Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...
Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... rights and privileges. Establish and maintain satisfying relationships. Adolescents will learn to share intimacy without feeling worried ...
Keng, Chiam Heng; And Others
Workshops concerning adolescent development explored problems of adolescents, schooling and adolescence, preparation for adulthood, leisure and recreation, as well as values, culture, and change in relation to the development of youth. The discussion of adolescents' problems identified major problem areas, (emphasizing problems of communicating…
Goede, I.H.A. de
This dissertation on “Development of Adolescent Relationships” addresses relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners in adolescence from a developmental perspective. By studying both parent-adolescent relationships and peer relationships at the same time, as well as interrelations between these types of relationships, this dissertation provides more information on the processes taking place in relationships during adolescence. Findings indicate that parent-adolescent relationsh...
Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.
This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…
Hart, Daniel; Carlo, Gustavo
Themes in the papers in this special issue of the "JRA" on moral development are identified. We discuss the intersection of moral development research with policy concerns, the distinctive qualities of moral life in adolescence that warrant investigation, the multiple connotations of "moral", the methods typical of moral development research, and…
McBride Murry, Velma; Berkel, Cady; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Nation, Maury
This article provides a comprehensive review of studies conducted over the past decade on the effects of neighborhood and poverty on adolescent normative and nonnormative development. Our review includes a summary of studies examining the associations between neighborhood poverty and adolescent identity development followed by a review of studies…
Winters, Ken C.; Arria, Amelia
Research now suggests that the human brain is still maturing during adolescence. The developing brain may help explain why adolescents sometimes make decisions that are risky and can lead to safety or health concerns, including unique vulnerabilities to drug abuse. This article explores how this new science may be put to use in our prevention and…
Kunnen, E. Saskia
We studied identity development during 5 years in seven deaf adolescents who attended a school for deaf children in the highest level of regular secondary education (age between 14 and 18 years), administering identity interviews every year. Identity development is conceptualized as the processes of exploration and commitment formation (Bosma,…
Kunnen, E. Saskia
We studied identity development during 5 years in 11 deaf adolescents who attend a school for deaf children in the highest level of regular secondary education (age between 14 and 19 years). Identity development is conceptualized by the processes of exploration and commitment formation, as formulate
Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa
Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…
Vetter, N.C.; Leipold, K.; Kliegel, M.; Phillips, L.H.; Altgassen, A.M.
Age differences in social cognition between adolescents and young adults were investigated. Two large groups of adolescents and young adults were given tasks of theory of mind and emotion recognition. In addition, to control for possibly related basic cognitive development, working memory, speed of
Porfeli, Erik J.; Lee, Bora
In this article, the authors offer a general perspective of vocational identity development as central to child and adolescent career development. A review of the pertinent literatures suggests that identity development is the product of three development strands--career exploration, commitment, and reconsideration--that appear to begin during…
Yuen, Mantak; Chan, Raymond M. C.; Gysbers, Norman C.; Lau, Patrick S. Y.; Lee, Queenie; Shea, Peter M. K.; Fong, Ricci W.; Chung, Y. B.
This study explored Chinese adolescents' perceptions of their own life skills development and the importance they place on such skills. The study also investigated the within-school and outside-school influences that may help develop and enhance life skills development. Six focus groups involving 52 high school students were conducted, using a set…
Alberto Roteta Dorado
Full Text Available Introduction: Abnormal uterine bleeding is the presence of an excessive and prolonged menstrual bleeding over several consecutive cycles. It is one of the first complaints in pediatric gynecology and is the most common cause dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Objective: To characterize adolescents with menstrual disorders attending gynecology clinic in child and adolescent onset of puberty. Method: A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective. Universe: 88 adolescents seen at the gynecology children and youth in the province of Cienfuegos with menstrual disorders in 2008. Sample: 64 patients with rhythm disturbances of the menstrual cycle and excessive bleeding. Procedure: During the first consultation was found in the following medical records: age, onset of puberty, age at menarche, breast development and pubic hair development. The data were processed by SPSS program and expressed as numbers and percentages. Results: 43.8% of the adolescents studied were between 14 and 16 years, 29.7% began puberty at age 9, 31.3% had their menarche at age 11, 46, 87% were in Tanner stage IV of breast development and 56.25% in Tanner stage IV for pubic hair. Conclusion: There were no alterations in pubertal development in adolescents with menstrual disorders studied.
In the last decades the consumption of Cannabis increased strongly. Parents and teachers are disconcerted. Instruments, to successfully offer assistance, are missing to many physicians and therapists. We need sufficient knowledge of the substance, the effects, side effects and possible damages, so that treatment can be successful. At the same time we have to identify the development phase of adolescence, in which the consumption takes place. Thereby it is particularly important to question, whether the consumption of Cannabis initiates psychoses, the development of addiction is possible or mental and physical development is disturbed. In this article the problem of the consumption of Cannabis in the phases of adolescence will be represented according to the challenges of adolescent people. Further more some intervention approaches, which were successful, will be presented. PMID:17245676
Haynie, Dana L.; Piquero, Alex R.
Although much research has established a link between pubertal development and adolescent involvement in offending, drug use, and other adverse outcomes, no research has examined whether puberty is associated with experiences of violent physical victimization. This is an unfortunate oversight because researchers are only beginning to understand…
When designing a school library space and deciding how to arrange resources, it is important to consider multiple components of adolescent development, including social, emotional, and behavioral aspects. Acknowledging these developmental facets and their importance can provide additional justification for some of the more controversial aspects of…
van der Giessen, D.
Adolescence is a developmental phase that is marked by profound transformations in parent-adolescent relationships and it is a rather sensitive period for the development of psychosocial problems. The purpose of the current dissertation was to understand longitudinal associations between parent-adolescents relationships and adolescents’ psychosocial problems over the course of adolescence. We employed two distinct levels of conceptualization. A macro-level perspective was used to describe rat...
Jung, Emanuel; Pick, Oliver; Schlüter-Müller, Susanne; Schmeck, Klaus; Goth, Kirstin
Background: In the revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), “Identity” is an essential diagnostic criterion for personality disorders (self-related personality functioning) in the alternative approach to the diagnosis of personality disorders in Section III of DSM-5. Integrating a broad range of established identity concepts, AIDA (Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence) is a new questionnaire to assess pathology-related identity development in healthy and disturb...
Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.
Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374
Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L
Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual
Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Rasmussen, Mette;
An inverse social gradient in overweight among adolescents has been shown in developed countries, but few studies have examined whether weight gain and the development of overweight differs among adolescents from different socioeconomic groups in a longitudinal study. The objective was to identif...... the possible association between parental socioeconomic position, weight change and the risk of developing overweight among adolescents between the ages 15 to 21....
Ezinga, Menno Arnold Jan
To what extent does psychosocial development have an effect on problem behaviour development? And does the effect of this development of psychosocial maturity differ for boys and girls? This thesis focuses on answering these questions. The research that is presented aims to identify relations in levels as well as paths of psychosocial development on problem behaviour. The study uses data from the School project, a longitudinal research project on adolescents that examined (problem) behaviour ...
Jung, Hyesil; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Song, Tae-Min; Jeon, Eunjoo; Kim, Ae Ran; Lee, Joo Yun
Depression in adolescence is associated with significant suicidality. Therefore, it is important to detect the risk for depression and provide timely care to adolescents. This study aims to develop an ontology for collecting and analyzing social media data about adolescent depression. This ontology was developed using the 'ontology development 101'. The important terms were extracted from several clinical practice guidelines and postings on Social Network Service. We extracted 777 terms, which were categorized into 'risk factors', 'sign and symptoms', 'screening', 'diagnosis', 'treatment', and 'prevention'. An ontology developed in this study can be used as a framework to understand adolescent depression using unstructured data from social media. PMID:26262398
Sujita Kumar Kar
Full Text Available Adolescence, derived from the Latin word "adolescere" meaning "to grow up" is a critical developmental period. During adolescence, major biological as well as psychological developments take place. Development of sexuality is an important bio-psycho-social development, which takes an adult shape during this period. During adolescence, an individual′s thought, perception as well as response gets colored sexually. Puberty is an important landmark of sexuality development that occurs in the adolescence. The myriad of changes that occurs in adolescents puts them under enormous stress, which may have adverse physical, as well as psychological consequences. Understanding adolescent sexuality has important clinical, legal, social, cultural, as well as educational implications.
The general aim of this dissertation was to extend current knowledge on the development of adolescent anxiety in the general population, by (1) examining developmental patterns of anxiety and individual differences in these patterns from childhood throughout adolescence, as well as concurrent associations with psychosocial functioning in several other domains, (2) exploring individual vulnerabilities that may be associated with the development of adolescent anxiety, and (3) examining how aspe...
Smith, Robert F; McDonald, Craig G; Bergstrom, Hadley C; Ehlinger, Daniel G; Brielmaier, Jennifer M
Adolescent nicotine induces persisting changes in development of neural connectivity. A large number of brain changes occur during adolescence as the CNS matures. These changes suggest that the adolescent brain may still be susceptible to developmental alterations by substances which impact its growth. Here we review recent studies on adolescent nicotine which show that the adolescent brain is differentially sensitive to nicotine-induced alterations in dendritic elaboration, in several brain areas associated with processing reinforcement and emotion, specifically including nucleus accumbens, medial prefrontal cortex, basolateral amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and dentate gyrus. Both sensitivity to nicotine, and specific areas responding to nicotine, differ between adolescent and adult rats, and dendritic changes in response to adolescent nicotine persist into adulthood. Areas sensitive to, and not sensitive to, structural remodeling induced by adolescent nicotine suggest that the remodeling generally corresponds to the extended amygdala. Evidence suggests that dendritic remodeling is accompanied by persisting changes in synaptic connectivity. Modeling, electrophysiological, neurochemical, and behavioral data are consistent with the implication of our anatomical studies showing that adolescent nicotine induces persisting changes in neural connectivity. Emerging data thus suggest that early adolescence is a period when nicotine consumption, presumably mediated by nicotine-elicited changes in patterns of synaptic activity, can sculpt late brain development, with consequent effects on synaptic interconnection patterns and behavior regulation. Adolescent nicotine may induce a more addiction-prone phenotype, and the structures altered by nicotine also subserve some emotional and cognitive functions, which may also be altered. We suggest that dendritic elaboration and associated changes are mediated by activity-dependent synaptogenesis, acting in part
Perez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio
The study analyzes the way in which adolescents' temperamental characteristics interact with parental control to shape adolescent decision making development. A sample of high-school Chilean adolescents (N = 391) answered a self-report questionnaire that included measures of behavioral autonomy (the extent to which adolescents make decisions in…
Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Melkevik, Ole; Holsen, Ingrid; Wold, Bente
Based on data from a 17-year longitudinal study of 1083 adolescents, from the ages of 13 to 30 years, the average development of self-reported global self-esteem was found to be high and stable during adolescence. However, there is considerable inter-individual variance in baseline and development of global self-esteem. This study used latent…
Wetherill, Reagan; Tapert, Susan F.
Adolescence is a unique developmental period characterized by major physiological, psychological, social, and brain changes, as well as an increased incidence of maladaptive, addictive behaviors. With the use of magnetic resonance imaging techniques, researchers have been able to provide a better understanding of adolescent brain maturation and how neurodevelopment affects cognition and behavior. This review discusses adolescent brain development and its potential influence on psychotherapeut...
Aldridge, Arianna A.; Roesch, Scott C.
Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to develop a coping typology of minority adolescents (M = 15.5 yrs). A multiethnic sample (n = 354) was recruited from a program aimed at serving low-income students. LPA revealed three distinct coping profiles. The first comprised adolescents who used a number of specific coping strategies at a low level (Low Generic Copers). The second comprised adolescents who emphasized active/approach strategies (e.g., planning; Active Copers). The third comprised a...
Dishion, Thomas J.; Tipsord, Jessica M.
In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion ...
Brown, Katherine Elizabeth
The main aim of this thesis was to identify key psychological variables associated with effective contraceptive use to target within an intervention aimed at improving contraceptive use amongst adolescents, since rates of pregnancy amongst UK adolescents remain the highest in Western Europe (Summerfield & Babb, 2004). A further aim was to implement and evaluate such an intervention. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 18 adolescents in order to inform the development of measu...
van der Giessen, D.
Adolescence is a developmental phase that is marked by profound transformations in parent-adolescent relationships and it is a rather sensitive period for the development of psychosocial problems. The purpose of the current dissertation was to understand longitudinal associations between parent-adol
Eiland, Lisa; Romeo, Russell D.
Adolescence is a time of continued brain maturation, particularly in limbic and cortical regions, which undoubtedly plays a role in the physiological and emotional changes coincident with adolescence. An emerging line of research has indicated that stressors experienced during this crucial developmental stage may affect the trajectory of this neural maturation and contribute to the increase in psychological morbidities, such as anxiety and depression, often observed during adolescence. In thi...
Alberto Roteta Dorado; Pilar Almaguer Sabina; Hussimy Marchena Morera; Maidelin Conde Cueto; Mónica González Brito
Introduction: Abnormal uterine bleeding is the presence of an excessive and prolonged menstrual bleeding over several consecutive cycles. It is one of the first complaints in pediatric gynecology and is the most common cause dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Objective: To characterize adolescents with menstrual disorders attending gynecology clinic in child and adolescent onset of puberty. Method: A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective. Universe: 88 adolescents seen at the gynecology child...
Adolescents nowadays socialize, network, and sort out their friendships and relationships online. As such, it is assumed that adolescents' experiences in the online world will influence their experiences in the face-to-face world and will play an important role in their development of social and moral knowledge. In this article, the author…
Nippold, Marilyn A.; Hegel, Susan L.; Uhden, Linda D.; Bustamante, Silvia
Comparison of the comprehension of proverbs of 200 students (50 each in Grades 6, 8, 10, and 12) found growth in proverb comprehension was most pronounced at two transitional points in development: when students move from late childhood into early adolescence, and again when they move from late adolescence into adulthood. Implications for…
Neff, Kristin D.; Cooper, Carey E.; Woodruff, Althea L.
Two studies examined children's and adolescents' developing perceptions of gender inequality. The first study examined perceptions of inequality among 272 early, middle, and late adolescents, focusing on the spheres of politics, business, and the home. Results indicated an age-related increase in perceptions of male dominance. Men were seen to…
In this study, the self-report Youth Resiliency: Assessing Development Strengths (YR:ADS) questionnaire is used with adolescents from seven junior and senior high schools (N = 2,991) to investigate the function of resiliency profiles as a model for understanding why adolescents engage in bullying and acts of aggression and how having these…
Tennant-Clark, Cynthia M.; And Others
Investigated relationship between occult participation, substance abuse, and level of self-esteem among 25 clinical (alcohol or drug treatment) and 25 nonclinical adolescents. Results indicated that adolescent substance abuse and occult participation were significantly related. Found significant differences between high versus low occult groups…
Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Skinner, Ellen A.
This article summarizes what is known about stress, stress reactions, and coping among adolescents. Throughout, it focuses on typical developmental patterns by highlighting the emerging experiences of adolescents and how they differ from children and adults. It also briefly discusses differences between individuals, boys and girls, and…
Full Text Available The article is a review of foreign studies, which analyze the factors in the social situation of adolescent development, influencing the offenses committed by juveniles: the role of family structure and social status (income, parental education, the role of relationships with parents (parental control level, quality of teenager’s relationships with parents, the importance of social relationships with peers. We show some characteristics of the family, which are the factors of adolescents protection from the offense commitment. It is also shown that adolescent relationship with peers play an important role in the processes of his socialization; that the problematic relationships with peers increase the likelihood of teenager’s criminalization, despite having family protective factors. Studying the preconditions of offenses in teens’ social and family sphere can be used to develop programs to support adolescents who have already committed offenses, and prevention programs for adolescents at risk of probability of initiation to the criminal community and committing crimes.
Full Text Available Background: The results of foreign studies have shown that psychomotor development of adolescents from orphanages falls significantly behind common developmental norms. In the Czech Republic, there is a lack of evidence of this issue despite the fact that some experts emphasize the possible defects of institutional care in the Czech Republic.Objective: The purpose of the study was to compare the level of psychomotor development of 13 year old adolescents from orphanages located in Prague and their counterparts from majority society. Methods: Psychomotor development of adolescents was tested with the complete form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2, which consists of 52 items, divided into 12 dimensions assessing the level of fine motor skills, gross motor skills, coordination and agility. The study sample consisting of 57 adolescents (age 13.47 ± 0.26 years included a sample of 21 adolescents from orphanages and 36 adolescents from majority society living in the Prague region. Results: Compared to their counterparts from majority society, adolescents from orphanages achieved significantly lower scores only in the fine motor precision dimension (η2 = .13; p = .032. The study showed significant difference between boys from orphanages and boys from majority society in the fine motor precision dimension (η2 = .13; p = .028, boys from majority society achieved significantly higher scores in this dimension. The results did not find significant difference in any BOT-2 dimensions between girls from majority society and girls from orphanages. Adolescents from orphanages achieved higher scores in the dimensions of strength and agility, running speed and agility and strength. Conclusion: Differences in psychomotor development were not confirmed in the observed dimensions of bilateral coordination and balance between the sample of adolescents from orphanages in Prague and their counterparts from
Jakub Holický; Jakub Kokštejn; Martin Musálek
Background: The results of foreign studies have shown that psychomotor development of adolescents from orphanages falls significantly behind common developmental norms. In the Czech Republic, there is a lack of evidence of this issue despite the fact that some experts emphasize the possible defects of institutional care in the Czech Republic.Objective: The purpose of the study was to compare the level of psychomotor development of 13 year old adolescents from orphanages located in Prague and ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate Taiwanese adolescent psychosocial development (i.e., autonomy and identity development) based on psychosocial theoretical models developed in western societies. Data were collected from both public senior high and vocational high schools in both urban and rural areas in Taiwan. Adolescent participants, with an average age of 17 years old, included 447 (about 54% were females) from urban areas, and 702 (62% were females) from rural areas. The resu...
Participants of the IEC Workshop for the Production of OHP Material on Reproductive Health for Adolescents and Young Adults held November 25-30 in Japan developed innovative, visually appealing overhead projector (OHP) transparencies to serve as prototype information, education, and communication (IEC) materials for the Asian Region. The materials cover a wide range of topics from early marriage to unwanted pregnancy. This paper briefly describes the prototypes. One group focused upon early marriage, an issue of considerable importance to the health and welfare of young women in countries such as Bhutan, India, and Nepal. Participants from China, Laos, Malaysia, and Thailand focused upon the issue of gender equality, while a third group developed OHP material to teach a range of issues related to young people's sexual and reproductive health. Finally, the fourth group, drawn from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, focused upon the topic of menstruation with a prototype targeted to boys and girls aged 9-14 years. Boys were included to foster their understanding of menstruation as a natural phenomenon. PMID:12292051
The challenges and stresses faced by adolescents include entry into secondary school, the development of adolescent sexuality, family conflicts, parental mental illness, socio-cultural factors, substance use and abuse, work and career abuse, social and antisocial behaviour, and the carry-over of problems from childhood. The ways in which programmes through schools can address these issues, enhance resilience and promote adolescent mental health are discussed. The potential of personal development programmes could be utilized to this end, with targeted educational and group initiatives and evaluation of outcomes. PMID:8268020
Full Text Available Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by increased reward-seeking behavior. Investigators have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in conjunction with reward paradigms to test two opposing hypotheses about adolescent developmental changes in the striatum, a region implicated in reward processing. One hypothesis posits that the striatum is relatively hypo-responsive to rewards during adolescence, such that heightened reward-seeking behavior is necessary to achieve the same activation as adults. Another view suggests that during adolescence the striatal reward system is hyper-responsive, which subsequently results in greater reward-seeking. While evidence for both hypotheses has been reported, the field has generally converged on this latter hypothesis based on compelling evidence. In this review, I describe the evidence to support this notion, speculate on the disparate fMRI findings and conclude with future areas of inquiry to this fascinating question.
Jensen, Lene Arnett; Larson, Reed W.
This volume brings together leading scholars to describe important new directions in research on child and adolescent development. This introductory chapter places their articles in the context of three larger trends in the field.
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Anxiety symptoms predict the onset of anxiety disorder and depression, and have been associated with lower levels of well-being even before they reach disorder status. Adolescence is a primary period of interest when it comes to anxiety research, since anxiety disorders most commonly have their onset at an early age, and they are the most frequent mental health problem in children and adolescents. The aim of this thesis is to further our knowledge of the developme...
Sarah Whittle; Nandita Vijayakumar; Meg Dennison; Orli Schwartz; Simmons, Julian G.; Lisa Sheeber; Allen, Nicholas B.
Limited attention has been directed toward the influence of non-abusive parenting behaviour on brain structure in adolescents. It has been suggested that environmental influences during this period are likely to impact the way that the brain develops over time. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between aggressive and positive parenting behaviors on brain development from early to late adolescence, and in turn, psychological and academic functioning during late adolescen...
Full Text Available Rebecca K Kelly,1 Costan G Magnussen,1,2 Matthew A Sabin,3 Michael Cheung,3 Markus Juonala3–5 1Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia; 2Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; 3Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital and University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia; 4Department of Medicine, University of Turku, 5Division of Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland Abstract: The upward trend in adolescent hypertension is widely attributed to the adolescent obesity epidemic. Secular trends in adolescent prehypertension and hypertension have risen in congruence with increasing trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. The correlation between body mass index and blood pressure in adolescence is moderate to strong in most studies and strongest in those classified as overweight or obese. The mechanisms relating to the development of hypertension in overweight adolescents are unclear; however, a number of nonmodifiable and modifiable factors have been implicated. Importantly, certain clinical and biochemical markers in overweight adolescents are indicative of high risk for hypertension, including family history of hypertension and hyperinsulinemia. These characteristics may prove useful in stratifying overweight adolescents as high or low risk of comorbid hypertension. The treatment of overweight and obesity related hypertension in this population focuses on two key modalities: lifestyle change and pharmacotherapy. These approaches focus almost exclusively on weight reduction; however, a number of emerging strategies target hypertension more specifically. Among adolescents with overt hypertension there are also several factors that indicate higher risk of concurrent subclinical disease, persistent adult hypertension, and adult cardiovascular disease. This group may benefit substantially from more
Baumrind, D; Moselle, K A
Adolescent drug use is placed in an historical and developmental perspective. Existing evidence concerning causes and consequences of adolescent drug use is inconclusive. In the absence of conclusive empirical evidence and cogent theories, we present a prima facie case against early adolescent drug use by defending six propositions which posit specific cognitive, conative, and affective negative consequences including impairment of attention and memory; developmental lag imposing categorical limitations on the level of maximum functioning available to the user in cognitive, moral and psychosocial domains; amotivational syndrome; consolidation of diffuse or negative identity; and social alienation and estrangement. We call for a program of research which could provide credible evidence to support or rebut these propositions, and thus address the factual claims underlying the sociomoral concerns of social policy planners. PMID:4013874
Berisha, Tringë; Thomsen, Diana; Svanholm, Frederik Rølle; Birisawa, Noella Chituka; Nielsen, Fabian Uth; Javadian, Shabnam; Holberg, Christina
This project will take the form as an analytical look into how media affects adolescent girls in order to answer the question if media exposure affects an individual and to what extent. We will examine different theories within the branch of psychodynamics theories. We will consider Freud and how his main ideas has affected the advertisement industry, furthermore we will elaborate on Erik Erikson and his development theory in order to understand which affect the media can have on the adolesce...
Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry
Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID:26916841
Spies Shapiro, Lauren A; Margolin, Gayla
Since the advent of social networking site (SNS) technologies, adolescents' use of these technologies has expanded and is now a primary way of communicating with and acquiring information about others in their social network. Overall, adolescents and young adults' stated motivations for using SNSs are quite similar to more traditional forms of communication-to stay in touch with friends, make plans, get to know people better, and present oneself to others. We begin with a summary of theories that describe the role of SNSs in adolescents' interpersonal relationships, as well as common methodologies used in this field of research thus far. Then, with the social changes that occur throughout adolescence as a backdrop, we address the ways in which SNSs intersect with key tasks of adolescent psychosocial development, specifically peer affiliation and friendship quality, as well as identity development. Evidence suggests that SNSs differentially relate to adolescents' social connectivity and identity development, with sociability, self-esteem, and nature of SNS feedback as important potential moderators. We synthesize current findings, highlight unanswered questions, and recommend both methodological and theoretical directions for future research. PMID:23645343
Covey, Linda A.; Feltz, Deborah L.
Relationships between self-reported past and present physical activity levels and self-image, sense of mastery, gender role identity, self-perceived physical ability, and self-perceived attractiveness were studied for 149 female high school sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Results are discussed in terms of adolescent emotional health. (SLD)
C.M. Mathyssek (Christina)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Anxiety symptoms predict the onset of anxiety disorder and depression, and have been associated with lower levels of well-being even before they reach disorder status. Adolescence is a primary period of interest when it comes to anxiety research, since anxiety disorders
Vilmann, Lea S; Thisted, Ebbe; Baker, Jennifer L;
Obesity in adolescents is prevalent worldwide. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is often associated with obesity in women, and it has serious metabolic and reproductive health implications. Although PCOS does not become clinically visible until early adolescence, its origins are likely much earlier....... Therefore, we reviewed the recent literature regarding the mechanisms linking the development of PCOS and obesity in adolescent girls. We found that excess abdominal adipose tissue (AT) initiates metabolic and endocrine aberrations that are central in the progression of PCOS. As an example, abdominal AT......, which decreases subcutaneous fat lipolysis and influences adipocyte distribution. These mechanisms may explain why PCOS girls have an increased visceral adipose mass independent of body mass index. Therefore, first-line treatment in adolescent PCOS is often lifestyle intervention to prevent the damaging...
Bryant, Brenda K.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.; Reynolds, Paula
Processes of child and adolescent vocational development include acquisition of knowledge, beliefs, and values about work options and requirements, exploration of interests that will be relevant for occupational interest development, development of academic aspirations, self-efficacy, expectations, and attainment. These elements serve to provide…
Dishion, Thomas J; Tipsord, Jessica M
In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that "select" adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors. PMID:19575606
Palminteri, Stefano; Kilford, Emma J; Coricelli, Giorgio; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne
Adolescence is a period of life characterised by changes in learning and decision-making. Learning and decision-making do not rely on a unitary system, but instead require the coordination of different cognitive processes that can be mathematically formalised as dissociable computational modules. Here, we aimed to trace the developmental time-course of the computational modules responsible for learning from reward or punishment, and learning from counterfactual feedback. Adolescents and adults carried out a novel reinforcement learning paradigm in which participants learned the association between cues and probabilistic outcomes, where the outcomes differed in valence (reward versus punishment) and feedback was either partial or complete (either the outcome of the chosen option only, or the outcomes of both the chosen and unchosen option, were displayed). Computational strategies changed during development: whereas adolescents' behaviour was better explained by a basic reinforcement learning algorithm, adults' behaviour integrated increasingly complex computational features, namely a counterfactual learning module (enabling enhanced performance in the presence of complete feedback) and a value contextualisation module (enabling symmetrical reward and punishment learning). Unlike adults, adolescent performance did not benefit from counterfactual (complete) feedback. In addition, while adults learned symmetrically from both reward and punishment, adolescents learned from reward but were less likely to learn from punishment. This tendency to rely on rewards and not to consider alternative consequences of actions might contribute to our understanding of decision-making in adolescence. PMID:27322574
Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of life characterised by changes in learning and decision-making. Learning and decision-making do not rely on a unitary system, but instead require the coordination of different cognitive processes that can be mathematically formalised as dissociable computational modules. Here, we aimed to trace the developmental time-course of the computational modules responsible for learning from reward or punishment, and learning from counterfactual feedback. Adolescents and adults carried out a novel reinforcement learning paradigm in which participants learned the association between cues and probabilistic outcomes, where the outcomes differed in valence (reward versus punishment and feedback was either partial or complete (either the outcome of the chosen option only, or the outcomes of both the chosen and unchosen option, were displayed. Computational strategies changed during development: whereas adolescents' behaviour was better explained by a basic reinforcement learning algorithm, adults' behaviour integrated increasingly complex computational features, namely a counterfactual learning module (enabling enhanced performance in the presence of complete feedback and a value contextualisation module (enabling symmetrical reward and punishment learning. Unlike adults, adolescent performance did not benefit from counterfactual (complete feedback. In addition, while adults learned symmetrically from both reward and punishment, adolescents learned from reward but were less likely to learn from punishment. This tendency to rely on rewards and not to consider alternative consequences of actions might contribute to our understanding of decision-making in adolescence.
Enright, R D; Lapsley, D K; Drivas, A E; Fehr, L A
Two studies were undertaken to examine parental influences on autonomy and identity development. In Study 1, 262 adolescents in seventh and eleventh grades were given Kurtines's autonomy measure, Simmons's identity measure, and Elder's questions regarding the adolescents' perceptions of their parents' autocratic, democratic, or permissive parenting styles. Study 2 was a replication with 168 subjects. Across both studies it was found that sex-role socialization is more influential for automony development than is either level of parental power or age. Both age and father's use of democracy were the most influential variables on identity development. PMID:24318313
Héctor Alexander Afanador Castañeda
Full Text Available The education and research project “I Build my Sexuality and my Life Plan” in its first phase sought to identify particular behaviors of adolescents about sexuality. The methodological and qualitative design, of exploratory nature, includes descriptive as well as interpretative aspects to recognize the characteristics of a particular context. For doing this, structured interviews with mixed items were applied in the classroom. This instrument assessed the incidence of T.V in sexual education, the student behaviors and conceptions when starting an interpersonal relationship (dating, and the actions of parents and adults about sexuality in the presence of adolescents. In applying the instrument, informed consents criteria were taken into account. Besides, it was created an atmosphere of comfort to respect the rights of adolescents and provide security to the respondent. This study was conducted with students between 15 and 17 years old, who belong to low or middle socioeconomic status. The results allowed to identify parents tended to omit or avoid speech acts about sexuality with their sons or daughters because this type of content is still seen as a taboo. Besides, when parents talk about this topic with their children, this behavior reflects a gender training (women are in charge of talking to their daughters, and men, to their sons. Moreover, meanwhile boys respond to a natural and spontaneous vision, girls respond to a traditional and moralized perspective.
Richman, L C
This article reviews neurologic, endocrinologic, and neuropsychological developments that affect our understanding of the adolescent patient. Neuroimaging and neuroradiologic techniques have assisted in identifying brain-behavior relationships and how different neuropsychological patterns result in different ways of thinking. Psychoneuroendocrinologic studies have shown that sex differences in maturation and hormonal effects on behavior need taking into account. At adolescence, the individual with a cleft or craniofacial condition may be at risk for adjustment problems due to earlier developmental events, which may affect language, behavior, and self-esteem. PMID:7748881
Maholmes, Valerie, Ed.; Lomonaco, Carmela Gina, Ed.
Developed for an NIH training institute, this volume is organized around the most frequently asked questions by researchers starting their careers in applied research in child and adolescent development. With contributions from the leading scholars in the field, actual research experiences highlight the challenges one faces in conducting such…
Preiss, David Daniel; Calcagni, Elisa; Grau, Valeska
The article reviews recent classroom research developed in South America related to child and adolescent development. We review work about three themes: ethnicity, school climate and violence, and the learning process. The few studies found on ethnicity and classroom experiences told a story of invisibility, if not exclusion and discrimination.…
van Rijsewijk, Loes; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Pattiselanno, Kim; Steglich, Christian; Veenstra, René
We investigated adolescent prosocial relations by examining social networks based on the question "Who helps you (e.g., with homework, with repairing a flat [bicycle] tire, or when you are feeling down?)." The effects of individual characteristics (academic achievement, symptoms of depressive mood, and peer status) on receiving help and giving help were examined, and we investigated the contribution of (dis)similarity between adolescents to the development of prosocial relations. Gender, structural network characteristics, and friendship relations were taken into account. Data were derived from the Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence (SNARE) study, and contained information on students in 40 secondary school classes across 3 waves (N = 840, M age = 13.4, 49.7% boys). Results from longitudinal social network analyses (RSiena) revealed tendencies toward reciprocation of help and exchange of help within helping groups. Furthermore, boys were less often mentioned as helpers, particularly by girls. Depressed adolescents were less often mentioned as helpers, especially by low-depressed peers. Moreover, lower academic achievers indicated that they received help from their higher achieving peers. Rejected adolescents received help more often, but they less often helped low-rejected peers. Last, low- and high-popular adolescents less often helped each other, and also high-popular adolescents less often helped each other. These findings show that (dis)similarity in these characteristics is an important driving factor underlying the emergence and development of prosocial relations in the peer context, and that prosocial behavior should be defined in terms of benefitting particular others. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27228450
Porcerelli, J H; Thomas, S; Hibbard, S; Cogan, R
To replicate and extend Cramer's (1987) original cross-sectional study concerning the development of defense mechanisms, the Thematic Apperception Test responses of 148 students in Grades 2, 5, 8, 11, and college freshmen were collected and scored for denial, projection, and identification using Cramer's Defense Mechanisms Manual (1991). Our results supported the notion that the relative use of denial and projection decreases and identification increases as a function of grade level. The findings provide additional support for the psychoanalytic view (Freud, 1966) of an ontogenetic developmental line of defense. PMID:9933944
The definition of oedipal shame, dramatized in Sophocles' tragedy, is the painful affect resulting from accepting the reality of one's origins. A clinical example focusing on shame arising from adoption links oedipal shame to the theme of rejection. Furthermore, in adolescence the revival of the oedipal conflict may reactivate oedipal shame in which unconscious idealized fantasies of personal perfection and the object carried over from childhood have to be renegotiated. This process, illustrated by two clinical vignettes, may reveal entrenched masochistic defenses. An examination of a final scene from a film underscores the significance of oedipal shame in clinical practice. PMID:14703298
Full Text Available Evidence supports the intricate relationship between sleep electroencephalogram (EEG spindling and cognitive abilities in children and adults. Although sleep EEG changes during adolescence index fundamental brain reorganization, a detailed analysis of sleep spindling and the spindle-intelligence relationship was not yet provided for adolescents. Therefore, adolescent development of sleep spindle oscillations were studied in a home polysomnographic study focusing on the effects of chronological age and developmentally acquired overall mental efficiency (fluid IQ with sex as a potential modulating factor. Subjects were 24 healthy adolescents (12 males with an age range of 15–22 years (mean: 18 years and fluid IQ of 91-126 (mean: 104.12, Raven Progressive Matrices Test. Slow spindles (SSs and fast spindles (FSs were analyzed in 21 EEG derivations by using the individual adjustment method. A significant age-dependent increase in average FS density (r = .57; p = .005 was found. Moreover, fluid IQ correlated with FS density (r = .43; p = .04 and amplitude (r = .41; p = .049. The latter effects were entirely driven by particularly reliable FS-IQ correlations in females [r = .80 (p = .002 and r = .67 (p = .012, for density and amplitude, respectively]. Region-specific analyses revealed that these correlations peak in the fronto-central regions. The control of the age-dependence of FS measures and IQ scores did not considerably reduce the spindle-IQ correlations with respect to FS density. The only positive spindle-index of fluid IQ in males turned out to be the frequency of FSs (r = .60, p = .04. Increases in FS density during adolescence may index reshaped structural connectivity related to white matter maturation in the late developing human brain. The continued development over this age range of cognitive functions is indexed by specific measures of sleep spindling unravelling gender differences in adolescent brain maturation and perhaps cognitive
Rodriguez-Naranjo, Carmen; Cano, Antonio
We describe the development and psychometric characteristics of a new version of the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ; Seligman, Abramson, Semmell, & Von Baeyer, 1979)--a version called the Attributional Style Questionnaire for Adolescents (ASQ-A)--using 3 samples (Ns = 547, 438, and 240) of Spanish secondary school students. In Study 1, the…
Husted, Gitte R; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Hommel, Eva;
AIM: To explore and illustrate how the Guided Self-Determination-Youth method influences the development of life skills in adolescents with type 1 diabetes supported by their parents and healthcare providers. BACKGROUND: Evidence-based methods that accomplish constructive cooperation between...
This paper considers how issues of adolescent development might be brought into conversation with dilemmas in sex education. Here, sex education is larger than information, affirmation or prohibition. In its address to the most intimate aspects of life--love, loss, vulnerability, power, friendship, aggression--sex education is necessarily…
Luyckx, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Goossens, Eva; Apers, Silke; Oris, Leen; Moons, Philip
Patients with CHD are vulnerable to psychiatric disorders. The present study compared baseline depressive symptoms between adolescents with CHD and community adolescents, and also assessed the development and persistence of depressive symptoms in patients. We examined the implications of persistent depressive symptoms towards quality of life and patient-reported health. In total, 296 adolescents with CHD participated in a four-wave longitudinal study, with 9-month intervals, and completed measures of depressive symptoms - Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) - at time points one to four and of quality of life - linear analogue scale (LAS) - and patient-reported health - LAS and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory - at T (time) 4. Information about diagnosis, disease complexity, and previous heart surgery was collected from medical records. At T1, 278 patients were matched 1:1 with community adolescents, based on sex and age. The findings of this study indicate that patients scored significantly lower on depressive symptoms compared with community adolescents. Depressive symptoms in the total patient sample were stable over time and were unrelated to disease complexity. Based on conventional cut-off scores of the CES-D, substantial individual differences existed in the extent to which depressive symptoms persisted over time: 12.2% of the patients reported elevated depressive symptoms at minimally three out of the four time points. Especially physical functioning, cardiac symptoms, and patient-reported health at T4 were predicted by persistent depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the level of depressive symptoms at T4. Our findings indicate that those involved in the care of adolescents with CHD should remain vigilant to persistent depressive symptoms and arrange timely referral to mental healthcare services. PMID:27365113
Simonds, Laura M; John, Mary; Fife-Schaw, Chris; Willis, Susie; Taylor, Helen; Hand, Heidi; Rahim, Masuma; Winstanley, Harriet; Winton, Holly
Like other self-conscious emotions, shame takes on particular significance during late childhood and adolescence because of a developing capacity for self-reflection, self-other comparisons, and sensitivity to the views of others. Shame is a potentially important variable in adolescent well-being given its established associations with depression, reduced feelings of self-worth, and problematic anger. Three studies are reported that describe the development and validation of the Adolescent Shame-Proneness Scale (ASPS), a novel semi-idiographic measure of shame-proneness. The ASPS is a 19-item measure assessing 3 components of shame-proneness-negative self-evaluation, externalization, and emotional discomfort. Taken together, the studies support the reliability and validity of the ASPS as a semi-idiographic measure of shame-proneness in adolescents aged 11 to 18 years. ASPS scores correlate as expected with scores on existing measure of shame-proneness and with measures of anger, negative affect, and self-esteem. More important, the data suggest that ASPS scores are related to, but distinct from, guilt. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of the ASPS factor structure (RMSEA = .08, SRMR = .05, CFI = .97, NNFI = .97). The ASPS represents a unique contribution to existing options for measuring shame-proneness in research and clinical contexts. Further work is required to assess the ASPS' temporal stability and its viability and psychometric properties in more culturally diverse samples. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26302099
Full Text Available Health literacy refers to personal competencies for the access to, understanding of, appraisal of and application of health information in order to make sound decisions in everyday life. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument for the measurement of health literacy among adolescents (the Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents-HELMA.This study was made up of two phases, qualitative and quantitative, which were carried out in 2012-2014 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part of the study, in-depth interviews with 67 adolescents aged 15-18 were carried out in 4 high schools to generate the initial item pool for the survey. The content validity of the items was then assessed by an expert panel review (n = 13 and face validity was assessed by interviewing adolescents (n = 16. In the quantitative part of the study, in order to describe the psychometric properties of the scale, validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest and factor analysis were assessed.An item pool made up of 104 items was generated at the qualitative stage. After content validity was considered, this decreased to 47 items. In the quantitative stage, 582 adolescents aged 15-18 participated in the study with a mean age of 16.2 years. 51.2% of participants were females. In principal component factor analysis, 8 factors were loaded, which accounted for 53.37% of the variance observed. Reliability has been approved by α = 0.93 and the test-retest of the scale at two-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC = 0.93. The final questionnaire was approved with 44 items split into eight sections. The sections were titled: gain access to, reading, understanding, appraise, use, communication, self-efficacy and numeracy.The Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA is a valid and reliable tool for the measurement of the health literacy of adolescents aged 15-18 and can be used to evaluate
Spaten, Ole Michael
Interviews and observations from a longitudinal study (from 1998 - 2009) has been analyzed to approach a contextual understanding of children's identity and self-concept development (Spaten 2007). Bronfenbrenner assumed (2005) that scientific limitations in widespread approaches to research on...... & Van der Veer, 1988). amd dialogical, cultural self-autorship are important themes for an understanding of processes of self-concept development among Danish children and adolescents from diverse cultual backgrounds. Limitations for this research as well as further directions for new studies will be...... childrens's development may be conquered by broader perspectives in theory and, methodology. He proposed a scientific perspective as the ecology of human development and, the Person-Process-Context-Time model (ibid). Our results includes that childrens's and adolescent's active internalization (Valsiner...
Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao
Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.
Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hsiao, Ray C.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Yaptangco, Mona; Linehan, Marsha M.; McCauley, Elizabeth
Self-inflicted injury (SII) in adolescence marks heightened risk for suicide attempts, completed suicide, and adult psychopathology. Although several studies have revealed elevated rates of depression among adolescents who self injure, no one has compared adolescent self injury with adolescent depression on biological, self-, and informant-report…
Dayan, Jacques; Bernard, Alix; Olliac, Bertrand; Mailhes, Anne-Sophie; Kermarrec, Solenn
Adolescents (12-18 years old) and young adults (18-25 years old), are more likely than older adults to drive-or agree to be driven-recklessly or while intoxicated, to use illicit or dangerous substances and to engage in both minor and more serious antisocial behaviour. Numerous factors during adolescence may lead to or favour initiation of drug use, such as sensation-seeking, gregariousness and social conformity. These aspects, however, cannot be dissociated from the increased sex drive and quest for an integrated self. In the separation-individuation process, relationships with peers play many different roles: a field for experimentation, emotional support, a place for "projection" and "identification", and the possibility of finding a partner. Unsurprisingly, therefore, drug use generally takes place in a group setting. Despite evidence of heightened real-world risk-taking, laboratory studies have yet to yield consistent evidence that adolescents, when on their own, are more inclined towards risky behaviour than their elders. Moreover, their comprehension and reasoning abilities in risky decision-making situations are roughly equivalent to those of adults. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have shown that neural circuitry undergoes major reorganization during adolescence, particularly in those regions of the brain relating to executive functions, the self and social cognition, and that the "emotional brain" may play a role in that reorganization. Age-related decreases in gray matter volume mainly reflect a reduction in the number of synapses and the complexity of axonal ramifications. By 18-20 years old, most of the subcortical white matter and association pathways have reached a plateau. Risk-taking behavior and novelty-seeking may provide, with an appropriate feed back, a mechanism to optimize brain development in adolescence. PMID:20816768
Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn
Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:27505902
Stemmler, Mark; Petersen, Anne C.
Based on a model by Cyranowski, J., et al. (2000), Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 57: 21-27, adolescents at-risk for the development of depressive symptoms were identified. Adolescents were considered at-risk if they had 2 or more of the following early adolescent risk factors: (1) insecure parental attachment, (2) anxious/inhibited temperament, (3) low…
Olsson, Daniel; Gericke, Niklas
Previous research has shown that interest in and concern about environmental issues tends to decrease in adolescence, but less is known about adolescents' broader consciousness of sustainable development, also including economic and social issues. This study investigates students' sustainability consciousness in the transition to adolescence. This…
Tolman, Deborah L.; McClelland, Sara I.
This review details a key innovation across the field of adolescent sexuality research over the last decade--conceptualizing sexuality as a normative aspect of adolescent development. Anchored in a growing articulation of adolescent sexuality as having positive qualities and consequences, we provide an organizing framework for understanding…
Roaten, Gail K.; Roaten, David J.
Brain growth and change is a key factor in adolescent development, influencing cognitions, emotions, and behavior. As technology has improved, so has the research on the adolescent brain. School counselors working with adolescents need to be familiar with recent literature to be more effective in their work with middle and high school students.…
Taymoori, Parvaneh; Moeini, Babak; Lubans, David; Bharami, Mitra
Background: Lifestyle choices and individuals’ behaviors have the potential to influence health and improve the quality of life. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop and psychometrically test an instrument for measuring healthy lifestyle in Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive literature review related to health-promoting lifestyles was used to identify potential scale items. Data were collected from 797 school students. Construct validity was analyzed u...
Romano, Jennifer Joyce
Previous research examining the link between parenting and identity have either indirectly assessed a single dimension of parenting or explored the degree of achievement rather than the process of identity development. The present study examines the influence of maternal and paternal parenting behaviors on the identity formation process in late adolescence. Participants (N = 1134), ranging in age from 18 to 25, completed questionnaires to assess their perceptions of parental behaviors and the...
Pressley, Michael; McCormick, Christine B.
Filling a tremendous need, this is the first graduate-level child development text written specifically for future educators. The volume provides a solid understanding of major theories of development, focusing on how each has informed research and practice in educational contexts. Topics include the impact of biology and early experiences on the…
Andersen, Johan Hviid; Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas;
) deteriorated slightly in adolescents (-0.24; 95% CI = -0.28 to -0.19) across all socioeconomic status (SES) groups and depressive symptoms increased (0.64; 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.75). High household income was protective for decrease in SRH (0.62; 0.43 - 0.91). Negative life-style changes were associated with...... poorer SRH and more depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Self-rated health and depressive symptoms changed to the worse among Danish adolescents from age 15 to 18 years. Negative changes in several lifestyle factors were found to accompany the deterioration of health. This result stresses the intrinsic......While the existence of social inequality in health in childhood as well as among adults is well established, research of mechanisms underlying this inequality is still sparse. The study aim was to report on the development of self-rated health and depressive symptoms from age 15 to18 years in a...
Kenny, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda
Mobile applications or 'apps' have significant potential for use in mental health interventions with adolescents. However, there is a lack of research exploring end users' needs from such technologies. The aim of this study was to explore adolescents' needs and concerns in relation to mental health mobile apps. Five focus groups were conducted with young people aged 15-16 years (N = 34, 60% male). Participants were asked about their views in relation to the use of mental health mobile technologies and were asked to give their responses to a mental health app prototype. Participants identified (1) safety, (2) engagement, (3) functionality, (4) social interaction, (5) awareness, (6) accessibility, (7) gender and (8) young people in control as important factors. Understanding end users' needs and concerns in relation to this topic will inform the future development of youth-oriented mental health apps that are acceptable to young people. PMID:25385165
Jeffrey M. Spielberg
Full Text Available Adolescent development encompasses an ostensible paradox in threat processing. Risk taking increases dramatically after the onset of puberty, contributing to a 200% increase in mortality. Yet, pubertal maturation is associated with increased reactivity in threat-avoidance systems. In the first part of this paper we propose a heuristic model of adolescent affective development that may help to reconcile aspects of this paradox, which focuses on hypothesized pubertal increases in the capacity to experience (some fear-evoking experiences as an exciting thrill. In the second part of this paper, we test key features of this model by examining brain activation to threat cues in a longitudinal study that disentangled pubertal and age effects. Pubertal increases in testosterone predicted increased activation to threat cues, not only in regions associated with threat avoidance (i.e., amygdala, but also regions associated with reward pursuit (i.e., nucleus accumbens. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that puberty is associated with a maturational shift toward more complex processing of threat cues—which may contribute to adolescent tendencies to explore and enjoy some types of risky experiences.
Bialek, Anna Katarzyna
The present study looked at prospective memory development between 7-15 years of age (N=57). Past research has draw no coherent picture of prospective memory development due to variations in prospective memory tasks employed, motivation not being suppressed, time-based and event-based memory not being distinguished and time delay between intention formation and intention execution not being controlled. The present study aimed to overcome these issues and draw a more coherent picture of prospe...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of resilience has captured the imagination of researchers and policy makers over the past two decades. However, despite the ever growing body of resilience research, there is a paucity of relevant, comprehensive measurement tools. In this article, the development of a theoretically based, comprehensive multi-dimensional measure of resilience in adolescents is described. Methods Extensive literature review and focus groups with young people living with chronic illness informed the conceptual development of scales and items. Two sequential rounds of factor and scale analyses were undertaken to revise the conceptually developed scales using data collected from young people living with a chronic illness and a general population sample. Results The revised Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire comprises 93 items and 12 scales measuring resilience factors in the domains of self, family, peer, school and community. All scales have acceptable alpha coefficients. Revised scales closely reflect conceptually developed scales. Conclusions It is proposed that, with further psychometric testing, this new measure of resilience will provide researchers and clinicians with a comprehensive and developmentally appropriate instrument to measure a young person's capacity to achieve positive outcomes despite life stressors.
Full Text Available Although there are many well-known theories of adolescent development in the West, there is a notable lack of theory with empirical support to understand the process and outcome of Chinese adolescent development. This paper attempts to advance a Chinese conception of adolescent development in a migration context. A qualitative study approach was used to explore the experiences and views of 19 Chinese-Canadian adolescents from Hong Kong and ten of their parents. The findings indicate that parents and adolescents co-construct the dominant theme of “covert parental control” in the adolescent development process, and the concept of “self in relational networks” as the adolescent development outcome. Based on the developmental experiences of these Chinese-Canadian adolescents, a culturally sensitive model of Chinese adolescent development is proposed. This model incorporates culture and migration as two essential components of the framework for a theory regarding Chinese adolescent development. It acknowledges the experience of Chinese-Canadian immigrants, takes account of the participants' personal meanings, and incorporates the indigenous Chinese cultural concepts of bao (reciprocity, guan (guidance, and guanxi (relationship.
Kathryn L. Mills
Full Text Available The rise of digital media use and the ability to be in almost constant connection to the Internet has raised a number of concerns about how Internet use could impact cognitive abilities. In particular, parents and policy makers are concerned with how being ‘constantly online’ might disrupt social and cognitive development. This review integrates the latest empirical evidence on Internet use with relevant experimental studies to discuss how online behaviors, and the structure of the online environment, might affect the cognitive development of adolescents. Popular concerns are discussed in light of the reviewed evidence, and remaining gaps in knowledge are highlighted.
Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hsiao, Ray C.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Yaptangco, Mona; Linehan, Marsha M.; McCauley, Elizabeth
Self-inflicted injury (SII) in adolescence marks heightened risk for suicide attempts, completed suicide, and adult psychopathology. Although several studies have revealed elevated rates of depression among adolescents who self injure, no one has compared adolescent self injury with adolescent depression on biological, self-, and informant-report markers of vulnerability and risk. Such a comparison may have important implications for treatment, prevention, and developmental models of self inj...
Makhubela, Malose Silas
Aim: This study examined the difference in identity development between adolescents exposed to domestic violence and those in non-violent homes, gender differences, as well as the interaction between gender and exposure to domestic violence on identity development of adolescents. Method: Participants consisted of 45 male and 64 female students from the University of Limpopo, whose ages ranged from 15 to 20 years. Adolescents were classified into one of the two domestic viole...
Adolescence is often seen as the stage of life in which young people become better acquainted with and more interested in politics, and in which they develop more complex views on democratic decision-making. However, because of a lack of longitudinal studies we are unaware of the ways adolescents develop their views on decision-making. In the present study forty Dutch adolescents were interviewed in their second year of secondary education and two years later. The results show that although, ...
Complex congenital urological anomalies often necessitate ongoing clinical and surgical management as patients reach adulthood and beyond. However, adolescent and lifelong care of such conditions is a relatively new urological specialty, and approaches to transitional health care require further development. Thus, although literature relating to the use of such approaches in urology are lacking, we are able to draw upon experience of models from other specialties. Urological anomalies might complicate an individual's development, particularly during adolescence, which represents a time of rapid and considerable change in most aspects of life. During this period, increased independence and responsibility, necessitating a shift from parent-driven to patient-driven care, and the desire to develop important and intimate social relationships can affect a patient's ability to cope with, and manage, disease. These factors also influence the ability of health-care providers to deliver adequate treatment. In particular, consideration of the effect of a condition or its treatment on the patient's capacity to live a normal life is important. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to overcoming these issues. Furthermore, diagnostic and treatment registries, as well as an increase in the number of adult-focused urologists willing to participate in the transition of patients from paediatric to adult care, are needed to enable provision of optimal patient care for the future. PMID:24709966
Shamne A. V.
Full Text Available We analyze the results of empirical operationalization of options (types of psychosocial development in adolescent age. We studied a large sample of adolescents and young adults of 12-20 years (N = 1130, 48% male from different strata of the urban and rural (17% Ukrainian population (students of secondary, vocational, technical and higher education. We used the author’s method “Psychosocial Questionnaire”. Data were analyzed with K-means cluster analysis. We identified and analyzed five clusters (“internal”, “dominant”, “integrated”, “addict”, “aloof”, which represent individually typical features of modern youth psychosocial transition to a state of maturity. Clusters (types were also analyzed with the following criteria: 1 productive / prosperous and nonproductive / dysfunctional types of psycho-social development; 2 psychosocial integration / adaptation and disintegration / maladaptation in the social world. We revealed the tasks and conditions of effective psychological support of the youth (correction zone with different types of psycho-social development
Barbot, Baptiste; Heinz, Sasha L; Luthar, Suniya S
Although adolescence is a time of individuation with increased reliance on peers, research indicates that, despite a deliberate distancing from parents, adolescents continue to seek the support and console of parental attachment figures in times of distress. The Perceived Parental Reactions to Adolescent Distress (PRAD) is a brief self-report measure developed to examine adolescents' perception of parental response under conditions of distress as measured by four conceptually and empirically distinct parental reactions to distress: Comfort, Self-Focus, Avoidance and Harshness. Across two studies involving a total of 738 high school students, we developed the PRAD and substantiated its robust psychometric properties, including evidence for reliability as well as internal and criterion validity. Sources of individual differences in the test-scores were also explored. Empirical as well as practical importance of assessing parental reactions to adolescent distress is discussed with regard to both the attachment and adolescent development literature. PMID:23777451
Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Chang, W. C.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Koh, Jessie B. K.; Leong, Joyce S. F.; Kee, Carolyn H. Y.; Seah, Cheryl K. F.
Items covering both core and culture-specific facets of depression were generated based on literature review and clinical experience. They were modified following focus group discussions with depressed adolescents and adolescents in the community. The newly constructed Asian Adolescent Depression Scale (AADS) was administered to a clinical and a…
Studies using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to observe the adolescent brain have shown that during adolescence multiple changes are occurring. This can provide a potential explanation for the sporadic and seemingly unpredictable behaviors that appear. It is believed that the brain of an adolescent goes through a profound neurological…
This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the…
Pedersen, Sara; Seidman, Edward
In this study we investigate the contribution of achievement in team sports to adolescent girls' self-esteem development. Adolescent girls (N = 247) from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds were surveyed as part of a larger study investigating the development of poor urban youth. Participants responded to items tapping global self-esteem,…
Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz; Maria Cristina Teixeira Cangussu; Ana Marlúcia Oliveira Assis
Although malocclusions represent a serious public health issue, there is insufficient information about this problem in adolescents in Brazil, especially in poorer areas. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of facial alterations, dental malocclusions, and deleterious oral habits (DOH) among adolescents in a developing area in northeastern Brazil and to test the hypothesis that the occurrence of DOH in infancy is associated with DOH during adolescence. The ...
Yen-hsin Alice Cheng; Landale, Nancy S.
With an emphasis on how weight stigma is manifested in social relationship context, this study explores two under-studied consequences of adolescent overweight, timing of first sex and subsequent intimate relationship development. The data employed come from Waves I to III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The results indicate that overweight adolescents have significantly later onset of first sex and are more likely to enter early adulthood without any intimate relatio...
Barbot, Baptiste; Heinz, Sasha L.; Luthar, Suniya S.
Although adolescence is a time of individuation with increased reliance on peers, research indicates that, despite a deliberate distancing from parents, adolescents continue to seek the support and console of parental attachment figures in times of distress. The Perceived Parental Reactions to Adolescent Distress (PRAD) is a brief self-report measure developed to examine adolescents’ perception of parental response under conditions of distress as measured by four conceptually and empirically ...
Saewyc, Elizabeth M.
The decade between 1998 and 2008 saw rapid increases in research on adolescent sexual orientation development and related health issues, both in quantity and in quality of studies. While much of the research originated in North America, studies from other countries also contributed to emerging understanding of developmental trajectories and social influences on the health of sexual minority adolescents. This paper reviews the body of research from the past decade on adolescent sexual orientat...
As a result of German youth literature researches in 1990s, a new youthliterature genre has been described as adolescence novel and other youth literaturegenres were grouped under this new genre. This study investigates Turkish –German adolescence novel studies contrastively. The genre which is called asadolescence novel is defined and explained in the context of adolescence novel.Youth literature types are also discussed. After defining literary genre classification,historical development of...
Anderson, Amy D.; Solorzano, Christine M. Burt; McCartney, Christopher R.
Obesity exacerbates the reproductive and metabolic manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The symptoms of PCOS often begin in adolescence, and the rising prevalence of peripubertal obesity has prompted concern that the prevalence and severity of adolescent PCOS is increasing in parallel. Recent data have disclosed a high prevalence of hyperandrogenemia among peripubertal adolescents with obesity, suggesting that such girls are indeed at risk for developing PCOS. Obesity may impac...
Huang, Cindy Y; Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S
Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children. PMID:24653641
Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry
ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based a...
Abdullahat Rashidovich Mamaev
Full Text Available The purpose of the study the actualization of the problem of improvement of children and adolescents in the wellness center, which consists in urgent need of modernization sports and recreation activities with adolescents 13-14 years in terms of stay in the health complex. The paper presents the survey of adolescents Romodanovskaya secondary school number 3 of the Republic of Mordovia. Identified motor abilities using tests of physical fitness. Application of the results will increase the efficiency of the process of physical education, positive impact on the formation of personality traits of adolescents and strengthen the health effect of physical exercise.
Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo
Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from…
Bindler, Ruth C.; Goetz, Summer; Butkus, Sue Nicholson; Power, Thomas G.; Ullrich-French, Sarah; Steele, Michael
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries and is showing no signs of abating. The causes of obesity in adolescence are extremely complex, and therefore approaches to prevention and treatments must be multifaceted. Early adolescence is a developmental period when youth are becoming more independent, are influenced by…
Marshall, Sheila K.; Young, Richard A.; Stevens, Alison; Spence, Wayne; Deyell, Stewart; Easterbrook, Adam; Brokenleg, Martin
The purpose of this study was to understand how urban-residing Aboriginal adolescent-parent dyads (n = 11) jointly constructed and acted on goals and strategies with their social supports (n = 17) to facilitate the adolescents' career development. A modified protocol following the qualitative action-project method was used. A discrete joint…
Adolescence is often seen as the stage of life in which young people become better acquainted with and more interested in politics, and in which they develop more complex views on democratic decision-making. However, because of a lack of longitudinal studies we are unaware of the ways adolescents de
This study aimed to investigate the effect of recreational activities on self-esteem development of girls in adolescence. For this purpose, a total of 20 girls in adolescence period took part in the present study. Recreational activities program included bowling, patenga, orienteering, basketball, volleyball, badminton, ping-pong, dance, fun…
Nippold, Marilyn A.
Aspects of language that develop during the adolescent years are discussed in the domains of pragmatics, syntax, and semantics. Selected topics include complex conversational behaviors that adolescents employ, syntactic attainments associated with persuasive writing; and the understanding of proverbs and figurative expressions. Relevant…
van Gent, Tiejo; Goedhart, Arnold W.; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Westenberg, P. Michiel; Treffers, Philip D. A.
Self-concept and ego development, two intertwined aspects of self-indicating well-being and social-cognitive maturation, respectively, were examined in a representative sample of deaf adolescents of normal intelligence (N = 68), using translated and adapted versions of Harter's (1988, "Manual for the self-perception profile for adolescents".…
van Rest, Maaike M.; van Bokhoven, Irene; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; Vriens, Aart; Matthys, Walter
The purpose of the present study was to develop a new assessment procedure of social information processing (SIP) for adolescents, to explore its validity and to examine whether it differentiated between IQ groups. Ninety-four adolescents within secure residential care were administered the SIP inst
Selfhout, Maarten H. W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
The present study examines both the unique and the combined role of best friends' delinquency and perceived friendship quality in the development of adolescent delinquency. Questionnaire data were gathered from 435 Dutch adolescent best friends (mean age at first wave = 12.97) over a period of 5 years with annual assessments. Results showed that…
Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey
The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…
Gupta, Niodita; Chandak, Aastha; Gilson, Glen; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Goldsworthy, Richard; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Fisher, Christopher
Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations are in a unique position to interact with the adolescents because they are neither parents/guardians nor teachers. The objectives of this study were to explore qualitatively what sexual health issues adolescents discuss with YDPs and to describe those issues using the…
Keller-Bell, Yolanda D.; Abbeduto, Leonard D.
The narratives of 18 adolescents and young adults with fragile X syndrome were compared to those of 23 adolescents with Down syndrome and 21 typically developing children matched for nonverbal MA. Narratives were elicited using a wordless picture book and analyzed for use of narrative evaluation, linguistic productivity, and complexity. Results…
Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.
Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adolescents' (N = 374, 12-14 years) intrinsic and…
Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz
Full Text Available Although malocclusions represent a serious public health issue, there is insufficient information about this problem in adolescents in Brazil, especially in poorer areas. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of facial alterations, dental malocclusions, and deleterious oral habits (DOH among adolescents in a developing area in northeastern Brazil and to test the hypothesis that the occurrence of DOH in infancy is associated with DOH during adolescence. The study included a probabilistic population-based sample of 2,060 Brazilian students aged 12-15 years. Facial characteristics (type of facial profile, facial symmetry, and passive lip sealing and malocclusions (Angle and Dental Aesthetic Index, DAI were evaluated. DOH in infancy and adolescence were evaluated by interviews with the parents and adolescents. Most adolescents presented with normal facial characteristics. The malocclusion prevalence (Angle was 83%. The DAI ranged from 13 to 69 (mean ± SD: 25.9 ± 7.7. Orthodontic treatment was necessary in 45.1% of the sample. The most prevalent DOH in adolescents were nail biting, object biting, cheek/lip biting, and bruxism, which were associated with finger sucking during infancy (P < 0.05. We conclude that malocclusions and DOH are common among Brazilian adolescents and that finger sucking during infancy may be a good predictor of DOH occurrence during adolescence.
Jurich, Anthony P.; Kadel, Kim M.
This instructor's guide for a foster parent curriculum consists of specific curriculum materials for the study of moral development in the adolescent years. The guide is divided into 5 parts: (1) an outline of foster parent competencies (instructional goals) plus suggested teaching strategies; (2) the basic text which gives an overview of the…
Foley, Kimberly P; Haggerty, Treah S; Harrison, Natasha
Family physicians provide care for about one-third of the children and adolescents in the United States, many of whom present with psychological concerns. Family physicians often do not recognize these psychological disorders and therefore do not diagnose or treat them. This report describes the implementation of a curriculum designed to increase family medicine trainees' level of awareness that children/adolescents experience psychiatric conditions. This goal is achieved through the addition of a clinical child/adolescent psychologist faculty member, resident self-assessment of training needs and subsequent development of didactic presentations to address these needs. The curriculum relies on the acquisition of child/adolescent psychiatric screeners, development of child/adolescent-focused bibliotherapy materials, and the development of a longitudinal behavioral sciences curriculum. To facilitate the screening of child/adolescent psychiatric disorders, a comprehensive collection of age-appropriate psychiatric screeners were compiled and made readily available in all precepting areas. To assist with the identification of specific child/adolescent psychiatric deficit areas, family medicine resident physicians were presented with an inventory of child/adolescent psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral topics, based upon American Academy of Family Practice guidelines and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition psychiatric disorders, and self-selected training deficiencies. PMID:26113643
Trubina, Irena; Sile, Maruta
In 21st Century, music playing as an activity for attention development is one of the direction in the fast developing field of research in music pedagogy. The issue of adolescent attention focus ability development is urgent both in psychology, as well as pedagogy and specifically in music pedagogy. With the use of digital tests (VTS - Vienna Test System), adolescent attention focus ability development was determined in dynamic during vocal ensemble sessions. Upon analysing the individual ad...
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida
Although parents play a vital role in fostering healthy sexuality-related attitudes and behaviors among adolescents, many parents struggle with how to address sexuality-related topics with their adolescent child. This article provides practitioners with evidence-based frameworks and guidelines on how to work with parents in order to improve their…
Crocetti, Elisabetta; Erentaite, Rasa; Žukauskiene, Rita
Identity formation is a core developmental task of adolescence. Adolescents can rely on different social-cognitive styles to seek, process, and encode self-relevant information: information-oriented, normative, and diffuse-avoidant identity styles. The reliance on different styles might impact adole
Syed, Moin; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge
This longitudinal study analyzed personality development using an individual approach by examining changes in ego development across the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Specifically, the study mapped the heterogeniety in ego development growth trajectories and linked the different trajectories to the family context in adolescence and identity development in emerging adulthood. Participants were 98 families with a child who were followed from age 14 to age 24. Latent class growth analysis identified 4 distinct trajectories of growth in ego development of the children over the 10-year period. The results indicated that growth was more rapid during adolescence and tended to taper off in emerging adulthood. In addition, promotion of personal growth within the family and parents' ego development were particulary instrumental in children's ego developmental gains in adolescence. Finally, youth who demonstrated continued ego development into emerging adulthood also demonstrated heightened levels of identity exploration. PMID:22984832
US Supreme Court rulings concerning sanctions for juvenile offenders have drawn on the science of brain development and concluded that adolescents are inherently less mature than adults in ways that render them less culpable. This conclusion departs from arguments made in cases involving the mature minor doctrine, in which teenagers have been portrayed as comparable to adults in their capacity to make medical decisions. I attempt to reconcile these apparently incompatible views of adolescents' decision-making competence. Adolescents are indeed less mature than adults when making decisions under conditions that are characterized by emotional arousal and peer pressure, but adolescents aged 15 and older are just as mature as adults when emotional arousal is minimized and when they are not under the influence of peers, conditions that typically characterize medical decision-making. The mature minor doctrine, as applied to individuals 15 and older, is thus consistent with recent research on adolescent development. PMID:23607975
Gargano, Lisa M; Herbert, Natasha L; Painter, Julia E; Sales, Jessica M; Vogt, Tara M; Morfaw, Christopher; Jones, LaDawna M; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization schedule for adolescents includes three vaccines (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis [Tdap]; human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccine; and meningococcal conjugate vaccine [MCV4]) and an annual influenza vaccination. Given the increasing number of recommended vaccines for adolescents and health and economic costs associated with nonvaccination, it is imperative that effective strategies for increasing vaccination rates among adolescents are developed. This article describes the development, theoretical framework, and initial first-year evaluation of an intervention designed to promote vaccine acceptance among a middle and high school-based sample of adolescents and their parents in eastern Georgia. Adolescents, parents, and teachers were active participants in the development of the intervention. The intervention, which consisted of a brochure for parents and a teacher-delivered curriculum for adolescents, was guided by constructs from the health belief model and theory of reasoned action. Evaluation results indicated that our intervention development methods were successful in creating a brochure that met cultural relevance and the literacy needs of parents. We also demonstrated an increase in student knowledge of and positive attitudes toward vaccines. To our knowledge, this study is the first to extensively engage middle and high school students, parents, and teachers in the design and implementation of key theory-based educational components of a school-based, teacher-delivered adolescent vaccination intervention. PMID:24440920
Neumann, Anna; Barker, Edward D; Koot, Hans M; Maughan, Barbara
The present study (a) tests main and moderational effects of neighborhood and family risk, and adolescent impulsivity on the development of male and female antisocial behavior (ASB) and (b) examines the extent to which these effects work indirectly through parental knowledge. Adolescents (N = 4,597; 51% male) reported on informal social control in their neighborhoods, their family types, and impulsivity at age 12, and on parental monitoring and ASB at ages 13 and 15 years. Neighborhoods were further defined as risk and nonrisk in economic deprivation by census-level data. Main effects of neighborhood risk, single parenthood, and impulsivity on ASB were found for male and female adolescents. For female adolescents, impulsivity interacted with neighborhood economic deprivation and with family type in the prediction of parental knowledge. Impulsivity and contextual risk factors in part increased adolescent ASB through decreasing parental knowledge. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:20677842
Di Maggio, Ilaria; Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore
The study is aimed at providing the development and initial validation of the Design My Future (DMF), which may be administered in career counseling and research activities to assess adolescents' future orientation and resilience. Two studies with two independent samples of Italian adolescents were conducted to examine psychometric requisites of DMF. Specifically, in the first study, after developing items and examined the content validity, the factorial structure, reliability and discriminant validity of the DMF were tested. In the second study, the measurement invariance across gender, conducing a sequence of nested CFA models, was evaluated. Results showed good psychometric support for the instrument with Italian adolescents. PMID:27348551
Peverill, Matthew; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Finn, Amy S.; Sheridan, Margaret A.
While most measures of working memory (WM) performance have been shown to plateau by mid-adolescence and developmental changes in fronto-parietal regions supporting WM encoding and maintenance have been well characterized, little is known about developmental variation in WM filtering. We investigated the possibility that the neural underpinnings of filtering in WM reach maturity later in life than WM function without filtering. Using a cued WM filtering task (McNab and Klingberg, 2008), we investigated neural activity during WM filtering in a sample of 64 adults and adolescents. Regardless of age, increases in WM activity with load were concentrated in the expected fronto-parietal network. For adults, but not adolescents, recruitment of the basal ganglia during presentation of a filtering cue was associated with neural and behavioral indices of successful filtering, suggesting that WM filtering and related basal ganglia function may still be maturing throughout adolescence and into adulthood. PMID:27026657
Newman, Denise L
Ethnic identity development was assessed in the context of ego development in 12- to 15-year-old students from a Southeastern American Indian community. Self-protective was the modal level and was characterized by awareness of ethnic group membership but little exploration or self-reflection. Impulsive adolescents had the least developed ethnic identities and highest levels of interpersonal vulnerability. Conformist adolescents expressed positive feelings about ethnic group affiliation, described relationships as harmonious, but demonstrated moderate social anxiety. Postconformist adolescents had the highest levels of agency, social competence, and identity achievement, but also had high levels of psychological distress and family conflict. Adolescent identity strivings may be understood in context with the level and timing of psychosocial maturity, for which ego development appears a useful marker. PMID:15892789
Giedd, Jay N.; Lalonde, Francois M.; Celano, Mark J.; White, Samantha L.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Lee, Nancy R.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.
Methodological issues relevant to magnetic resonance imaging studies of brain anatomy are discussed along with the findings on the neuroanatomic changes during childhood and adolescence. The development of the brain is also discussed.
Abrams, Madeleine Seifter
An important goal of adolescent development is emotional separation from the family of origin. Differing views on how to accomplish this task exist, and these are reflected in the choice of treatment modality. It has been common practice in the treatment of adolescents for work with parents to be done separately from the adolescent. Since social, cultural, and economic factors have an impact on development, as society changes it is important to think creatively about effective ways to accomplish the process of becoming a functioning adult. It is in this context that authors have focused recently on the need for young adults to have a positive connection with their parents. This paper will address the role of involvement of family in the psychotherapy of adolescents either by inviting them to participate in some of the individual sessions or through conjoint family therapy to facilitate forward development. Clinical illustrations will demonstrate the issues of an adolescent with unresolved early traumatic separation, an adolescent who is fulfilling parental needs, an adolescent with too much power in the family, the importance of beginning treatment after assessing where everyone is emotionally, and the problem of premature disconnection by parents. PMID:26414310
Melita Puklek Levpušček
In the last decade studies of social anxiety have focused on research of social anxiety in childhood and adolescence. They showed that social anxiety was related to negative self-perceptions and lower social adaptation. The research question not yet answered considers the developmental trend of social anxiety in various periods of adolescence. In the study we proposed that at least social anxiety in its cognitive form (i.e., worries and fear of negative social evaluation) would decrease from ...
Shapiro, Lauren A. Spies; Margolin, Gayla
Since the advent of SNS technologies, adolescents' use of these technologies has expanded and is now a primary way of communicating with and acquiring information about others in their social network. Overall, adolescents and young adults’ stated motivations for using SNSs are quite similar to more traditional forms of communication—to stay in touch with friends, make plans, get to know people better, and present oneself to others. We begin with a summary of theories that describe the role of...
Palminteri, S., Khamassi, M., Joffily, M., Coricelli, G.; Kilford, E. J.; Coricelli, G.; Blakemore, S J
Adolescence is a period of life characterised by changes in learning and decision-making. Learning and decision-making do not rely on a unitary system, but instead require the coordination of different cognitive processes that can be mathematically formalised as dissociable computational modules. Here, we aimed to trace the developmental time-course of the computational modules responsible for learning from reward or punishment, and learning from counterfactual feedback. Adolescents and adult...
Stefano Palminteri; Emma J. Kilford; Giorgio Coricelli; Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
Adolescence is a period of life characterised by changes in learning and decision-making. Learning and decision-making do not rely on a unitary system, but instead require the coordination of different cognitive processes that can be mathematically formalised as dissociable computational modules. Here, we aimed to trace the developmental time-course of the computational modules responsible for learning from reward or punishment, and learning from counterfactual feedback. Adolescents and adult...
van der Wurff, Inge S. M.; Clemens von Schacky; Kjetil Berge; Zeegers, Maurice P.; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate H. M.
The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13–15 years is investigated. Baseline data from Food2Learn, a double-blind and randomized placebo controlled krill oil supplementation trial in typically developing adolescents, were used for the current study. The Omega-3 Index was determine...
Parra Jiménez, Agueda; Oliva Delgado, Alfredo
The purpose of the present paper was to study the development of emotional autonomy through adolescence analysing its association with family relationships. The development of emotional autonomy involves an increase in adolescents' subjective sense of his or her independence, especially in relation to parents. From some scholars emotional autonomy is a normative manifestation of the detachment process from parents, however, others point out that detachment from parental ties is not the norm, ...
Hempel, Kevin; Wuermli, Alice; Lundberg, Mattias
Adolescence is a demanding and critical period in life. Failure to meet certain developmental milestones can have serious short- and long-term implications for the individual and society at large. This note provides an overview of how economic shocks can affect adolescent development, and how policies and programs can protect and promote human development in the face of adversity. Policies and programs to prevent and mitigate the negative impact of crises on schooling, employment, mental heal...
This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the region faces the challenge of uncovering the mechanisms that affect child development in a context of high levels of poverty and inequality. In addition, researchers in the region should be particularly careful in using appropriate and rigorous methods, improving the design and adaptation of instruments that measure child and adolescent development, developing longitudinal datasets, and looking for causal evidence. Children and adolescents in Latin America will benefit from a further expansion of developmental research. Research in child and adolescent development using data from Latin America can advise policy makers and help improve the design and evaluation of interventions and public policies that promote child and adolescent well-being in the region. PMID:27254830
Wei Xu; Chengqi Xin; Qiang Lin; Feng Ding; Wei Gong; Yuanyuan Zhou; Jun Yu; Peng Cui; Songnian Hu
Postnatal cerebral development is a complicated biological process precisely controlled by multiple genes. To understand the molecular mechanism of cerebral development, we compared dynamics of mouse cerebrum transcriptome through three developmental stages using high-throughput RNA-seq technique. Three libraries were generated from the mouse cerebrum at infancy, adolescence and adulthood, respectively. Consequently, 44,557,729 (infancy), 59,257,530 (adolescence) and 72,729,636 (adulthood) reads were produced, which were assembled into 15,344, 16,048 and 15,775 genes, respectively. We found that the overall gene expression level increased from infancy to adolescence and decreased later on upon reaching adulthood. The adolescence cerebrum has the most active gene expression, with expression of a large number of reg-ulatory genes up-regulated and some crucial pathways activated. Transcription factor (TF) analysis suggested the similar dynamics as expression profiling, especially those TFs functioning in neurogenesis differentiation, oligodendrocyte lineage determination and circadian rhythm regula-tion. Moreover, our data revealed a drastic increase in myelin basic protein (MBP)-coding gene expression in adolescence and adulthood, suggesting that the brain myelin may be generated since mouse adolescence. In addition, differential gene expression analysis indicated the activation of rhythmic pathway, suggesting the function of rhythmic movement since adolescence;Furthermore, during infancy and adolescence periods, gene expression related to axon repulsion and attraction showed the opposite trends, indicating that axon repulsion was activated after birth, while axon attraction might be activated at the embryonic stage and declined during the postnatal develop-ment. Our results from the present study may shed light on the molecular mechanism underlying the postnatal development of the mammalian cerebrum.
Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo
Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from these considerations to review research on adolescents' peer relations in Latin America from a socioemotional perspective. First, approaches to adolescence are discussed, with a main focus on attachment and identity theories, based on a bioecological framework. Then, a review of research in Latin America on friendships, school climate, and intergroup relations is presented. The discussion addresses the tension between theories and evidence generated in developed societies and highlights the particularities of Latin American youth, stressing the need for collecting local data. PMID:27254826
Hosseini, Seyyed Vahide; Anoosheh, Monireh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Mohammad
Parents are likely to be key influences on children's physical activity behaviors, although it is not clear how. This study was designed to explore parents' roles in Iranian adolescent girls' physical activity habit development. A qualitative study was conducted by means of semistructured one-to-one interviews with 25 participants, including 16 adolescent girls (10-19 years of age), seven mothers, and two fathers. Content analysis was applied. Two main themes emerged as parental role in adolescent girls' physical activity behavior: developing interest in physical activity (making children familiar with physical activity, discovering talents, and role modeling) and providing support to adolescents for physical activity (material and immaterial). This study provided a better understanding of how Iranian parents influence their children's physical activity behavior. This will enable nurses to design more effective family-based interventions. PMID:23302074
Beusterien Kathleen M; Yeung Jean-Ezra; Pang Francis; Brazier John
Abstract Objective Obtain utilities (preferences) for a generalizable set of health states experienced by older children and adolescents who receive therapy for chronic health conditions. Methods A health state classification system, the Adolescent Health Utility Measure (AHUM), was developed based on generic health status measures and input from children with Hunter syndrome and their caregivers. The AHUM contains six dimensions with 4–7 severity levels: self-care, pain, mobility, strenuous ...
Full Text Available Postnatal cerebral development is a complicated biological process precisely controlled by multiple genes. To understand the molecular mechanism of cerebral development, we compared dynamics of mouse cerebrum transcriptome through three developmental stages using high-throughput RNA-seq technique. Three libraries were generated from the mouse cerebrum at infancy, adolescence and adulthood, respectively. Consequently, 44,557,729 (infancy, 59,257,530 (adolescence and 72,729,636 (adulthood reads were produced, which were assembled into 15,344, 16,048 and 15,775 genes, respectively. We found that the overall gene expression level increased from infancy to adolescence and decreased later on upon reaching adulthood. The adolescence cerebrum has the most active gene expression, with expression of a large number of regulatory genes up-regulated and some crucial pathways activated. Transcription factor (TF analysis suggested the similar dynamics as expression profiling, especially those TFs functioning in neurogenesis differentiation, oligodendrocyte lineage determination and circadian rhythm regulation. Moreover, our data revealed a drastic increase in myelin basic protein (MBP-coding gene expression in adolescence and adulthood, suggesting that the brain myelin may be generated since mouse adolescence. In addition, differential gene expression analysis indicated the activation of rhythmic pathway, suggesting the function of rhythmic movement since adolescence; Furthermore, during infancy and adolescence periods, gene expression related to axon repulsion and attraction showed the opposite trends, indicating that axon repulsion was activated after birth, while axon attraction might be activated at the embryonic stage and declined during the postnatal development. Our results from the present study may shed light on the molecular mechanism underlying the postnatal development of the mammalian cerebrum.
Studies examining development of eating behavior in different age groups are reviewed. Determinants of disordered eating attitudes from infancy to adolescent are particularly examined. Family environment and social context are general factors. Knowledge, attitudes and food preferences are individual factors. Eating habits in infancy, early childhood and preschool period related to parent’s eating attitudes; peers and social context are dominant in school period and adolescents. The most effec...
Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin
The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965...
Collins, M.; Vinicius, L.
This study explores the relationship between human language and changes in language use during adolescence. After reviewing current theories for the origin and evolution of language, the article tests the hypothesis that sexual selection played a vital role in the development of language by examining sexual dimorphism in language in a sample of adolescents of known age and sex. The analyses relied on computer-mediated communication and data from online journals, which provide an insight into ...
Postnatal cerebral development is a complicated biological process precisely controlled by multiple genes. To understand the molecular mechanism of cerebral development, we compared dynamics of mouse cerebrum transcriptome through three developmental stages using high-throughput RNA-seq technique. Three libraries were generated from the mouse cerebrum at infancy, adolescence and adulthood, respectively. Consequently, 44,557,729 (infancy), 59,257,530 (adolescence) and 72,729,636 (adulthood) reads were produced, which were assembled into 15,344, 16,048 and 15,775 genes, respectively. We found that the overall gene expression level increased from infancy to adolescence and decreased later on upon reaching adulthood. The adolescence cerebrum has the most active gene expression, with expression of a large number of regulatory genes up-regulated and some crucial pathways activated. Transcription factor (TF) analysis suggested the similar dynamics as expression profiling, especially those TFs functioning in neurogenesis differentiation, oligodendrocyte lineage determination and circadian rhythm regulation. Moreover, our data revealed a drastic increase in myelin basic protein (MBP)-coding gene expression in adolescence and adulthood, suggesting that the brain myelin may be generated since mouse adolescence. In addition, differential gene expression analysis indicated the activation of rhythmic pathway, suggesting the function of rhythmic movement since adolescence; Furthermore, during infancy and adolescence periods, gene expression related to axon. repulsion and attraction showed the opposite trends, indicating that axon repulsion was activated after birth, while axon attraction might be activated at the embryonic stage and declined during the postnatal development. Our results from the present study may shed light on the molecular mechanism underlying the postnatal development of the mammalian cerebrum. © 2014 .
Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.
The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…
van Rijsewijk, Louise; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Pattiselanno, Kim; Steglich, Christian; Veenstra, René
We investigated adolescent prosocial relations by examining social networks based on the question “Who helps you (e.g., with homework, with repairing a flat [bicycle] tire, or when you are feeling down?).” The effects of individual characteristics (academic achievement, symptoms of depressive mood,
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available Cerebellar volumes were measured on structural MRI at adolescence and adulthood in 65 preterm individuals (born before 33 weeks’ gestation, and a term-born comparison group, in a study at King’s College, Great Ormond Street Hospital, and University College, London; and Seoul National University College of Medicine, Korea.
Chen, Mei-Yen; Wang, Edward K; Yang, Rea-Jane; Liou, Yiing-Mei
The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a newly devised instrument, the Adolescent Health Promotion scale (AHP), a 40-item Likert-type self-report instrument used to detect unhealthy lifestyles in adolescents. Content validity was considered to be supported based on the findings of previous studies and the observations of a panel of 14 content experts. This study examined the construct validity and reliability of the instrument. The psychometric properties of the AHP, including item analysis, factor analysis, and reliability measures, were assessed based on the responses of 1,128 Taiwanese adolescents. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measures and Bartlett's sphericity test showed that the samples met the criteria for factor analysis. Factor analysis yielded a six-factor instrument that explained 51.14% of the variance in the 40 items. The six factors were social support, life appreciation, health responsibility, nutritional behaviors, exercise behaviors, and stress management. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient for the total scale was 0.932, and alpha coefficients for the subscales ranged from 0.75 to 0.88. The results of this study indicate that the AHP has good construct validity and reliability in Taiwanese and that its use by school health nurses to assess adolescent health promotion programs is warranted. PMID:12588427
Nguyen, Thi Minh Phuong; Jin, Putai; Gross, Miraca
The heritage of Confucianism has been immensely spread in East Asian countries, including Vietnam. This philosophy has been transferred from preceding generations and has influenced the Vietnamese way of life, especially the love for learning. Vietnamese gifted adolescents are part of the philosophically Confucian affected communal. This study…
Alvermann, Donna E.; Marshall, James D.; McLean, Cheryl A.; Huddleston, Andrew P.; Joaquin, Jairus; Bishop, John
Five qualitative multiple-case studies document adolescents' uses of Web-based resources and digital literacy skills to construct their online identities. Working from a perspective that integrates new literacies with multimodality, the researchers enlisted the help of five high school students who kept daily logs of the websites they visited for…
van Rijsewijk, Loes; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Pattiselanno, Kim; Steglich, Christian; Veenstra, René
We investigated adolescent prosocial relations by examining social networks based on the question "Who helps you (e.g., with homework, with repairing a flat [bicycle] tire, or when you are feeling down?)." The effects of individual characteristics (academic achievement, symptoms of depressive mood, and peer status) on receiving help and…
This article builds on earlier research that defined and assessed technological competence among adolescents. It tracks students who took part in a measurements of technical abilities study fifteen years ago. The researcher had no previous knowledge of the test subjects' current employment status, but in favorable circumstances, these test…
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adolescents form two-thirds of our population. This is a unique group of people with special needs. Our survey aims to identify the lifestyle and behavioral patterns in this group of people and subsequently come up with issues that warrant special attention. METHODS: A survey was performed in various schools of Karachi. Data collection was done via a face-to-face interview based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Participants included all willing persons between 12-19 years of age. RESULTS: Most adolescents with lifestyle issues fell in the age group of 16-18 years. Females were more depressed than males and had more sleep problems. Substance abuse and other addictions were documented more in males. Watching television or listening to music was stated as the most common late night activity (61.8% and therefore was also referred to as the contributory factor for less than eight hours of sleep each day. (58.9% of the respondents are getting less than eight hours of sleep daily. (41.5% of the respondents who felt depressed sought treatment for it. Quite a few of them were also indulged in substance abuse and other addictions. Only (16.8% of the respondents opined that physical activity is essential for health. Thirty-five adolescents out of all the respondents were smoking cigarettes currently, whereas 7% of the respondents chewed paan (areca nut. Peer pressure was the most common reason (37.1% to start smoking. CONCLUSION: Adolescents need to be treated as a distinct segment of our population and it is important to realize and address their health and lifestyle problems. Inadequate sleep, depression and smoking were the leading unhealthy behaviours among the respondents. Families can play an important role to help these adolescents live a healthier life. Further research studies should be carried out to highlight issues of concern and their possible solutions in this population.
Mullineaux, Paula Y; DiLalla, Lisabeth Fisher
Nearly all aspects of human development are influenced by genetic and environmental factors, which conjointly shape development through several gene-environment interplay mechanisms. More recently, researchers have begun to examine the influence of genetic factors on peer and family relationships across the pre-adolescent and adolescent time periods. This article introduces the special issue by providing a critical overview of behavior genetic methodology and existing research demonstrating gene-environment processes operating on the link between peer and family relationships and adolescent adjustment. The overview is followed by a summary of new research studies, which use genetically informed samples to examine how peer and family environment work together with genetic factors to influence behavioral outcomes across adolescence. The studies in this special issue provide further evidence of gene-environment interplay through innovative behavior genetic methodological approaches across international samples. Results from the quantitative models indicate environmental moderation of genetic risk for coercive adolescent-parent relationships and deviant peer affiliation. The molecular genetics studies provide support for a gene-environment interaction differential susceptibility model for dopamine regulation genes across positive and negative peer and family environments. Overall, the findings from the studies in this special issue demonstrate the importance of considering how genes and environments work in concert to shape developmental outcomes during adolescence. PMID:26006709
Ciccia, Angela Hein; Meulenbroek, Peter; Turkstra, Lyn S.
Adolescence is a time of significant physical, social, and emotional developments, accompanied by changes in cognitive and language skills. Underlying these are significant developments in brain structures and functions including changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter tracts. Among the brain regions that develop during…
Hoyt, Michael A; Kennedy, Cara L
This research investigated youth leadership experiences of adolescent girls who participated in a comprehensive feminist-based leadership program. This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory approach to understand changes that occurred in 10 female adolescent participants. The words of the participants revealed that initially they viewed leadership in traditional terms and were hesitant to identify themselves as leaders or to see themselves included within their concepts of leadership. Following the program their view of leadership expanded and diversified in a manner that allowed for inclusion of themselves within it. They spoke with greater strength and confidence and felt better positioned and inspired to act as leaders. Participants identified having examples of women leaders, adopting multiple concepts of leadership, and participating in an environment of mutual respect and trust as factors that contributed to their expanded conceptualization. PMID:18931906
The enormous popularity of the Harry Potter books points to the deep resonance readers feel with the psychological issues they bring to life. Three developmental issues provide central themes: the necessity for partial disenchantment and increasing attunement to reality, while retaining a capacity for wonder; repudiation or endorsement of the narcissistic solution to life's difficulties; and aggression and castration fantasies while growing into adult power. These developmental issues are particularly acute during adolescence but start earlier and continue to be reworked throughout the life span, accounting for the books' appeal to a wide age-range of readers despite their apparent focus on adolescence. These developmental themes are explored in order to better understand the Harry Potter books, as, conversely, the books are explored in order to better understand these themes. PMID:19926795
Qidwai, Waris; Ishaque, Sidra; Shah, Sabeen; Rahim, Maheen
Introduction Adolescents form two-thirds of our population. This is a unique group of people with special needs. Our survey aims to identify the lifestyle and behavioral patterns in this group of people and subsequently come up with issues that warrant special attention. Methods A survey was performed in various schools of Karachi. Data collection was done via a face-to-face interview based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Participants included all willing persons between 12–19 year...
Ruuska, Jaana; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Rantanen, Päivi
This study examined puberty and psychosexual state in a clinical sample of adolescents attending for assessment because of eating disorders (ED). A total of 57 adolescents (girls) aged 14-21 years (mean age 16.9 years) having either anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) were studied by semi-structured interviews and structured self-report questionnaires considering the timing of menarche, dating and attitudes to sexuality. The age at menarche did not differ statistically significantly between AN and BN. It was significantly lower in the BN group than in the normal population, but no statistically significant difference was found between the AN group and normal population. The general attitudes to sexuality were more negative in the AN group than in the BN group. In the AN group, there were also fewer dating experiences and interest in dating than in the BN group. After controlling for the effect of age, age at menarche and duration of ED, negative attitudes to sexuality and no dating experiences were still best predicted by AN. The results suggest different ways of coping with the developmental challenges in sexuality in AN and BN during adolescence. PMID:14667108
Chadwick, Benjamin; Miller, Michael L; Hurd, Yasmin L
Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), that interfere with the brain's endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain's developmental trajectory toward a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis users to motivational, affective, and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens. PMID:24133461
Full Text Available Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. Cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably Δ9-tetrahydrocannbinol (THC, that interfere with the brain’s endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain’s developmental trajectory towards a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis-users to motivational, affective and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens.
Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin
The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965). The 152 items from selected multiple measures of body image were examined through factor analysis and for internal consistency. Correlations between Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale and body mass index (BMI), risk of eating disorders and self-esteem were assessed for construct validity. A seven factor model of a 62-item Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents with construct validity and good internal consistency was developed. The scale encompasses 1) preoccupation with thinness and dieting behavior, 2) appearance and body satisfaction, 3) body importance, 4) muscle increasing behavior, 5) extreme dieting behavior, 6) appearance importance, and 7) perception of size and shape dimensions. Besides, a multidimensional body image composite score was proposed to screen negative body image risk in female adolescents. The result found body image was correlated with BMI, risk of eating disorders and self-esteem in female adolescents. In short, the present study supports a multi-dimensional concept for body image and provides a new insight into its multi-dimensionality in Malaysian female adolescents with preliminary validity and reliability of the scale. The Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale can be used to identify female adolescents who are potentially at risk of developing body image disturbance through future intervention programs. PMID:20126371
Full Text Available Little work has been conducted that examines the effects of positive environmental experiences on brain development to date. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the effects of positive (warm and supportive maternal behavior on structural brain development during adolescence, using longitudinal structural MRI. Participants were 188 (92 female adolescents, who were part of a longitudinal adolescent development study that involved mother–adolescent interactions and MRI scans at approximately 12 years old, and follow-up MRI scans approximately 4 years later. FreeSurfer software was used to estimate the volume of limbic-striatal regions (amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens and the thickness of prefrontal regions (anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices across both time points. Higher frequency of positive maternal behavior during the interactions predicted attenuated volumetric growth in the right amygdala, and accelerated cortical thinning in the right anterior cingulate (males only and left and right orbitofrontal cortices, between baseline and follow up. These results have implications for understanding the biological mediators of risk and protective factors for mental disorders that have onset during adolescence.
Drolet, Marie; Arcand, Isabelle
Trusting relationships at school and within other social networks emerge as protective factors that are crucial to the positive development of early adolescents. School is one of the critical environments where they can develop a sense of belonging. This study involved 20 qualitative interviews with school staff and youth workers recruited from…
Comer, James P.
The key to improving student achievement, the author asserts, is to pay attention to child and adolescent development. If this factor is overlooked, new approaches to curriculum, instruction, and assessment will have little chance of succeeding. But even troubled districts that have made development a priority have seen remarkable success. The…
Pickar, Daniel B.; Tori, Christopher D.
Using a developmental perspective, this study contrasted learning and nonlearning disabled adolescents on three variables: Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; self-concept; and delinquent behavior. The results indicated that the learning disabled subjects, due to years of failing, were unable to develop a sense of industry and…
Johnson, Jeffrey G.
Studied the extent to which psychosocial development thorough the first 5 stages of E. H. Erikson's theory of personality development is associated with personality disorder symptoms, using 106 undergraduates. Negative resolutions of stages one through five may predict the presence of personality disorder symptomatology during late adolescence.…
Sebastian, Catherine; Viding, Essi; Williams, Kipling D.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne
Recent structural and functional imaging studies have provided evidence for continued development of brain regions involved in social cognition during adolescence. In this paper, we review this rapidly expanding area of neuroscience and describe models of neurocognitive development that have emerged recently. One implication of these models is…
van den Bos, Esther; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C. K.; Westenberg, P. Michiel
Adolescents become increasingly sensitive to social evaluation. Some previous studies have related this change to pubertal development. The present longitudinal study examined the role of sociocognitive development. We investigated whether or not the transition to recursive thinking, the ability to think about (others') thoughts, would be…
Full Text Available Studies examining development of eating behavior in different age groups are reviewed. Determinants of disordered eating attitudes from infancy to adolescent are particularly examined. Family environment and social context are general factors. Knowledge, attitudes and food preferences are individual factors. Eating habits in infancy, early childhood and preschool period related to parent’s eating attitudes; peers and social context are dominant in school period and adolescents. The most effective strategy is to prevent disordered eating attitudes in early childhood. Restriction and pressure are not effective strategies in developing healthy eating.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Western countries, tobacco use is most prevalent among adolescents in lower socioeconomic groups. The association between socioeconomic status (SES and tobacco use among adolescents in developing countries is unexplored. Using multiple SES measures, we investigated this association among adolescents in Ghana. Method A school-based survey of a representative sample of 13-18-year-old Ghanaians (N = 1,165, response rate = 89.7% was conducted in three regions, in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship of smoking, tawa (smokeless tobacco use with familial SES (parental occupation and education, material affluence scale, family structure, an adolescent's individual social position (school performance, plans after graduation and inter-generational social mobility (predicted by the differences of familial and individual positions. Results Socioeconomic differences existed in tobacco use whether measured by familial SES or individual social position with higher prevalence in lower socioeconomic groups. Low father's education and living in a non-nuclear family were associated with both forms of tobacco use while low material affluence was associated with tawa use only; individual social position measured by plans after graduation was the strongest predictor of both smoking and tawa use. Inter-generational downward social mobility and particularly staying in low SES was related to both forms of tobacco use. Conclusions Similar to Western countries, lower SES is related to an adolescent's tobacco use also in developing countries. Cumulative socioeconomic disadvantage over generations increases the probability of tobacco use.
Full Text Available In this study we use economic exchange games to examine the development of prosocial behavior in the form of sharing and giving in social interactions with peers across adolescence. Participants from four age groups (9-, 12-, 15-, and 18-year-olds, total N=119 played three types of distribution games and the Trust game with four different interaction partners: friends, antagonists, neutral classmates, and anonymous peers. Nine- and 12-year-olds showed similar levels of prosocial behavior to all interaction partners, whereas older adolescents showed increasing differentiation in prosocial behavior depending on the relation with peers, with most prosocial behavior towards friends. The age related increase in non-costly prosocial behavior towards friends was mediated by self-reported perspective-taking skills. Current findings extend existing evidence on the developmental patterns of fairness considerations from childhood into late adolescence. Together, we show that adolescents are increasingly better at incorporating social context into decision-making. Our findings further highlight the role of friendships as a significant social context for the development of prosocial behavior in early adolescence.
King, Kevin M.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Monahan, Kathryn C.
Difficulties with self-regulation are implicated in the development of emotional and behavioral problems during adolescence. Although children's ability to regulate their behaviors continues to improve throughout childhood and adolescence, it remains unclear how contextual risk factors might influence this development during the transition to…
Cok, Figen; Gray, Lizbeth Ann
Previous research has documented a need for the development of a sex education programme in Turkish schools in terms of adolescence readiness and the presence of misconceptions regarding critical aspects of sexual issues. Currently no school-based sex education is available for Turkish adolescents. This paper presents the development of a…
Suisman, Jessica L.; Thompson, J. Kevin; Keel, Pamela K.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Neale, Michael; Boker, Steven; Sisk, Cheryl; Klump, Kelly L.
Objective Mean-levels of thin-ideal internalization increase during adolescence and pubertal development, but it is unknown whether these phenotypic changes correspond to developmental changes in etiological (i.e., genetic and environmental) risk. Given the limited knowledge on risk for thin-ideal internalization, research is needed to guide the identification of specific types of risk factors during critical developmental periods. The present twin study examined genetic and environmental influences on thin-ideal internalization across adolescent and pubertal development. Method Participants were 1,064 female twins (ages 8–25 years) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Thin-ideal internalization and pubertal development were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Twin moderation models were used to examine if age and/or pubertal development moderate genetic and environmental influences on thin-ideal internalization. Results Phenotypic analyses indicated significant increases in thin-ideal internalization across age and pubertal development. Twin models suggested no significant differences in etiologic effects across development. Nonshared environmental influences were most important in the etiology of thin-ideal internalization, with genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental accounting for approximately 8%, 15%, and 72%, respectively, of the total variance. Discussion Despite mean-level increases in thin-ideal internalization across development, the relative influence of genetic versus environmental risk did not differ significantly across age or pubertal groups. The majority of variance in thin-ideal internalization was accounted for by environmental factors, suggesting that mean-level increases in thin-ideal internalization may reflect increases in the magnitude/strength of environmental risk across this period. Replication is needed, particularly with longitudinal designs that assess thin-ideal internalization across key
Dumontheil, Iroise; Apperly, I.A.; Blakemore, S J
The development of theory of mind use was investigated by giving a computerized task to 177 female participants divided into five age groups: Child I (7.3–9.7 years); Child II (9.8–11.4); Adolescent I (11.5–13.9); Adolescent II (14.0–17.7); Adults (19.1–27.5). Participants viewed a set of shelves containing objects, which they were instructed to move by a ‘director’ who could see some but not all of the objects. Correct interpretation of critical instructions required participants to use the ...
Andersen, Johan Hviid; Hansen, Claus D.
decrease in self-rated health from age 15 to 18 years. Conclusions Self-rated health, the number of depressive symptoms and levels of perceived stress changed to the worse among Danish adolescents from age 15 to 18 years. Changes in physical exercise were found to contribute to the deterioration of......Background While the existence of social inequality in health in childhood as well as amongst adults is well established, research of mechanisms underlying this inequality is still sparse. This study reports on the development of self-rated health, perceived stress and depressive symptoms from age...... 15 to 18 years in a cohort study of Danish adolescents. The aim was to study predictors for health change among children with different social background. Methods Information from a birth cohort study of all adolescents born in 1989 (n = 3058) living in Ringkoebing County, Denmark was collected from...
Van Lissa, Caspar J; Hawk, Skyler T; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim H J
Adolescents' development of two empathy dimensions, affective empathic concern and cognitive perspective taking, may be associated with shifts towards more constructive behaviors in conflict with parents. This six-year longitudinal study (ages 13-18) used multivariate latent growth curve modeling to investigate correlations between the developmental trajectories of adolescents' (N = 497) empathic dispositions and trajectories of their conflict behaviors towards both parents. There were some similarities between the associations of both empathy dimensions with conflict behaviors. Both empathy dimensions were associated with reduced conflict escalation with mothers, and increased problem solving with both parents. However, these associations were consistently stronger for perspective taking than for empathic concern. Furthermore, higher levels of compliance with mothers in early adolescence were uniquely associated with over-time increasing empathic concern. Perspective taking was uniquely associated with decreased withdrawal from conflicts. Perspective taking thus appears to be more strongly associated with a pattern of constructive conflict behaviors. PMID:26760479
Lanfer, A; Hebestreit, A; Ahrens, W
Diet is of major interest in research on the etiology of obesity. Research in this field comprises investigation of the role of individual nutrients and foods, nutrient composition, as well as dietary patterns and habits. Longitudinal data on the association between dietary factors and the development of obesity in childhood and adolescence are sparse; therefore, conclusions on the impact of energy density, consumption of carbohydrates and proteins, snack foods and fast food, meal patterns and speed of eating cannot be drawn. More data exist with respect to the role of energy intake and consumption of fat and sugar-sweetened beverages; however, findings are inconsistent. This could be due to methodological shortcomings that mark dietary assessment in children and adolescents. However, as a direct modulator of energy balance, diet still needs to be part of a comprehensive strategy to combat overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. PMID:20631972
Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto; Lonigro, Antonia; Baumgartner, Emma
The main aim of this study was to explore the relationship between identity statuses and alcohol use and misuse in adolescence. A sample of 440 Italian students completed the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status-Version 2 (EOM-EIS-II) and the Alcohol Addiction Scale of the Shorter Promise Questionnaire (SPQ-ALC). The results suggested that problematic alcohol use during early and middle adolescence is associated with developmentally less sophisticated identity development. Foreclosed and diffused adolescents were classified as binge drinkers and heavy drinkers. The latter reported a higher mean dependence score than other identity groups. The risk and mediating factors about alcohol misuse and dependence are provided. PMID:23705294
Kercher, Amy J.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Schniering, Carolyn A.
Theories of depression suggest that cognitive and environmental factors may explain the relationship between personality and depression. This study tested such a model in early adolescence, incorporating neuroticism, stress-generation and negative automatic thoughts in the development of depressive symptoms. Participants (896 girls, mean age 12.3…
Resilience is a construct connoting the maintenance of positive adaptation by individuals despite experiences of significant adversity. The knowledge gained from research on resilience needs to be translated into action. Every time we succeed in providing support, relationships, experiences, and opportunities that promote positive outcomes enhancing the capacity to be healthy and happy, we are promoting healthy adolescent development. PMID:20568562
Over the past quarter century, the study of child and adolescent development has made important progress by using its theoretical insights to address the common problems of growing up. In light of findings generated by this empirical activity, it is now time to take a new look at the field's theoretical base to establish a comprehensive framework…
This article suggests that ideas about adolescent brains and their development increasingly function as powerful truths in making sense of young people. In this context, the knowledge practices of the neurosciences and evolutionary and developmental psychology are deemed capable of producing what we have come to understand as the evidence on which…
Novik, Natalia N.; Podgórecki, Józef
The urgency of the problem under investigation is determined by the need to help the adolescents with behavioral problems to develop communication skills in the specific bilingual conditions in such regions as the Republic of Tatarstan where education should consider not only the specific skills of verbal behavior but also take into account the…
Barbot, Baptiste; Lubart, Todd I.; Besançon, Maud
This article reviews developmental studies of creativity in children and adolescents with a focus on "peaks" and "slumps" that have often been described in the literature. The irregularity of the development of creativity is interpreted in light of conceptual and measurement issues and with regard to the interaction between…
Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.
Creativity is a multifaceted construct that recruits different cognitive processes. Here, we summarize studies that show that creativity develops considerably during adolescence with different developmental trajectories for insight, verbal divergent thinking, and visuospatial divergent thinking. Next, these developmental time courses are mapped to…
O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; McKeague, Ian W.
The Sexual Self-Concept Inventory (SSCI) was developed to assess sexual self-concept in an ethnically diverse sample of urban early adolescent girls. Three scales (Sexual Arousability, Sexual Agency, and Negative Sexual Affect) were shown to be distinct and reliable dimensions of girls' sexual self-concepts. Validity was established through…
Kimm, SYS; Barton, BA; Obarzanek, E; McMahon, RP; Kronsberg, SS; Waclawiw, MA; Morrison, JA; Schreiber, GB; Sabry, ZI; Daniels, [No Value
Objective. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) is a 10-year study to investigate the development of obesity in black and white girls during adolescence and its environmental and psychosocial correlates. The purpose of this report was to examine changes in the
Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.; Ojanen, M.
Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adol
Butcher, Janice E.
Investigates development of sex role orientation among adolescent girls, and explores its relationship with sports participation, self-esteem, and age at menarche. Concludes that relationship of sex role orientation with sports participation and self-esteem was not an interactive one, but was reflective of individual differences beginning in late…
The aim of this dissertation was to examine adolescent romantic and sexual development, in a biopsychosocial model, in which physical, psychological, and social contextual factors are considered. The findings of this dissertation show the importance of individual factors such as pubertal status and
McLean, Kate C.; Breen, Andrea V.
The present study examined narrative identity in adolescence (14-18 years) in terms of narrative content and processes of identity development. Age- and gender-related differences in narrative patterns in turning point memories and gender differences in the content and functions for sharing those memories were examined, as was the relationship…
This article presents a re-conceptualization of moderate adolescent drug use. It is argued that experimentation with alcohol and other drugs during the teenage years may play an important role in the development of regulatory competency in relation to drug consumption in adulthood. When such regulatory skills fail to emerge in young people, during…
Nkyi, Anthony K.
This article presents development and informal assessment of a 10-week psychoeducational program designed for 8 adolescent group members experiencing parental divorce in a rural community in Ghana. Group design, cultural considerations, program implementation, and impacts are described. The literature review pertaining to group work as an…
Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
Study goals were to assess: (a) the development of academic interests from middle childhood through late adolescence; (b) the degree to which junior high and high school transitions, parents' educational expectations, interests, and education were related to changes in academic interests; and (c) the longitudinal links between youths' academic…
Frank, Andrew J.; McBee, Matthew T.
This article examines the process of identity development in gifted adolescents and provides a theoretical and research-based explanation of its importance for influencing achievement and quality of life in adulthood. Teachers, counselors, and parents can use "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" (Rowling, 1997) as a springboard into discussion…
Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M J; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J; Oude Elberink, Joanne N G; Duiverman, Eric J; Hourihane, Jonathan O'Brien; Dubois, Anthony E J
BACKGROUND: Food allergy can affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire for adolescents with food allergy exists. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Teenager Fo
Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M J; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J; Oude Elberink, Joanne N G; Duiverman, Eric J; Hourihane, Jonathan O'Brien; Dubois, Anthony E J
Background: Food allergy can affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire for adolescents with food allergy exists. Objective: We sought to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Teenager Fo
Dodge, Kenneth A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Malone, Patrick S.
A dynamic cascade model of development of serious adolescent violence was proposed and tested through prospective inquiry with 754 children (50% male; 43% African American) from 27 schools at 4 geographic sites followed annually from kindergarten through Grade 11 (ages 5-18). Self, parent, teacher, peer, observer, and administrative reports…
Hjemdal, Odin; Friborg, Oddgeir; Stiles, Tore C.; Martinussen, Monica; Rosenvinge, Jan H.
In this study, the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) was developed with confirmatory factor analysis and cross-validated factor model. The results show that the READ has sound psychometric qualities and that it measures all the central aspects of the psychological construct of resiliency. (Contains 4 tables.)
Saewyc, Elizabeth M.
The decade between 1998 and 2008 saw rapid increases in research on adolescent sexual orientation development and related health issues, both in the quantity and in the quality of studies. While much of the research originated in North America, studies from other countries also contributed to emerging understanding of developmental trajectories…
Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.
A biopsychosocial model of the development of adolescent chronic conduct problems is presented and supported through a review of empirical findings. The model posits that biological dispositions and sociocultural contexts place certain children at risk in early life but that life experiences with parents, peers, and social institutions increment…
Davies, Emma; Martin, Jilly; Foxcroft, David
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the use of the Delphi method to gain expert feedback on the identification of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and development of a novel intervention to reduce adolescent alcohol misuse, based on the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) of health risk behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: Four…
Larson, Reed W.; Brown, Jane R.
Grounded-theory analyses were used to formulate propositions regarding the processes of adolescent emotional development. Progress in understanding this difficult topic requires close examination of emotional experience in context, and to do this the authors drew on qualitative data collected over the course of a high school theater production.…
Demir, Erdal; Sahin, Gülsah; Sentürk, Ugur; Aydin, Halide; Altinkök, Mustafa
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week basic tennis training program on the personality development of early adolescents aged between 9 and 11 years. The research methodology consisted of a single group pre-test/post-test design implemented with a total of eight volunteer children (three boys and five girls). The…
Examines role of schools and peer group culture in constructing male and female identity among adolescents in the context of gender violence. Discusses a United Kingdom Department for International Development funded study of abuse of girls in Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Ghana. Reveals contemplative sexual socialization processes in which male violence…
Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Yang, Chongming; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.
Using longitudinal data on 585 youths (48% female; 17% African American, 2% other ethnic minority), the authors examined the development of social response evaluation and decision (RED) across childhood (Study 1; kindergarten through Grade 3) and adolescence (Study 2; Grades 8 and 11). Participants completed hypothetical-vignette-based RED…
Elder, Glen H., Jr.; Conger, Rand D.
Based on the rural life experiences of Iowa children who grew up during the great farm crisis of the 1980s, this book focuses on successful adolescent development and its links to the social resources of families with ties to the land. In 1989, the Iowa Youth and Families Project began a panel study of 451 two-parent families in north central…
Gent, T. van; Goedhart, A.W.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Westenberg, P.M.; Treffers, P.D.A.
Self-concept and ego development, two intertwined aspects of self-indicating well-being and social-cognitive maturation, respectively, were examined in a representative sample of deaf adolescents of normal intelligence (N = 68), using translated and adapted versions of Harter's (1988, Manual for the
Yeh, Christine J.; Ching, Alison M.; Okubo, Yuki; Luthar, Suniya S.
The development and evaluation of a peer mentoring program for Chinese immigrant adolescents' cultural adjustment is described. Twenty-three high school students who recently immigrated from Mainland China participated in the year-long program and 4 high school students served as their peer mentors. Data analyses revealed that the students who…
Cláudio Márcio de Araújo
Full Text Available Este artigo se baseia em uma pesquisa que teve por objetivo analisar concepções sobre adolescência e desenvolvimento humano que medeiam as intervenções socioeducativas no contexto de um circo social. Participantes: adolescentes, corpo técnico, estagiários e o próprio pesquisador. Os resultados foram gerados considerando os seguintes núcleos de significação: (a a potencialidade da arte circense como instrumento na promoção de desenvolvimento humano; (b a evolução no uso de instrumentos circenses como foco do processo de acompanhamento e avaliação do adolescente; (c a adolescência como fase do ciclo de vida; (d risco e vulnerabilidade social como características do sujeito ou do contexto. A necessidade de que os agentes institucionais busquem uma compreensão mais profunda do processo de transformação pessoal que tem lugar ao longo da adolescência é aspecto explorado na discussão.This article is based on a research aimed at analyzing conceptions around adolescence and human development mediating social educative interventions in the context of a social circus. Participants: adolescents; technical staff; trainees; and, the researcher himself. The results were generated considering the following meaning complexes: (a the potential of circus techniques as mediation tools in promoting innovative trajectories of human development; (b personal improvements in the domain of tools and techniques as the focus of the follow up and evaluation process of the adolescent; (c adolescence as a stage of life cycle; (d social risk and vulnerability alternating as char acteristics of the subject or the context. The necessity that institutional agents search for a deeper comprehension of the process of personal transformation that takes place along adolescence is an important point of discussion.
Full Text Available Adolescence, defined as a transition phase towards autonomy and independence, is a natural time of learning and adjustment, particularly in the setting of long-term goals and personal aspirations. It also is a period of heightened sensation seeking, including risk taking and reckless behaviors, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among teenagers. Recent observations suggest that a relative immaturity in frontal cortical neural systems may underlie the adolescent propensity for uninhibited risk taking and hazardous behaviors. However, converging preclinical and clinical studies do not support a simple model of frontal cortical immaturity, and there is substantial evidence that adolescents engage in dangerous activities, including drug abuse, despite knowing and understanding the risks involved. Therefore, a current consensus considers that much brain development during adolescence occurs in brain regions and systems that are critically involved in the perception and evaluation of risk and reward, leading to important changes in social and affective processing. Hence, rather than naive, immature and vulnerable, the adolescent brain, particularly the prefrontal cortex, should be considered as prewired for expecting novel experiences. In this perspective, thrill seeking may not represent a danger but rather a window of opportunities permitting the development of cognitive control through multiple experiences. However, if the maturation of brain systems implicated in self-regulation is contextually dependent, it is important to understand which experiences matter most. In particular, it is essential to unveil the underpinning mechanisms by which recurrent adverse episodes of stress or unrestricted access to drugs can shape the adolescent brain and potentially trigger life-long maladaptive responses.
Bernheim, Aurélien; Halfon, Olivier; Boutrel, Benjamin
Adolescence, defined as a transition phase toward autonomy and independence, is a natural time of learning and adjustment, particularly in the setting of long-term goals and personal aspirations. It also is a period of heightened sensation seeking, including risk taking and reckless behaviors, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among teenagers. Recent observations suggest that a relative immaturity in frontal cortical neural systems may underlie the adolescent propensity for uninhibited risk taking and hazardous behaviors. However, converging preclinical and clinical studies do not support a simple model of frontal cortical immaturity, and there is substantial evidence that adolescents engage in dangerous activities, including drug abuse, despite knowing and understanding the risks involved. Therefore, a current consensus considers that much brain development during adolescence occurs in brain regions and systems that are critically involved in the perception and evaluation of risk and reward, leading to important changes in social and affective processing. Hence, rather than naive, immature and vulnerable, the adolescent brain, particularly the prefrontal cortex, should be considered as prewired for expecting novel experiences. In this perspective, thrill seeking may not represent a danger but rather a window of opportunities permitting the development of cognitive control through multiple experiences. However, if the maturation of brain systems implicated in self-regulation is contextually dependent, it is important to understand which experiences matter most. In particular, it is essential to unveil the underpinning mechanisms by which recurrent adverse episodes of stress or unrestricted access to drugs can shape the adolescent brain and potentially trigger life-long maladaptive responses. PMID:24348419
Full Text Available Aim: Physical, psychological and social changes occurring in adolescence period may be cause for concern. In this study, it was aimed to determine concerns on growth and development in adolescence period, related factors and utilization of health services. Methods: In this study, data related youths' concerns, utilization of health services and socio-demographic variables obtained from multi-purpose cross-sectional survey named Needs Assesment of Seasonal Agricultural Worker Families Survey-2011 were used. Survey framework was consisted of aged 15-24 young people of families who worked as a seasonal agricultural farmworker in the year of research conducted. Survey was completed in 1021 households total 915 youths selected by probability cluster sampling method of 1200 households by Turkish Statistical Institution (Response rates were 90,7% in women, and 77,2% in men. and lsquo;Woman and Men Questionnaires' were applied by face to face interview. University Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained. Data entry and analysis performed using SPSS 11.5 software, descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results: Of participants 63,6% of female and 46,6% of male adolescents reported at least one concern related to growth and development inadolescent period. While having any concern prevalence in women were changed working time in the fields and health perception, marital status and education level with adolescent's concerns were related in men significantly (P <0,05. 13,8% of females and 10,9% of males utilized the health services because of concerns. Conclusion: By Family Health Centers at this risky young group during their period of residence in their address, adolescent follow-up should be done, should be asked concerns and given early diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, health education programs on adolescence period by Community Health Centers will be useful. [TAF Prev Med Bull
Full Text Available Emotional maturity and social awareness are important for adolescents, particularly college students beginning to face the challenges and risks of the adult world. However, there has been relatively little research into personality maturation and psychological development during late adolescence and the neural changes underlying this development. We investigated the correlation between psychological properties (neuroticism, extraversion, anxiety, and depression and age among late adolescents (n = 25, from 18 years and 1 month to 22 years and 8 months. The results revealed that late adolescents became less neurotic, less anxious, less depressive and more extraverted as they aged. Participants then observed video clips depicting hand movements with and without a risk of harm (risk-taking or safe actions during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The results revealed that risk-taking actions elicited significantly stronger activation in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, temporal visual regions (superior/middle temporal areas, and parieto-occipital visual areas (cuneus, middle occipital gyri, precuneus. We found positive correlations of age and extraversion with neural activation in the insula, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and precuneus. We also found a negative correlation of age and anxiety with activation in the angular gyrus, precentral gyrus, and red nucleus/substantia nigra. Moreover, we found that insula activation mediated the relationship between age and extraversion. Overall, our results indicate that late adolescents become less anxious and more extraverted with age, a process involving functional neural changes in brain networks related to social cognition and emotional processing. The possible neural mechanisms of psychological and social maturation during late adolescence are discussed.
de Haan, A.D.
Current theories and models on child development emphasize that children and their environmennt form a system with bidirectional processes of interactions. Transactional models, which integrate parent and child effects, may be especially successful in describing and explaining the development of problem behaviour in children and adolescence. In line with this perspective, this dissertation examined how aggressive and rule-breaking (externalizing) behaviours develop between childhood and adole...
Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.
Consistent with social neuroscience perspectives on adolescent development, previous cross-sectional research has found diverging mean age-related trends for sensation seeking and impulsivity during adolescence. The present study uses longitudinal data on 7,640 youth from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth Children and Young Adults, a…
van Leeuwen, Andrea Prince; Creemers, Hanneke E.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Ormel, Johan; van Oort, Floor; Huizink, Anja C.
AimsTo examine whether early onset of tobacco or alcohol use, and continued use of tobacco or alcohol in early adolescence, are related to a higher likelihood of developing a cannabis use disorder during adolescence. Design and settingData were used from four consecutive assessment waves of the TRac
Parra, Gilbert R.; Olsen, James P.; Buckholdt, Kelly E.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Davis, Genevieve L.
We conducted a pilot study of the initial development of a self-report measure assessing how adolescents react when parents respond in a helpful manner to their sad emotional experiences. Participants were late adolescents (ages 18-20) attending a large, racially diverse urban university (N = 86; 75% women; 46% racial/ethnic minority). A broad…
Friedel, S; Whittle, S L; Vijayakumar, N; Simmons, J G; Byrne, M L; Schwartz, O S; Allen, N B
Adolescence is a critical period of development, in which the increasing social and cognitive demands of independence need to be met by enhanced self-regulatory abilities. The cultivation of mindfulness has been associated with improved self-regulation in adult populations, and it is theorized that one neurodevelopmental mechanism that supports this capacity is the development of the prefrontal cortex. The current study examined the neurodevelopmental mechanisms associated with dispositional mindfulness in adolescence. Using a longitudinal within-persons design, 82 participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessments at approximately ages 16 and 19, and also completed self-reported measurements of mindfulness at age 19. It was hypothesized that adolescents who demonstrated greater thinning of frontal cortical regions between the age of 16 and 19 would exhibit higher dispositional mindfulness levels at age 19. Results indicated that, contrary to predictions, adolescents with higher levels of mindfulness demonstrated less thinning in the left anterior insula. By contrast, higher IQ was associated with greater thinning of the right caudal middle frontal and right superior frontal regions. The involvement of insula development in mindfulness is consistent with a direct role for this structure in managing self-regulation, and in doing so concords with recent models of self-referential interoceptive awareness. PMID:26209810
Full Text Available Adolescence is a critical period of development, in which the increasing social and cognitive demands of independence need to be met by enhanced self-regulatory abilities. The cultivation of mindfulness has been associated with improved self-regulation in adult populations, and it is theorized that one neurodevelopmental mechanism that supports this capacity is the development of the prefrontal cortex. The current study examined the neurodevelopmental mechanisms associated with dispositional mindfulness in adolescence. Using a longitudinal within-persons design, 82 participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI assessments at approximately ages 16 and 19, and also completed self-reported measurements of mindfulness at age 19. It was hypothesized that adolescents who demonstrated greater thinning of frontal cortical regions between the age of 16 and 19 would exhibit higher dispositional mindfulness levels at age 19. Results indicated that, contrary to predictions, adolescents with higher levels of mindfulness demonstrated less thinning in the left anterior insula. By contrast, higher IQ was associated with greater thinning of the right caudal middle frontal and right superior frontal regions. The involvement of insula development in mindfulness is consistent with a direct role for this structure in managing self-regulation, and in doing so concords with recent models of self-referential interoceptive awareness.
Daniel T.L. Shek
Full Text Available This paper outlines the proposal for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a positive youth development program that attempts to promote the mental health of stressful Chinese adolescents using principles of Problem Solving Therapy (PST. There are two general aims of PST: to help clients identify life difficulties and resolve them, as well as to teach them skills on how to deal with future problems. The proposed project will utilize the principles of PST as the guiding framework to run two mental health promotion courses for adolescents who are experiencing disturbing stressful responses and students who want to improve their stress management style. Both objective and subjective outcome evaluation strategies will be carried out to assess the effectiveness of the intervention to promote the psychological well-being in adolescents who are experiencing stress. A related sample proposal is described that can give social workers some insight on how to prepare a proposal for developing the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs.
Barrett, Barbara; Mosweu, Iris; Jones, Catherine Rg; Charman, Tony; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Happé, Francesca; Byford, Sarah
Autism spectrum disorder is a complex condition that requires specialised care. Knowledge of the costs of autism spectrum disorder, especially in comparison with other conditions, may be useful to galvanise policymakers and leverage investment in education and intervention to mitigate aspects of autism spectrum disorder that negatively impact individuals with the disorder and their families. This article describes the services and associated costs for four groups of individuals: adolescents with autistic disorder, adolescents with other autism spectrum disorders, adolescents with other special educational needs and typically developing adolescents using data from a large, well-characterised cohort assessed as part of the UK Special Needs and Autism Project at the age of 12 years. Average total costs per participant over 6 months were highest in the autistic disorder group (£11,029), followed by the special educational needs group (£9268), the broader autism spectrum disorder group (£8968) and the typically developing group (£2954). Specialised day or residential schooling accounted for the vast majority of costs. In regression analysis, lower age and lower adaptive functioning were associated with higher costs in the groups with an autism spectrum disorder. Sex, ethnicity, number of International Classification of Diseases (10th revision) symptoms, autism spectrum disorder symptom scores and levels of mental health difficulties were not associated with cost. PMID:24913778
Ching, Leong Yin, Ed.; And Others
Attended by participants from 19 nations, this conference focused on six topics related to child and adolescent development. Major topics discussed included child development and related issues, curriculum and the adolescent, the adolescent and technological changes, and the preparation of youth for adulthood. Symposia focusing on child…
Betz, Cecily L; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Faulkner, Melissa Spezia; Feeg, Veronica D; Greenberg, Cindy Smith; Krajicek, Marilyn J; Lipman, Terri H; Lobo, Marie L; Nehring, Wendy M; Craft-Rosenberg, Martha; Vessey, Judith A
This article details the process used to develop the revision of the original Guidelines that resulted in the development of the 2014 Health Care Quality and Outcomes Guidelines for Nursing of Children, Adolescents, and Families. Members of the 2014 Guidelines Revision Task Force conducted an extensive process of revision, which included the input and approval of 16 pediatric and child health nursing and affiliated organizational endorsements. The revised Guidelines were presented to and endorsed by the American Academy of Nursing Board. These Guidelines are designed for use by pediatric and child health nurses who work in a range of health care and community-based settings. The Guidelines are proposed to be used as a framework for nurse-directed services and intervention development and testing, as a model for undergraduate and graduate pediatric and child health nursing program curriculum development, and as the theoretical basis for nursing investigations on the care of children, adolescents, and families. PMID:26700164
Full Text Available Introduction. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS in children and adolescents is a great concern of the modern society. Objective. Our aim was to determine the influence of previously investigated, but also and potentially novel risk factors for the development of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. Methods. Observational case-control clinical study was conducted involving children and adolescents with obesity/metabolic syndrome, treated on inpatient basis from January 2008 to January 2012 at the Pediatric Clinic of the Clinical Centre Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia. The group of “cases” (n=28 included patients aged 10-16 years with the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria, while the control group included twice as many obese patients (n=56 matched to the compared group. Results. Presence of maternal gestational diabetes (ORadjusted: 39.426; 95% CI: 1.822-853.271; p=0.019, and/or lack of breastfeeding in the first six months of life (ORadjusted: 0.079; 95% CI: 0.009-0.716; p=0.024 were significant predictors for developing MetS. Also, microalbuminuria is associated with MetS in obese children and adolescents (ORadjusted: 1.686; 95% CI: 1.188-2.393; p=0.003. Conclusion. Presence of maternal gestational diabetes and/or lack of infant breastfeeding are considered as relevant factors that may contribute to the increased risk of developing MetS syndrome, while microalbuminuria is frequently associated with MetS in obese children and adolescents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175007
Sophie Jane Taylor; Lynne Ann Barker; Lisa eHeavey; Sue eMcHale
Our earlier work suggests that executive functions and social cognition show protracted development into late adolescence and early adulthood (Taylor, Barker, Heavey and McHale, 2013). However, it remains unknown whether these functions develop linearly or non-linearly corresponding to dynamic changes to white matter density at these age ranges. Executive functions are particularly in demand during the transition to independence and autonomy associated with this age range (Ahmed and Miller, 2...
Faeh, D; Viswanathan, B; Chiolero, A; Warren, W.; Bovet, P.
BACKGROUND: Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors") are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administered que...
Sohrbeck-Nøhr, Oline; Kristensen, Jens; Boyle, Eleanor;
BackgroundThere is some evidence that indicates generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is a risk factor for pain persistence and recurrence in adolescence. However, how early pain develops and whether GJH without pain in childhood is a risk factor for pain development in adolescence is undetermined....... The aims for this study were to investigate the association between GJH and development of joint pain and to investigate the current GJH status and physical function in Danish adolescents.MethodsThis was a longitudinal cohort study nested within the Copenhagen Hypermobility Cohort. All children (n...
Ragsdale, Kathleen; Bersamin, Melina M; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Kerrick, Madeleine R; Grube, Joel W
To expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents' exposure to four socializing agents--mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content--and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: social benefit, pleasure, social risk, and health risk. Data are from Waves 2 and 3 of a three-wave annual longitudinal study conducted among California adolescents, the majority of whom were not sexually active (N = 914, 84%). Structural equation models were conducted to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the socializing agents and the sexual expectancies. Cross-sectional results indicate associations between peer sexual communication and social benefit, pleasure, and social risk expectancies. A positive association was found between exposure to music videos and social benefit expectancies, and a negative association was found between exposure to music videos and health risk expectancies. Longitudinal results suggest that communication with peers positively predicted pleasure expectancies and negatively predicted social risk expectancies. No other socializing agents were associated with any sexual expectancies. An invariance test found that significant correlations were similar across the different age groups. Results suggest that efforts to support positive sexual decision making among non-sexually active adolescents should target peer sexual communication. PMID:23631710
Amiri, Parisa; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Jalali-Farahani, Sara; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Hooman, Haidar Ali; Parvin, Parnian; Ghasemi, Mohammadreza
Background: The rising prevalence of childhood obesity is a major health problem worldwide. Hence, there is a growing need for health professionals to become capable of assessing the factors that determine lifestyle in a culturally relevant manner. Objectives: This study aimed to develop and assess a questionnaire for measuring determinants of obesity-related behaviors in Tehranian adolescents. Patients and Methods: Based on the results of a qualitative study and an extensive literature review, the 44-item “Inventory of determinants of obesity-related behaviors in adolescents (IDOBA)” with eight subscales was developed: 1) unhealthy nutrition and physical inactivity; 2) stress-related eating; 3) perceived inability; 4) perceived lack of threat; 5) perceived priority of educational achievement; 6) perceived acceptability; 7) motivation loss; and 8) lack of support. Validity of IDOBA was assessed, utilizing face, content, and construct validity methods. To confirm face validity, ten overweight/obese adolescents completed the questionnaire. To calculate content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI), a different panel of ten experts commented independently on the necessity, relevance, clarity, and simplicity of each item. To assess construct validity using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), a total of 478 adolescents (57.7% male) aged 13 to 18 years, who were recruited from schools, participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test whether the data fit the hypothesized measurement model that was derived from EFA. Test-retest and internal consistency methods were used to assess reliability of the IDOBA scale. Results: All items were perceived as relevant and comprehendible by adolescents. Content validity was confirmed by the panel of experts. The internal consistency, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.60 for eight subscales. No ceiling effects were observed
Full Text Available Background The rising prevalence of childhood obesity is a major health problem worldwide. Hence, there is a growing need for health professionals to become capable of assessing the factors that determine lifestyle in a culturally relevant manner. Objectives This study aimed to develop and assess a questionnaire for measuring determinants of obesity-related behaviors in Tehranian adolescents. Patients and Methods Based on the results of a qualitative study and an extensive literature review, the 44-item “Inventory of determinants of obesity-related behaviors in adolescents (IDOBA” with eight subscales was developed: 1 unhealthy nutrition and physical inactivity; 2 stress-related eating; 3 perceived inability; 4 perceived lack of threat; 5 perceived priority of educational achievement; 6 perceived acceptability; 7 motivation loss; and 8 lack of support. Validity of IDOBA was assessed, utilizing face, content, and construct validity methods. To confirm face validity, ten overweight/obese adolescents completed the questionnaire. To calculate content validity ratio (CVR and content validity index (CVI, a different panel of ten experts commented independently on the necessity, relevance, clarity, and simplicity of each item. To assess construct validity using exploratory factor analysis (EFA, a total of 478 adolescents (57.7% male aged 13 to 18 years, who were recruited from schools, participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test whether the data fit the hypothesized measurement model that was derived from EFA. Test-retest and internal consistency methods were used to assess reliability of the IDOBA scale. Results All items were perceived as relevant and comprehendible by adolescents. Content validity was confirmed by the panel of experts. The internal consistency, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.60 for eight subscales. No ceiling effects were observed
The author ascertains that healthy personality development faces increasingly serious obstacles and consequently the number of children in need of mental healthcare is on the rise. Child and adolescent psychiatry has drawn increasing appreciation, however, it is only formal and deficient in Hungary today and cannot assure optimal mental care according to the principles of evidence-based medicine. The author emphasizes that 75% of the first manifestation of the psychiatric disorders occurs during adolescence and young adulthood. In spite of legal regulation, several deficiencies hinder the development of children into healthy adults. The author analyses the most important obstacles in the development of child and adolescent Psychiatry. The author emphasizes the role of keypersons, describes the situation of and problems faced by Hungarian child psychiatric care. The author lists in detail the most important contradictions, deficiencies and obstacles and outlines suggestions for resolving the present crisis. The author emphasizes (1) the responsibility of institutions, and people dealing with society and children, and the disinterest of competent authorities. (2) The somatic, mental, cultural and spiritual ignorance/illiteracy among parents, teachers, healthcare workers, and the general population partly related to crises among the pedagogues. (3) The lack of holistic approach to treatment of children suffering from mental disorder. (4) The importance and the lack of knowledge concerning central nervous system function in child psychiatry. (5) Application of evidence-based medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry based on understanding the relationship between central nervous system alterations and mental functions. (6) Respecting keypersons' competence limits. (7) Immediate development of inpatient and outpatient child and adolescent psychiatry in the whole country. (8) Reform of child psychiatry board exam. (9) Development of currently missing textbooks and
Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Torres-Dávila, Paloma; Spirito, Anthony; Polanco, Norka; Bernal, Guillermo
Adolescents in Puerto Rico are at an increased risk for suicide attempts, though evidence-based treatments specifically for this group have not been tested. The current study was designed to develop and pilot test a culturally sensitive, manualized outpatient treatment for Puerto Rican adolescents who have experienced a suicidal crisis. The study was divided into phases. Phase 1 consisted of developing a socio-cognitive behavioral treatment for suicidal behavior. Phase 2 tested the treatment protocol in an open trial with 11 (6 male and 5 female) Puerto Rican adolescents. Active treatment had an approximate duration of 3-6 months. An initial assessment, process measures, and posttreatment assessment were completed with each participant to measure treatment feasibility as well as suicidality, symptoms, and risk factors. Participants were very satisfied with treatment and reported relevant clinical benefits. The retention rate was 73% (8 out of 11). For those who completed the treatment protocol, the goal of reducing further suicide risk was achieved; 2 showed reliable clinical changes in suicidal ideation, while 6 maintained low levels during treatment. All treatment completers had either a partial or total remission of their pretreatment diagnosis and half had reliable improvements in at least 1 risk factor. A theory-driven treatment protocol was developed according to patient's needs, but further research is needed to continue its development and to explore its efficacy. PMID:26928136
Lenkiewicz, Kamila; Srebnicki, Tomasz; Bryńska, Anita
Until the end of the nineties last century personality disorders could not be diagnosed before the age of eighteen. Nevertheless, the results of studies published in the last decade have revealed that personality disorders can be observed in children and adolescents and that personality disorders diagnosed in adult patients had been present as early as in childhood. The knowledge of possible mechanisms shaping personality disorders in childhood is unsatisfactory and needs to be expanded. Developmental psychology explains the development of abnormal personality through inappropriate attachment patterns and abnormal transitions between developmental phases. Genetic and temperamental factors are also important in the aetiology of personality disorders as well as early maladaptive schemas resulting from personal experiences and interactions with others. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge on the mechanisms shaping the development of personality and personality disorders in childhood and adolescence. PMID:27556119
Birk Irner, Tina; Teasdale, Thomas William; Nielsen, Tine;
The aim of this article is to investigate the long-term developmental consequences of being born to a substance-using mother, focusing on cognitive functions, attention, emotional and social development. The longitudinal sample comprised 48 adolescents aged 12–16 at the time of follow-up assessme...... of maternal substance use appear to be very substantial while the emotional and social consequences do not. The results suggest serious negative effects of substance exposure in utero on attention and cognitive functioning in general.......The aim of this article is to investigate the long-term developmental consequences of being born to a substance-using mother, focusing on cognitive functions, attention, emotional and social development. The longitudinal sample comprised 48 adolescents aged 12–16 at the time of follow...
Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L
This paper examines the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches to study the impact of economic disadvantage on family processes and adolescent development. Quantitative research has the merits of objectivity, good predictive and explanatory power, parsimony, precision and sophistication of analysis. Qualitative research, in contrast, provides a detailed, holistic, in-depth understanding of social reality and allows illumination of new insights. With the pragmatic considerations of methodological appropriateness, design flexibility, and situational responsiveness in responding to the research inquiry, a mixed methods approach could be a possibility of integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches and offers an alternative strategy to study the impact of economic disadvantage on family processes and adolescent development. PMID:21870673
Dalum, Peter; Schaalma, Herman; Kok, Gerjo
The objective of this project was to develop a theory- and evidence-based adolescent smoking cessation intervention using both new and existing materials. We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programmes. Based on a needs assessment, we identified important and changeable determinants of cessation behaviour, specified change objectives for the intervention programme, selected theoretical change methods for accomplishing intervention objectives and finally op...
The basic elements of autobiographical or episodic memory are established in early childhood, although the exact age at which memories gain episodic status is still under contention. The self-memory system proposed that adults use “lifetime periods” to group episodic memories together into chapters of the life story – an evolving and internalized account of significant life events that are self-defining. Two studies examined at what point in development children or adolescents begin to take a...
Shruti eBaijal; Amishi eJha; Anastasia eKiyonaga; Richa eSingh; Narayanan eSrinivasan
We investigate if concentrative meditation training (CMT) offered during adolescent development benefits subsystems of attention using a quasi-experimental design. Attentional alerting, orienting, and conflict monitoring were examined using the Attention Network Test (ANT) in 13, 14, and 15 yo children who received CMT as part of their school curriculum (CMT Group: N=79) vs. those who received no such training (Control Group: N=76). Alerting and conflict monitoring, but not orienting, differ...
Baijal, Shruti; Jha, Amishi P.; Kiyonaga, Anastasia; Singh, Richa; Srinivasan, Narayanan
We investigate if concentrative meditation training (CMT) offered during adolescent development benefits subsystems of attention using a quasi-experimental design. Attentional alerting, orienting, and conflict monitoring were examined using the Attention Network Test (ANT) in 13–15 year old children who received CMT as part of their school curriculum (CMT group: N = 79) vs. those who received no such training (control group: N = 76). Alerting and conflict monitoring, but not orienting, differ...
Daniloski, Kimberly M
The following research integrated the Theory of Planned Behavior with variables from the consumer socialization and parenting literatures to explore parental impact on adolescent food decision-making. Three specific types of parenting practices (expectation, monitoring, and inducement/enforcement behaviors), parenting style, and family communication style were investigated. A multi-method approach was taken to develop and test the integrated model. Study 1 used interviews to identify food-rel...
Verónica-Marina Guillén; Miguel-Ángel Verdugo; Benito Arias; Eva Vicente
This paper focuses on the development of a scale for assessing support needs of children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities. This tool adheres to the most recent conception of intellectual disabilities and has been translated into Spanish following the international proposal initiated by the American Association of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD). The mam focus of this research is to analyze the psychometric characteristics of this scale within the Spanish cont...
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Cherlin, Andrew J.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Fomby, Paula; Ribar, David C.; Coley, Rebekah Levine
We draw upon the 3-wave longitudinal dataset called Welfare Children and Families: A Three-City Study to examine the long-term implications for adolescents and young adults (N=783) of mothers’ welfare receipt and labor force participation from 1999 to 2005. In general, changes in mothers’ work and welfare patterns were not associated with deterioration or improvement in youth development (ages 16 to 20 years at wave 3). The few significant associations suggested that youth whose mothers incre...
Dodge, Kenneth A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Malone, Patrick S
A dynamic cascade model of development of serious adolescent violence was proposed and tested through prospective inquiry with 754 children (50% male; 43% African American) from 27 schools at 4 geographic sites followed annually from kindergarten through grade 11 (ages 5 through 18). Self, parent, teacher, peer, observer, and administrative reports provided data. Partial least squares (PLS) analyses revealed a cascade of prediction and mediation: An early social context of disadvantage predic...
Evenboer, Klaasje Elisabeth
Characteristics of care for youth with behavioural and emotional problems are of growing interest. Statements about the effectiveness of care are hard to make, because of a lack of standardized instruments for recording and classifying care. The aim of this study was to partly open the black box of care and treatment provided to children and adolescents with behavioural and emotional problems by developing, testing and applying a Taxonomy of care for Youth (TOCFY). This study was conducted wi...
Fontaine, Reid G.; Yang, Chong Ming; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; BATES, JOHN E.
Using longitudinal data on 585 youths (48% female; 17% African American; 2% other ethnic minority), we examined the development of social response evaluation and decision (RED) across childhood (Study 1; kindergarten-Grade 3) and adolescence (Study 2; Grades 8 and 11). Participants completed hypothetical-vignette-based RED assessments, and their antisocial behaviors were measured by multiple raters. Structural equation modeling and linear growth analyses indicated that children differentiate ...
Riley, Theo A.
A predicted association between family relations and cognitive development and the emergence of adolescent egocentrism was explored in this study. A sample of seventh grade boys (n=131) and girls (n=120) completed Elkind and Bowen's Imaginary Audience Scale (a measure of egocentrism) and selected items from Heilbrun's Parent-Child Interaction Rating Scale and Schaefer's Parent-Behavior Inventory. A modified version of Lawson's Classroom Test of Formal Operations was used to measure cognitive ...
Bryan, Angela; Kagee, Ashraf; Broaddus, Michelle R
We developed and tested models of intentions and behavior among adolescents from Cape Town, South Africa. Data from 261 participants who completed an initial measure of attitudes, beliefs, and prior behavior were used to develop a model of intentions to use condoms based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and additional constructs found to be important in previous research with adolescents. Of the initial sample, 227 (87%) completed a behavioral follow-up 4 months later, and approximately one-third of those (n=72; 44 boys and 30 girls) reported having had sex in the prior 4 months. Data from this smaller sample were used to develop a model of condom use behavior based on intentions (as per the TPB) and the additional sub-population relevant constructs. Analyses generally supported the validity of the TPB in this context for predicting intentions and behavior. HIV knowledge and positive outlook (self-esteem and future optimism) were significantly related to TPB predictors of intentions. Intentions, acceptance of sexuality, and gender were significant predictors of behavior. Implications for the status of the TPB and the design of interventions for South African adolescents are discussed. PMID:16636891
Boskey, Elizabeth R.
Many sexuality educators and professionals, even those involved in program development and planning, are not aware of the biological and social factors involved in gender identity development in youth. As such, this topic is often not as well addressed in whole life educational curricula as better understood topics, such as reproductive anatomy,…
Crites, John O.
The research summarized in this report was stimulated by the need for an objective, standardized measure of vocational maturity which would provide an empirical referrent for the conceptual terms of vocational development. The instrument constructed for this purpose is the Vocational Development Inventory (VDI), consisting of the Competence Test…
Crouter, Ann C.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Osgood, D. Wayne
The development of gender attitudes in 402 youth (201 firstborn and 201 secondborn siblings) in 201 European American families was examined using data collected on seven occasions across 9 years. Pooling across siblings and using multilevel modeling, we examined gender attitude development from ages 7 to 19. Consistent with an ecological…
Stucky, Brian D.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Vaughan, Christine A.; Tucker, Joan S.; Butler, Jennifer
The 5-factor client-report Dimensions of Change in Therapeutic Communities Treatment Instrument-Adolescent (DCI-A) was developed to assess adolescent substance abuse treatment process in the therapeutic community (TC). The goal of this study was to use bifactor modeling to derive a unidimensional DCI-A short-form (DCI-A-SF) that would represent content from the original DCI-A factors. Data are from 442 adolescents receiving treatment at one of seven residential TC programs. Bifactor analyses ...
Veček, Andrea; Vidović, Vesna; Miličić, Jasna; Špoljar-Vržina, Sanja; Veček, Nenad; Arch-Veček, Branka
In this study we investigate whether there are differences between adolescents who grow up in single-parent families and those who grow up in nucleus families. We have decided that there are no differences in the physical development between the adolescents who are growing up in single parent families and those growing up in nucleus families. There is no difference in the self-concept between these two groups, except in the ethical and moral self-image of adolescents living with one parent. A...
Harmsen, Lotte; Ulrik, Charlotte S; Porsbjerg, Celeste;
BACKGROUND: Long-term longitudinal studies of lung function from childhood to adulthood are important in linking our understanding of childhood risk factors to adult disease. Airway hyperresponsiveness has been shown to independently affect lung function growth in studies of adolescence. The...... objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that airway hyperresponsiveness has an independent deleterious effect on lung function in adolescence that extends into adulthood. METHODS: A random population sample (n = 983) aged 7-17 from Copenhagen was followed longitudinally for 20 years with four...... maximal attained level of lung function at age 18, which persisted throughout the follow-up until the last examination at age 27-37 years. CONCLUSION: Airway hyperresponsiveness has an independent deleterious effect on lung function development from 7 to 37 years resulting in a lower maximal attained lung...
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the development of a scale for assessing support needs of children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities. This tool adheres to the most recent conception of intellectual disabilities and has been translated into Spanish following the international proposal initiated by the American Association of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD. The mam focus of this research is to analyze the psychometric characteristics of this scale within the Spanish context. So far, this tool has been administered to a pilot sample of 143 people (both children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities and has been analyzed according to the framework of Item Response Theory (IRT, specifically taking into account the assumptions of the Rating Scale Model (RSM. The results show preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the scale, as well as the adequate adjustment of the data to the proposed model.
Habermas, Tilmann; de Silveira, Cybèle
Extending the study of autobiographical narratives to entire life narratives, we tested the emergence of globally coherent life narratives in adolescence, as hypothesized by McAdams (1985). Participants were 102 children and young adults (ages 8, 12, 16, and 20 years) who narrated their lives twice. Between narrations, half of each age group participated in tasks designed to train autobiographical reasoning; the other half participated in control tasks. Coherence was measured by the relative frequency of local temporal, causal, and thematic linguistic indicators identified qualitatively at the level of propositions, as well as by quantitative global rating scales measuring the impressions of the listeners. Coherence increased across the age span. Overall, repeated narrating and training did not increase coherence. Crystallized and fluid intelligence, number of negative life events, and frequency of biographical practices and confiding in others did not contribute substantially to the prediction of coherence beyond age. Results are interpreted in the context of adolescent identity development. PMID:18473638
Nora C. Vetter
Full Text Available Appropriate reactions toward emotional stimuli depend on the distribution of prefrontal attentional resources. In mid-adolescence, prefrontal top-down control systems are less engaged, while subcortical bottom-up emotional systems are more engaged. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to follow the neural development of attentional distribution, i.e. attending versus ignoring emotional stimuli, in adolescence. 144 healthy adolescents were studied longitudinally at age 14 and 16 while performing a perceptual discrimination task. Participants viewed two pairs of stimuli – one emotional, one abstract – and reported on one pair whether the items were the same or different, while ignoring the other pair. Hence, two experimental conditions were created: “attending emotion/ignoring abstract” and “ignoring emotion/attending abstract”. Emotional valence varied between negative, positive, and neutral. Across conditions, reaction times and error rates decreased and activation in the anterior cingulate and inferior frontal gyrus increased from age 14 to 16. In contrast, subcortical regions showed no developmental effect. Activation of the anterior insula increased across ages for attending positive and ignoring negative emotions. Results suggest an ongoing development of prefrontal top-down resources elicited by emotional attention from age 14 to 16 while activity of subcortical regions representing bottom-up processing remains stable.
Fatusi, Adesegun O.; Hindin, Michelle J.
Adolescence is a period of transition, marked by physical, psychological, and cognitive changes underpin by biological factors. Today's generation of young people--the largest in history--is approaching adulthood in a world vastly different from previous generations; AIDS, globalisation, urbanisation, electronic communication, migration, and…
Adolescents are admitted to psychiatric wards presenting with psychiatric problems which are essentially secondary to problematic interpersonal relationships. Successful interpersonal relationships however depend on effective interpersonal communication. Therefore the aim of research on adolescent interpersonal communication was to explore and describe the interpersonal communication patterns of adolescents and to develop an interpersonal communication skills approach to facilitate adolescent...
A very significant problem in society is adolescent rape victimization and the growing number of adolescent perpetrators. This paper examines adolescent attitudes about rape in order to develop curricular materials. It is found that adolescents exhibit conservative attitudes about gender roles, general rape myths, and victim issues. (Author)
O'Connor, T G; Hetherington, E M; Reiss, D
The primary goal of this research is to increase the goodness-of-fit between the theoretical tenets of family systems theory and quantitative methods used to test systems hypotheses. A family systems perspective is applied to two specific research questions concerning family influences on adolescent development: To what extent are familial risk and protective factors for psychopathology and competence shared or not shared by siblings and are different family relationship patterns associated with optimal adolescent adjustment in nondivorced and remarried families? Multirater and multimethod data from a national sample of 516 nondivorced and remarried families from the Nonshared Environment and Adolescent Development (NEAD) project were examined using a combination of cluster, factor, and regression analyses. Results indicated that the effects of an individual relationship on adolescent adjustment is moderated by the larger network of relationships in which it is embedded. Evidence for nonshared familial processes in predicting adolescent psychopathology was also found but only in a subset of families, and the mechanisms of influence were neither main effects nor linear, as has been assumed by research to date. Results are discussed in light of family systems models of relationship influence on development. These results illustrate how family systems theory provides a specific example of contextualism as regards the development of psychopathology in adolescence. PMID:9635228
Miranda Lucia Ritterman Weintraub; Fernald, Lia C.H.; Nancy eAdler; Stefano eBertozzi; Leonard eSyme
Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent perceived social mobility. Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades...
Problem Statement: In our modern society, a burst of interest to the regularities of "children and parents" relations and development of personality in the context of a family has acquired. Research Questions: The family plays the main role in the formation of moral principles of a child. Purpose of the Study: The problem of relations of…
Thomas, Laura A.; De Bellis, Michael D.; Graham, Reiko; Labar, Kevin S.
The ability to interpret emotions in facial expressions is crucial for social functioning across the lifespan. Facial expression recognition develops rapidly during infancy and improves with age during the preschool years. However, the developmental trajectory from late childhood to adulthood is less clear. We tested older children, adolescents…
J.S. Lemmens; P.M. Valkenburg; J. Peter
The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to measure computer and videogame addiction. Inspired by earlier theories and research on game addiction, we created 21 items to measure seven underlying criteria (i.e., salience, tolerance, mood modification, relapse, withdrawal, conflict, a
Nishina, Adrienne; Ammon, Natalie Y.; Bellmore, Amy D.; Graham, Sandra
The present study examined the association between body dissatisfaction and adjustment, and the role physical development plays in this association, in an ethnically diverse sample of over 1100 urban, ninth grade boys and girls (M age = 14). More similarities than differences were found across ethnic groups: Caucasian, African American, Latino,…
Diamond, Lisa M.
Interviewed 16- to 23-year-old non-heterosexual women regarding development of their sexual orientation. Found that a majority failed to report at least one of following: childhood sexual orientation indicators, stability in same-sex attractions, or awareness of same-sex attractions prior to conscious sexual questioning. Lesbians reported greater…
peer-reviewed How do Perceived Parental Behaviours Influence the Career Development of Adolescents in Irish Schools! A Pilot Study, aimed to establish if the behaviours of parents affect how adolescents view their career decisions, choices and confidence in carryout career related tasks. The project was conducted within the positivist paradigm, using quantitative research strategies. This involved using a combination of tried and tested research implements, including the Car...
Pellerone M; Tolini G; Polopoli C
Monica Pellerone, Giacomo Tolini, Caterina Polopoli Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, Italy Background: Literature has demonstrated the adaptive function of identity development and parenting toward manifestation of problem behaviors in adolescence. These dimensions act on both internalizing and externalizing symptoms.Methods: The objective is to investigate the relationship between identity status, parenting, and adolescent problems, which m...
Full Text Available This study explores the development of theory of mind, operationalized as recursive thinking ability, from adolescence to early adulthood (N = 110; young adolescents = 47; adolescents = 43; young adults = 20. The construct of theory of mind has been operationalized in two different ways: as the ability to recognize the correct mental state of a character, and as the ability to attribute the correct mental state in order to predict the character’s behaviour. The Imposing Memory Task, with five recursive thinking levels, and a third-order false-belief task with three recursive thinking levels (devised for this study have been used. The relationship among working memory, executive functions, and linguistic skills are also analysed. Results show that subjects exhibit less understanding of elevated recursive thinking levels (third, fourth, and fifth compared to the first and second levels. Working memory is correlated with total recursive thinking, whereas performance on the linguistic comprehension task is related to third level recursive thinking in both theory of mind tasks. An effect of age on third-order false-belief task performance was also found. A key finding of the present study is that the third-order false-belief task shows significant age differences in the application of recursive thinking that involves the prediction of others’ behaviour. In contrast, such an age effect is not observed in the Imposing Memory Task. These results may support the extension of the investigation of the third order false belief after childhood.
Platje, E; Vermeiren, R R J M; Raine, A; Doreleijers, T A H; Keijsers, L G M T; Branje, S J T; Popma, A; van Lier, P A C; Koot, H M; Meeus, W H J; Jansen, L M C
It is increasingly recognized that in order to understand the complex phenomenon of antisocial behavior, interrelations between biological and social risk factors should be taken into account. In the current study, this biosocial approach was applied to examine the mediating role of deviant peers in longitudinal associations linking the level of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity to aggression and rule-breaking. Participants were 425 boys and girls from the general population, who were assessed yearly at ages 15, 16, and 17. As a measure of HPA axis activity, cortisol was assessed at awakening, 30, and 60 min later (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). Participants, as well as their best friend, reported on their own aggressive and rule-breaking behavior, thereby allowing to assess bidirectional influences within friendships. Aggression was only predicted by a decreased cortisol level at awakening, and not by aggressive behavior of their friend. Decreased levels of cortisol at awakening predicted adolescents' rule-breaking, which subsequently predicted increased rule-breaking of their best friend. The latter was only found for adolescents who changed friends, as compared to adolescents with the same friend in every year. Gender differences were not found. These findings suggest that interrelations between biological and social risk factors are different for the development of aggression versus rule-breaking. Furthermore, decreased levels of HPA axis activity may represent a susceptibility to selecting deviant peers. PMID:23927935
Valle, Annalisa; Massaro, Davide; Castelli, Ilaria; Marchetti, Antonella
This study explores the development of theory of mind, operationalized as recursive thinking ability, from adolescence to early adulthood (N = 110; young adolescents = 47; adolescents = 43; young adults = 20). The construct of theory of mind has been operationalized in two different ways: as the ability to recognize the correct mental state of a character, and as the ability to attribute the correct mental state in order to predict the character’s behaviour. The Imposing Memory Task, with five recursive thinking levels, and a third-order false-belief task with three recursive thinking levels (devised for this study) have been used. The relationship among working memory, executive functions, and linguistic skills are also analysed. Results show that subjects exhibit less understanding of elevated recursive thinking levels (third, fourth, and fifth) compared to the first and second levels. Working memory is correlated with total recursive thinking, whereas performance on the linguistic comprehension task is related to third level recursive thinking in both theory of mind tasks. An effect of age on third-order false-belief task performance was also found. A key finding of the present study is that the third-order false-belief task shows significant age differences in the application of recursive thinking that involves the prediction of others’ behaviour. In contrast, such an age effect is not observed in the Imposing Memory Task. These results may support the extension of the investigation of the third order false belief after childhood.
Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu; Fu, Xiao
Despite the fact that different Chinese communities have already undergone industrialization and urbanization, Confucian virtues are still regarded as developmental ideals in Chinese culture. Unfortunately, while Confucian virtues are commonly discussed under Chinese philosophies, they are rarely examined in the context of developmental research. In this paper, several key Confucian virtues are discussed, including loyalty ("zhong"), filial piety ("xiao"), benevolence ("ren"), affection ("ai"), trustworthiness ("xin"), righteousness ("yi"), harmony ("he"), peace ("ping"), propriety ("li"), wisdom ("zhi"), integrity ("lian") and shame ("chi"). These Chinese traditional virtues are also linked to the concepts of character strengths and positive youth development constructs highlighted in Western culture. It is argued that Confucian virtues provide an indigenous conceptual framework to understand character strengths and positive youth development in Chinese culture. Furthermore, when service leadership is considered in Chinese contexts, these virtues should be regarded as important cornerstones. PMID:23612532
Taymoori, Parvaneh; Fallahi, Arezoo; Berry, Tanya
Abstract. Preventable risk factors for oral health diseases are linked to related self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviors. The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure oral self-care, based on the Transtheoretical model and to report on the psychometric testing of the instrument. The findings from qualitative research from Sanandaj, Iran, was used to generate the initial items. Construct validity was tested using principal component analysis to extract factors. Results: Fa...
R Alan Harris; Rajesh Shah; Hollister, Emily B.; Rune Rose Tronstad; Nils Hovdenak; Reka Szigeti; James Versalovic; Richard Kellermayer
Epigenetic and microbiome changes during pediatric development have been implicated as important elements in the developmental origins of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), which are linked to early onset colorectal cancer (CRC). Colonic mucosal samples from 22 control children between 3.5 and 17.5 years of age were studied by Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips and, in 10 cases, by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gen...
R. Alan Harris
Full Text Available Epigenetic and microbiome changes during pediatric development have been implicated as important elements in the developmental origins of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs including Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC, which are linked to early onset colorectal cancer (CRC. Colonic mucosal samples from 22 control children between 3.5 and 17.5 years of age were studied by Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips and, in 10 cases, by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Intercalating age-specific DNA methylation and microbiome changes were identified, which may have significant translational relevance in the developmental origins of IBD and CRC.
Baranov, A A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Il'in, A G
The article presents submitted data of population dynamics of adolescent (10-17 years old) in Russian Federation over the period of 1995-2012 In the presence of reduction by 8.2 million of adolescent population the top-priority task of adolescent health and life maintenance was declared. The article deals with physical growth and development statistics of schoolchildren of 15-19 years old: as opposed to peers of 80-es increase of length, body weight and circumference of chest as well as reduction of muscle strength is observed. On the ground of the data analysis of authoritative statistical reporting the increase of morbidity rate by factor of 1.4 was detected over the last 10 years. It has been established that the true morbidity level is above the authoritative by the factor of 1.5. The number of adolescent at the age of 10-15 referred to 1st and 2nd health groups decreased almost on 20%, at the same time pathological processes become chronic. The reproductive and mental health of adolescent at the age of 15-17 years was analyzed over the last 10 years. The rate of mental health disorders in adolescent living in country is more than in the peers living in cities by the factor of 1.2-1.4. The rate of period disorders, salpingitis and oothecitis increased in girls under 10 years and ones at the age of 15-17. The rate and structure of child disability was analyzed. It was fixed that leading causes of adolescent disability are mental disorders, diseases of nervous system, congenital anomalies. The most commonly encountered seed of physical dysfunction is capacity to study. It is demonstrated that there is misreporting on both child disability in totally and adolescent disability in Russian Federation. After the analysis of particular provisions of legislation concerning medical and social issues of child disability the week points were detected. The morbidity rate of adolescent was studied: primary cause of death in adolescent is extrinsic factor (more than 70%), the
Sophie Jane Taylor
Full Text Available Our earlier work suggests that executive functions and social cognition show protracted development into late adolescence and early adulthood (Taylor, Barker, Heavey and McHale, 2013. However, it remains unknown whether these functions develop linearly or non-linearly corresponding to dynamic changes to white matter density at these age ranges. Executive functions are particularly in demand during the transition to independence and autonomy associated with this age range (Ahmed and Miller, 2011. Previous research examining executive function (Romine and Reynolds, 2005 and social cognition (Dumontheil, Apperly and Blakemore, 2010 in late adolescence has utilised a cross sectional design. The current study employed a longitudinal design with 58 participants aged 17, 18 and 19 years completing social cognition and executive function tasks, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark and Tellegen, 1988 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond and Snaith, 1983 at Time 1 with follow up testing 12 to 16 months later. Inhibition, rule detection, strategy generation and planning executive functions and emotion recognition with dynamic stimuli showed longitudinal development between time points. Self-report empathy and emotion recognition functions using visual static and auditory stimuli were stable by age 17 whereas concept formation declined between time points. The protracted development of some functions may reflect continued brain maturation into late adolescence and early adulthood including synaptic pruning (Sowell, Thompson, Tessner and Toga, 2001 and changes to functional connectivity (Stevens, Kiehl, Pearlson and Calhouln, 2007 and/or environmental change. Clinical implications, such as assessing the effectiveness of rehabilitation following Head Injury, are discussed.
Peres, Camila Alves; Peres, Rodrigo Alves; da Silveira, Fernando; Paiva, Vera; Hudes, Esther Sid; Hearst, Norman
The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding AIDS among incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil and to develop an AIDS prevention intervention for this population. A questionnaire administered to 275 boys in São Paulo covered demographic and social characteristics, drugs, and HIV risk perception and behavior. Subsequently, we collected qualitative data on the development and implementation of a prevention program. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents were sexually experienced, most initiating by age 13; 22% were fathers. Injection drug use was reported by 5.5%, 12% had exchanged sex for money, 35% had more than 15 partners and 8% had homosexual experience. Although 72% had used condoms, only 9% used them consistently, and only 35% used one in their last intercourse before incarceration. Predictors of condom use included carrying condoms and endorsing the statement "I would use condoms with my girlfriend." Many said their lives include other risks more important than AIDS, such as survival in the crime scene. Initial efforts at prevention based on commonly used approaches of providing information to guide future rational decisions generated limited participation. However, when we worked with them to develop interventions based on their interests and needs, using modalities such as music, hip-hop arts, graffiti, and helping them to create an AIDS prevention compact disk, they responded with enthusiasm. These incarcerated adolescents are at extremely high social risk and report high levels of risk behavior for HIV infection. Interventions for these youth were better received when developed in collaboration with them and based on their beliefs, aspirations, and culture. The intervention that resulted went beyond AIDS to include issues such as violence, drugs, sexuality and human rights. PMID:12413191
Taylor, Robyn N; Parker, James D A; Keefer, Kateryna V; Kloosterman, Patricia H; Summerfeldt, Laura J
The present study examined the link between problematic gambling and gambling related cognitions (GRCs) in a large sample of adolescents with (N = 266) and without (N = 1,738) special education needs (SEN) between the ages of 14 and 18 years attending several high schools in eastern central Ontario. The adolescents with SENs were identified as having various learning disorders and/or internalizing and externalizing problems [e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)]. All adolescents completed a self-report questionnaire package that included the GRC Scale (GRCS; Raylu and Oei in Addiction 99:757-769, 2004), as well as measures of problem gambling, negative affect, and ADHD symptomatology. Results showed that adolescents with SEN hold more erroneous beliefs about gambling and had a higher risk of developing problematic patterns of gambling behaviour than their typically developing peers. Moreover, the GRCS subscales were found to be strong predictors of problem gambling among adolescents both with and without SEN, accounting for a substantial amount of the variance even when controlling for the effects of age, gender, ADHD, and negative affect. It is suggested that intervention and prevention programs aimed at adolescent gambling need to give particular attention to those with SEN. PMID:25023184
Dewar Deborah L
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to develop and evaluate the reliability and factorial validity, of social-cognitive measures related to adolescent healthy eating behaviors. Methods A questionnaire was developed based on constructs from Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory and included the following scales: self-efficacy, intentions (proximal goals, situation (perceived environment, social support, behavioral strategies, outcome expectations and expectancies. The questionnaire was administered with a two week test-retest among secondary school students (n = 173, age = 13.72 ± 1.24. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to examine model-fit for each scale using multiple indices including: chi-square index, comparative-fit index (CFI, goodness-of-fit index (GFI, and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA. Reliability properties were also examined (ICC and Cronbach’s alpha. Results The reliability and factorial validity of each scale is supported: fit indices suggest each model to be an adequate-to-exact fit to the data; internal consistency was acceptable-to-good (α=0.65−0.79; rank order repeatability was strong (ICC = 0.81−0.89. Conclusions and implications Results support the reliability and factorial validity of social cognitive scales relating to healthy eating behaviors among adolescents. As such, the developed scales have utility for identifying potential social cognitive correlates of adolescent dietary behavior, mediators of dietary behavior change and validity testing of theoretical models based on Social Cognitive Theory.
Silvestre, Mario Di; Bakaloudis, Georgios; Lolli, Francesco; Giacomini, Stefano
This study is a retrospective case series review of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who were revised more than 1 year after the index procedure, due to a late-developing deep wound infection, to determine onset, bacteriology, possible influence of implant alloy (titanium vs. stainless-steel) and treatment outcome of patients. From a total of 540 patients who underwent posterior-only fusion for AIS from 1993 through 2005 at our institution, 15 cases (2.77%) were revised due...
Vet, van der, Paul E.; Ridder, de, René M.; Stok, M.; Brunso, K.; Baban, A.; Gaspar, T
Background: Applying self-regulation strategies have proven important in eating behaviors, but it remains subject to investigation what strategies adolescents report to use to ensure healthy eating, and adequate measures are lacking. Therefore, we developed and validated a self-regulation questionnaire applied to eating (TESQ-E) for adolescents. Methods: Study 1 reports a four-step approach to develop the TESQ-E questionnaire (n = 1097). Study 2 was a cross-sectional survey among adolescents ...
Prins Richard G; van Empelen Pepijn; Beenackers Marielle A; Brug Johannes; Oenema Anke
Abstract Background Increasing physical activity (PA) among adolescents is an important health promotion goal. PA has numerous positive health effects, but the majority of Dutch adolescents do not meet PA requirements. The present paper describes the systematic development of a theory-based computer-tailored intervention, YouRAction, which targets individual and environmental factors determining PA among adolescents. Design The intervention development was guided by the Intervention Mapping p...
Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Hale, William W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Frijns, Tom; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
In this study, we prospectively examined developmental trajectories of five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from early to late adolescence in a community sample of 239 adolesc
Chorlian, David B; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K; Edenberg, Howard; Kuperman, Samuel; Porjesz, Bernice
The developmental trajectories of theta band (4-7 Hz) event-related oscillations (EROs), a key neurophysiological constituent of the P3 response, were assessed in 2170 adolescents and young adults ages 12 to 25. The theta EROs occurring in the P3 response, important indicators of neurocognitive function, were elicited during the evaluation of task-relevant target stimuli in visual and auditory oddball tasks. These tasks call upon attentional and working memory resources. Large differences in developmental rates between males and females were found; scalp location and task modality (visual or auditory) differences within males and females were small compared to gender differences. Trajectories of interregional and intermodal correlations between ERO power values exhibited increases with age in both genders, but showed a divergence in development between auditory and visual systems during ages 16 to 21. These results are consistent with previous electrophysiological and imaging studies and provide additional temporal detail about the development of neurophysiological indices of cognitive activity. Since measures of the P3 response has been found to be a useful endophenotypes for the study of a number of clinical and behavioral disorders, studies of its development in adolescents and young adults may illuminate neurophysiological factors contributing to the onset of these conditions. PMID:26102560
Full Text Available The way children portray emotions in their drawings of human and nonhuman topics is assumed to reflect their artistic, emotional, and cognitive development. This study was designed to investigate the development of expressive drawings during childhood and into adolescence, using a large age range (5–15 years and sample size (N=480, so as to provide a precise and comprehensive view of age-related changes in children’s ability to produce expressive drawings. More specifically, we focused on children’s developing ability to use the techniques of literal and metaphorical expression, either alone or in combination. We also examined the effects of sex, topics (house, tree, or person, and the depicted emotion (happiness or sadness on the use of each expressive technique. The main findings were that there is a developmental shift between childhood (5–10 years and adolescence (11–15 years in the use of expressive techniques, from simple (literal to more complex forms of expression (metaphorical.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on adolescent smoking indicate that the smoking behaviours of their parents, siblings and friends are significant micro-level predictors. Parents' socioeconomic status (SES is an important macro-level predictor. We examined the longitudinal relationships between these predictors and the initiation and development of adolescents' smoking behaviour in Norway. Methods We employed data from The Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study (NLHB, in which participants were followed from the age of 13 to 30. We analysed data from the first 5 waves, covering the age span from 13 to 18, with latent curve modeling (LCM. Results Smoking rates increased from 3% to 31% from age 13 to age 18. Participants' smoking was strongly associated with their best friends' smoking. Parental SES, parents' smoking and older siblings' smoking predicted adolescents' initial level of smoking. Furthermore, the same variables predicted the development of smoking behaviour from age 13 to 18. Parents' and siblings' smoking behaviours acted as mediators of parents' SES on the smoking habits of adolescents. Conclusions Parents' SES was significantly associated, directly and indirectly, with both smoking initiation and development. Parental and older siblings' smoking behaviours were positively associated with both initiation and development of smoking behaviour in adolescents. There were no significant gender differences in these associations.
King, Kevin M; Lengua, Liliana J; Monahan, Kathryn C
Difficulties with self-regulation are implicated in the development of emotional and behavioral problems during adolescence. Although children's ability to regulate their behaviors continues to improve throughout childhood and adolescence, it remains unclear how contextual risk factors might influence this development during the transition to adolescence, or how variation in the development of self-regulation predicts adjustment. Using a community sample of 214 8-12 year-olds (T1 M = 9.5, SD = 1.01), we examined growth trajectories of effortful control and impulsivity over three years and tested predictors and outcomes of these trajectories. Although predictors of initial levels of self-regulation were largely equivalent for both effortful control and impulsivity, contextual risk factors were related to variations in the development of impulsivity but not effortful control. However, increases in effortful control, but not impulsivity, were associated with level and rate of change in adjustment problems and positive adjustment, suggesting that different dimensions of self-regulation have different antecedents and outcomes in pre-adolescence and adolescence. PMID:22865096
Amin, Avni; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman
On the occasion of the International Day of the Girl Child (October 11), this commentary highlights the problem of violence against adolescent girls. It describes the nature and magnitude of violence faced by adolescent girls, what we know about factors that drive violence against women and against adolescent girls. It highlights the importance of promoting egalitarian gender norms, particularly during adolescence, and empowering women and girls in efforts to end such violence. Finally, it of...
Full Text Available Background: Early adolescence is a key developmental period for the initiation of alcohol use, and consumption among adolescents is characterized by drinking in high quantities. At the same time, adolescence is characterized by rapid biological transformations including dramatic changes in the brain, particularly in the prefrontal cortex and the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Methods: This article begins with an overview of the unique neural and behavioural characteristics of adolescent development that predispose these individuals to seek rewards and take risks such as initiation of drinking and high levels of alcohol intake. The authors then outline important factors associated with an increased risk for developing alcohol problems in later adolescence and young adulthood. Thereafter they address causality and the complex interplay of risk factors that lead to the development of alcohol use problems in late adolescence and young adults. Conclusions: A few recommendations for the prevention of underage drinking are presented.
Botvin, G J
The initiation of substance use typically begins during adolescence and appears to be the result of the complex interplay of social, personality, cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and developmental factors. Traditional smoking, alcohol, and drug education programs have attempted to increase students' knowledge of the risks associated with using these substances in the hope that this would deter use. Other programs have attempted to enrich the personal and social development of students through what has been referred to as "affective" education. Unfortunately, the inescapable conclusion to be drawn from the substance abuse prevention literature is that few of these programs have demonstrated any degree of success in terms of the actual prevention of substance use/abuse. Traditional educational approaches to substance abuse prevention appear to be inadequate because they are based on faulty assumptions and are too narrow in their focus. The "affective" education approaches, on the other hand, appear to have placed too little emphasis on the acquisition of the kind of skills that are likely to increase general personal competence and enable students to cope with the various interpersonal and intrapersonal pressures to begin using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. From the perspective of social learning theory (Bandura 1977) and problem behavior theory (Jessor and Jessor 1977), substance use is conceptualized as a socially learned, purposive, and functional behavior which is the result of the interplay of social (environmental) and personal factors. One potentially effective approach to substance abuse prevention might involve enhancing general personal competence and teaching adolescents the kind of problem-specific skills and knowledge which will increase their ability to resist the various forms of pro-substance-use social pressure. Brief reviews of the social skills training literature and the literature related to techniques for coping with anxiety not only provide
Full Text Available Depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period is a growing health problem, which affects up to 20% of women. Currently, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs medications are commonly used for treatment of maternal depression. Unfortunately, there is very little research on the long-term effect of maternal depression and perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the role of exposure to fluoxetine during development on affective-like behaviors and hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent offspring in a rodent model of maternal depression. To do this, gestationally stressed and non-stressed Sprague-Dawley rat dams were treated with either fluoxetine (5 mg/kg/day or vehicle beginning on postnatal day 1 (P1. Adolescent male and female offspring were divided into 4 groups: 1 prenatal stress+fluoxetine exposure, 2 prenatal stress+vehicle, 3 fluoxetine exposure alone, and 4 vehicle alone. Adolescent offspring were assessed for anxiety-like behavior using the Open Field Test and depressive-like behavior using the Forced Swim Test. Brains were analyzed for endogenous markers of hippocampal neurogenesis via immunohistochemistry. Results demonstrate that maternal fluoxetine exposure reverses the reduction in immobility evident in prenatally stressed adolescent offspring. In addition, maternal fluoxetine exposure reverses the decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis in maternally stressed adolescent offspring. This research provides important evidence on the long-term effect of fluoxetine exposure during development in a model of maternal adversity.
Inge S. M. van der Wurff
Full Text Available The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13–15 years is investigated. Baseline data from Food2Learn, a double-blind and randomized placebo controlled krill oil supplementation trial in typically developing adolescents, were used for the current study. The Omega-3 Index was determined with blood from a finger prick. At baseline, participants finished a neuropsychological test battery consisting of the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST, D2 test of attention, Digit Span Forward and Backward, Concept Shifting Test and Stroop test. Data were analyzed with multiple regression analyses with correction for covariates. The average Omega-3 Index was 3.83% (SD 0.60. Regression analyses between the Omega-3 Index and the outcome parameters revealed significant associations with scores on two of the nine parameters. The association between the Omega-3 Index and both scores on the LDST (β = 0.136 and p = 0.039, and the number of errors of omission on the D2 (β = −0.053 and p = 0.007. This is a possible indication for a higher information processing speed and less impulsivity in those with a higher Omega-3 Index.
van der Wurff, Inge S M; von Schacky, Clemens; Berge, Kjetil; Zeegers, Maurice P; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M
The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13-15 years is investigated. Baseline data from Food2Learn, a double-blind and randomized placebo controlled krill oil supplementation trial in typically developing adolescents, were used for the current study. The Omega-3 Index was determined with blood from a finger prick. At baseline, participants finished a neuropsychological test battery consisting of the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST), D2 test of attention, Digit Span Forward and Backward, Concept Shifting Test and Stroop test. Data were analyzed with multiple regression analyses with correction for covariates. The average Omega-3 Index was 3.83% (SD 0.60). Regression analyses between the Omega-3 Index and the outcome parameters revealed significant associations with scores on two of the nine parameters. The association between the Omega-3 Index and both scores on the LDST (β = 0.136 and p = 0.039), and the number of errors of omission on the D2 (β = -0.053 and p = 0.007). This is a possible indication for a higher information processing speed and less impulsivity in those with a higher Omega-3 Index. PMID:26729157
Marteleto, Letícia J; Cavanagh, Shannon; Prickett, Kate; Clark, Shelley
There is widespread recognition of the importance of family stability for child development. South Africa presents an interesting context in which to study the consequences of family instability because of the traditionally fluid nature of household composition due to labor migration, child fostering, and non-marital fertility. More recently, the HIV pandemic has added another source of instability. Within South Africa, however, patterns of instability differ markedly across racial groups. We use the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS) data to examine the implications of changes in parent-child coresidence for educational and sexual development of young South Africans. We show that changes in maternal and paternal coresidence have implications for the timing of sexual initiation for both black and coloured adolescents. Maternal and paternal transitions also lead to poorer educational outcomes for coloured adolescents, but parental disruptions are not significantly related to educational outcomes for blacks. These findings suggest that the implications of coresidential instability vary by race, reflecting racial differences with respect to cultural, social, and economic conditions. PMID:27027991
Rial Boubeta, Antonio; Gómez Salgado, Patricia; Isorna Folgar, Manuel; Araujo Gallego, Manuel; Varela Mallou, Jesús
Adolescents' use of the Internet is becoming a matter of great concern for different sectors of society. The psychological and behavioural consequences of problematic Internet use in young people demands quick and effective answers. One of the major challenges in this context is the development of empirically validated tools, which would facilitate early detection and screening for potential risk cases. This is precisely the aim of this paper. Based on a sample of 1,709 secondary-school students from Galicia (a region in northern Spain) aged 11 to 17 (M = 13.74, SD = 1.43), the analysis carried out permitted us to present a brief and simple tool (with just 11 items). It has substantial theoretical support, since both the existing background information and the views of experts from the academic and professional spheres were taken into account in the course of its development. The scale is adapted to the Spanish cultural context and to the language of young people. It has satisfactory psychometric properties in terms of reliability of the scores (α = .82), evidence of its internal structure (tested via a Confirmatory Factorial Analysis), sensitivity (81%), and specificity (82.6%). Moreover, its use enables the gradation of adolescents on a risk or problematic Internet use continuum. In our view, all of this lends it enormous applied potential in both the educational and clinical contexts. PMID:25879477
Silvia Arribas Galarraga
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a scale for assessing and predicting adolescents' physical activity behavior in Spain and Luxembourg using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework. The sample was comprised of 613 Spanish (boys = 309, girls = 304; M age =15.28, SD =1.127 and 752 Luxembourgish adolescents (boys = 343, girls = 409; M age = 14.92, SD = 1.198, selected from students of two secondary schools in both countries, with a similar socio-economic status. The initial 43-items were all scored on a 4-point response format using the structured alternative format and translated into Spanish, French and German. In order to ensure the accuracy of the translation, standardized parallel back-translation techniques were employed. Following two pilot tests and subsequent revisions, a second order exploratory factor analysis with oblimin direct rotation was used for factor extraction. Internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities were also tested. The 4-week test-retest correlations confirmed the items' time stability. The same five factors were obtained, explaining 63.76% and 63.64% of the total variance in both samples. Internal consistency for the five factors ranged from α = 0.759 to α = 0. 949 in the Spanish sample and from α = 0.735 to α = 0.952 in the Luxembourgish sample. For both samples, inter-factor correlations were all reported significant and positive, except for Factor 5 where they were significant but negative. The high internal consistency of the subscales, the reported item test-retest reliabilities and the identical factor structure confirm the adequacy of the elaborated questionnaire for assessing the TPB-based constructs when used with a population of adolescents in Spain and Luxembourg. The results give some indication that they may have value in measuring the hypothesized TPB constructs for PA behavior in a cross-cultural context
Symeonidou, Irene; Dumontheil, Iroise; Chow, Wing-Yee; Breheny, Richard
We investigated the development of theory of mind use through eye-tracking in children (9-13years old, n=14), adolescents (14-17.9years old, n=28), and adults (19-29years old, n=23). Participants performed a computerized task in which a director instructed them to move objects placed on a set of shelves. Some of the objects were blocked off from the director's point of view; therefore, participants needed to take into consideration the director's ignorance of these objects when following the director's instructions. In a control condition, participants performed the same task in the absence of the director and were told that the instructions would refer only to items in slots without a back panel, controlling for general cognitive demands of the task. Participants also performed two inhibitory control tasks. We replicated previous findings, namely that in the director-present condition, but not in the control condition, children and adolescents made more errors than adults, suggesting that theory of mind use improves between adolescence and adulthood. Inhibitory control partly accounted for errors on the director task, indicating that it is a factor of developmental change in perspective taking. Eye-tracking data revealed early eye gaze differences between trials where the director's perspective was taken into account and those where it was not. Once differences in accuracy rates were considered, all age groups engaged in the same kind of online processing during perspective taking but differed in how often they engaged in perspective taking. When perspective is correctly taken, all age groups' gaze data point to an early influence of perspective information. PMID:26723471
Goodnight, Jackson A.; Bates, John E.; Newman, Joseph P.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.
This study investigated the interactive effects of friend deviance and reward dominance on the development of externalizing behavior of adolescents in the Child Development Project. Reward dominance was assessed at age 16 by performance on a computer-presented card-playing game in which participants had the choice of either continuing or…
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 2006
The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) collaborated on a child and adolescent development project involving roundtables of knowledgeable researchers and teacher educators. This summary report discusses major issues faced by teachers and schools,…
Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; White, Rebecca M. B.; Herzog, Melissa J.; Pflieger, Jacqueline C.; Madden-Derdich, Debra
The current study describes the development and psychometric testing of the Global Support From Mother Figure During Pregnancy Scale (GSMF-P). The measure is developed in both Spanish and English to assess social support provided to adolescents during their pregnancies. The current study examines the reliability, cross-language equivalence, and…
Oostveen, A.M.; Spillekom-van Koulil, S.; Kooijmans-Otero, M.E.; Klompmaker, W.; Evers, A.W.M.; Seijger, M.M.B.
INTRODUCTION: To describe and illustrate in a case-study design the development and design of a multidisciplinary training program for outpatient children and adolescents with psoriasis and their parents. METHODS: For the development of the program, a steering group was assembled, systematic semi-st
Contextualizing Latina girls' body image development requires an appreciation of mainstream body ideals, Latino/a cultural values, and the process by which Latina girls traverse the borders between them. The current study examines how media use and acculturation act across adolescence to shape the development of body image among Latina girls.…
Jung, Hyesil; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Song, Tae-Min
This study aims to develop and evaluate an ontology for adolescents' depression to be used for collecting and analyzing social data. The ontology was developed according to the 'ontology development 101' methodology. Concepts were extracted from clinical practice guidelines and related literatures. The ontology is composed of five sub-ontologies which represent risk factors, sign and symptoms, measurement, diagnostic result and management care. The ontology was evaluated in four different ways: First, we examined the frequency of ontology concept appeared in social data; Second, the content coverage of ontology was evaluated by comparing ontology concepts with concepts extracted from the youth depression counseling records; Third, the structural and representational layer of the ontology were evaluated by 5 ontology and psychiatric nursing experts; Fourth, the scope of the ontology was examined by answering 59 competency questions. The ontology was improved by adding new concepts and synonyms and revising the level of structure. PMID:27332239
Mónica González Brito
Full Text Available Introduction: Abnormal uterine bleeding is the presence of an excessive and prolonged menstrual bleeding over several consecutive cycles. It is one of the first complaints in pediatric gynecology and is the most common cause dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Objective: To characterize adolescents with menstrual disorders attending gynecology clinic in child and adolescent onset of puberty. Method: A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective. Universe: 88 adolescents seen at the gynecology children and youth in the province of Cienfuegos with menstrual disorders in 2008. Sample: 64 patients with rhythm disturbances of the menstrual cycle and excessive bleeding. Procedure: During the first consultation was found in the following medical records: age, onset of puberty, age at menarche, breast development and pubic hair development. The data were processed by SPSS program and expressed as numbers and percentages. Results: 43.8% of the adolescents studied were between 14 and 16 years, 29.7% began puberty at age 9, 31.3% had their menarche at age 11, 46, 87% were in Tanner stage IV of breast development and 56.25% in Tanner stage IV for pubic hair. Conclusion: There were no alterations in pubertal development in adolescents with menstrual disorders studied.Introducción: la hemorragia uterina anormal es la presencia de un sangrado menstrual excesivo y prolongado durante varios ciclos consecutivos. Constituye uno de los primeros motivos de consulta en ginecología pediátrica y es su causa más frecuente la hemorragia uterina disfuncional. Objetivo: caracterizar a las adolescentes con trastornos menstruales atendidas en consulta de ginecología infantil y juvenil en el inicio del desarrollo puberal. Método: estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo. Universo: 88 adolescentes atendidas en la
Franken, Aart; Moffitt, Terrie E; Steglich, Christian E G; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
This social network study investigated the moderating role of self-control in the association between friendship and the development of externalizing behavior: Antisocial behavior, alcohol use, tobacco use. Previous studies have shown inconsistent findings, and did not control for possible friendship network or selection effects. We tested two complementary hypotheses: (1) That early-adolescents with low self-control develop externalizing behavior regardless of their friends' behavior, or (2) as a result of being influenced by their friends' externalizing behavior to a greater extent. Hypotheses were investigated using data from the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study (N = 1144, 50 % boys, M age 12.7, SD = 0.47). We controlled for selection effects and the network structure, using a data-analysis package called SIENA. The main findings indicate that personal low self-control and friends' externalizing behaviors both predict early adolescents' increasing externalizing behaviors, but they do so independently. Therefore, interventions should focus on all early adolescents' with a lower self-control, rather than focus on those adolescents with a lower self-control who also have friends who engage in externalizing behavior. PMID:25922116
Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.
The study of adolescent development rests on methodologically appropriate collection and interpretation of longitudinal data. While all longitudinal studies of adolescent development involve missing data, the methods to treat missingness that have been recommended most often focus on missing data from cross-sectional studies. The problems of…
Cluver, LD; Lachman, JM; Ward, CL; Gardner, F; Peterson, T; Hutchings, JM; Mikton, C; Meinck, F.; Tsoanyane, S; Doubt, J; Boyes, M.; Redfern, AA
Purpose: Violence against children increases in adolescence, but there is a research and practice gap in research-supported child abuse prevention for the adolescent years. A pilot programme for low-resource settings was developed in collaboration with NGOs, government and academics in South Africa, using research-supported principles. Methods: This study used a pre-post design to test initial effects of a 10-session parenting programme with 60 participants (30 caregiver-adolescent dyads)...
A A Afonin; M V Komkova; G A Galkina; N V Morozova
Aim. To measure endothelial factors (nitric oxide (NOx) metabolites, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)) in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus (DM) during development of diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy (DPNP). Materials and methods. A total of 130 children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus were examined. Duration of DM varied from 3 months to 14 years. The control group comprised 20 children and adolescents without DM or neurologic pat...
Recent theories suggest that behavioral control is a very important aspect in the drinking behavior of adolescents, and differences in the capacity to control one’s own responses are assumed to underlie the escalation from relatively normal drinking patterns to more severe drinking in adults and adolescents. The development of the behavioral control coincides together with the maturation of the prefrontal cortex and it is not until late adolescence that these brain areas are fully grown. This...
Brown, B.B.; Prinstein, M.J.
The period of adolescence involves growth, adaptation, and dramatic reorganization in almost every aspect of social and psychological development. The Encyclopedia of Adolescence offers an exhaustive and comprehensive review of current theory and research findings pertaining to this critical decade
Beusterien Kathleen M
Full Text Available Abstract Objective Obtain utilities (preferences for a generalizable set of health states experienced by older children and adolescents who receive therapy for chronic health conditions. Methods A health state classification system, the Adolescent Health Utility Measure (AHUM, was developed based on generic health status measures and input from children with Hunter syndrome and their caregivers. The AHUM contains six dimensions with 4–7 severity levels: self-care, pain, mobility, strenuous activities, self-image, and health perceptions. Using the time trade off (TTO approach, a UK population sample provided utilities for 62 of 16,800 AHUM states. A mixed effects model was used to estimate utilities for the AHUM states. The AHUM was applied to trial NCT00069641 of idursulfase for Hunter syndrome and its extension (NCT00630747. Results Observations (i.e., utilities totaled 3,744 (12*312 participants, with between 43 to 60 for each health state except for the best and worst states which had 312 observations. The mean utilities for the best and worst AHUM states were 0.99 and 0.41, respectively. The random effects model was statistically significant (p Discussion The AHUM health state classification system may be used in future research to enable calculation of quality-adjust life expectancy for applicable health conditions.
This study developed a scale to measure the respect-related emotional traits (the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale) for late adolescence and examined the reliability and validity. In study 1,368 university students completed the items of the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale and other scales of theoretically important personality constructs including adult attachment style, the "Big Five," self-esteem, and two types of narcissistic personality. Factor analysis indicated that there are three factors of trait respect-related emotions: (a) trait (prototypical) respect; (b) trait idolatry (worship and adoration); and (c) trait awe. The three traits associated differentially with the daily experience (frequency) of the five basic respect-related emotions (prototypical respect, idolatry, awe, admiration, and wonder), and other constructs. In Study 2, a test-retest correlation of the new scale with 60 university students indicated good reliability. Both studies generally supported the reliability and validity of the new scale. These findings suggest that, at Ieast in late adolescence, there are large individual differences in respect-related emotion experiences and the trait of respect should be considered as multi-dimensional structure. PMID:26964371
Cheryl L. Lee
Full Text Available Service-learning is an instructional method in which students learn course content by actively participating in thoughtfully organized service experiences related to the content. Effectively linking service-learning to course content not only offers students a powerful opportunity to maximize academic learning, but also promotes their personal growth and instills a commitment to lifelong, civic engagement. Service-learning was integrated into an upper level undergraduate course, Adolescent Development. In addition to completing the traditional course work, students also completed a service-learning experience at a community agency that served adolescents. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the service-learning component, students were surveyed at the end of the semester about their service-learning experiences. Almost all students agreed they had learned more about course concepts as a result of their service-learning experience, and the majority felt their service-learning activity provided a needed service to the agency and community. KEYWORDSservice-learning; assessment; pedagogy; civic engagement
Ozener, Baniş; Ertuğrul, Berna
The aim of this study was to determine the physical development level of post-adolescent automotive repair workers who had been employed in heavy work during adolescence, a critical developmental period. Young workers (Group 1, N = 106, Mean age = 18.33, SD = 0.65) employed an average of 6 years in workshops in the capital of Turkey, Ankara. For the control group, two groups of the same age but having a difference in terms of socioeconomic status were chosen. The first one of these was comprised of individuals who had the same socioeconomic status as the laborers (Group 2, N = 106, Mean age = 18.33, SD = 0.65) but were not laborers. The second control group was composed of individuals from the higher socioeconomic levels of society (Group 3, N = 100, Mean Age = 18.45 SD = 0.63). Weight, height and measures were taken from the individuals and the body mass index (kg/m2) was calculated. The results of the analysis show that, although all the variables of the labor group were lower than Group 2, the difference is only significant for the height variable (p youngsters are prone to chronic developmental retardation. PMID:22816205
Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Vecchione, Michele; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Milioni, Michela
This study examined the development of ego-resiliency from late adolescence to emerging adulthood, using a 10-year cohort-sequential design. Participants were 335 Italian adolescents (173 females and 162 males), living, at the time of the study, in Genzano, a small city near to Rome. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that the developmental trajectory of ego-resiliency from 15 to 25 years is adequately described by a piecewise model that included separate growth profiles corresponding to different developmental stages. Essentially, ego-resiliency remained remarkably stable until the end of high school, and then encountered a phase of relative increase. Moreover, the trajectory of ego-resiliency from ages 15 to 19 was predicted by self-efficacy beliefs in managing negative emotions, and the trajectory from age 19 to 25 was predicted by experienced familial support and self-efficacy beliefs in expressing positive emotions at age 15. Experienced stressful life events also accounted for individuals' deviation from the typical ego-resiliency trajectory. PMID:27236209
Bauermeister José J
Full Text Available In this paper we describe the process used to develop treatment manuals for internalizing and externalizing disorders in children and adolescents. These manuals were developed to offer health care providers and others working in child mental health a flexible intervention that could be adapted to different countries and localities based on: 1 the amount of health care and school resources that are available; 2 the nature and severity of the types of problems children have; and 3 the preferences and cultural factors that are important within these communities. We also discuss the experiences and cultural issues faced by sites in Egypt, Lebanon, Israel, and Brazil who volunteered to implement the manualized treatment programs. The feedback received from these sites indicates that the manuals can be implemented to help children with internalizing and externalizing problems.
Sondike, Stephen B; Pisetsky, Emily M; Luzier, Jessica L
The development of eating pathology is a concern following bariatric surgery, even in the absence of any pre-surgical psychopathology. No consistent risk factors have emerged in the literature to identify those at greatest risk. However, post-surgical guidelines encourage eating behaviors that would be considered disordered in other contexts. We present a case of an adolescent developing bulimia nervosa following gastric bypass surgery and the escalation of her symptoms from diligently following recommended food behaviors to a full-syndrome clinical eating disorder. We discuss the differences between appropriate post-surgical eating behaviors and disordered eating behaviors. We provide recommendations for clinicians to screen for eating pathology and referrals to an interprofessional treatment team to address eating disordered behaviors and cognitions. PMID:26449853
Valdicleibe Lira de Amorim
Full Text Available Adolescence is expressed by biopsychosocial development, delimited by the age group of 10 to 19 years old that, in general, initiates with corporal changes of puberty and finishes with social, professional and economic insertion. The adolescents possess health necessities that are produced in the scope of the society, defining and changing themselves from the interaction with its several economic, institutional, political, ethical, cultural and physical ambient components. This study had as its objective to analyze the education practices aimed at adolescent heath promotion, by means of documental research in nursing publications, in the period of 1999 to 2005, emphasizing empirical studies and experience reports involving group formation; and to identify the main theoretical and methodological procedures in education actions adopted in these studies. The results disclosed that only six articles, in which the nurses had affirmed to base their education practice with adolescents on theoretic referential, had valued the active participation of the adolescents, the critical reflection, the creativity and formal and not formal knowledge aiming at reaching transformation in their relations. Thus, we infer that there is a restrict number of publications on the subject, considering the high vulnerability and dependence of this age group regarding its sexuality and exposure to conflict situations.
Full Text Available The study aims to chart the development of the willingness to forgive among adolescents, as a function of seven situational factors: Possibility of revenge, cancellation of harmful consequences, encouragement to forgive from parents and/or from close friends, social proximity with the offender, intent toharm, and presence of apologies. The participants were presented with 16 stories in which an adolescent committed a harmful act against another one. Each participant was asked to rate the degree of personal willingness to forgive in each case on a continuous scale. The effect of the cancellation of consequences factor was the strongest one, and it was stronger among younger adolescents than among older adolescents. The effect of the intent factor was the second strongest factor, and it was stronger among older adolescentsthan among younger adolescents. The effect of the encouragement factors was moderate (encouragement by friends, or small (encouragement by parents, and no age difference was observed. The effects of the revenge, apologies, and social proximity factors were always weak. An additive-type combination process was observed in each age group.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors" are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire (Global Youth Tobacco Survey. The questionnaire was completed by 1,321 (92% of 1,442 eligible students aged 11 to 17 years. Main variables of interest included smoking cigarettes on ≥1 day in the past 30 days; drinking any alcohol beverage on ≥1 day in the past 30 days and using cannabis at least once in the past 12 months. Results In boys and girls, respectively, prevalence (95% CI was 30% (26–34/21% (18–25 for smoking, 49% (45–54/48% (43–52 for drinking, and 17% (15–20/8% (6–10 for cannabis use. The prevalence of all these behaviors increased with age. Smokers were two times more likely than non-smokers to drink and nine times more likely to use cannabis. Drinkers were three times more likely than non-drinkers to smoke or to use cannabis. Comparison of observed versus expected frequencies of combination categories demonstrated clustering of these risk behaviors in students (P Conclusion Smoking, drinking and cannabis use were common and clustered among adolescents of a rapidly developing country. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programs.
Olsson, Craig A.; Romaniuk, Helena; Salinger, Jodi; Staiger, Petra K; Bonomo, Yvonne; Hulbert, Carol; Patton, George C
Objective We identify drinking styles that place teens at greatest risk of later alcohol use disorders (AUD). Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Victoria, Australia. Participants A representative sample of 1943 adolescents living in Victoria in 1992. Outcome measures Teen drinking was assessed at 6 monthly intervals (5 waves) between mean ages 14.9 and 17.4 years and summarised across waves as none, one, or two or more waves of: (1) frequent drinking (3+ days in the past week), (2)...
Tomlinson, Michelle M.
This qualitative study focuses on the intrinsic value of musical understanding and how it is influenced by socio-cultural and educational factors shaping the development of a gifted adolescent. Using Gross's (1993) model of case studies of exceptionally gifted children, the student was identified for her innate abilities, and studied using the…
Nantel-Vivier, Amelie; Kokko, Katja; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Pastorelli, Concetta; Gerbino, Maria Grazia; Paciello, Marinella; Cote, Sylvana; Pihl, Robert O.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
Objectives: To longitudinally describe prosocial behaviour development from childhood to adolescence, using multiple informants within Canadian and Italian samples. Method: Participants in Study 1 were 1037 boys from low socioeconomic status (SES) areas in Montreal, Canada, for whom yearly teacher and mother reports were obtained between the ages…
Musa, Alice K. J.; Meshak, Bibi; Sagir, Jummai Ibrahim
The purpose of the study was to determine adolescents' perceptions of the psychological security of their schools environments and their relationship with their emotional development and academic performance in secondary schools in Gombe Metropolis. A sample of 239 (107 males and 133 females) secondary school students selected via stratified…
Klein, DJ; Friedman, LA; Harlan, WR; Barton, BA; Schreiber, GB; Cohen, RM; Harlan, LC; Morrison, JA
Objective-Age at onset of type 2 diabetes has decreased during the past 20 years, especially in black women. Studies of factors associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia in preadolescent and adolescent populations are essential to understanding diabetes development. Research Design and Me
Kidder, Sherri L.
The general development of the concept of self-esteem is reviewed, and concerns about the research strategies and issues are discussed. This paper focuses on adolescent self-esteem. Research is presented on global self-esteem, domain specific self-esteem as it relates to global self-esteem, and the identification of self-esteem trajectories.…
Chandler, Michael J.; Lalonde, Christopher E.; Sokol, Bryan W.; Hallett, Darcy
Five studies examined personal continuity among Native and non-Native North American adolescents. Demonstrated that reasoning about personal persistence proceeds in an orderly and increasingly sophisticated manner over identity development. Failures to warrant self-continuity were strongly associated with increased suicide risk. Efforts to…
de Kieviet, Jorrit F.; Zoetebier, Lydia; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Oosterlaan, Jaap
Aim: The aim of this article was to clarify the impact and consequences of very preterm birth (born less than 32wks of gestation) and/or very low birthweight ([VLBW], weighing less than 1500g) on brain volume development throughout childhood and adolescence. Method: The computerized databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and EMBASE were searched for…
Dumas, Tara M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.
We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n = 1070; M[subscript age] = 15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of "identity exploration", the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs…
Giles, Lisa L.; DelBello, Melissa P.; Stanford, Kevin E.; Strakowski, Stephen M.
In order to recognize behavioral patterns in children and adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder, this study examined Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profiles of bipolar offspring both with (BD group) and without ("at-risk" or AR group) bipolar disorder themselves. The BD youth had three CBCL subscale T scores greater than or equal to…
Schulte, Ilva Elena; Petermann, Franz
The aim of this study was to examine whether familial risk factors for the development of somatoform symptoms and somatoform disorders in children and adolescents can be deduced from studies which investigated the intergenerational transmission of functional abdominal pain and somatoform disorders. A systematic review of articles published in…
Shek, Daniel T. L.; Wai, C. L. Y.
Although many studies are evaluating the effectiveness of adolescent prevention and positive youth development programs, training programs for workers implementing such programs are seldom examined. In this paper, such programs indexed in several databases were reviewed. The basic characteristics, objectives, content, theory, process, and…
Gould, Rachel Zucker
The capacity of adolescents to develop global competencies was examined by collecting and analyzing data from 62 student-travelers before, during, and after a short-term study-travel experience to China. The Global Perspectives Inventory was used to compare the student-travelers' perspectives before and after travel with a comparison group of…
Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Stuetzer, Michael
What predicts a person's venture creation success over the course of the career, such as making progress in the venture creation process and multiple successful venture creations? Applying a life span approach of human development, this study examined the effect of early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence, which was gathered retrospectively…
Bischof-Kastner, C.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Wolstein, J.
Background: Internationally, up to 15.1% of intensive Internet use among adolescents is dysfunctional. To provide a basis for early intervention and preventive measures, understanding the motives behind intensive Internet use is important. Objective: This study aims to develop a questionnaire, the I
Quoilin, Caroline; Didone, Vincent; Quertemont, Etienne
The adolescent period is characterized by behavioral and neurobiological changes, which might predispose adolescents to the long-term negative consequences of alcohol. For example, enhanced risks of alcohol dependence are reported when drinking is initiated early. In the present studies, we used Swiss female mice to test whether chronic ethanol injections during adolescence durably affect the sensitivity to the stimulant effects of ethanol in adulthood. In a first set of experiments, several ...
Oh, Janet S.; Fuligni, Andrew J.
The influence of immigrant-background adolescents’ heritage language proficiency and use of the language on parent-adolescent relationships and ethnic identity was investigated in a sample of 414 ninth-grade participants from Latin American and Asian backgrounds. Heritage language proficiency, but not language use, was found to be positively associated with the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship, especially for Asian American adolescents. Although heritage language proficiency an...
Ferrari, J R; Olivette, M J
Late adolescent females (N = 86; M age = 19.1 years) completed reliable and valid self-report measures on their perception of both parents' authority style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) and their own tendency toward decisional procrastination. Households where daughters perceived both parents as high authoritarian (n = 32) were significantly more likely to raise daughters with strong indecision tendencies than were parents perceived as low authoritarian (n = 23). Mothers and fathers perceived as high (n = 22) or low (n = 22) authoritative, and high (n = 32) or low (n = 24) permissive, did not produce significant differences in daughters' self-reported decisional procrastination. Results suggest that parental authority characterized by stern inflexibility and overcontrol has the greatest influence on daughters who develop chronic indecision tendencies. PMID:8266848
Friedlander, M L
The life story of the internationally adopted child tends to be an emotional one. How the story is told and retold in the family can have lasting consequences for the child's adjustment and well-being. In telling the story, parents are faced with a unique challenge: To what extent is it desirable to encourage their children, who already struggle with identity issues related to adoption, to identify with their cultures of origin? Therapists working on these issues with multiethnic adoptive families can find little guidance in the family systems literature. To fill this gap, the present article reviews the literature on racial/ethnic identity development and the available research on ethnic identification, self-esteem, and the psychological adjustment of cross-ethnically adopted children and adolescents. Implications for practice include developmental considerations, identifying children and families at risk, and recommendations for those in need of intervention. PMID:9990519
van Duijvenvoorde, A C K; Achterberg, M; Braams, B R; Peters, S; Crone, E A
The current study aimed to test a dual-systems model of adolescent brain development by studying changes in intrinsic functional connectivity within and across networks typically associated with cognitive-control and affective-motivational processes. To this end, resting-state and task-related fMRI data were collected of 269 participants (ages 8-25). Resting-state analyses focused on seeds derived from task-related neural activation in the same participants: the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) from a cognitive rule-learning paradigm and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) from a reward-paradigm. Whole-brain seed-based resting-state analyses showed an age-related increase in dlPFC connectivity with the caudate and thalamus, and an age-related decrease in connectivity with the (pre)motor cortex. nAcc connectivity showed a strengthening of connectivity with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and subcortical structures such as the hippocampus, and a specific age-related decrease in connectivity with the ventral medial PFC (vmPFC). Behavioral measures from both functional paradigms correlated with resting-state connectivity strength with their respective seed. That is, age-related change in learning performance was mediated by connectivity between the dlPFC and thalamus, and age-related change in winning pleasure was mediated by connectivity between the nAcc and vmPFC. These patterns indicate (i) strengthening of connectivity between regions that support control and learning, (ii) more independent functioning of regions that support motor and control networks, and (iii) more independent functioning of regions that support motivation and valuation networks with age. These results are interpreted vis-à-vis a dual-systems model of adolescent brain development. PMID:25969399
Drapela, Laurie A.; Mosher, Clayton
The effect of parental deviance on adolescent deviance has been a source of considerable debate in the criminological literature. Classic theoretical explanations of the relationships between parental and adolescent deviance posit additive effects of parental deviance on youth behavior. Proponents of the Social Development Model have hypothesized…
R.G. Prins (Richard); P. van Empelen (Pepijn); M.A. Beenackers (Marielle); J. Brug (Hans); A. Oenema (Anke)
textabstractBackground. Increasing physical activity (PA) among adolescents is an important health promotion goal. PA has numerous positive health effects, but the majority of Dutch adolescents do not meet PA requirements. The present paper describes the systematic development of a theory-based comp
Harper, Gary W; Serrano, Pedro A; Bruce, Douglas; Bauermeister, Jose A
One emerging avenue for the exploration of adolescents' sexual orientation identity development is the Internet, since it allows for varying degrees of anonymity and exploration. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the role of the Internet in facilitating the sexual orientation identity development process of gay and bisexual male adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 63 gay/bisexual male adolescents (ages 15-23). Participants reported using a range of Internet applications as they explored and came to accept their sexual orientation identity, with the intended purpose and degree of anonymity desired determining which applications were used. Youth reported that the Internet provided a range of functions with regard to the exploration and acceptance of their sexual orientation identity, including (1) increasing self-awareness of sexual orientation identity, (2) learning about gay/bisexual community life, (3) communicating with other gay/bisexual people, (4) meeting other gay/bisexual people, (5) finding comfort and acceptance with sexual orientation, and (6) facilitating the coming out process. Future research and practice may explore the Internet as a platform for promoting the healthy development of gay and bisexual male adolescents by providing a developmentally and culturally appropriate venue for the exploration and subsequent commitment to an integrated sexual orientation identity. PMID:25585861
Understanding the nature of brain development in adolescence helps explain why adolescents can vacillate so often between mature and immature behavior. Early and middle adolescence, in particular, are times of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior because the brain's reward center is easily aroused, but the systems that control…
The group included adolescents from secondary school and some students. The group had weekly sessions or twice on mounth. The adolescents had varied simptoms: depressive, anxiety, psychosomatic disorders, learning difficulties, cunduct problems. All of adolescents were common on many problems in social interactions. The goal of therapeutic work were: to increase assertiveness skills and to reduce the anxious in social situations. The adolescents in group raised a self-esteem and developed som...
Van Beek, Yolanda; Van Dolderen, Marlies S. M.; Demon Dubas, Judith J. S.
Background: Individual differences in depressive symptoms have been linked with social skill deficits in adults and children, yet empirical studies on adolescents are lacking. The present research examines age and gender differences in nonverbal behaviour between mildly depressed and nondepressed (pre-) adolescents during conversations with an…
McCauley, Elizabeth; Schloredt, Kelly; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Martell, Christopher; Dimidjian, Sona
Depression during adolescence represents a significant public health concern. It is estimated that up to 20% of adolescents experience an episode of depression that interferes with academic and social functioning and is associated with an increased risk for self-harm. Although significant progress has been made in the last decade in treating…
Lindberg, Sara M.; Grabe, Shelly; Hyde, Janet Shibley
Objectified body consciousness (OBC)--the tendency to view one's body as an object for others to look at and evaluate--is theorized to emerge during sexual maturation as adolescents, particularly adolescent girls, experience sexual objectification. Although OBC generally is discussed in developmental terms, research so far has examined primarily…
Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen
There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…
Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Jochem, Rachel; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Katherine J.
We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time, as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59…
Jose, Paul E.; Kljakovic, Moja; Scheib, Emma; Notter, Olivia
The present study investigated the stabilities of and interrelationships among traditional (i.e., face-to-face) bullying, traditional victimhood, cyber bullying, and cyber victimhood among adolescents over time. About 1,700 adolescents aged 11-16 years at Time 1 self-reported levels of both bullying and victimization in four contexts (in school,…
Furman, Nate; Sibthorp, Jim
Learning transfer and prosocial behavior (PSB) are critical components of many outdoor education programs for adolescents. This study examined the effects of a theoretically grounded treatment curriculum designed to foster the transfer of learning of general and contextual PSB (also called expedition behavior) among adolescents enrolled on 14-day…
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the revised and short version of the smartphone addiction scale and the proof of its validity in adolescents. In addition, it suggested cutting off the values by gender in order to determine smartphone addiction and elaborate the characteristics of smartphone usage in adolescents. METHOD: A set of questionnaires were provided to a total of 540 selected participants from April to May of 2013. The participants consisted of 343 boys and 197 girls, and their average age was 14.5 years old. The content validity was performed on a selection of shortened items, while an internal-consistency test was conducted for the verification of its reliability. The concurrent validity was confirmed using SAS, SAPS and KS-scale. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was conducted to suggest cut-off. RESULTS: The 10 final questions were selected using content validity. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of SAS were verified with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.911. The SAS-SV was significantly correlated with the SAS, SAPS and KS-scale. The SAS-SV scores of gender (p<.001 and self-evaluation of smartphone addiction (p<.001 showed significant difference. The ROC analysis results showed an area under a curve (AUC value of 0.963(0.888-1.000, a cut-off value of 31, sensitivity value of 0.867 and specificity value of 0.893 in boys while an AUC value of 0.947(0.887-1.000, a cut-off value of 33, sensitivity value of 0.875, and a specificity value of 0.886 in girls. CONCLUSIONS: The SAS-SV showed good reliability and validity for the assessment of smartphone addiction. The smartphone addiction scale short version, which was developed and validated in this study, could be used efficiently for the evaluation of smartphone addiction in community and research areas.
Pohl, Kilian M; Sullivan, Edith V; Rohlfing, Torsten; Chu, Weiwei; Kwon, Dongjin; Nichols, B Nolan; Zhang, Yong; Brown, Sandra A; Tapert, Susan F; Cummins, Kevin; Thompson, Wesley K; Brumback, Ty; Colrain, Ian M; Baker, Fiona C; Prouty, Devin; De Bellis, Michael D; Voyvodic, James T; Clark, Duncan B; Schirda, Claudiu; Nagel, Bonnie J; Pfefferbaum, Adolf
Neurodevelopment continues through adolescence, with notable maturation of white matter tracts comprising regional fiber systems progressing at different rates. To identify factors that could contribute to regional differences in white matter microstructure development, large samples of youth spanning adolescence to young adulthood are essential to parse these factors. Recruitment of adequate samples generally relies on multi-site consortia but comes with the challenge of merging data acquired on different platforms. In the current study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired on GE and Siemens systems through the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA), a multi-site study designed to track the trajectories of regional brain development during a time of high risk for initiating alcohol consumption. This cross-sectional analysis reports baseline Tract-Based Spatial Statistic (TBSS) of regional fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (L1), and radial diffusivity (LT) from the five consortium sites on 671 adolescents who met no/low alcohol or drug consumption criteria and 132 adolescents with a history of exceeding consumption criteria. Harmonization of DTI metrics across manufacturers entailed the use of human-phantom data, acquired multiple times on each of three non-NCANDA participants at each site's MR system, to determine a manufacturer-specific correction factor. Application of the correction factor derived from human phantom data measured on MR systems from different manufacturers reduced the standard deviation of the DTI metrics for FA by almost a half, enabling harmonization of data that would have otherwise carried systematic error. Permutation testing supported the hypothesis of higher FA and lower diffusivity measures in older adolescents and indicated that, overall, the FA, MD, and L1 of the boys were higher than those of the girls, suggesting continued microstructural development
do Prado, Carine H; Narahari, Tanya; Holland, Freedom H; Lee, Ha-Neul; Murthy, Shashi K; Brenhouse, Heather C
Early postnatal stress such as maternal separation causes cognitive dysfunction later in life, including working memory deficits that are largely mediated by the prefrontal cortex. Maternal separation in male rats also yields a loss of parvalbumin-containing prefrontal cortex interneurons in adolescence, which may occur via inflammatory or oxidative stress mechanisms. Environmental enrichment can prevent several effects of maternal separation; however, effects of enrichment on prefrontal cortex development are not well understood. Here, we report that enrichment prevented cognitive dysfunction in maternally separated males and females, and prevented elevated circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines that was evident in maternally separated males, but not females. However, enrichment did not prevent parvalbumin loss or adolescent measures of oxidative stress. Significant correlations indicated that adolescents with higher oxidative damage and less prefrontal cortex parvalbumin in adolescence committed more errors on the win-shift task; therefore, maternal separation may affect cognitive dysfunction via aberrant interneuron development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 482-491, 2016. PMID:26688108
Sai, Liyang; Luo, Sichen; Ward, Anne; Sang, Biao
The process model of emotion regulation posits that the tendency to use cognitive reappraisal is associated with positive outcomes (e.g., greater positive emotion) while the tendency to use expressive suppression is associated with adverse outcomes (e.g., greater negative emotion). Many studies using adult samples support this theory. However, the development of the tendency to use cognitive reappraisal/expressive suppression and how these tendencies relate to depressive symptoms in adolescents remain unclear. To address these questions, 639 Chinese adolescents aged 12-18 years old were asked to report their tendency to use cognitive reappraisal/expressive suppression as well as their depressive symptoms. General linear model multivariate analysis of variance showed a statistically significant age effect for the tendency to use emotion regulation strategies. Further analysis found that these adolescents reported using less expressive suppression as age increased, while there was no age effect for the tendency to use cognitive reappraisal. Moreover, linear regression analysis revealed that the tendency to use cognitive reappraisal in daily life negatively influenced depressive symptoms, while the tendency to use expressive suppression in daily life positively influenced depressive symptoms. These findings provide evidence that support the development of emotion regulation strategies in childhood and adolescence. PMID:27597834
Norris, Shane A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Mehta, Neil K; Richter, Linda M
Background: Given global trends toward earlier onset of puberty and the adverse psychosocial consequences of early puberty, it is important to understand the childhood predictors of pubertal timing and tempo. Objective: We examined the association between early growth and the timing and tempo of puberty in adolescents in South Africa. Methods: We analyzed prospectively collected data from 1060 boys and 1135 girls participating in the Birth-to-Twenty cohort in Soweto, South Africa. Height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index–for-age z scores (BMIZs) were calculated based on height (centimeters) and body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) at ages 5 y and 8 y. The development of genitals, breasts, and pubic hair was recorded annually from 9 to 16 y of age with the use of the Tanner sexual maturation scale (SMS). We used latent class growth analysis to identify pubertal trajectory classes and also characterized children as fast or slow developers based on the SMS score at 12 y of age. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate associations of HAZ and BMIZ at ages 5 and 8 y with pubertal development. Results: We identified 3 classes for pubic hair development (for both girls and boys) and 4 classes for breast (for girls) and genital (for boys) development. In girls, both HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development [relative risk ratio (RRR): 1.57, P pubic hair development (RRR: 1.78, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.43, P < 0.01, respectively); HAZ at age 5 y was associated with development of genitals (RRR: 2.19, P < 0.01). Conclusion: In boys and girls, both height and body mass index in early childhood predicted the trajectory of pubertal development. This may provide a tool to identify children at risk of early pubertal onset. PMID:26843589
Ybarra, Michele L; Prescott, Tonya L; Philips, Gregory L; Bull, Sheana S; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Mustanski, Brian
Five activities were implemented between November 2012 and June 2014 to develop an mHealth HIV prevention program for adolescent gay, bisexual, and queer men (AGBM): (1) focus groups to gather acceptability of the program components; (2) ongoing development of content; (3) Content Advisory Teams to confirm the tone, flow, and understandability of program content; (4) an internal team test to alpha test software functionality; and (5) a beta test to test the protocol and intervention messages. Findings suggest that AGBM preferred positive and friendly content that at the same time, did not try to sound like a peer. They deemed the number of daily text messages (i.e., 8-15 per day) to be acceptable. The Text Buddy component was well received but youth needed concrete direction about appropriate discussion topics. AGBM determined the self-safety assessment also was acceptable. Its feasible implementation in the beta test suggests that AGBM can actively self-determine their potential danger when participating in sexual health programs. Partnering with the target population in intervention development is critical to ensure that a salient final product and feasible protocol are created. PMID:26238038
Fuillerat Alfonso, R
The relationship between the psychic development and the nutritional condition from the fetal stage up to the teenage years is the innermost objective of this study. The importance of eating and having an adequate diet during the pregnancy period, the training of the future mother to breast feed in the first months of the baby's life and the subsequent application of the ablactación process and its relation with psychomotor development and the personality progression in the different stages of the psychological, physiological and social development of the infant-adolescent period. The results shown were obtained from various studies carried out in the Nutritional Clinical Service. They are related to the reinduction of breast feeding in children less than 4 months of age with protein energetic malnutrition, as well as other stages of the infant-juvenile obese and other chronic and genetic diseases related to the nourishment and nutrition (diabetes, fenilcetonuria, hiperamonemia, homocistinuria y fibrosis quística), in which the close relationship betweeen the Psychology, and the Nutrition stands, all through the Psychotherapeutic and educational treatments and based on the application of the clinic psychology in the prevention, promotion and treatment of the nutritional alterations and other chronic and genetic diseases related to nourishment and malnutrition. Aspects related to the psychological and social characterizations as well as the personality evolution of these patients and their relatives environment are established. PMID:15315112
Bürgin, D; von Klitzing, K
Adolescence is a phase of human development which is marked by a high vulnerability due to the ongoing psycho-physiological transformations. The regulation of the self-esteem is especially in danger in youngsters who went into adolescence with a marked burden of conflicts or who lived in families with disturbed intrafamilial dynamics. To be present as a partner and not to find the solutions for the adolescents' conflicts, to accept their questioning of what is established and to recognize their movements of reconciliation are the quite complex demands put on to the world of the adults. Adolescents urge us to a review of our own adolescence, to a balancing of hate and love, openness and rigidity, and to dialectic movements between disintegration and reintegration as well as between the generations. Any help, be it on the physical, the social or the psychic level, should be directed toward a restitution of the intrapsychic, intrafamilial or intergenerational balance; sociocultural factors have also always to be respected. The helpers--especially in a culture with rapid change--are often confronted with their own adolescence, which took place a generation before and mostly under totally different conditions. PMID:8016759
Miranda Lucia Ritterman Weintraub
Full Text Available Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent perceived social mobility. Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1 projected future social status and (2 current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥ 4 hours of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories.
Rončević Nevenka; Stojadinović Aleksandra; Odri Irena
Introduction. The prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescence is constantly increasing, especially in the last two decades. Adolescence is a period of important changes: body growth and development, sexual development, development of cognitive abilities, change in family relations and between peers, formation of personal identity and personal system of values, making decisions on future occupation etc. Chronic diseases in adolescence. Chronic disorders affect all development issues and repr...
Full Text Available Rostral prefrontal cortex (RPFC has increased in size and changed in terms of its cellular organisation during primate evolution. In parallel emerged the ability to detach oneself from the immediate environment to process abstract thoughts and solve problems and to understand other individuals’ thoughts and intentions. Rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC is thought to play an important role in supporting the integration of abstract, often self-generated, thoughts. Thoughts can be temporally abstract and relate to long term goals, or past or future events, or relationally abstract and focus on the relationships between representations rather than simple stimulus features. Behavioural studies have provided evidence of a prolonged development of the cognitive functions associated with RLPFC, in particular logical and relational reasoning, but also episodic memory retrieval and prospective memory. Functional and structural neuroimaging studies provide further support for a prolonged development of RLPFC during adolescence, with some evidence of increased specialisation of RLPFC activation for relational integration and aspects of episodic memory retrieval. Topics for future research will be discussed, such as the role of medial RPFC in processing abstract thoughts in the social domain, the possibility of training abstract thinking in the domain of reasoning, and links to education.
Full Text Available Sex-specific differences that arise during puberty have a pronounced effect on the training process. However, the consequences this should have for goal-setting, planning and implementation of training for boys and girls of different ages remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to quantify performance developments in athletic running and jumping disciplines in the age range 11-18 and identify progression differences as a function of age, discipline and sex.The 100 all-time best Norwegian male and female 60-m, 800-m, long jump and high jump athletes in each age category from 11 to 18 years were analysed using mixed models with random intercept according to athlete.Male and female athletes perform almost equally in running and jumping events up to the age of 12. Beyond this age, males outperform females. Relative annual performance development in females gradually decreases throughout the analyzed age period. In males, annual relative performance development accelerates up to the age of 13 (for running events or 14 (for jumping events and then gradually declines when approaching 18 years of age. The relative improvement from age 11 to 18 was twice as high in jumping events compared to running events. For all of the analyzed disciplines, overall improvement rates were >50% higher for males than for females. The performance sex difference evolves from < 5% to 10-18% in all the analyzed disciplines from age 11 to 18 yr.To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to present absolute and relative annual performance developments in running and jumping events for competitive athletes from early to late adolescence. These results allow coaches and athletes to set realistic goals and prescribe conditioning programs that take into account sex-specific differences in the rate of performance development at different stages of maturation.
Lazzer, Stefano; Agosti, Fiorenza; De Col, Alessandra; Sartorio, Alessandro
The objectives of the present study were to develop and cross-validate new equations for predicting resting energy expenditure (REE) in severely obese children and adolescents, and to determine the accuracy of new equations using the Bland-Altman method. The subjects of the study were 574 obese Caucasian children and adolescents (mean BMI z-score 3.3). REE was determined by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Equations were derived by stepwise multiple regression analysis using a calibration cohort of 287 subjects and the equations were cross-validated in the remaining 287 subjects. Two new specific equations based on anthropometric parameters were generated as follows: (1) REE=(Sex x 892.68)-(Age x 115.93)+(Weight x 54.96)+(Stature x 1816.23)+1484.50 (R(2) 0.66; se 1028.97 kJ); (2) REE=(Sex x 909.12)-(Age x 107.48)+(fat-free mass x 68.39)+(fat mass x 55.19)+3631.23 (R(2) 0.66; se 1034.28 kJ). In the cross-validation group, mean predicted REE values were not significantly different from the mean measured REE for all children and adolescents, as well as for boys and for girls (difference <2 %) and the limits of agreement (+/-2 sd) were +2.06 and -1.77 MJ/d (NS). The new prediction equations allow an accurate estimation of REE in groups of severely obese children and adolescents. These equations might be useful for health care professionals and researchers when estimating REE in severely obese children and adolescents. PMID:17092390
The atherosclerotic process leading to cardiovascular disease begins early in life and is influenced over time by several risk factors. Investigating determinants that contribute to an unfavourable cardiometabolic profile in childhood and adolescence is important for specifying time windows suitable
Davis, Deborah J; Ringsted, Charlotte; Bonde, Mie;
CONTEXT: Learning during residency in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) is primarily work-based and has traditionally been opportunistic. There are increasing demands from both postgraduate trainees and medical organisations for structured programmes with defined learning outcomes. OBJECTIVES...
Conclusion: The developed questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for assessment of the determinants of weight disorders in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents in the MENA.
Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is important for adolescent health. The current study aimed to explore factors that predict physical activity among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of physical activity among a sample of adolescents in Tabriz, Iran. Information on physical activity was collected using a modified version of the Adolescent Physical Activity and Recall Questionnaire (APARQ. In addition, a self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, perceived family support, and self-efficacy. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between physical activity and independent variables including gender and psychosocial predictors. Results: In all, 402 students were studied. The mean age of adolescents was 12.93 (SD=0.49 years; 51.5% were female. The mean time of moderate and vigorous physical activity for all adolescents was 44.64 (SD=23.24 Metabolic Equivalent (MET min per day. This figure for female adolescents was 38.77 (SD=19.94 MET min per day and for males it was 50.87 (SD=24.88 (P<0.001. The results obtained from multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that female gender (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.46–4.57, P=0.001 and poor family support (OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.03–1.20, P=0.038 were the most significant contributing factors to low level physical activity in adolescents. Other variables studied did not show any significant results. Conclusion: The findings from the current study indicated that female adolescents were at risk of lower level of physical activity. In addition, it was found that the lack of family support represented an increased risk for low-level physical activity. It seems that family support should be an integrated part of any health education/promotion programs for improving physical activity among young adolescents in general and for female adolescents in particular.
Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Jochem, Rachel; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Katherine J.
We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59 years) were assessed on three occasions, with 2-year lags between each assessment. Parent personality and observed positive parenting both predicted 12...
Harenski, Carla L.; Harenski, Keith A.; Shane, Matthew S.; Kiehl, Kent A.
The neural mechanisms underlying moral judgment have been extensively studied in healthy adults. How these mechanisms evolve from adolescence to adulthood has received less attention. Brain regions that have been consistently implicated in moral judgment in adults, including the superior temporal cortex and prefrontal cortex, undergo extensive developmental changes from adolescence to adulthood. Thus, their role in moral judgment may also change over time. In the present study, 51 healthy mal...
Martha J. Decker; Berglas, Nancy F; Brindis, Claire D
Through considerable efforts and investments of resources, adolescent pregnancy and birth rates in the United States have decreased significantly over the past two decades. Nonetheless, large disparities persist for many populations of youth. Reducing unintended adolescent pregnancies is considered a “winnable public health battle,” but one that will require innovative thinking and continued persistence. This paper reviews the recent research literature and innovative programmatic efforts to ...
Adolescence, defined as a transition phase toward autonomy and independence, is a natural time of learning and adjustment, particularly in the setting of long-term goals and personal aspirations. It also is a period of heightened sensation seeking, including risk taking and reckless behaviors, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among teenagers. Recent observations suggest that a relative immaturity in frontal cortical neural systems may underlie the adolescent propensity for un...
Allen, Kacie Chanelle
Though the benefits of physical activity are numerous and well-known, very few adolescents are meeting physical activity recommendations. Moreover, past research shows that physical activity declines with increasing age with this decline beginning in adolescence. One approach to promote physical activity is through mobile technology such as a mobile phone. Since mobile phone ownership is relatively high (77%) and there is no digital divide by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status, mobile pho...
Why do some adolescents initiate smoking and continue in young adulthood and others do not? Do young people react to their immediate environment and adjust their behavior to this environment, in other words, do young people behave as chameleons? The detrimental consequences of smoking in combination with the high prevalence of juvenile smoking underline the importance and necessity to focus on the early phases of adolescent smoking. The present thesis focuses on whether and how important pers...
Selemon, L D
Adolescent brain maturation is characterized by the emergence of executive function mediated by the prefrontal cortex, e.g., goal planning, inhibition of impulsive behavior and set shifting. Synaptic pruning of excitatory contacts is the signature morphologic event of late brain maturation during adolescence. Mounting evidence suggests that glutamate receptor-mediated synaptic plasticity, in particular long term depression (LTD), is important for elimination of synaptic contacts in brain deve...
Kreiser, Nicole Lyn
Despite numerous studies documenting the high prevalence of social anxiety in children and adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD), there has been little empirical investigation into methods for the assessment of social anxiety in this population. The purpose of this study was to create an empirically derived screening instrument to measure subjective feelings of social anxiety in adolescents and adults with HFASD. Based on a thorough review of the literature in t...
Bergman Nutley, Sissela; Darki, Fahimeh; Klingberg, Torkel
Practicing a musical instrument is associated with cognitive benefits and structural brain changes in correlational and interventional trials; however, the effect of musical training on cognition during childhood is still unclear. In this longitudinal study of child development we analyzed the association between musical practice and performance on reasoning, processing speed and working memory (WM) during development. Subjects (n = 352) between the ages of 6 and 25 years participated in neuropsychological assessments and neuroimaging investigations (n = 64) on two or three occasions, 2 years apart. Mixed model regression showed that musical practice had an overall positive association with WM capacity (visuo-spatial WM, F = 4.59, p = 0.033, verbal WM, F = 9.69, p = 0.002), processing speed, (F = 4.91, p = 0.027) and reasoning (Raven's progressive matrices, F = 28.34, p effect of parental education and other after school activities. Music players also had larger gray matter volume in the temporo-occipital and insular cortex (p = 0.008), areas previously reported to be related to musical notation reading. The change in WM between the time points was proportional to the weekly hours spent on music practice for both WM tests (VSWM, β = 0.351, p = 0.003, verbal WM, β = 0.261, p = 0.006) but this was not significant for reasoning ability (β = 0.021, p = 0.090). These effects remained when controlling for parental education and other after school activities. In conclusion, these results indicate that music practice positively affects WM development and support the importance of practice for the development of WM during childhood and adolescence. PMID:24431997
Sissela eBergman Nutley
Full Text Available Practicing a musical instrument is associated with cognitive benefits and structural brain changes in correlational and interventional trials; however the effect of musical training on cognition during childhood is still unclear. In this longitudinal study of child development we analyzed the association between musical practice and performance on reasoning, processing speed and working memory (WM during development. Subjects (n = 352 between the ages of 6 and 25 years participated in neuropsychological assessments and neuroimaging investigations (n = 64 on two or three occasions, two years apart. Mixed model regression showed that musical practice had an overall positive association with WM capacity (visuo-spatial WM, F = 4.59, p = 0.033, Verbal WM, F = 9.69, p = 0.002, processing speed, (F = 4.91, p = 0.027 and reasoning (Raven's progressive matrices, F = 28.34, p < 0.001 across all three time points, after correcting for the effect of parental education and other after school activities Music players also had larger gray matter volume in the temporo-occipital and insular cortex (p = 0.008, areas previously reported to be related to musical notation reading. The change in WM between the time points was proportional to the weekly hours spent on music practice for both WM tests (VSWM, β = 0.351, p = 0.003, Verbal WM, β = 0.261, p = 0.006 but this was not significant for reasoning ability (β = 0.021, p = 0.090. These effects remained when controlling for parental education and other afterschool activites. In conclusion, these results indicates that music practice positively affects WM development and support the importance of practice for the development of WM during childhood and adolescence.
Piombino, Pasquale; Ruggiero, Federica; Dell’Aversana Orabona, Giovanni; Scopelliti, Domenico; Bianchi, Alberto; De Simone, Federica; Carnevale, Nina; Brancati, Federica; IENGO, MAURIZIO; Grassia, Maria Gabriella; Cataldo, Rosanna; Califano, Luigi
Abstract Only a few reports in the literature have described the use of specific instruments for assessing the quality of life in adolescents and young adults with cleft lip and palate (CLP). This condition markedly affects their lifestyle, even after surgical treatment. In the present study, we aimed to develop a quality-of-life assessment tool specifically designed for such patients with CLP. Our multidisciplinary team created a questionnaire focused on the physical, psychological, and soci...
Tjora Tore; Hetland Jørn; Aarø Leif; Øverland Simon
Background: Studies on adolescent smoking indicate that the smoking behaviours of their parents, siblings and friends are significant micro-level predictors. Parents’ socioeconomic status (SES) is an important macro-level predictor. We examined the longitudinal relationships between these predictors and the initiation and development of adolescents’ smoking behaviour in Norway. Methods: We employed data from The Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study (NLHB), in which par...
Gh Ahmadzadeh; Malekian, A
Background: Evaluation of psychological problems in children of war veterans with PTSD can be the first step in improving the war – related trauma and interrupting the known phenomenon of transgeneration transmission of this trauma. Methods: Using three self – administered questionnaires, this study was carried out to compare aggression, anxiety, and social development (as some of the most expected mental health problems in this group according to literature) in adolescent children of war vet...
Whittaker, Robyn; Merry, Sally; STASIAK, Karolina; McDowell, Heather; Doherty, Iain; Shepherd, Matthew; Dorey, Enid; Parag, Varsha; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Rodgers, Anthony
Background Prevention of the onset of depression in adolescence may prevent social dysfunction, teenage pregnancy, substance abuse, suicide, and mental health conditions in adulthood. New technologies allow delivery of prevention programs scalable to large and disparate populations. Objective To develop and test the novel mobile phone delivery of a depression prevention intervention for adolescents. We describe the development of the intervention and the results of participants’ self-reported...
Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of psychological problems in children of war veterans with PTSD can be the first step in improving the war – related trauma and interrupting the known phenomenon of transgeneration transmission of this trauma. Methods: Using three self – administered questionnaires, this study was carried out to compare aggression, anxiety, and social development (as some of the most expected mental health problems in this group according to literature in adolescent children of war veterans and those of non-veterans. The two groups were matched regarding sex, academic achievement, stage of education, and economic status of the family. Results: After controlling the level of parental education (as a confounding variable, a higher rate of aggression and anxiety was found in adolescent children of war veterans with PTSD but the two groups showed no significant difference in social development. Conclusion: The higher rate of anxiety and aggression among children of war veterans with PTSD along with many other factors such as low socioeconomic status in this group signifies the importance of mental health screening programs and appropriate interventions in this group. Keywords: Aggression, Social Development, Anxiety, War Veterans, PTSD, Adolescent.
Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Yao, Li
Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated gender differences in brain development through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 158 Chinese normal children and adolescents aged 7.26 to 22.80 years (mean age 15.03+/-4.70 years, 78 boys and 80 girls). Gender groups were matched for measures of age, handedness, education level. The customized brain templates, including T I-weighted image and gray matter (GM)/white matter (WM)/cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) prior probability maps, were created from all participants. Results showed that the total intracranial volume (TIV), global absolute GM and global WM volume in girls were significantly smaller than those in boys. The hippocampus grew faster in girls than that in boys, but the amygdala grew faster in boys than that in girls. The rate of regional GM decreases with age was steeper in the left superior parietal lobule, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, left precuneus, and bilateral supramarginal gyrus in boys compared to girls, which was possibly related to better spatial processing ability in boys. Regional GM volumes were greater in bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus in girls. Regional WM volumes were greater in the left temporal lobe, right inferior parietal and bilateral middle frontal gyrus in girls. The gender differences in the temporal and frontal lobe maybe be related to better language ability in girls. These findings may aid in understanding the differences in cognitive function between boys and girls.
Full Text Available We investigate if concentrative meditation training (CMT offered during adolescent development benefits subsystems of attention using a quasi-experimental design. Attentional alerting, orienting, and conflict monitoring were examined using the Attention Network Test (ANT in 13, 14, and 15 yo children who received CMT as part of their school curriculum (CMT Group: N=79 vs. those who received no such training (Control Group: N=76. Alerting and conflict monitoring, but not orienting, differed between the CMT and Control Group. Only conflict monitoring demonstrated age-related improvements, with smaller conflict effect scores in older vs. younger participants. The influence of CMT on this system was similar to the influence of developmental maturity, with smaller conflict effects in the CMT vs. Control group. To examine if CMT might also bolster conflict-triggered upregulation of attentional control, conflict effects were evaluated as a function of previous trial conflict demands (high conflict vs. low conflict. Smaller current trial conflict effects were observed when previous conflict was high vs. low, suggesting that similar to adults, when previous conflict was high (vs. low children in this age-range proactively upregulated control so that subsequent trial performance was benefitted. The magnitude of conflict-triggered control upregulation was not bolstered by CMT but CMT did have an effect for current incongruent trials preceded by congruent trials. Thus, CMT’s influence on attention may be tractable and specific; it may bolster attentional alerting, conflict monitoring and reactive control, but does not appear to improve orienting.
Dredge, Rebecca; Gleeson, John; Garcia, Xochitl de la Piedad
The measurement of cyberbullying has been marked by several inconsistencies that lead to difficulties in cross-study comparisons of the frequency of occurrence and the impact of cyberbullying. Consequently, the first aim of this study was to develop a measure of experience with and impact of cyberbullying victimization in social networking sites in adolescents. The second aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of a purpose-built measure (Social Networking Experiences Questionnaire [SNEQ]). Exploratory factor analysis on 253 adolescent social networking sites users produced a six-factor model of impact. However, one factor was removed because of low internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha was higher than .76 for the victimization and remaining five impact subscales. Furthermore, correlation coefficients for the Victimization scale and related dimensions showed good construct validity. The utility of the SNEQ for victim support personnel, research, and cyberbullying education/prevention programs is discussed. PMID:26299596
Habermas, Tilmann; Ehlert-Lerche, Silvia; de Silveira, Cybèle
The ontogeny of the ability to describe people culminates in adolescence in the development of the life story. An overarching temporal macrostructure and framing by a prehistory and a future-oriented global evaluation of life helps integrate disparate autobiographical memories into a coherent story. Two life narratives each of 8-, 12-, 16-, and 20-year-olds (N=102) were analyzed in terms of how well-formed their beginnings and endings are and how much they follow a linear temporal order. By age 12, the majority of life narratives began with birth, ended in the present, and followed a chronological order. In late adolescence and early adulthood, more elaborate birth narratives and retrospective evaluations of life and outlooks into the future were added. These formal characteristics were related to biographical practices, biographical knowledge, and fluid intelligence. Text-analytical methods are proposed as a method for the analysis of biographical and autobiographical reasoning and understanding. PMID:19220721
Chen, Chen-Ju; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Tang, Fu-In; Yu, Shu
Smoking-related outcome expectation and self-efficacy have been found to be associated with adolescent smoking initiation. There is, however, a lack of appropriate instruments to investigate early adolescents' smoking outcome expectations and antismoking self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Smoking Outcome Expectation Scale (SOES) and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficacy Scale (ASSES). A total of 232 fifth and sixth graders from four elementary schools in Taiwan participated in the study. Both scales had good content validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. On the basis of exploratory factor analysis, the 6-item SOES with two factors accounted for 54.72% of total variance and the 15-item ASSES with three factors accounted for 56.49% of total variance. The SOES had convergent and discriminant validity and ASSES had convergent validity. The two scales could help school nurses to understand early adolescents' smoking outcome expectation and antismoking self-efficacy and to develop more appropriate antismoking curricula. PMID:25467167
Pellerone, Monica; Tolini, Giacomo; Polopoli, Caterina
Background Literature has demonstrated the adaptive function of identity development and parenting toward manifestation of problem behaviors in adolescence. These dimensions act on both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Methods The objective is to investigate the relationship between identity status, parenting, and adolescent problems, which may manifest through internalized (phobias, obsessions, depression, eating disorders, entropy) and externalized modes (alcohol use and school discomfort). The research involved 198 Italian students (104 males and 94 females) in the 4th year (mean =16.94 years, standard deviation =0.35) and 5th year (mean =17.94 years, standard deviation =0.43) of senior secondary schools, who live in Caltanissetta, a town located in Sicily, Italy. The research lasted for 1 school year. The general group consisted of 225 students with a mortality rate of 12%. They completed an anamnestic questionnaire to provide 1) basic information, 2) alcohol consumption attitude in the past 30 days, and 3) their beliefs about alcohol; the “Ego Identity Process Questionnaire” to investigate identity development; the “Parental Bonding Instrument” to measure the perception of parenting during childhood; and the “Constraints of Mind” to value the presence of internalizing symptoms. Results Data show that identity status influences alcohol consumption. Low-profile identity and excessive maternal control affect the relational dependence and the tendency to perfectionism in adolescents. Among the predictors of alcohol use, there are socioeconomic status, parental control, and the presence of internalizing symptoms. Conclusion Family is the favored context of learning beliefs, patterns, and values that affect the broader regulatory social environment, and for this reason, it is considered the privileged context on which to intervene to reduce the adolescents’ behavior problems. This deviance could be an external manifestation of the difficulty
Killikelly, Clare; Szűcs, Dénes
The transition from late adolescence to young adulthood is often overlooked in the cognitive neuroscience literature. However this is an important developmental period as even older adolescents have not yet reached adult level ability on many cognitive tasks. Adolescents (16-17-year olds) and young adults (23-30-year olds) were tested on a cued task switching paradigm specifically designed to isolate response preparation from response execution. A combined ERP and eletromyographic (EMG) investigation revealed that adolescents have attenuated contingent negative variation (CNV) activity during response preparation followed by larger P3b amplitude and EMG activity in the incorrect response hand during response execution. This is consistent with deficient response preparation and a reactive control strategy. Conversely young adults engaged increased response preparation followed by attenuated P3b activity and early EMG activity in the correct response hand during response execution which indicates a proactive control strategy. Through real time tracking of response-related processing we provide direct evidence of a developmental dissociation between reactive and proactive control. We assert that adoption of a proactive control strategy by adolescents is an important step in the transition to adulthood. PMID:23245218
Full Text Available Introduction. The prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescence is constantly increasing, especially in the last two decades. Adolescence is a period of important changes: body growth and development, sexual development, development of cognitive abilities, change in family relations and between peers, formation of personal identity and personal system of values, making decisions on future occupation etc. Chronic diseases in adolescence. Chronic disorders affect all development issues and represent an additional burden for adolescents. The interaction between chronic disorders and various development issues is complex and two-way: the disease may affect development, and development may affect the disease. Developmental, psychosocial and family factors are of great importance in the treatment of adolescents with chronic disorders. Chronic disorders affect all aspects of adolescent life, including relations with peers, school, nutrition, learning, traveling, entertainment, choice of occupation, plans for the future. Physicians should keep in mind that chronic diseases and their treatment represent only one aspect of person's life. Adolescents with chronic diseases have other needs as well, personal priorities, social roles and they expect these needs to be recognized and respected. Adolescent health care should be adjusted to the life style of adolescents.
Reitz, Ellen; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan; Dalenberg, Wieke; Dubas, Judith; van Aken, Marcel; Overbeek, Geertjan; ter Bogt, Tom; van der Eijnden, Regina; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Timmerman, Greetje; Kunnen, Elske; van Geert, Paul; Dekovic, Maja
This study gives an overview of Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a four-wave longitudinal study of 1297 Dutch adolescents. First, the sample, measures and four sub-projects are described. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to exa
Richter, Linda M.
Young people in their teens constitute the largest age group in the world, in a special stage recognized across the globe as the link in the life cycle between childhood and adulthood. Longitudinal studies in both developed and developing countries and better measurements of adolescent behavior are producing new insights. The physical and psychosocial changes that occur during puberty make manifest generational and early-childhood risks to development, in the form of individual differences in...
Full Text Available Social class, gender, and migration status notably influence social inequalities in the German educational system. Empirical studies reveal that especially male students from Turkish immigrant families belong to the most disadvantaged group with regard to educational opportunities. In order to identify causes for this we reconstruct and contrast biographies of successful and less successful educational careers of male adolescents from Turkish immigrant families. Our theoretical framework is based on the assumption that educational careers depend decisively on the way youths master the twofold challenge connected with adolescence and migration. Adolescent detachment processes are conceived as intergenerational occurrences (cf. King 2002, in which the quality of intergenerational family relationships as well as the biographical treatment of a particular migration project on the part of the parents play a significant role.
Full Text Available In post-war societies adolescents occupy liminal spaces – where social, political, economic, spatial and biological boundaries are still fluid and undetermined – and present a particular challenge for post-war communities as well as service providers. Drawing on a study from two war-affected villages in Sri Lanka, this paper examines the multi-faceted challenges that adolescents face in communities attempting to retain and redefine boundaries, identities, and social and moral regulation in a post-war context. It explores the dynamics of post-war change, especially in the social and moral regulation of sexuality, and its implications for adolescent girls and boys grappling with biological and social transformation—from internalizing gender norms to taking on adult economic roles. A second key concern of this paper is to underline how the post-war political economic context within which their communities are embedded shapes adolescents’ negotiation with personal and social transformation. A third key concern is to highlight the legacies of war in the form of surveillance, silences and complex psychosocial problems that adolescents are confronted in post-war contexts and the risk of cycles of inter-generational violence. Finally, the paper examines the role and relevance of formal services in areas such as education, reproductive health, community mobilization, or psychosocial support in the lives of adolescents. It also considers the often overlooked but fundamental support from families and communities in bolstering the resilience of adolescents as they go through this challenging life phase in difficult and complex circumstances.
Substance use and abuse begin during adolescence. Male and female adolescent humans initiate use at comparable rates, but males increase use faster. In adulthood, more men than women use and abuse addictive drugs. However, some women progress more rapidly from initiation of use to entry into treatment. In animal models, adolescent males and females consume addictive drugs similarly. However, reproductively mature females acquire self-administration faster, and in some models, escalate use more. Sex/gender differences exist in neurobiologic factors mediating both reinforcement (dopamine, opioids) and aversiveness (CRF, dynorphin), as well as intrinsic factors (personality, psychiatric co-morbidities) and extrinsic factors (history of abuse, environment especially peers and family) which influence the progression from initial use to abuse. Many of these important differences emerge during adolescence, and are moderated by sexual differentiation of the brain. Estradiol effects which enhance both dopaminergic and CRF-mediated processes contribute to the female vulnerability to substance use and abuse. Testosterone enhances impulsivity and sensation seeking in both males and females. Several protective factors in females also influence initiation and progression of substance use including hormonal changes of pregnancy as well as greater capacity for self-regulation and lower peak levels of impulsivity/sensation seeking. Same sex peers represent a risk factor more for males than females during adolescence, while romantic partners increase risk for women during this developmental epoch. In summary, biologic factors, psychiatric co-morbidities as well as personality and environment present sex/gender-specific risks as adolescents begin to initiate substance use. PMID:26049025
Belton, Sarahjane; O’ Brien, Wesley; Meegan, Sarah; Woods, Catherine; Issartel, Johann
Background Despite known benefits of regular physical activity for health and well-being, many studies suggest that levels of physical activity in young people are low, and decline dramatically during adolescence. The purpose of the current research was to gather data on adolescent youth in order to inform the development of a targeted physical activity intervention. Methods Cross-sectional data on physical activity levels (using self report and accelerometry), psychological correlates of phy...
Draper, Catherine E; Lisa K Micklesfield; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Pettifor, John M.; Dunger, David B; Norris, Shane A.
Background South Africa (SA) is undergoing multiple transitions with an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases and high levels of overweight and obesity in adolescent girls and women. Adolescence is key to addressing trans-generational risk and a window of opportunity to intervene and positively impact on individuals’ health trajectories into adulthood. Using Intervention Mapping (IM), this paper describes the development of the Ntshembo intervention, which is intended to improve the ...
Naswa Smriti; Marfatia Y
Adolescence (10- 19 years) is a phase of physical growth and development accompanied by sexual maturation, often leading to intimate relationships. Adolescent HIV/AIDS is a separate epidemic and needs to be handled and managed separately from adult HIV. The adolescents can be subdivided into student, slum and street youth; street adolescents being most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Among various risk factors and situations for adolescents contracting HIV virus are adolescent sex workers, child traf...
Meeus, Wim; van de Schoot, Rens; Hawk, Skyler T.; Hale, William W.; Branje, Susan
Co-occurrence of aggression and anxiety might change during adolescence, or stay stable. We studied change and stability of four types of co-occurrence regarding direct aggression and anxiety in adolescence: an anxious and non-aggressive type, an aggressive and non-anxious type, a comorbid aggressive-anxious type and a no problems type. We applied a person-centered approach to assess increases and decreases of these types, and tested various models of intra-individual change of the types: the...
Piombino, Pasquale; Ruggiero, Federica; Dell’Aversana Orabona, Giovanni; Scopelliti, Domenico; Bianchi, Alberto; De Simone, Federica; Carnevale, Nina; Brancati, Federica; Iengo, Maurizio; Grassia, Maria Gabriella; Cataldo, Rosanna; Califano, Luigi
Abstract Only a few reports in the literature have described the use of specific instruments for assessing the quality of life in adolescents and young adults with cleft lip and palate (CLP). This condition markedly affects their lifestyle, even after surgical treatment. In the present study, we aimed to develop a quality-of-life assessment tool specifically designed for such patients with CLP. Our multidisciplinary team created a questionnaire focused on the physical, psychological, and social satisfaction of adolescents and young adults with CLP, which was adapted from 3 dimensions of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. The questionnaire was administered to a randomized sample of 40 adolescents and young adults (aged 16–24 years) with CLP who had completed treatment protocols and 40 (aged 16–24 years) who were not affected by CLP. The statistical results stated that the questionnaire had good reliability and validity; the Cronbach α coefficient was found to be 0.944. Moreover, factorial analysis confirmed the presence of 3 subscales that were the fundamental components of this questionnaire, which is consistent with the areas theoretically proposed and from which the items were designed and selected. Thus, we validated our novel questionnaire that was administered in the present study and proved its consistency. However, further investigations on a larger population would be useful to confirm these findings. PMID:25010834
Brawner, Bridgette M; Baker, Jillian L; Voytek, Chelsea D; Leader, Amy; Cashman, Rebecca R; Silverman, Randee; Peter, Nadja; Buchner, Bradley J; Barnes, Christopher A; Jemmott, Loretta S; Frank, Ian
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States, accounting for the large majority of cervical cancer and anogenital warts cases. Two HPV vaccines are currently licensed and recommended for women and girls. However, vaccination rates have been suboptimal, with evidence of disparities influencing both uptake and series completion among African American and Hispanic adolescents. There has been a dearth of theory-based, behavioral interventions targeted to prevent HPV infection and increase HPV vaccine uptake among urban adolescents. This article describes the development of two skills-based intervention curricula aimed to increase HPV prevention and vaccination among low-income urban adolescent females 9 to 18 years old. Guided by the theory of planned behavior, elicitation research was conducted to elucidate the social psychological factors that underlie HPV vaccination intentions (N = 141). The findings were subsequently used to identify theoretical mediators of behavioral change to drive the intervention. Culturally relevant strategies to promote HPV vaccination were translated into the curricula content. Both curricula were designed to motivate and empower participants to reduce risk of being infected with HPV. Targeting theoretical mediators of behavioral change, derived from the voices of the community, may prove to be successful in increasing HPV vaccination and preventing HPV. PMID:23099659
Cliff, D P; Hesketh, K D; Vella, S A; Hinkley, T; Tsiros, M D; Ridgers, N D; Carver, A; Veitch, J; Parrish, A-M; Hardy, L L; Plotnikoff, R C; Okely, A D; Salmon, J; Lubans, D R
Sedentary behaviour has emerged as a unique determinant of health in adults. Studies in children and adolescents have been less consistent. We reviewed the evidence to determine if the total volume and patterns (i.e. breaks and bouts) of objectively measured sedentary behaviour were associated with adverse health outcomes in young people, independent of moderate-intensity to vigorous-intensity physical activity. Four electronic databases (EMBASE MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, PubMed and Scopus) were searched (up to 12 November 2015) to retrieve studies among 2- to 18-year-olds, which used cross-sectional, longitudinal or experimental designs, and examined associations with health outcomes (adiposity, cardio-metabolic, fitness, respiratory, bone/musculoskeletal, psychosocial, cognition/academic achievement, gross motor development and other outcomes). Based on 88 eligible observational studies, level of evidence grading and quantitative meta-analyses indicated that there is limited available evidence that the total volume or patterns of sedentary behaviour are associated with health in children and adolescents when accounting for moderate-intensity to vigorous-intensity physical activity or focusing on studies with low risk of bias. Quality evidence from studies with robust designs and methods, objective measures of sitting, examining associations for various health outcomes, is needed to better understand if the overall volume or patterns of sedentary behaviour are independent determinants of health in children and adolescents. PMID:26914664
Williams, Kathryn E; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L
Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined the longitudinal relationships between perceived parenting style and psychological flexibility among students at five Australian schools (N= 749) over 6 years, beginning in Grade 7 (50.3% female, mean age 12.39 years). Parenting style was measured in Grades 7 and 12, and psychological flexibility from Grade 9 through 12. Psychological flexibility decreased, on average, with age. Multi-level modelling indicated that authoritarian parenting (low warmth, high control) in Grade 7 predicted later (low) psychological flexibility. Moreover, increases in authoritarian parenting and decreases in authoritative parenting (high warmth and control) were associated with adolescent psychological flexibility across the high school years. Change in parenting predicted future psychological flexibility but did not predict change over time. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that adolescent psychological flexibility in Grade 9 predicted later decreases in authoritarian and increases in authoritative parenting. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how parenting changes and the consequences of such change for the development of psychological flexibility. PMID:22311519
Farrington, David P; Ttofi, Maria M; Coid, Jeremy W
This article investigates the life success at ages 32 and 48 of four categories of males: nonoffenders, adolescence-limited offenders (convicted only at ages 10-20), late-onset offenders (convicted only at ages 21-50), and persistent offenders (convicted at both ages 10-20 and 21-50). In the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, 411 South London males have been followed up from age 8 to 48 in repeated personal interviews. There was considerable continuity in offending over time. Persistent offenders had the longest criminal careers (averaging 18.4 years), and most of them had convictions for violence. Persistent offenders were leading the most unsuccessful lives at ages 32 and 48, although all categories of males became more successful with age. By age 48, the life success of adolescence-limited offenders was similar to that of nonoffenders. The most important risk factors at ages 8-18 that predicted which offenders would persist after age 21 were heavy drinking at age 18, hyperactivity at ages 12-14, and low popularity and harsh discipline at ages 8-10. The most important risk factors that predicted which nonoffenders would onset after age 21 were poor housing and low nonverbal IQ at ages 8-10, high neuroticism at age 16, and anti-establishment attitudes and motoring convictions at age 18. It was suggested that nervousness and neuroticism may have protected children at risk from offending in adolescence and the teenage years. PMID:19172660
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, the National Institute of Mental Health funded the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN under the Advanced Center for Services and Intervention Research (ACSIR mechanism. At the time, CAPTN was believed to be both a highly innovative undertaking and a highly speculative one. One reviewer even suggested that CAPTN was "unlikely to succeed, but would be a valuable learning experience for the field." Objective To describe valuable lessons learned in building a clinical research network in pediatric psychiatry, including innovations intended to decrease barriers to research participation. Methods The CAPTN Team has completed construction of the CAPTN network infrastructure, conducted a large, multi-center psychometric study of a novel adverse event reporting tool, and initiated a large antidepressant safety registry and linked pharmacogenomic study focused on severe adverse events. Specific challenges overcome included establishing structures for network organization and governance; recruiting over 150 active CAPTN participants and 15 child psychiatry training programs; developing and implementing procedures for site contracts, regulatory compliance, indemnification and malpractice coverage, human subjects protection training and IRB approval; and constructing an innovative electronic casa report form (eCRF running on a web-based electronic data capture system; and, finally, establishing procedures for audit trail oversight requirements put forward by, among others, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Conclusion Given stable funding for network construction and maintenance, our experience demonstrates that judicious use of web-based technologies for profiling investigators, investigator training, and capturing clinical trials data, when coupled to innovative approaches to network governance, data management and site management, can reduce the costs and burden and improve the feasibility of
Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J.; Skinner, Geoff; Morgan, Philip J
Purpose: To describe the development and implementation of a smartphone application (app) designed to promote physical activity and reduce screen-time in adolescent boys considered “at-risk” of obesity. Methods: An app was developed to support the delivery of a face-to-face school-based obesity prevention program known as the “Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time” (ATLAS) program. ATLAS was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory and evaluated using a cluster ra...
David Revalds Lubans; Jordan eSmith; Geoff eSkinner; Philip James Morgan
Purpose: The primary aim is to describe the development and implementation of a smartphone application (app) designed to promote physical activity and reduce screen-time in adolescent boys ‘at risk’ of obesity from low-income communities.Methods: An app was developed to support the delivery of a face-to-face school-based obesity prevention program known as the ‘Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time’ (ATLAS) program. ATLAS was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory ...
Kleibeuker, Sietske Willemijn
This thesis focused on the development of creative thinking across adolescence and into adulthood. To this end, a range of creativity tasks, both with and without an fMRI scanner, and before and after training paradigms has been used to ex¬amine both age- and experience-related effects on creative thinking performance during functional brain develop¬ment. Chapter 1 provides a theoretical background for the research described in chapters 2 to 6. In Chapter 2, developmental trajectories of crea...
Shadel, William G; Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Fryer, Craig S
Increased exposure to cigarette advertisements is associated with increases in adolescent smoking but the reasons for this association are not well established. This study evaluated whether self-concept development (operationalized as level of self-conflict) and identifying with the models used in cigarette print advertising contributed to smoking intentions among adolescents. Ninety-five adolescents (ages 11-17) participated in this two session study. In session 1, they rated the extent to which they identified with the models used in 10 current cigarette print ads (the models were isolated digitally from the cigarette advertisements) and their level of self-conflict was assessed. In session 2, participants viewed each of the 10 cigarette advertisements from which the models were drawn and rated their intentions to smoke following exposure to each ad. Model identification was associated with similar levels of post ad exposure smoking intentions for both younger and older adolescents when they also exhibited no self-conflict. A contrasting set of findings emerged for younger and older adolescents when they exhibited high levels of self-conflict: Young adolescents who strongly identified with the models used in cigarette advertisements had higher post ad exposure smoking intentions compared to younger adolescents who weakly identified with the models used in the advertisements; in contrast, older adolescents who weakly identified with the models used in cigarette advertisements had stronger post ad exposure smoking intentions compared to older adolescents who strongly identified with the models used in the advertisements. These results point to the importance of examining developmentally-relevant moderators for the effects of cigarette advertising exposure. PMID:19505768
Full Text Available Monica Pellerone, Giacomo Tolini, Caterina Polopoli Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, Italy Background: Literature has demonstrated the adaptive function of identity development and parenting toward manifestation of problem behaviors in adolescence. These dimensions act on both internalizing and externalizing symptoms.Methods: The objective is to investigate the relationship between identity status, parenting, and adolescent problems, which may manifest through internalized (phobias, obsessions, depression, eating disorders, entropy and externalized modes (alcohol use and school discomfort. The research involved 198 Italian students (104 males and 94 females in the 4th year (mean =16.94 years, standard deviation =0.35 and 5th year (mean =17.94 years, standard deviation =0.43 of senior secondary schools, who live in Caltanissetta, a town located in Sicily, Italy. The research lasted for 1 school year. The general group consisted of 225 students with a mortality rate of 12%. They completed an anamnestic questionnaire to provide 1 basic information, 2 alcohol consumption attitude in the past 30 days, and 3 their beliefs about alcohol; the “Ego Identity Process Questionnaire” to investigate identity development; the “Parental Bonding Instrument” to measure the perception of parenting during childhood; and the “Constraints of Mind” to value the presence of internalizing symptoms.Results: Data show that identity status influences alcohol consumption. Low-profile identity and excessive maternal control affect the relational dependence and the tendency to perfectionism in adolescents. Among the predictors of alcohol use, there are socioeconomic status, parental control, and the presence of internalizing symptoms.Conclusion: Family is the favored context of learning beliefs, patterns, and values that affect the broader regulatory social environment, and for this reason, it is considered the privileged
Spaeth, Michael; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.
The literature proposes that leisure boredom may systematically increase during adolescence. Moreover, some authors assume that this hypothesized developmental trend is associated with increases in youthful delinquency and depression. Individual dispositions (e.g., temperamental disinhibition) are believed to exacerbate the relationship between…
Fredlund, Cecilia; Svensson, Frida; Svedin, Carl Goran; Priebe, Gisela; Wadsby, Marie
Lifetime experience of selling sex among adolescents was investigated together with sociodemographic correlates, parent-child relationship, and the existence of people to confide in. Changes over time regarding the selling of sex were investigated through a comparison of data from 2004 and 2009. This study was carried out using 3,498 adolescents…
Kretschmer, Tina; Veenstra, Rene; Dekovic, Maja; Oldehinkel, Albertine
n contrast to victimization, prior research on the antecedents and outcomes of bullying perpetration has provided little conclusive knowledge. Some adolescent bullies may be well adjusted and popular among peers, while other bullies are rejected and lack self-control. There is also great variation i
Shim, Soyeon; Serido, Joyce; Barber, Bonnie L.
With the advent of Internet technology and rapidly changing consumer environments, the societal role played by today's adolescents is significantly increasing. They are becoming more influential, not merely as consumers of products and services but also as coproducers in the marketplace. In this paper, we contend that consumption is central to the…
McGinn, Marion; Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada
This paper explores the use of a three dimensional virtual world (3-DVW) to delivery assertiveness training to young adolescents. The case study aims to understand how a sense of presence in VWs facilitates and affect the performance of students role-playing activities to enhance their ability to resist sexual coercion. The results indicate that a…
Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan K.; Ahmed, Tahmeed
This study examines the extent and type of sexually harassing behavior or intimidations unmarried adolescent girls experienced on their way to school, college or social visits and type of perpetrators in victims' view in rural Bangladesh using data of the 2004 National Nutrition Programme baseline survey. The survey collected self-reported data on…
Stachowitz, Annie L.
Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study sought to examine a commonly used social-emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition, Self-Report of Personality (BASC-2, SRP), for the emergence of a common profile of…
This dissertation investigated how sex-related online behaviors shape sexual developmental processes in adolescence, and how Internet use and online behaviors are embedded in other, offline influencing systems in young people's lives.The overarching aims of the eight empirical studies, which utilize
Magid, Viktoriya; Moreland, Angela D.
A systematic review was conducted on the role of substance use initiation in subsequent use and substance-related problems among adolescents. Specifically, we examine previous studies to identify whether age of onset predicts subsequent levels of misuse; we also posit reasons for this association that have been suggested within the literature. In…
Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa
There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…
Bharath, Srikala; Kumar, K. V. Kishore
Life Skills Education (LSE) is a novel promotional program that teaches generic life skills through participatory learning methods of games, debates, role-plays, and group discussion. Conceptual understanding and practicing of the skills occurs through experiential learning in a non-threatening setting. Such initiatives provide the adolescent with…
Kirby, Kimberly C.; Versek, Brian; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Meyers, Kathleen; Benishek, Lois A.; Bresani, Elena; Washio, Yukiko; Arria, Amelia; Meyers, Robert J.
We describe a project focused on training parents to facilitate their treatment-resistant adolescent's treatment entry and to manage their child after entry into community-based treatment. Controlled studies show that Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a unilateral treatment that fosters treatment entry of adults; however,…
Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante
The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children ("N" = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on…
Why do some adolescents initiate smoking and continue in young adulthood and others do not? Do young people react to their immediate environment and adjust their behavior to this environment, in other words, do young people behave as chameleons? The detrimental consequences of smoking in combination
ter Bogt, Tom; Raaijmakers, Quinten; van Wel, Frits
Work ethic is part of a broader field of attitudes, identified as cultural conservatism. The results of this longitudinal study--three repeated measurements with 620 adolescents and one of their parents as participants--show that parents' social economic status and educational level are associated with their cultural conservatism, and with the…
In the highest of need for a transformative new pedagogy with adolescent English Language Learners, I designed and conducted this qualitative case study to answer the questions on the in-depth meaning of innovative teaching practices in new times. Grounded in the sociocultural perspectives, and in accordance with the qualitative case study…
Griffin, William V.
This book addresses the basic issues that require resolution in the design of an effective, comprehensive independent living program for adolescents who are moving out of foster care placements. It provides recommendations for improving the delivery of services and encourages adoption of certain policies and practices to improve conditions…
The purpose of this study was not to disprove the effects of the current, common remedial literacy course design and the literacy practices within that help adolescent RLLs pass statewide assessment tests, but to describe the potential long-term impact of an innovative comprehensive approach to literacy (CAL) framed through an integrated course…
Schwinn, Traci Marie; Hopkins, Jessica Elizabeth; Schinke, Steven Paul
Objectives: Girls' rates of drug use have met up with and, in some instances, surpassed boys' rates. Although girls and boys share risk and protective factors associated with drug use, girls also have gender-specific risks. Interventions to prevent girls' drug use must be tailored to address the dynamics of female adolescence. Methods: One such…
Commissariat, Persis V; Kenowitz, Joslyn R; Trast, Jeniece; Heptulla, Rubina A; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S
This study explored the incorporation of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) into self-identity among adolescents. Guided interviews explored 40 adolescents' views of T1DM in relation to their sense of self and relationships with others. Responses were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results revealed that the entire sample described T1DM as a significant burden; many described how T1DM made them feel less "normal." Adolescents described both positive and negative aspects of self-management in social relationships, though most reported benefits in sharing T1DM with friends. Females were more likely to share information about T1DM and to describe positive changes in self-perception as a result of T1DM. The psychosocial processes related to integration of T1DM into self-identity described in these qualitative data provide hypothesis-generating findings that can guide future quantitative research examining incorporation of T1DM into adolescent self-identity in relation to measures of self-esteem, peer orientation, self-management, and glycemic control. PMID:26893304
Maxwell, Melissa A.; Cole, David A.
One community sample (N = 607) of youths generated self-reported responses to body dissatisfaction, from which the Adolescent Responses to Body Dissatisfaction (ARBD) inventory was constructed. A 2nd, similar sample (N = 830) completed this measure as well as measures of coping, body dissatisfaction, body mass index, depressive symptoms, and…
Lear, Julia Graham; And Others
In 1981 the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation provided funds to 20 teaching hospitals to support health services to high-risk adolescents (young people living in communities with high rates of pregnancy, drug abuse, alcohol abuse, accidents, homicide, suicide, and depression). The experiences of these institutions are described. (Author/MLW)
Stepp, Stephanie D.
Recognizable symptoms and features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) appear during adolescence. However, there has been resistance to diagnose or research this disorder prior to adulthood because of clinical lore that BPD is a long-standing illness and that personality traits are not stable until adulthood. This has resulted in little…
Morton, Katie L; Barling, Julian; Rhodes, Ryan E; Mâsse, Louise C; Zumbo, Bruno D; Beauchamp, Mark R
We draw upon transformational leadership theory to develop an instrument to measure transformational parenting for use with adolescents. First, potential items were generated that were developmentally appropriate and evidence for content validity was provided through the use of focus groups with parents and adolescents. We subsequently provide evidence for several aspects of construct validity of measures derived from the Transformational Parenting Questionnaire (TPQ). Data were collected from 857 adolescents (M(age) = 14.70 years), who rated the behaviors of their mothers and fathers. The results provided support for a second-order measurement model of transformational parenting. In addition, positive relationships between mothers' and fathers' transformational parenting behaviors, adolescents' self-regulatory efficacy for physical activity and healthy eating, and life satisfaction were found. The results of this research support the application of transformational leadership theory to parenting behaviors, as well as the construct validity of measures derived from the TPQ. PMID:21984642
Nelson, Melissa C.; Lytle, Leslie A.
Sweetened beverage and fast food intake have been identified as important targets for obesity prevention. However, there are few brief dietary assessment tools available to evaluate these behaviors among adolescents. The objective of this research was to examine reliability and validity of a 22-item dietary screener assessing adolescent consumption of specific caloric and non-caloric beverages (9 items) and fast food (13 items). The screener was administered to adolescents (ages 11–18 years), recruited from the Minneapolis/St. Paul metro region. One sample of adolescents completed test-retest reliability of the screener (n=33, primarily Caucasian). Another adolescent sample completed the screener along with 3 24-hour dietary recalls to assess criterion validity (n=59 Caucasian). Test-retest assessments were completed approximately 7–14 days apart, and agreement between the two administrations of the screener was substantial, with most items yielding Spearman correlations and Kappa statistics that were >0.60. When compared to the “gold standard” dietary recall data, findings indicate that the validity of the screener items assessing adolescents’ intake of regular soda, sports drinks, milk and water was fair. However, the differential assessment periods captured by the two methods (i.e., one month for the screener vs. 3 days for the recalls) posed challenges in analysis and made it impossible to assess the validity of some screener items. Overall while these screener items largely represent reliable measures with fair validity, our findings highlight the challenges inherent in the validation of brief dietary assessment tools. PMID:19328271
Full Text Available Prospective memory (PM is an important cognitive function vital for day-to-day functioning. Although there has been extensive research into the decline of PM in older adulthood, little is known about its developmental trajectory throughout adolescence, a time of important brain maturation. In the present study, the development of PM was examined in 85 participants across the following groups: 12 to 13-year-olds (n = 19, 14 to 15-year-olds (n = 21, 16 to 17-year-olds (n = 19, and 18 to 19-year-olds (n = 26. A 30-cue (30 minute event-based PM task (with font-colour stimuli as PM cues and a lexical-decision task as the ongoing task was used while recording Event-Related Potentials (ERPs. The well-established neural correlates of PM, the N300 and parietal positivity, were examined across the age groups. In addition, hierarchical multiple regressions were used to examine the unique contribution of executive functioning measures (viz., the Self-Ordered Pointing Task [SOPT], the Stroop task, and Trail Making Test [TMT] on the ERP components of PM (after controlling for age. First, the established components of ERPs associated with prospective remembering (i.e., N300 and parietal positivity were detected for each age group. Second, although there were no significant age- group differences on the amplitude of the N300, the amplitude of the parietal positivity was found to be different between the 12 to 13-year-olds and 18 to 19-year-olds (viz., the 12 to 13-year-olds had the highest amplitude. Third, for the contribution of executive functioning measures on the amplitude of the ERP components of PM, the regression on the N300 was not significant, however, the SOPT beta weights were significant predictors of the amplitude of the parietal positivity. This relationship was found to be specific for the central and right electrode region. These findings are discussed within the context of brain development and executive functioning along with particular task
Alice Ran Cai
Full Text Available Background: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA affects around 1 in 1,000 young people (YP in the UK. Flare-ups of JIA cause joint pain and swelling, and are often accompanied with fatigue, stiffness, sleep problems, higher negative emotions, and reduced participation in activities. As a result, JIA can negatively impact educational, psychosocial, and physical development and wellbeing, especially during puberty. In addition, missing medications, poor clinic attendance, as well as low levels of physical activity complicate the management of this disease in adolescence. Using smartphone technologies to engage YP with their care has the potential to improve health outcomes for this age group. No such smartphone app has yet been developed in collaboration with YP with JIA and consultations with Healthcare Professionals (HCPs. Aims: To develop a smartphone app that facilitates collection of information deemed important by YP with JIA and clinicians involved in their care. Methods: Phase 1 carried out five focus groups (FGs: two with YP (one with 10- to 15-year olds and one with 16- to 24-year olds, one with parents, and two with HCPs working in paediatric and adult rheumatology. Participants were guided by semi-structured interview questions focusing on how to develop an interesting and easy-to-use app that can help YP improve self-management and increase understanding and adherence to treatment. Phase 2 developed the app by integrating participants’ ideas and suggestions. The app’s acceptability and usability were then evaluated through four FGs: two with YP (one with 10- to 14-year olds and one with 16- to 23-year olds and two with HCPs. Participants were provided with the app on a smartphone and were asked to navigate through its various features. Participants’ perceptions of the app and suggestions for improvements were sought via qualitative interview responses and user observations. Results: Qualitative content analysis was used to
Full Text Available Secondary nocturnal enuresis is generally seen between 5 and 7 years of age and it is rarely encountered when compared with the primary incontinence. Patients with suggested diagnosis of secondary nocturnal enuresis should be examined for neurological and spinal anomalies and diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, renal failure and urinary tract infection should be ruled out in differential diagnosis (1-3. Herein, we are presenting case reports of adolescent patients with secondary nocturnal enuresis refractory to medical therapy and developed after in-vehicle and extravehicular accidents.
Akan, Serkan; Ürkmez, Ahmet; Yildirim, Caglar; Sahin, Aytac; Yüksel, Özgür Haki; Verit, Ayhan
Secondary nocturnal enuresis is generally seen between 5 and 7 years of age and it is rarely encountered when compared with the primary incontinence. Patients with suggested diagnosis of secondary nocturnal enuresis should be examined for neurological and spinal anomalies and diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, renal failure and urinary tract infection should be ruled out in differential diagnosis (1-3). Herein, we are presenting case reports of adolescent patients with secondary nocturnal enuresis refractory to medical therapy and developed after in-vehicle and extravehicular accidents. PMID:26428651
M. Loreto Martínez Guzman
Full Text Available El desarrollo adolescente depende de las fortalezas y vulnerabilidades de cada adolescente, como también de los contextos de vida en que ellos se desenvuelven. Este artículo amplía el foco de análisis desde lo individual a la comprensión de las características de los contextos de vida de los adolescentes, y de las oportunidades que estos ofrecen para desarrollar competencias y habilidades. Analiza dos desafíos para la formulación de políticas (inequidad social, fortalecimiento del capital social y propone reemplazar el énfasis en las conductas de riesgo por la promoción de la competencia en ellos. Enfatiza la importancia de generar indicadores positivos del bienestar del adolescente que permitan evaluar la calidad del desarrollo a futuro y discute propuestas de acción enmarcadas en un enfoque comunitario del desarrollo juvenil.Adolescent development results not only from the strengths and vulnerabilities of the individual adolescent but from the opportunities available in the contexts where adolescents interact daily. This article broadens the understanding of adolescent development by focusing on the role and opportunities that daily life contexts afford to promote competencies and skills in adolescents. The article addresses two challenges for social policy, namely social inequality and the enhancement of social capital. It argues for a positive view of adolescence that focuses on the promotion of competence rather than at-risk behaviors. The need to develop positive indicators of adolescent development and well-being is stressed and guidelines for action are discussed.
武永新; 邓林园; 张馨月; 孔荣
目的:探讨亲子沟通与冲突评价在父母冲突与青少年自我发展之间的中介作用.方法:采用问卷调查的方式对1610名初一到高三学生进行调查.结果:①相关分析表明,除过去的危机维度,青少年感知的父母冲突与青少年的自尊和自我同一性之间均呈显著负相关(P＜0.05),亲子沟通与自尊和自我同一性之间均呈显著正相关(P＜0.01).②结构方程模型表明,加入青少年对父母冲突的认知评价和亲子沟通这两个因素后,父母冲突对青少年自我发展的直接作用不再显著:其中在父母冲突与青少年自我同一性的关系上,亲子沟通起完全中介作用,但冲突评价的中介作用不显著;但在父母冲突与青少年自尊的关系上,亲子沟通的中介效应占74.70％,冲突评价的中介效应占25.30％.结论:在父母冲突与青少年自尊的关系上,亲子沟通与冲突评价均起中介作用,父母冲突与青少年自我同一性的关系上,亲子沟通起完全中介作用,但冲突评价的中介作用不显著.%Objective:To explore the mediating effects of parent-adolescent communication on the relationship between adolescents' perceived inter-parental conflict and adolescent self-development.Methods:1610 students from Grade seven to twelve were investigated with a questionnaire survey.Results:①Correlation analysis showed that,adolescents' perceived inter-parental conflict was negatively correlated with self-esteem and self-identity(P＜0.05),while parent-child communication was positively related to self-esteem and self-identity(P＜0.01),except the past crisis dimension.②Structural equation modeling showed that,when adding the factors of conflict appraisal and parent-adolescent communication,the direct effect of inter-parental conflict on self-development disappeared.Parent-adolescent communication played a full mediating role between inter-parental conflict and adolescent self-identity,moreover,it also played
Shellmer, Diana A; Dew, Mary Amanda; Mazariegos, George; DeVito Dabbs, Annette
Applying principles of user-centered design, we iteratively developed and tested the prototype of TPP, an mHealth application to promote medication adherence and enhance communication about medication management between adolescents and primary caregivers. A purposive sample of seven adolescent solid organ transplant recipients who were ≥one yr post-transplant and their primary caregivers participated. Participants completed up to three face-to-face laboratory usability sessions, a 6-week field test, and a debriefing session. Primary caregivers participated in an additional usability telephone session. Participants completed usability and satisfaction measures. Sample included liver (n = 4), heart (n = 2), and lung (n = 1) recipients aged 11-18 yr (57% were female, 86% were Caucasian), and nine primary caregivers aged 42-61 yr (88.9% were parents, 88% were female, 88% were Caucasian). Ninety percent of the adolescents endorsed the graphs or logs of missed/late medication dosing as useful and 100% endorsed the remaining features (e.g., medication list, dose time reminders/warnings) as useful. All adolescents expressed interest in using TPP for monitoring medications and satisfaction with the automatic messaging between adolescent and caregiver versions of the application. Adolescents unanimously found TPP easy to use. TPP shows promise as an mHealth adherence tool. PMID:26916967
Sirin, Selcuk R; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren; Cressen, Jessica; Gupta, Taveeshi; Ahmed, Sammy F; Novoa, Alfredo D
This three-wave longitudinal study of 173 Latino adolescents (M = 16.16 years, SD = 0.65) is designed to understand the role of discrimination-related stress in mental health trajectories during middle to late adolescence with attention to differences due to immigration status. The results of the growth curve analysis showed that anxious-depressed, withdrawn-depressed, and somatic complaints significantly decreased over time. Furthermore, although discrimination-related stress was found to be significantly related to the trajectories of three types of mental health symptoms, the results revealed that immigration status moderated these relations such that discrimination-related stress was significantly related to these outcomes for Latino youth whose parents were born in the United States, while this relation was not significant for Latino children of immigrants. PMID:25676605
Jennifer L. Cornish
Full Text Available The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®. With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed “normal” (Wistar Kyoto, WKY rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR, a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day or distilled water (dH2O. The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in “normal” WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls.
Full Text Available The group included adolescents from secondary school and some students. The group had weekly sessions or twice on mounth. The adolescents had varied simptoms: depressive, anxiety, psychosomatic disorders, learning difficulties, cunduct problems. All of adolescents were common on many problems in social interactions. The goal of therapeutic work were: to increase assertiveness skills and to reduce the anxious in social situations. The adolescents in group raised a self-esteem and developed some assertiveness skills: eye contact" and effective communication skills, persistence, refusing and requesting, giving and receiving critism, etc. The methods of work and techniques were based on principles of cognitive-behaviour therapy.
Ladouceur, Cecile D; Peper, Jiska S.; Crone, Eveline A.; Dahl, Ronald E.
There have been rapid advances in understanding a broad range of changes in brain structure and function during adolescence, and a growing interest in identifying which of these neurodevelopmental changes are directly linked with pubertal maturation—at least in part because of their potential to provide insights into the numerous emotional and behavioral health problems that emerge during this developmental period. This review focuses on what is known about the influence of puberty on white m...
Petersen, Poul Erik; Christensen, Lisa Bøge
Objectives. This paper describes the occurrence of dental caries in children and adolescents in Greenland and the disease pattern is analysed across districts and over time. Study design. Cross-sectional population surveys of children aged 6, 12 and 15 years. Methods. Data were stored in the oral health information system established for the Greenland Public Dental Health Services, recording the dental health status of children served by the programme. The participation rate is approximately ...
Pedro Carneiro; Costas Meghir; Matthias Parey
We study the intergenerational effects of maternal education on children's cognitive achievement, behavioral problems, grade repetition and obesity. We address the endogeneity of maternal schooling by instrumenting it with variation in schooling costs during the mother's adolescence. Using matched data from the female participants of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and their children, we can control for mother's ability and family background factors. Our results show s...
Deville, W.L.J.M.; Santosham, M.; Barlow, A.; Tingey, L.L.
Native American and indigenous populations experience the greatest behavioural health disparities in the world. A constellation of factors impacting Native American Tribes contributes to high rates and co-morbidity of mental health disorders, substance use and sexually transmitted infection (STI), and considerable barriers to prevention and treatment. In Native communities, adolescents are the subgroup most affected by these behavioural health disparities. Suicide is sometimes an outcome of c...
Lundeen, Elizabeth A.; Norris, Shane A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mehta, Neil K.; Richter, Linda M; Stein, Aryeh D.
Background: Given global trends toward earlier onset of puberty and the adverse psychosocial consequences of early puberty, it is important to understand the childhood predictors of pubertal timing and tempo. Objective: We examined the association between early growth and the timing and tempo of puberty in adolescents in South Africa. Methods: We analyzed prospectively collected data from 1060 boys and 1135 girls participating in the Birth-to-Twenty cohort in Soweto, South Africa. Height-for-...
Nauclér, Kerstin; Magnusson, Eva
During the last two decades there has been an increasing tendency to regard reading and writing as linguistic activities. In numerous studies, pre-school children’s linguistic and metalinguistic abilities have been related to their emerging reading and writing skills during the first school years. However, the frequency of such studies tends to decrease as the children grow older, and there are very few investigations of reading and spelling skills of adolescents.
Singh, Manpreet K.; Delbello, Melissa P.; Fleck, David E.; Shear, Paula K.; Strakowski, Stephen M.
This study examines psychomotor inhibition, sustained attention, and inhibitory attentional control in adolescents (ages 12–18 years) with a nonmanic mood disorder and with a first-degree relative with bipolar I disorder (MD, N = 20) and demographically matched healthy children of parents without any psychiatric disorder (HC, N = 13). MD participants showed abnormal performance in stop signal reaction time and latency (d = 1.28 and 1.64, respectively), sustained attention response bias (d = 0...
Dodge, Kenneth A.; McCourt, Sandra N.
Adolescent chronic antisocial behavior is costly but concentrated in a relatively small number of individuals. The search for effective preventive interventions draws from empirical findings of three kinds of gene-by-environment interactions: (1) parenting behaviors mute the impact of genes; (2) genes alter the impact of traumatic environmental experiences such as physical abuse and peer social rejection; and (3) individuals and environments influence each other in a dynamic developmental cas...
Zehr, Julia L.; Nichols, Liana R.; Schulz, Kalynn M.; Sisk, Cheryl L.
Hippocampal function, including spatial cognition and stress responses, matures during adolescence. In addition, hippocampal neuron structure is modified by gonadal steroid hormones, which increase dramatically at this time. This study investigated pubertal changes in dendritic complexity of dentate gyrus neurons. Dendrites, spines, and cell bodies of Golgiimpregnated neurons from the granule cell layer were traced in pre-, mid-, and late pubertal male Syrian hamsters (21, 35, and 49 days of ...
Foshee, Vangie A.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Mathias, Jasmine
This study determined the shape of trajectories from ages 13 to 19 of four types of dating abuse perpetration and examined whether the demographic characteristics of sex, minority status, socioeconomic status, and family structure systematically explained variation in the trajectories. The data are from 5 waves of data collected from 973 adolescents participating in the control group of a randomized trial. The mean trajectory for psychological dating abuse was positive linear, but the mean tr...
Gosk Urszula; Kuracki Kamil
In the presented paper, the issue of recognition and building of resources in adolescent pupils was discussed, referring to salutogenic concept of A. Antonovsky and Conservation of Resources Theory of S. E. Hobfoll. Coming out from developmental pedagogy and positive orientation in social sciences, benefits of scientific and educational actions concentrated on identifying pupils’ resources and supporting them in generating them, were shown. On the basis of Polish and foreign literature, empir...
Researchers explored the relationship among adolescent self-reported amounts of texting and self-esteem, self-construal, autonomy, and attachment. Data were collected from a high school in an urban area in the Mountain West. Participants included 180 students (53% female). Participants were asked to self-describe their volume of texting as high, medium, or low. Participants were also asked to complete the following scales: Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Self-Construal Scale, the Case Invent...
Oh, Janet S.; Fuligni, Andrew J.
The influence of immigrant-background adolescents' heritage language (HL) proficiency and use of the language on parent-adolescent relationships and ethnic identity was investigated in a sample of 414 adolescents from Latin American and Asian backgrounds. HL proficiency, but not language use, was positively associated with the quality of…
Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III
Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…
Gale, Christopher J; Cluett, Elizabeth R; Laver-Bradbury, Cathy
There are disproportionately fewer studies examining the role of the father in the development of child and adolescent psychopathology. This is pertinent in the field of eating disorders, where there is a wealth of research related to family influences and the value of family-based interventions. This article reviews the key themes within the literature around the potential impact of the father-child relationship on the development and maintenance of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa in young people. The critical review searched relevant health and social care databases, as well as manually searching key journals in the eating disorder field. In these results, 13 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were critiqued, with 8 being taken forward for discussion. The 8 studies identified key themes within the relationship of the father and child (particularly daughters) around conflict and communication, parental protection and psychological control, emotional regulation and self-esteem, and self-perfectionism. All of these factors appear to influence the child's level of self-determining autonomy, which in turn can impact maladaptive eating attitudes and psychopathology. Tentative recommendations are made around working with fathers to encourage free expression of ideas and foster a sense of autonomy through compromise and collaboration with their adolescent child. Further research around these themes in relation to other family members is also suggested. PMID:23597275
K. G. Kamalov
Full Text Available Aim is examine and compare the relationship of high and normal levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH with indicators of physical and sexual development of puberty boys. Materials and methods. The study included adolescents 2 age groups: in the 1st group consisted of boys 11–13 years (n = 76; the 2nd group consisted of adolescents 14–17 years (n = 221. Conducted anthropometric survey of young men and adolescents: height, weight, Quetelet index. Sexual development included an assessment of pubertal development of scale Tanner: In the testes, pubic body hair H, the length of the penis, as well as the index of masculinization (IM. The concentration of TSH was measured using standard test kits “Immunotech” company (Czech Republic. According to the results of TSH determination of the boys were divided into 3 groups: 1st subgroup – TTG 0.5–2.6 μIU/l; 2nd subgroup – 4.2–10.0 μIU/l, 3rd subgroup – 10.0 μIU/l. For statistical processing of the material used Excel spreadsheets TC 2000. For quantitative characteristics the average value (M and standard deviations of the mean (m, and these are not the characteristics of parametric (Me – the median. Credibility in groups determined by the criteria of article.Results. Boys 11–13 years parameters of physical development in the 1st and 2nd subgroups in TSH were not statistically different. Indicators of sexual development have tended to be the best in one subgroup compared to 2 (especially in the testicles and MI. The young men years 14–17 physical development statistically significantly different in subgroups 1 and 3 levels of TSH. It was the best in class. Sexual development is also statistically significantly different especially between 1st and 3rd subgroups of V and testicular infarction, as well as in terms of G. In a certain part of 14–17 year old boys in the background marked clinical and laboratory manifestations of hypothyroidism (primary tended to the phenomenon of
Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…
Maria Gisele dos Santos
been studied as to its inflammatory aspect. Among the inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein (CRP has been extensively studied in individuals with CVD, including those apparently healthy. High CRP levels have been related to risk factors for atherosclerosis: family history of coronary artery disease (CAD, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking and sedentary lifestyle. A great part of these risk factors may be influenced by lifestyle modifications, such as changes in eating habits and engagement in physical activities. The effects of physical activity on CRP levels in adulthood are documented in the literature, however little is known on the influence of an active or sedentary lifestyle of children and adolescents on CRP levels. Thus, the objective of this study is to review the impact of physical activity of children and adolescents on CRP levels and the risk factors for the development of CVD.
Prescott, Tonya L; Phillips II, Gregory; DuBois, L. Zachary; Bull, Sheana S; Mustanski, Brian
Background Using social networking websites to recruit research participants is increasingly documented in the literature, although few studies have leveraged these sites to reach those younger than 18 years. Objective To discuss the development and refinement of a recruitment protocol to reach and engage adolescent gay, bisexual, and other teenaged men who have sex with men (AGBM). Participants were recruited for development and evaluation activities related to Guy2Guy, a text messaging–based human immunodeficiency virus infection prevention program. Methods Eligibility criteria included being between 14 to 18 years old; being a cisgender male; self-identifying as gay, bisexual, and/or queer; being literate in English, exclusively owning a cell phone, enrolled in an unlimited text messaging plan, intending to keep their current phone number over the next 6 months, and having used text messaging for at least the past 6 months. Recruitment experiences and subsequent steps to refine the Internet-based recruitment strategy are discussed for 4 research activities: online focus groups, content advisory team, beta test, and randomized controlled trial (RCT). Recruitment relied primarily on Facebook advertising. To a lesser extent, Google AdWords and promotion through partner organizations working with AGBM youth were also utilized. Results Facebook advertising strategies were regularly adjusted based on preidentified recruitment targets for race, ethnicity, urban-rural residence, and sexual experience. The result was a diverse sample of participants, of whom 30% belonged to a racial minority and 20% were Hispanic. Facebook advertising was the most cost-effective method, and it was also able to reach diverse recruitment goals: recruitment for the first focus group cost an average of US $2.50 per enrolled participant, and it took 9 days to enroll 40 participants; the second focus group cost an average of US $6.96 per enrolled participant, and it took 11 days to enroll 40
Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Harper, Gary W; Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school- and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent males ages 15-19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one's sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., "top" or "bottom"); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who may be accessing SEM. PMID:25677334
K. G. Kamalov
Full Text Available Republic of Dagestan is a region with medium and severe iodine deficiency, which is associated with the development of endemic goiter and subclinical hypothyroidism. Children with goiter with or without it with SG had the worst indicators of physical, psychological and sexual development, tended to chronic somatic pathology.Objective. To examine the connection between the elevated TSH level with indicators of physical and sexual health of boys.Material and methodThere were examined 297 adolescents aged 11-13 years (76 persons in the beginning of puberty and 14-17 years (221 people in the middle and the end of puberty. The anthropometric studies of height, weight were conducted, body mass index BMI was calculated, the degree of sexual development: R - pubic body hair, G-degree sexual development, testicular volume by Prader and the size of the penis, index of virilization, level tireotroponogo hormone (TSH were assessed.Results showed that physical development of boys already in the early stages of dysfunction of the thyroid gland tends to lag behind. This is more evident in the mid to completion of puberty (boys and adolescents 14-17 years of age, secondary sexual characteristics in boys 11-13 years more marked in those with a TSH level of 0.5 to 2.6 IU/l compared with peers with TSH levels from 4.2 to 10.0 IU/l In the subgroup of 14-17 year old boys and teenagers, there is a tendency to the phenomenon of "macroorchidism" beginning at the stage of subclinical hypothyroidism.
Hart, Roger; Doherty, Dorota A; Frederiksen, Hanne;
We hypothesised that antenatal exposure to ubiquitous phthalates may lead to an earlier menarche and a lower prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCO) in adolescence. The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study recruited 3000 women at 18...... (DEHP) were associated with a non-significant tendency towards an earlier age at menarche (p=0.069). Uterine volume was positively associated with mono-(carboxy-iso-octyl) phthalate (MCiOP) (p=0.018). Exposure to monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and the sum of all phthalate metabolites (Σall phth.m) was...
Full Text Available In the presented paper, the issue of recognition and building of resources in adolescent pupils was discussed, referring to salutogenic concept of A. Antonovsky and Conservation of Resources Theory of S. E. Hobfoll. Coming out from developmental pedagogy and positive orientation in social sciences, benefits of scientific and educational actions concentrated on identifying pupils’ resources and supporting them in generating them, were shown. On the basis of Polish and foreign literature, empirical research treating about pupils’ resource, was analyzed, with special attention put to the sense of coherence and its components, stress management and behavior fostering health.
Esther I. de Bruin
Full Text Available Dermatoglyphics, ridge constellations on the hands and feet, are permanently formed by the second trimester of pregnancy. Consequently, they are considered “fossilized” evidence of a specific prenatal period. A high frequency of dermatoglyphic anomalies, or a high rate of dermatoglyphic asymmetry (discordance, is an indication of developmental instability (prenatal disturbances prior to 24-week gestation. Most dermatoglyphic studies in psychiatry focus on adult schizophrenia. Studies on dermatoglyphic deviances and autism are sparse, include severely disturbed and intellectually retarded patients with autism, and are carried out mainly in non-Western European populations. In this study, finger print patterns, atd-angles, and palmar flexion crease patterns (PFCs are compared between Western European adolescent teenage males, of average intellect, with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; n=46 and typically developing adolescent teenage males (TD; n=49. Boys with ASD had a higher rate of discordance in their finger print patterns than TD boys. Thus, the hypothesized prenatal disturbances that play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia and severe autism might not be specific to these severe psychiatric disorders but might also be involved in the etiology of varying degrees of ASD.
Oldfield, Jeremy; Humphrey, Neil; Hebron, Judith
Research has identified multiple risk factors for the development of behaviour difficulties. What have been less explored are the cumulative effects of exposure to multiple risks on behavioural outcomes, with no study specifically investigating these effects within a population of young people with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND). Furthermore, it is unclear whether a threshold or linear risk model better fits the data for this population. The sample included 2660 children and 1628 adolescents with SEND. Risk factors associated with increases in behaviour difficulties over an 18-month period were summed to create a cumulative risk score, with this explanatory variable being added into a multi-level model. A quadratic term was then added to test the threshold model. There was evidence of a cumulative risk effect, suggesting that exposure to higher numbers of risk factors, regardless of their exact nature, resulted in increased behaviour difficulties. The relationship between risk and behaviour difficulties was non-linear, with exposure to increasing risk having a disproportionate and detrimental impact on behaviour difficulties in child and adolescent models. Interventions aimed at reducing behaviour difficulties need to consider the impact of multiple risk variables. Tailoring interventions towards those exposed to large numbers of risks would be advantageous. PMID:26074276
With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621
Zhang, Wenhai; Ding, Qiang; Chen, Ning; Wei, Qing; Zhao, Cancan; Zhang, Ping; Li, Xiying; Liu, Qiang; Li, Hong
Impaired automatic emotion regulation (AER) is closely related to major depressive disorder. Our research in adults has identified two AER-related components, Go N2 and NoGo P3, in an implicit emotional Go/NoGo paradigm. However, it is unclear whether Go N2 and NoGo P3 reflect the development of AER in adolescents and the relationship of these components with subclinical depressive symptoms and trait anhedonia. We collected EEG data from 55 adolescents while they completed the implicit emotio...
Beata Pawłowska; Maciej Zygo; Emilia Potembska; Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak; Piotr Dreher; Zbigniew Kędzierski
[b]Objective. [/b]The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction and the risk of developing this addiction in Polish adolescents attending junior high schools and high school in Lublin Province, to indicate the differences regarding the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms, and the types of online activity of adolescents residing in urban and rural areas. [b]Material and Methods[/b]. The examined group comprised 1,860 participants (1,320 girls and 5...
David Revalds Lubans
Full Text Available Purpose: The primary aim is to describe the development and implementation of a smartphone application (app designed to promote physical activity and reduce screen-time in adolescent boys ‘at risk’ of obesity from low-income communities.Methods: An app was developed to support the delivery of a face-to-face school-based obesity prevention program known as the ‘Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time’ (ATLAS program. ATLAS was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory and evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial with 361 boys (12.7± 0.5 years in 14 secondary schools. Following the completion of the study, participants in the intervention group completed a process evaluation questionnaire and focus groups were conducted with 42 students to explore their general perceptions of the ATLAS program and their experience with the smartphone app. Barriers and challenges encountered in the development, implementation and evaluation of the app are also described.Results: Participation in the study was not contingent on ownership of a smartphone, but 70% of participants in the intervention group reported having access to a smartphone or tablet device. Focus group participants reported an enjoyment of the program, and felt that it had provided them with new skills, techniques, and routines for the future. However, their engagement with the smartphone app was limited, due to a variety of reasons. Barriers to the implementation and evaluation of the app included limited access to smartphone devices, technical problems with the push notifications, lack of access to usage data and the challenges of maintaining participants’ interest in using the app.Conclusions: Although participants reported high levels of satisfaction with the ATLAS program in general, the smartphone app was not used extensively. Additional strategies and features may be needed to enhance engagement in adolescent boys.
Crothers, Laura M.; Schreiber, James B.; Field, Julaine E.; Kolbert, Jered B.
The Young Adult Social Behavior Scale was developed for the purpose of measuring self-reported relational and social aggression and behaviors of interpersonal maturity in adolescents and young adults (the sample included 629 university students; 66% female; 91.6% White). Despite previous research suggesting that relational and social aggression…