers' mental health given that most new fathers (95%) combine parenting with paid work. However, few studies have examined work-family conflict and mental health for postpartum fathers specifically. The aim of the present study was to identify the particular work characteristics (e.g., work hours per week, job quality) associated with work-family conflict and enrichment, and fathers' mental health in the postpartum period. Survey data from 3243 fathers of infants (aged 6-12 months) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analysed via path analysis, considering key confounders (age, education, income, maternal employment, maternal mental health and relationship quality). Long and inflexible work hours, night shift, job insecurity, a lack of autonomy and more children in the household were associated with increased work-family conflict, and this was in turn associated with increased distress. Job security, autonomy, and being in a more prestigious occupation were positively associated with work-family enrichment and better mental health. These findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian fathers contribute novel evidence that employment characteristics, via work-family conflict and work-family enrichment, are key determinants of fathers' postnatal mental health, independent from established risk factors. Findings will inform the provision of specific 'family-friendly' conditions protective for fathers during this critical stage in the family life-cycle, with implications for their wellbeing and that of their families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mother, Father, and Infant as an Interactive System.
Pedersen, Frank A.
This study investigates three types of reciprocal interactions among members of the family unit (father, mother and infant): father-infant interaction affecting child's development, father-infant interaction affecting mother's behavior, and husband-wife interaction affecting mother's behavior. Data from a sample of 39 healthy first-born infants…
[Involvement of Turkish Immigrant Fathers Elevates Children's Well-Being].
Leyendecker, Birgit; Agache, Alexandru
This study examined paternal involvement in parenting, the association between parents' perception of mutual support, and the relation to their children's well-being before (t1) and after the transition to first grade (t2). Participants were first and second generation immigrant families from Turkey (n = 134). In addition, German families (n = 45) were included for the comparison of paternal involvement. The percentage of highly involved fathers was higher in the German sub-sample (54 %) than in the Turkish sub-sample (38 %), but we found no influence of parents' education, household income, employment status, or children's gender. First generation fathers were more likely to be highly involved than second generation fathers. Analyses of the longitudinal data revealed that mothers with highly involved fathers were more likely to report higher marital support. This pattern was less clear for fathers. Children with highly involved fathers reported significantly higher well-being at t1. For t2, a moderator analysis revealed a positive effect on children's well-being only for those fathers who were both highly involved and reported the highest fathering self-efficacy. Among other variables, we controlled for children's well-being at t1, their health status, fathers' work hours and mothers' marital satisfaction.
Does “Tiger Parenting” Exist? Parenting Profiles of Chinese Americans and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana; Shen, Yishan; Murtuza, Mohammed
“Tiger parenting,” as described by Chua (2011), has put parenting in Asian American families in the spotlight. The current study identified parenting profiles in Chinese American families and explored their effects on adolescent adjustment. In a three-wave longitudinal design spanning eight years, from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, adolescents (54% female), fathers and mothers from 444 Chinese American families reported on eight parenting dimensions (e.g., warmth and shaming) and s...
What predicts good relationships with parents in adolescence and partners in adult life: findings from the 1958 British birth cohort.
Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann
This study drew on data from the National Child Development Study to explore the role of father involvement and mother involvement at age 7 in father-child and mother-child relations at age 16, and the role of closeness to father and closeness to mother at age 16 in quality of relationship with partner at age 33. Closeness to mother was associated with closeness to father, intact family structure and academic motivation, and closeness to father with closeness to mother, early father involvement, less emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence, male gender and academic motivation. Closeness to father at age 16 was more strongly related to level of father involvement at age 7 for daughters than for sons and to closeness to mother for sons than for daughters. Marital adjustment at age 33 was related to good relationships with siblings, mother, and father at age 16; less current psychological distress; female gender; and educational attainment.
Emotional state of “young” fathers
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Full Text Available Background The birth of the first child begins a new stage in family life, and the woman and the man must adopt new roles in society. However, adapting to the new conditions of life and the requirements of the new role can be difficult. Participants and procedure The main tools used in the study were the SUPIN scale, the STAI inventory and a questionnaire constructed by the authors. The participants were 90 men who became first time fathers in the period of 6 months prior to the study. Results The results indicate that the first time fathers show a medium level of state anxiety related to the current situation and a low level of trait anxiety understood as an enduring disposition. The level of anxiety is related to the age of the child, but only in the men who fathered a son: the older the son was, the greater was the intensity of state anxiety in the father. Conclusions The deep conviction that the father should be a role model for the son can be a source of anxiety about the ability to manage and the ability to meet the related responsibility. According to the tradition of our culture, the father has to prepare the son to be a man, to assume a man’s roles in society and teach him how to live. The lower intensity of positive emotions related to the birth of a daughter can be explained from the point of view of the true man stereotype – a daughter does not fulfil it.
Legal issues related to adolescent pregnancy: current concepts.
Rhodes, A M
Adolescent pregnancies have risen in recent years. Options open to the pregnant adolescent are: terminating the pregnancy; giving birth to the child out of wedlock; keeping the baby; giving the baby up for adoption; and marriage before or after the birth of the baby. Each of these options carries certain legal ramifications, since the adolescent patients have not reached the age of majority. The state or the parents usually assume the role of decision making on behalf of the adolescent or assist in the decision making process. Court rulings since the early seventies have legalized abortion and enlarged the rights of minors seeking termination of their pregnancies. Both parents and minors have rights under the certain state laws; parent have the right to notification, minors have the right to privacy. Keeping the child, out of wedlock, might result in legal battles over custody and/or establishing financial support from the father. Some adolescent mothers give up their children for adoption. There are 2 legal procedures that have to be accomplished before a child can be adopted: termination of the rights of the natural parents and adoption proceedings. If the parents marry after the birth of the child, the child is then considered legitimate and the father does not have to go through the process of adopting the child. Other issues requiring parental or individual consent include consent to treatment, contraception, or sterilization. In the case of forcible rape or incest, the physician is required to report incidents to law enforcement officials.
The relationships between father involvement and parental acceptance on the psychological adjustment of children and adolescents: The moderating effects of clinical status.
Rodríguez Ruiz, Mercedes; Holgado-Tello, Francisco Pablo; Carrasco, Miguel Ángel
This study analyzes how a child's clinical condition modifies the relationship of father involvement, parental (fathers and mothers) acceptance and the child´s psychological adjustment, including the internalizing and externalizing problems. The cohort studied was composed of 226 subjects (61.94% males) with a mean age of 14.08 years, of which 113 children were from an incidental clinical sample and 113 from the general population. Both groups were matched by sex, age and family status, and the data show that the same structure of parent-child relationships that predict the child´s psychological adjustment can be accepted for both the clinical and non-clinical groups of children. However, the intensity of the relationships between the variables father involvement, parental acceptance and the child´s outcomes differed in function of the child's clinical status. Specifically, in the clinically-referred sample compared to non-clinical sample father involvement had a stronger effect on the children´s internalizing (but not the externalizing) problems and on their global psychological adjustment via their perceived maternal acceptance. The role of father involvement in the family relationships of clinical children is discussed. This study provides important evidence to support the need for enhanced paternal participation in the intervention programs for families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study
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Maria Giulia Olivari
Full Text Available Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents’ retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES and these perceptions. Swedish, Italian and Greek adolescents (N = 702; 30.9% Swedish, 39.6% Italian and 29.5% Greek participated in the study. To test the principal effects three mixed 2(parent; mother and father*2(gender; girl and boy*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece*3(SES; low, medium and high ANOVAs were conducted separately for each parenting style. To verify the interaction effects, a mixed 2(parent; mother and father*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece*3(SES; low, medium and high ANOVA was tested on authoritative style. Regarding authoritarian and permissive two mixed 2(parent; mother and father*2(gender; girl and boy*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece ANOVAs were tested. Mothers, as compared to fathers, were perceived as more authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Moreover, boys perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than girls. Swedish parents were perceived as significantly less authoritarian than Italian and Greek parents and more permissive than Italian parents; Greek parents were perceived as less authoritarian and more permissive than Italian parents. The study provides an interesting contribution to parenting styles literature, showing how country legislation concerning family matters and SES are related the perception of parenting behaviours.
Perceptions and experiences of adolescents, parents and school administrators regarding adolescent-parent communication on sexual and reproductive health issues in urban and rural Uganda.
Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza; Banura, Cecily; Mugooda, Herbert; Kwesiga, Doris; Bastien, Sheri; Klepp, Knut-Inge
Evidence suggests that in spite of some adolescents being sexually active, many parents do not discuss sex-related issues with them due to lack of age-appropriate respectful vocabulary and skills. The likelihood of parent-adolescent communication improving sexual and reproductive health outcomes appears plausible. The desire to understand parent-adolescent communication and how to improve it for promotion of healthy sexual behaviours inspired this research. The paper is meant to describe perceptions of adolescents, parents and school administrators about parent-adolescent communication on sexual issues; describe the content of such communication and identify factors that influence this communication. The study was done among two urban and two rural secondary school students in their second year of education. Data were collected from 11 focus group discussions and 10 key Informants Interviews. Data management, analysis and interpretation followed thematic analysis principles. Illuminating verbatim quotations are used to illustrate findings. Parental warmth and acceptability of children was perceived by parents to be foundational for a healthy adolescent- parent communication. Perceptions of adolescents tended to point to more open and frequent communication with mothers than fathers and to cordial relationships with mothers. Fathers were perceived by adolescents to be strict, intimidating, unapproachable and unavailable. While adolescents tended to generally discuss sexual issues with mothers, male adolescents communicated less with anyone on sex, relationships and condoms. Much of the parent-adolescent communication was perceived to focus on sexually transmitted infections and body changes. Discussions of sex and dating with adolescents were perceived to be rare. Common triggers of sexuality discussions with female adolescents were; onset of menstruation and perceived abortion in the neighbourhood. Discussion with male adolescents, if it occurred was perceived to
The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.
Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F
Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results.
Factors associated with father involvement in infant care.
Falceto, Olga G; Fernandes, Carmen L; Baratojo, Claudia; Giugliani, Elsa R J
To identify factors associated with the lack of active father involvement in infant care at four months of age. Cross-sectional study involving families of 153 infants at four months of age, interviewed in their homes by two family therapists. In addition to father involvement in infant care, sociodemographic, parental mental health (using the Self Report Questionnaire-20 scale and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria assessment) and quality of couple relationship characteristics (using the Assessment of Relational Functioning from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV) were analyzed. Poisson regression was employed to assess the association between lack of father involvement in child care and the variables selected. Prevalence ratio was used to estimate the magnitude of associations. Fathers of 13% of infants had no contact with their children. Among families whose parents lived together (78% of all), 33% of the fathers reported not actively participating in their children's care. Problematic couple relationship and mother as a housewife were associated with lack of father involvement in infant care. High prevalence of families whose father is not actively involved with infant care, especially when couple relationship is problematic and the mother does not have a paid job.
The application of transformational leadership theory to parenting: questionnaire development and implications for adolescent self-regulatory efficacy and life satisfaction.
Morton, Katie L; Barling, Julian; Rhodes, Ryan E; Mâsse, Louise C; Zumbo, Bruno D; Beauchamp, Mark R
We draw upon transformational leadership theory to develop an instrument to measure transformational parenting for use with adolescents. First, potential items were generated that were developmentally appropriate and evidence for content validity was provided through the use of focus groups with parents and adolescents. We subsequently provide evidence for several aspects of construct validity of measures derived from the Transformational Parenting Questionnaire (TPQ). Data were collected from 857 adolescents (M(age) = 14.70 years), who rated the behaviors of their mothers and fathers. The results provided support for a second-order measurement model of transformational parenting. In addition, positive relationships between mothers' and fathers' transformational parenting behaviors, adolescents' self-regulatory efficacy for physical activity and healthy eating, and life satisfaction were found. The results of this research support the application of transformational leadership theory to parenting behaviors, as well as the construct validity of measures derived from the TPQ.
Father-Infant Interactions Are Enhanced by Massage Therapy.
Cullen, Christy; Field, Tiffany; Escalona, Angelica; Hartshorn, Kristin
Examined the impact of fathers giving massages to their infants, ages 3 to 14 months, for 15 minutes prior to their daily bedtime for 1 month. Found that fathers who had massaged their infants were more expressive and showed more enjoyment and more warmth during floor-play interactions with their infants than did fathers in the wait-list control…
The perils of overprotective parenting: fathers' perspectives explored.
Brussoni, M; Olsen, L L
The dominant discourse of popular media appears to paint a disparaging picture of parents deemed overly concerned about their children's safety. Child injury prevention interventions frequently focus on influencing parenting behaviours. Fathers are increasingly involved in childcare, highlighting the need to understand their perspectives on overprotective parenting as it relates to considerations of injury prevention while actively engaged with their children. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 32 fathers of children aged 2-7 years in a Canadian urban setting. Interview questions investigated fathers' injury prevention attitudes and practices, and their beliefs regarding overprotection. Data analysis was guided by grounded theory methods. Fathers noted the subjective nature of overprotection, citing family, social and situational factors that shaped their views. Fathers viewed overprotective parents as experiencing excessive fears that were manifested in lack of willingness to risk physical or psychological injury. They described overprotective parenting as including over-involvement in and excessive restriction of children's activities; and expressed concerns that the results of these behaviours would be children lacking self-confidence and crucial life skills. Fathers viewed as problematic overprotective parenting behaviours that limit access to opportunities for physical risk taking in an attempt to prevent mostly minor injuries. The injury prevention field may benefit from considering fathers' perspectives when designing programmes to minimize the likelihood that safety initiatives may be perceived as promoting overprotection of children. Framing safety messages in ways that align with fathers' views could involve promoting appropriate protection and encouraging an active lifestyle. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Longitudinal linkages among parent-child acculturation discrepancy, parenting, parent-child sense of alienation, and adolescent adjustment in Chinese immigrant families.
Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana
Parent-child acculturation discrepancy is a risk factor in the development of children in immigrant families. Using a longitudinal sample of Chinese immigrant families, the authors of the current study examined how unsupportive parenting and parent-child sense of alienation sequentially mediate the relationship between parent-child acculturation discrepancy and child adjustment during early and middle adolescence. Acculturation discrepancy scores were created using multilevel modeling to take into account the interdependence among family members. Structural equation models showed that during early adolescence, parent-child American orientation discrepancy is related to parents' use of unsupportive parenting practices; parents' use of unsupportive parenting is related to increased sense of alienation between parents and children, which in turn is related to more depressive symptoms and lower academic performance in Chinese American adolescents. These patterns of negative adjustment established in early adolescence persist into middle adolescence. This mediating effect is more apparent among father-adolescent dyads than among mother-adolescent dyads. In contrast, parent-child Chinese orientation discrepancy does not demonstrate a significant direct or indirect effect on adolescent adjustment, either concurrently or longitudinally. The current findings suggest that during early adolescence, children are more susceptible to the negative effects of parent-child acculturation discrepancy; they also underscore the importance of fathering in Chinese immigrant families.
Factors that Affect Suicide Attempts of Adolescents in Multicultural Families in Korea
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Full Text Available We examined the factors that affect suicide attempts adolescents multicultural families in South Korea. The participants were 727 adolescents whose mothers and/or fathers were born outside of South Korea (376 males and 351 females. Among them, 41 (weighted prevalence 6.2% had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. Female gender, residence in large cities (compared with in rural areas, living with relatives/alone/with friends/in a dormitory or living in a facility (compared with living with family, high and low socio-economic status (compared with a middle level, high and low academic performance (compared with a middle level, severe perceived stress (compared with non-severe stress, conflicts with a teacher (compared with conflicts with parent, and foreign-father/-parent families (compared with foreign-mother family were associated with increased odds of suicide attempt. The results indicate that greater awareness of the possibility of suicidal behavior is prudent for adolescents in multicultural families with certain risk factors, such as being from a foreign-parents family, living separately from the family, and having conflicts with a teacher.
Factors that Affect Suicide Attempts of Adolescents in Multicultural Families in Korea.
Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun
We examined the factors that affect suicide attempts adolescents multicultural families in South Korea. The participants were 727 adolescents whose mothers and/or fathers were born outside of South Korea (376 males and 351 females). Among them, 41 (weighted prevalence 6.2%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. Female gender, residence in large cities (compared with in rural areas), living with relatives/alone/with friends/in a dormitory or living in a facility (compared with living with family), high and low socio-economic status (compared with a middle level), high and low academic performance (compared with a middle level), severe perceived stress (compared with non-severe stress), conflicts with a teacher (compared with conflicts with parent), and foreign-father/-parent families (compared with foreign-mother family) were associated with increased odds of suicide attempt. The results indicate that greater awareness of the possibility of suicidal behavior is prudent for adolescents in multicultural families with certain risk factors, such as being from a foreign-parents family, living separately from the family, and having conflicts with a teacher.
Relations between Childraising Styles and Aggressiveness in Adolescents
De la Torre-Cruz, M. J.; García-Linares, M. C.; Casanova-Arias, P. F.
Introduction: Physical and aggressive behavior which children and adolescents show toward peers is associated to parenting styles. The aim of this research was to examine the relation between perceived parenting styles (from mothers and fathers) and the level of physical and verbal aggressive behavior, anger and hostility showed towards the peers.…
Work Characteristics and Fathers' Vocabulary to Infants in African American Families
Pancsofar, Nadya; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Odom, Erika C.
Fathers' vocabulary to infants has been linked in the literature to early child language development, however, little is known about the variability in fathers' language behavior. This study considered associations between fathers' work characteristics and fathers' vocabulary among a sample of employed African American fathers of 6-month-old…
Father involvement: Identifying and predicting family members' shared and unique perceptions.
Dyer, W Justin; Day, Randal D; Harper, James M
Father involvement research has typically not recognized that reports of involvement contain at least two components: 1 reflecting a view of father involvement that is broadly recognized in the family, and another reflecting each reporter's unique perceptions. Using a longitudinal sample of 302 families, this study provides a first examination of shared and unique views of father involvement (engagement and warmth) from the perspectives of fathers, children, and mothers. This study also identifies influences on these shared and unique perspectives. Father involvement reports were obtained when the child was 12 and 14 years old. Mother reports overlapped more with the shared view than father or child reports. This suggests the mother's view may be more in line with broadly recognized father involvement. Regarding antecedents, for fathers' unique view, a compensatory model partially explains results; that is, negative aspects of family life were positively associated with fathers' unique view. Children's unique view of engagement may partially reflect a sentiment override with father antisocial behaviors being predictive. Mothers' unique view of engagement was predicted by father and mother work hours and her unique view of warmth was predicted by depression and maternal gatekeeping. Taken, together finding suggests a far more nuanced view of father involvement should be considered.
Maternal and Paternal Resources across Childhood and Adolescence as Predictors of Young Adult Achievement.
Sun, Xiaoran; McHale, Susan M; Updegraff, Kimberly A
Family experiences have been linked to youth's achievements in childhood and adolescence, but we know less about their long term implications for educational and occupational achievements in young adulthood. Grounded in social capital theory and ecological frameworks, this study tested whether mothers' and fathers' education and occupation attainments, as well as the mean level and cross-time consistency of parental warmth during childhood and adolescence, predicted educational and occupational achievements in young adulthood. We also tested interactions between parental achievement and warmth in predicting these young adult outcomes. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, and firstborn and secondborn siblings in 164 families at up to 11 time points. Predictors came from the first nine annual points (youth age M = 10.52 at Time 1) and outcomes from when young adults averaged 26 years old (firstborns at Time 10, secondborns at Time 11). Results from multilevel models revealed that both mothers' and fathers' educational attainment and warmth consistency from childhood through adolescence predicted young adults' educational attainment. Fathers' occupational prestige predicted sons', but not daughters', prestige. An interaction between mothers' warmth consistency, occupational prestige, and youth gender revealed that, for sons whose mothers' prestige was low, warmth consistency positively predicted their prestige, but this association was nonsignificant when mothers' prestige was high. Conversely, for daughters with mothers high in prestige, warmth consistency was a trend level, positive predictor of daughters' prestige, but was nonsignificant when mothers' prestige was low. Thus, maternal resources appeared to have a cumulative impact on daughters, but the process for sons was compensatory. Discussion focuses on the role of family resources in the gender gap in young adult achievement.
Fathers' birth experience in relation to midwifery care.
Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Cederlöf, Linnea; Widén, Sara
The aim was to identify the proportion of fathers having a positive experience of a normal birth and to explore factors related to midwifery care that were associated with a positive experience. Research has mainly focused on the father's supportive role during childbirth rather than his personal experiences of birth. 595 new fathers living in a northern part of Sweden, whose partner had a normal birth, were included in the study. Data was collected by questionnaires. Odds Ratios with 95% confidence interval and logistic regression analysis were used. The majority of fathers (82%) reported a positive birth experience. The strongest factors associated with a positive birth experience were midwife support (OR 4.0; 95 CI 2.0-8.1), the midwife's ongoing presence in the delivery room (OR 2.0; 1.1-3.9), and information about the progress of labour (OR 3.1; 1.6-5.8). Most fathers had a positive birth experience. Midwifery support, the midwife's presence and sufficient information about the progress of labour are important aspects in a father's positive birth experience. The role of the midwife during birth is important to the father, and his individual needs should be considered in order to enhance a positive birth experience. Copyright © 2010 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Transmission of Values from Adolescents to Their Parents: The Role of Value Content and Authoritative Parenting
Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.
The intergenerational transmission of values is a bidirectional process. To date, however, adolescents' influence on parental values has rarely been investigated. In the present study, we analyzed the transmission of values from adolescents (aged 11 to 17 years) to their mothers and fathers across a one-year interval in 431 mother-child dyads and…
The Father Friendly Initiative within Families: Using a logic model to develop program theory for a father support program.
Gervais, Christine; de Montigny, Francine; Lacharité, Carl; Dubeau, Diane
The transition to fatherhood, with its numerous challenges, has been well documented. Likewise, fathers' relationships with health and social services have also begun to be explored. Yet despite the problems fathers experience in interactions with healthcare services, few programs have been developed for them. To explain this, some authors point to the difficulty practitioners encounter in developing and structuring the theory of programs they are trying to create to promote and support father involvement (Savaya, R., & Waysman, M. (2005). Administration in Social Work, 29(2), 85), even when such theory is key to a program's effectiveness (Chen, H.-T. (2005). Practical program evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications). The objective of the present paper is to present a tool, the logic model, to bridge this gap and to equip practitioners for structuring program theory. This paper addresses two questions: (1) What would be a useful instrument for structuring the development of program theory in interventions for fathers? (2) How would the concepts of a father involvement program best be organized? The case of the Father Friendly Initiative within Families (FFIF) program is used to present and illustrate six simple steps for developing a logic model that are based on program theory and demonstrate its relevance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gender-related pathways for behavior problems in the offspring of alcoholic fathers
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Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine gender differences in the influence of paternal alcoholism on children's social-emotional development and to determine whether paternal alcoholism is associated with a greater number of externalizing symptoms in the male offspring. From the Mannheim Study of Risk Children, an ongoing longitudinal study of a high-risk population, the developmental data of 219 children [193 (95 boys and 98 girls of non-alcoholic fathers, non-COAs, and 26 (14 boys, 12 girls of alcoholic fathers, COAs] were analyzed from birth to the age of 11 years. Paternal alcoholism was defined according to the ICD-10 categories of alcohol dependence and harmful use. Socio-demographic data, cognitive development, number and severity of behavior problems, and gender-related differences in the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using standardized instruments (IQ tests, Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire and diagnostic interviews. The general linear model analysis revealed a significant overall effect of paternal alcoholism on the number of child psychiatric problems (F = 21.872, d.f. = 1.217, P < 0.001. Beginning at age 2, significantly higher numbers of externalizing symptoms were observed among COAs. In female COAs, a pattern similar to that of the male COAs emerged, with the predominance of delinquent and aggressive behavior. Unlike male COAs, females showed an increase of internalizing symptoms up to age 11 years. Of these, somatic complaints revealed the strongest discriminating effect in 11-year-old females. Children of alcoholic fathers are at high risk for psychopathology. Gender-related differences seem to exist and may contribute to different phenotypes during development from early childhood to adolescence.
The Correlates of Childhood Father Absence in College-aged Women
Hainline, Louise; Feig, Ellen
Personality and attitudinal correlates of father absence early (before age 5) or late (between 5 and 11) in childhood were studied in a sample of college- aged women. Father absence was due to either death or divorce. Results showed few differences between father-absent subjects and father-present controls. (Author/JMB)
Parental criticism and externalizing behavior problems in adolescents: the role of environment and genotype-environment correlation.
Narusyte, Jurgita; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Andershed, Anna-Karin; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Reiss, David; Spotts, Erica; Ganiban, Jody; Lichtenstein, Paul
Genetic factors are important for the association between parental negativity and child problem behavior, but it is not clear whether this is due to passive or evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE). In this study, we applied the extended children-of-twins model to directly examine the presence of passive and evocative rGE as well as direct environmental effects in the association between parental criticism and adolescent externalizing problem behavior. The cross-sectional data come from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (N = 909 pairs of adult twins) and from the Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (N = 915 pairs of twin children). The results revealed that maternal criticism was primarily due to evocative rGE emanating from their adolescent's externalizing behavior. On the other hand, fathers' critical remarks tended to affect adolescent problem behavior in a direct environmental way. This suggests that previously reported differences in caretaking between mothers and fathers also are reflected in differences in why parenting is associated with externalizing behavior in offspring.
Communication with Parents and Peers on Sexual Matters: the Experience of Adolescents in the Northeastern of China
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Li-ying ZHANG; Iqbal Shah; Wendy Baldwin
Objective To analyze the status of parent-child communication on sexual matters and its relationship to the sexual behaviors of adolescents.Methods The data were obtained from a study which was conducted in Changchun city of China in 2001. Unmarried adolescents aged 15-19 years old(322 males and 360 females) were selected for this analysis.Results Ten percent of adolescents reported having experience of sexual intercourse (16% of male and 5% of female). The percentages of adolescents communicating with peers, mothers and fathers were 35%, 30% and 17%, respectively. Males were more likely to talk about sexual issues with peer, while females were more likely to talk with mothers. Significant difference was also noted between the ratio of communication on sexual matters and having a girl/boy friend with peers and with parents. There was a statistically significant relationship between sexual experience and communication with fathers among male adolescents. Despite the fact that parents are the most closest care providers, adolescents obtained most of the sex information from "reading materials"and from "teachers ", but not from their parents. There was an age difference in the main source of obtaining sexual information. Younger adolescents obtained sexual information mainly from teachers while older adolescents mainly from reading materials.Conclusion In addition to schools and reading materials, parents should serve as an important source of information on sexual education as well.
Consequences of Fathers Parental Leave Use: Evidence from Sweden
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Full Text Available Fathers parental leave use is often assumed to affect gender equality both at home and in the labour market. In the home, fathers parental leave is expected to improve father-child contact later on in the childs life. In this study the associations between fathers parental leave use and further adaption to family life and contact with children are investigated. The first research question is whether fathers who have used parental leave are more likely to have shorter working hours during their childrens first years compared to fathers who have not used the leave. The second question is whether the contact between separated fathers and their children is associated with the fathers previous parental leave use. We use a survey carried out in 2003 with a sample of approximately 4000 parents of children born in 1993 and 1999. The findings indicate that fathers parental leave is associated with both shorter working hours later in the childs life and more contact between separated fathers and their children.
Commentary: Early father-infant interaction and externalizing behaviors--a response to Ramchandani et al. (2013).
Shaw, Daniel S
Many researchers have attempted to uncover the precise contribution of fathers to childrearing in relation to both young and older children's development during the past five decades (Lamb, 1975), including during the infancy period (Parke & O'Leary. S, 1975). However, few have been able to isolate precise mechanisms by which specific types of paternal childrearing practices may be linked to specific types of prosocial and problem behavior. The current paper by Ramchandani et al. (2013) breaks new ground in identifying a precise dimension of paternal parenting during early infancy--engagement--and linking it to maternal reports of infant externalizing problem behavior. Importantly, this association was found after accounting for the influence of several child, paternal, and maternal characteristics, including observed maternal sensitivity. Specifically, the authors found that fathers observed to be less engaging with their 3-month olds were reported by mothers to show fewer disruptive problems 9 months later. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
[Burden of mothers and fathers of persons with schizophrenia].
Friedrich, Fabian; Gross, Rainer; Wrobel, Margit; Klug, Günter; Unger, Annemarie; Fellinger, Matthäus; Süßenbacher, Stefanie; Freidl, Marion; Saumer, Gertraud; Wancata, Johannes
Most studies about the burden of schizophrenia carers included only one care-giving relative, usually the patients' mothers. The present study intended to analyse differences of the level of burden between mothers and fathers of the same patients. 101 mothers and 101 fathers of the same patients suffering from schizophrenia were included into this study. They were assessed by means of the "Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire" and the "Carers' Needs Assessment for Schizophrenia". Mothers showed significantly higher scores than fathers regarding the subscores "Tensions" and "Urging". Multiple linear regression analyses showed positive associations between the frequency of mothers' as well as fathers' unmet needs and dimensions of caregiver involvement. Unmet needs among mothers and fathers have negative effects on their burden. The differences between mothers and fathers indicate the importance of considering the carer's gender in clinical work. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
It Takes Two to Tango: How Parents' and Adolescents' Personalities Link to the Quality of Their Mutual Relationship
Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Dubas, Judith S.
According to J. Belsky's (1984) process model of parenting, both adolescents' and parents' personality should exert a significant impact on the quality of their mutual relationship. Using multi-informant, symmetric data on the Big Five personality traits and the relationship quality of mothers, fathers, and two adolescent children, the current…
Low-income minority fathers' control strategies and children's regulatory skills
Malin, Jenessa L.; Cabrera, Natasha J.; Karberg, Elizabeth; Aldoney, Daniela; Rowe, Meredith
The current study explored the bidirectional association of children's individual characteristics, fathers' control strategies at 24-months and children's regulatory skills at pre-kindergarten (pre-K). Using a sample of low-income minority families with 2-year-olds from the Early Head Start Evaluation Research Program (n = 71) we assessed the association between child gender and vocabulary skills, fathers' control strategies at 24-months (e.g., regulatory behavior and regulatory language), and children's sustained attention and emotion regulation at pre-kindergarten. There were three main findings. First, fathers' overwhelmingly use commands (e.g., do that) to promote compliance in their 24-month old children. Second, children's vocabulary skills predict fathers' regulatory behaviors during a father-child interaction, whereas children's gender predicts fathers' regulatory language during an interaction. Third, controlling for maternal supportiveness, fathers' regulatory behaviors at 24-months predict children's sustained attention at pre-kindergarten whereas fathers' regulatory language at 24-months predicts children's emotion regulation at pre-kindergarten. Our findings highlight the importance of examining paternal contributions to children's regulatory skills. PMID:25798496
Father involvement in early child-rearing and behavioural outcomes in their pre-adolescent children: evidence from the ALSPAC UK birth cohort.
Opondo, Charles; Redshaw, Maggie; Savage-McGlynn, Emily; Quigley, Maria A
To explore the nature of paternal involvement in early child-rearing adopting a social developmental perspective, and estimate its effect on behavioural outcomes of children aged 9 and 11 years. The data come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort recruited in the former county of Avon in the southwest of England. Out of the 14 701 children in this cohort who were alive at 1 year, 10 440 children were living with both parents at 8 months and were therefore eligible. Outcome data were available for 6898 children at 9 years and 6328 children at 11 years. Paternal involvement was measured using factor scores obtained through factor analysis of fathers' responses on their participation in, understanding of, and feelings about their child's early upbringing. Behavioural problems were measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total difficulties score. 3 factors were identified in the factor analysis: Factor 1 described fathers' emotional response to the child; factor 2 measured the frequency of fathers' involvement in domestic and childcare activities; factor 3 characterised fathers' feelings of security in their role as parent and partner. Children of fathers with high scores on factors 1 and 3 had 14% (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.94, p=0.001) and 13% (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96, p=0.006), respectively, lower adjusted odds of behavioural problems at 9 years. Factors 1 and 3 were associated with comparable reduction in adjusted odds of behavioural problems at 11 years (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.98, p=0.017 and OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.99, p=0.034, respectively). Factor 2 was not associated with the outcome. Psychological and emotional aspects of paternal involvement in children's early upbringing, particularly how new fathers see themselves as parents and adjust to the role, rather than the quantity of direct involvement in childcare, is associated with positive behavioural outcomes in children
Beyond Absenteeism: Father Incarceration and Child Development*
Geller, Amanda; Cooper, Carey E.; Garfinkel, Irwin; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Mincy, Ronald B.
High rates of incarceration among American men, coupled with high rates of fatherhood among men in prison, have motivated recent research on the effects of parental imprisonment on children’s development. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the relationship between paternal incarceration and developmental outcomes for approximately 3,000 urban children. We estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models that control not only for fathers’ basic demographic characteristics and a rich set of potential confounders, but also for several measures of pre-incarceration child development and family fixed effects. We find significant increases in aggressive behaviors among children whose fathers are incarcerated, and some evidence of increased attention problems. The estimated effects of paternal incarceration are stronger than those of other forms of father absence, suggesting that children with incarcerated fathers may require specialized support from caretakers, teachers, and social service providers. The estimated effects are stronger for children who lived with their fathers prior to incarceration, but are also significant for children of nonresident fathers, suggesting that incarceration places children at risk through family hardships including and beyond parent-child separation. PMID:22203452
77 FR 37259 - Father's Day, 2012
... fatherhood by helping dads re-engage with their families and supporting programs that work with fathers. And that is why men across our country are making the decision every single day to step up; to be good fathers; and to serve as mentors, tutors, and foster parents to young people who need the guiding hand of...
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SYLVIA DE CASTRO KORGI
Full Text Available On the cross-point of two of the most important and inseparable Freudian questions: What is a father?and, What a woman wants?, this paper begins a reflection about the women’s place in the Freudianarticulation of the relationship between the father and the social bond. In fact, the Freudian father, thanksto the law mediation which he is its agent, has as a function the regulation of the pleasure that participatesin the social bond, making this way possible the human community. On the other hand, the support ofthe human community is the bond among brothers, as well as Freud presents it in his foundational textof the Law. How to precise the women’s place in this arrangement? The reflection stands out this thatexceeds the Father’s Law and that Freud sets on women’s account, initially under the figure of heropposition to the culture.
Parenting and antisocial behavior: a model of the relationship between adolescent self-disclosure, parental closeness, parental control, and adolescent antisocial behavior.
Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo
This study used data collected from a sample of 840 Italian adolescents (418 boys; M age = 12.58) and their parents (657 mothers; M age = 43.78) to explore the relations between parenting, adolescent self-disclosure, and antisocial behavior. In the hypothesized model, parenting practices (e.g., parental monitoring and control) have direct effects on parental knowledge and antisocial behavior. Parenting style (e.g., parent-child closeness), on the other hand, is directly related to adolescent self-disclosure, which in turn is positively related to parental knowledge and negatively related to adolescents' antisocial behavior. A structural equation model, which incorporated data from parents and adolescents, largely supported the hypothesized model. Gender-specific models also found some gender differences among adolescents and parents, as the hypothesized model adequately fit the subsample of mothers but not fathers. Mothers' closeness to girls predicted their knowledge of their daughters' behavior; mothers' control predicted boys' antisocial behavior.
Cultural influences on positive father involvement in two-parent Mexican-origin families.
Cruz, Rick A; King, Kevin M; Widaman, Keith F; Leu, Janxin; Cauce, Ana Mari; Conger, Rand D
A growing body of research documents the importance of positive father involvement in children's development. However, research on fathers in Latino families is sparse, and research contextualizing the father-child relationship within a cultural framework is needed. The present study examined how fathers' cultural practices and values predicted their fifth-grade children's report of positive father involvement in a sample of 450 two-parent Mexican-origin families. Predictors included Spanish- and English-language use, Mexican and American cultural values, and positive machismo (i.e., culturally related attitudes about the father's role within the family). Positive father involvement was measured by the child's report of his or her father's monitoring, educational involvement, and warmth. Latent variable regression analyses showed that fathers' machismo attitudes were positively related to children's report of positive father involvement and that this association was similar across boys and girls. The results of this study suggest an important association between fathers' cultural values about men's roles and responsibilities within a family and their children's perception of positive fathering.
Parents who hit and scream: interactive effects of verbal and severe physical aggression on clinic-referred adolescents' adjustment.
LeRoy, Michelle; Mahoney, Annette; Boxer, Paul; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Fang, Qijuan
The goals of this study were first, to delineate the co-occurrence of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression toward clinic-referred adolescents, and second, to examine the interactive effects of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. This research involved 239 referrals of 11- to 18-year-old youth and their dual-parent families to a non-profit, private community mental health center in a semi-rural Midwest community. Multiple informants (i.e., adolescents and mothers) were used to assess parental aggression and adolescent behavior problems. More than half of clinic-referred adolescents (51%) experienced severe physical aggression and/or high verbal aggression from one or both parents. A pattern of interactive effects of mother-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent behavior problems emerged, indicating that when severe physical aggression was present, mother-to-adolescent verbal aggression was positively associated with greater adolescent behavior problems whereas when severe physical aggression was not present, the links between verbal aggression and behavior problems was no longer significant. No interactive effects were found for father-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent adjustment; however, higher father-to-adolescent verbal aggression was consistently linked to behavior problems above and beyond the influence of severe physical aggression. The results of this study should promote the practice of routinely assessing clinic-referred adolescents and their parents about their experiences of verbal aggression in addition to severe physical aggression and other forms of abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fathering and mothering in the family system: linking marital hostility and aggression in adopted toddlers.
Stover, Carla Smith; Connell, Christian M; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Scaramella, Laura V; Conger, Rand; Reiss, David
Previous studies have linked marital conflict, parenting, and externalizing problems in early childhood. However, these studies have not examined whether genes account for these links nor have they examined whether contextual factors such as parental personality or financial distress might account for links between marital conflict and parenting. We used an adoption design to allow for a clear examination of environmental impact rather than shared genes of parents and children, and assessments of parental personality and financial strain to assess the effects of context on relationships between marriage and parenting of both mothers and fathers. Participants were 308 adoption-linked families comprised of an adopted child, her/his biological mother (BM), adoptive mother (AM) and adoptive father (AF). BMs were assessed 3-6 and 18 months postpartum and adoptive families were assessed when the child was 18 and 27 months old. Structural equations models were used to examine associations between marital hostility, fathers' and mothers' parenting hostility, and child aggressive behavior at 27 months of age. In addition, the contribution of financial strain and adoptive parent personality traits was examined to determine the associations with the spillover of marital hostility to hostile parenting. A hostile marital relationship was significantly associated with hostile parenting in fathers and mothers, which were associated with aggressive behavior in toddlers. Subjective financial strain was uniquely associated with marital hostility and child aggression. Antisocial personality traits were related to a more hostile/conflicted marital relationship and to hostile parenting. Results clarify mechanisms that may account for the success of early parent-child prevention programs that include a focus on parental economic strain and personality in addition to parent training. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for
Understanding fatherhood in Greece: father's involvement in child care
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Full Text Available The present study aims to depict a picture of Greek fathers concerning their involvement in family and child-centered tasks over the first year of the child. Eighty fathers from rural areas with low educational and occupational status and eighty fathers from urban districts with high educational and occupational status were asked to talk about their own perceptions of fatherhood and also their participation into two parenting commitments: (a preparations before and after the birth of the child and (b involvement in play with the child and a variety of daily child-care tasks. The results show that fathers in urban regions were more involved in these activities than their counterparts in rural areas. All fathers valued fatherhood as a pleasant experience. Many fathers, however, stated that child-rearing responsibilities cause them a lot of psychological strain. The results are discussed in relation to the division of roles between spouses in Greek families.
Paternal Incarceration and Father-Child Contact in Fragile Families.
High rates of incarceration in the United States have motivated a broad examination of the effects of parental incarceration on child well-being. Although a growing literature documents challenges facing the children of incarcerated men, most incarcerated fathers lived apart from their children before their arrest, raising questions of whether they were sufficiently involved with their families for their incarceration to affect their children. The author used the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,071) to examine father-child contact among incarcerated fathers and found that most incarcerated fathers maintained a degree of contact with their children, through either coresidence or visitation. Moreover, the results revealed robust reductions in both father-child coresidence and visitation when fathers are incarcerated-between 18% and 20% for coresidence, and 30% to 50% for the probability of visitation. The findings suggest that these reductions are driven by both incapacitation while incarcerated and union dissolution upon release.
Contribution of parents' adult attachment and separation attitudes to parent-adolescent conflict resolution.
García-Ruiz, Marta; Rodrigo, María José; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan A; Máiquez, María Luisa
This study examined the contribution to parent-adolescent conflict resolution of parental adult attachment styles and attitudes toward adolescent separation. Questionnaires were completed by 295 couples with early to late adolescent children. Structural equation models were used to test self and partner influences on conflict resolution for three attachment orientations: confidence (model A), anxiety (model B) and avoidance (model C). Model A showed self influences between parents' confidence orientation and negotiation and also via positive attitudes towards separation. Also, the fathers' use of negotiation was facilitated by the mothers' confidence orientation and vice versa, indicating partner influences as well. Model B showed self influences between parents' anxiety orientation and the use of dominance and withdrawal and also via negative attitudes towards separation. Model C showed self influences between parents' avoidance orientation and dominance and withdrawal, and a partner influence between fathers' avoidance and mothers' use of dominance. The results indicated that the parents' adult attachment system and the parenting system were related in the area of conflict resolution, and that self influences were stronger than partner influences. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Perceptions of decisional uutonomy of Turkish adolescents and their parents
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Full Text Available This study attempted to investigate decisional autonomy in Turkish adolescents from 12 to 18 years. The Perspectives on Adolescent Decision Making (PADM questionnaire was administered to 372 middle class adolescents who attend middle and high schools and to their parents. The PADM assess if adolescents decide for themselves, or parents impose restrictions or adolescents and parents have arguments about the topic. MANOVA analyzes were used. Results showed that affirmative answers increased with age. From adolescent and parents' perspectives adolescent decisional autonomy grows with age, parental control decreases, conflicts between them tended to decrease, on the perspective of parents. There was minor gender differences: girls have higher level of decisional autonomy; boys experience more conflict. Adolescents' decisional autonomy expectations tended to be higher than those of parents. Fathers' and mothers' perspectives on decisional autonomy were very similar. The results support the new family model proposed by Kaðýtçýbaþý.
The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adolescents' Social Anxiety in Migrant Families: A Study in Guangdong, China.
Xu, Jihong; Ni, Shiguang; Ran, Maosheng; Zhang, Chengping
Previous studies indicated that parenting styles were important influencing factors for the development of children's well-being. It is known that mass migration to the cities in China will affect family relations. However, few studies focused on the relationship between parenting styles and adolescents' mental health in migrant families. Thus, this study aimed to investigate how parenting styles could affect adolescent's social anxiety in migrant families. A total number of 1,345 adolescents in migrant families from four non-government-funded junior middle schools in Guangdong province formed the research sample. Parenting styles were measured using short-form of the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran, and social anxiety was evaluated using Social Anxiety Subscale of Self-Consciousness Scale. The results showed that emotional warmth, overprotection and rejection were significantly more often perceived from mothers than from fathers. Significant group differences between high social anxiety group and low social anxiety group were found in both father's rearing styles and mother's rearing styles. Furthermore, in migrant families, paternal emotional warmth could decrease adolescents' social anxiety, whereas maternal overprotection could increase it.
"Dad - a practical guy in the shadow": Fathers' experiences of their paternal role as a father during early discharge after birth and readmission of their newborns.
Feenstra, Maria Monberg; Nilsson, Ingrid; Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe
The aim is to explore how new fathers experience early discharge after birth and readmission of their newborn in relation to their role and involvement as a father. Fathers of today are active participants during pregnancy, birth and in the care of the newborn. Still studies demonstrate that health care professionals are unsuccessful at involving fathers in ante- and postnatal care. How fathers experience their paternal role in the early postnatal period may affect the well-being of the new family. A qualitative study inspired by the hermeneutic approach. Data was collected through telephone interviews. The study was conducted in the Region of Southern Denmark in a University Hospital setting. Convenience sampling was applied. Eight fathers were included from November 2015 till February 2016 and six were interviewed. The data analysis revealed three categories: Early discharge - ups and downs, Readmission -waiting but being in good hands, and Practical guy in the shadow. Our study points at fathers being comfortable with being discharged early, but experienced insecurity when at home. The fathers experienced to be categorized by health care professionals as the practical guy, who had to assist the mother. Yet fathers saw themselves as equal to the mothers. Fathers also saw themselves in the shadow of the mother and showed greater considerations for the mother's feelings than their own. Fathers can be insecure in their paternal role when being met as just the practical guy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Adolescents' academic achievement and life satisfaction: the role of parents' education.
Crede, Julia; Wirthwein, Linda; McElvany, Nele; Steinmayr, Ricarda
Drawing on the background of positive psychology, there has only recently been a focus on adolescents' life satisfaction (LS) in the context of education. Studies examining the relationship between adolescents' academic achievement and LS have shown conflicting results and the reasons are not fully understood. The present study investigated the role of parents' education as a potential moderator of the relationship between adolescents' academic achievement and LS. A sample of German high school students (N = 411) reported parents' educational attainment, as an indicator of family socio-economic status, and students' academic achievement was operationalized by grade point average in five subjects. Results indicated that only mothers' education functioned as a moderator of the relationship between academic achievement and students' LS. The association between academic achievement and LS was only found in the group of students whose mothers had achieved the same or a higher education (at least high school diploma) as their own children. Fathers' educational attainment, however, was not a significant moderator of the respective relationship. Directions for future research and the differential influences of fathers' and mothers' education are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes.
Needs of fathers during labour and childbirth: A cross-sectional study.
Eggermont, Katrijn; Beeckman, Dimitri; Van Hecke, Ann; Delbaere, Ilse; Verhaeghe, Sofie
Fathers play an important role in the childbearing process, but are sometimes sidelined by midwives. The objectives were: identify fathers' needs during the labor and childbirth process; determine if their needs were met by midwives; and identify variables influencing these needs. The questionnaire was designed based on a systematic literature search and validated by a multistage consensus method. Data were collected during a cross-sectional study in two maternity wards in Belgium, where a medical-led model is used. Fathers present during natural childbirth were recruited via consecutive sampling. Based on multivariate analyses, fathers with a higher education level and multiparous fathers needed less information about the process of birth compared to less educated fathers (pfathers (pfathers, a tour of the delivery room was less important than for primiparous fathers (p=0.005; OR=0.14; 95% CI=0.03-0.54). Married fathers needed less information on how to support their partners physically (pfathers. Information needs are more important to fathers compared to needs focusing on the birth experience or their involvement. Socio-demographic variables like educational level, parity, and marital status were associated with fathers' needs. Midwives need to be aware of fathers' needs during the birth process and to fulfill these needs appropriately. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Linking Mother-Father Differences in Parenting to a Typology of Family Parenting Styles and Adolescent Outcomes
Simons, Leslie Gordon; Conger, Rand D.
Using longitudinal data from a sample of 451 families with a child in eighth grade at the time of study, three research questions have been addressed: First, the study explored the ways in which mothers and fathers differ with regard to four parenting styles. Second, the study examined the manner in which individual parenting styles combine to…
Family factors of self-esteem stability in adolescents
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Todorović Jelisaveta A.
Full Text Available The aim of investigations was to examine what upbringing styles and socio-economic parameters correlate with adolescents’ unstable self-esteem. Self-esteem is an evaluative measure of self-concept whose stability in time reflects personality’s autonomy and integrity. Using the sample of 280 secondary school students, the SSES scale was administered twice, at a 30-day interval, the EMBU scale of upbringing styles, a questionnaire with general data on respondents and socioeconomic parameters. It proved that upbringing style and parental tenderness (of both father and mother correlate with unstable self-esteem in adolescents. Significant correlation between upbringing styles and unstable self-esteem was also found in inconsistency, low control and protection on the part of father. Stable self-esteem is significantly negatively correlated with inconsistency of mother. Of diverse socioeconomic parameters, educational level of father and his profession are of critical importance for stable self-esteem. Upbringing styles produce greater influence on self-esteem level than socio-economic parameters do.
Midwives' perceptions and experiences of engaging fathers in perinatal services.
Rominov, Holly; Giallo, Rebecca; Pilkington, Pamela D; Whelan, Thomas A
The active engagement of fathers in maternity care is associated with long-term benefits for the father, their partner, and their child. Midwives are ideally placed to engage fathers, but few studies have explored midwives' experiences of working with men. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe midwives' perceptions and experiences of engaging fathers in perinatal services. A multi-method approach was utilised. Registered midwives (N=106) providing perinatal services to families in Australia participated in an online survey. Of these, 13 also participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Descriptive analyses summarised the online survey data. The interview data were coded using semantic thematic analysis. Survey results indicated that midwives unanimously agreed that engaging fathers is part of their role and acknowledged the importance of receiving education to develop knowledge and skills about fathers. Analysis of the telephone interviews led to the identification of a range of strategies, facilitators and barriers to engaging fathers in midwifery services. Some of these were related to characteristics of midwives, factors related specifically to fathers, and several external factors relating to organisational policies. Findings from this study could inform maternity health care policies, as well the development of resources, education and ongoing professional training for midwives to promote father-inclusive practice. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Early father's and mother's involvement and child's later educational outcomes.
Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann
Few studies have investigated the individual long-term contributions that mothers and fathers make to their children's schooling. (1) To explore the role of early father involvement in children's later educational attainment independently of the role of early mother involvement and other confounds, (2) to investigate whether gender and family structure moderate the relationship between father's and mother's involvement and child's educational attainment, and (3) to explore whether the impact of father's involvement depends on the level of mother's involvement. The study used longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study. The initial sample were those 7,259 cohort members with valid data on mother involvement at age 7, father involvement at age 7, and school-leaving qualification by age 20. Of those, 3,303 were included in the final analysis. The measures were control variables, structural factors (family structure, sibship size and residential mobility), child factors (emotional/behavioural problems, cognitive ability and academic motivation), and father's and mother's involvement. Father involvement and mother involvement at age 7 independently predicted educational attainment by age 20. The association between parents' involvement and educational attainment was not stronger for sons than for daughters. Father involvement was not more important for educational attainment when mother involvement was low rather than high. Not growing up in intact two-parent family did not weaken the association between father's or mother's involvement and educational outcomes. Early father involvement can be another protective factor in counteracting risk conditions that might lead to later low attainment levels.
Adolescents’ Problem Behaviors and Parent-Adolescent Conflicts in Hmong Immigrant Families
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Zha Blong Xiong
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate whether Hmong adolescent problem behaviors and school difficulties influence parent-adolescent conflicts above and beyond the variables of adolescents’ embarrassment about their parents, the acculturation gap between parents and adolescents, and age of adolescents. The sample included 209 Hmong adolescents living in Minnesota. There were 123 males and 86 females, ages 12 to 25 years. A survey was administered in several community agencies to adolescents that included their perspectives on the frequency and intensity of parent-adolescent disagreements on 28 issues and the problem behaviors of delinquent peer affiliation, gang involvement, truancy, and school performance. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated the set of problem-behavior independent variables explained 26% of the variance in the frequency-intensity of father-adolescent conflicts and 21% of the variance in the frequency-intensity of mother-adolescent conflicts. Ideas for parent education in the Hmong community are discussed.
Parental Attributions for the Behavior Problems of Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Hartley, Sigan L.; Schaidle, Emily M.; Burnson, Cynthia F.
Objective The authors examined parental attributions for child behavior problems in 63 married couples of children and adolescents (aged 3–20 years) with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Both child-referent attributions (i.e., beliefs about causes related to the child or adolescent) and parent-referent attributions (i.e., beliefs about causes related to the parent) were examined along the dimensions of locus, stability, and controllability. Parent and child/adolescent factors related to parental attributions were identified, and the associations between parental attributions and parenting burden were explored. Method Mothers and fathers independently completed self-reported measures of parental attributions, parenting burden, and child behavior problems. Couples jointly reported on their son or daughter’s severity of autism symptoms, intellectual disability status, age, and gender. Results Parents tended to attribute the behavior problems of their child/adolescent with an ASD to characteristics that were not only internal to and stable in the child/adolescent but also controllable by the child/adolescent. Mothers were more likely to attribute their son or daughter’s behavior problems to characteristics that were less internal to and less stable in the child/adolescent with an ASD than were fathers. In addition, parents with a higher level of symptoms of the broader autism phenotype, parents of younger children, and parents of children/adolescents with intellectual disability, a higher severity of autism symptoms, and a higher severity of overall behavior problems were more likely to attribute their son or daughter’s behavior problems to characteristics that were more internal to and stable in the child/adolescent and factors that were less controllable by the child/adolescent. Parental attributions were related to parents’ level of parenting burden. Implications Findings have implications for designing appropriate interventions and services for families
Parental attributions for the behavior problems of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.
Hartley, Sigan L; Schaidle, Emily M; Burnson, Cynthia F
The authors examined parental attributions for child behavior problems in 63 married couples of children and adolescents (aged 3-20 years) with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Both child-referent attributions (i.e., beliefs about causes related to the child or adolescent) and parent-referent attributions (i.e., beliefs about causes related to the parent) were examined along the dimensions of locus, stability, and controllability. Parent and child/adolescent factors related to parental attributions were identified, and the associations between parental attributions and parenting burden were explored. Mothers and fathers independently completed self-reported measures of parental attributions, parenting burden, and child behavior problems. Couples jointly reported on their son or daughter's severity of autism symptoms, intellectual disability status, age, and gender. Parents tended to attribute the behavior problems of their child/adolescent with an ASD to characteristics that were not only internal to and stable in the child/adolescent but also controllable by the child/adolescent. Mothers were more likely to attribute their son or daughter's behavior problems to characteristics that were less internal to and less stable in the child/adolescent with an ASD than were fathers. In addition, parents with a higher level of symptoms of the broader autism phenotype, parents of younger children, and parents of children/adolescents with intellectual disability, a higher severity of autism symptoms, and a higher severity of overall behavior problems were more likely to attribute their son or daughter's behavior problems to characteristics that were more internal to and stable in the child/adolescent and factors that were less controllable by the child/adolescent. Parental attributions were related to parents' level of parenting burden. Findings have implications for designing appropriate interventions and services for families of children and adolescents with ASDs.
Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Its Association to Adolescents’ Self-Esteem
Yaacob, Mohd Jamil bin
Psychoanalysts believed that early mother-child relationships form the prototype of all future relationships and the outcome of adolescents development depends on their ego-strength. Object relations theory believed that intrapsychic process mediates interpersonal interaction to develop a sense of secure self and adolescents must relinquish the internalized other in order to develop a more mature sense of self. Social-relation theory believed that mothers and fathers provide different socialization experiences. Self-esteem depends on the functioning of the whole family in which adolescent is intimately related to the dyadic relationship in a family. There is an association between interparental conflict and adolescent’s self-esteem and problem behaviour. PMID:22589586
Surrogacy commissioning fathers and HIV
Jordaan, D W
Surrogacy is not regulated by a single legal instrument only, nor is confirmation of a surrogacy agreement by the High Court an unqualified green light for the surrogacy process to proceed. In the context of the HIV status of the commissioning father, whose gametes are to be used for the conception of the child in pursuance of a surrogacy agreement, the intended in vitro fertilisation of the surrogate mother may only take place on condition that the commissioning father, and his semen, have b...
Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschool-Age Children: How Fathers Spend Time with Their Children in Different Family Structures
Halme, Nina; Astedt-Kurki, Paivi; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu
The purpose of this study was to describe how fathers (n = 263) spent time with their preschool-age children and to compare it in different family structures. Data were gathered by structured questionnaires. The instrument included five categories of variables for the time spent: the quantity of time, physical activities, fathers' attitude towards…
The role of parents in preventing adolescent alcohol and cannabis use
This thesis aimed to investigate the role of parents in preventing adolescent alcohol and cannabis use. First, we investigated the association of specific parental drinking patterns with 12-15 year olds' drinking. Only two out of six parental drinking patterns, i.e. having a heavy drinking father
Parental rules and communication: their association with adolescent smoking.
Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H J; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E
To examine the association between parental rules and communication (also referred to as antismoking socialization) and adolescents' smoking. A cross-sectional study including 428 Dutch two-parent families with at least two adolescent children (aged 13-17 years). Parents' and adolescents' reports on an agreement regarding smoking by adolescents, smoking house rules, parental confidence in preventing their child from smoking, frequency and quality of communication about smoking, and parent's reactions to smoking experimentation. Compared with fathers and adolescents, mothers reported being more involved in antismoking socialization. There were robust differences in antismoking socialization efforts between smoking and non-smoking parents. Perceived parental influence and frequency and quality of communication about smoking were associated with adolescents' smoking. The association between antismoking socialization practices and adolescents' smoking was not moderated by birth order, parents' smoking or gender of the adolescent. Encouraging parents, whether or not they themselves smoke, to discuss smoking-related issues with their children in a constructive and respectful manner is worth exploring as an intervention strategy to prevent young people taking up smoking.
Family Structure, Mother-Child Communication, Father-Child Communication, and Adolescent Life Satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Analysis
Levin, Kate A.; Currie, Candace
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between mother-child and father-child communication and children's life satisfaction, and the moderating effect of communication with stepparents. Design/methodology/approach: Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland…
Hispanic Young Males' Mental Health From Adolescence Through the Transition to Fatherhood.
Garfield, Craig F; Abbott, Collin; Rutsohn, Joshua; Penedo, Frank
The objective of the current study was to examine the associations between the transition to fatherhood and depressive symptoms scores among Hispanic men. Using the sample of Hispanic men included in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, depressive symptom scores were examined from 1994 to 2008. A "fatherhood-year" data set was created that included the men's Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores as well as residency status with the child. By regressing age-adjusted standardized depressive symptom scores, associations between mental health scores of Hispanic men and their transition to fatherhood were identified. Among the 1,715 Hispanic men, resident ( n = 502) and nonresident ( n = 99) Hispanic fathers reported an increase in depressive symptom scores (CES-D) during the first 5 years after entrance into fatherhood (β = 0.150, 95% CI [0.062, 0.239] and β = 0.153, 95% CI [0.034, 0.271], respectively) compared to non-fathers ( n = 1,114), representing an increase of 10% for resident fathers and a 15% for nonresident fathers. Hispanic non-fathers reported a decrease in depressive symptom scores (CES-D) during parallel ages. Hispanic fathers, regardless of residency status, reported increased depressive symptoms in the first 5 years after the transition into fatherhood, a period critical in child development.
Influências das condições de trabalho do pai sobre o relacionamento pai-filho Influences father's work conditions on father-child relationship
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Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo identificar as condições de trabalho que influenciam no envolvimento do pai com seu filho. Participaram deste estudo 58 pais que tinham um filho na 5a ou 6a série do Ensino Fundamental. Os pais preencheram o questionário "Avaliação das condições de trabalho e do envolvimento do pai com seu filho - versão paterna". As medidas das condições de trabalho apresentaram correlações significativas com a satisfação do pai em relação ao seu desempenho familiar. Esta escala, por sua vez, estava positivamente correlacionada com as medidas do envolvimento do pai com seu filho. Assim, a relação entre as condições de trabalho e o envolvimento do pai com seu filho foi mediada pela satisfação do pai com seu desempenho familiar. Tais resultados demonstram a necessidade de identificar e alterar as normas e condições de trabalho que restringem as oportunidades para os pais participarem das rotinas familiares.The aim of this study was to identify the work conditions that influence father-child relationship. A total of 58 fathers, whose child was at fifth or sixth grade, participated in this study. The fathers completed the questionnaire "Evaluation of work conditions and involvement of the father with his child - Paternal version". The measures of work conditions presented significant correlations with father's satisfaction concerning his family performance. This scale, in turn, presented correlations with the measures of father-child involvement. Therefore, the relation between work conditions and father-child involvement was mediated by the satisfaction of the father with his family performance. These results indicate the need to identify and alter the work rules and conditions, which restrict fathers' opportunities to participate in their family routines.
Fatherhood: experiences of fathers of boys diagnosed with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.
Lucca, Silvana Aparecida de; Petean, Eucia Beatriz Lopes
This study's aim was to understand the experience of being the father of a boy diagnosed with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Eight fathers of 10-year-old or older boys diagnosed with DMD, living in RibeirãoPreto and surrounding cities participated in the study. Interviews included a semi-structured script and data were analyzed according to thematic content analysis. The results show that the confirmation of a DMD diagnosis shocked fathers and was mixed with sorrow, helplessness and hopelessness. Most fathers considered the illness of their child to be a mission sent by God, which helps to alleviate the pain and anguish caused by the disease. As the symptoms started manifesting, the fathers experienced losses that exposed them to great suffering and triggered an anticipatory mourning process. The fathers assigned to the disease the meaning of a mission to be accomplished and considered themselves to be "special fathers", which positively influenced their adaptation to the disease. Identifying and understanding how fathers experience fatherhood in the presence of a chronic disease/disability is essential to devising psychological counseling and care programs directed to fathers and their families.
Who Shapes Whom in the Family: Reciprocal Links between Autonomy Support in the Family and Parents' and Adolescents' Coping Behaviors
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante
Coping research has neglected the study of the reciprocal links between parents' and adolescents' coping behaviors and the potential influence of parental support for the development of adolescent autonomy. This study, therefore, analyzed the coping behaviors of fathers, mothers, and children (53% females) in 196 families who participated in a…
Working at the Weekend: Fathers' Time with Family in the United Kingdom.
Hook, Jennifer L
Whereas most resident fathers are able to spend more time with their children on weekends than on weekdays, many fathers work on the weekends spending less time with their children on these days. There are conflicting findings about whether fathers are able to make up for lost weekend time on weekdays. Using unique features of the United Kingdom's National Survey of Time Use 2000 (UKTUS) I examine the impact of fathers' weekend work on the time fathers spend with their children, family, and partners (N = 595 fathers). I find that weekend work is common among fathers and is associated with less time with children, families, and partners. Fathers do not recover lost time with children on weekdays, largely because weekend work is a symptom of overwork. Findings also reveal that even if fathers had compensatory time, they are unlikely to recover lost time spent as a family or couple.
Perception of Parental Bonds and Suicide Intent Among Egyptian Adolescents.
Sharaf, Amira Y; Thompson, Elaine A; Abd El-Salam, Hoda F
Suicidal adolescents, compared to their nonsuicidal peers, tend to perceive their parents as less "caring" and more "controlling"-which characterizes the "affectionless control" parenting style. Research findings are inconsistent regarding the distinct influence of mother versus father parenting on youth suicide intent; moreover, the influence of parents' joint parenting styles on suicide intent has not been investigated. Using a cross-sectional design and large sample (N = 150 youth, 13-21 years old), currently hospitalized in a treatment center in Egypt for a recent suicide attempt, data were collected using the Suicide Intent Scale, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Seventy percent of youth reported high suicide intent. Mother and father parenting styles, assessed independently, were not associated with adolescent suicide intent. The joint effect of both parents' parenting style, however, was positively associated with suicide intent (Wald χ(2) = 8.79, p = .03). Suicide intent was stronger among adolescents who experienced neglectful compared with optimal parenting style (B = 1.93, Wald χ(2) = 4.28, p = .04). The findings have direct implications for mental health nursing interventions, signaling the critical need to engage both parents in family-based interventions to address youth suicidal behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Parental Conflict and Dominance in Late Adolescent Maladjustment: A Triple Interaction Model.
Schwarz, J. Conrad; Getter, Herbert
Ninety-two undergraduates were administered three questionnaires on parental conflict and dominance in late adolescent maladjustment. Results indicated that more neurotic daughters come from high conflict families with dominant fathers, while more neurotic sons come from high conflict families with dominant mothers. (Author/CL)
Recruiting Fathers to Parenting Programs: Advice from Dads and Fatherhood Program Providers
Stahlschmidt, Mary Jo; Threlfall, Jennifer; Seay, Kristen D.; Lewis, Ericka M.; Kohl, Patricia L.
The benefits of high-quality father-child relationships for fathers and children alike are well documented. While evidence suggests parenting programs can improve the quality of father-child relationships, few fathers participate in such programs. This qualitative study aims to fill the gap in knowledge on best practices for recruiting urban African American fathers, a group of fathers with unique parenting challenges, to parenting programs. Focus groups were conducted with 29 fathers to gain their perspectives on recruitment strategies. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with a nationwide sample of 19 fatherhood program providers to learn about their most successful recruitment strategies. Recruitment strategies based on emergent themes from the focus groups and interviews are presented here. Themes included using word-of-mouth recruitment, increasing advertising, targeting advertising specifically to urban African American fathers, providing transportation and incentives, recruiting through the courts, collaborating with other community agencies, and offering parenting programming along with other programming valued by fathers such as employment assistance. Implications for developing strategies for recruiting urban African American fathers to parenting programs are discussed. PMID:24791035
Recruiting Fathers to Parenting Programs: Advice from Dads and Fatherhood Program Providers.
Stahlschmidt, Mary Jo; Threlfall, Jennifer; Seay, Kristen D; Lewis, Ericka M; Kohl, Patricia L
The benefits of high-quality father-child relationships for fathers and children alike are well documented. While evidence suggests parenting programs can improve the quality of father-child relationships, few fathers participate in such programs. This qualitative study aims to fill the gap in knowledge on best practices for recruiting urban African American fathers, a group of fathers with unique parenting challenges, to parenting programs. Focus groups were conducted with 29 fathers to gain their perspectives on recruitment strategies. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with a nationwide sample of 19 fatherhood program providers to learn about their most successful recruitment strategies. Recruitment strategies based on emergent themes from the focus groups and interviews are presented here. Themes included using word-of-mouth recruitment, increasing advertising, targeting advertising specifically to urban African American fathers, providing transportation and incentives, recruiting through the courts, collaborating with other community agencies, and offering parenting programming along with other programming valued by fathers such as employment assistance. Implications for developing strategies for recruiting urban African American fathers to parenting programs are discussed.
New measure for fathers of children with developmental challenges.
Ly, A R; Goldberg, W A
There is a relative lack of measures tailored to the study of fathers of children with developmental challenges (DCs). The goal of the current study was to create and validate a brief measure designed to capture the perceptions and experiences of these fathers. The Fathers of Children with Developmental Challenges (FCDC) questionnaire was designed to assess fathers' perceptions of the supports for, and challenges to, their efforts to be involved in the rearing of their children. Participants were 101 fathers of children with DCs who completed an online survey. Scale validation included tests to determine reliability, validity and factor structure. Used to establish validity were measures of parenting stress, parenting commitment, parent personality and child social-communicative skills. Analyses indicated that the FCDC is reliable (α = 0.89), demonstrates content validity, construct validity and acts in theoretically expected ways. Factor analysis on the 20-item measure yielded two sub-scales: (1) impact on parenting, and (2) involvement with child intervention. The FCDC fills a gap in the literature by offering an easy-to-administer self-report measure of fathers' perceptions of supports for, and barriers to, their involvement with their children with DCs. The FCDC could assist professionals in delivering support services specifically for fathers of children with DCs. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSIDD.
Parenting styles and conceptions of parental authority during adolescence.
Smetana, J G
Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 110 primarily white, middle-class sixth, eighth, and tenth graders (M = 11.98, 13.84, and 16.18 years of age) and their parents (108 mothers and 92 fathers). Parents judged the legitimacy of parental authority and rated family conflict and rules regarding 24 hypothetical moral, conventional, personal, multifaceted (containing conventional and personal components), prudential, and friendship issues. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Parents' parenting styles differentiated their conceptions of parental authority, but adolescents' perceptions did not. Differences were primarily over the boundaries of adolescents' personal jurisdiction. Furthermore, conceptions of parental authority and parenting styles both contributed significantly to emotional autonomy and adolescent-parent conflict. The implications of the findings for typological models of parenting and distinct domain views of social-cognitive development are discussed.
Examining the relation between adolescent social anxiety, adolescent delinquency (abstention), and emerging adulthood relationship quality.
Mercer, Natalie; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan
Social anxiety symptoms and delinquency are two prevalent manifestations of problem behavior during adolescence and both are related to negative interpersonal relationships in adolescence and emerging adulthood. This study examined the relation between social anxiety and delinquency in adolescence and the interplay between adolescent social anxiety and delinquency on perceived relationship quality in emerging adulthood. In a 10-year long prospective study (T1, n = 923; T2, n = 727; Mage T1 = 12; 49% female), we examined competing hypotheses using regression analyses: the protective perspective, which suggests social anxiety protects against delinquency; and the co-occurring perspective, which suggests social anxiety and delinquency co-occur leading to increased negative interpersonal outcomes. In adolescence, the relation between social anxiety and delinquency was consistent with the protective perspective. In emerging adulthood, consistent with the co-occurring perspective, ever-delinquents (but not delinquency abstainers) with higher social anxiety reported less perceived best friend, mother, and father support compared to delinquents with lower social anxiety. There was no interaction between anxiety and delinquency in predicting perceived conflict. This study highlights the importance of examining the relation between social anxiety and delinquency with regards to different interpersonal outcomes.
Family and parenting characteristics associated with marijuana use by Chilean adolescents
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Full Text Available Cristina B Bares1, Jorge Delva2, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor2, Fernando Andrade31Curtis Research and Training Center, School of Social Work, 2School of Social Work, 3School of Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAObjective: Family involvement and several characteristics of parenting have been suggested to be protective factors for adolescent substance use. Some parenting behaviors may have stronger relationships with adolescent behavior while others may have associations with undesirable behavior among youth. Although it is generally acknowledged that families play an important role in the lives of Chilean adolescents, scant research exists on how different family and parenting factors may be associated with marijuana use and related problems in this population which has one of the highest rates of drug use in Latin America.Methods: Using logistic regression and negative binomial regression, we examined whether a large number of family and parenting variables were associated with the possibility of Chilean adolescents ever using marijuana, and with marijuana-related problems. Analyses controlled for a number of demographic and peer-related variables.Results: Controlling for other parenting and family variables, adolescent reports of parental marijuana use showed a significant and positive association with adolescent marijuana use. The multivariate models also revealed that harsh parenting by fathers was the only family variable associated with the number of marijuana-related problems youth experienced. Conclusion: Of all the family and parenting variables studied, perceptions of parental use of marijuana and harsh parenting by fathers were predictors for marijuana use, and the experience of marijuana-related problems. Prevention interventions need to continue emphasizing the critical socializing role that parental behavior plays in their children's development and potential use of marijuana.Keywords: parenting, families, adolescent
Provider expectations and father involvement: learning from ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
It is essential that social policy and community interventions promote multidimensional fatherhood so as to offer fathers with alternative roles which can be carried out even in situations of unemployment and poverty. Besides, unemployed and poor fathers need social assistance if the society is going to succeed to keep them ...
Contextual risks linking parents' adolescent marijuana use to offspring onset.
Kerr, David C R; Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M
We studied the extent to which parent marijuana use in adolescence is associated with marijuana use onset in offspring through contextual family and peer risks. Fathers assessed (n=93) since childhood, their 146 offspring (n=83 girls), and offspring's mothers (n=85) participated in a longitudinal study. Using discrete-time survival analysis, fathers' (prospectively measured) and mothers' (retrospective) adolescent marijuana use was used to predict offspring marijuana use onset through age 19 years. Parental monitoring, child exposure to marijuana use, peer deviance, peer marijuana use, and perceptions of parent disapproval of child use were measured before or concurrent with onset. Parents' adolescent marijuana use was significantly associated with less monitoring, offspring alcohol use, the peer behaviors, exposure to adult marijuana use, and perceptions of less parent disapproval. Male gender and the two peer behaviors were positively associated with children's marijuana use onset, controlling for their alcohol use. Parents' adolescent marijuana use had a significant indirect effect on child onset through children's deviant peer affiliations and a composite contextual risk score. Parents' histories of marijuana use may contribute indirectly to children's marijuana use onset through their influence on the social environments children encounter; specifically, those characterized by more liberal use norms, exposure to marijuana use and deviant and marijuana-using peers, and less adult supervision. Given that alcohol use onset was controlled, findings suggest that the contextual factors identified here confer unique risk for child marijuana use onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in the Philippines.
Alampay, Liane Peña; Jocson, Rosanne M
OBJECTIVE.: This paper investigates the mean level and within-family similarities and differences in Filipino mothers' and fathers' attributions about success and failure in caregiving situations, and their progressive and authoritarian parenting attitudes. DESIGN.: Both mothers and fathers in 95 families in metropolitan Manila completed interviews. RESULTS.: Controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias, there was a significant gender difference in modernity of attitudes, with mothers exhibiting higher levels of modernity than fathers. There was a strong correlation in mothers' and fathers' authoritarian attitudes and moderate correlations in modernity of attitudes. There were neither parent gender effects nor concordance in the attributions of mothers and fathers. CONCLUSIONS.: Cultural explanations are presented to account for the findings, specifically the sociocultural values that foster traditional attitudes favoring parental authority and child obedience, and the differences in gender and family roles of Filipino mothers and fathers.
Low-income, minority fathers' control strategies and their children's regulatory skills.
Malin, Jenessa L; Cabrera, Natasha J; Karberg, Elizabeth; Aldoney, Daniela; Rowe, Meredith L
The current study explored the bidirectional association of children's individual characteristics, fathers' control strategies at 24 months, and children's regulatory skills at prekindergarten (pre-K). Using a sample of low-income, minority families with 2-year-olds from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (n = 71), we assessed the association between child gender and vocabulary skills, fathers' control strategies at 24 months (e.g., regulatory behavior and regulatory language), and children's sustained attention and emotion regulation at prekindergarten. There were three main findings. First, fathers overwhelmingly used commands (e.g., "Do that.") to promote compliance in their 24-month-old children. Second, children's vocabulary skills predicted fathers' regulatory behaviors during a father-child interaction whereas children's gender predicted fathers' regulatory language during an interaction. Third, controlling for maternal supportiveness, fathers' regulatory behaviors at 24 months predicted children's sustained attention at pre-K whereas fathers' regulatory language at 24 months predicted children's emotion regulation at pre-K. Our findings highlight the importance of examining paternal contributions to children's regulatory skills. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
RELATIONS BETWEEN COPARENTING AND FATHER INVOLVEMENT IN FAMILIES WITH PRESCHOOL AGED CHILDREN
Jia, Rongfang; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.
One-hundred twelve primarily European American and middle-class two-parent families with resident fathers and a 4-year-old child (48% girls) participated in a longitudinal study of associations between coparenting and father involvement. At the initial assessment and one year later, fathers reported on their involvement in play and caregiving activities with the focal child, and coparenting behavior was observed during triadic family interactions. SEM was used to test cross-lagged associations between coparenting behavior and father involvement. Overall, paths from father involvement to coparenting behavior were significant, but paths from coparenting behavior to father involvement were not. Specifically, greater father involvement in play was associated with an increase in supportive and a decrease in undermining coparenting behavior over time. In contrast, greater father involvement in caregiving was associated with a decrease in supportive and an increase in undermining coparenting behavior. Multi-group analysis further showed that these cross-lagged relations did not differ for dual earner families and single (father) earner families, but these relations appeared to differ for families with focal daughters and families with focal sons. These findings highlight the potential for fathering to affect coparenting and the importance of considering the role of contextual factors in coparenting-fathering relations. PMID:21244153
[Family perceptions and moderating factors of involvement in non-residential fathers].
Della Casa, André; Spillner, Murielle; Winkler-Metzke, Christa; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph
The involvement of non-resident fathers with their child was analysed by use of a questionnaire in a sample of 74 divorced or separated families living in the city of Ziurich, Switzerland. Fathers, mothers, and one child separately rated the involvement of the father. The three perspectives were compared and showed significant differences in the dimensions of educational responsibility, cognitive and social support, and the quality of the emotional relationship. The temporal availability and leisure time activities did not show significant differences. The different family perspectives should be considered when assessing a father's involvement with his child. The quality of the relationship of the children to their fathers was primarily fostered by the emotional engagement of the father.
Family Violence and Risk of Substance Use among Mexican Adolescents
Caballero, Miguel Angel; Ramos, Luciana; Gonzalez, Catalina; Saltijeral, Maria Teresa
Objective: Determine the relationship between psychological and physical violence, exerted by fathers and/or mothers, and inter- or extra-familiar sexual violence with risk for consuming tobacco, alcohol and drugs among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out with students in two secondary schools in Mexico City. A total of…
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents and Their Parents in Central Greece (FETA Project).
Patsopoulou, Anna; Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Katsioulis, Antonios; Rachiotis, George; Malissiova, Eleni; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos
The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA) aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents' and adolescents' demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12-18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2) and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ). Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy), maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents' obesity.
Fathering after military deployment: parenting challenges and goals of fathers of young children.
Walsh, Tova B; Dayton, Carolyn J; Erwin, Michael S; Muzik, Maria; Busuito, Alexandra; Rosenblum, Katherine L
Although often eagerly anticipated, reunification after deployment poses challenges for families, including adjusting to the parent-soldier's return, re-establishing roles and routines, and the potentially necessary accommodation to combat-related injuries or psychological effects. Fourteen male service members, previously deployed to a combat zone, parent to at least one child under seven years of age, were interviewed about their relationships with their young children. Principles of grounded theory guided data analysis to identify key themes related to parenting young children after deployment. Participants reported significant levels of parenting stress and identified specific challenges, including difficulty reconnecting with children, adapting expectations from military to family life, and coparenting. Fathers acknowledged regret about missing an important period in their child's development and indicated a strong desire to improve their parenting skills. They described a need for support in expressing emotions, nurturing, and managing their tempers. Results affirm the need for support to military families during reintegration and demonstrate that military fathers are receptive to opportunities to engage in parenting interventions. Helping fathers understand their children's behavior in the context of age-typical responses to separation and reunion may help them to renew parent-child relationships and reengage in optimal parenting of their young children.
Parent-adolescent interaction and risk of adolescent internet addiction: a population-based study in Shanghai.
Xu, Jian; Shen, Li-Xiao; Yan, Chong-Huai; Hu, Howard; Yang, Fang; Wang, Lu; Kotha, Sudha Rani; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Zhang, Li-Na; Liao, Xiang-Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Jin-Song; Shen, Xiao-Ming
Family-based intervention is essential for adolescents with behavioral problems. However, limited data are available on the relationship between family-based factors and adolescent internet addiction (AIA). We aimed to examine this relationship using a representative sample of Shanghai adolescents. In October 2007, a total of 5122 adolescents were investigated from 16 high schools via stratified-random sampling in Shanghai. Self-reported and anonymous questionnaires were used to assess parent-adolescent interaction and family environments. AIA was assessed by DRM-52 Scale, developed from Young's Internet-addiction Scale, using seven subscales to evaluate psychological symptoms of AIA. Adjusting for adolescents' ages, genders, socio-economic status, school performances and levels of the consumption expenditure, strong parental disapproval of internet-use was associated with AIA (vs. parental approval, OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.24-3.91). Worse mother-adolescent relationships were more significantly associated with AIA (OR = 3.79, 95% CI: 2.22-6.48) than worse father-adolescent relationships (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.10-2.80). Marital status of "married-but-separated" and family structure of "left-behind adolescents" were associated with symptoms of some subscales. When having high monthly allowance, resident students tended to develop AIA but commuter students did not. Family social-economic status was not associated with the development of AIA. The quality of parent-adolescent relationship/communication was closely associated with the development of AIA, and maternal factors were more significantly associated with development of AIA than paternal factors. Family social-economic status moderated adolescent internet-use levels but not the development of AIA.
Anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors: a comparison of anxious mothers and fathers.
Teetsel, Rebekah N; Ginsburg, Golda S; Drake, Kelly L
The majority of research identifying anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors has been conducted with mothers, leaving a gap in current knowledge about the role of fathers' parenting behaviors. In an attempt to fill this gap, this study compared anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors of anxious mothers and fathers. Parents completed self-report measures of parenting behavior and independent coders rated parenting behaviors (i.e., overcontrol, granting of autonomy, warmth, hostility, anxious behavior) of mothers (n = 34) and fathers (n = 21) during a challenging parent-child interaction task (children were ages 6-12). Results indicated that anxious fathers were observed to be more controlling than anxious mothers; while anxious mothers reported using more punishment and reinforcement of children's dependence in anxiety provoking situations compared to fathers. Findings extend our knowledge about anxious fathers, and highlight the need for additional research on the impact of fathers' parenting with respect to the development of child anxiety.
EXPLORING FATHER-DAUGHTER RELATIONSHIP IN THE ABHIJNANSAKUNTALAM AND HAMLET
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Dr. Naveen K. MEHTA
Full Text Available In Shakespearian dramas, the kingly authority merges with the authority of a father. Shakespeare uses the father-daughter relationship fundamentally to discredit the practice of possession and the attitude of cupidity which was under attack in the Renaissance. During the world’s famous Indian dramatist Kalidasa period, the father was considered to be the head of the family. Kalidasa's immortal works also suggest that counsels of parents and teachers must be obeyed without any hesitation. The present paper is an attempt to explore the intricacies of the father-daughter relationship in the „Abhijnansakuntalam” and „Hamlet”, „Prince of Denmark”
Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Challenges, Strategies, and Resources in Toddlerhood
Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Han, Suejung; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Bingham, Gary E.
This study examined mothers' and fathers' parenting challenges and strategies/resources used when parenting toddlers. Through a qualitative interview protocol, implemented with mothers and fathers separately at a university laboratory, this study found that both fathers and mothers appeared to be transitioning from traditional gender roles towards…
Breakfast and fast food eating behavior in relation to socio-demographic differences among school adolescents in Sanandaj Province, Iran.
Alimoradi, Foad; Jandaghi, Parisa; Khodabakhshi, Adeleh; Javadi, Maryam; Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni
Fast food consumption and skipping breakfast has been increasingly prevalent among high school adolescents in recent years. These unhealthy food habits are considered as risk factors of chronic diseases among adolescents and adults. To determine the consumption amount of fast food, breakfast, and some associated factors in adolescents. In this cross-sectional study in 2015, 553 adolescent students aged 14-18 years were randomly selected among high schools of Sanandaj, Iran. Demographic data and also consumption amount of fast food and breakfast in adolescents in addition to the related factors were studied. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire which its reliability and validity were measured by five experts and analyzed with SPSS-16 by Chi-square test and ANOVA. The results show that 69.8 % of subjects consume fast food at least once a week. Fast food and breakfast consumption is related significantly to subjects' fathers' occupation respectively (p=0.005), (p=0.006). Eating breakfast is significantly higher among boys than girls (pfast food consumption are: their own and their families and friends' interest and accompaniment, advertisement, close proximity of school and home to fast food stores. The consumption of fast food is high among Iranian adolescents. It correlates significantly with variables including father's occupation and all of the associated factors. Breakfast consumption correlates significantly with adolescents' age and gender, as well as parents' occupation and educational level.
Fatherhood intervention development in collaboration with African American non-resident fathers.
Julion, Wrenetha A; Breitenstein, Susan M; Waddell, Donald
Because interventions developed in partnership with African American fathers not residing with their children are virtually non-existent, existing interventions fail to address the multiple factors that constrain these fathers' positive involvement with their children. We developed a videotape fatherhood intervention: Building Bridges to Fatherhood. In collaboration with a Fathers Advisory Council composed of 12 African American fathers, we used Aranda's framework for community-based nursing intervention development to design the intervention. Data from 13 focus group meetings show Advisory Council members' insights on program structure and content, fathers' commitment to their children and communities, and the benefits they garnered from Council participation. The implications for involving fathers in intervention development include using relevant language, vernacular, and interpersonal interactions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Parent-adolescent sex communication in China.
Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Shah, Iqbal H; Baldwin, Wendy; Stanton, Bonita
Communication concerning sexual matters between parents and their adolescent children serve as a protective factor and exerts a favourable influence on adolescents' sexual behaviours. As limited data regarding parent-adolescent sex communication are available in China, this study was undertaken with the aim of exploring the patterns and related factors of such communication and its relationship with adolescent sexual behaviour. Community-based data were collected in 2001 in Changchun, China. Unmarried adolescents 15-19 years of age (322 young men and 360 young women) were included in a survey using self-administered questionnaires. Overall, sex communication with parents was relatively infrequent. There was a significant gender difference in the pattern of sex communication, with male adolescents being more likely to talk with fathers and female adolescents with mothers. Logistic regression analysis revealed that gender of adolescents, quality of communication with mothers on general topics, and adolescent's perception of mother being the main source of sex knowledge were predictive of the level of sex communication between mother and her adolescent children. This study reveals that communication regarding sexual matters between parents and adolescents was limited in China. The quality of communication on general topics between parents and their adolescent children is one of the important factors related to sex communication between them. It is essential that Chinese parents are better informed and skilled to be involved, in addition to school and community, in the sex education of their adolescent children. They should be able to communicate appropriately on sex-related issues with them.
Mexican-Origin Parents’ Differential Treatment and Siblings’ Adjustment from Adolescence to Young Adulthood
McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.
Parents’ differential treatment is a common family dynamic that has been linked to youth’s well-being in childhood and adolescence in European American families. Much less is known, however, about this family process in other ethnic groups. We examined the longitudinal associations between parents’ differential treatment (PDT) and both depressive symptoms and risky behaviors of Mexican-origin sibling pairs from early adolescence through young adulthood. We also tested the moderating roles of cultural orientations as well as youth age, gender and sibling dyad gender constellation in these associations. Participants were mothers, fathers, and two siblings from 246 Mexican-origin families who participated in individual home interviews on 3 occasions over 8 years. Multilevel models revealed that, controlling for dyadic parent-child relationship qualities (i.e., absolute levels of warmth and conflict), adolescents who had less favorable treatment by mothers relative to their sibling reported more depressive symptoms and risky behavior, on average. Findings for fathers’ PDT emerged at the within-person level indicating that, on occasions when adolescents experienced less favorable treatment by fathers than usual, they reported more depressive symptoms and risky behavior. However, some of these effects were moderated by youth age and cultural socialization. For example, adolescents who experienced relatively less paternal warmth than their siblings also reported poorer adjustment, but this effect did not emerge for young adults; such an effect also was significant for unfavored youth with stronger but not weaker cultural orientations. PMID:27504752
Father-Child Contact after Separation: The Influence of Living Arrangements
Swiss, Liam; Le Bourdais, Celine
Following divorce or separation, father-child contact is deemed an important influence on child development. Previous research has explored the impact of sociodemographic and attitudinal factors on the amount of contact between fathers and their children following a union dissolution. This article revisits this important question using fathers'…
Parental attitudes and social competence in adolescents.
Drózdz, E; Pokorski, M
The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationships among perceived parental attitudes and domains of social competence in late adolescents. Forty boys and 40 girls, all aged 18, representing a population sample of high school second graders were examined. Self-report data were collected using questionnaires of parent-child relations and of social competence. Analyses detected a significant association between the maternal loving or protective attitude and competence in interpersonal relations in the combined sample of adolescents. However, gender was a moderator of this general relationship. Maternal control fostered their sons' interpersonal relations, and no such relationship was observed toward daughters. Adolescents' behavior was somehow less influenced by fatherly control. The findings are in line with the concept of familism as a dominant form of family organization, but implicate constraints in parental sentiments whose overly expression may backfire and do more harm than good in other domains of social competence of adolescents, such as assertiveness and performance during social exposure. The study may contribute to future research on how parenting style shapes adolescent social outcomes.
GAYA PENGASUHAN ORANG TUA, INTERAKSI SERTA KELEKATAN AYAH-REMAJA, DAN KEPUASAN AYAH
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Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the correlation among parenting styles, interaction and attachment of father-adolescence, and father’s satisfaction. This study involved 60 fathers, devided into 30 fathers with male children and 30 fathers with female children who aged 12-14 years. Data was analyzed by descriptive, independent sample t-test, and Pearson corellation. The result showed that mostly adolescent perceived their parents as democratic parenting style. Mostly, communication pattern between father and adolescent was conversation-orientation, while the communication type was consensual. The mean of father-adolescent interaction in a day was 0,47 hours for male and 0,64 hours for female adolescent. There was positive significant between democratic parenting style with communication pattern of conversation-orientation. Communication pattern of conversation-orientation that applied by fathers was positively related to the dimensions of trust in attachment of father-adolescent. Communication pattern of conformity-orientation that applied by fathers was negatively related to fathers’ satisfaction levels.
Intergenerational transmission of ethnic identity and life satisfaction of Roma minority adolescents and their parents.
Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari
This study investigates intergeneration transmission of ethnic identity as a resource for life satisfaction of Roma adolescents and their parents. Historically, Roma represent the largest ethnic minority in Europe. They have been exposed to severe discrimination, social exclusion, and poverty. Therefore, identifying resources for their life satisfaction is theoretically and practically important. The present study included 1093 participants, of which there were 171 Roma adolescents (age: M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.85), 155 mothers (age: M = 36.16 years, SD = 5.77) and 123 fathers (age: M = 39.68 years, SD = 6.06). Further, a comparison group of 248 mainstream adolescents with their mothers (n = 221) and fathers (n = 175) was also included in the study. Adolescents and their parents provided data on ethnic identity (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and life satisfaction (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Results indicated that Roma youth were lower on endorsement of ethnic identity and average on life satisfaction compared to their mainstream peers. A structural equation model showed that ethnic identity was a positive predictor of life satisfaction for both adolescents and their Roma parents. Furthermore, parents' ethnic identity was a predictor of adolescent life satisfaction. We concluded that for Roma youth and their parents, ethnic identity represents a salient source for life satisfaction and an intergenerational continuity of identity and life satisfaction exists. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fathering and Attachment in the USA and Taiwan: Contextual Predictors and Child Outcomes
Newland, Lisa A.; Coyl, Diana D.; Chen, Hui-Hua
This study examined connections between fathering context (stress, social support, and fathers' internal working models), fathering dimensions, children's attachment to fathers, and children's social-emotional and academic outcomes within two culturally diverse samples in the USA and Taiwan. Participants included 274 fathers and their eight- to…
The forgotten parent: Fathers' representation in family interventions to prevent childhood obesity.
Davison, K K; Kitos, N; Aftosmes-Tobio, A; Ash, T; Agaronov, A; Sepulveda, M; Haines, J
Despite recognition that parents are critical stakeholders in childhood obesity prevention, obesity research has overwhelmingly focused on mothers. In a recent review, fathers represented only 17% of parent participants in >600 observational studies on parenting and childhood obesity. The current study examined the representation of fathers in family interventions to prevent childhood obesity and characteristics of interventions that include fathers compared with those that only include mothers. Eligible studies included family-based interventions for childhood obesity prevention published between 2008 and 2015 identified in a recent systematic review. Data on intervention characteristics were extracted from the original review. Using a standardized coding scheme, these data were augmented with new data on the number of participating fathers/male caregivers and mothers/female caregivers. Out of 85 eligible interventions, 31 (37%) included mothers and fathers, 29 (34%) included only mothers, 1 (1%) included only fathers, and 24 (28%) did not provide information on parent gender. Of the interventions that included fathers, half included 10 or fewer fathers. Across all interventions, fathers represented a mere 6% of parent participants. Father inclusion was more common in interventions targeting families with elementary school-aged children (6-10 years) and those grounded in Ecological Systems Theory, and was less common in interventions focused on very young children (0-1 years) or the prenatal period and those targeting the sleep environment. This study emphasizes the lack of fathers in childhood obesity interventions and highlights a particular need to recruit and engage fathers of young children in prevention efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Parenting and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Future Time Perspective.
Diaconu-Gherasim, Loredana R; Bucci, Colleen M; Giuseppone, Kathryn R; Brumariu, Laura E
This study investigated the relations between maternal and paternal rearing practices and adolescents' depressive symptoms, and whether time perspective in adolescence explains these links. The sample included 306 students (158 girls), aged between 10.83 and 14.42 years. Adolescents completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions of maternal and paternal acceptance and psychological control, and of their future time perspective and depressive symptoms. Adolescents who rated their mothers as more accepting and those who rated their fathers as less psychologically controlling also reported lower levels of depressive symptoms and greater future time perspective. Further, adolescents who had greater future time perspective reported lower levels of depressive symptoms. Finally, time perspective partially mediated the relations of maternal and paternal acceptance, and paternal control with depressive symptoms in adolescence. The findings highlight the unique relations of maternal acceptance and paternal psychological control with adolescents' depressive symptoms, and that future time perspective is one mechanism that might explain why parenting strategies are linked with depressive symptoms in adolescence.
Marital conflict and early adolescents' self-evaluation: the role of parenting quality and early adolescents' appraisals.
Siffert, Andrea; Schwarz, Beate; Stutz, Melanie
Cognitive appraisals and family dynamics have been identified as mediators of the relationship between marital conflict and children's adjustment. Surprisingly little research has investigated both meditational processes in the same study. Guided by the cognitive-contextual framework and the spillover hypothesis, the present study integrated factors from both theories early adolescents' appraisals of threat and self-blame, as well as perceived parenting quality as mediators of the link between early adolescents' perception of marital conflict and their self-evaluations (self-esteem and scholastic competence). Analyses were based on the first two waves of an ongoing longitudinal study. Participants were 176 two-parent families, and their early adolescents (50.5% girls) whose mean age was 10.61 years at Time 1 (SD =0.40) and 11.63 years at Time 2 (SD=0.39). Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that parenting quality and early adolescents' perceived threat provided indirect pathways between marital conflict and early adolescents' self-esteem 1 year later when controlling for their initial level of self-esteem. With respect to scholastic competence, only fathers' parenting was an indirect link. Self-blame did not play a role. Implications for understanding the mechanisms by which exposure to marital conflict predicts early adolescents' maladjustment are discussed.
Temperamental precursors of infant attachment with mothers and fathers.
Planalp, Elizabeth M; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M
The degree to which parent sensitivity and infant temperament distinguish attachment classification was examined. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effect of parent sensitivity and infant temperament on infant-mother and infant-father attachment. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, and their infants (N = 135) when the infant was 3-, 5-, 7-, 12-, and 14-months old. Temperament was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003); parent sensitivity was coded during the Still Face Paradigm (Tronick, Als, Adamson, Wise, & Brazelton, 1978); attachment was coded using the Strange Situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978). Results indicate that mothers and fathers were less sensitive with insecure-avoidant infants. Whereas only one difference was found for infant-mother attachment groups and temperament, five significant differences emerged for infant-father attachment groups, with the majority involving insecure-ambivalent attachment. Infants classified as ambivalent with fathers were higher in perceptual sensitivity and cuddliness and these infants also showed a greater increase in low-intensity pleasure over time compared with other infants. Results indicate the importance of both parent sensitivity and infant temperament, though operating in somewhat different ways, in the development of the infant-mother and infant-father attachment relationship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
When African teenagers become fathers: culture, materiality and masculinity.
Bhana, Deevia; Nkani, Nomvuyo
Between 1996 and 2010, the percentage of African children living with their fathers in South Africa dropped from 44% to 31%, with only a third of preschool children living with their parents. Concern about the spate of father absence and its effects on children's well-being has led to a growing focus on fathers in family interventions, although there is relative silence on teenage fathers. In this paper, we draw on an interview-based study with teenage fathers living under conditions of poverty to show how their understandings of fatherhood and constructions of provider masculinity intersect with cultural demands that express both weakness and power. In expressing the desire to care and be involved with their children, and aligning with patterns of masculinity that sought enhanced options for contraceptive use based on gender-equitable relationships, we show a new direction in the making of teenage fatherhood, diverging from hierarchical gender relations where men make the decisions. These changes, however, are limited by constructions of masculinity that contradictorily reinforce provider status, gender inequalities and male patterns of sexual entitlements within a context where teenage fathers are unable to achieve the cultural status of provider masculinity. Implications are discussed in the conclusion.
Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers
Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.
Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…
The Constitutionality of a Biological Father's Recognition as a Parent
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Full Text Available Despite the increased recognition afforded to biological fathers as legal parents, the Children's Act 38 of 2005 still does not treat fathers on the same basis as mothers as far as the automatic allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned. This article investigates the constitutionality of the differential treatment of fathers in this respect, given South Africa's international obligations, especially in terms of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, to ensure that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing of their child. After a brief consideration of the constitutionality of the mother's position as parent, the constitutionality of the father's position is investigated, firstly, with reference to Section 9 of the Constitution and the question of whether the differentiation between mothers and fathers as far as the allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, amounts to unfair discrimination. The inquiry also considers whether the differentiation between committed fathers (that is, those who have shown the necessary commitment in terms of Sections 20 and 21 of the Children's Act to acquire parental responsibilities and rights and uncommitted fathers may amount to discrimination on an unspecified ground. Since the limitation of the father's rights to equality may be justifiable, the outcomes of both inquiries are shown to be inconclusive. Finally, the legal position of the father is considered in relation to the child's constitutional rights – the rights to parental care and the right of the child to the paramountcy of its interests embodied in Section 28 of the Constitution. While there appears to be some justification for the limitation of the child's right to committed paternal care, it is submitted that an equalisation of the legal position of mothers and fathers as far as the automatic acquisition of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, is not
Working with Urban, African American Fathers: The Importance of Service Provision, Joining, Accountability, the Father-Child Relationship, and Couples Work
Greif, Geoffrey L.; Jones, Joseph T., Jr.; Worthy, James; White, Eddie; Davis, Will; Pitchford, Edward
Urban, African American fathers have been a difficult population for social workers and other helping professionals to effectively serve. This article, based on interviews with front-line African American service professionals at a father-focused program, who also participated in writing this article, provides information about and suggestions for…
Fathers' involvement in preschool programs for children with and without hearing loss.
Ingber, Sara; Most, Tova
The authors compared the involvement in children's development and education of 38 fathers of preschoolers with hearing loss to the involvement of a matched group of 36 fathers of preschoolers with normal hearing, examining correlations between child, father, and family characteristics. Fathers completed self-reports regarding their parental involvement and parenting self-efficacy and reported on their family cohesion and adaptability. Mothers also reported on their husbands' involvement. Similarly high levels of involvement on the part of both groups of fathers were found. Involvement correlated positively with fathers' self-reported parenting self-efficacy, family cohesion, and adaptability, and mother-reported paternal involvement. Implications for professionals and mothers are discussed, including the need to encourage mothers' support for their husbands' involvement and to empower fathers' sense of competency in order to increase their involvement.
Adolescent males' orientation toward paternity and contraception.
Data from a nationally representative sample of 1,880 young men aged 15-19 reveal that neighborhood quality, parental education, race or ethnicity, and attitudes about male gender roles are related to young men's attitudes toward an unplanned pregnancy and to their contraceptive experiences. Young men who live in poor neighborhoods are more likely to be pleased about an unplanned pregnancy than those who have better living conditions (12% vs. 2%) and are also more likely to view impregnating a woman as enhancing their masculinity (8% vs. 3%). Among men with average living conditions, 12% of black adolescents view fathering a child as enhancing their masculinity, compared with 6% of white adolescents; among those with very good living conditions, these proportions were 10% and 2%, respectively. Young men whose parents had less education and those who held traditional male gender role attitudes were also more likely than their counterparts to view fathering a child as enhancing their masculinity. Regarding contraceptive behavior, sexually active black men and Hispanic men were more likely than white men to have discussed contraception with their last partner; black men were more likely to have used an effective contraceptive method the last time they had intercourse; and black men were more likely to have used a condom at last intercourse. However, young men who were aware that they had been responsible for a previous pregnancy were less likely than those who reported no pregnancies to have used an effective contraceptive the last time they had intercourse. These same young men were also more likely to report that fathering a child would please them and enhance their masculinity.
Longitudinal Associations between Sibling Relationship Qualities and Risky Behavior across Adolescence
Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
This study examined the associations between sibling intimacy and conflict and youths' reports of risky behavior in a sample of adolescents ages 11-20. Participants were mothers, fathers, and sibling dyads in 393 families who were interviewed annually for 3, 4, or 5 years. Multivariate multilevel models tested longitudinal links between sibling…
Mind your own business! Longitudinal relations between perceived privacy invasion and adolescent-parent conflict.
Hawk, Skyler T; Keijsers, Loes; Hale, William W; Meeus, Wim
Privacy coordination between adolescents and their parents is difficult, as adolescents' changing roles require adjustments to expectations about family boundaries. Adolescents' perceptions of privacy invasion likely provoke conflicts with parents, but higher levels of conflict may also foster invasion perceptions. This longitudinal study assessed relations between privacy invasion and conflict frequency among adolescents, mothers, and fathers (N = 309). Bidirectional relations were present; all reports showed that invasion provoked conflict in later adolescence, but the timing and direction of conflict-to-invasion relations differed between respondents and measurement waves. The findings suggest a functional role for conflict in adolescent-parent privacy negotiations, in that it both draws attention to discrepant expectations and provides youths with a means of directly managing perceived boundary violations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Does socioeconomic status in adolescence predict low back pain in adulthood? A repeated cross-sectional study of 4,771 Danish adolescents
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Hestbaek, Lise; Korsholm, Lars; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte
in youth affect adult health. Therefore, the specific objectives of this study are to explore (1) the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic status (SES) and LBP in adolescence and (2) the longitudinal association between SES in adolescence and LBP in early adulthood. A database containing LBP......Social and economic disadvantage is associated with general poor physical health. This relationship has been recognised for centuries, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic factors have a specific influence on low back pain (LBP). Furthermore, it is unknown how social and economic disadvantages...... years later. Socioeconomic data of the parents (education, income, social class and long-term illness, all for both mother and father) were collected in 1994. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between each parameter of parental SES in adolescence and LBP at baseline...
The comparative study of the impact of antenatal training care infants to fathers and couple on the fathers' participations after birth.
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Full Text Available The comparative study of the impact of antenatal training care infants to fathers and couple on the fathers' participations. Objectives: Increasing number of working mothers and changes in viewpoints on fathers’ roles in families has increased fathers’ participations. Fathers’ participation is his broad, positive and active participation in different stages of children’s life. Wives possess the main role in enhancing and limiting father’s participation. Fathers and couples require training to define father’s role in infant care and the significance of his role in infant’s health and foundation of family. Therefore, the present study is done to determine the impact of training couples and fathers how to take care of infants on the rate of father’s participation to take care of infants after birth. Method: the study was done as a clinical trial in three groups, on 150 people in hygienic- clinical centers of Medical University of Mashhad. Fathers of training group and couples of training group took part in two training sessions of infant care in weeks 35 to 37 of pregnancy. The questionnaires of role of father’s training in infant care were filled by mothers in three groups and were analyzed by SPSS software (version 18 and ANOVA with repeated measure, Bonferroni tests. Findings: role of fathers’ participation in infants care in father’s training group and couple training group than control group increased significantly. (p=0/0003 Results: training fathers and couples before birth will enhance rate of their participation in infant care. Key words: fathers’ participation, care of infant, training.
Couple Relationship Quality, Coparenting, and Fathering in Taiwan
This study examined connections among couple relationship quality, coparenting, and mother and father involvement in 100 families from urban Central Taiwan. Fathers and mothers with at least one school-age child completed questionnaires regarding their couple satisfaction and consensus, coparenting techniques and consistency, and involvement in…
Depression as a mediator between family factors and peer-bullying victimization in Latino adolescents.
Yabko, Brandon A; Hokoda, Audrey; Ulloa, Emilio C
The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating role of depression in three different relationships: (a) sibling bullying and peer victimization, (b) mothers' power-assertive parenting and peer victimization, and (c) fathers' power-assertive parenting and peer victimization. Results from 242 Latino middle school adolescents from a large southwestern city bordering Mexico revealed that both boys' and girls' peer victimization were related to familial factors and depression. Regression analyses for boys revealed that depression mediated three relationships: (a) sibling bullying and peer victimization, (b) mothers' power-assertive parenting and peer victimization, and (c) fathers' power-assertive parenting and peer victimization. Depression also mediated the relationship between fathers' power-assertive parenting and girls' victimization by peers. The findings support the development of family-based interventions for peer victimization that include curriculum addressing depression.
Understanding Chinese American Adolescents' Developmental Outcomes: Insights from the Family Stress Model
Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong
In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial, and job instability)…
Longitudinal Linkages between Sibling Relationships and Adjustment from Middle Childhood through Adolescence
Kim, Ji-Yeon; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.; Osgood, D. Wayne
The links between changes in sibling conflict and intimacy and changes in perceived peer social competence and depression symptoms were examined from middle childhood through adolescence. Participants were mothers, fathers and first- and second-born siblings from 197 White, working/middle class, two-parent families. Peer competence peaked in …
The Role of Fathers in the Lives of Black Women of Achievement.
Willie, Charles V.; Lane, Jolene A.
Investigated fathers' roles in the lives of successful black women using life history case studies. Fathers were proud of and confident in their daughters, and most performed the role of mentor. Fathers gave daughters a sense of security that helped them succeed because they were not afraid to risk failure. Most fathers were interested in…
Political Alienation in Adolescence: Associations with Parental Role Models, Parenting Styles, and Classroom Climate
Gniewosz, Burkhard; Noack, Peter; Buhl, Monika
The present study examined how parental political attitudes, parenting styles, and classroom characteristics predict adolescents' political alienation, as feelings about the individual's ability to affect the political system's performance at the individual level. Participants were 463 families that included mothers, fathers, and their adolescent…
Parental influence on adolescents' imagination.
Rabinowitz, A; Engelberg, D
It was hypothesized that a permissive democratic parental attitude towards childrearing and favorable accepting attitude towards children's imagination are conducive to the development of their adolescent children's imaginative ability. It was also hypothesized that the mothers' role is more crucial than that of the fathers. The subjects were 104 adolescent Israeli boys and girls and their parents. The subjects were administered four scales of the Imaginal Processes Inventory and the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory. The parents filled out a questionnaire devised to study their attitude to children's imagination. The first two hypotheses were not confirmed. The data point in the opposite direction as regards the first hypothesis. There was partial conformation for the third hypothesis. The data were also discussed in relation to healthy and neurotic daydreaming.
Swedish pediatric diabetes teams' perception of fathers' involvement: A Grounded Theory study.
Boman, Ase; Povlsen, Lene; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth; Borup, Ina
The purpose of this study was to analyze how Swedish pediatric diabetes teams perceived and discussed fathers' involvement in the care of their child with type 1 diabetes. It also aimed to discuss how the teams' attitudes towards the fathers' involvement developed during the data collection process. The Constructivist Grounded Theory design was used and data were collected during three repeated focus group discussions with three Swedish pediatric diabetes teams. The core category of the teams' perception of fathers' involvement emerged as: If dad attends, we are happy - if mom doesn't, we become concerned. Initially the teams balanced their perception of fathers' involvement on the mother's role as the primary caregiver. In connection with the teams' directed attention on fathers, in the focus group discussions, the teams' awareness of the importance of fathers increased. As a consequence, the team members began to encourage fathers' engagement in their child's care. We conclude that by increasing the teams' awareness of fathers as a health resource, an active health promotion perspective could be implemented in pediatric diabetes care. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Father-daughter relationship and the severity of eating disorders.
Horesh, N; Sommerfeld, E; Wolf, M; Zubery, E; Zalsman, G
Mother-daughter relationship was the focus of studies on the development of eating disorders (ED) for many years. This study aimed to examine the association between the father-daughter relationship and ED and depressive symptoms. Fifty-three women diagnosed with ED were compared to a psychiatric control group (n=26) and to healthy participants (n=60) regarding their perception of their fathers and the relationship with them. Assessments were done using the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Eating Disorders Questionnaire, the Body Shape Questionnaire, the Eating Attitude Test, and the Beck Depression Inventory as well as narrative-based methods. Fathers' negative attributes were significantly associated with ED and depressive symptom. Two profiles of father-daughter relationship were found, the "caring and benevolent" relationship and the "overprotective and avoidant" one. In the latter, patients displayed significantly higher levels of food-restraint, more concerns about eating and about their body shape and appearance, and higher levels of depression. Negative perception of the father's parenting style as well as the quality of the relationship with him are crucial for the understanding of the development and persistence of ED. Therapeutic programs for ED should focus not only on the relationship with the mother but must also address the relationship with the father. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Does Change in Young Men's Employment Influence Fathering?
Hofferth, Sandra L.; Goldscheider, Frances
This study examined the association between paternal and maternal employment changes and changes in the frequency of fathers praising, showing affection, disciplining, and reading to children. Data were drawn from the Young Adult supplement to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979). Supporting economic theory, fathers were more involved…
Using video feedback to improve early father-infant interaction: a pilot study.
Lawrence, Peter J; Davies, Beverley; Ramchandani, Paul G
Preventive interventions with parents of infants have tended to focus on mothers. Recent research focused on fathers suggests that their involvement in interventions might enhance effectiveness. One effective approach with mothers is the brief, home-based Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting (VIPP). This paper is a report of a pilot study of VIPP with fathers to assess its feasibility. Five fathers were recruited from an existing longitudinal study of parents. The primary outcome was acceptability, assessed using a semi-structured questionnaire after completion of the intervention. All fathers completed all sessions of the intervention. Fathers rated the intervention as having had a significant impact on their understanding of their child's thoughts and feelings, and as having improved their communication and relationship with their baby. Fathers' feedback was generally positive. The flexibility to conduct sessions at home (or at fathers' places of work) and the flexible timing of sessions were identified as fundamental to successful delivery. The results of this pilot study are encouraging, as VIPP with fathers was feasible. In light of the modest sample size, and the use of a non-clinical sample, the intervention must be evaluated with larger, clinical samples to evaluate its efficacy with fathers.
Fathers' Needs and Masculinity Dilemmas in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Denmark.
Noergaard, Betty; Ammentorp, Jette; Fenger-Gron, Jesper; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Johannessen, Helle; Thibeau, Shelley
Most healthcare professionals in neonatal intensive care units typically focus on the infants and mothers; fathers often feel powerless and find it difficult to establish a father-child relationship. In family-centered healthcare settings, exploring fathers' experiences and needs is important because men's roles in society, especially as fathers, are changing. To describe fathers' needs when their infants are admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit and to discuss these needs within a theoretical framework of masculinity to advance understanding and generate meaningful knowledge for clinical practices. This qualitative study used participant observation, interviews, multiple sequential interviews, and a focus group discussion. Data were analyzed using grounded theory principles. Analysis of the fathers' needs generated 2 primary themes: (1) Fathers as caregivers and breadwinners and (2) fathers and emotions. Fathers wished to be involved and to take care of their infants but have to balance cultural and social norms and expectations of being breadwinners with their wishes to be equal coparents. Health professionals in neonatal intensive care units must be aware of fathers' need and desire to be equal coparents. Nurses should play a key role by, for example, showing that fathers are as important to their infants as are the mothers, helping them become involved in childcare, and ensuring that they are directly informed about their children's progress. Further research in other cultural settings would contribute to knowledge regarding fatherhood and the role of fathers in childcare.
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents and Their Parents in Central Greece (FETA Project
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Full Text Available The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents’ and adolescents’ demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12–18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ, the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2 and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ. Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy, maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents’ obesity.
Separation from children as a specific risk factor to fathers' health and lifestyles.
Grill, E; Weitkunat, R; Crispin, A
The study was to examine whether fathers living apart from their children following divorce or separation ("fathers without children") differ in their health-related lifestyles and attitudes, and in their health status, from fathers in intact family settings ("fathers with children"). Data was acquired by means of a self-administered questionnaire within an exploratory cross-sectional survey. Fathers without children differed in their lifestyle patterns, parameters of satisfaction, health, and health related orientations from fathers with children. Negative lifestyles could be observed in fathers who had a low income and saw their children only rarely. Separation from their children is a major life crisis for fathers. Subgroups could be identified who had significant health risks. Due to study design, conclusions on causation are not possible. Longitudinal studies are necessary to yield more detailed impact for prevention.
Father absence and reproduction-related outcomes in Malaysia, a transitional fertility population.
Sheppard, Paula; Snopkowski, Kristin; Sear, Rebecca
Father absence is consistently associated with children's reproductive outcomes in industrialized countries. It has been suggested that father absence acts as a cue to particular environmental conditions that influence life history strategies. Much less is known, however, about the effects of father absence on such outcomes in lower-income countries. Using data from the 1988 Malaysian Family Life Survey (n = 567), we tested the effect of father absence on daughters' age at menarche, first marriage, and first birth; parity progression rates; and desired completed family size in Malaysia, a country undergoing an economic and fertility transition. Father absence during later childhood (ages 8 to 15), although not during earlier childhood, was associated with earlier progressions to first marriage and first birth, after controlling for other confounders. Father absence does not affect age at menarche, desired family size, or progression from first to second birth. The patterns found in this transitional population partly mirror those in developed societies, where father absence accelerates reproductive events. There is, however, a notable contrast between the acceleration in menarche for father-absent girls consistently found in developed societies and the lack of any association in our findings. The mechanisms through which father absence affects reproduction may differ in different ecological contexts. In lower-income contexts, direct paternal investment or influence may be of more importance in determining reproductive behavior than whether fathers act as a cue to environmental conditions.
A Community Support Group for Single Custodial Fathers.
Tedder, Sandra L.; And Others
Discusses a five-session group experience within the context of establishing a support group for single custodial fathers. Includes topics of dating, remarriage, homemaking and house maintenance, and the effects of divorce on children. A follow-up showed fathers appreciated the sense of community and specific information and coping strategies.…
The Family Background and Attitudes of Teen Fathers.
Pirog-Good, Maureen A.
Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Labor Market Experience Youth Cohort demonstrate that a greater percentage of teenage fathers come from poor and unstable households where household members are less educated. For whites, being a father is associated with low self-esteem, but this is not true for blacks. (SLD)
A Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Parental Monitoring on Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors: The Moderating Role of Adolescent Empathy
Crocetti, Elisabetta; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Moscatelli, Silvia; Keijsers, Loes; Koot, Hans M.; Rubini, Monica; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan
In adolescence, youth antisocial behaviors reach a peak. Parents can use different strategies, such as parental solicitation and control, to monitor their children’s activities and try to prevent or reduce their antisocial behaviors. However, it is still unclear if, and for which adolescents, these parental monitoring behaviors are effective. The aim of this study was to examine if the impact of parental solicitation and control on adolescent antisocial behaviors depends on adolescent empathy. In order to comprehensively address this aim, we tested the moderating effects of multiple dimensions (affective and cognitive) of both trait and state empathy. Participants were 379 Dutch adolescents (55.9% males) involved in a longitudinal study with their fathers and mothers. At T1 (conducted when adolescents were 17-year-old) adolescents filled self-report measures of antisocial behaviors and trait empathy during one home visit, while their state empathy was rated during a laboratory session. Furthermore, parents reported their own monitoring behaviors. At T2 (conducted 1 year later, when adolescents were 18-year-old), adolescents reported again on their antisocial behaviors. Moderation analyses indicated that both affective and cognitive state empathy moderated the effects of parental solicitation on adolescent antisocial behaviors. Results highlighted that solicitation had unfavorable effects on antisocial behaviors in adolescents with high empathy whereas the opposite effect was found for adolescents with low empathy. In contrast, neither state nor trait empathy moderated the effects of control on adolescent antisocial behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27857703
Parental work absenteeism is associated with increased symptom complaints and school absence in adolescent children
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Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have proposed that having parents out of work may influence adolescent illness behaviour and school attendance. However, prior research investigating this question has been limited by retrospective reporting and case control studies. In a large epidemiological study we investigated whether parental work absence was associated with symptom complaints and increased school absenteeism in adolescents. Methods We analysed data from a large epidemiological study of 10,243 Norwegian adolescents aged 16–19. Participants completed survey at school, which included demographic data, parental work absence and current health complaints. An official registry provided school attendance data. Results Parental work absence was significantly related to the number of adolescent symptom complaints as well as school absenteeism. Having a father out of work was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile of symptom reporting by an odds-ratio of 2.2 and mother by 1.6 (compared to the lowest quartile. Similarly, parental work absenteeism was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile for school absence by an odds-ratio of 1.9 for a father being out of work and 1.5 for a mother out of work. We found that the number of adolescent symptom complaints mediated the relationship between parental work absenteeism and school absenteeism. Conclusion We found that parental work absence was significantly associated with the number of adolescent symptom complaints and school absenteeism. The results suggest that parents may play a critical modelling role in the intergenerational transmission of illness and disability behaviour.
Parental work absenteeism is associated with increased symptom complaints and school absence in adolescent children.
Hysing, Mari; Petrie, Keith J; Bøe, Tormod; Sivertsen, Børge
Previous studies have proposed that having parents out of work may influence adolescent illness behaviour and school attendance. However, prior research investigating this question has been limited by retrospective reporting and case control studies. In a large epidemiological study we investigated whether parental work absence was associated with symptom complaints and increased school absenteeism in adolescents. We analysed data from a large epidemiological study of 10,243 Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19. Participants completed survey at school, which included demographic data, parental work absence and current health complaints. An official registry provided school attendance data. Parental work absence was significantly related to the number of adolescent symptom complaints as well as school absenteeism. Having a father out of work was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile of symptom reporting by an odds-ratio of 2.2 and mother by 1.6 (compared to the lowest quartile). Similarly, parental work absenteeism was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile for school absence by an odds-ratio of 1.9 for a father being out of work and 1.5 for a mother out of work. We found that the number of adolescent symptom complaints mediated the relationship between parental work absenteeism and school absenteeism. We found that parental work absence was significantly associated with the number of adolescent symptom complaints and school absenteeism. The results suggest that parents may play a critical modelling role in the intergenerational transmission of illness and disability behaviour.
PARENTAL ACCEPTANCE / REJECTION AND EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AMONG ADOLESCENTS WITH AND WITHOUT DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR
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Full Text Available Introduction This paper analyzes the parental acceptance or rejection and the emotional intelligence among adolescents with and without delinquent behavior. Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to explore the differences between parents’ acceptance/rejection (by mother and father, respectively and the emotional intelligence among adolescentswith and without delinquent behavior, as well as the correlation between parents’ acceptance/rejection (by mother and father, respectively and the emotional intelligence among minors with delinquent behavior. Methods: The survey was conducted on two groups of adolescents, that is, 30 respondents serving a prison sentence for minors and/or have been imposed an educational measure of referral to an Educational and Correctional Facility aged 14 to 18, and 40 respondents that are secondary school students at the same age. In this research, the terms minors and adolescents both refer to persons aged 14-18 years. All respondents were males. The following measuring instruments were used: Parental Acceptance/Rejection Questionnaire and a Questionnaire for Measuring Emotional Intelligence – 45. Results: Minors with and without delinquent behavior differ considerably in terms of perceiving parental acceptance (by the mother and by the father, aggressiveness, neglect and undifferentiated rejection. The feeling of being rejected by the parents is more common among minors with delinquent behavior than in those without such behavior. Furthermore, minors with delinquent behavior have lower emotional intelligence compared with their peers without delinquent behavior. Positive associations were found between parental acceptance and emotional intelligence. Conclusion: Minors with delinquent behavior have experienced lower acceptance and higher rejection from the parents and have lower emotional intelligence than their peers without delinquent behavior. In general, parental acceptance is associated with
Machiavellianism and Parental Attachment in Adolescence
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Full Text Available Machiavellianism is a well-studied topic in several branches of psychology. Still, it has received little attention from a developmental perspective. Previous retrospective studies linked Machiavellianism to poor parental care, but actual reports of adolescents who live in their family of origin have been ignored so far. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between Machiavellianism and parental attachment in adolescence and possible sex differences based on life history theory. An adolescent sample (N = 376; 17.27 ± .77 years of age completed the Mach-IV and the maternal and paternal versions of revised Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA-R. According to our results, significant sex differences emerged in the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment to parents. For girls, maternal alienation proved to be the only significant predictor of Machiavellianism, whereas for boys, low intensity and quality of verbal communication with father predicted higher levels of Machiavellianism. Results are discussed from an evolutionary perspective of socialization and from the perspective of emotion regulation.
Does “Tiger Parenting” Exist? Parenting Profiles of Chinese Americans and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana; Shen, Yishan; Murtuza, Mohammed
“Tiger parenting,” as described by Chua (2011), has put parenting in Asian American families in the spotlight. The current study identified parenting profiles in Chinese American families and explored their effects on adolescent adjustment. In a three-wave longitudinal design spanning eight years, from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, adolescents (54% female), fathers and mothers from 444 Chinese American families reported on eight parenting dimensions (e.g., warmth and shaming) and six developmental outcomes (e.g., GPA and academic pressure). Latent profile analyses on the eight parenting dimensions demonstrated four parenting profiles: supportive, tiger, easygoing, and harsh parenting. Over time, the percentage of parents classified as tiger parents decreased among mothers but increased among fathers. Path analyses showed that the supportive parenting profile, which was the most common, was associated with the best developmental outcomes, followed by easygoing parenting, tiger parenting, and harsh parenting. Compared with the supportive parenting profile, a tiger parenting profile was associated with lower GPA and educational attainment, as well as less of a sense of family obligation; it was also associated with more academic pressure, more depressive symptoms and a greater sense of alienation. The current study suggests that, contrary to the common perception, tiger parenting is not the most typical parenting profile in Chinese American families, nor does it lead to optimal adjustment among Chinese American adolescents. PMID:23646228
Adolescent patients with eating disorders and their parents: a study of self-image and outcome at an intensive outpatient program.
Gezelius, Christina; Wahlund, Björn; Carlsson, Lars; Wiberg, Britt
The main aim of this clinical study was to explore how adolescent patients with eating disorders and their parents report their perceived self-image, using Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB), before and after treatment at an intensive outpatient program. Another aim was to relate the self-image of the young patients to the outcome measures body mass index (BMI) and Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS) score. A total of 93 individuals (32 adolescents, 34 mothers, and 27 fathers) completed the SASB self-report questionnaire before and after family-based treatment combined with an individual approach at a child and youth psychiatry day care unit. The patients were also assessed using the C-GAS, and their BMI was calculated. The self-image (SASB) of the adolescent patients was negative before treatment and changed to positive after treatment, especially regarding the clusters self-love (higher) and self-blame (lower). A positive correlation between change in self-love and in C-GAS score was found, which rose significantly. Increased self-love was an important factor, explaining a variance of 26 %. BMI also increased significantly, but without any correlation to change in SASB. The patients' fathers exhibited low on the cluster self-protection. Mothers' profiles were in line with a non-clinical group. Results indicate that the self-image of adolescent patients change from negative to positive alongside with a mainly positive outcome of the ED after treatment. Low self-protection according to SASB among fathers suggests the need for greater focus on their involvement.
Clinical-genealogical and cytogenetic peculiarities of children born to fathers-liquidators of the Chernobyl accident
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korenev, N.M.; Kovaleva, V.I.; Bagatskaya, N.V.
Clinical-genealogical and cytogenetic peculiarities were studied in children, born to fathers who took part in liquidation the Chernobyl nuclear accident consequences for 1999-2002 at the Institute of Children and Adolescents' Health Care of AMS of Ukraine. Dynamic study (from 3 to 3.5 years) of cytogenetic influence in such children showed a certain decrease in chromosomal disorders incidence (from 1.26% to 0.53%, p<0.001). Together with decrease in the chromosomal aberrations incidence in children, it was established an increase in numerical chromosomal disorders (polyploidy). The rate of polyploidy in the group under investigation was up to 2.01% that exceeded the data of the preliminary examination (0.09%, p<0.001)
Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use among Low-Income Urban Black Adolescent Females.
Keith, Judith B.; And Others
Examined sexual activity and contraception among urban, low-income African-American adolescent female clients who were not sexually active (n=50), sexually active/noncontracepting (n=20), or sexually active/contracepting (n=72). Not sexually active group was younger, more career motivated, had father at home, was more influenced by family values,…
Konference Fathers and Paternity Leave: Men Do It
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Roč. 42, č. 14 (2006), s. 833-835 ISSN 0038-0288. [Fathers and Paternity Leave: Men Do It] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700280504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : parental leave * paternity leave * fathering Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.128, year: 2006
Father Influences on Employed Mothers' Work-Family Balance
Fagan, Jay; Press, Julie
This study employed the ecological systems perspective and gender ideology theory to examine the influence of fathers' paid work-family crossover and family involvement on self-reports of work-family balance by employed mothers with children under the age of 13 (N = 179). Multiple regression analyses revealed that fathers' crossover factors had a…
Fathers, divorce, and their children.
Pruett, M K; Pruett, K D
To minimize many of the negative consequences of divorce, it is beneficial to support a father's ongoing involvement in his child's life. Although the research literature isn't unequivocal on this point, it does strongly suggest that men who are "visitors" do not have as much impact on their children and that visits are a poor substitute for having a parental figure. The answer lies in creating meaningful roles for noncustodial fathers that elevate men's opportunities to contribute to their children's overall development. One of the most important messages parents can impart to children is that some commitments outlive change and that working together in the child's best interests is one of them.
Father-involvement in a refugee sample: relations between posttraumatic stress and caregiving.
van Ee, Elisa; Sleijpen, Marieke; Kleber, Rolf J; Jongmans, Marian J
Despite increased attention to the role of fathers within families, there is still a dearth of studies on the impact of trauma on father-involvement. This study investigates the quantity of father-involvement and the influence of posttraumatic stress on the quality of involvement in a refugee and asylum seeker population. Eighty refugees and asylum seekers and their young children (aged 18-42 months) were recruited. Measures included assessment of parental trauma (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), quantity and quality of involvement (quantity of caregiving and Emotional Availability Scales), and perception of the father-child relationship (interview). The results show that fathers were less involved in caregiving tasks and play activities than mothers. No parental gender differences were found on each of the Emotional Availability Scales. Traumatic stress symptoms negatively affected the perception and the actual quality of parent-child interaction (sensitivity, structuring, nonhostility). Nevertheless, almost all fathers described their relationship with their child as good and their child as very important to them. As the quality of father-involvement is of importance to the development of the child, traumatized fathers are as much in need of clinical intervention as mothers. Despite the impact of posttraumatic stress, refugee fathers clearly are involved in the lives of their children. Mechanisms such as a deliberate withdrawal when stressed and compensation might enable affected fathers to step into the interaction when needed, raise the quality of involvement with their child, and diminish the negative impact of stress resulting from trauma and migration. © FPI, Inc.
Father absence and gendered traits in sons and daughters.
Boothroyd, Lynda G; Cross, Catharine P
Research has previously found a number of apparently contradictory patterns in the relationship between 'father absence' (having a non-resident father during childhood) and the expression of gender roles, as well as other sexually dimorphic traits such as aggression. In the current study we measured a battery of sexually differentiated traits in relation to family background. 133 men and 558 women from the United States and Australia completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Barrett Impulsivity Scale, the Fear Survey Schedule and the Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Principal components analysis found two main axes of variation in these traits. Firstly, a general 'reactivity' factor, on which aggression, impulsivity, and fear all loaded positively, was weakly associated with father absence in women. Secondly, 'masculinity' (consisting of high scores on masculine traits, low fear, and physical and verbal aggression) was not associated with father absence. Participants (except American males) reporting a poor childhood relationship with their parents also had high 'reactivity' but not higher 'masculinity'. We found some evidence of a link between father absence and earlier age of first coitus in American females (although not in Australia), but there was no link with age of menarche in either country. Overall, the current results suggest that previous findings linking gender development with father absence in girls may have arisen from a tendency towards greater externalising and reactive behaviour rather than a change in gender development per se.
[Types of families, living conditions, functioning of family systems and social maladjustment during latency and adolescence in underprivileged milieus].
Le Blanc, M; McDuff, P; Tremblay, R E
Available data on the impact of certain types of families is lacking, and the results are often misleading with respect to maladjustment. Following a description of variations in delinquent activity and behaviour problems according to family type, the authors analyse the difficulties in the operation of family systems. Comparisons of six family types apply to data from 763 boys aged 10, 319 female and 426 male adolescents, aged 14 and 15: intact families, father-based and mother-based single-parent families, father-based and mother-based reconstituted families and substitute families. The article's data show that in the late eighties, nearly 40 per cent of children and adolescents living in low-income districts in Montreal belonged to disunited families. In addition, the data confirm a classic observation: in comparison with intact families, disunited families are underprivileged in relation to living conditions, deficient in relation to psychosocial functioning, and propitious to behaviour problems and delinquent activity. In addition, it has been established that certain disunited family types represent a considerable risk factor. The damaging effect of family structure increases in the following order: intact families, mother-based single-parent families, mother-based reconstituted families, substitute families, father-based reconstituted families and father-based single-parent families. Finally, certain intervention methods are suggested to help prevent behaviour and family problems.
Socioeconomic Differences in Parenting Strategies to Prevent Adolescent Smoking: A Case Study from the Netherlands.
Kuipers, Mirte A G; Haal, Sylke; Kunst, Anton E
This study aimed to identify possible socioeconomic differences in the use of anti-smoking parenting strategies. In 2012, survey data of adolescents (N = 225) aged 13 to 17 years and their mothers (N = 122) and fathers (N = 105) were collected in Haarlem, the Netherlands. Questions on smoking behaviour and eleven anti-smoking parenting strategies were answered by adolescents, mothers and fathers. School tracks of adolescents and educational level of parents were measured as indicators of socioeconomic position. Linear multilevel regression analyses were applied to study the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and standardised scores of anti-smoking strategies. Analyses were controlled for age, sex and smoking by parents and adolescents. We found no consistent socioeconomic differences in the use of anti-smoking parenting strategies. There were no statistically significant differences in relation to parental educational level or when using adolescent reports on parenting practices. However, when using parental reports, a few strategies varied significantly according to adolescent educational track. Adolescents in higher educational tracks were more likely to have no-smoking rules in the home (standardised regression coefficient (β) = 0.20, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.03; 0.37, p = 0.022) and more likely to have a no-smoking agreement (β = 0.17, 95 % CI: 0.00; 0.34, p = 0.048). However, they were less likely to frequently communicate about smoking with their parents (β = -0.25, 95 % CI: -0.41; -0.08, p = 0.004). In this specific population, there was no consistent support for the hypothesis that anti-smoking parenting strategies contribute to socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking. Parental factors that are more likely to contribute to these inequalities include parental smoking and parenting styles.
Bidirectional effects between parenting sensitivity and child behavior: A cross-lagged analysis across middle childhood and adolescence.
Zvara, Bharathi J; Sheppard, Kelly W; Cox, Martha
Using a longitudinal, cross-lagged design, this study examined the bidirectional relations between mothers' and fathers' sensitivity and children's externalizing (EXT) and internalizing (INT) behavior from middle childhood into adolescence. The subsample comprised families (N = 578) in which the mother and father cohabitated from the study's first time point (child age = 54 months) through Age 15 in the longitudinal NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Study results revealed differential patterns for mother-child and father-child relations in the full sample and separately for males and females. The full cross-lagged models revealed that child EXT behavior predicted maternal sensitivity, but not vice versa, and fathers' sensitivity and child behavior were reciprocally interrelated. There was a significant indirect pathway from early paternal sensitivity to later EXT in males, and from early maternal sensitivity to INT in females. The results point to the important roles that fathers play in child INT and EXT behaviors and important differences between males and females. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Gay fathers' motivations for and feelings about surrogacy as a path to parenthood.
Blake, L; Carone, N; Raffanello, E; Slutsky, Jenna; Ehrhardt, A A; Golombok, S
Why do gay men choose to start their families through surrogacy? Most fathers chose surrogacy because they considered adoption to be a less desirable and/or accessible path to parenthood. Little is known of gay fathers' motivations to use surrogacy as a path to parenthood over and above other forms of family building, such as adoption, and no studies have examined fathers' satisfaction with the surrogacy process. This study used a cross-sectional design as part of a larger investigation of parent-child relationships and child adjustment in 40 gay father surrogacy families. Multiple strategies (e.g. surrogacy agencies, social events and snowballing) were used to recruit as diverse a sample as possible. Data were obtained from 74 fathers (in 6 families only 1 father was available for interview). Semi-structured interviews, lasting ~1 h, were conducted in the family home (65%) or over Skype (35%) with 74 gay fathers (35 genetic fathers, 32 non-genetic fathers and 7 fathers who did not know or did not disclose who the genetic father was), when the children were 3-9 years old. Genetic and non-genetic fathers were just as likely to want to become parents and had similar motivations for choosing surrogacy as a path to parenthood. Most fathers (N = 55, 74%) were satisfied with surrogacy and were satisfied (N = 31. 42%) or had neutral feelings (N = 21, 28%) about their choice of who would be the genetic father. Most fathers received supportive reactions to their decision to use surrogacy from both families of origin (e.g. parents, siblings) (N = 47, 64%) and from friends (N = 63, 85%). Although diverse recruitment strategies were used, data were obtained from a volunteer sample. Therefore, the possibility that fathers who had a positive surrogacy experience may have been more likely to participate in the study, and therefore introduce bias, cannot be ruled out. Due to the high average annual income of the fathers in the study, findings may not generalize to gay fathers with
The Disengaged Noncustodial Father: Implications for Social Work Practice with the Divorced Family.
Canadian and British study examined impact of divorce on noncustodial fathers' disengagement. Results from 80 noncustodial fathers generated two distinct profiles of noncustodial fathers and marked discontinuity between pre- and postdivorce father-child relationships. Findings suggest transition period from point of divorce to 6-12 months after…
Paternal Work Stress and Latent Profiles of Father-Infant Parenting Quality
Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne
The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers' experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective…
Fathers' Early Emotion Talk: Associations with Income, Ethnicity, and Family Factors
Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Zerwas, Stephanie; Cox, Martha; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne
Contextual, mother-, child-, and father-level variables were examined in association with fathers' emotion talk to infants during a shared picture book activity, in an ethnically diverse, low-income sample (N = 549). Significant main effects included the rate of emotion talk from fathers' romantic partners (i.e., the infant's mother), infant…
The Behavioral Effects of Father Absence on Children and Their Mothers.
McCarthy, E. Doyle; And Others
Investigated effect of father presence or absence in the home in New York City families: welfare AFDC families and lower-middle income families. Results indicated that children of surrogate fathers revealed significantly more behavioral difficulties. Cross-section children and mothers were more adversely affected by father absence than others.…
New Fathers' Perinatal Depression and Anxiety-Treatment Options: An Integrative Review.
O'Brien, Anthony P; McNeil, Karen A; Fletcher, Richard; Conrad, Agatha; Wilson, Amanda J; Jones, Donovan; Chan, Sally W
More than 10% of fathers experience depression and anxiety during the perinatal period, but paternal perinatal depression (PPND) and anxiety have received less attention than maternal perinatal mental health problems. Few mainstream treatment options are available for men with PPND and anxiety. The aim of this literature review was to summarize the current understanding of PPND and the treatment programs specifically designed for fathers with perinatal depression. Eight electronic databases were searched using a predefined strategy, and reference lists were also hand searched. PPND and anxiety were identified to have a negative impact on family relationships, as well as the health of mothers and children. Evidence suggests a lack of support and tailored treatment options for men having trouble adjusting to the transition to fatherhood. Of the limited options available, cognitive behavioral therapy, group work, and blended delivery programs, including e-support approaches appear to be most effective in helping fathers with perinatal depression and anxiety. The review findings have important implications for the understanding of PPND and anxiety. Future research is needed to address the adoption of father-inclusive and father-specific models of care to encourage fathers' help-seeking behavior. Inclusion of male-specific requirements into support and treatment options can improve the ability of services to engage new fathers. Psychotherapeutic intervention could assist to address the cognitive differences and dissonance for men adjusting to the role of father, including male identity and role expectations.
Intrusive fathering, children's self-regulation and social skills: a mediation analysis.
Stevenson, M; Crnic, K
Fathers have unique influences on children's development, and particularly in the development of social skills. Although father-child relationship influences on children's social competence have received increased attention in general, research on fathering in families of children with developmental delays (DD) is scant. This study examined the pathway of influence among paternal intrusive behaviour, child social skills and child self-regulatory ability, testing a model whereby child regulatory behaviour mediates relations between fathering and child social skills. Participants were 97 families of children with early identified DD enrolled in an extensive longitudinal study. Father and mother child-directed intrusiveness was coded live in naturalistic home observations at child age 4.5, child behaviour dysregulation was coded from a video-taped laboratory problem-solving task at child age 5, and child social skills were measured using independent teacher reports at child age 6. Analyses tested for mediation of the relationship between fathers' intrusiveness and child social skills by child behaviour dysregulation. Fathers' intrusiveness, controlling for mothers' intrusiveness and child behaviour problems, was related to later child decreased social skills and this relationship was mediated by child behaviour dysregulation. Intrusive fathering appears to carry unique risk for the development of social skills in children with DD. Findings are discussed as they related to theories of fatherhood and parenting in children with DD, as well as implications for intervention and future research. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.
Father Involvement: The Importance of Paternal Solo Care
Wilson, Katherine R.; Prior, Margot R.
Paternal time spent caring for children alone is qualitatively different from time together mediated by the presence of the mother and may be particularly relevant to father-child relations. Many fathers spend minimal time alone with their children. Indeed, it is still commonly referred to as "babysitting". We explored the concept of Solo Care as…
The Possible Selves of Young Fathers in Prison
Drawing on the social psychological concept of possible selves, this study explores the future self concept of young fathers in prison. In considering life after release from prison, qualitative data relating to hoped-for, feared and expected possible selves was generated by 34 young fathers aged between 18 and 21 years. The most common categories…
Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance
This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…
The Association between Perceived Maternal and Paternal Psychopathology and Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescent Girls
Rasing, S.P.A.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.
Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We
Optimising child outcomes from parenting interventions: fathers' experiences, preferences and barriers to participation.
Tully, Lucy A; Piotrowska, Patrycja J; Collins, Daniel A J; Mairet, Kathleen S; Black, Nicola; Kimonis, Eva R; Hawes, David J; Moul, Caroline; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Frick, Paul J; Anderson, Vicki; Dadds, Mark R
Early childhood interventions can have both immediate and long-term positive effects on cognitive, behavioural, health and education outcomes. Fathers are underrepresented in interventions focusing on the well-being of children. However, father participation may be critical for intervention effectiveness, especially for parenting interventions for child externalising problems. To date, there has been very little research conducted to understand the low rates of father participation and to facilitate the development of interventions to meet the needs of fathers. This study examined fathers' experiences of, and preferences for, parenting interventions as well as perceptions of barriers to participation. It also examined how these factors were associated with child externalising behaviour problems, and explored the predictors of participation in parenting interventions. A community sample of 1001 fathers of children aged 2-16 years completed an online survey about experiences with parenting interventions, perceived barriers to participation, the importance of different factors in their decision to attend, and preferred content and delivery methods. They also completed ratings of their child's behaviour using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Overall, 15% of fathers had participated in a parenting intervention or treatment for child behaviour, with significantly higher rates of participation for fathers of children with high versus low levels of externalising problems. Fathers rated understanding what is involved in the program and knowing that the facilitator is trained as the two most important factors in their decision to participate. There were several barriers to participation that fathers of children with high-level externalising problems were more likely to endorse, across practical barriers and help-seeking attitudes, compared to fathers of children with low-level externalising problems. Almost two-thirds of fathers of children with high
The role of fathers in child feeding: perceived responsibility and predictors of participation.
Mallan, K M; Nothard, M; Thorpe, K; Nicholson, J M; Wilson, A; Scuffham, P A; Daniels, L A
The role of fathers in shaping their child's eating behaviour and weight status through their involvement in child feeding has rarely been studied. This study aims to describe fathers' perceived responsibility for child feeding, and to identify predictors of how frequently fathers eat meals with their child. Four hundred and thirty-six Australian fathers (M age = 37 years, SD = 6 years; 34% university educated) of a 2-5-year-old child (M age = 3.5 years, SD = 0.9 years; 53% boys) were recruited via contact with mothers enrolled in existing research projects or a university staff and student email list. Data were collected from fathers via a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive and hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted. The majority of fathers reported that the family often/mostly ate meals together (79%). Many fathers perceived that they were responsible at least half of the time for feeding their child in terms of organizing meals (42%); amount offered (50%) and deciding if their child eats the 'right kind of foods' (60%). Time spent in paid employment was inversely associated with how frequently fathers ate meals with their child (β = -0.23, P involved and positive attitude toward their role as a father (β = 0.20, P Fathers from a broad range of educational backgrounds appear willing to participate in research studies on child feeding. Most fathers were engaged and involved in family meals and child feeding. This suggests that fathers, like mothers, should be viewed as potential agents for the implementation of positive feeding practices within the family. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Preventing Violence against Women: Engaging the Fathers of Today and Tomorrow
Crooks, Claire V.; Goodall, George R.; Baker, Linda L.; Hughes, Ray
Although fathers play a key role in helping their children develop ideas about gender relations and close relationships, they have been largely overlooked as a resource to help prevent violence against women. This paper explores some of the reasons why fathers have not been successfully engaged in violence prevention. Engaging fathers to promote…
Multivariate differential analyses of adolescents' experiences of aggression in families
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Full Text Available Aggression is part of South African society and has implications for the mental health of persons living in South Africa. If parents are aggressive adolescents are also likely to be aggressive and that will impact negatively on their mental health. In this article the nature and extent of adolescents' experiences of aggression and aggressive behaviour in the family are investigated. A deductive explorative quantitative approach was followed. Aggression is reasoned to be dependent on aspects such as self-concept, moral reasoning, communication, frustration tolerance and family relationships. To analyse the data from questionnaires of 101 families (95 adolescents, 95 mothers and 91 fathers Cronbach Alpha, various consecutive first and second order factor analyses, correlations, multiple regression, MANOVA, ANOVA and Scheffè/ Dunnett tests were used. It was found that aggression correlated negatively with the independent variables; and the correlations between adolescents and their parents were significant. Regression analyses indicated that different predictors predicted aggression. Furthermore, differences between adolescents and their parents indicated that the experienced levels of aggression between adolescents and their parents were small. Implications for education are given.
Gendered Expectations? Reconsidering Single Fathers' Child-Care Time
Hook, Jennifer L.; Chalasani, Satvika
We take a fresh look at an important question in the sociology of gender and family: Do single fathers "mother"? We add to the theoretical debate by proposing that single fathers face competing interactional pressures, to simultaneously act like mothers and men. Using nationally representative data from the American Time Use Survey 2003-2006 (N =…
Fathers in Attachment Theory and Research: A Review
This paper provides a brief history of attachment research on fathers as a backdrop against which the other contributions to this volume can be viewed. Empirical research on child-father attachment progressed in four phases and began before Bowlby in 1969 published the first volume of his attachment trilogy. During each phase a different set of…
Fathers in situational crisis: a comparison of Asian and Western cultures.
Tseng, Yun-Shan; Verklan, M Terese
The purpose of this synthesis was to compare the difference between Asian and Western fathers' perceptions of their roles when confronted with situational crises involving their children. Twenty-two studies were reviewed and assigned to one of two categories: the father experiencing a situational crisis related to his child's illness or cultural influences on the paternal role. The results indicated that Asian and Western fathers' perceptions of crises do not differ greatly. It was concluded that there exists a gap in the literature with respect to the knowledge of Asian fathers' situational crisis surrounding their child's illness, their coping strategies when faced with their child's illness, as well as their emotional reactions toward family health. Future research should investigate the single or same-gender father's perceptions and emotional reactions in both Asian and Western cultures.
Bullying Behavior, Parents' Work Hours and Early Adolescents' Perceptions of Time Spent with Parents
Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Keil, Jacqueline M.; Laske, Mary Therese; Stewart, Jennifer
This research investigates the relationships among bullying behavior, mother's and father's work hours, and early adolescents' perceptions of whether they spend sufficient time with their parents. In cross-sectional models, we find maternal work hours are modestly associated with increases in bullying behavior. However, in more rigorous change…
Parent-adolescent interaction and risk of adolescent internet addiction: a population-based study in Shanghai
Background Family-based intervention is essential for adolescents with behavioral problems. However, limited data are available on the relationship between family-based factors and adolescent internet addiction (AIA). We aimed to examine this relationship using a representative sample of Shanghai adolescents. Methods In October 2007, a total of 5122 adolescents were investigated from 16 high schools via stratified-random sampling in Shanghai. Self-reported and anonymous questionnaires were used to assess parent-adolescent interaction and family environments. AIA was assessed by DRM-52 Scale, developed from Young’s Internet-addiction Scale, using seven subscales to evaluate psychological symptoms of AIA. Results Adjusting for adolescents’ ages, genders, socio-economic status, school performances and levels of the consumption expenditure, strong parental disapproval of internet-use was associated with AIA (vs. parental approval, OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.24-3.91). Worse mother-adolescent relationships were more significantly associated with AIA (OR = 3.79, 95% CI: 2.22-6.48) than worse father-adolescent relationships (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.10-2.80). Marital status of “married-but-separated” and family structure of “left-behind adolescents” were associated with symptoms of some subscales. When having high monthly allowance, resident students tended to develop AIA but commuter students did not. Family social-economic status was not associated with the development of AIA. Conclusions The quality of parent-adolescent relationship/communication was closely associated with the development of AIA, and maternal factors were more significantly associated with development of AIA than paternal factors. Family social-economic status moderated adolescent internet-use levels but not the development of AIA. PMID:24731648
Parent-Infant Psychotherapy and Postpartum Depression: The Fathers Participation
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Milena da Rosa Silva
Full Text Available Given the specificities of postpartum maternal depression, the literature recommends that fathers become involved in psychological interventions within this context. This study presents an investigation of the participation of fathers in parent-infant psychotherapy in the context of maternal postpartum depression. Two families participated in this study, both with a child aged between 7 and 8 months old, whose mothers showed depressive symptoms. These families participated in parent-infant psychotherapy lasting approximately 12 sessions. Analysis of the fathers’ participation in psychotherapy showed that their presence during sessions enables the therapy to address aspects of parenthood, and also reduce the feeling of mothers as being the only ones responsible for the family’s process of change. In regard to the technique, the presence of fathers during sessions allows the therapist to see and address the issues concerning mother-father-infant during sessions.
Brain responses differ to faces of mothers and fathers.
Arsalidou, Marie; Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Bayless, Sarah J; Taylor, Margot J
We encounter many faces each day but relatively few are personally familiar. Once faces are familiar, they evoke semantic and social information known about the person. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate differential brain activity to familiar and non-familiar faces; however, brain responses related to personally familiar faces have been more rarely studied. We examined brain activity with fMRI in adults in response to faces of their mothers and fathers compared to faces of celebrities and strangers. Overall, faces of mothers elicited more activity in core and extended brain regions associated with face processing, compared to fathers, celebrity or stranger faces. Fathers' faces elicited activity in the caudate, a deep brain structure associated with feelings of love. These new findings of differential brain responses elicited by faces of mothers and fathers are consistent with psychological research on attachment, evident even during adulthood. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Therapeutic assessment with an adolescent: choosing connections over substances.
Austin, Cynthia A; Krumholz, Lauren S; Tharinger, Deborah J
This case study provides an in-depth example of a comprehensive therapeutic assessment with an adolescent (TA-A) and his parents. The TA-A addressed parental concerns about their son's drug experimentation as well as the adolescent's own private questions about his distinctiveness from others, all set against a backdrop of ongoing parental conflict and poor communication. The TA-A process and how it is specifically tailored to balance the needs of adolescents and their parents is discussed. Subsequently, each step of TA-A is illustrated through the case study. Research findings at the conclusion of the assessment and at follow-up indicated significant decreases in internalizing symptomology and school problems, increases in self-esteem and self-reliance, and improved family functioning as reported by the adolescent. At follow-up, the father spoke of developing a more assertive parenting approach and successful follow-through on recommendations. This case study provides a template for clinicians interested in conducting TA-A.