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Sample records for adolescent depressive disorders

  1. Major Depressive Disorder in Adolescence: The Role of Subthreshold Symptoms

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    Georgiades, Katholiki; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Monroe, Scott M.; Seeley, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the longitudinal association between individual subthreshold symptoms and onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. Method: Data for analysis come from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project, a prospective epidemiological study of psychological disorders among adolescents, ages 14 to 18 years, from the…

  2. Exercise for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders: A Feasibility Study

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    Richard R. Dopp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms and decreased aerobic exercise, yet the relationship between exercise and clinical depression among adolescents requires further examination. This study assessed the feasibility of a 12-week intervention designed to increase exercise for adolescents with depressive disorders: Will a teenager with depression exercise? Methods. Participants were 13 adolescents with depression reporting low levels of aerobic exercise. They completed a 12-week intervention (15 supervised exercise sessions and 21 independent sessions. Exercise was measured through the aerobic exercise Questionnaire, actigraphy, and heart-rate monitoring. Depression was measured with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale, Revised, and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report. Results. All participants who started the intervention completed the protocol, attending all supervised exercise sessions. Actigraphy verified 81% adherence to the protocol’s independent sessions. Analysis of secondary outcomes showed a significant increase in exercise levels and a significant decrease in depression severity. Initially, ten participants were overweight or obese, and three were healthy weight. After 12 weeks of exercise, the number of participants in the healthy-weight category doubled. Conclusions. Adolescents suffering from depression can complete a rigorous protocol requiring structured increases in aerobic exercise. Participants showed significant increases in exercise, and significant decreases in depressive symptoms.

  3. Executive Attention Impairment in Adolescents With Major Depressive Disorder.

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    Sommerfeldt, Sasha L; Cullen, Kathryn R; Han, Georges; Fryza, Brandon J; Houri, Alaa K; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Neural network models that guide neuropsychological assessment practices are increasingly used to explicate depression, though a paucity of work has focused on regulatory systems that are under development in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsystems of attention related to executive functioning including alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks, as well as sustained attention with varying working memory load, in a sample of depressed and well adolescents. Neuropsychological functioning in 99 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 63 adolescent healthy controls (M = 16.6 years old) was assessed on the Attention Network Test (ANT) and the Continuous Performance Test, Identical Pairs. Adolescents with MDD, particularly those who were not medicated, were slower to process conflict (slower reaction time on the Executive Attention scale of the ANT) compared to controls, particularly for those who were not undergoing psychopharmacological treatment. Tentative evidence also suggests that within the MDD group, orienting performance was more impaired in those with a history of comorbid substance use disorder, and alerting was more impaired in those with a history of a suicide attempt. Adolescents with depression showed impaired executive attention, although cognitive performance varied across subgroups of patients. These findings highlight the importance of examining neurocognitive correlates associated with features of depression and suggest an avenue for future research to help guide the development of interventions.

  4. Treatment of comorbid adolescent cannabis use and major depressive disorder.

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    Kaminer, Yifrah; Connor, Daniel F; Curry, John F

    2008-09-01

    The comorbidity of unipolar depression with substance use disorders (SUD) in adolescents is well established and accounts for 24 to 50 percent in clinical samples. Very little empirical data exist on the treatment of dually diagnosed youth. The objective of this paper is twofold: 1) We will review the literature on SUD and unipolar depression; and 2) we will provide guidelines for a combined pharmacological and psychosocial intervention based on a clinical case example.

  5. Sertraline in Children and Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

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    Donnelly, Craig L.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Rynn, Moira; Ambrosini, Paul; Landau, Phyllis; Yang, Ruoyong; Wohlberg, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore time to first response and time to first persistent response of sertraline versus placebo and compare these parameters between children (6-11 years old, n = 177) and adolescents (12-17 years old, n = 199) with major depressive disorder. Method: A 10-week placebo-controlled treatment was followed by a 24-week open-label…

  6. Association between obesity and depressive disorder in adolescents at high risk for depression.

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    Hammerton, G; Thapar, A; Thapar, A K

    2014-04-01

    To examine the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and depressive disorder in adolescents at high risk for depression. Prospective longitudinal 3-wave study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression. Replication in population-based cohort study. Three hundred and thirty-seven families where offspring were aged 9-17 years at baseline and 10-19 years at the final data point. Replication sample of adolescents from population-based cohort study aged 11-13 years at first assessment and 14-17 years at follow-up. High risk sample used BMI, skin-fold thickness, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV)-defined major depressive disorder and depression symptoms using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA). Replication sample used BMI, DSM-IV depressive disorder and depression symptoms using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). Two hundred and eighty-nine adolescents were included in the primary analyses. The mean BMI for each age group in this sample were significantly higher than population norms. There was no significant longitudinal association between categories of weight (or BMI) and new onset depressive disorder or depression symptoms. Similar results were found for skin-fold thickness. The association was also tested in a replication population-based sample and found to be non-significant in the subsample of offspring with mothers who had experienced recurrent depression in the past. BMI at age 12 years was, however, a significant predictor of depression symptoms but not of depressive disorder at age 15 years for the total unselected population. BMI does not significantly predict the development of depression in the offspring of parents with recurrent depression.

  7. Pharmacological Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder in Adolescents

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    Rachel L. Farley

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD affects a significant number of adolescents today. Its consequences (including social isolation, failure to achieve crucial developmental milestones, and suicide mandate close attention in clinical practice. While tricyclics and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs have been used infrequently and with questionable efficacy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, particularly fluoxetine, consistently have been shown to be of benefit in treating outpatient adolescents with MDD. Despite some success with other drugs in its class, fluoxetine remains the only SSRI that is FDA approved for treatment of children and adolescents with depression. A review of recent studies is presented, including the controversy regarding the relationship of antidepressants and suicidal behavior in this patient population.

  8. Association among depressive disorder, adjustment disorder, sleep disturbance, and suicidal ideation in Taiwanese adolescent.

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    Chung, Ming-Shun; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Sun, Wen-Jung; Lin, Chieh-Nan; Kuo, Chien-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Che; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Cheng, Hui-Ping; Chou, Pesus

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association among depressive disorder, adjustment disorder, sleep disturbance, and suicidal ideation in Taiwanese adolescent. We recruited 607 students (grades 5-9) to fill out the investigation of basic data and sleep disturbance. Psychiatrists then used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Kid to interview these students to assess their suicidal ideation and psychiatric diagnosis. Multiple logistic regression with forward conditionals was used to find the risk factors for multivariate analysis. Female, age, depressive disorder, adjustment disorder, and poor sleep all contributed to adolescent suicidal ideation in univariate analysis. However, poor sleep became non-significant under the control of depressive disorder and adjustment disorder. We found that both depressive disorder and adjustment disorder play important roles in sleep and adolescent suicidal ideation. After controlling both depressive disorder and adjustment disorder, sleep disturbance was no longer a risk of adolescent suicidal ideation. We also confirm the indirect influence of sleep on suicidal ideation in adolescent. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescence predicts onset of major depressive disorder through early adulthood.

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    Meinzer, Michael C; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Seeley, John R; Gau, Jeff M; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waxmonsky, James G

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed in mid-adolescence and the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) through early adulthood in a large school-based sample. A secondary aim was to examine whether this relationship was robust after accounting for comorbid psychopathology and psychosocial impairment. One thousand five hundred seven participants from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project completed rating scales in adolescence and structured diagnostic interviews up to four times from adolescence to age 30. Adolescents with a lifetime history of ADHD were at significantly higher risk of MDD through early adulthood relative to those with no history of ADHD. ADHD remained a significant predictor of MDD after controlling for gender, lifetime history of other psychiatric disorders in adolescence, social and academic impairment in adolescence, stress and coping in adolescence, and new onset of other psychiatric disorders through early adulthood (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.04, 3.06). Additional significant, robust predictors of MDD included female gender, a lifetime history of an anxiety disorder, and poor coping skills in mid-adolescence, as well as the onset of anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, and substance-use disorder after mid-adolescence. A history of ADHD in adolescence was associated with elevated risk of MDD through early adulthood and this relationship remained significant after controlling for psychosocial impairment in adolescence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Additional work is needed to identify the mechanisms of risk and to inform depression prevention programs for adolescents with ADHD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Fat distribution and major depressive disorder in late adolescence.

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    Coryell, William H; Butcher, Brandon D; Burns, Trudy L; Dindo, Lilian N; Schlechte, Janet A; Calarge, Chadi A

    2016-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists to indicate bidirectional relationships between obesity and depressive disorders and the importance of fat distribution to this relationship. This analysis used a well-characterized sample of individuals in late adolescence to determine the association between depressive illness and fat distribution. Medically healthy 15- to 20-year-olds, one-half of whom had recently begun treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, underwent a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation that resulted in diagnostic classification and weekly psychiatric disorder ratings over the prior 4 months using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation. A whole-body scan, using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, allowed estimations of total body less head (TBLH), total mass, fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass. Assessments occurred between September 2010 and April 2014. Multivariable linear regression analyses, adjusted for relevant covariates, examined the association between DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed major depressive disorder (MDD) and VAT, the primary outcome of interest. These procedures also determined whether significant associations were confined to overweight/obese participants. The analysis included data from 200 participants (71% female; mean age = 19.0 ± 1.6 years), of whom 128 had current MDD. The presence of MDD was associated with increased fat mass among overweight/obese participants (Cohen d = 0.79, P adolescents, relationships between central adiposity and MDD may be confined to those who are overweight/obese. Despite the high comorbidity of GAD and depressive disorders, only the latter appeared to be significantly associated with central adiposity. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  11. A Study of the Predictive Validity of the Children's Depression Inventory for Major Depression Disorder in Puerto Rican Adolescents

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    Rivera-Medina, Carmen L.; Bernal, Guillermo; Rossello, Jeannette; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the predictive validity of the Children's Depression Inventory items for major depression disorder (MDD) in an outpatient clinic sample of Puerto Rican adolescents. The sample consisted of 130 adolescents, 13 to 18 years old. The five most frequent symptoms of the Children's Depression Inventory that best predict the…

  12. Pain and Sleep-Wake Disturbances in Adolescents with Depressive Disorders

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    Murray, Caitlin B.; Murphy, Lexa K.; Palermo, Tonya M.; Clarke, Gregory M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) assess and compare sleep disturbances (including daytime and nighttime sleep patterns) in adolescents with depressive disorders and healthy peers, (b) examine the prevalence of pain in adolescents with depressive disorders and healthy peers, and (c) examine pubertal development, pain intensity, and depressive…

  13. Depression and Its Measurement in Verbal Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Gotham, Katherine; Unruh, Kathryn; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In a sample of 50 verbally fluent adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (age: 16-31 years; verbal IQ: 72-140), we examined the pattern of response and associations between scores on common measures of depressive symptoms, participant characteristics, and clinical diagnosis of depressive disorders. Beck Depression Inventory--Second…

  14. Depression and Its Measurement in Verbal Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Gotham, Katherine; Unruh, Kathryn; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In a sample of 50 verbally fluent adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (age: 16-31 years; verbal IQ: 72-140), we examined the pattern of response and associations between scores on common measures of depressive symptoms, participant characteristics, and clinical diagnosis of depressive disorders. Beck Depression Inventory--Second…

  15. Face Emotion Processing in Depressed Children and Adolescents with and without Comorbid Conduct Disorder

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    Schepman, Karen; Taylor, Eric; Collishaw, Stephan; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Studies of adults with depression point to characteristic neurocognitive deficits, including differences in processing facial expressions. Few studies have examined face processing in juvenile depression, or taken account of other comorbid disorders. Three groups were compared: depressed children and adolescents with conduct disorder (n = 23),…

  16. Onset of Alcohol or Substance Use Disorders Following Treatment for Adolescent Depression

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    Curry, John; Silva, Susan; Rohde, Paul; Ginsburg, Golda; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Kirchner, Jerry; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Feeny, Norah; Albano, Anne Marie; Lavanier, Sarah; Reinecke, Mark; Jacobs, Rachel; Becker-Weidman, Emily; Weller, Elizabeth; Emslie, Graham; Walkup, John; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Burns, Barbara; Wells, Karen; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested whether positive response to short-term treatment for adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) would have the secondary benefit of preventing subsequent alcohol use disorders (AUD) or substance use disorders (SUD). Method: For 5 years, we followed 192 adolescents (56.2% female; 20.8% minority) who had participated in…

  17. Onset of Alcohol or Substance Use Disorders Following Treatment for Adolescent Depression

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    Curry, John; Silva, Susan; Rohde, Paul; Ginsburg, Golda; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Kirchner, Jerry; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Feeny, Norah; Albano, Anne Marie; Lavanier, Sarah; Reinecke, Mark; Jacobs, Rachel; Becker-Weidman, Emily; Weller, Elizabeth; Emslie, Graham; Walkup, John; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Burns, Barbara; Wells, Karen; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested whether positive response to short-term treatment for adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) would have the secondary benefit of preventing subsequent alcohol use disorders (AUD) or substance use disorders (SUD). Method: For 5 years, we followed 192 adolescents (56.2% female; 20.8% minority) who had participated in…

  18. Newer generation antidepressants for depressive disorders in children and adolescents.

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    Hetrick, Sarah E; McKenzie, Joanne E; Cox, Georgina R; Simmons, Magenta B; Merry, Sally N

    2012-11-14

    Depressive disorders are common in young people and are associated with significant negative impacts. Newer generation antidepressants, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are often used, however evidence of their effectiveness in children and adolescents is not clear. Furthermore, there have been warnings against their use in this population due to concerns about increased risk of suicidal ideation and behaviour. To determine the efficacy and adverse outcomes, including definitive suicidal behaviour and suicidal ideation, of newer generation antidepressants compared with placebo in the treatment of depressive disorders in children and adolescents. For this update of the review, we searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group's Specialised Register (CCDANCTR) to October 2011. The CCDANCTR includes relevant randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: CENTRAL (the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) (all years), EMBASE (1974 -), MEDLINE (1950 -) and PsycINFO (1967 -). We searched clinical trial registries and pharmaceutical company websites. We checked reference lists of included trials and other reviews, and sent letters to key researchers and the pharmaceutical companies of included trials from January to August 2011. Published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cross-over trials and cluster trials comparing a newer generation antidepressant with a placebo in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years old and diagnosed with a depressive disorder were eligible for inclusion. In this update, we amended the selection criteria to include newer generation antidepressants rather than SSRIs only. Two or three review authors selected the trials, assessed their quality, and extracted trial and outcome data. We used a random-effects meta-analysis. We used risk ratio (RR) to summarise dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) to summarise continuous measures

  19. Peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

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    Henje Blom, E; Han, L K M; Connolly, C G; Ho, T C; Lin, J; LeWinn, K Z; Simmons, A N; Sacchet, M D; Mobayed, N; Luna, M E; Paulus, M; Epel, E S; Blackburn, E H; Wolkowitz, O M; Yang, T T

    2015-11-10

    Several studies have reported that adults with major depressive disorder have shorter telomere length and reduced hippocampal volumes. Moreover, studies of adult populations without major depressive disorder suggest a relationship between peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume. However, the relationship of these findings in adolescents with major depressive disorder has yet to be explored. We examined whether adolescent major depressive disorder is associated with altered peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume, and whether these measures relate to one another. In 54 unmedicated adolescents (13-18 years) with major depressive disorder and 63 well-matched healthy controls, telomere length was assessed from saliva using quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, and bilateral hippocampal volumes were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. After adjusting for age and sex (and total brain volume in the hippocampal analysis), adolescents with major depressive disorder exhibited significantly shorter telomere length and significantly smaller right, but not left hippocampal volume. When corrected for age, sex, diagnostic group and total brain volume, telomere length was not significantly associated with left or right hippocampal volume, suggesting that these cellular and neural processes may be mechanistically distinct during adolescence. Our findings suggest that shortening of telomere length and reduction of hippocampal volume are already present in early-onset major depressive disorder and thus unlikely to be only a result of accumulated years of exposure to major depressive disorder.

  20. Maltreatment and Depression in Adolescent Sexual Offenders with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Walters, Jessica Bleil; Hughes, Tammy L.; Sutton, Lawrence R.; Marshall, Stephanie N.; Crothers, Laura M.; Lehman, Cathryn; Paserba, Dave; Talkington, Vanessa; Taormina, Rochelle; Huang, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported presence and severity of abuse, neglect, and depressive symptoms for 43 adolescents adjudicated delinquent due to a sexual offense. Twenty-seven of the adolescent sexual offenders were also diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, and 16 did not carry an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Both groups…

  1. Pilot Study: Fluvoxamine Treatment for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Cancer

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    Gothelf, Doron; Rubinstein, Maly; Shemesh, Eyal; Miller, Orit; Farbstein, Ilana; Klein, Anat; Weizman, Abraham; Apter, Alan; Yaniv, Isaac

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and benefit of fluvoxamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with cancer. Method: The study was conducted from 2001 to 2004 at a pediatric hematology-oncology center. Fifteen children and adolescents with cancer were treated with…

  2. Safety and Tolerability of Desvenlafaxine in Children and Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

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    Findling, Robert L; Groark, James; Chiles, Deborah; Ramaker, Sara; Yang, Lingfeng; Tourian, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess long-term safety and tolerability of desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD).

  3. Selective Neurocognitive Impairments in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

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    Han, Georges; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Jepsen, Susie; Ballard, Kristin; Nelson, Megan; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Cullen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether major depression in adolescence is characterized by neurocognitive deficits in attention, affective decision making, and cognitive control of emotion processing. Neuropsychological tests including the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs, the Attention Network…

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of depressive disorders in early adolescents in central Norway

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    Larsson Bo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of depressive disorders among adolescents has varied across studies. The present study aims to assess current and lifetime prevalence and characteristics of adolescent Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Dysthymia and Depression NOS among adolescents in Central Norway in addition to socio-demographics and use of mental health care. Method In the Youth and Mental Health Study a representative sample of 2432 junior high school students (mean age 14.9 years, SD = 0.6 from two counties in Central Norway were screened with the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ. A subset of 345 of these adolescents (72.5% girls, 220 high scorers (MFQ = > 26, 74 middle scorers (MFQ 7-25, and 50 low scorers (MFQ Results Almost one in four subjects (23% had life-time depression. Prevalences of current Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Dysthymia and "Double depression" were 2.6%, 1.0% and 0.6%, respectively, and for Depression NOS 6.3%. All depressive disorders were characterized by long duration of episodes with large variations, and for any depressive disorder onset before 12 years of age. In multivariate analyses MDD and Dysthymia were most strongly associated with gender and not living with both biological parents. There was no gender difference for Depression NOS. Although a considerable number of depressed subjects had received mental health care, the reason for contact with services was seldom due to affective symptoms. Less than 20% had been in contact with specialist mental health services. Conclusion High rates of Depression NOS, early onset of depressive episodes, long duration, and low use of specialized services point to the need for improved diagnostic assessment and treatment for young individuals.

  5. Trajectories of preschool disorders to full DSM depression at school age and early adolescence: continuity of preschool depression.

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    Luby, Joan L; Gaffrey, Michael S; Tillman, Rebecca; April, Laura M; Belden, Andy C

    2014-07-01

    Preschool-onset depression, a developmentally adapted form of depression arising between ages 3 and 6, has demonstrated numerous validated features, including characteristic alterations in stress reactivity and brain function. This syndrome is characterized by subthreshold DSM criteria for major depressive disorder, raising questions about its clinical significance. To clarify the utility and public health significance of the preschool-onset depression construct, the authors investigated diagnostic outcomes of preschool children at school age and in adolescence. In a longitudinal prospective study of preschool children, the authors assessed the likelihood of meeting full criteria for major depressive disorder at age 6 or later as a function of preschool depression, other preschool axis I disorders, maternal history of depression, nonsupportive parenting, and traumatic life events. Preschool-onset depression emerged as a robust predictor of major depressive disorder in later childhood even after accounting for the effect of maternal history of depression and other risk factors. Preschool-onset conduct disorder also predicted major depression in later childhood, but this association was partially mediated by nonsupportive parenting, reducing by 21% the effect of preschool conduct disorder in predicting major depression. Study findings provide evidence that this preschool depressive syndrome is a robust risk factor for developing full criteria for major depression in later childhood, over and above other established risk factors. The results suggest that attention to preschool depression and conduct disorder in addition to maternal history of depression and exposure to trauma may be important in identifying young children at highest risk for later major depression and applying early interventions.

  6. Depression as a Moderator of Sociocultural Influences on Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Females and Males

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    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…

  7. Body-Related Social Comparison and Disordered Eating among Adolescent Females with an Eating Disorder, Depressive Disorder, and Healthy Controls

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    Daniel Le Grange

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC and eating disorders (EDs by: (a comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD, and no psychiatric history; and (b investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12–18 (25 per diagnostic group. To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others’. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE. Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001. Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01, and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC.

  8. Maternal criticism and adolescent depressive and generalized anxiety disorder symptoms: a 6-year longitudinal community study.

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    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Hale, William W; Branje, Susan J T; Hawk, Skyler T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2014-01-01

    This 6-year longitudinal study examined the direction of effects (i.e., parent effects, child effects, or reciprocal effects) between maternal criticism and adolescent depressive and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptoms, including adolescents' perceptions of criticism as a potential mediator. Consistent with recent empirical findings on associations between parenting and adolescent internalizing symptoms, we hypothesized stronger child effects than parent effects. A community sample of 497 adolescents (M age = 13.03 at T1, 57 % boys) reported annually on their depressive and GAD symptoms as well as their perceptions of parental criticism. Their mothers (M age = 44.41 at T1) also reported annually on their own critical behavior toward their adolescent. As expected, cross-lagged panel models demonstrated stronger child effects (i.e., adolescent psychopathology predicting maternal criticism) than parent effects (i.e., maternal criticism predicting adolescent psychopathology) for both adolescent depressive and GAD symptoms, including adolescent perceived criticism as a significant mediator. Our results emphasize the importance of considering (1) potential bidirectional influences over time, contrary to a focus on parent effects on adolescent mental health, as well as (2) adolescent perceptions of parenting as an important potential mediator in associations between aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent internalizing psychopathological symptoms.

  9. Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorders. AACAP.

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    1998-10-01

    Child and adolescent major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder are common, chronic, familial, and recurrent conditions that usually persist into adulthood. These disorders appear to be manifesting at an earlier age in successive cohorts and are usually accompanied by comorbid psychiatric disorders, increased risk for suicide, substance abuse, and behavior problems. In addition, depressed youth frequently have poor psychosocial, academic, and family functioning, which highlights the importance of early identification and prompt treatment. Both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy have been found to be beneficial for the acute treatment of youth with depressive disorders. Opinions vary regarding which of these treatments should be offered first and whether they should be offered in combination. In general, the choice of initial therapy depends on clinical and psychosocial factors and therapist's expertise. Based on the current literature and clinical experience, psychotherapy may be the first treatment for most depressed youth. However, antidepressants must be considered for those patients with psychosis, bipolar depression, severe depressions, and those who do not respond to an adequate trial of psychotherapy. All patients need continuation therapy and some patients may require maintenance treatment. Further research is needed on the etiology of depression; the efficacy of different types of psychotherapy; the differential effects of psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and integrated therapies; the continuation and maintenance treatment phases; treatment for dysthymia, treatment-resistant depression, and other subtypes of major depressive disorder; and preventive strategies for high-risk children and adolescents.

  10. Depression in adolescence

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    Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan; Pine, Daniel S; Thapar, Ajay K

    2012-01-01

    Unipolar depressive disorder in adolescence is common worldwide but often unrecognised. The incidence, notably in girls, rises sharply after puberty and, by the end of adolescence, the 1 year prevalence rate exceeds 4%. The burden is highest in low-income and middle-income countries. Depression is associated with sub stantial present and future morbidity, and heightens suicide risk. The strongest risk factors for depression in adolescents are a family history of depression and exposure to psychosocial stress. Inherited risks, developmental factors, sex hormones, and psychosocial adversity interact to increase risk through hormonal factors and associated perturbed neural pathways. Although many similarities between depression in adolescence and depression in adulthood exist, in adolescents the use of antidepressants is of concern and opinions about clinical management are divided. Effective treatments are available, but choices are dependent on depression severity and available resources. Prevention strategies targeted at high-risk groups are promising. PMID:22305766

  11. Adolescence depressions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matot, J P

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the depressive problematics emerging during adolescence in the frame of the transformations that characterize this period of life, with a focus on the interference of socio-cultural dimensions...

  12. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and generalised anxiety disorder in adolescents after a natural disaster: a study of comorbidity

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    Bastia Binaya

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on mental health sequel in adolescents following natural disasters from developing countries is scant. Method Around one year after a super-cyclone, proportion of adolescents exhibiting post-traumatic psychiatric symptoms, prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, major depression and generalized anxiety disorder, comorbidity and impairment of performance in school were studied in Orissa, India. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents was used for evaluation and diagnosis. The criteria for diagnoses were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – IV. Results Post-disaster psychiatric presentation in adolescents was a conglomeration of PTSD, depression and anxiety symptoms. The prevalences of PTSD, major depressive disorder and generalised anxiety disorder were 26.9%, 17.6% and 12.0% respectively. Proportion of adolescents with any diagnosis was 37.9%. Comorbidity was found in 39.0% of adolescents with a psychiatric diagnosis. Adolescents from middle socioeconomic status were more affected. There were gender differences in the presentation of the symptoms rather than on the prevalence of diagnoses. Prolonged periods of helplessness and lack of adequate post-disaster psychological support were perceived as probable influencing factors, as well as the severity of the disaster. Conclusion The findings of the study highlight the continuing need for identification and intervention for post-disaster psychiatric morbidities in adolescent victims in developing countries.

  13. Brief report: Overgeneral autobiographical memory in adolescent major depressive disorder.

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    Champagne, Katelynn; Burkhouse, Katie L; Woody, Mary L; Feurer, Cope; Sosoo, Effua; Gibb, Brandon E

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) bias serves as a state-like marker of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence or whether it would also be observed in currently nondepressed adolescents with a history of MDD. We examined differences in OGM to positive and negative cue words between adolescents (aged 11-18 years) with current MDD (n = 15), remitted MDD (n = 25), and no history of any depressive disorder (n = 25). Youth and their parents were administered a structured diagnostic interview and adolescents completed the autobiographical memory test. Compared to never depressed adolescents, adolescents with current or remitted MDD recalled less specific memories in response to positive and negative cue words. The difference between the two MDD groups was small and nonsignificant. These findings suggest that OGM is not simply a state-like marker in currently depressed adolescents, but is also evident in adolescents with remitted MDD, indicating that it may represent a trait-like vulnerability that increases risk for relapse.

  14. Misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents: a comparison with ADHD and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilakamarri, Jagan K; Filkowski, Megan M; Ghaemi, S Nassir

    2011-02-01

    Controversy surrounds the frequency of underdiagnosis vs overdiagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD) in children and adolescents compared with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Sixty-four children and adolescents (age 7 to 18) treated in a community setting were systematically assessed for diagnostic and treatment histories. Best estimate consensus diagnosis was made using DSM-IV criteria. ADHD was overdiagnosed (all patients with ADHD had received the diagnosis, as did 38% of patients with MDD and 29% of patients with BD, respectively), while MDD was partially underdiagnosed and partially overdiagnosed (57% of MDD patients received the diagnosis, 43% did not; 33% of patients with BD were incorrectly diagnosed with MDD). BD was underdiagnosed, not overdiagnosed (38% received the diagnosis, 62% did not; BD was not diagnosed in the ADHD sample, and in only 5% of the patients with MDD). The absence of a positive family history predicted misdiagnosis of BD (relative risk = 2.48, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 5.56). Observational treatment response to stimulants was equally high in all groups (75% to 82%). In the first controlled study on this topic, BD was not over-diagnosed in children and adolescents, as it is often claimed, and ADHD was. Stimulant response was nonspecific and diagnostically uninformative. Studies with larger samples are needed to replicate or refute these results.

  15. Risk of developing major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders among adolescents and adults with atopic dermatitis: a nationwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Ming; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Bai, Ya-Mei; Su, Tung-Ping; Li, Cheng-Ta; Yang, Albert C; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Chen, Mu-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested a comorbid association between atopic dermatitis (AD) and depressive disorder as well as anxiety disorders, but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 8208 AD patients aged 12 and older without psychiatric history and age-/sex-matched (1:1) controls between 1998 and 2008 were enrolled in our study and followed to the end of 2011. Subjects who developed major depression, any depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders during the follow-up were identified. The Cox regression analysis after adjusting for demographic data and atopic comorbidities demonstrated that patients with AD had an elevated risk of developing major depression (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.56, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.64-11.84), any depressive disorder (HR: 5.44, 95% CI: 3.99-7.44), and anxiety disorders (HR: 3.57, 95% CI: 2.55-4.98). Stratified by age group, both adolescents and adults with AD were prone to developing major depression (HR: 4.26, 95% CI: 1.39-13.13; HR: 7.56, 95% CI: 3.75-15.23), any depressive disorder (HR: 4.38, 95% CI: 2.09-9.18; HR: 5.66, 95% CI: 4.01-7.99), and anxiety disorders (HR: 5.40, 95% CI: 2.02-14.39; HR: 3.36, 95% CI: 2.38-4.80). AD in both adolescence and adulthood increased the risk of developing major depression, any depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders in later life. Further studies would be required to clarify the possible underlying mechanism between AD and depression as well as anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disorder in a sample of adolescent and young adult twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Julie; Gillespie, Nathan A; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon; Silberg, Judy L

    2012-08-01

    The co-occurrence of suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disturbance is likely explained in part by correlated genetic and environmental risk factors. Little is known about the specific nature of these associations. Structured interviews on 2,814 twins from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and Young Adult Follow-Up (YAFU) yielded data on symptoms of depression, conduct disorder, and adolescent and young adult suicidal ideation. Univariate analyses revealed that the familial aggregation for each trait was explained by a combination of additive genetic and shared environmental effects. Suicidal ideation in adolescence was explained in part by genetic influences, but predominantly accounted for by environmental factors. A mixture of genetic and shared environmental influences explained ideation occurring in young adulthood. Multivariate analyses revealed that there are genetic and shared environmental effects common to suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disorder. The association between adolescent suicidal ideation and CD was attributable to the same genetic and environmental risk factors for depression. These findings underscore that prevention and intervention strategies should reflect the different underlying mechanisms involving depression and conduct disorder to assist in identifying adolescents at suicidal risk. © 2012 The American Association of Suicidology.

  17. Child behavior checklist profiles in adolescents with bipolar and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, Kukju; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Kee Jeong; Joo, Yeonho; Kim, Hyo-Won

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profiles in youths with bipolar and depressive disorders. Seventy-four subjects with a mean age of 14.9±1.6years (36 boys) with mood disorders and their parents were recruited from September 2011 to June 2013 in the Department of Psychiatry, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Diagnosis of mood disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorder was confirmed by child psychiatrists using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). The parents of the subjects completed the Parent General Behavior Inventory-10-item Mania Scale (P-GBI-10M), Parent-version of Mood Disorder Questionnaire (P-MDQ), ADHD rating scale (ARS) and CBCL. The adolescents completed the 76-item Adolescent General Behavior Inventory (A-GBI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Adolescent-version of Mood Disorder Questionnaire (A-MDQ). When adjusted for gender and the comorbidity with ADHD, the Withdrawn and Anxious/Depressed subscale scores of the CBCL were higher in subjects with bipolar disorder than in those with depressive disorder. Higher scores of A-GBI Depressive subscale, A-MDQ and BDI were shown in subjects with bipolar disorder than in those with depressive disorder. There was no significant difference on CBCL-DP, P-GBI-10M, P-MDQ, A-GBI Hypomanic/Biphasic subscale and ARS between two groups. All eight subscales of the CBCL positively correlated with the P-GBI-10M and P-MDQ scores, and seven of all eight subscales of the CBCL positively correlated with A-GBI Depressive and Hypomanic/Biphasic subscales. The BDI score was positively associated with the Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, Anxious/Depressed, and Social Problems subscale scores. CBCL-DP score was strongly correlated with manic/hypomanic symptoms measured by P-GBI-10M and P-MDQ (r=0.771 and 0.826). This study suggests that the CBCL could be used for measuring mood symptoms and combined psychopathology

  18. Adolescent depression: a metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundon, Edith Emma

    2006-01-01

    Concerns about the adequate assessment and treatment of adolescent depression have been in the forefront of pediatric mental health literature in the recent past. While quantitative studies have provided valuable information, the voice of the adolescent has been lacking in the development of theory and treatment of this prevalent disorder. Using approach, a metasynthesis of six qualitative studies was conducted. This process revealed six themes that outline the course of adolescents who struggle with depression: (a) beyond the blues, (b) spiraling down and within, (c) breaking points, (d) seeing and being seen, (e) seeking solutions, and (f) taking control. Knowledge of the experience of adolescent depression will aid practitioners in recognition and early intervention for the increasing number of adolescents suffering with depression, as well as guide educational initiatives to provide needed information on the symptoms of depression and available resources for getting help.

  19. Relationships among depression, anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived social support in adolescents with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Savaş; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Akça, Ömer Faruk; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Hergüner, Sabri

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationships of depression, anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived social support with conversion symptoms in adolescents with conversion disorder (CD). Fifty outpatients, aged 8-18 years, who had been diagnosed with CD and members of a control group were assessed using the psychological questionnaires. Compared with controls, adolescents with CD scored higher on the Child Depression Inventory (CDI), Screen for Child Anxiety-related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI) total, CASI physical and cognitive subscales, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support family subscale. Multiple regression analysis showed that CDI, CASI total, and CASI cognitive scores predicted the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ) scores and that CDI and CASI total scores predicted the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI) scores of subjects. This study suggest that adolescents with CD had poor psychosocial well-being, and depression, global anxiety sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns are related to conversion symptoms.

  20. Disorder-specific volumetric brain difference in adolescent major depressive disorder and bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Frank P; Carrey, Normand; Langevin, Lisa Marie; Jaworska, Natalia; Crawford, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Structural abnormalities in frontal, limbic and subcortical regions have been noted in adults with both major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). In the current study, we examined regional brain morphology in youth with MDD and BD as compared to controls. Regional brain volumes were measured in 32 MDD subjects (15.7 ± 2.1 years), 14 BD subjects (16.0 ± 2.4 years) and 22 healthy controls (16.0 ± 2.8 years) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Regions of interest included the hippocampus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, putamen and thalamus. Volumetric differences between groups were significant (F26,80 = 1.80, p = 0.02). Post-hoc analyses indicated that individuals with MDD showed reduced left hippocampus volumes (p = 0.048) as well as right ACC white and gray matter volumes (p = 0.003; p = 0.01) compared to controls. BD participants also displayed reduced left hippocampal and right/left putamen volumes compared to controls (p < 0.001; p = 0.015; p = 0.046 respectively). Interestingly, right and left ACC white matter volumes were smaller in MDD than in BD participants (p = 0.019; p = 0.045 respectively). No volumetric group differences were observed for the DLPFC and thalamus. Discriminant analysis was able to correctly classify 81.0 % of subjects as having BD or as MDD based on imaging data. Confirmation and extension of our findings requires larger sample sizes. Our findings provide new evidence of distinct, specific regional brain volumetric differences between MDD and BD that may be used to distinguish the two disorders.

  1. Depressive symptomatology in child and adolescent twins with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piek, Jan P; Rigoli, Daniela; Pearsall-Jones, Jillian G; Martin, Neilson C; Hay, David A; Bennett, Kellie S; Levy, Florence

    2007-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a link between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and depression. The present study utilized a monozygotic (MZ) differences design to investigate differences in depressive symptomatology between MZ twins discordant for ADHD or DCD. This extends previous research as it controls for genetic effects and shared environmental influences and enables the investigation of nonshared environmental influences. In addition, children and adolescents with comorbid ADHD and DCD were compared on their level of depressive symptomatology to those with ADHD only, DCD only, and no ADHD or DCD. The parent-rated Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior, Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire, and Sad Affect Scale were used to assess ADHD, DCD, and depressive symptomatology respectively. The results revealed higher levels of depressive symptomatology in MZ twins with ADHD or DCD compared to their nonaffected co-twins. In addition, children and adolescents with comorbid ADHD and DCD demonstrated higher levels of depressive symptomatology compared to those with ADHD only, DCD only, and no ADHD or DCD. The implications of these findings are discussed with emphasis on understanding and recognizing the relationship between ADHD, DCD, and depression in the assessment and intervention for children and adolescents with these disorders.

  2. Major depressive disorder in an adolescent with Turner syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shujiong; Sun, Liying; Li, Rong; Zhao, Zhengyan; Yang, Rongwang

    2016-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal abnormality, of which the presence and impact of coexisting psychiatric morbidity has received little attention. The present report describes an adolescent with mosaic karyotype TS who had major depressive disorder with the predisposing cause of psychosocial burden, and relieved with the treatment of sertraline and complete remission with combined use of estradiol valerate. The report suggests us to pay more attention on the mood disorders in children with TS, especially in adolescents. For treatment aspect, medications for improving the puberty development and short stature should be added to in addition to antidepressants if they had mood disorders.

  3. Escalation to Major Depressive Disorder among adolescents with subthreshold depressive symptoms: evidence of distinct subgroups at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Seeley, John R; Klein, Daniel N

    2014-04-01

    The presence of subthreshold depressive symptoms (SubD) in adolescence is associated with high prospective risk of developing Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Little is known about variables that predict escalation from SubD to MDD. This study used a longitudinal prospective design in a community sample of adolescents to identify combinations of risk factors that predicted escalation from SubD to MDD. Classification tree analysis was used to identify combinations of risk factors that improved the sensitivity and specificity of prediction of MDD onset among 424 adolescents with a lifetime history of SubD. Of the 424, 144 developed MDD during the follow-up period. Evidence for multiple subgroups was found: among adolescents with poor friend support, the highest risk of escalation was among participants with lifetime histories of an anxiety or substance use disorder. Among adolescents with high friend support, those reporting multiple major life events in the past year or with a history of an anxiety disorder were at highest risk of escalation. Study findings may not inform prevention efforts for individuals who first develop SubD during adulthood. This study did not examine the temporal ordering of predictors involved in escalation from SubD to MDD. Adolescents with a history of SubD were at highest risk of escalation to MDD in the presence of poor friend support and an anxiety or substance use disorder, or in the presence of better friend support, multiple major life events, and an anxiety disorder. Findings may inform case identification approaches for adolescent depression prevention programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Neural correlates of rumination in adolescents with remitted major depressive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhouse, Katie L; Jacobs, Rachel H; Peters, Amy T; Ajilore, Olu; Watkins, Edward R; Langenecker, Scott A

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to use fMRI to examine the neural correlates of engaging in rumination among a sample of remitted depressed adolescents, a population at high risk for future depressive relapse. A rumination induction task was used to assess differences in the patterns of neural activation during rumination versus a distraction condition among 26 adolescents in remission from major depressive disorder (rMDD) and in 15 healthy control adolescents. Self-report depression and rumination, as well as clinician-rated depression, were also assessed among all participants. All of the participants recruited regions in the default mode network (DMN), including the posterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobe, and medial temporal gyrus, during rumination. Increased activation in these regions during rumination was correlated with increased self-report rumination and symptoms of depression across all participants. Adolescents with rMDD also exhibited greater activation in regions involved in visual, somatosensory, and emotion processing than did healthy peers. The present findings suggest that during ruminative thought, adolescents with rMDD are characterized by increased recruitment of regions within the DMN and in areas involved in visual, somatosensory, and emotion processing.

  5. Psychotherapy, Pharmacotherapy, and Their Combination for Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikita; Reece, John

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis aims to inform clinical practice of treatment strategies for adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). The efficacy of three empirically validated treatments was compared to determine the most effective treatment. These were: cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)…

  6. Prevalence, 20-month incidence and outcome of unipolar depressive disorders in a community sample of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, AJ; Wittchen, HU; Schuster, P

    1999-01-01

    Background. This article presents prospective longitudinal findings on prevalence, incidence, patterns of change and stability of depressive disorders in a community sample of 1228 adolescents. Methods. Data were collected at baseline and follow-up (20 months later) in a representative population sa

  7. Continuity of Depressive Disorders From Childhood and Adolescence to Adulthood: A Naturalistic Study in Community Mental Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Juan J.; Muñoz-Lorenzo, Laura; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; García-Nieto, Rebeca; Dervic, Kanita; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine and compare rates of homotypic continuity of childhood- and adolescent-onset depression into adulthood. Method: This was a naturalistic, prospective cohort study of children and adolescents receiving psychiatric care at all community mental health centers in Madrid, Spain, from January 1986 to December 2007. Data were obtained from a regional registry wherein all psychiatric visits to public mental health centers are recorded. Patients received their first diagnosis of an ICD-10 F32 or F33 depressive disorder between 6 and 17 years of age and were at least 20 years old at the time of their last visit. Subjects whose first diagnosis was in childhood (aged 6–12 years: depressed-child group) and subjects whose first diagnosis was in adolescence (aged 13–17 years: depressed-adolescent group) were compared in terms of demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, and rates of homotypic continuity in adulthood. Results: Five hundred twenty-eight patients with depressive disorders met inclusion criteria. The depressed-adolescent group had a higher proportion of girls (60.3%) compared to the depressed-child group, but did not differ on other demographic or clinical variables. Most subjects who later received treatment in adult mental health facilities (n = 243; 57.2%; 95% CI, 50.9–57.2) continued to be diagnosed with a depressive disorder. High rates of anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, and psychotic disorders in adulthood were observed among subjects from both groups. The absence of psychiatric comorbidity prior to age 18 years was associated with homotypic continuity of depressive disorder into adulthood. Conclusions: Subjects with adolescent-onset depression and subjects without comorbid psychiatric disorders in youth appear to have a higher level of homotypic continuity into adulthood. Both children and adolescents with depressive disorders are at risk for other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. PMID

  8. Timing of first exposure to maternal depression and adolescent emotional disorder in a national Canadian cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyuri Naicker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Correlations have been reported between behavioral and cognitive outcomes in adolescence and exposure to maternal depression during the first postpartum year, but the effects of timing of maternal depression during subsequent exposure periods have rarely been controlled for. This study aims to methodically investigate the importance of timing of initial exposure to maternal depression with respect to adolescent mental health outcomes. METHODS: This study used data on 937 children from the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth (NLSCY, a nationally-representative longitudinal survey established in 1994 by Statistics Canada. Ordinal logistic regression was used to confirm associations between adolescent emotional disorder (at 12-13 years and initial exposure to maternal depression during 2-year intervals from birth to adolescence. Following their initial exposure to maternal depression, children were dropped from subsequent cycles. Stressful life events, chronic health conditions, maternal alcohol use, maternal marital status, gender, and SES were included as covariates. RESULTS: The results indicated that adolescents who were initially exposed to maternal depression between the ages of 2-3 years and 4-5 years had a two-fold increase in odds of emotional disorder. No increase in odds was observed in those initially exposed during the first postpartum year or later in childhood. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that a sensitive period of initial exposure to maternal depression may occur between the ages of 2 and 5, and not during the first year of life indicated by previous research. These findings are congruent with the literature on emotional and behavioral development in early childhood.

  9. Risk Factors for Depression in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam De-la-Iglesia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD in the following aspects. (1 Prevalence. It was concluded that there are an elevated depression rate and the need for longitudinal studies to determine prevalence and incidence based on functioning level, autistic symptoms, gender, age, type of depression, prognosis, duration, and treatment. (2 Explicative Hypotheses and Vulnerability. The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3 Risk of Suicide. The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4 Depressive Symptoms. Indicators for early detection are proposed and their overlap with HFASD is analysed, examining the assessment techniques used and arguing that specific adapted tests are needed.

  10. Risk Factors for Depression in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-la-Iglesia, Myriam; Olivar, José-Sixto

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) in the following aspects. (1) Prevalence. It was concluded that there are an elevated depression rate and the need for longitudinal studies to determine prevalence and incidence based on functioning level, autistic symptoms, gender, age, type of depression, prognosis, duration, and treatment. (2) Explicative Hypotheses and Vulnerability. The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3) Risk of Suicide. The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4) Depressive Symptoms. Indicators for early detection are proposed and their overlap with HFASD is analysed, examining the assessment techniques used and arguing that specific adapted tests are needed. PMID:26413564

  11. Characteristics of the child behavior checklist in adolescents with depression associated with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southammakosane, C; Danielyan, A; Welge, J A; Blom, T J; Adler, C M; Chang, K D; Howe, M; DelBello, M P

    2013-03-05

    The child behavior checklist-Juvenile bipolar disorder phenotype (CBCL-JBD) has been proposed as a distinct profile specific to children and adolescents who have been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. The objective of this study was to examine whether bipolar disorder youth with depression exhibit the "CBCL-Juvenile bipolar disorder phenotype." Thirty-two adolescents, ages 12-18 years, with a depressive episode associated with bipolar I disorder were recruited, and their primary caregivers completed the CBCL. Only the internalizing subscale (mean=70.2, SD=9.7) and total score (mean=71.5, SD=8.9) reached clinical significance (>70). Moreover, the CBCL-JBD profile scores of our subjects (204.6, SD=27.5) did not reach clinical significance (>210). Our subjects differed demographically from those in studies that have confirmed the CBCL-Juvenile bipolar disorder phenotype with regards to sex, age and ADHD comorbidity, thus limiting the interpretability of our comparisons with other studies. Furthermore, our investigation involved a small sample size and did not include a control group, which should be addressed in future studies. The results of our study suggest that the CBCL-JBD profile is not characteristic of depressed youth with bipolar disorder. Better assessment tools for making an accurate and efficient diagnosis of bipolar disorder are needed so that appropriate treatment can be implemented and significant morbidity and mortality are minimized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The association between major depressive disorder in childhood and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, Jonathan; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Carney, Robert M; Freedland, Kenneth E; George, Charles J; Baji, Ildikó; Dochnal, Roberta; Gádoros, Júlia; Halas, Kitti; Kapornai, Krisztina; Kiss, Eniko; Osváth, Viola; Varga, Hedvig; Vetró, Agnes; Kovacs, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Depression in adults is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is unclear, however, when the association between clinical depression and cardiac risk factors develops or how early in life this association can be detected. In an ongoing study of pediatric depression, we compared CVD risk factors including smoking, obesity, physical activity level, sedentary behavior, and parental history of CVD across three samples of adolescents: probands with established histories of childhood-onset major depressive disorder (n = 210), never-depressed siblings of probands (n = 195), and controls with no history of any major psychiatric disorder (n = 161). When assessed during adolescence, 85% of the probands were not in a major depressive episode. Nevertheless, at that assessment, probands had a higher prevalence of regular smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 12.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.36-36.12) and were less physically active than controls (OR = 0.59, CI = 0.43-0.81) and siblings (OR = 0.70, CI = 0.52-0.94) and had a higher rate of obesity than did controls (OR = 3.67, CI = 1.42-9.52). Parents of probands reported high rates of CVD (significantly higher than did parents of controls), including myocardial infarction and CVD-related hospitalization (ORs = 1.62-4.36, CIs = 1.03-15.40). Differences in CVD risk factors between probands and controls were independent of parental CVD. Major depression in childhood is associated with an unfavorable CVD risk profile in adolescence, and risks for pediatric depression and CVD may coincide in families. Effective prevention and treatment of childhood depression may be a means to reduce the incidence of adult CVD.

  13. Ventral Striatum Functional Connectivity as a Predictor of Adolescent Depressive Disorder in a Longitudinal Community-Based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pedro Mario; Sato, João R; Salum, Giovanni A; Rohde, Luis A; Gadelha, Ary; Zugman, Andre; Mari, Jair; Jackowski, Andrea; Picon, Felipe; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Stringaris, Argyris

    2017-09-26

    Previous studies have implicated aberrant reward processing in the pathogenesis of adolescent depression. However, no study has used functional connectivity within a distributed reward network, assessed using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI), to predict the onset of depression in adolescents. This study used reward network-based functional connectivity at baseline to predict depressive disorder at follow-up in a community sample of adolescents. A total of 637 children 6-12 years old underwent resting-state fMRI. Discovery and replication analyses tested intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) among nodes of a putative reward network. Logistic regression tested whether striatal node strength, a measure of reward-related iFC, predicted onset of a depressive disorder at 3-year follow-up. Further analyses investigated the specificity of this prediction. Increased left ventral striatum node strength predicted increased risk for future depressive disorder (odds ratio=1.54, 95% CI=1.09-2.18), even after excluding participants who had depressive disorders at baseline (odds ratio=1.52, 95% CI=1.05-2.20). Among 11 reward-network nodes, only the left ventral striatum significantly predicted depression. Striatal node strength did not predict other common adolescent psychopathology, such as anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and substance use. Aberrant ventral striatum functional connectivity specifically predicts future risk for depressive disorder. This finding further emphasizes the need to understand how brain reward networks contribute to youth depression.

  14. Large-Scale Hypoconnectivity Between Resting-State Functional Networks in Unmedicated Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchet, Matthew D; Ho, Tiffany C; Connolly, Colm G; Tymofiyeva, Olga; Lewinn, Kaja Z; Han, Laura Km; Blom, Eva H; Tapert, Susan F; Max, Jeffrey E; Frank, Guido Kw; Paulus, Martin P; Simmons, Alan N; Gotlib, Ian H; Yang, Tony T

    2016-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) often emerges during adolescence, a critical period of brain development. Recent resting-state fMRI studies of adults suggest that MDD is associated with abnormalities within and between resting-state networks (RSNs). Here we tested whether adolescent MDD is characterized by abnormalities in interactions among RSNs. Participants were 55 unmedicated adolescents diagnosed with MDD and 56 matched healthy controls. Functional connectivity was mapped using resting-state fMRI. We used the network-based statistic (NBS) to compare large-scale connectivity between groups and also compared the groups on graph metrics. We further assessed whether group differences identified using nodes defined from functionally defined RSNs were also evident when using anatomically defined nodes. In addition, we examined relations between network abnormalities and depression severity and duration. Finally, we compared intranetwork connectivity between groups and assessed the replication of previously reported MDD-related abnormalities in connectivity. The NBS indicated that, compared with controls, depressed adolescents exhibited reduced connectivity (pdepression was significantly correlated with reduced connectivity in this set of network interactions (p=0.020, corrected), specifically with reduced connectivity between components of the dorsal attention network. The dorsal attention network was also characterized by reduced intranetwork connectivity in the MDD group. Finally, we replicated previously reported abnormal connectivity in individuals with MDD. In summary, adolescents with MDD show hypoconnectivity between large-scale brain networks compared with healthy controls. Given that connectivity among these networks typically increases during adolescent neurodevelopment, these results suggest that adolescent depression is associated with abnormalities in neural systems that are still developing during this critical period.

  15. Safety and tolerability of desvenlafaxine in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, Robert L; Groark, James; Chiles, Deborah; Ramaker, Sara; Yang, Lingfeng; Tourian, Karen A

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess long-term safety and tolerability of desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). An 8 week, multicenter, open-label, fixed-dose study of children (ages 7-11 years) and adolescents (ages 12-17 years) with MDD was followed by a 6 month, flexible-dose extension study. Patients were administered desvenlafaxine 10-100 mg/day (children) or 25-200 mg/day (adolescents) for a total of 8 months. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), withdrawals because of AEs, laboratory tests, vital signs, and the Columbia Suicide-Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) were collected. Eight month safety results from the lead-in plus extension studies are reported for extension study participants, using lead-in study day -1 as baseline. Forty patients were enrolled in both studies (20 children; 20 adolescents). Of those, four children and three adolescents withdrew because of AEs. Treatment-emergent AEs reported by three or more patients were upper abdominal pain (15%) and headache (15%) in children, and somnolence (30%), nausea (20%), upper abdominal pain (15%), and headache (15%) in adolescents. Negativism (oppositional behavior) in a child was the single serious AE reported. No deaths occurred during the lead-in or extension studies. Mean pulse rates demonstrated statistically significant increases from lead-in study baseline to final evaluation (children, +5.2 bpm; adolescents, +5.9 bpm; p≤0.05). No statistically significant change in blood pressure was observed at final evaluation. Two adolescents (0 children) reported suicidal ideation on the C-SSRS at screening assessment and during the lead-in and/or extension trials; one adolescent reported suicidal ideation after screening only. Long-term (8 month) treatment with desvenlafaxine was generally safe and well tolerated in depressed children and adolescents.

  16. Identifying comorbid depression and disruptive behavior disorders: comparison of two approaches used in adolescent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Stoep, Ann; Adrian, Molly C; Rhew, Isaac C; McCauley, Elizabeth; Herting, Jerald R; Kraemer, Helena C

    2012-07-01

    Interest in commonly co-occurring depression and disruptive behavior disorders in children has yielded a small body of research that estimates the prevalence of this comorbid condition and compares children with the comorbid condition and children with depression or disruptive behavior disorders alone with respect to antecedents and outcomes. Prior studies have used one of two different approaches to measure comorbid disorders: (1) meeting criteria for two DSM or ICD diagnoses or (2) scoring .5 SD above the mean or higher on two dimensional scales. This study compares two snapshots of comorbidity taken simultaneously in the same sample with each of the measurement approaches. The Developmental Pathways Project administered structured diagnostic interviews as well as dimensional scales to a community-based sample of 521 11-12 year olds to assess depression and disruptive behavior disorders. Clinical caseness indicators of children identified as "comorbid" by each method were examined concurrently and 3-years later. Cross-classification of adolescents via the two approaches revealed low agreement. When other indicators of caseness, including functional impairment, need for services, and clinical elevations on other symptom scales were examined, adolescents identified as comorbid via dimensional scales only were similar to those who were identified as comorbid via DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Findings suggest that when relying solely on DSM diagnostic criteria for comorbid depression and disruptive behavior disorders, many adolescents with significant impairment will be overlooked. Findings also suggest that lower dimensional scale thresholds can be set when comorbid conditions, rather than single forms of psychopathology, are being identified.

  17. Familial and Clinical Correlates in Depressed Adolescents with Borderline Personality Disorder Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marc Guile

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chart review is a low-cost, but highly informative, method to describe symptoms, treatment and risk factors associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD and to adapt screening and intervention to clinical reality. Previous chart review studies report more aggressiveness/anger and psychotic features in youths with BPD. They show that adverse family environment and parental psychopathology constitute important factors for BPD pathology. Objectives: To examine clinical characteristics of depressed BPD adolescents (12-17 years old outpatients according to gender and to explore variables which are associated with BPD traits. Methods: A retrospective chart review using the Child and Adolescent Version of the Retrospective Diagnostic Instrument for Borderlines was conducted on 30 depressed BPD adolescents with BPD traits and 28 non-BPD depressed patients without BPD traits. Participants who reached the C-DIB threshold for BPD were included in the BPD traits group. The Child and Adolescent Version of the Retrospective Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines was used to determine the presence of BPD. Comparisons analyses were performed using Pearson’s Chi-square test. Associated factors were determined using regression analyses. Results: BPD traits participants outpatients were characterised by higher family problems (parental psychopathology, parent disagreement/argument, parent-child relational problem, more aggressive symptoms, and higher rates of family intervention and hospitalisation. A number of familial factors (parental history of delinquency, substance use, or personality disorders, having siblings, parental disagreement/argument in boys were associated with BPD symptomatologytraits. Attention seeking and problematic functioning (does not adapt well to group activities were also associated with BPD traits. Discussion: Our study stresses the need to assess BPD traits in adolescent psychiatric evaluation, especially in

  18. Evaluation of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Adolescents and Young Adults with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

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    Prashanth Prabhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of stress, anxiety, and depression using Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS in adolescents and young adults with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD. DASS was administered to 20 individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The effect of gender on severity of anxiety, stress, and depression on DASS scores was determined. It was attempted to determine the correlation of severity of anxiety, stress, and depression with the reported onset of the problem, degree of hearing loss, and speech identification scores. The results of the study showed that individuals with ANSD had a moderate degree of depression and anxiety. The results also showed that the symptoms were more seen in females than in males. Correlation analysis revealed that DASS scores correlated with the reported onset of condition and speech identification scores (SIS and the degree of hearing loss showed no correlation. The study concludes that individuals with ANSD experience depression and anxiety and this could be because of the inadequate management options available for individuals with ANSD. Thus, there is a need to develop appropriate management strategies for individuals with ANSD and provide appropriate referral for management of psychological issues.

  19. Exposure to maternal pre- and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms: risk for major depression, anxiety disorders, and conduct disorder in adolescent offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasheen, Cristie; Richardson, Gale A; Kim, Kevin H; Larkby, Cynthia A; Swartz, Holly A; Day, Nancy L

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluated whether exposure to maternal pre- or postnatal depression or anxiety symptoms predicted psychopathology in adolescent offspring. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify trajectories of pre- and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms in 577 women of low socioeconomic status selected from a prenatal clinic. Logistic regression models indicated that maternal pre- and postnatal depression trajectory exposure was not associated with offspring major depression, anxiety, or conduct disorder, but exposure to the high depression trajectory was associated with lower anxiety symptoms in males. Exposure to medium and high pre- and postnatal anxiety was associated with the risk of conduct disorder among offspring. Male offspring exposed to medium and high pre- and postnatal anxiety had higher odds of conduct disorder than did males with low exposure levels. Females exposed to medium or high pre- and postnatal anxiety were less likely to meet conduct disorder criteria than were females with lower exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effect of pre- and postnatal anxiety trajectories on the risk of conduct disorder in offspring. These results suggest new directions for investigating the etiology of conduct disorder with a novel target for intervention.

  20. Moderators of the effects of indicated group and bibliotherapy cognitive behavioral depression prevention programs on adolescents' depressive symptoms and depressive disorder onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M; Stice, Eric

    2015-12-01

    We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Amygdala Function and 5-HTT Gene Variants in Adolescent Anxiety and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Goldman, David; Buzas, Beata; Fromm, Stephen J.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Hodgkinson, Colin; Monk, Christopher S.; Nelson, Eric E.; Shen, Pei-Hong; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2009-01-01

    Background Associations between a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene and amygdala activation have been found in healthy, depressed, and anxious adults. This study explored these gene–brain associations in adolescents by examining predictive effects of serotonin transporter gene variants (S and LG allele carriers vs. LA allele homozygotes) and their interaction with diagnosis (healthy vs. patients) on amygdala responses to emotional faces. Methods Functional magnetic resonance data were collected from 33 healthy adolescents (mean age: 13.71, 55% female) and 31 medication-free adolescents with current anxiety or depressive disorders (or both; mean age: 13.58, 56% female) while viewing fearful, angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions under varying attention states. Results A significant three-way genotype-by-diagnosis-by-face-emotion interaction characterized right amygdala activity while subjects monitored internal fear levels. This interaction was decomposed to map differential gene–brain associations in healthy and affected adolescents. First, consistent with healthy adult data, healthy adolescents with at least one copy of the S or LG allele showed stronger amygdala responses to fearful faces than healthy adolescents without these alleles. Second, patients with two copies of the LA allele exhibited greater amygdala responses to fearful faces relative to patients with S or LG alleles. Third, although weaker, genotype differences on amygdala responses in patients extended to happy faces. All effects were restricted to the fear-monitoring attention state. Conclusions S/LG alleles in healthy adolescents, as in healthy adults, predict enhanced amygdala activation to fearful faces. Contrary findings of increased activation in patients with LALA relative to the S or LG alleles require further exploration. PMID:18950748

  2. Associations between substance use disorders and major depression in parents and late adolescent-emerging adult offspring: an adoption study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marmorstein, N. R.; Iacono, W. G.; McGue, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To examine whether major depressive disorder (MDD) and substance use disorders [SUDs: specifically, nicotine dependence (ND), alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and cannabis use disorders (CUDs)] in parents predicted increased risk for these disorders in late adolescentemerging adult offspring and......, specifically, the extent to which the pattern of risk differed for adopted and non-adopted youth. Participants Late adolescent and emerging adult participants from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (mean age?=?18.8), a community-based investigation of adopted and non-adopted adolescents......, and their parents (adoptive parents of adopted youth, biological parents of non-adopted adolescents) were included. Measurements Structured interviews were used to assess these disorders. Findings (i) When the same disorder in parents and adolescents was examined, parental MDD was associated with increased risk...

  3. Amygdala activation during emotional face processing in adolescents with affective disorders: the role of underlying depression and anxiety symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bulk, Bianca G.; Meens, Paul H. F.; van Lang, Natasja D. J.; de Voogd, E. L.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Crone, Eveline A.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders are often first diagnosed during adolescence and it is known that they persist into adulthood. Previous studies often tried to dissociate depressive and anxiety disorders, but high comorbidity makes this difficult and maybe even impossible. The goal of this study was to use neuroimaging to test what the unique contribution is of depression and anxiety symptomatology on emotional processing and amygdala activation, and to compare the results with a healthy control group. We included 25 adolescents with depressive and/or anxiety disorders and 26 healthy adolescents. Participants performed an emotional face processing task while in the MRI scanner. We were particularly interested in the relation between depression/anxiety symptomatology and patterns of amygdala activation. There were no significant differences in activation patterns between the control group and the clinical group on whole brain level and ROI level. However, we found that dimensional scores on an anxiety but not a depression subscale significantly predicted brain activation in the right amygdala when processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are a better predictor for differentiating activation patterns in the amygdala than depression symptoms. Although the current study includes a relatively large sample of treatment naïve adolescents with depression/anxiety disorders, results might be influenced by differences between studies in recruitment strategies or methodology. Future research should include larger samples with a more equal distribution of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety. To conclude, this study shows that abnormal amygdala responses to emotional faces in depression and anxiety seems to be more dependent on anxiety symptoms than on depression symptoms, and thereby highlights the need for more research to better characterize clinical groups in future studies. PMID:24926249

  4. Amygdala activation during emotional face processing in adolescents with affective disorders: the role of underlying depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca G Van Den Bulk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDepressive and anxiety disorders are often first diagnosed during adolescence and it is known that they persist into adulthood. Previous studies often tried to dissociate depressive and anxiety disorders, but high comorbidity makes this difficult and maybe even impossible. The goal of this study was to use neuroimaging to test what the unique contribution is of depression and anxiety symptomatology on emotional processing and amygdala activation, and to compare the results with a healthy control group. We included 25 adolescents with depressive and/or anxiety disorders and 26 healthy adolescents. Participants performed an emotional face processing task while in the MRI scanner. We were particularly interested in the relation between depression/anxiety symptomatology and patterns of amygdala activation. There were no significant differences in activation patterns between the control group and the clinical group on whole brain level and ROI level. However, we found that dimensional scores on an anxiety but not a depression subscale significantly predicted brain activation in the right amygdala when processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are a better predictor for differentiating activation patterns in the amygdala than depression symptoms. Although the current study includes a relatively large sample of treatment naïve adolescents with depression/anxiety disorders, results might be influenced by differences between studies in recruitment strategies or methodology. Future research should include larger samples with a more equal distribution of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety. To conclude, this study shows that abnormal amygdala responses to emotional faces in depression and anxiety seems to be more dependent on anxiety symptoms than on depression symptoms, and thereby highlights the need for more research to better characterize clinical groups in future

  5. Neural activity to intense positive versus negative stimuli can help differentiate bipolar disorder from unipolar major depressive disorder in depressed adolescents: a pilot fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diler, Rasim Somer; de Almeida, Jorge Renner Cardoso; Ladouceur, Cecile; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Phillips, Mary

    2013-12-30

    Failure to distinguish bipolar depression (BDd) from the unipolar depression of major depressive disorder (UDd) in adolescents has significant clinical consequences. We aimed to identify differential patterns of functional neural activity in BDd versus UDd and employed two (fearful and happy) facial expression/ gender labeling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to study emotion processing in 10 BDd (8 females, mean age=15.1 ± 1.1) compared to age- and gender-matched 10 UDd and 10 healthy control (HC) adolescents who were age- and gender-matched to the BDd group. BDd adolescents, relative to UDd, showed significantly lower activity to both intense happy (e.g., insula and temporal cortex) and intense fearful faces (e.g., frontal precentral cortex). Although the neural regions recruited in each group were not the same, both BDd and UDd adolescents, relative to HC, showed significantly lower neural activity to intense happy and mild happy faces, but elevated neural activity to mild fearful faces. Our results indicated that patterns of neural activity to intense positive and negative emotional stimuli can help differentiate BDd from UDd in adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Depressão e doença bipolar na infância e adolescência Bipolar disorder and depression in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dênio Lima

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este estudo buscou a revisão da história, conceitos, categorias diagnósticas, epidemiologia, fatores genéticos e neurobiológicos, assim como fatores predisponentes e modalidades de tratamento desses transtornos. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada uma revisão extensa da literatura sobre depressão infantil e transtorno bipolar. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A depressão infantil e o transtorno bipolar estão associados a fatores genéticos, temperamento, eventos adversos da vida, divórcio, problemas acadêmicos, abuso físico e sexual e fatores neurobiológicos. O tratamento pode ser realizado, na maioria das vezes, com medicações e psicoterapia. CONCLUSÕES: São transtornos importantes, muitas vezes de difícil diagnóstico, que, uma vez reconhecidos e tratados, irão minorar o sofrimento de crianças e adolescentes. O pediatra poderá intervir orientando a família nos casos leves, mas deve ficar atento àqueles que necessitam de outros tipos de tratamento.OBJECTIVES: To provide a historical review of childhood depression and bipolar disorder, covering concepts, diagnostic categories, epidemiology, genetic and neurobiological aspects as well as predisposing factors and treatment modalities. SOURCES OF DATA: Extensive review of the literature on child depression and bipolar disorder. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Child depression and bipolar disorder are associated with genetic factors, mood, adverse life events, divorce, academic problems, physical and sexual abuse, and neurobiological factors. Treatment usually includes medication and psychotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: These are important childhood disorders whose diagnosis is often difficult. The identification and treatment of depression and bipolar disorder reduces the suffering of affected children and adolescents. The pediatrician can intervene by orienting the family in mild cases, but must be alert to cases requiring more aggressive treatment.

  7. Differences in the Prevalence, Severity and Symptom Profiles of Depression in Boys and Adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder versus Normally Developing Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, severity and symptom profiles for major depressive disorder (MDD) were compared in samples of boys and adolescents with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Self-reports were obtained on the Depression subscale of the Child and Adolescent Symptoms Inventory (CASI-D) with 70 ASD and 50 non-ASD male participants between the…

  8. The phenotypic and genetic structure of depression and anxiety disorder symptoms in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszczuk, Monika A; Zavos, Helena M S; Gregory, Alice M; Eley, Thalia C

    2014-08-01

    The DSM-5 classifies mood and anxiety disorders as separate conditions. However, some studies in adults find a unidimensional internalizing factor that underpins anxiety and depression, while others support a bidimensional model where symptoms segregate into distress (depression and generalized anxiety) and fear factors (phobia subscales). However, little is known about the phenotypic and genetic structure of internalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. To investigate the phenotypic associations between depression and anxiety disorder symptom subscales and to test the genetic structures underlying these symptoms (DSM-5-related, unidimensional and bidimensional) across 3 developmental stages: childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. Two population-based prospective longitudinal twin/sibling studies conducted in the United Kingdom. The child sample included 578 twins (mean age, approximately 8 and 10 years at waves 1 and 2, respectively). The adolescent and early adulthood sample included 2619 twins/siblings at 3 waves (mean age, 15, 17, and 20 years at each wave). Self-report symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. Phenotypically, when controlling for other anxiety subscales, depression symptoms were only associated with generalized anxiety disorder symptoms in childhood (r = 0.20-0.21); this association broadened to panic and social phobia symptoms in adolescence (r = 0.17-0.24 and r = 0.14-0.16, respectively) and all anxiety subscales in young adulthood (r = 0.06-0.19). The genetic associations were in line with phenotypic results. In childhood, anxiety subscales were influenced by a single genetic factor that did not contribute to genetic variance in depression symptoms, suggesting largely independent genetic influences on anxiety and depression. In adolescence, genetic influences were significantly shared between depression and all anxiety subscales in agreement with DSM-5 conceptualization. In young adulthood, a genetic

  9. Psychosocial characteristics of adolescents with a past history of dysthymic disorder: comparison with adolescents with past histories of major depressive and non-affective disorders, and never mentally ill controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D N; Lewinsohn, P M; Seeley, J R

    1997-02-01

    Little is known about the psychosocial functioning of persons who have recovered from dysthymic disorder. Such information might be useful in identifying trait markers for dysthymia, and for guiding continuation and maintenance treatment. We explored this issue using data from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project, a large community-based study of the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in a high school population. Four groups of adolescents were identified: 38 with a past history of dysthymic disorder; 217 with a past history of major depressive disorder; 142 with a past history of non-affective disorders; and 1079 with no lifetime history of psychopathology. The groups were compared on an extensive battery of psychosocial variables. The most consistent and diagnostically specific finding was that adolescents with a past history of dysthymic disorder reported having a significantly lower level of social support from friends than each of the other three groups of adolescents. Adolescents with a past history of dysthymic disorder also reported significantly higher levels of depressive, internalizing and externalizing symptoms and daily hassles than adolescents with no lifetime history of psychopathology. In addition, they reported higher levels of depressive symptoms and self-consciousness, but fewer externalizing symptoms than adolescents with a past history of non-affective disorders. These data suggest that adolescents with dysthymic disorder continue to experience significant difficulties in psychosocial functioning even after recovery.

  10. Attachment states of mind in adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and/or depressive disorders: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Tord; Granqvist, Pehr; Gillberg, Christopher; Broberg, Anders G

    2010-11-01

    Little is known about the contribution of attachment insecurity to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), though speculations have been extensive. We aimed to study how states of mind (SoM) with regard to attachment relate to OCD with and without depressive disorder (DD). We interviewed 100 adolescents, 25 each with OCD, DD, OCD plus DD and general population controls, using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to assess attachment SoM. In the AAI, interviewees are asked about both generalized/semantic and biographical/episodic descriptions of childhood experience. Discourse styles are coded and classified by a blinded coder. While about half of the adolescents from the general population had secure SoM (52%), most adolescents in the clinical groups did not: OCD 12%; DD 8%; and DD + OCD 4% (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.0001). SoM with regard to attachment profiles differed significantly across the groups with 60% of participants with OCD classified as dismissing (Ds), 40% of the DD group as unresolved with regard to loss or abuse (U) and 28% as cannot classify, while 44 and 36%, respectively, of those with OCD + DD group were classified as either Ds or U (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.0001). Different kinds of SoM reflecting insecure attachment differentiated the clinical groups studied, with OCD predominantly showing dismissing traits and depression attachment SoM commonly associated with severe adverse events. Such differences might play distinct roles in the pathogenic processes of the psychiatric disorders, or be the result of the cognitive states associated with OCD and DD.

  11. Diagnosis of depression among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haavet, Ole Rikard; Christensen, Kaj Aage Sparle; Sirpal, Manjit

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of the study is to improve general practitioners' diagnoses of adolescent depression. Major depression is ranked fourth in the worldwide disability impact. METHOD: Validation of 1) three key questions, 2) SCL-dep6, 3) SCL-10, 4) 9 other SCL questions and 5) WHO-5....... A number of GPs will be recruited from both countries and at least 162 adolescents will be enrolled in the study from the patient lists of the GPs in each country, giving a total of at least 323 adolescent participants. DISCUSSION: The proportion of adolescents suffering from depressive disorders also...... seems to be increasing worldwide. Early interventions are known to reduce this illness. The earlier depression can be identified in adolescents, the greater the advantage. Therefore, we hope to find a suitable questionnaire that could be recommended for GPs....

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy for Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in Children and Adolescents: An Evidence-Based Medicine Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Scott N.; March, John S.; Brent, David; Albano, Anne Marie; Weersing, V. Robin; Curry, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the cognitive-behavioral treatment of children and adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders within the conceptual framework of evidence-based medicine. Method: The psychiatric and psychological literature was systematically searched for controlled trials applying cognitive-behavioral treatment to…

  13. Efficacy and safety of atomoxetine in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangs, Mark E; Emslie, Graham J; Spencer, Thomas J; Ramsey, Janet L; Carlson, Christopher; Bartky, Eric J; Busner, Joan; Duesenberg, David A; Harshawat, Paras; Kaplan, Stuart L; Quintana, Humberto; Allen, Albert J; Sumner, Calvin R

    2007-08-01

    This double-blind study examined efficacy and safety of atomoxetine (ATX; Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) diagnoses of both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and co-morbid major depressive disorder (MDD). Diagnoses were confirmed by the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version and persistently elevated scores on the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-IV, Parent version, Investigator-administered and -scored (ADHDRS-IV-Parent:Inv, > or =1.5 standard deviations above age and gender norms) and Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R, > or = 40). Patients were treated for approximately 9 weeks with ATX (n = 72) or placebo (n = 70). Mean decrease in ADHDRS-IV-Parent:Inv total score was significantly greater in the ATX group (-13.3 +/- 10.0) compared with the placebo group (-5.1 +/- 9.9; p < 0.001). Mean CDRS-R score improvement was not significantly different between groups (ATX, -14.8 +/- 13.3; placebo, -12.8 +/- 10.4). Rates of treatment-emergent mania did not differ between groups (ATX, 0.0%; placebo, 1.5%). ATX treatment was associated with significantly more nausea and decreased appetite (p = 0.002; p = 0.003). No spontaneously reported adverse events involving suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior occurred in either group. ATX was an effective and safe treatment for ADHD in adolescents with ADHD and MDD. However, this trial showed no evidence for ATX of efficacy in treating MDD.

  14. Mediating and Moderating Role of Depression, Conduct Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Developing Adolescent Substance Use Disorders: A Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouichi Yoshimasu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the mediating/moderating effects of common internalizing /externalizing disorders on the association between ADHD and adolescent substance use disorders (SUD in a population-based birth cohort.Among 5718 children in the birth cohort, 343 ADHD incident cases and 712 matched controls were identified. Psychiatric diagnoses prior to age 19 were classified into DSM-IV categories. The association between ADHD and SUD was summarized (hazard ratios (HR, 95% CI. The effect of depression, CD/ODD, anxiety was evaluated separately.Assessment of the joint effects of ADHD and each psychiatric disorder did not support a moderating effect of these disorders on SUD on additive scale. However, the association between ADHD and SUD was partially explained by a mediating role of these psychiatric disorders.For clinicians our results emphasize that depression (or CD/ODD confers greater risk for SUD than ADHD alone. Early detection/treatment of SUD among adolescents with depression (or CD/ODD is crucial regardless of ADHD.

  15. Examination of cumulative effects of early adolescent depression on cannabis and alcohol use disorder in late adolescence in a community-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Isaac C; Fleming, Charles B; Vander Stoep, Ann; Nicodimos, Semret; Zheng, Cheng; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2017-06-10

    Although they often co-occur, the longitudinal relationship between depression and substance use disorders during adolescence remains unclear. This study estimated the effects of cumulative depression during early adolescence (ages 13-15 years) on the likelihood of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) at age 18. Prospective cohort study of youth assessed at least annually between 6th and 9th grades (~ age 12-15) and again at age 18. Marginal structural models based on a counterfactual framework that accounted for both potential fixed and time-varying confounders were used to estimate cumulative effects of depressive symptoms over early adolescence. The sample originated from four public middle schools in Seattle, Washington, USA. The sample consisted of 521 youth (48.4% female; 44.5% were non-Hispanic White). Structured in-person interviews with youth and their parents were conducted to assess diagnostic symptom counts of depression during early adolescence; diagnoses of CUD and AUD at age 18 was based the Voice-Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Cumulative depression was defined as the sum of depression symptom counts from grades 7-9. The past-year prevalence of cannabis and alcohol use disorder at the age 18 study wave was 20.9 and 19.8%, respectively. A 1 standard deviation increase in cumulative depression during early adolescence was associated with a 50% higher likelihood of CUD [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07, 2.10]. Although similar in direction, there was no statistically significant association between depression and AUD (PR = 1.41; 95% CI = 0.94, 2.11). Further, there were no differences in associations according to gender. Youth with more chronic or severe forms of depression during early adolescence may be at elevated risk for developing cannabis use disorder compared with otherwise similar youth who experience fewer depressive symptoms during early adolescence. © 2017 Society

  16. Antecedents of New-Onset Major Depressive Disorder in Children and Adolescents at High Familial Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Frances; Sellers, Ruth; Hammerton, Gemma; Eyre, Olga; Bevan-Jones, Rhys; Thapar, Ajay K; Collishaw, Stephan; Harold, Gordon T; Thapar, Anita

    2017-02-01

    Early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in individuals at high familial risk of depression and is associated with poor long-term mental health, social, and educational outcomes. To examine the developmental pathways that lead to first-episode adolescent-onset MDD (incident cases) in those at high familial risk and to postulate a theoretically informed model that enables simultaneous testing of different pathways to incident adolescent-onset MDD composed of contributions from familial/genetic and social risk factors, as well as effects via specific clinical antecedents. This investigation was a 4-year longitudinal study (April 2007 to March 2011) among offspring of depressed parents in the general community. Analyses were conducted between September 1, 2015, and May 27, 2016. Participants were 337 families in whom the index parent (315 mothers and 22 fathers) had experienced at least 2 episodes of MDD (recruited through primary care) and among whom there was a biologically related child in the age range of 9 to 17 years living with the index parent (197 girls and 140 boys with a mean [SD] age of 12.4 [2.0] years) at baseline. Offspring with MDD before the study or at baseline (n = 27), offspring with an episode of MDD that had remitted by follow-up (n = 4), and offspring with missing baseline MDD data (n = 2) were excluded. Ninety-two percent (279 of 304) of families completed the follow-up. The primary outcome was new-onset offspring MDD, and the secondary outcome was the total DSM-IV MDD symptom score. On average, children and adolescents had a mean (SD) of 1.85 (1.74) (range, 0-8.5) DSM-IV symptoms of MDD at follow-up. Twenty (6 males and 14 females) had new-onset MDD, with a mean (SD) age at onset of 14.4 (2.0) years (range, 10-18 years). Irritability (β = 0.12, P = .03) and fear and/or anxiety (β = 0.38, P adolescent-onset MDD, but disruptive behavior (β = -0.08, P = .14) and low mood (β = -0.03, P

  17. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why. Depression symptoms in children and teens Common signs and ... in normal activities, and avoidance of social interaction. Depression symptoms in older adults Depression is not a ...

  18. Diagnosis of depression among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haavet, Ole Rikard; Christensen, Kaj Aage Sparle; Sirpal, Manjit

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of the study is to improve general practitioners' diagnoses of adolescent depression. Major depression is ranked fourth in the worldwide disability impact. METHOD: Validation of 1) three key questions, 2) SCL-dep6, 3) SCL-10, 4) 9 other SCL questions and 5) WHO-5...... in a clinical study among adolescents. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) is to be used as the gold standard interview. The project is a GP multicenter study to be conducted in both Norway and Denmark. Inclusion criteria are age (14-16) and fluency in the Norwegian and Danish language....... A number of GPs will be recruited from both countries and at least 162 adolescents will be enrolled in the study from the patient lists of the GPs in each country, giving a total of at least 323 adolescent participants. DISCUSSION: The proportion of adolescents suffering from depressive disorders also...

  19. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

  20. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

  1. Summary of the practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorders. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmaher, B; Brent, D A; Benson, R S

    1998-11-01

    This summary provides an overview of the assessment and treatment recommendations contained in the Practice Parameters for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Depressive Disorders. Depressive disorders in children and adolescents are marked by core symptoms similar to those seen in adults, although symptom expression varies greatly with developmental stage. These disorders are common, chronic, and recurrent, and they are associated with comorbid psychiatric conditions and poor outcome that can be alleviated by early identification and treatment. Opinions differ regarding treatment planning and duration of treatment required. Development of a treatment relationship with the patient and family is crucial for a successful outcome. Psychotherapy is an appropriate treatment for all children and adolescents with depressive disorders. Antidepressants may prove useful in some cases and are especially recommended for patients with psychosis, bipolar depression, and severe depression. Continuation treatment is necessary in all patients after the acute phase; long-term maintenance is required in some. Early detection and intervention is effective in ameliorating the poor psychosocial outcome.

  2. Impact of Oppositional Defiant Disorder Dimensions on the Temporal Ordering of Conduct Problems and Depression across Childhood and Adolescence in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie; Feng, Xin; Burke, Jeff; Battista, Deena R.; Loeber, Rolf; Keenan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the role of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) dimensions on the temporal unfolding of conduct disorder (CD) and depression in girls between childhood and adolescence. Method: The year-to-year associations between CD and depressive symptomatology were examined using nine waves of annually collected data (ages 8…

  3. Risk behaviors for eating disorders and depressive symptoms: a study of female adolescents in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between depressive symptoms and eating disorders in female adolescents. The sample included 371 girls ranging from 12 to 16 years of age in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and Major Depression Inventory (MDI to evaluate eating disorders and depressive symptoms, respectively. The linear regression model showed that 18% of the EAT-26 scores were influenced by MDI (F(1, 370 = 14.18; p = 0.001. Moreover, the findings indicated a statistically significant association between depressive symptoms and eating disorders (χ2 = 14.71; Wald = 12.90; p = 0.001. The authors concluded that depressive symptoms were related to eating disorders in female adolescents. Thus, girls with some level of depression showed a greater tendency to adopt disordered eating as a daily habit.

  4. [Depression and Anxiety Disorders and Associated Factors in the Adolescent Colombian Population, 2015 National Mental Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Bohórquez, Adriana; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Rondón, Martín; Bautista, Nubia; Rengifo, Herney; Medina Rico, Mauricio

    2016-12-01

    There was a prevalence of mental disorders of 17% in adolescents in the past year. These tended to be chronic and their appearance at this age is associated with a worse prognosis than those in adulthood. To determine the prevalence and mental factors associated with major depression and anxiety disorders. Data were obtained from the IV National Mental Health Survey representing 5 regions. A structured computerised survey was conducted using the Computer Assisted Personal Interview-Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Adolescent Version (CAPI-CIDI-A), focused on the most common depression and anxiety disorders. It included a sample of 1754 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old. The prevalence of any disorder at some point in life was 7.2% (95%CI, 5.8-8.9). The most common disorder corresponded to social phobia manifested sometime in life in 4.8% (95%CI, 3.7-6.2). Less frequent were panic disorder in girls (0.2%; 95% CI, 0.1-1.0) and other bipolar disorders in boys (0.2%; 95%CI, 0.1-0.7). Among the associated factors of suffering from any disorder were, being female (OR=2.1), having little family support (OR=2.0), having witnessed at least one traumatic event (OR=2.6), and having had a previous suicide attempt (OR=3.4). Participation in at least one group was a protective factor (OR=0.5). Mental disorders of anxiety and depression represent a major burden of disease for Colombia. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Subthreshold depression in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselhoeft, Rikke; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Heiervang, Einar

    2013-01-01

    Depressive disorders are disabling conditions striking at all ages. In adults, subthreshold depression (SD) is viewed as being on a continuum with major depressive disorder (MDD). Whether this holds for children and adolescents, is still unclear. We performed the first systematic review of SD...

  6. Self-esteem and social support as moderators of depression, body image, and disordered eating for suicidal ideation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M; Decker, Kristina M

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated risk factors for suicidal ideation in a community sample of 392 adolescents (males 51.9 %; females 48.1 %), while also evaluating self-esteem, perceived parent support, and perceived peer support as protective factors and potential moderators between suicidal ideation and the 3 risk factors. Disordered eating, depression, parent support, and peer support were found to be significant predictors of current suicidal ideation, but body satisfaction was not. The relationship between depression and suicidal ideation was significantly moderated by both self-esteem and parent support, while the relationship between disordered eating and suicidal ideation was significantly moderated by peer support. Results underscore the importance of examining protective factors for suicide risk, as they have the potential to reduce suicidal ideation in adolescents.

  7. Emotional inertia prospectively predicts the onset of depressive disorder in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, Peter; Sheeber, Lisa B; Yap, Marie B H; Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B

    2012-04-01

    Emotional inertia refers to the degree to which a person's current emotional state is predicted by their prior emotional state, reflecting how much it carries over from one moment to the next. Recently, in a cross-sectional study, we showed that high inertia is an important characteristic of the emotion dynamics observed in psychological maladjustment such as depression. In the present study, we examined whether emotional inertia prospectively predicts the onset of first-episode depression during adolescence. Emotional inertia was assessed in a sample of early adolescents (N = 165) based on second-to-second behavioral coding of videotaped naturalistic interactions with a parent. Greater inertia of both negative and positive emotional behaviors predicted the emergence of clinical depression 2.5 years later. The implications of these findings for the understanding of the etiology and early detection of depression are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Predictors of future depression in early and late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lang, Natasja D J; Ferdinand, Robert F; Verhulst, Frank C

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether the possibility to predict future DSM-IV depressive disorder can be increased with recurrent screening for depression in community adolescents, compared to single screening in early or in late adolescence. In addition, it examined which depressive symptoms in early and late adolescence predicted future depressive disorder most accurately. Participants from an ongoing longitudinal cohort study were assessed when they were aged between 10 and 15 (early adolescence), and between 14 and 19 (late adolescence), and were followed until they were 20-25 (young adulthood). The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) were used to screen for depression in early and late adolescence, and CIDI/DSM-IV diagnoses of depressive disorder were used as the outcome measure during follow-up. Recurrent screening only slightly improved the prediction of future depression, and cognitive and physical symptoms in late adolescence predicted future depression accurately in boys. Sleeping problems in early adolescence predicted future depression in girls. The main limitation was the retrospective recall of the age of onset of a depressive disorder. Recurrent screening for depression did not predict future depressive disorder better than single screening in late adolescence. However, depressive symptoms like sleeping problems predicted future depression quite accurately in adolescent boys and girls. This indicates that it may be useful to screen adolescents for the presence of such symptoms, for instance in school settings, to predict which adolescents are at risk to develop DSM-IV depressive disorder in early adulthood.

  9. Early physiological markers of cardiovascular risk in community based adolescents with a depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waloszek, Joanna M; Byrne, Michelle L; Woods, Michael J; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Murray, Greg; Raniti, Monika; Allen, Nicholas B; Trinder, John

    2015-04-01

    Depression is recognised as an independent cardiovascular risk factor in adults. Identifying this relationship early on in life is potentially important for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated whether clinical depression is associated with multiple physiological markers of CVD risk in adolescents from the general community. Participants aged 12-18 years were recruited from the general community and screened for depressive symptoms. Individuals with high and low depressive symptoms were administered a diagnostic interview. Fifty participants, 25 with a current depressive episode and 25 matched healthy controls, subsequently completed cardiovascular assessments. Variables assessed were automatic brachial and continuous beat-to-beat finger arterial blood pressure, heart rate, vascular functioning by pulse amplitude tonometry following reactive hyperaemia and pulse transit time (PTT) at rest. Blood samples were collected to measure cholesterol, glucose and glycohaemoglobin levels and an index of cumulative risk of traditional cardiovascular risk factors was calculated. Depressed adolescents had a significantly lower reactive hyperaemia index and shorter PTT, suggesting deterioration in vascular integrity and structure. Higher fasting glucose and triglyceride levels were also observed in the depressed group, who also had higher cumulative risk scores indicative of increased engagement in unhealthy behaviours and higher probability of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. The sample size and number of males who completed all cardiovascular measures was small. Clinically depressed adolescents had poorer vascular functioning and increased CVD risk compared to controls, highlighting the need for early identification and intervention for the prevention of CVD in depressed youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Emotion socialization in the context of risk and psychopathology: Mother and father socialization of anger and sadness in adolescents with depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Allen, Nicholas; Leve, Craig; Davis, Betsy; Sheeber, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This study examined parental emotion socialization processes associated with adolescent unipolar depressive disorder. Adolescent participants (N=107; 42 boys) were selected either to meet criteria for current unipolar depressive disorder or to be psychologically healthy as defined by no lifetime history of psychopathology or mental health treatment and low levels of current depressive symptomatology. A multisource/method measurement strategy was used to assess mothers’ and fathers’ responses to adolescent sad and angry emotion. Each parent and the adolescents completed questionnaire measures of parental emotion socialization behavior, and participated in meta-emotion interviews and parent-adolescent interactions. As hypothesized, parents of adolescents with depressive disorder engaged in fewer supportive responses and more unsupportive responses overall relative to parents of nondepressed adolescents. Between group differences were more pronounced for families of boys, and for fathers relative to mothers. The findings indicate that parent emotion socialization is associated with adolescent depression and highlight the importance of including fathers in studies of emotion socialization, especially as it relates to depression. PMID:28804218

  11. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, I. S.; Horwood, L. J.; Fergusson, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which...... positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate the risk of later internalising disorders amongst children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal using data from a 30 years longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort. The findings of this study showed that: (a) increasing rates of early...... anxiety/withdrawal were associated with an increased risk of later anxiety and depression; (b) positive parent-child attachment in adolescence was associated with a decline in the risk of later anxiety and depression; and (c) these associations persisted even after controlling for confounding factors...

  12. Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder Symptom Domains Relate Differentially to PTSD and Depression: A Study of War-Exposed Bosnian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, Meredith A; Charak, Ruby; Kaplow, Julie; Layne, Christopher M; Pynoos, Robert; Elhai, Jon D

    2016-10-01

    Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder (PCBD) is a newly proposed diagnosis placed in the Appendix of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as an invitation for further research. To date, no studies have examined the dimensionality of PCBD or explored whether different PCBD criteria domains relate in similar, versus differential, ways to other psychological conditions common to war-exposed bereaved youth, including symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression. We evaluated the dimensionality of proposed PCBD B and C symptom domains, and their respective relations with measures of PTSD and depression, in 1142 bereaved Bosnian adolescents exposed to the 1992-1995 Bosnian civil war. Instruments included the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index, the Depression Self-Rating Scale, and the UCLA Grief Screening Scale (a prototype measure of PCBD symptoms). We investigated potential differences in grief, PTSD, and depression scores as a function of cause of death. We then examined hypothesized differential relations between PCBD B and C symptom domain subscales and selected external correlates, specifically measures of depression and the four-factor emotional numbing model of PTSD. Results of both analyses provide preliminary evidence of a multidimensional structure for PCBD in this population, in that the PCBD Criterion C subscale score covaried more strongly with each of the four PTSD factors and with depression than did PCBD Criterion B. We conclude by discussing theoretical, methodological, clinical, and policy-related implications linked to the ongoing study of essential features of PCBD.

  13. Suicidal Ideation, Depression, and Conduct Disorder in a Sample of Adolescent and Young Adult Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Julie; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon; Silberg, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disturbance is likely explained in part by correlated genetic and environmental risk factors. Little is known about the specific nature of these associations. Structured interviews on 2,814 twins from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and Young…

  14. Suicidal Ideation, Depression, and Conduct Disorder in a Sample of Adolescent and Young Adult Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Julie; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon; Silberg, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disturbance is likely explained in part by correlated genetic and environmental risk factors. Little is known about the specific nature of these associations. Structured interviews on 2,814 twins from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and Young…

  15. Behavioural activation for the treatment of low-income, African American adolescents with major depressive disorder: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Maryann; Keeley, Mary L; Ritschel, Lorie; Craighead, W Edward

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural activation (BA) is a psychosocial treatment that has shown promise in the treatment of adults suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent studies have shown that BA may also be effective for treating depressed adolescents. There are no studies that have reported on the BA treatment of depressed and low-income African American adolescents; thus, the current study reports on the effectiveness of a version of BA adapted for the treatment of African American adolescents who were diagnosed with MDD (n = 3). Participants were allowed to attend a maximum of 17 sessions of weekly psychotherapy. Based on results taken from structured interviews, two of the three participants no longer met criteria for MDD at the end of treatment, and the severity of clinician-rated depressive symptoms and impairment decreased for all participants at post-treatment assessment. Additionally, all participants and their caregivers reported satisfaction with treatment. Implications of these findings, study limitations and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  16. A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of a School-Based Resilience Intervention to Prevent Depressive Symptoms for Young Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Mixed Methods Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Bethany A; Shochet, Ian M; Orr, Jayne A

    2017-08-02

    Despite increased depression in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), effective prevention approaches for this population are limited. A mixed methods pilot randomised controlled trial (N = 29) of the evidence-based Resourceful Adolescent Program-Autism Spectrum Disorder (RAP-A-ASD) designed to prevent depression was conducted in schools with adolescents with ASD in years 6 and 7. Quantitative results showed significant intervention effects on parent reports of adolescent coping self-efficacy (maintained at 6 month follow-up) but no effect on depressive symptoms or mental health. Qualitative outcomes reflected perceived improvements from the intervention for adolescents' coping self-efficacy, self-confidence, social skills, and affect regulation. Converging results remain encouraging given this population's difficulties coping with adversity, managing emotions and interacting socially which strongly influence developmental outcomes.

  17. Help-Seeking by Young People with Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Michael G.; Sawyer, Alyssa C. P.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders commonly occur for the first time during adolescence and often become a recurring source of distress and impairment. Unfortunately, only a small proportion of adolescents with depressive disorders receive help from professional services, and there is evidence that adolescents with higher levels of depressive symptoms may be…

  18. Attachment to parents and peers as a risk factor for adolescent depressive disorders: the mediating role of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullik, Angelika; Petermann, Franz

    2013-08-01

    This study examined emotion regulation as a mediator in the relationship of attachment and depression in adolescents. Participants (N girls = 127; M age = 14.50; N boys = 121; M age = 14.31) completed self-report questionnaires of attachment to parents and peers, emotion regulation and depression. Models with dysfunctional emotion regulation as a mediation variable were tested via hierarchical multiple regression analyses and bootstrapping procedure. Results revealed significant relations between attachment to parents and peers, dysfunctional emotion regulation and depression. For girls, internal-dysfunctional emotion regulation was a mediator in the relation of attachment to parents and depression and partly mediated the association of attachment to peers. For boys, internal- and external-dysfunctional emotion regulation acted as partly mediators in association of attachment to parents and depression. Results indicate important mechanisms that contribute to the refinement of conceptual models and provide indications for gender specific prevention and intervention for depressive disorders.

  19. Bipolar depression in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippis, Melissa S; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2013-08-01

    Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder may have depression as the presenting mood state. It is important for clinicians to distinguish between unipolar and bipolar depression in youth. Depressive episodes are common during the course of bipolar illness in children and adolescents. Evidence-based treatments are needed to guide clinicians' treatment decisions for youth with bipolar depression. This article reviews the prevalence, diagnosis, course, and treatment of bipolar depression in youth, and emphasizes the need for large, controlled treatment studies in the pediatric population.

  20. Annual Research Review: Transdiagnostic neuroscience of child and adolescent mental disorders--differentiating decision making in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Cortese, Samuele; Fairchild, Graeme; Stringaris, Argyris

    2016-03-01

    alternatives). In CD, it is reckless and insensitive to negative consequences. In depression, it is disengaged, perseverative, and pessimistic, while in anxiety, it is hesitant, risk-averse, and self-deprecating. A survey of current empirical indications related to these disorder-specific hypotheses highlights the limited and fragmentary nature of the evidence base and illustrates the need for a major research initiative in decision making in childhood disorders. The final section highlights a number of important additional general themes that need to be considered in future research. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Prospective prediction of major depressive disorder from cortisol awakening responses in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Emma K.; Doane, Leah D.; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Mineka, Susan; Craske, Michelle G.; Griffith, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Levels of the stress-sensitive hormone cortisol increase dramatically in the first 30-40 minutes after waking, an effect known as the cortisol awakening response (CAR). There is considerable cross-sectional evidence that psychosocial stress is associated with an increased CAR, and the CAR has been found to be altered in the presence of stress-related diseases, including Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). To date, no prospective longitudinal studies have examined whether individual differences i...

  2. Minor depression during adolescence and mental health outcomes during adulthood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Jeffrey G; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Data from a community-based prospective longitudinal study were used to investigate the association of minor depressive disorder during adolescence with adverse mental health outcomes during adulthood...

  3. Objective Sleep in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Erika E.; Bertocci, Michele A.; Gregory, Alice M.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine sleep problems encountered in anxiety and depressive disorders among children and adolescents is conducted. Results indicated subjective and objective sleep problems in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and need to be kept in mind when treating young anxious people.

  4. Objective Sleep in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Erika E.; Bertocci, Michele A.; Gregory, Alice M.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine sleep problems encountered in anxiety and depressive disorders among children and adolescents is conducted. Results indicated subjective and objective sleep problems in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and need to be kept in mind when treating young anxious people.

  5. Predicting borderline personality disorder symptoms in adolescents from childhood physical and relational aggression, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Boylan, Khrista; Duku, Eric; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-08-01

    Developmental cascade models linking childhood physical and relational aggression with symptoms of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; assessed at ages 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14) to borderline personality disorder (BPD) features (assessed at age 14) were examined in a community sample of 484 youth. Results indicated that, when controlling for within-time covariance and across-time stability in the examination of cross-lagged relations among study variables, BPD features at age 14 were predicted by childhood relational aggression and symptoms of depression for boys, and physical and relational aggression, symptoms of depression, and symptoms of ADHD for girls. Moreover, for boys BPD features were predicted from age 10 ADHD through age 12 depression, whereas for girls the pathway to elevated BPD features at age 14 was from depression at age 10 through physical aggression symptoms at age 12. Controlling for earlier associations among variables, we found that for girls the strongest predictor of BPD features at age 14 was physical aggression, whereas for boys all the risk indicators shared a similar predictive impact. This study adds to the growing literature showing that physical and relational aggression ought to be considered when examining early precursors of BPD features.

  6. Cortical abnormalities in adults and adolescents with major depression based on brain scans from 20 cohorts worldwide in the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaal, L; Hibar, D P; Sämann, P G; Hall, G B; Baune, B T; Jahanshad, N; Cheung, J W; van Erp, T G M; Bos, D; Ikram, M A; Vernooij, M W; Niessen, W J; Tiemeier, H; Hofman, A; Wittfeld, K; Grabe, H J; Janowitz, D; Bülow, R; Selonke, M; Völzke, H; Grotegerd, D; Dannlowski, U; Arolt, V; Opel, N; Heindel, W; Kugel, H; Hoehn, D; Czisch, M; Couvy-Duchesne, B; Rentería, M E; Strike, L T; Wright, M J; Mills, N T; de Zubicaray, G I; McMahon, K L; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Goya-Maldonado, R; Gruber, O; Krämer, B; Hatton, S N; Lagopoulos, J; Hickie, I B; Frodl, T; Carballedo, A; Frey, E M; van Velzen, L S; Penninx, B W J H; van Tol, M-J; van der Wee, N J; Davey, C G; Harrison, B J; Mwangi, B; Cao, B; Soares, J C; Veer, I M; Walter, H; Schoepf, D; Zurowski, B; Konrad, C; Schramm, E; Normann, C; Schnell, K; Sacchet, M D; Gotlib, I H; MacQueen, G M; Godlewska, B R; Nickson, T; McIntosh, A M; Papmeyer, M; Whalley, H C; Hall, J; Sussmann, J E; Li, M; Walter, M; Aftanas, L; Brack, I; Bokhan, N A; Thompson, P M; Veltman, D J

    2017-01-01

    The neuro-anatomical substrates of major depressive disorder (MDD) are still not well understood, despite many neuroimaging studies over the past few decades. Here we present the largest ever worldwide study by the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Major Depressive Disorder Working Group on cortical structural alterations in MDD. Structural T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 2148 MDD patients and 7957 healthy controls were analysed with harmonized protocols at 20 sites around the world. To detect consistent effects of MDD and its modulators on cortical thickness and surface area estimates derived from MRI, statistical effects from sites were meta-analysed separately for adults and adolescents. Adults with MDD had thinner cortical gray matter than controls in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior and posterior cingulate, insula and temporal lobes (Cohen's d effect sizes: −0.10 to −0.14). These effects were most pronounced in first episode and adult-onset patients (>21 years). Compared to matched controls, adolescents with MDD had lower total surface area (but no differences in cortical thickness) and regional reductions in frontal regions (medial OFC and superior frontal gyrus) and primary and higher-order visual, somatosensory and motor areas (d: −0.26 to −0.57). The strongest effects were found in recurrent adolescent patients. This highly powered global effort to identify consistent brain abnormalities showed widespread cortical alterations in MDD patients as compared to controls and suggests that MDD may impact brain structure in a highly dynamic way, with different patterns of alterations at different stages of life. PMID:27137745

  7. Cortical abnormalities in adults and adolescents with major depression based on brain scans from 20 cohorts worldwide in the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaal, L; Hibar, D P; Sämann, P G; Hall, G B; Baune, B T; Jahanshad, N; Cheung, J W; van Erp, T G M; Bos, D; Ikram, M A; Vernooij, M W; Niessen, W J; Tiemeier, H; Hofman, A; Wittfeld, K; Grabe, H J; Janowitz, D; Bülow, R; Selonke, M; Völzke, H; Grotegerd, D; Dannlowski, U; Arolt, V; Opel, N; Heindel, W; Kugel, H; Hoehn, D; Czisch, M; Couvy-Duchesne, B; Rentería, M E; Strike, L T; Wright, M J; Mills, N T; de Zubicaray, G I; McMahon, K L; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Goya-Maldonado, R; Gruber, O; Krämer, B; Hatton, S N; Lagopoulos, J; Hickie, I B; Frodl, T; Carballedo, A; Frey, E M; van Velzen, L S; Penninx, B W J H; van Tol, M-J; van der Wee, N J; Davey, C G; Harrison, B J; Mwangi, B; Cao, B; Soares, J C; Veer, I M; Walter, H; Schoepf, D; Zurowski, B; Konrad, C; Schramm, E; Normann, C; Schnell, K; Sacchet, M D; Gotlib, I H; MacQueen, G M; Godlewska, B R; Nickson, T; McIntosh, A M; Papmeyer, M; Whalley, H C; Hall, J; Sussmann, J E; Li, M; Walter, M; Aftanas, L; Brack, I; Bokhan, N A; Thompson, P M; Veltman, D J

    2016-05-03

    The neuro-anatomical substrates of major depressive disorder (MDD) are still not well understood, despite many neuroimaging studies over the past few decades. Here we present the largest ever worldwide study by the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Major Depressive Disorder Working Group on cortical structural alterations in MDD. Structural T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 2148 MDD patients and 7957 healthy controls were analysed with harmonized protocols at 20 sites around the world. To detect consistent effects of MDD and its modulators on cortical thickness and surface area estimates derived from MRI, statistical effects from sites were meta-analysed separately for adults and adolescents. Adults with MDD had thinner cortical gray matter than controls in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior and posterior cingulate, insula and temporal lobes (Cohen's d effect sizes: -0.10 to -0.14). These effects were most pronounced in first episode and adult-onset patients (>21 years). Compared to matched controls, adolescents with MDD had lower total surface area (but no differences in cortical thickness) and regional reductions in frontal regions (medial OFC and superior frontal gyrus) and primary and higher-order visual, somatosensory and motor areas (d: -0.26 to -0.57). The strongest effects were found in recurrent adolescent patients. This highly powered global effort to identify consistent brain abnormalities showed widespread cortical alterations in MDD patients as compared to controls and suggests that MDD may impact brain structure in a highly dynamic way, with different patterns of alterations at different stages of life.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 3 May 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.60.

  8. Anhedonia and Pessimism in Hospitalized Depressed Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinoviy Gutkovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal study investigates whether anhedonia and pessimistic attributional style represent a clinical state or a trait in hospitalized depressed adolescents. 81 consecutive adolescent inpatients were screened with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the clinician-rated Major Depressive Disorder (MDD criteria sheet. 51 patients with BDI score ≥10 and/or ≥4 symptoms on MDD criteria sheet were assessed at Time 1 upon admission, with 39 patients (78% assessed at discharge (Time 2 with the Pleasure Scale for Children and Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire—Revised. Anhedonia and pessimism at admission were associated with BDI scores at admission and discharge as well as number of depressive symptoms and depression severity. MDD diagnosis was associated with anhedonia, but not with pessimism. Pessimism—but not anhedonia—improved significantly by discharge. Results suggest that while some adolescents exhibit enduring anhedonia, pessimistic attributional style appears to be a concomitant feature of an acute depressive state.

  9. ‘Mom—I don’t want to hear it’: Brain response to maternal praise and criticism in adolescents with major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Hwa; Elliott, Rosalind D.; Hooley, Jill M.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Barber, Anita; Siegle, Greg J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recent research has implicated altered neural response to interpersonal feedback as an important factor in adolescent depression, with existing studies focusing on responses to feedback from virtual peers. We investigated whether depressed adolescents differed from healthy youth in neural response to social evaluative feedback from mothers. During neuroimaging, twenty adolescents in a current episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) and 28 healthy controls listened to previously recorded audio clips of their own mothers’ praise, criticism and neutral comments. Whole-brain voxelwise analyses revealed that MDD youth, unlike controls, exhibited increased neural response to critical relative to neutral clips in the parahippocampal gyrus, an area involved in episodic memory encoding and retrieval. Depressed adolescents also showed a blunted response to maternal praise clips relative to neutral clips in the parahippocampal gyrus, as well as areas involved in reward and self-referential processing (i.e. ventromedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and thalamus/caudate). Findings suggest that maternal criticism may be more strongly encoded or more strongly activated during memory retrieval related to previous autobiographical instances of negative feedback from mothers in depressed youth compared to healthy youth. Furthermore, depressed adolescents may fail to process the reward value and self-relevance of maternal praise. PMID:28338795

  10. 'Mom-I don't want to hear it': Brain response to maternal praise and criticism in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Elliott, Rosalind D; Hooley, Jill M; Dahl, Ronald E; Barber, Anita; Siegle, Greg J

    2017-02-17

    Recent research has implicated altered neural response to interpersonal feedback as an important factor in adolescent depression, with existing studies focusing on responses to feedback from virtual peers. We investigated whether depressed adolescents differed from healthy youth in neural response to social evaluative feedback from mothers. During neuroimaging, twenty adolescents in a current episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) and 28 healthy controls listened to previously recorded audio clips of their own mothers' praise, criticism and neutral comments. Whole-brain voxelwise analyses revealed that MDD youth, unlike controls, exhibited increased neural response to critical relative to neutral clips in the parahippocampal gyrus, an area involved in episodic memory encoding and retrieval. Depressed adolescents also showed a blunted response to maternal praise clips relative to neutral clips in the parahippocampal gyrus, as well as areas involved in reward and self-referential processing (i.e. ventromedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and thalamus/caudate). Findings suggest that maternal criticism may be more strongly encoded or more strongly activated during memory retrieval related to previous autobiographical instances of negative feedback from mothers in depressed youth compared to healthy youth. Furthermore, depressed adolescents may fail to process the reward value and self-relevance of maternal praise.

  11. Therapist Strategies for Building Involvement in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, Nathaniel J.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between 9 therapist behaviors and client involvement in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Analyses included 42 adolescents who met criteria for a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or adjustment disorder with depressed mood) and who were…

  12. Therapist Strategies for Building Involvement in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, Nathaniel J.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between 9 therapist behaviors and client involvement in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Analyses included 42 adolescents who met criteria for a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or adjustment disorder with depressed mood) and who were…

  13. DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS IN EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koralia Todorova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Depressive disorders are the most frequent psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy but very often remain unrecognized and untreated. We examined 103 epileptic patients, aged 18-60 years, 40 males and 63 females, for the presence of interictal depressive disorder. All subjects underwent clinical psychiatric examination, including evaluation on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17. A questionnaire for demographic and seizure-related variables was also completed. Concurrent depressive disorder (clinically presented according to ICD-10 diagnostic criteria affected 28.3% of all evaluated patients. Based on HAM-D-17 scores depression was defined as mild - 80% of all depressed patients, moderate - 17% and severe - 3%. Atypical presentation of interictal depressive disorder was frequent. Depression has a tremendous effect on one’s family, social and psychological functioning, even more than the actual seizure frequency and severity. Diagnostic difficulties come through the atypical mode of presentation of depressive disorders in epilepsy. Proper neuropsychiatric evaluation is essential for improving treatment and quality of life for patients with epilepsy.

  14. Prevention and Intervention of Depression in Asian-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieu, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…

  15. Predictors of future depression in early and late adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lang, Natasia D. J.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether the possibility to predict future DSM-IV depressive disorder can be increased with recurrent screening for depression in community adolescents, compared to single screening in early or in late adolescence. in addition, it examined which depressive symptoms in

  16. Should Screening for Depression among Children and Adolescents Be Demedicalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Allan V.; Wakefield, Jerome C.

    2009-01-01

    The criteria for diagnosing depressive disorders fails to place the symptoms of intense sadness in the context of major losses in life, and separating normal sadness from depressive disorder among adolescents is especially difficult. Suggested modifications to the screening of suicidal ideation among adolescents are also presented.

  17. The Role of Body Image and Disordered Eating as Risk Factors for Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    There is much empirical literature on factors for adolescent suicide risk, but body image and disordered eating are rarely included in these models. In the current study, disordered eating and body image were examined as risk factors for suicide ideation since these factors are prevalent in adolescence, particularly for females. It was…

  18. The Role of Body Image and Disordered Eating as Risk Factors for Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    There is much empirical literature on factors for adolescent suicide risk, but body image and disordered eating are rarely included in these models. In the current study, disordered eating and body image were examined as risk factors for suicide ideation since these factors are prevalent in adolescence, particularly for females. It was…

  19. FKBP5 and specific microRNAs via glucocorticoid receptor in the basolateral amygdala involved in the susceptibility to depressive disorder in early adolescent stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Wang, Rui; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Dexiang; Jiang, Hong; Pan, Fang

    2017-08-14

    Exposure to stressful events induces depressive-like symptoms and increases susceptibility to depression. However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Studies reported that FK506 binding protein51 (FKBP5), the co-chaperone protein of glucocorticoid receptors (GR), plays a crucial role. Further, miR-124a and miR-18a are involved in the regulation of FKBP5/GR function. However, few studies have referred to effects of early life stress on depressive-like behaviours, GR and FKBP5, as well as miR-124a and miR-18a in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) from adolescence to adulthood. This study aimed to examine the dynamic alternations of depressive-like behaviours, GR and FKBP5, as well as miR-124a and miR-18a expressions in the BLA of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats and dexamethasone administration rats during the adolescent period. Meanwhile, the GR antagonist, RU486, was used as a means of intervention. We found that CUMS and dexamethasone administration in the adolescent period induced permanent depressive-like behaviours and memory impairment, decreased GR expression, and increased FKBP5 and miR-124a expression in the BLA of both adolescent and adult rats. However, increased miR-18a expression in the BLA was found only in adolescent rats. Depressive-like behaviours were positively correlated with the level of miR-124a, whereas GR levels were negatively correlated with those in both adolescent and adult rats. Our results suggested FKBP5/GR and miR-124a in the BLA were associated with susceptibility to depressive disorder in the presence of stressful experiences in early life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Status during the Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters (TASA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Stanley, Barbara; Bukstein, Oscar; Kennard, Betsy D.; Compton, Scott; Coffey, Barbara; Cwik, Mary F.; Posner, Kelly; Wagner, Ann; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Capasso, Lisa; Mayes, Taryn; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake; Barnett, Shannon; Zelazny, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the course of depression during the treatment of adolescents with depression who had recently attempted suicide. Method: Adolescents (N = 124), ages 12 to 18 years, with a 90-day history of suicide attempt, a current diagnosis of depressive disorder (96.0% had major depressive disorder), and a Children's Depression Rating…

  1. Subthreshold depression in adolescence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertha, Eszter A; Balázs, Judit

    2013-10-01

    In adolescence, the number of depressive symptoms is rising notably. Individuals may have relevant depressive symptoms without meeting the full criteria of a major depressive episode (MDE), a condition referred to as subthreshold depression (sD). This article presents a review on adolescent sD examining the prevalence, the quality of life (QoL), the risk of developing MDE, and preventive programs available for adolescents living with sD. A systematic literature search from the year of the introduction of Diagnostic and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) until 2012 (18 years) was conducted with a special focus on adolescent sD. Data from 27 studies were included into this review. The results show high prevalence of sD among adolescents, with a negative impact on QoL, and provide evidence that sD is a significant risk indicator of later MDE; therefore, individuals with sD represent good targets for preventive interventions. Our review highlights the fact that sD is a significant health problem among adolescents indeed, and adolescents with sD could be a subgroup of youth, who need further help to reduce their clinically significant depressive symptoms for the successful prevention of a later MDE.

  2. Anxiety and depression in adolescents with ADHD and autism spectrum disorders; correlation between parent- and self-reports and with attention and adaptive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Maria; Hult, Nicklas; Gillberg, Carina; Särneö, Charlotte; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2017-08-24

    Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk of anxiety and depression. This is important to identify in the clinical assessment to understand its impact. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between parent- and self-reports of anxiety and depression in adolescents with ADHD or ASD, as well as the correlation with adaptive functioning and performance on an attention test. A total of 65 adolescents with an ADHD diagnosis (n = 24) or an ASD diagnosis (n = 41) filled out Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment (BYI) to assess depression and anxiety and completed a Continuous Performance Test (QbTest) measuring ADHD symptoms. Parents of the participants completed the internalizing domain in the Five to Fifteen questionnaire (FTF), measuring symptoms of anxiety and depression, and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) about the adolescent's adaptive functioning. Approximately a third of the study group self-reported substantial internalizing mental symptoms not always recognized by parents, and not always obvious in adaptive function or performance at ADHD test. Correlations between BYI and FTF were low. The BYI depression inventory correlated negatively with VABS and positively with activity level in a subgroup medicated for ADHD. There was a stronger correlation between girls BYI and FTF results as compared with boys. The results highlight the need for identification of anxiety and depression, using both self- and parent report. Present anxiety and depression symptoms do not seem to affect the clinical assessment of ASD and ADHD.

  3. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with anxiety, depression and self-esteem among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the associations of the severity of Internet addiction symptoms with various dimensions of anxiety (physical anxiety symptoms, harm avoidance, social anxiety, and separation/panic) and depression symptoms (depressed affect, somatic symptoms, interpersonal problems, and positive affect) and self-esteem among adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their severity of Internet addiction symptoms was assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem were assessed using the Taiwanese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. The association between the severity of Internet addiction symptoms and anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem were examined using multiple regression analyses. The results indicated that higher physical symptoms and lower harm avoidance scores on the MASC-T, higher somatic discomfort/retarded activity scores on the CES-D, and lower self-esteem scores on the RSES were significantly associated with more severe Internet addiction symptoms. Prevention and intervention programs for Internet addiction in adolescents with ADHD should take anxiety, depression, and self-esteem into consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pituitary gigantism presenting with depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis in an Asian adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Ng, Sohching; Chen, Chih-Hung; Chang, Chen-Nen; Chou, Chi-Hsiang; Weng, Wei-Chieh; Yeh, Chih-Hua; Lin, Jen-Der

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is seldom described in young patients with pituitary gigantism. Here, we describe the case of a 17-year-old Taiwanese boy who developed depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at the presentation of pituitary gigantism. The boy complained of lethargy and dysphoric mood in June 2008. He presented at the emergency department with epigastralgia and dyspnea in January 2009. Results of laboratory tests suggested type 1 diabetes mellitus with DKA. However, serum C-peptide level was normal on follow-up. Although he had no obvious features of acral enlargement, a high level of insulin-like growth factor 1 was detected, and a 75 g oral glucose suppression test showed no suppression of serum growth hormone levels. A pituitary macroadenoma was found on subsequent magnetic resonance imaging. The pituitary adenoma was surgically removed, followed by gamma-knife radiosurgery, and Sandostatin long-acting release treatment. He was then administered metformin, 500 mg twice daily, and to date, his serum glycohemoglobin has been <7%.

  5. Anxiety and Depression in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Karen Ling; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lai, Tai Sum; Lam, Siu Man

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined anxiety and depression in adolescents with epilepsy and the association of these disorders with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered to 140 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Adolescents with epilepsy had significantly higher scores on the depression subscale than those with asthma (5.2 ± 3.3 vs 4.2 ± 3.2, P = .032). Anxiety subscale scores and the frequency of anxiety and depression in both the epilepsy and asthma groups were not statistically significant. In the epilepsy group, 32.8% had anxiety and 22.1% had depression. Factors associated with anxiety were older age at the time of the study and polytherapy (2 or more antiepileptic drugs). Adolescents who had been seizure-free for 12 months or more at time of the study were less likely to experience anxiety. Factors associated with depression were medical comorbidities, female gender, frequent seizures, and younger age of seizure onset. A common risk factor for both anxiety and depression was the duration of epilepsy. Anxiety and depression were also highly associated with each other. Affective disorders are common in epilepsy and screening for psychiatric symptoms is required.

  6. Are child and adolescent responses to placebo higher in major depression than in anxiety disorders? A systematic review of placebo-controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cohen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a previous report, we hypothesized that responses to placebo were high in child and adolescent depression because of specific psychopathological factors associated with youth major depression. The purpose of this study was to compare the placebo response rates in pharmacological trials for major depressive disorder (MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and other anxiety disorders (AD-non-OCD. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reviewed the literature relevant to the use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents with internalized disorders, restricting our review to double-blind studies including a placebo arm. Placebo response rates were pooled and compared according to diagnosis (MDD vs. OCD vs. AD-non-OCD, age (adolescent vs. child, and date of publication. From 1972 to 2007, we found 23 trials that evaluated the efficacy of psychotropic medication (mainly non-tricyclic antidepressants involving youth with MDD, 7 pertaining to youth with OCD, and 10 pertaining to youth with other anxiety disorders (N = 2533 patients in placebo arms. As hypothesized, the placebo response rate was significantly higher in studies on MDD, than in those examining OCD and AD-non-OCD (49.6% [range: 17-90%] vs. 31% [range: 4-41%] vs. 39.6% [range: 9-53], respectively, ANOVA F = 7.1, p = 0.002. Children showed a higher stable placebo response within all three diagnoses than adolescents, though this difference was not significant. Finally, no significant effects were found with respect to the year of publication. CONCLUSION: MDD in children and adolescents appears to be more responsive to placebo than other internalized conditions, which highlights differential psychopathology.

  7. Examining Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory as a Risk Factor for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Adhip; Rice, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying risk factors for adolescent depression is an important research aim. Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a feature of adolescent depression and a candidate cognitive risk factor for future depression. However, no study has ascertained whether OGM predicts the onset of adolescent depressive disorder. OGM was…

  8. Depression and Disability in Children and Adolescents. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetzloe, Eleanor

    This digest discusses the most frequently diagnosed mood disorders in children and adolescents, including major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, and bipolar disorder. The symptoms of these disorders are described, along with family and genetic causal factors, biological causal factors, and cognitive causal factors. The digest then…

  9. The role of the mother-child relationship for anxiety disorders and depression: results from a prospective-longitudinal study in adolescents and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselmann, Eva; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to examine whether (a) low child valence (emotional connectedness) within the mother-child relationship increases the risk for offspring depression, (b) low child potency (individual autonomy) increases the risk for offspring anxiety, and (c) maternal psychopathology pronounces these associations. We used data from a prospective-longitudinal study of adolescents (aged 14-17 at baseline) and their mothers (N = 1,015 mother-child dyads). Anxiety disorders and depression were assessed repeatedly over 10 years in adolescents (T0, T1, T2, T3) and their mothers (T1, T3) using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Valence and potency were assessed in mothers (T1) with the Subjective Family Image Questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression were used to estimate associations between low child valence/potency and offspring psychopathology (cumulated lifetime incidences; adjusted for sex and age). In separate models (low valence or low potency as predictor), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.26 per SD), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety (OR = 1.24) and depression (OR = 1.24). In multiple models (low valence and low potency as predictors), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.19), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety only (OR = 1.22). Low child potency interacted with maternal anxiety on predicting offspring depression (OR = 1.49), i.e. low child potency predicted offspring depression only in the presence of maternal anxiety (OR = 1.33). These findings suggest that low child valence increases the risk for offspring depression, while low child potency increases the risk for offspring anxiety and depression and interacts with maternal psychopathology on predicting offspring depression.

  10. Poverty and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on non-Hispanic White children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,056) were used to examine whether the relationship between poverty (early childhood poverty, poverty persistence, and current poverty) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Internalizing Index) can be explained by the mother's own childhood depression and family characteristics measured during the child's first year of life. Associations between poverty and depressive symptoms among adolescents were explained by mother's childhood depression and whether the adolescent had lived with both parents during the first year of life. The findings highlight the need for appropriate treatment of childhood depression so as to reduce the adverse consequences in adulthood and for the next generation.

  11. Effects of Induced Rumination and Distraction on Mood and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R. J.; Goodyer, I. M.; Teasdale, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In adults there is evidence that the affective-cognitive processes of rumination and overgeneral autobiographical memory retrieval may play a part in maintaining depression. This study investigated the effects of induced rumination as compared to distraction on mood and categoric overgeneral memory in adolescents with first episode…

  12. Cyber Victimization and Depression among Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities and Developmental Disorders: The Moderation of Perceived Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mitigating effect of perceived social support from parents, teachers, and friends on the association between cyber victimization and depression, accessed one year later. Adolescents (n = 131; 13-15 years old; 73% male) with intellectual and developmental disabilities completed questionnaires on their…

  13. Cortical abnormalities in adults and adolescents with major depression based on brain scans from 20 cohorts worldwide in the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder Working Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaal, L; Hibar, D P; Sämann, P G; Hall, G B; Baune, B T; Jahanshad, N; Cheung, J W; van Erp, T G M; Bos, D; Ikram, M A; Vernooij, M W; Niessen, W J; Tiemeier, H; Hofman, A.; Wittfeld, K; Grabe, H J; Janowitz, D; Bülow, R; Selonke, M; Völzke, H; Grotegerd, D; Dannlowski, U; Arolt, V; Opel, N; Heindel, W; Kugel, H; Hoehn, D; Czisch, M; Couvy-Duchesne, B; Rentería, M E; Strike, L T; Wright, M J; Mills, N T; de Zubicaray, G I; McMahon, K L; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Goya-Maldonado, R; Gruber, O; Krämer, B; Hatton, S N; Lagopoulos, J; Hickie, I B; Frodl, T; Carballedo, A; Frey, E M; van Velzen, L S; Penninx, B W J H; van Tol, M-J; van der Wee, N J; Davey, C G; Harrison, B J; Mwangi, B; Cao, B; Soares, J C; Veer, I M; Walter, H; Schoepf, D; Zurowski, B; Konrad, C; Schramm, E; Normann, C; Schnell, K; Sacchet, M D; Gotlib, I H; MacQueen, G M; Godlewska, B R; Nickson, T; McIntosh, A M; Papmeyer, M; Whalley, H C; Hall, J; Sussmann, J E; Li, M; Walter, M; Aftanas, L; Brack, I; Bokhan, N A; Thompson, P M; Veltman, D J

    2016-01-01

    The neuro-anatomical substrates of major depressive disorder (MDD) are still not well understood, despite many neuroimaging studies over the past few decades. Here we present the largest ever worldwide study by the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Major Depressive Diso

  14. Association between Anger Rumination and Autism Symptom Severity, Depression Symptoms, Aggression, and General Dysregulation in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shivani; Day, Taylor N.; Jones, Neil; Mazefsky, Carla A.

    2017-01-01

    Rumination has a large direct effect on psychopathology but has received relatively little attention in autism spectrum disorder despite the propensity to perseverate in this population. This study provided initial evidence that adolescents with autism spectrum disorder self-report more anger-focused rumination than typically developing controls,…

  15. Association between Anger Rumination and Autism Symptom Severity, Depression Symptoms, Aggression, and General Dysregulation in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shivani; Day, Taylor N.; Jones, Neil; Mazefsky, Carla A.

    2017-01-01

    Rumination has a large direct effect on psychopathology but has received relatively little attention in autism spectrum disorder despite the propensity to perseverate in this population. This study provided initial evidence that adolescents with autism spectrum disorder self-report more anger-focused rumination than typically developing controls,…

  16. A technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission tomography study in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutus, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erciyes University School of Medicine, Kayseri (Turkey); Kibar, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cukurova University School of Medicine, Kayseri (Turkey); Sofuoglu, S.; Basturk, M.; Goenuel, A.S. [Department of Psychiatry, Erciyes University School of Medicine, Kayseri (Turkey)

    1998-06-01

    We have not encountered any brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) study performed in adolescent depressed patients in the literature. Therefore, we used technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) brain SPET in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) to examine the possible changes in cerebral perfusion and the possible association between perfusion indices and clinical variables. Fourteen adolescent out-patients (nine females, five males; mean{+-}SD age: 13.11{+-}1.43 years; range: 11-15 years) fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for MDD and 11 age-matched healthy control subjects (six females, five males; mean{+-}SD age: 13.80{+-}1.60 years; range: 12-15 years) were included in the study. {sup 99}Tc-HMPAO brain SPET was performed twice in the patient group and once in the control group. The first SPET investigation was performed under non-medicated conditions and the second was performed after depressive symptoms had subsided. A relative perfusion index (PI) was calculated as the ratio of regional cortical activity to the whole brain activity. We found significant differences between the PI values of the untreated depressed patients and those of the controls, indicating relatively reduced perfusion in the left anterofrontal and left temporal cortical areas. No significant differences in regional PI values were found between the remitted depressed patients and the controls. Our study suggests that adolescent patients with MDD may have regional cerebral blood flow deficits in frontal regions and a greater anterofrontal right-left perfusion asymmetry compared with normal subjects. The fact that these abnormalities in perfusion indices have a trend toward normal values with symptomatic improvement suggests that they may be state-dependent markers for adolescent MDD. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 37 refs.

  17. Pharmacotherapy of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents: an update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peruzzolo, Tatiana Lauxen; Tramontina, Silzá; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Zeni, Cristian Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review the options for acute and maintenance pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, including the treatment of bipolar depression and comorbid attention deficit...

  18. Bipolar disorder in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippis, Melissa; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2013-08-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious psychiatric condition that may have onset in childhood. It is important for physicians to recognize the symptoms of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents in order to accurately diagnose this illness early in its course. Evidence regarding the efficacy of various treatments is necessary to guide the management of bipolar disorder in youth. For example, several medications commonly used for adults with bipolar disorder have not shown efficacy for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. This article reviews the prevalence, diagnosis, course, and treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents and provides physicians with information that will aid in diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Traumatic Severity and Trait Resilience as Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescent Survivors of the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Liuhua; Wu, Xinchun; Lin, Chongde; Jiang, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the associations between trauma severity, trait resilience, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake, China. Methods 788 participants were randomly selected from secondary schools in the counties of Wenchuan and Maoxian, the two areas most severely affected by the earthquake. Participants completed four main questionnaires including the Child PTSD Symptom Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children, the Connor and Davidson’s Resilience Scale, and the Severity of Exposure to Earthquake Scale. Results After adjusting for the effect of age and gender, four aspects of trauma severity (i.e., direct exposure, indirect exposure, worry about others, and house damage) were positively associated with the severity of PTSD and depressive symptoms, whereas trait resilience was negatively associated with PTSD and depressive symptoms and moderated the relationship between subjective experience (i.e., worry about others) and PTSD and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Several aspects (i.e., direct exposure, indirect exposure, worry about others, and house damage) of earthquake experiences may be important risk factors for the development and maintenance of PTSD and depression. Additionally, trait resilience exhibits the beneficial impact on PTSD and depressive symptoms and buffers the effect of subjective experience (i.e., worry about others) on PTSD and depressive symptoms. PMID:24586751

  20. A Comparison of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Sertraline, and Their Combination for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Glenn A.; Tonge, Bruce J.; King, Neville J.; Heyne, David; Gordon, Michael S.; Klimkeit, Ester

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate cognitive-behavioral therapy, antidepressant medication alone, and combined CBT and antidepressant medication in the treatment of depressive disorders in adolescents. Method: Seventy-three adolescents (ages 12-18 years) with a primary diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or depressive disorder…

  1. The short-term safety and efficacy of fluoxetine in depressed adolescents with alcohol and cannabis use disorders: a pilot randomized placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingler Jacqui

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine whether fluoxetine was superior to placebo in the acute amelioration of depressive symptomatology in adolescents with depressive illness and a comorbid substance use disorder. Methods Eligible subjects ages 12–17 years with either a current major depressive disorder (MDD or a depressive disorder that were also suffering from a comorbid substance-related disorder were randomized to receive either fluoxetine or placebo in this single site, 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The primary outcome analysis was a random effects mixed model for repeated measurements of Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R scores compared between treatment groups across time. Results An interim analysis was performed after 34 patients were randomized. Based on the results of a futility analysis, study enrollment was halted. Twenty-nine males and 5 females were randomized to receive fluoxetine (n = 18 or placebo (n = 16. Their mean age was 16.5 (1.1 years. Overall, patients who received fluoxetine and placebo had a reduction in CDRS-R scores. However, there was no significant difference in mean change in CDRS-R total score in those subjects treated with fluoxetine and those who received placebo (treatment difference = 0.19, S.E. = 0.58, F = 0.14, p = .74. Furthermore, there was not a significant difference in rates of positive urine drug toxicology results between treatment groups at any post-randomization visit (F = 0.22, df = 1, p = 0.65. The main limitation of this study is its modest sample size and resulting low statistical power. Other significant limitations to this study include, but are not limited to, the brevity of the trial, high placebo response rate, limited dose range of fluoxetine, and the inclusion of youth who met criteria for depressive disorders other than MDD. Conclusion Fluoxetine was not superior to placebo in alleviating depressive symptoms or in decreasing

  2. Substance Use and the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Vitiello, Benedetto; Ryan, Neal; Birmaher, Boris; Mayes, Taryn; Onorato, Matthew; Zelazny, Jamie; Brent, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Despite the known association between substance use disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD) among adolescents, little is known regarding substance use among adolescents with MDD. Method: Youths with MDD who had not improved after an adequate selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor trial (N = 334) were enrolled in the Treatment of…

  3. Dynamics of Affective Experience and Behavior in Depressed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Leve, Craig; Davis, Betsy; Shortt, Joann Wu; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2009-01-01

    Background: Depression is often characterized as a disorder of affect regulation. However, research focused on delineating the key dimensions of affective experience (other than valence) that are abnormal in depressive disorder has been scarce, especially in child and adolescent samples. As definitions of affect regulation center around processes…

  4. Disordered eating among Swedish adolescents : Associations with emotion dysregulation, depression and self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Erika

    2017-01-01

    The path to an eating disorder (ED) always leads through a borderland, which, in this thesis, is referred to as disordered eating (DE) (Neumark-Sztainer, Wall, Eisenberg,Story, & Hannan, 2006; Waaddegaard, Thoning, & Petersson, 2003). In this borderland, people tend to make unhealthy eating choices, such as greatly reducing their food intake, self-inducing vomiting, or engaging in binge eating, but not to the extent that they would receive an ED diagnosis. Nevertheless, DE can have a ...

  5. Effective Treatment of Depressive Disorders in Medical Clinics for Adolescents and Young Adults living with HIV: A controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry K.; Kennard, Betsy D.; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Whiteley, Laura B.; Bethel, James; Xu, Jiahong; Thornton, Sarah; Tanney, Mary R.; Hawkins, Linda A.; Garvie, Patricia A.; Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Worrell, Carol J.; Stoff, Laura W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Preliminary test of a manualized, measurement-guided treatment for depression for adolescents and young adults in care at four sites of the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN). Design The U.S. sites were randomly assigned to either a 24-week, combination cognitive behavioral therapy and medication management algorithm (COMB) tailored for youth living with HIV (YLWH) or to treatment as usual (TAU). Methods Youth at TAU sites had access to therapists and medication management as needed. COMB site clinicians were trained in the manualized intervention and participated in supervision calls to monitor intervention fidelity. Results Over the course of the study with 44 participants, those in COMB, compared to those in TAU, reported fewer depressive symptoms, p<0.01 (as measured by the Quick Inventory for Depression Symptomatology) and were more likely to be in remission, p<0.001, (65% vs.10% at week 24 end of treatment, and 71% vs. 7% at week 48 final follow-up). A greater proportion of COMB participants received psychotherapy (95% vs. 45%, p<0.001) and attended more sessions (12.6 vs. 5, p<0.001) than those in TAU. Viral load decreased in both groups and was associated (p<0.05) with reduction in depressive symptoms. Conclusions A 24-week manualized, measurement-guided psychotherapy and medication management algorithm tailored for YLWH was more effective in achieving and sustaining remission from depression than treatment as usual at HIV care clinic sites. Given observed treatment efficacy, this structured combination treatment could be disseminated to medical clinics in order to successfully treat YLWH, who are at particular risk for depression. PMID:26761270

  6. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate…

  7. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate…

  8. [Bipolar depression in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkle, Sarah; Holtmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Depressive episodes in the course of bipolar disorders present various challenges for diagnosis and treatment. This review gives an overview of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, course and the treatment of bipolar depression in children and adolescents as well as existing problems for clinical practice. Usually it takes a longer period until affected patients with bipolar disorder receive correct diagnosis and treatment. In many cases, unipolar and bipolar depressive episodes may only be distinguished in the long-term course. Manic episodes in children and adolescents often show atypical features, and hypomanic episodes are often not perceived as impairing. Comorbidities are common and complicate the diagnostic process. Up to now, there is no German child and adolescent psychiatric instrument to support diagnosis. Cogitive behavioural therapy, Interpersonal Therapy and Family-focussed Therapy for adolescents seem promising. Regarding psychopharmacotherapy there is only limited evidence to guide clinical decisions for youth. A better understanding of the prodromal phase appears to be important. Delay of treatment initiation could be minimized by a closer collaboration between the various treatment systems, e. g. using centers for early recognition.

  9. Effects of three depression prevention interventions on risk for depressive disorder onset in the context of depression risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Gau, Jeff M

    2012-12-01

    Study aims were to identify subgroups of adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms who had the highest likelihood of developing future major/minor depressive disorder on the basis of depression risk factors and participation in three depression prevention programs, with the goal of evaluating the preventive effect of indicated prevention interventions in the context of known risk factors. Adolescents (N = 341) with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to one of four prevention intervention conditions (cognitive-behavioral group, supportive-expressive group, cognitive-behavioral bibliotherapy, educational brochure control). By 2-year follow-up, 14% showed onset of major/minor depressive disorders. Classification tree analysis (CTA) revealed that negative attributional style was the most important risk factor: Youth with high scores showed a 4-fold increase in depression onset compared to youth who did not endorse this attributional style. For adolescents with negative attributional style, prevention condition emerged as the most important predictor: Those receiving bibliotherapy showed a 5-fold reduction in depression disorder onset relative to adolescents in the three other intervention conditions. For adolescents who reported low negative attributional style scores, elevated levels of depressive symptoms at baseline emerged as the most potent predictor. Results implicate two key pathways to depression involving negative attributional style and elevated depressive symptoms in this population, and suggest that bibliotherapy may offset the risk conveyed by the most important depression risk factor in this sample.

  10. Subjective and objective binge eating in relation to eating disorder symptomatology, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem among treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Ciao, Anna C; Accurso, Erin C; Pisetsky, Emily M; Peterson, Carol B; Byrne, Catherine E; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the importance of the distinction between objective (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) among 80 treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa. We explored relationships among OBEs, SBEs, eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem using two approaches. Group comparisons showed that OBE and SBE groups did not differ on ED symptoms or self-esteem; however, the SBE group had significantly greater depression. Examining continuous variables, OBEs (not SBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in global ED pathology, vomiting, and self-esteem. SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in restraint and depression. Both OBEs and SBEs accounted for significant unique variance in eating concern; neither accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, laxative use, diuretic use, or driven exercise. Loss of control, rather than amount of food, may be most important in defining binge eating. Additionally, OBEs may indicate broader ED pathology, while SBEs may indicate restrictive/depressive symptomatology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. 青少年抑郁症的功能磁共振研究进展%Advances of functional magnetic resonance imaging in adolescent depressive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅文

    2011-01-01

    近年来功能磁共振成像在成人抑郁症中的研究较为深入,而对于青少年抑郁症的研究则相对有限,故本文就目前功能性磁共振在青少年抑郁症中的研究进展作一综述.%In recent years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRD studies have led to a deeper understanding of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adult. In contrast, our current study of adolescent MDD is very limited. This article reviews the advanced applications of the current fMRI in adolescent MDD.

  12. Brain changes in early-onset bipolar and unipolar depressive disorders: a systematic review in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Gianluca; Pompili, Maurizio; Borgwardt, Stefan; Houenou, Josselin; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Jardri, Renaud; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2014-11-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) and unipolar disorder (UD) share common symptomatic and functional impairments. Various brain imaging techniques have been used to investigate the integrity of brain white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) in these disorders. Despite promising preliminary findings, it is still unclear whether these alterations may be considered as common trait markers or may be used to distinguish BD from UD. A systematic literature search of studies between 1980 and September 2013 which reported WM/GM changes in pediatric and adolescent BD/UD, as detected by diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based analysis was conducted. Of the 34 articles judged as eligible, 17 fulfilled our inclusion criteria and were finally retained in this review. More abnormalities have been documented in the brains of children and adolescents with BD than UD. Reductions in the volume of basal ganglia and the hippocampus appeared more specific for pediatric UD, whereas reduced corpus callosum volume and increased rates of deep WM hyperintensities were more specific for pediatric BD. Seminal papers failed to address the possibility that the differences between unipolar and bipolar samples might be related to illness severity, medication status, comorbidity or diagnosis. UD and BD present both shared and distinctive impairments in the WM and GM compartments. More WM abnormalities have been reported in children and adolescents with bipolar disease than in those with unipolar disease, maybe as a result of a low number of DTI studies in pediatric UD. Future longitudinal studies should investigate whether neurodevelopmental changes are diagnosis-specific.

  13. Obesity and depression in adolescence and beyond: reciprocal risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, N R; Iacono, W G; Legrand, L

    2014-07-01

    Obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD) are associated, but evidence about how they relate over time is conflicting. The goal of this study was to examine prospective associations between depression and obesity from early adolescence through early adulthood. Participants were drawn from a statewide, community-based, Minnesota sample. MDD and obesity with onsets by early adolescence (by age 14), late adolescence (between 14 and 20) and early adulthood (ages 20-24) were assessed via structured interview (depression) and study-measured height and weight. Cross-sectional results indicated that depression and obesity with onsets by early adolescence were concurrently associated, but the same was not true later in development. Prospective results indicated that depression by early adolescence predicted the onset of obesity (odds ratio (OR)=3.76, confidence interval =1.33-10.59) during late adolescence among female individuals. Obesity that developed during late adolescence predicted the onset of depression (OR=5.89, confidence interval=2.31-15.01) during early adulthood among female individuals. For girls, adolescence is a high-risk period for the development of this comorbidity, with the nature of the risk varying over the course of adolescence. Early adolescent-onset depression is associated with elevated risk of later onset obesity, and obesity, particularly in late adolescence, is associated with increased odds of later depression. Further investigation into the mechanisms of these effects and the reasons for the observed gender and developmental differences is needed. Prevention programs focused on early-onset cases of depression and adolescent-onset cases of obesity, particularly among female individuals, may help in reducing risk for this form of comorbidity.

  14. Affective bias and current, past and future adolescent depression: A familial high risk study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilford, Emma J.; Foulkes, Lucy; Potter, Robert; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita; Rice, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Background Affective bias is a common feature of depressive disorder. However, a lack of longitudinal studies means that the temporal relationship between affective bias and depression is not well understood. One group where studies of affective bias may be particularly warranted is the adolescent offspring of depressed parents, given observations of high rates of depression and a severe and impairing course of disorder in this group. Methods A two wave panel design was used in which adolescent offspring of parents with recurrent depression completed a behavioural task assessing affective bias (The Affective Go/No Go Task) and a psychiatric interview. The affective processing of adolescents with current, prior and future depressive disorder was compared to that of adolescents free from disorder. Results Adolescents with current depression and those who developed depression at follow-up made more commission errors for sad than happy targets compared to adolescents free from disorder. There was no effect of prior depression on later affective processing. Limitations Small cell sizes meant we were unable to separately compare those with new onset and recurrent depressive disorder. Conclusions Valence-specific errors in behavioural inhibition index future vulnerability to depression in adolescents already at increased risk and may represent a measure of affective control. Currently depressed adolescents show a similar pattern of affective bias or deficits in affective control. PMID:25527997

  15. Perfectionism in pediatric anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affrunti, Nicholas W; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2014-09-01

    Although perfectionism has been identified as a factor in many psychiatric disorders across the life span, it is relatively understudied in pediatric anxiety and depressive disorders. Furthermore, there exists little cohesion among previous research, restricting the conclusions that can be made across studies. In this review, research associating perfectionism with pediatric anxiety and depression is examined and a framework is presented synthesizing research to date. We focus on detailing the current understanding of how perfectionism develops and interacts with other developmental features characteristic of anxiety and depression in children and potential pathways that result in anxiety and depressive disorders. This includes: how perfectionism is measured in children, comparisons with relevant adult literature, the development of perfectionism in children and adolescents, mediators and moderators of the link between perfectionism and anxiety and depression, and the role of perfectionism in treatment and prevention of these disorders. We also present research detailing perfectionism across cultures. Findings from these studies are beginning to implicate perfectionism as an underlying process that may contribute broadly to the development of anxiety and depression in a pediatric population. Throughout the review, difficulties, limitations, and gaps in the current understanding are presented while offering suggestions for future research.

  16. Mood disorders in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Botter Maio Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification and treatment of mood disorders in children and adolescents has grown over the last decades. Major depression is one of the most common and debilitating disorders worldwide, imposing a massive burden to the youth population. Bipolar disorder is being increasingly recognized as having its roots early in life, and its presentation during childhood and adolescence has been submitted to extensive research. This review aims to highlight clinical aspects of the current knowledge on mood disorders in the pediatric population, presenting updated information on epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and management strategies. Limitations of available evidence and future directions of research in the field are also discussed.

  17. The co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and unipolar depression in children and adolescents: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Michael C; Pettit, Jeremy W; Viswesvaran, Chockalingam

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression (i.e., unipolar depressive disorders and symptoms) among children and adolescents. Findings from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies published on the co-occurrence of ADHD and depression were summarized and subjected to a meta-analysis. Results (k=29, N=8755; rbar=0.22) indicated that ADHD and depression were positively related, but substantial variability existed across the studies. Subgroup analyses indicated medium positive effects for cross-sectional studies, studies that operationalized ADHD based on DSM-III or DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, and studies that did not include teacher report in the assessment of ADHD. Subgroup analyses showed a large positive effect for studies that operationalized ADHD based on DSM-III-R criteria and studies using clinic referred samples. In contrast, subgroup analyses indicated a small negative and/or unreliable association between ADHD and depression for longitudinal studies, studies using DSM-II diagnostic criteria for hyperkinetic reaction of childhood or used a dichotomous motor hyperactivity criterion, studies that used nonreferred samples, and studies including teacher report in the assessment of ADHD. When studies that used DSM-II diagnostic criteria were removed, a reliable medium effect was found for studies that included teacher report. Similarly when the study that used idiosyncratic methods of diagnosing ADHD was excluded, a reliable medium effect was found for studies that used nonreferred samples. Potential explanations for the findings are discussed, including explanations based on sampling and base rates, artifacts of diagnostic criteria, inaccurate diagnostic boundaries, and etiological relationships. Directions for future research and clinical implications are discussed.

  18. Affective disorders in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Burgić-Radmanović

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Affective disorders in childhood have been more intensively studied in the last three decades. They can be recognized among the children of all ages, but are more frequent among the older children. The main characteristics of mood disorders are similar among children, adolescents and adults, although development factors affect their clinical features. Development factors affect the manifestation of all symptoms. Two main criteria for these disorders in childhood are mood disorders, such as reduced or elevated mood and irritability. These symptoms may result in social or academic damage. Depression among children is a wide-spread, family and recurrent condition, which continues episodically in adulthood. Depression is frequently associated with other psychiatric disorders, increasing the risk of suicidal behaviour, misuse of psychoactive substances and behavioural disorders. Depression in childhood brings about worse psychosocial, academic and family functioning. Family, social and environmental factors have a significant role in affective disorders of children and young people.

  19. Eating disorders in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    JÁGLOVÁ, Štěpánka

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor degree work deals with disorders food intake, in particular, mental anorexia and mental bulimia in maturing period. The theoretical part is aimed at maturing problems and food intake disorders generally. There is characteristics and division of maturing period into early and late adolescence including psychological and physical changes which are typical for this period. Then food intake disorders, their causes, effects and their possible treatment are specified. The aim of the pr...

  20. Personality disorders in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lenkiewicz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult personality disorders are well recognized and described in the literature. The discussion about the possibility of the presence of personality disorders in adolescents started about 20 years ago. Some authors claim the before the age of 18 it is only possible to identify precursors of future personality disorders and such a standpoint is reflected in diagnostic criteria. This is based on the assumption that personality in adolescence is still not well established. Consequently, the criterion on the persistence of symptoms for the period of time cannot be met (the persistence of symptoms of personality disorders for the period of at least two years. Other approach postulates that problems presented in adolescence should not be exclusively limited to Axis I according to DSM. The proponents of this approach claim that current diagnostic tools are not adjusted to adolescents, thus it is very difficult to measure stability and persistence of symptoms in this age group. This paper presents literature review on personality disorders in adolescence.

  1. Similarities and differences of functional connectivity in drug-naïve, first-episode adolescent and young adult with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengnan; Womer, Fay; Geng, Haiyang; Jiang, Xiaowei; Zhou, Qian; Chang, Miao; Zhou, Yifang; Tang, Yanqing; Wang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are considered two distinct psychiatric disorders. Yet, they have considerable overlap in symptomatology and clinical features, particularly in the initial phases of illness. The amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC) appear to have critical roles in these disorders; however, abnormalities appear to manifest differently. In our study forty-nine drug-naïve, first-episode MDD, 45 drug-naïve, first-episode SZ, and 50 healthy control (HC) participants from 13 to 30 years old underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Functional connectivity (FC) between the amygdala and PFC was compared among the three groups. Significant differences in FC were observed between the amygdala and ventral PFC (VPFC), dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), and dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC) among the three groups. Further analyses demonstrated that MDD showed decreased amygdala-VPFC FC and SZ had reductions in amygdala-dACC FC. Both the diagnostic groups had significantly decreased amygdala-DLPFC FC. These indicate abnormalities in amygdala-PFC FC and further support the importance of the interaction between the amygdala and PFC in adolescents and young adults with these disorders. Additionally, the alterations in amygdala-PFC FC may underlie the initial similarities observed between MDD and SZ and suggest potential markers of differentiation between the disorders at first onset. PMID:28287187

  2. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  3. Psychiatric Disorders Associated with the Onset and Persistence of Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaider, Talia I.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cockell, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a prospective longitudinal study to investigate whether anxiety, depressive, personality, or substance abuse disorders increase risk for onset of bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED) during adolescence. Findings for 201 adolescents suggest that adolescents with chronic depressive symptoms may be at elevated risk for the…

  4. Preventing Adolescent Social Anxiety and Depression and Reducing Peer Victimization: Intervention Development and Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the…

  5. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Considerations for Research in Adolescent Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent depression is a prevalent disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. Current treatment interventions do not target relevant pathophysiology and are frequently ineffective, thereby leading to a substantial burden for individuals, families, and society. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex undergoes extensive structural and functional changes. Recent work suggests that frontolimbic development in depressed adolescents is delayed or aberrant. The judicious application of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to the prefrontal cortex may present a promising opportunity for durable interventions in adolescent depression. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS applies a low-intensity, continuous current that alters cortical excitability. While this modality does not elicit action potentials, it is thought to manipulate neuronal activity and neuroplasticity. Specifically, tDCS may modulate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and effect changes through long-term potentiation or long-term depression-like mechanisms. This mini-review considers the neurobiological rationale for developing tDCS protocols in adolescent depression, reviews existing work in adult mood disorders, surveys the existing tDCS literature in adolescent populations, reviews safety studies, and discusses distinct ethical considerations in work with adolescents.

  6. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family ... Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female) from each family. ... (CBCL) were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment.

  7. Predictors of Depression in Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Lisa A.; Lancaster, Sandra

    2001-01-01

    Study examined factors associated with symptoms of depression in female adolescents. Specifically, the relationship between theoretically related measures-separation-individuation; interpersonal concerns; attachment style; parental representations-and symptoms of depression was investigated. The model developed explained interrelationships of…

  8. [Obsessive-compulsive disorders in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R G; Rapoport, J L

    1990-01-01

    The research recently conducted and ongoing in adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder indicates that the clinical signs and symptoms are indistinguishable from those seen in adults. Comorbidity appears to follow the same trends in adolescents and adults, with anxiety and affective symptomatology predominating. Contrary to expectation, Gilles de la Tourette disorder does not appear either as a concurrent syndrome, or as an eventual outcome in obsessive-compulsive adolescents. Males are greatly over-represented among adolescents with an early childhood onset. The neurological and neuropsychological findings are the only ones that appear to distinguish the adolescent and adult obsessive-compulsive patients. The findings point to frequent neurological abnormalities in adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The natural history over the short-term seems to be negatively affected by severity. The clinical efficacy of clomipramine and the failure of another tricyclic antidepressant parallels the therapeutic experience reported in adult patients. The presence of depression is unrelated to the efficacy of clomipramine. The neuropsychological and neurological abnormalities, together with the data from the longitudinal and treatment studies, strongly suggest that obsessive-compulsive disorder in adolescents is not a variant of the overall group of anxiety disorders.

  9. Suicidal Risk in Adolescent Residential Treatment: Being Female Is More Important than a Depression Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Danice L.; Jewell, Jeremy D.; Stevens, Amy L.; Crawford, Jessica D.; Thompson, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between gender and clinician diagnosis of a depressive disorder at intake on variables reflecting depression among adolescents in residential treatment. It was hypothesized that females diagnosed with a depressive disorder would have the highest scores on measures of suicide risk, the number of symptoms of a major…

  10. Predictors of Suicide Attempts in Clinically Depressed Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt groups and we examined significant predictors of suicide attempts. Gender differences in suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were also analyzed. Among 106 depressed participants, 50 (47.2%) adolescents were classified in the suicide attempt group. Generally, the suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt group shared similar clinical characteristics. The suicide attempt group had more females, more major depressive disorder diagnoses, more depressive episodes, and higher suicidal ideation than the non-suicide attempt group. Suicidal ideation was the only significant predictor of suicidal attempt, regardless of gender. Higher suicidal ideation frequency scores and more non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors were shown in the female suicide attempt group than the male suicide attempt group. It is recommended that suicidal ideation be assessed regularly and managed rigorously to decrease suicide risks in depressive adolescents. PMID:27776392

  11. Neural substrates for processing task-irrelevant emotional distracters in maltreated adolescents with depressive disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Michael D; Hooper, Stephen R

    2012-04-01

    In this pilot study, neural systems related to cognitive and emotional processing were examined using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging in 5 maltreated youth with depressive disorders and 11 nonmaltreated healthy participants. Subjects underwent an emotional oddball task, where they detected infrequent ovals (targets) within a continual stream of phase-scrambled images (standards). Sad and neutral images were intermittently presented as task-irrelevant distracters. The maltreated youth revealed significantly decreased activation in the left middle frontal gyrus and right precentral gyrus to target stimuli and significantly increased activation to sad stimuli in bilateral amygdala, left subgenual cingulate, left inferior frontal gyrus, and right middle temporal cortex compared to nonmaltreated subjects. Additionally, the maltreated youth showed significantly decreased activation to both attentional targets and sad distracters in the left posterior middle frontal gyrus compared to nonmaltreated subjects. In this exploratory study of dorsal control and ventral emotional circuits, we found that maltreated youth with distress disorders demonstrated dysfunction of neural systems related to cognitive control and emotional processing.

  12. Changes in Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Development of Nicotine Dependence and Major Depressive Disorder from Middle Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Erin C.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study used a representative community sample of same-sex twins (485 MZ pairs, 271 DZ pairs) to study longitudinal changes in genetic and environmental influences on nicotine dependence (NicD) symptoms and major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms and the longitudinal relationships between NicD and MDD symptoms at three relatively discrete ages spanning middle adolescence to early adulthood (ages 15, 18, and 21). Clinical interviews were used to assess NicD and MDD symptoms lifetime at age 15 and during the previous three years at the two subsequent assessments. Biometric models revealed similar patterns of findings for NicD and MDD. Heritability increased with age, particularly between ages 15 and 18. Shared environmental influences were small, and the proportion of variance attributed to shared environmental influences decreased with age. Nonshared environmental influences were moderate to large in magnitude and were entirely age-specific. Both NicD and MDD symptoms showed considerable stability from age 15 to 21, and at each age those with one disorder showed elevated rates of the other. However, a cross-lagged model revealed no longitudinal predictive relationships between MDD symptoms and NicD symptoms after accounting for stability of symptoms within disorders. In summary, the transition between middle and late adolescence is a critical period for developmental shifts in the magnitudes of genetic and environmental influences on both MDD and NicD symptoms. Despite similarities in the development of genetic and environmental influences for the two phenotypes, the association between NicD and MDD reflects concurrent covariation rather than one phenotype being an antecedent influence on the subsequent development of the other. PMID:20883585

  13. Vision in depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubl, E.; Tebartz Van Elst, L.; Ebert, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Reduced dopaminergic transmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression. Furthermore, dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in the physiology of visual contrast sensitivity (CS). To test the hypothesis that altered dopaminergic neurotransmissi...

  14. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwallip; Kim, Daeho; Park, Yong Chon

    2008-03-01

    While cognitive behavior therapy is considered to be the first-line therapy for adolescent depression, there are limited data on whether other psychotherapeutic techniques are also effective in treating adolescents with depression. This report suggests the potential application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for treatment of depressive disorder related, not to trauma, but to stressful life events. At present, EMDR has only been empirically validated for only trauma-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Two teenagers with major depressive disorder (MDD) underwent three and seven sessions of EMDR aimed at memories of stressful life events. After treatment, their depressive symptoms decreased to the level of full remission, and the therapeutic gains were maintained after two and three months of follow up. The effectiveness of EMDR for depression is explained by the model of adaptive information processing. Given the powerful effects observed within a brief period of time, the authors suggest that further investigation of EMDR for depressive disorders is warranted.

  15. Rumination, anxiety, depressive symptoms and subsequent depression in adolescents at risk for psychopathology: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Paul O; Croudace, Tim J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2013-10-08

    A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p = 0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p depressive and anxiety symptoms. High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression.

  16. Trajectories of Individual Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Gender and Family Relationships as Predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Depressive syndrome and disorders increase substantially during adolescence. Little is known, however, about how individual symptoms of depression change over the course of this developmental period. The present study examined within-person changes in symptom severity of each individual symptom of depression, utilizing longitudinal data collected across six years of adolescence. Adolescent gender and family relationship variables were tested as predictors of the symptom trajectories (i.e., in...

  17. Social capital, substance use disorder and depression among youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awgu, Ezechukwu; Magura, Stephen; Coryn, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Social capital - the network of social connections that exists among people - is known to be related to depression and substance use among adults. However, little is known about these relationships among adolescents, even though this age group is vulnerable due to factors of peer pressure, family, neighborhood, and maturational changes. To evaluate the associations among social capital, substance use disorder and depression on a sample of 17 705 respondents between the ages of 12 and 17 in the 2009 National Survey of Drug Use and Health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine social capital; responses to 48 items differentiated into two factors that measured structural social and cognitive social capital. Adolescent depression and substance use disorder were measured as past-year major depressive episodes and substance use disorder according to DSM-IV criteria. Structural social capital was associated with substance use disorder (β = -0.12; p = 0.001) and depression (β = -0.19; p = 0.001). Cognitive social capital was associated with substance use disorder (β = -0.17; p = 0.001), but not with depression (β = -0.002; p > 0.005). Substance use disorder mediated the association between structural and cognitive social capital and depression (β = 0.06; p = 0.001). There was support for associations among youth structural and cognitive social capital, substance use disorder and depression. These findings suggest that additional research of a longitudinal nature is needed to determine causal connections among social capital, depression and substance use disorder for adolescents.

  18. Risk factors of depression occurrence in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this lecture is focus on different aspects of occurerence of depression in Adolescence, especially with focus on risk factors. I introduced epidemiology of depression : causes, treatment, and prevention (Abela & Hankin,2008). The special part of the lecture was focus on etiology of depression. Adolescence is characterized by positive gains in cognitive maturity, better interpersonal skills, new experiences, increased autonomy, and hormonal changes (Feldman & Elliot, 1990). Alt...

  19. Depression during gestation in adolescent mothers interferes with neonatal neurobehavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carvalho de Moraes Barros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the neurobehavior of neonates born to adolescent mothers with and without depression during gestation. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included healthy term neonates born to adolescent mothers with untreated depression during gestation, without exposure to legal or illicit drugs, and compared them with infants born to adolescent mothers without psychiatric disorders. Maternal psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1 and neonatal neurobehavior by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS at 24 to 72 hours of life. Neurobehavioral outcomes were analyzed by ANOVA adjusted for confounders. Results: 37 infants born to mothers with depression during gestation were compared to 332 infants born to mothers without psychiatric disorders. Infants of mothers with depression had smaller head circumferences. Significant interactions of maternal depression and male gender, gestational age > 40 weeks, regional anesthesia during delivery, vaginal delivery, and infant head circumference ≥ 34 cm were found. Worse performance was noted in the following neonatal neurobehavioral parameters: arousal, excitability, lethargy, hypotonicity, and signs of stress and abstinence. Conclusion: Infants born to adolescent mothers with depression exhibit some behavioral changes in the first days of life. These changes are associated with infant sex, gestational age, type of anesthesia, mode of delivery, and head circumference.

  20. Depression and anxiety prevention based on cognitive behavioral therapy for at-risk adolescents: A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasing, S.P.A.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders during adolescence. During this life phase, the incidence of these clinical disorders rises dramatically, and even more adolescents suffer from symptoms of depression or anxiety that are just below the clinical threshold. Bo

  1. Depression and anxiety prevention based on cognitive behavioral therapy for at-risk adolescents: A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasing, S.P.A.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders during adolescence. During this life phase, the incidence of these clinical disorders rises dramatically, and even more adolescents suffer from symptoms of depression or anxiety that are just below the clinical threshold.

  2. Listening Clearly: Alternative Treatments for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlasson, Terry D.

    2012-01-01

    For many years now, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and anti-depressant medications have been the primary treatments for adolescent depression. However, there are many youth today with mild to moderate depressive symptoms for whom these treatments are not necessary. This article briefly summarizes several alternative therapeutic approaches for…

  3. Listening Clearly: Alternative Treatments for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlasson, Terry D.

    2012-01-01

    For many years now, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and anti-depressant medications have been the primary treatments for adolescent depression. However, there are many youth today with mild to moderate depressive symptoms for whom these treatments are not necessary. This article briefly summarizes several alternative therapeutic approaches for…

  4. The Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale: Psychometric Properties in Depressed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Gregory M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Essex, Marilyn J.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Silva, Susan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Curry, John F.; Feeny, Norah C.; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Pathak, Sanjeev; Reinecke, Mark A.; Rosenberg, David R.; Weller, Elizabeth B.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The psychometric properties and factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale were examined in a sample of 422 male and female adolescents (ages 12-17) with current major depressive disorder. The scale demonstrated high internal consistency ([alpha] = 0.93) and correlated significantly with self-report and interview-based measures of…

  5. Sense of identity and depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Başaran; Kaynak-Demir, Hadiye; Sönmez, Emel Irmak

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sense of identity and depression in a group of adolescents. Thirty-one depressed adolescents and 31 control subjects were included in the study. They were evaluated using the Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Depressed adolescents were reevaluated during the eighth week of antidepressant treatment. Higher baseline SIAF scores were detected in depressed adolescents as compared with non-depressed subjects. After antidepressant treatment, there was a significant decrease in SIAF scores in the depression group. Correlation analysis indicated that there are significant, positive relationships between SIAF, depression, and anxiety scores. The regression analysis results suggested that the change in SIAF scores can accurately predict 91.6% of the remitters and 42.8% of the non-remitters. Collectively, these findings indicate that there is a close association between depression symptoms and identity confusion-related distress in adolescents.

  6. Psychosocial Interventions in Depressive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Basogul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, improvements in effective psychosocial interventions in the prevention and treatment of depression are remarkable. The World Health Organization stated that major depression affects children, adults and the elderly and is the leading cause of approximately 12% of all disabilities around the World. Medical expenses, loss of workforce, suicide risk, the risk of relapse or recurrence are taken into account, depression is an issue that needs to be handled with utmost care for health care workers especially psychiatric nurses. The purpose of this literature review is to examine psychosocial interventions and effectiveness of these interventions for depressive disorders shows a gradual increase in prevalence in worlwide. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 1-15

  7. Alliance and Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Kaplinski, Heather Crisp; McMakin, Dana L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Fifty-four adolescents met criteria for a depressive disorder and were treated in school-based clinics. Alliance was measured after the third session from both therapist and…

  8. School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: A Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Kaplinski, Heather; Gudmundsen, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression delivered in health clinics and counseling centers in four high schools. Outcomes were benchmarked to results from prior efficacy trials. Fifty adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorders were treated by eight doctoral-level psychologists who followed a…

  9. Effectiveness Study of a CBT-Based Adolescent Coping with Depression Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvik, Margit; Idsoe, Thormod; Bru, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Even though the efficacy of group-based cognitive behavioural interventions is well established both for adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorders as well as for adolescents with depressive symptoms, in order to prevent further development, there has been a call for effectiveness studies in real world settings. This study investigated…

  10. Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…

  11. The Role of Readiness to Change in Response to Treatment of Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Silva, Susan G.; Rohde, Paul; Small, David M.; Murakami, Jessica L.; High, Robin R.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of readiness to change on treatment outcome was examined among 332 adolescents (46% male, 74% Caucasian), ages 12 through 17 years (M = 14.6, SD = 1.5), with major depressive disorder who were participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS). TADS is a randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of…

  12. Alliance and Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Kaplinski, Heather Crisp; McMakin, Dana L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Fifty-four adolescents met criteria for a depressive disorder and were treated in school-based clinics. Alliance was measured after the third session from both therapist and…

  13. School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: A Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Kaplinski, Heather; Gudmundsen, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression delivered in health clinics and counseling centers in four high schools. Outcomes were benchmarked to results from prior efficacy trials. Fifty adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorders were treated by eight doctoral-level psychologists who followed a…

  14. Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…

  15. The Role of Readiness to Change in Response to Treatment of Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Silva, Susan G.; Rohde, Paul; Small, David M.; Murakami, Jessica L.; High, Robin R.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of readiness to change on treatment outcome was examined among 332 adolescents (46% male, 74% Caucasian), ages 12 through 17 years (M = 14.6, SD = 1.5), with major depressive disorder who were participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS). TADS is a randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of…

  16. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Common Genetic and Environmental Influences on Major Depressive Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, Anjali; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Young, Susan E.; Ehringer, Marissa A.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John K.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence for common genetic and environmental influences on conduct disorder (CD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents was examined. A sample of 570 monozygotic twin pairs, 592 dizygotic twin pairs, and 426 non-twin siblings, aged 12-18 years, was recruited from the Colorado Twin Registry. For the past year data, there was a…

  18. [Vulnerability to depression in children and adolescents: update and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Michel, G; Mouren-Siméoni, M-C

    2002-01-01

    Depression in children and adolescents is associated with poor psychosocial functioning, high psychiatric comorbidity, risk of recurrent episodes or onset of bipolar disorder. These findings emphasize the importance of early identification of children and adolescents having elevated risk for future depression and further development, evaluation and greater availability of prevention strategies. Our review aims an update about depressive vulnerability in children and adolescents in the perspective of better identification of at-risk populations and targeting of prevention programs. Psychopathology, in particular anxiety and disruptive disorders are well identified risk-factors for later depression. Subclinical depressive symptomatology, also termed "demoralization", also identifies high-risk populations, likely to become incident cases of depression. It is still unclear whether this condition is prodromal depression, a specific clinical entity or the expression of biological and/or cognitive vulnerability. Familial risk for depressive disorders involves both genetic and psychosocial factors. Marital discord, poor communication and dysfunctional parenting practices are often present in families with affective disorders and can be implicated in increased depressive vulnerability in the offspring. Research on individual vulnerability in children and adolescents has focused on temperamental and cognitive characteristics. Temperament traits describe individual differences in reactivity and behavior. High emotionality, defined as the tendency to become upset easily and intensely has been associated with an increased risk for subsequent major depression. However, as the majority of high scorers will not become depressive cases, emotionality should not be the only criterion for selection of at-risk populations. Cognitive style including poor self esteem, low social competence and negative attributions are also associated with increased likelihood of depressive symptoms, but

  19. The Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program: Adapting Behavioral Activation as a Treatment for Depression in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Elizabeth; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Schloredt, Kelly; Martell, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac; Hubley, Samuel; Dimidjian, Sona

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine implementation feasibility and initial treatment outcomes of a behavioral activation (BA) based treatment for adolescent depression, the Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program (A-BAP). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 60 clinically referred adolescents with a depressive disorder who were randomized to receive either 14 sessions of A-BAP or uncontrolled evidenced-based practice for depression. The urban sample was 64% female, predominantly Non-Hispanic White (67%), and had an average age of 14.9 years. Measures of depression, global functioning, activation, and avoidance were obtained through clinical interviews and/or through parent and adolescent self-report at preintervention and end of intervention. Intent-to-treat linear mixed effects modeling and logistic regression analysis revealed that both conditions produced statistically significant improvement from pretreatment to end of treatment in depression, global functioning, and activation and avoidance. There were no significant differences across treatment conditions. These findings provide the first step in establishing the efficacy of BA as a treatment for adolescent depression and support the need for ongoing research on BA as a way to enhance the strategies available for treatment of depression in this population.

  20. One-Year Follow-up of Children and Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder: Relationship between Clinical Variables and Abcb1 Gene Polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez, A; Gassó, P; Mas, S; Plana, M T; Lafuente, A; Lázaro, L

    2016-11-01

    Introduction: Differences in response to fluoxetine (FLX) may be influenced by certain genes that are involved in FLX transportation (ABCB1). We examined remission and recovery from the index episode in a cohort of patients treated with FLX, and also investigated associations between genetic variants in ABCB1 and remission, recovery, and suicide risk. Methods: This was a naturalistic 1-year follow-up study of 46 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD). At 12 months they underwent a diagnostic interview with the K-SADS-PL. Results: It was found that remission was around 69.5% and recovery 56.5%. Remission and recovery were associated with lower scores on the CDI at baseline, with fewer readmissions and suicide attempts, and with lower scores on the CGI and higher scores on the GAF scale. No relationship was found between ABCB1 and remission or recovery. However, a significant association was observed between the G2677T ABCB1 polymorphism and suicide attempts. Conclusion: Other factors such as stressful events, family support, and other genetic factors are likely to be involved in MDD outcome.

  1. Panic Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families Guide Panic Disorder In Children And Adolescents No. 50; Updated July 2013 Panic disorder is a common and treatable disorder. Children and adolescents with panic disorder have unexpected and repeated periods ...

  2. Activated depression: mixed bipolar disorder or agitated unipolar depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Alan C

    2013-08-01

    The combination of depression and activation presents clinical and diagnostic challenges. It can occur, in either bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder, as increased agitation as a dimension of depression. What is called agitation can consist of expressions of painful inner tension or as disinhibited goal-directed behavior and thought. In bipolar disorder, elements of depression can be combined with those of mania. In this case, the agitation, in addition to increased motor activity and painful inner tension, must include symptoms of mania that are related to goal-directed behavior or manic cognition. These diagnostic considerations are important, as activated depression potentially carries increased behavioral risk, especially for suicidal behavior, and optimal treatments for depressive episodes differ between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

  3. Teacher and Parent Ratings of Children with Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Richard E.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Cantwell, Dennis P.; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum

    2007-01-01

    The fields of child psychology and psychiatry have not yet established the clinical presentation in school of children and adolescents who have been diagnosed as having a depressive disorder. To address this issue, the authors used teacher ratings on scale oriented to the third, revised edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  4. Trajectories of Individual Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Gender and Family Relationships as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Depressive syndrome and disorders increase substantially during adolescence. Little is known, however, about how "individual" symptoms of depression change over the course of this developmental period. The present study examined within-person changes in symptom severity of each individual symptom of depression, utilizing longitudinal…

  5. Trajectories of Individual Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Gender and Family Relationships as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Depressive syndrome and disorders increase substantially during adolescence. Little is known, however, about how "individual" symptoms of depression change over the course of this developmental period. The present study examined within-person changes in symptom severity of each individual symptom of depression, utilizing longitudinal…

  6. Abnormal Neural Sensitivity to Monetary Gains versus Losses among Adolescents at Risk for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Dan; Kotov, Roman; Klein, Daniel N.; Hajcak, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder aggregates within families, although the mechanisms of transfer across generations are not well understood. In light of converging biological and behavioral evidence that depressive symptoms are associated with impaired reward processing, we examined whether adolescent girls with a parental history of depression would…

  7. Parental separation in childhood as a risk factor for depression in adulthood: a community-based study of adolescents screened for depression and followed up after 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Hannes; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Päären, Aivar; Jonsson, Ulf

    2017-03-29

    Earlier research has investigated the association between parental separation and long-term health outcomes among offspring, but few studies have assessed the potentially moderating role of mental health status in adolescence. The aim of this study was to analyze whether parental separation in childhood predicts depression in adulthood and whether the pattern differs between individuals with and without earlier depression. A community-based sample of individuals with adolescent depression in 1991-93 and matched non-depressed peers were followed up using a structured diagnostic interview after 15 years. The participation rate was 65% (depressed n = 227; non-depressed controls n = 155). Information on parental separation and conditions in childhood and adolescence was collected at baseline. The outcome was depression between the ages 19-31 years; information on depression was collected at the follow-up diagnostic interview. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. Our analyses showed that depressed adolescents with separated parents had an excess risk of recurrence of depression in adulthood, compared with depressed adolescents with non-separated parents. In addition, among adolescents with depression, parental separation was associated with an increased risk of a switch to bipolar disorder in adulthood. Among the matched non-depressed peers, no associations between parental separation and adult depression or bipolar disorder were found. Parental separation may have long-lasting health consequences for vulnerable individuals who suffer from mental illness already in adolescence.

  8. Recognizing and Responding to Adolescent Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    Depression is increasingly recognized as a problem affecting adolescents as well as adults. Adolescents are underserved with regard to treatment facilities. One solution is the comprehensive health care clinic providing a holistic approach to assessment and intervention. Policy recommendations, which include a role for the school system, are made.…

  9. Depression in Adolescents with ASD: A Pilot RCT of a Group Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santomauro, Damian; Sheffield, Jeanie; Sofronoff, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a potentially life threatening affective disorder that is highly prevalent in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a cognitive behavioural intervention for depression in adolescents with ASD. Participants were randomly assigned to the…

  10. Aggression in Inpatient Adolescents: The Effects of Gender and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Michele; Carey, Michael; Kim, Wun Jung

    2003-01-01

    Examined differences in aggressive behavior among predominantly white adolescent inpatients with and without depression. Survey data indicated that depression and gender interacted significantly. Depressed females demonstrated more physical aggression than nondepressed females, and depressed males demonstrated less aggression than nondepressed…

  11. An Examination of Emotion Regulation, Temperament, and Parenting Style as Potential Predictors of Adolescent Depression Risk Status: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Jennifer; Gullone, Eleonora; Allen, J. Sabura

    2009-01-01

    Given that depression is a debilitating disorder, it is critical that we advance our understanding about the aetiology of this disorder. This study investigated both traditional (temperament and parenting) and novel (emotion regulation strategy) risk factors associated with adolescent depression. Forty-four adolescents (12-16 years; 64% females)…

  12. The Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skill Training (IPT-AST) in Preventing Depression: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Sarah Shankman

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent depression is a prevalent and debilitating disorder that is associated with social and academic impairment, suicidality, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and high-risk behaviors (Horowitz, Garber, Ciesla, Young, & Mufson, 2007). Yet many adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms do not receive adequate services, and those that do…

  13. Gender-Related Risk and Protective Factors for Depressive Symptoms and Disordered Eating in Adolescence: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The interplay between intrapersonal risk (low self-esteem, perfectionism and body dissatisfaction) and interpersonal protection (social support) appears relevant for delineating gender-specific pathways that lead to both depressive and eating psychopathology. The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine gender differences in the levels of…

  14. The evaluation of mood condition among depressed adolescent students in Isfahan after 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shakibaei

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: About half of students after 6 years are caught by depression or BMD. It reveals the importance of this disorder and its role in making behavioral problems for adolescents in their future.

  15. Major depression in mothers predict reduced ventral striatum activation in adolescent female offspring with and without depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior research has identified reduced reward-related brain activation as a promising endophenotype for the early identification of adolescents with major depressive disorder. However, it is unclear whether reduced reward-related brain activation constitutes a true vulnerability for major depressive ...

  16. Overgeneral autobiographical memory and chronic interpersonal stress as predictors of the course of depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Griffith, James W; Mineka, Susan; Rekart, Kathleen Newcomb; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle G

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) predicts the course of depression in adolescents. As part of a larger longitudinal study of risk for emotional disorders, 55 adolescents with a past history of major depressive disorder or minor depressive disorder completed the Autobiographical Memory Test. Fewer specific memories predicted the subsequent onset of a major depressive episode (MDE) over a 16-month follow-up period, even when covarying baseline depressive symptoms. This main effect was qualified by an interaction between specific memories and chronic interpersonal stress: Fewer specific memories predicted greater risk of MDE onset over follow-up at high (but not low) levels of chronic interpersonal stress. Thus, our findings suggest that OGM, in interaction with chronic interpersonal stress, predicts the course of depression among adolescents, and highlight the importance of measuring interpersonal stress in OGM research.

  17. Increased Ventricular Cerebrospinal Fluid Lactate in Depressed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Kailyn A. L.; Mao, Xiangling; Case, Julia A. C.; Kang, Guoxin; Shungu, Dikoma C.; Gabbay, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly examined as a potential pathogenic event in psychiatric disorders, although its role early in the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction in medication-free adolescents with MDD through in vivo measurements of neurometabolites using high-spatial resolution multislice/multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods Twenty-three adolescents with MDD and 29 healthy controls, ages 12–20, were scanned at 3T and concentrations of ventricular cerebrospinal fluid lactate, as well as N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), total creatine (tCr), and total choline (tCho) in the bilateral caudate, putamen, and thalamus were reported. Results Adolescents with MDD exhibited increased ventricular lactate compared to healthy controls [F(1, 41) = 6.98, p = .01]. However, there were no group differences in the other neurometabolites. Dimensional analyses in the depressed group showed no relation between any of the neurometabolites and symptomatology, including anhedonia and fatigue. Conclusions Increased ventricular lactate in depressed adolescents suggests mitochondrial dysfunction may be present early in the course of MDD; however it is still not known whether the presence of mitochondrial dysfunction is a trait vulnerability of individuals predisposed to psychopathology or a state feature of the disorder. Therefore, there is a need for larger multimodal studies to clarify these chemical findings in the context of network function. PMID:26802978

  18. Structural brain development and depression onset during adolescence: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Lichter, Renee; Dennison, Meg; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Schwartz, Orli; Byrne, Michelle L; Simmons, Julian G; Yücel, Murat; Pantelis, Christos; McGorry, Patrick; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-05-01

    The authors sought to investigate whether the structural development of limbic, striatal, and prefrontal regions that are critically implicated in the pathophysiology of depression is associated with adolescent-onset depression. In a longitudinal design, a risk enriched community sample of 86 adolescents (41 of them female) who had no history of depressive disorders participated in neuroimaging assessments conducted during early (age 12) and midadolescence (age 16). Onset of depressive disorders was assessed for the period spanning early to late adolescence (ages 12 to 18). Thirty participants experienced a first episode of a depressive disorder during the follow-up period. The authors assessed whether onset of depressive disorder was associated with structural change in limbic, striatal, and prefrontal cortical regions from early to mid-adolescence. Volumetric change in the hippocampus, amygdala, and putamen from early to mid-adolescence was associated with the onset of depression during adolescence. Attenuated growth of the hippocampus and attenuated reduction in putamen volume over time were associated with the onset of depression. Sex moderated the association between amygdala growth and depression such that exaggerated growth and attenuated growth of the amygdala were associated with depression in females and males, respectively. Across time, smaller nucleus accumbens volume was associated with depression in females only. These findings suggest that alterations in the developmental trajectories of limbic and striatal regions during adolescence may represent a neurobiological manifestation of a risk factor for the development of depression during this critical period and thus may provide clues as to etiological mechanisms of this disorder.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Chikako; Yoshimasu, Kouichi

    2009-03-01

    Major depressive disorder causes significant morbidity, affecting people's ability to work, function in relationships, and engage in social activities. Moreover, major depressive disorder increases the risk of suicidal ideation, attempted suicide and death by completed suicide. There is evidence that chronic stress can cause major depressive disorder. As for genetic factors, only minor susceptibility genes have been reliably identified. The serotonin system provides a logical source of susceptibility genes for depression, because this system is the target of selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitor drugs that are effective in treating depression. The 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) transporter (5-HTT) has received particular attention because it is involved in the reuptake of serotonin at brain synapses. One common polymorphic variant of the 5-HTT-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), which affects the promoter of the 5-HTT gene, causes reduced uptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin into the presynaptic cells in the brain. The authors discussed the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and major depressive disorder, with special emphasis on the 5-HTTTLPR polymorphism. As the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder, the 5-HTT gene may be a candidate for a major depressive disorder susceptibility gene. As major depressive disorder is a multifactorial disease, an improved understanding of the interplay of environmental and genetic polymorphisms at multiple loci may help identify individuals who are at increased risk for major depressive disorder. Hopefully, in the future we will be able to screen for major depressive disorder susceptibility by using specific biomarkers.

  20. Reduced anterior cingulate gray matter volume in treatment-naïve clinically depressed adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Nienke Pannekoek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent depression is associated with increased risk for suicidality, social and educational impairment, smoking, substance use, obesity, and depression in adulthood. It is of relevance to further our insight in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this disorder in the developing brain, as this may be essential to optimize treatment and prevention of adolescent depression and its negative clinical trajectories. The equivocal findings of the limited number of studies on neural abnormalities in depressed youth stress the need for further neurobiological investigation of adolescent depression. We therefore performed a voxel-based morphometry study of the hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in 26 treatment-naïve, clinically depressed adolescents and 26 pair-wise matched healthy controls. Additionally, an exploratory whole-brain analysis was performed. Clinically depressed adolescents showed a volume reduction of the bilateral dorsal ACC compared to healthy controls. However, no association was found between gray matter volume of the ACC and clinical severity scores for depression or anxiety. Our finding of a smaller ACC in clinically depressed adolescents is consistent with literature on depressed adults. Future research is needed to investigate if gray matter abnormalities precede or follow clinical depression in adolescents.

  1. Early adversity and risk for moderate to severe unipolar depressive disorder in adolescence and adulthood: A register-based study of 978,647 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Signe Kirk; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Ubbesen, Mads Bonde; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Musliner, Katherine Louise

    2017-05-01

    Early adversity is a known risk factor for unipolar depression. We examined the impact of 9 types of early adversity on risk for moderate to severe unipolar depression in adolescence or adulthood, and evaluated whether these effects were moderated by gender and adversity timing. We conducted a prospective, population-based cohort study using Danish national registers. The sample included all individuals born in Denmark between 1980 and 1998 (N=978,647). Exposure to early adversity was assessed from ages 0-15. Types of adversity included parental illness, incarceration, death, disability, and psychiatric diagnosis; family disruption; out-of-home care; and childhood abuse. Individuals were followed from age 15 until first in- or outpatient depression diagnosis (ICD-10 codes F32, F33) in a psychiatric hospital, death, emigration, or December 31st, 2013, whichever came first. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox regressions. All adversities were significantly associated with increased risk for moderate to severe adolescent/adult depression (HR range: 1.30-2.72), although the effects were attenuated after mutual adjustment (adjusted HR range: 1.06-1.70). None of the effects were moderated by gender. The effect of family disruption was strongest between ages 0-4 (HR=1.66, 95% CI=1.61-1.71), while the effect of out-of-home care was strongest between ages 10-14 (HR=2.45, 95% CI=2.28-2.64). Untreated and primary-care treated depression were not measured. Our results support past findings that multiple types of early adversity increase risk for moderate to severe unipolar depression in adolescence and adulthood. Certain adversities may be more harmful if they occur during specific developmental time periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Managing bipolar disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric

    2009-09-01

    Bipolar disorders are recurrent disturbances in mood that include periods both of depression and mania. Classic bipolar disorders, with manic episodes lasting for at least several days, often start in adolescence, but are uncommon in earlier childhood. Treatment of mania in young patients should include ensuring the individual's safety, and administration of a mood-stabilizing drug, or, in severe cases, a neuroleptic. Prophylaxis with lithium or an anticonvulsant should then be considered. In younger children, brief outbursts of excessive emotion--especially anger--should be recognized as a notable clinical problem. These outbursts do not necessarily constitute the beginnings of a classic bipolar disorder, but should trigger a diagnostic differential that also includes attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, reaction to hostile environments, severe mood dysregulation, substance misuse, and autism spectrum disorders.

  3. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  4. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  5. Anxiety Disorders and Depression in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hek (Karin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAnxiety disorders and depression are common and complex disorders. Despite decades of research, their etiology is largely unknown. Study of the occurrence and determinants, i.e. the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression, helps unravel their etiology. This thesis examines the e

  6. Anxiety Disorders and Depression in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hek (Karin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAnxiety disorders and depression are common and complex disorders. Despite decades of research, their etiology is largely unknown. Study of the occurrence and determinants, i.e. the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression, helps unravel their etiology. This thesis examines the e

  7. Anxiety Disorders and Depression in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hek (Karin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAnxiety disorders and depression are common and complex disorders. Despite decades of research, their etiology is largely unknown. Study of the occurrence and determinants, i.e. the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression, helps unravel their etiology. This thesis examines the

  8. Friendships and Family Support Reduce Subsequent Depressive Symptoms in At-Risk Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Gibson, Jenny L; St Clair, Michelle C; Owens, Matt; Brodbeck, Jeannette; Dunn, Valerie; Lewis, Gemma; Croudace, Tim; Jones, Peter B; Kievit, Rogier A; Goodyer, Ian M

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) consists of child family adversities (CFA: negative experiences that happened within the family environment) and/or peer bullying. ELS plays an important role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms and clinical disorders. Identifying factors that may reduce depressive symptoms in adolescents with ELS may have important public mental health implications. We used structural equation modelling and examined the impact of adolescent friendships and/or family support at age 14 on depressive symptoms at age 17 in adolescents exposed to ELS before age 11. To this end, we used structural equation modelling in a community sample of 771 adolescents (322 boys and 477 girls) from a 3 year longitudinal study. Significant paths in the model were followed-up to test whether social support mediated or moderated the association between ELS and depressive symptoms at age 17. We found that adolescent social support in adolescence is negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in boys and girls exposed to ELS. Specifically, we found evidence for two mediational pathways: In the first pathway family support mediated the link between CFA and depressive symptoms at age 17. Specifically, CFA was negatively associated with adolescent family support at age 14, which in turn was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In the second pathway we found that adolescent friendships mediated the path between peer bullying and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational bullying was negatively associated with adolescent friendships at age 14, which in turn were negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In contrast, we did not find a moderating effect of friendships and family support on the association between CFA and depressive symptoms. Friendships and/or family support in adolescence mediate the relationship between ELS and late adolescent depressive symptoms in boys and girls. Therefore, enhancing affiliate

  9. Friendships and Family Support Reduce Subsequent Depressive Symptoms in At-Risk Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laura van Harmelen

    Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS consists of child family adversities (CFA: negative experiences that happened within the family environment and/or peer bullying. ELS plays an important role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms and clinical disorders. Identifying factors that may reduce depressive symptoms in adolescents with ELS may have important public mental health implications.We used structural equation modelling and examined the impact of adolescent friendships and/or family support at age 14 on depressive symptoms at age 17 in adolescents exposed to ELS before age 11. To this end, we used structural equation modelling in a community sample of 771 adolescents (322 boys and 477 girls from a 3 year longitudinal study. Significant paths in the model were followed-up to test whether social support mediated or moderated the association between ELS and depressive symptoms at age 17.We found that adolescent social support in adolescence is negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in boys and girls exposed to ELS. Specifically, we found evidence for two mediational pathways: In the first pathway family support mediated the link between CFA and depressive symptoms at age 17. Specifically, CFA was negatively associated with adolescent family support at age 14, which in turn was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In the second pathway we found that adolescent friendships mediated the path between peer bullying and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational bullying was negatively associated with adolescent friendships at age 14, which in turn were negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In contrast, we did not find a moderating effect of friendships and family support on the association between CFA and depressive symptoms.Friendships and/or family support in adolescence mediate the relationship between ELS and late adolescent depressive symptoms in boys and girls. Therefore

  10. Depressed suicide attempters with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Maria; Stanley, Barbara; Ystgaard, Mette; Mehlum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder are well-established risk factors for suicidal behavior. This study compared depressed suicide attempters with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder with respect to additional diagnoses, global functioning, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, history of traumatic exposure, and suicidal behavior. Adult patients consecutively admitted to a general hospital after a suicide attempt were interviewed and assessed for DSM-IV diagnosis and clinical correlates. Sixty-four patients (71%) were diagnosed with depression; of them, 21 patients (32%) had posttraumatic stress disorder. There were no group differences in social adjustment, depressive symptoms, or suicidal intent. However, the group with comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had more additional Axis I diagnoses, a higher degree of childhood trauma exposure, and more often reported previous suicide attempts, non-suicidal self-harm, and vengeful suicidal motives. These findings underline the clinical importance of diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in suicide attempters.

  11. Emerging antidepressants to treat major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Samantha G; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2014-12-01

    Depression is a common disorder with an annual risk of a depressive episode in the United States of 6.6%. Only 30-40% of patients remit with antidepressant monotherapy, leaving 60-70% of patients who do not optimally respond to therapy. Unremitted depressive patients are at increased risk for suicide. Considering the prevalence of treatment resistant depression and its consequences, treatment optimization is imperative. This review summarizes the latest treatment modalities for major depressive disorder including pharmacotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and psychotherapy. Through advancements in research to better understand the pathophysiology of depression, advances in treatment will be realized.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyohara, Chikako; Yoshimasu, Kouichi

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder causes significant morbidity, affecting people’s ability to work, function in relationships, and engage in social activities. Moreover, major depressive disorder increases the risk of suicidal ideation, attempted suicide and death by completed suicide. There is evidence that chronic stress can cause major depressive disorder. As for genetic factors, only minor susceptibility genes have been reliably identified. The serotonin system provides a logical source of suscep...

  13. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  14. Depression and major depressive disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Mayumi; Tanaka, Teruaki; Nakagawa, Shin; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2010-01-15

    The prevalence of depression in Parkinson's disease (PD) varies greatly. In this study, we investigated major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms without MDD in patients with PD. The psychopathological characteristics of depressive symptoms were assessed by a psychiatric interview. A total of 105 Japanese patients with PD without dementia were included. The Japanese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) with a cutoff score of 13/14 was used to screen for depression. Using a structured interview, a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation of patients with BDI-II scores >13 (high BDI patients) was completed using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR. Forty patients (38%) had a BDI-II >13, but 29 did not show any depressed mood. Five cases met the criteria for MDD (three current, two past) and one patient was diagnosed with minor depressive disorder. A slight depressed mood that was associated with worrying about PD was seen in 6 of 34 patients without any depressive disorder and fluctuated with aggravation of PD symptoms in two of these patients. For the diagnosis of MDD, the number of positive items from the DSM-IV-TR definition of MDD is most important and useful for differentiating MDD and non-MDD. The low-prevalence rate of MDD in our patient population suggests that PD may be a psychological stressor for MDD, but does not necessarily induce MDD.

  15. Perfectionism in depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassaroli, Sandra; Lauro, Leonor J Romero; Ruggiero, Giovanni Maria; Mauri, Massimo C; Vinai, Piergiuseppe; Frost, Randy

    2008-06-01

    High levels of perfectionism have been observed in major depression, anxiety disorders and eating disorders. Though few studies have compared levels of perfectionism across these disorders, there is reason to believe that different dimensions of perfectionism may be involved in eating disorders than in depression or anxiety [Bardone-Cone, A. M. et al. (2007). Perfectionism and eating disorders: Current status and future directions. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 84-405]. The present study compared patients with major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and eating disorders on dimensions of perfectionism. Concern over Mistakes was elevated in each of the patient groups while Pure Personal Standards was only elevated in the eating disorder sample. Doubts about Actions was elevated in both patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders, but not in depressed patients. Analyses of covariance indicated that Concern over Mistakes accounted for most of the variance in the relationship of perfectionism to these forms of psychopathology.

  16. Relationship of depressive symptoms in mothers and adolescents with adolescent suicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahide Yalaki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate theexistence of depression symptoms, an important risk factorin suicide attempts, in adolescents who attempted suicideand also in their mothers.Materials and methods: Suicide attempters and theirmothers were the participants (n= 141. Patients’ sociodemographiccharacteristics were recorded; Beck DepressionInventory and Beck Hopelessness Scale wereadministered to the participants.Results: Of the participating patients, 81.6% were female,41.1% were between 13-15 years old, 51.8% wereolder than 16. Vast majority of the cases (94.3% weresuicide attempters by taking drugs. Family problems werethe reasons for suicide attempts in 46.1% of the cases.Depression symptoms were determined in mothers of65 of the patients. Ratio of the children with depressionsymptoms who also had mothers with depression symptomswas 83.1%. Depression symptoms were determinedin 60% of the 141 patients and a positive correlation wasobserved between adolescents’ hopelessness/depressionscale and their mothers’ hopelessness/depressionscale scores (p=0,001, r= 0,362.Adolescent patients who had a family member diagnosedwith a psychiatric disorder (70.8% and adolescents witha previous psychiatric disorder diagnosis (86.8% hadmore depression symptoms. Depression symptoms weredetermined in 81.8% of mothers of patients with previoussuicide attempt history, 68% of mothers who were separatedfrom their spouses, 73.7% of mothers of patientswith previous psychiatric diagnosis.Conclusions: The suicide attempts among adolescentswere increasing and the leading reasons for suicide attemptswere family problems. Depression symptomswere important factors that influence adolescents’ suicideattempts.Key words: adolescent, mothers, suicide attempts

  17. Depressive Disorders: Treatments Bring New Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Marilyn

    This booklet describes the symptoms, forms, causes, and treatment of depression, with particular focus on depression in children, adolescents, and older adults. Symptoms include: persistent sad or "empty" mood; feelings of hopelessness, guilt, or helplessness; loss of interest in ordinary activities; sleep disturbances; eating disturbances;…

  18. Prevention of Depression in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Tamar; Tandon, S Darius

    2016-04-01

    This article discusses strategies and programs used to prevent depression in children and adolescents. It describes the rationale for depression prevention and discusses prevention approaches in schools and other settings, highlighting examples of programs that have been empirically evaluated. Prevention effects are small but significant, comparable or greater in magnitude than adolescent prevention programs for other issues, including substance use and human immunodeficiency virus. Future research should include rigorous design features, including attention control groups, allocation concealment, larger sample sizes, longer follow-up assessments, and theory-driven tests of moderation and mediation, and should test larger-scale implementation of prevention programs.

  19. The contemporary face of gender differences and similarities in depression throughout adolescence: Development and chronicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Rachel H; Petersen, Jennifer L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Hyde, Janet S

    2016-11-15

    We probe the adolescent gender difference in depression, asking two critical questions. First, most longitudinal studies of gender differences in adolescent depression date from the 1980s and 1990s, raising the need for a body of evidence on whether the developmental pattern is similar or different today. Second, despite the importance of chronicity to depression, we do not know whether there is a gender difference in the chronicity burden of the disorder. In a contemporary longitudinal sample of U.S. adolescents, depression symptoms were assessed at ages 11, 13, 15, and 18, and depression diagnoses were assessed at age 20. To capture the chronicity burden of clinical depression, we assessed for every depressive episode in an individual's lifetime and summed the total number of days spent in episode. A gender difference emerged at age 13 for depression symptoms and at ages 13-14 for diagnoses. These findings are similar to those in the 1980s and 1990s despite many social changes that have occurred. However, the magnitude of the gender difference in symptoms at ages 13 and 15 may be larger than those documented previously. Latent growth curve modeling of depression symptoms indicated that girls' symptoms accelerated early in adolescence whereas boys' symptoms accelerated later. Although more girls (24%) than boys (15%) experienced major depression or dysthymia by age 20, the chronicity burden among those with depression showed gender similarities (median=2.6% days depressed for boys and 2.4% for girls). Depression diagnoses were assessed retrospectively; however, symptom data were assessed prospectively, and symptom and diagnostic data converged. The sample was also predominantly White, limiting generalizability. In a contemporary adolescent sample we observed gender differences in depression symptoms and diagnoses beginning at age 13. We documented distinct developmental trajectories of depression for adolescent girls and boys, suggesting different developmental

  20. Cognitive schemas as longitudinal predictors of self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Jordan S; Lumley, Margaret N; Lerman, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Given that depression risk intensifies in adolescence, examining associates of depressive symptoms during the shift from childhood to adolescence is important for expanding knowledge about the etiology of depression symptoms and disorder. A longitudinal youth report was employed to examine the trajectory of both the content and structure of positive and negative schemas in adolescence and also whether these schemas could prospectively predict depressive symptoms and youth-reported resilience. One hundred and ninety-eight participants (aged 9 to 14) were recruited from four schools to complete measures of youth depressive symptoms, resilience, and schema content and structure. Those who consented to a follow-up study completed the same measures online (50 participants completed). Negative and positive schema content and structure were related over time. After controlling depressive symptoms/resilience at Time 1, negative schema content was the only significant predictor (trend level) of depressive symptoms and resilience at Time 2. Implications for cognitive theories and clinical practice are discussed.

  1. An examination of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression in an outpatient sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, David A; Harrington, Donna; Silverman, Wendy K

    2010-07-01

    Anxiety and depressive disorders are the most common mental health problems for adolescents; understanding their etiology and course is necessary for developing effective prevention and treatment programs. The tripartite model of anxiety and depression was evaluated in a random, clinical sample of 185 adolescents, with an average age of 15.09 years (SD = 1.9), with 58.4% males (n = 108). Survey packets were mailed to participants (61% response rate). Two models were evaluated: (a) Model one fit adequately, however, modification indices and prior research and theory suggested adding paths between anxiety and depression. (b) Model two tested paths between anxiety and depression; this revised model fit the data well, suggesting a relationship from anxiety to depression. Further, physiological hyperarousal may be a distinct component for anxiety and negative affectivity may be a general risk factor for anxiety and depression in adolescents. The findings that different factors contribute to the cause of anxiety and depression have implications for practice.

  2. Recurrence of depressive disorders after interferon-induced depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, W-C; Su, Y-P; Su, K-P; Chen, P-C

    2017-01-01

    Interferon alpha (IFN-α)-treated patients commonly develop depression during the therapy period. Although most IFN-α-induced depressive disorders achieve remission after IFN-α therapy, no studies have examined the long-term mood effects of IFN-α treatment. We conducted a 12-year population-based cohort study of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients who were older than 20 years and had received IFN-α therapy. The sample was obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The cohort included patients with and without IFN-α-induced depression, matched randomly by age, sex and depression history, at a ratio of 1:10. The follow-up started after the last administration of IFN-α and was designed to determine the incidence of recurrent depressive disorder after IFN-α therapy. A total of 156 subjects were identified as having IFN-α-induced depression and achieving full remission after IFN-α therapy. The overall incidence of recurrent depressive disorders among patients with and without IFN-α-induced depression was 56.8 (95% confidence interval (CI), 42.4–76.1) and 4.1 (95% CI, 2.9–5.8) cases, respectively, per 100 000 person-years, Pdepressive disorder were 13.5 (95% CI, 9.9–18.3) in the IFN-α-treated cohort and 22.2 (95% CI, 11.2–44.2) in the matched cohort for IFN-α-induced depression patients after adjusting for age, sex, income, urbanization and comorbid diseases. IFN-α-induced depression was associated with a high risk of recurrent depression. It was not a transient disease and might be considered an episode of depressive disorder. Continuation therapy might be considered, and further research is needed. PMID:28170005

  3. The use of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of resistant depression in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto-Hicks X

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Hamill-Skoch,1 Paul Hicks,2 Ximena Prieto-Hicks11Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ, USAAbstract: Major depressive disorder often begins in adolescence, is chronic and recurrent, and heightens an individual's risk for major depressive disorder in adulthood. Treatment-resistant depression is a problem for a significant minority of adolescents. Few studies have examined treatments for treatment-resistant depression among adolescents, and even fewer have examined the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a monotherapy or in combination with pharmacological treatments. Mental health professionals have a strong interest in understanding what treatments are appropriate for adolescents who are treatment resistant. Preliminary evidence from current published trials indicates that the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy in combination with antidepressant medication yields the best outcome for treatment-resistant depression in adolescents. Secondary analyses also suggest that the utility of cognitive behavioral therapy can be increased by ensuring adolescents receive a therapeutic dose of treatment sessions (more than nine sessions and the inclusion of two treatment components: social skills and problem solving training. Guidelines for clinicians as well as areas for future research are discussed.Keywords: cognitive behavior therapy, treatment-resistant depression, adolescent depression

  4. Adolescent Motherhood and Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…

  5. Direction of Influence between Posttraumatic and Depressive Symptoms during Prolonged Exposure Therapy among Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderka, Idan M.; Foa, Edna B.; Applebaum, Edna; Shafran, Naama; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Our objective in the present study was to examine the temporal sequencing of posttraumatic and depressive symptoms during prolonged exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among children and adolescents. Method: Participants were 73 children and adolescents (56.2% female) between the ages of 8 and 18. Participants…

  6. Neurobiology of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Villanueva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We survey studies which relate abnormal neurogenesis to major depressive disorder. Clinically, descriptive gene and protein expression analysis and genetic and functional studies revised here show that individual alterations of a complex signaling network, which includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; the production of neurotrophins and growth factors; the expression of miRNAs; the production of proinflammatory cytokines; and, even, the abnormal delivery of gastrointestinal signaling peptides, are able to induce major mood alterations. Furthermore, all of these factors modulate neurogenesis in brain regions involved in MDD, and are functionally interconnected in such a fashion that initial alteration in one of them results in abnormalities in the others. We highlight data of potential diagnostic significance and the relevance of this information to develop new therapeutic approaches. Controversial issues, such as whether neurogenesis is the basis of the disease or whether it is a response induced by antidepressant treatments, are also discussed.

  7. Delayed mood transitions in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korf, Jakob

    2014-05-01

    The hypothesis defended here is that the process of mood-normalizing transitions fails in a significant proportion of patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Such a failure is largely unrelated to the psychological content. Evidence for the hypothesis is provided by the highly variable and unpredictable time-courses of the depressive episodes. The main supporting observations are: (1) mood transitions within minutes or days have been reported during deep brain stimulation, naps after sleep deprivation and bipolar mood disorders; (2) sleep deprivation, electroconvulsive treatment and experimental drugs (e.g., ketamine) may facilitate mood transitions in major depressive disorder within hours or a few days; (3) epidemiological and clinical studies show that the time-to-recovery from major depressive disorder can be described with decay models implying very short depressive episodes; (4) lack of relationship between the length of depression and recovery episodes in recurrent depression; (5) mood fluctuations predict later therapeutic success in major depressive disorder. We discuss some recent models aimed to describe random mood transitions. The observations together suggest that the mood transitions have a wide variety of apparently unrelated causes. We suggest that the mechanism of mood transition is compromised in major depressive disorder, which has to be recognized in diagnostic systems.

  8. Depressive symptomatology among Namibian adolescent refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shisana, O; Celentano, D D

    1985-01-01

    Symptoms of depression have been considered rare in sub-Saharan populations. Using a standard assessment measure of depressive symptomatology, the Beck Depression Inventory, the prevalence of symptoms of depression was obtained from a group (N = 56) of Namibian refugees residing in a sub-Saharan host country. Contrary to expectations, the rates of self-reported symptoms were quite frequent, with many symptoms reported as moderate or severe by a large proportion of these youths. Using a stress model to explore these data, it was demonstrated that social support ameliorated the effects of chronic stress, as represented by the length of time in exile. It is argued that adaptation, acculturation, and adolescent developmental demands result in self-reports of depressive symptoms. These demands, however, are lessened in intensity by a strong social support system that is especially helpful early in the exile period.

  9. Treating Depression and Oppositional Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Jordan, Neil; Silva, Susan G.; Rohde, Paul; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents with depression and high levels of oppositionality often are particularly difficult to treat. Few studies, however, have examined treatment outcomes among youth with both externalizing and internalizing problems. This study examines the effect of fluoxetine, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), the combination of fluoxetine and CBT, and…

  10. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  11. Universal Adolescent Depression Prevention Programs: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Teresa D.

    2013-01-01

    Although the subject of adolescent depression has gained significant attention, little is being done in the way of primary prevention. The purpose of this article is to conduct a review of the literature through the lens of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework. This review was conducted utilizing several…

  12. Music Shifts Frontal EEG in Depressed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Martinez, Alex; Nawrocki, Thomas; Pickens, Jeffrey; Fox, Nathan A.; Schanberg, Saul

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen chronically depressed female adolescents listened to rock music for a 23-minute session. EEG was recorded and saliva samples were collected to determine the effects of the music on stress hormone cortisol levels. No differences were reported for mood state; however, cortisol levels decreased and relative right-frontal activation was…

  13. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  14. Bullying, Depression, and Suicidality in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin S.; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association between bullying behavior and depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents. Method: A self-report survey was completed by 9th-through 12th-grade students (n = 2342) in six New York State high schools from 2002 through 2004. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the association…

  15. Discriminating Between Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vöhringer, Paul A; Perlis, Roy H

    2016-03-01

    Rates of misdiagnosis between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder have been reported to be substantial, and the consequence of such misdiagnosis is likely to be a delay in achieving effective control of symptoms, in some cases spanning many years. Particularly in the midst of a depressive episode, or early in the illness course, it may be challenging to distinguish the 2 mood disorders purely on the basis of cross-sectional features. To date, no useful biological markers have been reliably shown to distinguish between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

  16. Depression in late adolescence: a cross-sectional study in senior high schools in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magklara, Konstantina; Bellos, Stefanos; Niakas, Dimitrios; Stylianidis, Stelios; Kolaitis, Gerasimos; Mavreas, Venetsanos; Skapinakis, Petros

    2015-08-18

    Depression is a common mental health problem in adolescents worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence, comorbidity and sociodemographic and socioeconomic associations of depression and depressive symptoms, as well as the relevant health services use in a sample of adolescents in Greece. Five thousand six hundred fourteen adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R). The use of substances, such as alcohol, nicotine and cannabis, and several sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables have been also assessed. In our sample the prevalence rates were 5.67 % for the depressive episode according to ICD-10 and 17.43 % for a broader definition of depressive symptoms. 49.38 % of the adolescents with depressive episode had at least one comorbid anxiety disorder [OR: 7.76 (5.52-10.92)]. Only 17.08 % of the adolescents with depression have visited a doctor due to a psychological problem during the previous year. Anxiety disorders, substance use, female gender, older age, having one sibling, and divorce or separation of the parents were all associated with depression. In addition, the presence of financial difficulties in the family was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of both depression and depressive symptoms. Prevalence and comorbidity rates of depression among Greek adolescents are substantial. Only a small minority of depressed adolescents seek professional help. Significant associations with financial difficulties are reported.

  17. Evaluation of a Group CBT Early Intervention Program for Adolescents with Comorbid Depression and Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignall, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Depression and externalising behaviour disorders frequently occur together in adolescence and are associated with a marked increase in symptom severity and poorer outcome. Clinical treatment research and early intervention programs for depression have not addressed the specific cognitive and interpersonal deficits associated with comorbidity. This…

  18. Effective Components of TORDIA Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Clarke, Greg N.; Weersing, V. Robin; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Shamseddeen, Wael; Porta, Giovanna; Berk, Michele; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham J.; Keller, Martin B.; Wagner, Karen D.; Brent, David A.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we conducted a secondary analysis of the Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) study to explore the impact of specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment components on outcome. In TORDIA, 334 youths (ages 12 to 18 years) with major depressive disorder who had failed to respond to an adequate…

  19. Adolescent Depression: Evaluating Pediatric Residents' Knowledge, Confidence, and Interpersonal Skills Using Standardized Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy, Colleen; Sells, C. Wayne; Gilhooly, Jennifer; McKelvey, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors aim to determine whether pediatric residents used DSM-IV criteria to diagnose major depressive disorder and how this related to residents' confidence in diagnosis and treatment skills before and after clinical training with depressed adolescents. Methods: Pediatric residents evaluated two different standardized patients…

  20. Effective Components of TORDIA Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Clarke, Greg N.; Weersing, V. Robin; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Shamseddeen, Wael; Porta, Giovanna; Berk, Michele; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham J.; Keller, Martin B.; Wagner, Karen D.; Brent, David A.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we conducted a secondary analysis of the Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) study to explore the impact of specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment components on outcome. In TORDIA, 334 youths (ages 12 to 18 years) with major depressive disorder who had failed to respond to an adequate…

  1. In Search of HPA Axis Dysregulation in Child and Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerry, John D.; Hastings, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in adults with major depressive disorder is among the most consistent and robust biological findings in psychiatry. Given the importance of the adolescent transition to the development and recurrence of depressive phenomena over the lifespan, it is important to have an integrative…

  2. Altered White Matter Microstructure in Adolescents with Major Depression: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kathryn R.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Muetzel, Ryan; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Houri, Alaa; Kurma, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Major depressive disorder (MDD) occurs frequently in adolescents, but the neurobiology of depression in youth is poorly understood. Structural neuroimaging studies in both adult and pediatric populations have implicated frontolimbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which measures white…

  3. Perceived Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Depressive Symptoms after a One Year Follow-Up during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Baya, Diego; Mendoza, Ramon; Paino, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Research to date has identified various risk factors in the emergence of depressive disorders in adolescence. There are very few studies, however, which have analyzed the role of perceived emotional intelligence in depressive symptoms longitudinally during adolescence. This work aimed to analyze longitudinal relationships between perceived…

  4. Depression and Anxiety among Transitioning Adolescents and College Students with ADHD, Dyslexia, or Comorbid ADHD/Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Gregg, Noel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate depressive and anxious symptomatology among transitioning adolescents and college students with ADHD, dyslexia, or comorbid ADHD/dyslexia. Method: Transitioning adolescents and college students with these disorders along with a non-ADHD/dyslexia college sample completed self-report measures of depression and anxiety.…

  5. Depression and Anxiety among Transitioning Adolescents and College Students with ADHD, Dyslexia, or Comorbid ADHD/Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Gregg, Noel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate depressive and anxious symptomatology among transitioning adolescents and college students with ADHD, dyslexia, or comorbid ADHD/dyslexia. Method: Transitioning adolescents and college students with these disorders along with a non-ADHD/dyslexia college sample completed self-report measures of depression and anxiety.…

  6. Research on depression in adolescents in Peru: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonatan Steeven Navarro-Loli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression in adolescents is a multicausal phenomenon and a predictor of social problems and other disorders. Thus, it is considered a public health problem. This investigation aims to systematically review the characteristics of the scientific articles about depression in Peruvian adolescents published in Peruvian and non-Peruvian journals. The search was performed in the databases of SciELO, Latindex, Redalyc, Scopus, PubMed, and through Google, using a combination of keywords related to the construct, the sample and its origin. The unit of analysis consisted of 21 articles. The reviewed articles showed inconsistency in the reporting and bibliographic support of the research designs, sampling procedures, psychometric properties of the instruments, instruments used to assess the construct which were not evaluated in our context, and cut-off points obtained in other countries’ samples. Therefore, we can state that the reviewed articles do not fully comply with the publication standards proposed by the American Psychological Association.

  7. Precursors in adolescence of adult-onset bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, Ayako; Sabet, Julia A; Sjöqvist, Hugo; Melinder, Carren; Brummer, Robert J; Montgomery, Scott

    2017-08-15

    Although the estimated contribution of genetic factors is high in bipolar disorder, environmental factors may also play a role. This Swedish register-based cohort study of men examined if physical and psychological characteristics in late adolescence, including factors previously linked with bipolar disorder (body mass index, asthma and allergy), are associated with subsequent bipolar disorder in adulthood. Unipolar depression and anxiety are analysed as additional outcomes to identify bipolar disorder-specific associations. A total of 213,693 men born between 1952 and 1956, who participated in compulsory military conscription assessments in late adolescence were followed up to 2009, excluding men with any psychiatric diagnoses at baseline. Cox regression estimated risk of bipolar disorder, depression and anxiety in adulthood associated with body mass index, asthma, allergy, muscular strength stress resilience and cognitive function in adolescence. BMI, asthma and allergy were not associated with bipolar disorder. Higher grip strength, cognitive function and stress resilience were associated with a reduced risk of bipolar disorder and the other disease outcomes. The sample consisted only of men; even though the characteristics in adolescence pre-dated disease onset, they may have been the consequence of prodromal disease. Associations with body mass index and asthma found by previous studies may be consequences of bipolar disorder or its treatment rather than risk factors. Inverse associations with all the outcome diagnoses for stress resilience, muscular strength and cognitive function may reflect general risks for these psychiatric disorders or intermediary factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypomania spectrum disorder in adolescence: a 15-year follow-up of non-mood morbidity in adulthood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Päären, Aivar; Bohman, Hannes; von Knorring, Anne-Liis; von Knorring, Lars; Olsson, Gunilla; Jonsson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether adolescents with hypomania spectrum episodes have an excess risk of mental and physical morbidity in adulthood, as compared with adolescents exclusively reporting major depressive disorder (MDD...

  9. The trajectories of adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms over the course of a transdiagnostic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Alexander H; Barlow, David H; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2014-08-01

    Anxiety and depressive disorders commonly co-occur during adolescence, share multiple vulnerability factors, and respond to similar psychosocial and pharmacological interventions. However, anxiety and depression may also be considered distinct constructs and differ on some underlying properties. Prior research efforts on evidence-based treatments for youth have been unable to examine the concurrent trajectories of primary anxiety and depressive concerns across the course of treatment. The advent of transdiagnostic approaches for these emotional disorders in youth allows for such examination. The present study examined the separate trajectories of adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms over the course of a transdiagnostic intervention, the Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Adolescence (UP-A; Ehrenreich et al., 2008), as well as up to six months following treatment. The sample included 59 adolescents ages 12-17 years old (M=15.42, SD=1.71) who completed at least eight sessions of the UP-A as part of an open trial or randomized, controlled trial across two treatment sites. Piecewise latent growth curve analyses found adolescent self-rated anxiety and depressive symptoms showed similar rates of improvement during treatment, but while anxiety symptoms continued to improve during follow-up, depressive symptoms showed non-significant improvement after treatment. Parent-rated symptoms also showed similar rates of improvement for anxiety and depression during the UP-A to those observed for adolescent self-report, but little improvement after treatment across either anxiety or depressive symptoms. To a certain degree, the results mirror those observed among other evidence-based treatments for youth with anxiety and depression, though results hold implications for future iterations of transdiagnostic treatments regarding optimization of outcomes for adolescents with depressive symptoms.

  10. Associations between interpretation bias and depression\\ud in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Orchard, Faith; Pass, Laura; Reynolds, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation biases have been shown to play a role in adult depression and are a target in cognitive behavioural therapy. Adolescence is a key risk period for the development of depression and a period of rapid cognitive and emotional development but little research has investigated the relationship between interpretation biases and depression in adolescents. This study adapted a measure of interpretation bias, the Ambiguous Scenarios Test for Depression, for adolescents and evaluated its r...

  11. Clinical Outcomes in Children and Adolescents With Bipolar Disorder and Substance Use Disorder Comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Taiane de Azevedo; Jansen, Karen; Zeni, Cristian Patrick; Quevedo, João; Zunta-Soares, Giovana; Soares, Jair C

    2017-03-01

    To assess the global functioning and clinical outcomes of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, children and adolescents with bipolar disorder and substance use disorder (SUD) comorbidity and healthy controls. This study had a cross-sectional design. Participants were children and adolescents aged between 6 and 17 years, and data were collected between 2003 and 2015. Psychiatric diagnosis was established according to DSM-IV criteria using the Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version or the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents. Global functioning was assessed using the Children's Global Assessment Scale. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Children's Depression Rating Scale. Manic symptoms were measured using the Young Mania Rating Scale, and the severity of anxious symptoms was assessed using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders. The sample included 187 children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, 29 with BD and SUD comorbidity, and 115 healthy controls. Children and adolescents with BD and SUD comorbidity presented later onset of mood disorder (P < .001); higher rates of lifetime history of suicide attempt (P < .001), lifetime history of psychosis (trend toward significance: P = .076), and lifetime hospitalization (P < .001); and higher severity of depressive symptoms (trend toward significance: P = .080) as compared to those with BD without SUD comorbidity. In addition, both diagnosis groups presented higher rates of functional impairment when compared to controls (P < .001). Moreover, BD and SUD comorbidity presented higher functional impairment, as compared to BD without SUD comorbidity (P = .020). Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder and substance use disorder comorbidity present a worse clinical course than those with bipolar disorder but without substance use disorder comorbidity.

  12. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders amongst Adolescents in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahrivar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among 12 to 17 years old adolescents in urban areas of Tehran. "nMethod: In this study, 1105 adolescents (12 -17 years old were selected from 250 clusters of the entire 22 municipality areas of Tehran using a multistage sampling method. After responding to the Farsi version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report version, the Farsi version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL was administered to 273 adolescents and their families. The prevalence of adolescent psychiatric disorders was determined using the results of K-SADS-PL. "nResults: There were not any statistically significant differences between the sexes in the frequency of psychiatric disorders except for ADHD which was observed more frequently in boys. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, depressive disorders and separation anxiety disorder. "nConclusion: The frequency of psychiatric disorders among the adolescents in Tehran's urban areas was comparable to the reports from other countries. However, using methods to deal with missing data makes these prevalence rates somehow higher.

  13. Commentary: Transdiagnostic neuroscience of child and adolescent mental disorders--differentiating decision-making in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, depression and anxiety. A commentary on Sonuga-Barke et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2016-03-01

    Sonuga-Barke, Cortese, Fairchild, and Stringaris offer us new insights not only on the neuropsychological processes and neurobiological mechanisms involved in the decision-making process but also how some of the most relevant child mental disorders might impact this process through a very comprehensive review of the pertinent literature. Although it is difficult to select specific points for discussing in a so dense review, I would like to highlight some aspects for 'whetting readers appetite' and seduce them to be in contact with the fascinating neurobiology behind an essential aspect of our lives. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Hypomania spectrum disorder in adolescence : a 15-year follow-up of non-mood morbidity in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: We investigated whether adolescents with hypomania spectrum episodes have an excess risk of mental and physical morbidity in adulthood, as compared with adolescents exclusively reporting major depressive disorder (MDD) and controls without a history of adolescent mood disorders. Methods: A community sample of adolescents (N = 2 300) in the town of Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depressive symptoms. Both participants with positive screening and matched controls (in total 631) we...

  15. Depression in Medical Disorders: Diagnostic Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozden Arısoy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms are very common among referrals to general hospital and comprise the most frequent cause for psychiatric consultation. Comorbidity of medical and psychiatric disorders are common among uneducated, unemployed people with low income. These conditions make it difficult to recognize and treat such patient group. The prevalence of medical disorders increase when there is a difficulty in reaching health services. The depressive mood may decrease the person’s willingness to access health service. Additionally, the problems in most of the people seeking for medical help are not recognized by the health providers. It is quiet difficult to diagnose depression in patients with medical disorders. Being sick, being in an hospital, inability to work, loss of functionality lead to a change in social roles which may cause mourning-like symptoms, symptoms quite similar to depression’s. Besides, vegetative and somatic symptoms used for the diagnosis of depression can be direct consequences of the medical disorder itself. Thus such phenomenological signs and symptoms are suggested not to be considered as sufficient criteria for a diagnosis of depression among patients with medical disorder. This diagnostic complexity is also reflected in the studies searching for depression prevalence in medical disorders. For instance, the prevalence of depression ranges between 0% to 100% among renal patients. The physical signs and symptoms of medical conditions can overlap with the symptoms of depression and this overlap stands as one of the major diagnostic challenge for researchers. There are several other reasons that might explain the discrepancies in depression prevalence among patients with medical disorders such as changes in diagnostic criteria over time, use of different diagnostic scales for depression, and studying the prevalence of depression in non-standardized populations. Depression prevalence is affected from demographic variables, type

  16. High psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Hasan; Duzman Mutluer, Tuba; Kose, Cigdem; Zoroglu, Salih

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate psychiatric comorbidity rates and patterns in a sample of clinically referred adolescents diagnosed with dissociative disorders (DD) by using a structured interview. All participants completed a comprehensive test battery, which consisted of a questionnaire for sociodemographic data and clinical history, Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index, Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire and the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale. Diagnosis was made by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime Version. A total of 25 adolescent subjects aged 12-18 years participated in the study. Ten adolescents were diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder and 15 of them were diagnosed as having dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders findings. Adolescents with dissociative identity disorder were found to have higher scores on the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index than the dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified group. Sexual and physical abuses were also found to be among the main traumatic events. Incest was reported in six cases of the study sample. All subjects had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric diagnoses were major depressive disorder (n = 25; 100%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 22; 88%). High psychiatric comorbidity rates were found in adolescents diagnosed with DD. A prevalent history of abuse and traumatic events was represented. Clinicians should be aware of the impacts of DD on adolescents' mental health. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  17. Sleep complaints in adolescent depression: one year naturalistic follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Anna S. Urrila; Karlsson, Linnea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Pankakoski, Maiju; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Strandholm, Thea; Marttunen, Mauri; ,

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep complaints are highly prevalent in adolescents suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The aims of this study were to describe the longitudinal course of sleep complaints, and to assess the association between sleep complaints and clinical outcome in a sample of adolescents with MDD during naturalistic follow-up. Methods A sample of adolescent outpatients (n = 166; age 13–19 years, 17.5% boys) diagnosed with MDD was followed-up during one year in naturalistic settings...

  18. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III

    2007-01-01

    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  19. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III

    2007-01-01

    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  20. Comorbid personality disorders among patients with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nahathai Wongpakaran, Tinakon Wongpakaran, Vudhichai Boonyanaruthee, Manee Pinyopornpanish, Suthi Intaprasert Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Purpose: To investigate the personality disorders (PDs diagnosed in patients with depressive disorders.Material and methods: This study included a cross-sectional analysis, and was an extension of the Thai Study of Affective Disorder (THAISAD project. Eighty-five outpatients with depressive disorders were interviewed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess for depression, in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision and using the Thai version of the Structured Clinical Interview for PDs to assess for PD.Results: Seventy-seven percent of the patients had at least one PD, 40% had one PD and 60% had two or more PDs (mixed cluster. The most common PDs found were borderline PD (20% and obsessive–compulsive PD (10.6%, while the occurrence of avoidant PD was low when compared to the findings of previous, related studies. Among the mixed cluster, cluster A combined with cluster C was the common mix. Both dysthymic disorder and double depression were found to have a higher proportion of PDs than major depressive disorder (85.7% versus 76.1%. Dependent PD was found to be less common in this study than in previous studies, including those carried out in Asia.Conclusion: The prevalence of PDs among those with depressive disorder varied, and only borderline PD seems to be consistently high within and across cultures. Mixed cluster plays a prominent role in depression, so more attention should be paid to patients in this category. Keywords: personality disorders, depressive disorder, prevalence, Asian, mixed cluster, SCID-II

  1. Adolescent Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muuss, Rolf E.

    1985-01-01

    Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…

  2. Two prospective studies of changes in stress generation across depressive episodes in adolescents and emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Hellman, Natalie; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy

    2014-11-01

    The stress generation hypothesis was tested in two different longitudinal studies examining relations between weekly depression symptom ratings and stress levels in adolescents and emerging adults at varied risk for depression. The participants in Study 1 included 240 adolescents who differed with regard to their mothers' history of depressive disorders. Youth were assessed annually across 6 years (Grades 6-12). Consistent with the depression autonomy model, higher numbers of prior major depressive episodes (MDEs) were associated with weaker stress generation effects, such that higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted increases in levels of dependent stressors for adolescents with two or more prior MDEs, but depressive symptoms were not significantly related to dependent stress levels for youth with three or more prior MDEs. In Study 2, the participants were 32 remitted-depressed and 36 never-depressed young adults who completed a psychosocial stress task to determine cortisol reactivity and were reassessed for depression and stress approximately 8 months later. Stress generation effects were moderated by cortisol responses to a laboratory psychosocial stressor, such that individuals with higher cortisol responses exhibited a pattern consistent with the depression autonomy model, whereas individuals with lower cortisol responses showed a pattern more consistent with the depression sensitization model. Finally, comparing across the two samples, stress generation effects were weaker for older participants and for those with more prior MDEs. The complex, multifactorial relation between stress and depression is discussed.

  3. Depression in early, middle and late adolescence: differential evidence for the cognitive diathesis-stress model.

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    Braet, Caroline; Van Vlierberghe, Leen; Vandevivere, Eva; Theuwis, Lotte; Bosmans, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive theory is a prominent framework to study depression in both adults and adolescents. This theory stated that dysfunctional schemas are moderators (known as diathesis) in the association of current stress and psychopathology. However, in adolescents, less evidence has been found so far to corroborate the importance of these schemas. This study aimed to investigate in a cross-sectional design the moderating role of adolescents' early maladaptive schemas (EMS) on depressive symptoms. This will be studied in relation to both important daily stressors (i.e., maternal, paternal and peer rejection) and stressful life events. Adolescents (N = 228, age 12-18 years), selected from inpatient and outpatient clinical settings and a non-referred sample, completed questionnaires and interviews measuring psychopathology, cognitive schemas, peer rejection, maternal and paternal rejection, and stressful life events. Parents completed questionnaires about their adolescent measuring psychopathology, stressful life events and peer rejection, as well as their own parental behaviour. Correlational analyses revealed significant associations between the study variables. Evidence was found for an interaction effect between the adolescents' EMS and peer rejection in explaining depressive symptoms, but only in late adolescents. Stress induced by maternal and, in lesser extent, paternal rejection is contributing to depressive symptoms primarily in younger and to lesser extent in older age groups. The quality of peer relationships becomes an increasingly salient source of distress as adolescence unfolds and is certainly an important mechanism affecting depression in adolescence. Maladaptive schemas only start functioning as a cognitive diathesis in late adolescence, increasing depression in response to peer-related distress. Since maladaptive schemas are not yet operating as cognitive vulnerability factors in early and middle adolescence, early interventions for depressive disorders

  4. The development of an RDoC-based treatment program for adolescent depression: “Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action” (TARA)

    OpenAIRE

    Eva eHenje Blom; Duncan, Larissa G.; Tiffany Cheing Ho; Colm Gerard Connolly; LeWinn, Kaja Z.; Margaret eChesney; Hecht, Frederick M.; Yang, Tony T.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the current leading causes of disability worldwide. Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the onset of depression, with MDD affecting 8–20% of all youth. Traditional treatment methods have not been sufficiently effective to slow the increasing prevalence of adolescent depression. We therefore propose a new model for the treatment of adolescent depression – Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action (TARA) – that is based on current understanding ...

  5. Randomized controlled trials of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor in treating major depressive disorder in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis of efficacy and acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New generation antidepressant therapies, including serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRIs, were introduced in the late 1980s; however, few comprehensive studies have compared the benefits and risks of various contemporary treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD in young patients. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases was conducted from 1970 to January 2015. Only clinical trials that randomly assigned one SNRI or placebo to patients aged 7 to 18 years who met the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder were included. Treatment success, dropout rate, and suicidal ideation/attempt outcomes were measured. Primary efficacy was determined by pooling the risk ratios (RRs of treatment response and remission. Acceptability was determined by pooling the RRs of dropouts for all reasons and for adverse effects as well as suicide-risk outcomes. Five trials with a total of 973 patients were included. SNRIs were not significantly more effective than placebo for treatment response but were for remission. The comparison of patients taking SNRIs that dropped out for all reasons and those taking placebo did not reach statistical significance. Significantly more patients taking SNRIs dropped out for adverse effects than those taking placebo. No significant difference was found in suicide-related risk outcomes. SNRI therapy does not display a superior efficacy and is not better tolerated compared to placebo in these young patients. However, duloxetine has a potential beneficial effect for depression in young populations, showing a need for further research.

  6. Depression symptoms associated with cannabis dependence in an adolescent American Indian community sample.

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    Gilder, David A; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2012-01-01

    Depression and substance use disorders, including cannabis dependence, arise during adolescence, are frequently comorbid, and represent major health burdens in the general US population. Yet little is known about the association of depression symptoms with cannabis and other substance use and use disorders in Native American adolescents. To investigate the comorbidity of cannabis use and depression symptoms in Native American adolescents. This study used the Children's Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (Adolescent Version) to obtain lifetime DSM-III-R diagnoses from a community sample of 202 (98 boys, 104 girls) American Indian adolescents living on contiguous reservations. Thirteen percent of boys and 38% of girls had a lifetime DSM-III-R major depression disorder (MDD) independent of substance use. Fifteen percent of boys and 41% of girls had a major depression episode (MDE) either coincident with or independent of cannabis use. MDE and several individual depression symptoms were significantly associated with cannabis dependence in boys but not in girls. The median ages of onset of MDE were the same in the boys and girls who had experienced both depression and cannabis use. These findings suggest that the association of depression with cannabis dependence is more significant in boys than girls in this population of adolescents. Understanding comorbidity between depression and cannabis use is important in order to disentangle the etiological relationship between the two and also for designing more effective treatment and prevention strategies, particularly in Native Americans who are at high risk for both disorders. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  7. Core dimensions of anxiety and depression change independently during adolescence.

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    Conway, Christopher C; Zinbarg, Richard E; Mineka, Susan; Craske, Michelle G

    2017-02-01

    The developmental trajectories of emotional disorder symptoms during adolescence remain elusive, owing in part to a shortage of intensive longitudinal data. In the present study, we charted the temporal course of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression-which posits an overarching negative affect dimension and specific anhedonia and anxious arousal dimensions-over adolescence and emerging adulthood to construct a developmental map of the core dimensions of emotional disorders. We recruited 604 high school juniors, overselecting those at high risk for emotional disorders, and assessed the tripartite symptom domains 5 times annually. Latent curve modeling revealed that negative affect and anxious arousal declined over follow up, whereas anhedonia did not. Moreover, the correlation in rate of change varied across pairs of symptom domains. Change in negative affect was moderately correlated with change in anxious arousal, but change in anhedonia was not significantly related to change in any other domain. Symptom trajectories, and the pattern of covariation among trajectories, were equivalent across gender and comorbidity status. We discuss implications of these findings for developmental models of anxiety and depression, as well as transdiagnostic frameworks for emotional disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Child Conflict and Child Depression Through Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R; Wilson, Sylia; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2016-04-04

    Few studies have investigated potential gender differences in the genetic and environmental influences on the prospective associations between parent-child conflict and later depression, a notable gap given substantial gender differences in rates of depression and suggestive evidence of differences in the etiology of depression among females and males. To fill this gap, we evaluated whether the prospective relationship between parent-child conflict and major depressive disorder symptoms varied as a function of parent-child gender composition. A combined twin and adoption sample was used (53% female; 85% European ancestry), containing 1,627 adolescent sibling pairs (789 monozygotic twin pairs, 594 dizygotic/full-biological pairs, 244 genetically unrelated pairs) with assessments at two time points in adolescence (approximate ages 15 and 18). Prospective associations between parent-child conflict and subsequent adolescent depression were explained predominately through common genetic influences for mother-daughter and mother-son pairs but less so for father-daughter and father-son pairs. Results support the notion that processes of gene-environment correlation involved in the prospective associations between parent-child conflict, and later adolescent depression appear to be less relevant to father-child relationships in comparison to mother-child relationships. Notably, results did not show that parent-child conflict was more relevant to the etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) for girls than boys; gender differences in depression do not appear to be due to differences in the associations between parent-child conflict and child depression.

  9. Depression and Anxiety as Possible Mediators of the Association between Smoking and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Grunau, Gilat L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Hossain, Shahadut; Johnson, Joy L.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between depression and anxiety and adolescents' smoking status, and to determine whether depression or anxiety mediate the association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and smoking. A cross-sectional survey of tobacco use was conducted in regional school districts…

  10. Prognostic significance of functional somatic symptoms in adolescence: a 15-year community-based follow-up study of adolescents with depression compared with healthy peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a lack of population-based long-term longitudinal research on mental health status and functional physical/somatic symptoms. Little is known about the long-term mental health outcomes associated with somatic symptoms or the temporal relationship between depression and such symptoms. This 15-year study followed up adolescents with depression and matched controls, screened from a population-based sample, who reported different numbers of somatic symptoms. Methods The total population of 16–17-year-olds in Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depression in 1991–1993. Adolescents who screened positive and an equal number of healthy controls took part in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. In addition, 21 different self-rated somatic symptoms were assessed. Sixty-four percent of those adolescents participated in a follow-up structured interview 15 years later. Results Somatic symptoms in adolescence predicted depression and other adult mental disorders regardless of the presence of adolescent depression. In adolescents with depression, the number of functional somatic symptoms predicted, in a dose response relationship, suicidal behavior, bipolar episodes, and psychotic episodes as well as chronic and recurrent depression. Contrary to expectations, the somatic symptoms of abdominal pain and perspiration without exertion better predicted depression than all DSM-IV depressive symptoms. Abdominal pain persisted as an independent strong predictor of depression and anxiety, even after controlling for other important confounders. Conclusions Somatic symptoms in adolescence can predict severe adult mental health disorders. The number of somatic symptoms concurrent with adolescent depression is, in a stepwise manner, linked to suicidal attempts, bipolar disorders, psychotic disorders, and recurrent and chronic depression. These findings can be useful in developing treatment guidelines for patients with somatic symptoms. PMID:22839681

  11. Prognostic significance of functional somatic symptoms in adolescence: a 15-year community-based follow-up study of adolescents with depression compared with healthy peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohman Hannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of population-based long-term longitudinal research on mental health status and functional physical/somatic symptoms. Little is known about the long-term mental health outcomes associated with somatic symptoms or the temporal relationship between depression and such symptoms. This 15-year study followed up adolescents with depression and matched controls, screened from a population-based sample, who reported different numbers of somatic symptoms. Methods The total population of 16–17-year-olds in Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depression in 1991–1993. Adolescents who screened positive and an equal number of healthy controls took part in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. In addition, 21 different self-rated somatic symptoms were assessed. Sixty-four percent of those adolescents participated in a follow-up structured interview 15 years later. Results Somatic symptoms in adolescence predicted depression and other adult mental disorders regardless of the presence of adolescent depression. In adolescents with depression, the number of functional somatic symptoms predicted, in a dose response relationship, suicidal behavior, bipolar episodes, and psychotic episodes as well as chronic and recurrent depression. Contrary to expectations, the somatic symptoms of abdominal pain and perspiration without exertion better predicted depression than all DSM-IV depressive symptoms. Abdominal pain persisted as an independent strong predictor of depression and anxiety, even after controlling for other important confounders. Conclusions Somatic symptoms in adolescence can predict severe adult mental health disorders. The number of somatic symptoms concurrent with adolescent depression is, in a stepwise manner, linked to suicidal attempts, bipolar disorders, psychotic disorders, and recurrent and chronic depression. These findings can be useful in developing treatment guidelines for patients with somatic symptoms.

  12. Differentiating Adolescent Self-Injury from Adolescent Depression: Possible Implications for Borderline Personality Development

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    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hsiao, Ray C.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Yaptangco, Mona; Linehan, Marsha M.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Self-inflicted injury (SII) in adolescence marks heightened risk for suicide attempts, completed suicide, and adult psychopathology. Although several studies have revealed elevated rates of depression among adolescents who self injure, no one has compared adolescent self injury with adolescent depression on biological, self-, and informant-report…

  13. Migraine symptomatology and major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Lannie; Penninx, Brenda; Nyholt, Dale R.; Distel, Marijn A.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Johannes H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Migraine and major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently co-occur, but it is unclear whether depression is associated with a specific subtype of migraine. The objective of this study was to investigate whether migraine is qualitatively different in MDD patients (N = 1816)

  14. Chronic pain in adolescence and internalizing mental health disorders: a nationally representative study.

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    Noel, Melanie; Groenewald, Cornelius B; Beals-Erickson, Sarah E; Gebert, J Thomas; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain in childhood and adolescence has been shown to heighten the risk for depressive and anxiety disorders in specific samples in adulthood; however, little is known about the association between a wider variety of chronic pains and internalizing mental health disorders. Using nationally representative data, the objectives of this study were to establish prevalence rates of internalizing mental health disorders (anxiety and depressive disorders) among cohorts with or without adolescent chronic pain, and to examine whether chronic pain in adolescence is associated with lifetime history of internalizing mental health disorders reported in adulthood. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was used (N = 14,790). Individuals who had chronic pain in adolescence subsequently reported higher rates of lifetime anxiety disorders (21.1% vs 12.4%) and depressive disorders (24.5% vs 14.1%) in adulthood as compared with individuals without a history of adolescent chronic pain. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that chronic pain in adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of lifetime history of anxiety disorders (odds ratio: 1.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.63, P = 0.005) and depressive disorders (odds ratio: 1.38; confidence interval: 1.16-1.64, P < 0.001) reported in adulthood. Future research is needed to examine neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying these comorbidities.

  15. Cognitive behavioural therapy and short-term psychoanalytical psychotherapy versus a brief psychosocial intervention in adolescents with unipolar major depressive disorder (IMPACT): a multicentre, pragmatic, observer-blind, randomised controlled superiority trial.

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    Goodyer, Ian M; Reynolds, Shirley; Barrett, Barbara; Byford, Sarah; Dubicka, Bernadka; Hill, Jonathan; Holland, Fiona; Kelvin, Raphael; Midgley, Nick; Roberts, Chris; Senior, Rob; Target, Mary; Widmer, Barry; Wilkinson, Paul; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Psychological treatments for adolescents with unipolar major depressive disorder are associated with diagnostic remission within 28 weeks in 65-70% of patients. We aimed to assess the medium-term effects and costs of psychological therapies on maintenance of reduced depression symptoms 12 months after treatment. We did this multicentre, pragmatic, observer-blind, randomised controlled superiority trial (IMPACT) at 15 National Health Service child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) clinics in three regions in England. Adolescent patients (aged 11-17 years) with a diagnosis of DSM IV major depressive disorder were randomly assigned (1:1:1), via a web-based randomisation service, to receive cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or short-term psychoanalytical therapy versus a reference brief psychological intervention. Randomisation was stochastically minimised by age, sex, self-reported depression sum score, and region. Patients and clinicians were aware of group allocation, but allocation was concealed from outcome assessors. Patients were followed up and reassessed at weeks 6, 12, 36, 52, and 86 post-randomisation. The primary outcome was self-reported depression symptoms at weeks 36, 52, and 86, as measured with the self-reported Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ). Because our aim was to compare the two psychological therapies with the brief psychosocial intervention, we first established whether CBT was inferior to short-term psychoanalytical psychotherapy for the same outcome. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN83033550. Between June 29, 2010, and Jan 17, 2013, we randomly assigned 470 patients to receive the brief psychosocial intervention (n=158), CBT (n=155), or short-term psychoanalytical therapy (n=157); 465 patients comprised the intention-to-treat population. 392 (84%) patients had available data for primary analysis by the end of follow-up. Treatment fidelity and

  16. Association between depressive symptoms in adolescence and birth outcomes in early adulthood using a population-based sample

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Nkansah-Amankra; Grace Tettey

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescent female depressive symptomatology is an unrecognized mood disorder that impairs health in adolescence or adulthood. However, the long-term effects of pre-pregnancy depressive symptoms on birth outcomes in adulthood have not been given adequate empirical assessments. Method: In this study, we assessed the relationship between the life time duration of depressive symptoms over a 14-year period and birth outcomes (LBW and PTB) among a sample of 6023 female respondents wh...

  17. Shared Etiology of Psychotic Experiences and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Twin Study.

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    Zavos, Helena M S; Eley, Thalia C; McGuire, Philip; Plomin, Robert; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-09-01

    Psychotic disorders and major depression, both typically adult-onset conditions, often co-occur. At younger ages psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms are often reported in the community. We used a genetically sensitive longitudinal design to investigate the relationship between psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms in adolescence. A representative community sample of twins from England and Wales was employed. Self-rated depressive symptoms, paranoia, hallucinations, cognitive disorganization, grandiosity, anhedonia, and parent-rated negative symptoms were collected when the twins were age 16 (N = 9618) and again on a representative subsample 9 months later (N = 2873). Direction and aetiology of associations were assessed using genetically informative cross-lagged models. Depressive symptoms were moderately correlated with paranoia, hallucinations, and cognitive disorganization. Lower correlations were observed between depression and anhedonia, and depression and parent-rated negative symptoms. Nonsignificant correlations were observed between depression and grandiosity. Largely the same genetic effects influenced depression and paranoia, depression and hallucinations, and depression and cognitive disorganization. Modest overlap in environmental influences also played a role in the associations. Significant bi-directional longitudinal associations were observed between depression and paranoia. Hallucinations and cognitive disorganization during adolescence were found to impact later depression, even after controlling for earlier levels of depression. Our study shows that psychotic experiences and depression, as traits in the community, have a high genetic overlap in mid-adolescence. Future research should test the prediction stemming from our longitudinal results, namely that reducing or ameliorating positive and cognitive psychotic experiences in adolescence would decrease later depressive symptoms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  18. Anxiety and depression in adolescents with hostile behaviour

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    Carla Cruz

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: We may conclude that only depression has a relationship with hostile behaviours. It is higher in adolescents with these behaviours. The presence or absence of anxiety is not related to the hostile behaviour in adolescents.

  19. Adolescent multiple personality disorder: a preliminary study of eleven cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, P F; Eisenhower, J W

    1990-05-01

    The diagnostic features and treatment histories of 11 adolescents with multiple personality disorder (MPD) are presented. Clinical evaluation revealed that the majority of these adolescents manifested extremely variable school performance, disruptive behavior, trances, amnesias, mood swings, sharp changes in personality, apparent lying, voices heard in the head, and depression. All had a history of childhood trauma: Sexual abuse (73%), physical abuse (73%), and emotional abuse (82%). Seventy-three percent had a parent with a diagnosable dissociative disorder; 36% of the mothers had MPD. These adolescents had a mean number of 24.1 alter personalities and appear to have become multiple at a mean age of 3 years, 1 month. All patients had angry protector alters, depressed alters, scared alters, and child alters. Fifty-four percent of these cases have integrated during treatment or are progressing toward integration. The remaining cases dropped out of therapy.

  20. Pituitary volume mediates the relationship between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms during adolescence.

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    Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Byrne, Michelle L; Simmons, Julian G; Wood, Stephen J; Pantelis, Christos; Allen, Nicholas B

    2012-07-01

    Early timing of puberty (i.e., advanced pubertal maturation relative to peers) has been linked to the onset of depressive symptoms during the early adolescent phase. However, the precise neurobiological mechanisms linking early pubertal timing to adolescent depressive symptoms are not clear. We investigated whether the volume of the pituitary gland, a key component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, mediated the relationship between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms in 155 adolescents (72 females) both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. At baseline (M age 12.7, SD 0.5 years), early pubertal timing predicted larger pituitary gland volume and higher depressive symptoms (especially for girls), but there was no mediation effect. Longitudinally, however, larger pituitary gland volume at baseline was found to mediate the relationship between early pubertal timing and increased depressive symptoms over time (M follow-up period=2.57 years, SD=0.26) for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that neurobiological mechanisms are partly responsible for the link between early pubertal timing and depressive symptoms in adolescents. We speculate that an enlarged pituitary gland in adolescents with early pubertal timing might be associated with hyperactivation of the hormonal stress response, leading to increased susceptibility to environmental stressors, and subsequent development of depressive symptoms. Given the well-established relationship between increasing depressive symptoms in adolescence and later disorder, these findings have implications for targeted prevention and early intervention strategies for depressive disorders in adolescence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Detailed course of depressive symptoms and risk for developing depression in late adolescents with subthreshold depression: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnin, Ran; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Takagaki, Koki; Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Yamamura, Takanao; Okamoto, Yuri; Miyake, Yoshie; Takebayashi, Yoshitake; Tanaka, Keisuke; Sugiura, Yoshinori; Shimoda, Haruki; Kawakami, Norito; Furukawa, Toshi A; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Despite its clinical importance, adolescent subthreshold depression remains a largely neglected topic. The aims of this study were to accurately identify the natural course of depressive symptoms and the risk for developing major depressive episode (MDE) in late adolescents with subthreshold depression over 1 year. Patients and methods One hundred and seventy-two participants <20 years of age (mean age: 18.32 years, standard deviation: 0.50), who did not meet the full criteria for an MDE, were selected from 2,494 screened freshmen based on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II). We conducted a cohort study of three groups (low-, middle-, and high-symptom groups) divided based on BDI-II scores, over a 1 year period with the use of bimonthly assessments. Temporal changes of depressive symptoms were analyzed using linear mixed modeling and growth mixture modeling. Results First, we found that late adolescents with subthreshold depression (high depressive symptoms) were split between the increasing and decreasing depressive symptoms groups, whereas the majority of the less-symptoms group remained stable during 1 year. Second, in comparison with late adolescents with less depressive symptoms, those with subthreshold depression had an elevated risk of later depression. Conclusion Some late adolescents with subthreshold depression had increased depressive symptoms and developed an MDE during 1 year. Therefore, it is necessary for us to rigorously assess the changes in subthreshold depressive symptoms over time in late adolescents. PMID:28053534

  2. [Depressive Disorder and Gut-brain Interaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Depressive disorder is a stress-induced condition, which has been suggested to have bidirectional interactions with the gut microbiota. Probiotics such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus have been suggested to mitigate stress response. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a typical phenotype of psychological distress manifested in the gastrointestinal system, and often develops in patients with depressive disorder. The altered gut microbiota and resultant inflammation in the gut play an important role in at least a portion of IBS. Animal models of depression have shown abnormalities in the gut such as increased gut permeability, and the probiotics ameliorate their chronic depression-like behaviors and altered stress responses. There have been only a few studies that have directly investigated the gut microbiota in patients with depression. We reported results suggesting that individuals with lower bacterial counts for Bifidobacterium and/or Lactobacillus are more common in patients with major depressive disorder than in healthy controls. the collectively use of gut microbiota in the diagnosis and treatment of depressive disorder seems to be a promising approach.

  3. Functional MRI of emotional memory in adolescent depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary J. Holt

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that during adolescence neurophysiological activity associated with emotional memory differs in those with depression compared to controls and may be age sensitive.

  4. Development of an Adolescent Depression Ontology for Analyzing Social Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyesil; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Song, Tae-Min; Jeon, Eunjoo; Kim, Ae Ran; Lee, Joo Yun

    2015-01-01

    Depression in adolescence is associated with significant suicidality. Therefore, it is important to detect the risk for depression and provide timely care to adolescents. This study aims to develop an ontology for collecting and analyzing social media data about adolescent depression. This ontology was developed using the 'ontology development 101'. The important terms were extracted from several clinical practice guidelines and postings on Social Network Service. We extracted 777 terms, which were categorized into 'risk factors', 'sign and symptoms', 'screening', 'diagnosis', 'treatment', and 'prevention'. An ontology developed in this study can be used as a framework to understand adolescent depression using unstructured data from social media.

  5. Subthreshold Symptoms of Depression in Preadolescent Girls Are Stable and Predictive of Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alsion; Feng, Xin; Babinski, Dara; Hinze, Amanda; Rischall, Michal; Henneberger, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of depression are investigated among 232 preadolescent girls to study if they were predictive and stable of depression. Findings show that early symptoms of depression among preadolescent girls predict depressive disorders. Implications for preventive measures are discussed.

  6. Activity/rest rhythm of depressed adolescents undergoing therapy: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Mesquita

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Disorders of circadian rhythms have been reported in studies of both depressed children and of depressed adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is a relationship between the 24-hour spectral power (24h SP of the activity/rest rhythm and the clinical course of depression in adolescents. Methods: Six 14 to 17-year-old adolescents were recruited for the study. They were all suffering from major depressive disorder, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV criteria, as identified by the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children: Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Children's Depression Rating Scale - Revised (CDRS-R and clinical evaluations. Locomotor activity was monitored over a period of 13 consecutive weeks. Activity was measured for 10-minute periods using wrist-worn activity monitors. All patients were prescribed sertraline from after the first week up until the end of the study. Results: We found a relationship between high CDRS values and low 24-hour spectral power. Conclusions: The 24h SP of the activity/rest rhythm correlated significantly (negatively with the clinical ratings of depression.

  7. Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents: Gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman-Peeters, K.M.C.; Ormel, J.; Van Sonderen, E.L.P.; Den Boer, J.A.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hartman, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In offspring of depressed parents a second parent with emotional problems is likely to increase risk of emotional disorder. This effect may however differ between sons and daughters and between offspring of depressed fathers and offspring of depressed mothers. In adolescent and young-adult offspring

  8. Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents : Gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman-Peeters, K.M.; Ormel, J.; van Sonderen, E.L.; den Boer, J.A.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hartman, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In offspring of depressed parents a second parent with emotional problems is likely to increase risk of emotional disorder. This effect may however differ between sons and daughters and between offspring of depressed fathers and offspring of depressed mothers. In adolescent and young-adult offspring

  9. The Association between Depression and Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müsemma Karabel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Depression, a challenging disorder, affects 1–6% of adolescents and early onset often predicts more serious manifestations in later life. Elevated Parathyroid hormone (PTH, parathormone levels have reported among adults with depression. In this study, the roles of 25(OH D (vitamin D and parathormone during adolescence, in which the frequency of depression is high, were studied. Materials and Methods Patients who were followed-up jointly at both clinics and whose 25(OH D and PTH levels were evaluated and questioned "Depression Scale for Children" for depression at the same time, were included in the study. Cases’ socio-demographic data, 25(OH D and PTH levels and Depression Scale’ scores were recorded. Results Depression was diagnosed in 35 (25.3% of the 138 patients. No differences were found between vitamin D and parathormone in terms of age and gender in groups either with or without depression. Negative correlation was found between the vitamin D levels and depression score in the group with depression   (r=-0.368; P=0.03. A significant and positive correlation was found between the PTH levels and depression score (r=0.399; P=0.018. A significant and negative correlation was found between 25(OH D and PTH levels. Conclusion Even if clinical depression is absent, the frequency of depressive symptoms is increased with decreased vitamin D levels and increased PTH levels, independent of other factors.  The prevention of depression, specifically in adolescents, is important to decrease possible suicidal and homicidal thoughts that might arise during adulthood, and substance abuse. Maintaining vitamin D support during adolescence, as with the first year of life, is necessary for both the prevention and treatment of depression.

  10. Prevention of Disordered Eating among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey-Stokes, Marilyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)

  11. Prevention of Disordered Eating among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey-Stokes, Marilyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)

  12. Impact of Treatments for Depression on Comorbid Anxiety, Attentional, and Behavioral Symptoms in Adolescents with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Robert C.; Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon; He, Jiayan; Mayes, Taryn; Emslie, Graham J.; Porta, Giovanna; Clarke, Greg N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relative efficacy of antidepressant medication, alone and in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), on comorbid symptoms of anxiety, attention, and disruptive behavior disorders in participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial. Method: Adolescents with selective serotonin…

  13. Impact of Treatments for Depression on Comorbid Anxiety, Attentional, and Behavioral Symptoms in Adolescents with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Robert C.; Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon; He, Jiayan; Mayes, Taryn; Emslie, Graham J.; Porta, Giovanna; Clarke, Greg N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relative efficacy of antidepressant medication, alone and in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), on comorbid symptoms of anxiety, attention, and disruptive behavior disorders in participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial. Method: Adolescents with selective serotonin…

  14. Cognitive Vulnerabilities and Depression versus Other Psychopathology Symptoms and Diagnoses in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Black, Shimrit K.; Young, Mathew E.; Goldstein, Kim E.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Boccia, Angelo S.; Matt, Lindsey M.; Boland, Elaine M.; Moore, Lauren C.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examined the concurrent associations between multiple cognitive vulnerabilities to depression featured in Hopelessness Theory, Beck’s Theory, and Response Styles Theory and depressive symptoms and diagnoses in a sample of early adolescents. We also examined the specificity of these cognitive vulnerabilities to depression versus anxiety and externalizing psychopathology, controlling for co-occurring symptoms and diagnoses. Method Male and female, Caucasian and African-American, 12–13 year old adolescents were assessed in a cross-sectional design. Cognitive vulnerabilities of hopelessness, inferential style, rumination, and self-referent information processing were assessed with self-reports and behavioral tasks. Symptoms and diagnoses of depressive, anxiety, and externalizing disorders were assessed with self-report questionnaires and diagnostic interviews. Results Hopelessness exhibited the greatest specificity to depressive symptoms and diagnoses, whereas negative inferential styles, rumination, and negative self-referent information processing were associated with both depressive and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses and, in some cases, with externalizing disorders. Conclusions Consistent with cognitive theories of depression, hopelessness, negative inferential styles, rumination, and negative self-referent information processing were associated with depressive symptoms and diagnoses. However, with the exception of hopelessness, most of the remaining cognitive vulnerabilities were not specific to depression. With further maturation of our sample, these cognitive vulnerabilities may become more specific to depression as cognitive styles further develop and consolidate, the rates of depression increase, and individuals’ presentations of psychopathology become more differentiated. PMID:22853629

  15. Eating Disorders in Child and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Onal Sonmez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are relatively common and serious disorders in adolescent and pre-adolescent age. The aim of this review is to update new findings related with mostly seen feeding and eating disorders in child and adolescents. The article focuses specifically on anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 301-316

  16. Are increased weight and appetite useful indicators of depression in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A; Cho, Sun-Joo; Martin, Nina C; Youngstrom, Eric A; March, John S; Findling, Robert L; Compas, Bruce E; Goodyer, Ian M; Rohde, Paul; Weissman, Myrna; Essex, Marilyn J; Hyde, Janet S; Curry, John F; Forehand, Rex; Slattery, Marcia J; Felton, Julia W; Maxwell, Melissa A

    2012-11-01

    During childhood and adolescence, physiological, psychological, and behavioral processes strongly promote weight gain and increased appetite while also inhibiting weight loss and decreased appetite. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) treats both weight-gain/increased-appetite and weight-loss/decreased-appetite as symptoms of major depression during these developmental periods, despite the fact that one complements typical development and the other opposes it. To disentangle the developmental versus pathological correlates of weight and appetite disturbance in younger age groups, the current study examined symptoms of depression in an aggregated sample of 2307 children and adolescents, 47.25% of whom met criteria for major depressive disorder. A multigroup, multidimensional item response theory model generated three key results. First, weight loss and decreased appetite loaded strongly onto a general depression dimension; in contrast, weight gain and increased appetite did not. Instead, weight gain and increased appetite loaded onto a separate dimension that did not correlate strongly with general depression. Second, inclusion or exclusion of weight gain and increased appetite affected neither the nature of the general depression dimension nor the fidelity of major depressive disorder diagnosis. Third, the general depression dimension and the weight-gain/increased-appetite dimension showed different patterns across age and gender. In child and adolescent populations, these results call into question the utility of weight gain and increased appetite as indicators of depression. This has serious implications for the diagnostic criteria of depression in children and adolescents. These findings inform a revision of the DSM, with implications for the diagnosis of depression in this age group and for research on depression.

  17. Intimate relationships and childbearing after adolescent depression: a population-based 15 year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, U; Bohman, H; Hjern, A; von Knorring, L; Paaren, A; Olsson, G; von Knorring, A-L

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent depression is associated with a range of interpersonal adversities. We hypothesized that depressed adolescents are at subsequent increased risk of problems related to intimate relationships and childbearing in adulthood, and used longitudinal data to examine this. A population-based investigation of depression in 16 to 17 year olds was followed up after 15 years, at around the age of 30 years. Comparisons were made between adolescents with depression (n = 361, 78% females) and non-depressed peers (n = 248, 77% females). Data from both national registers and personal interviews were used. At follow-up, the former depressed and non-depressed adolescents had become parents to a similar extent. The former depressed females were more likely than the non-depressed females to report abortion, miscarriage, intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted disease. They also reported a higher number of intimate relationships and were more likely to have divorced and to be registered as single mothers. Depressed females with a comorbid disruptive disorder had a particularly poor outcome. In the depressed females without a disruptive disorder, only those who subsequently had recurrent depressions in adulthood were at increased risk of poor outcome. There was no indication that the formerly depressed males were at increased risk of subsequent problems related to intimate relationships. Females with adolescent depression subsequently have problems related to intimate relationships and childbearing. Disruptive disorders and recurrence of depression appear to be instrumental in this association. Attention should be given to intimate relationship problems and sexual and reproductive health issues in young women with depression.

  18. The evaluation of mood condition among depressed adolescent students in Isfahan after 6 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Fereshteh; Alikhani, Mahmood; Mahaki, Behzad; Sichani, Naeimeh Karimian; Tabatabaei, Haleh Dormiani

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study has carried out to find the recovery rate, depression recurrence, changing of diagnose into bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and appearing other psychiatric disorders including obsessive compulsive disorder, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), substance induced disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorders after 6 years among students having major depression disorder in Isfahan and its relation to some demographic factors. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, 278 students studying in guidance school, in 2006 being 11–16-year-old and were diagnosed to have major depressive disorder participated. Data collection was done by completing children depression on inventory, Young Maria Rating Scale and also final diagnosis determination through interview by psychiatrists. To analyze the data, in addition to use descriptive statistics, multinomial and multiple logistic regressions were used to evaluate the relationships. All the analyses were done using SPSS 20. Results: About 34.9 of adolescents have suffered from depression after 6 years. Depression in 12.2% has been changed into BMD. The BMD morbidity chance was less in girls rather than depression one. The ratio of drug abuse in girls was less than boys (odds ratio [OR] = 0.471, P = 0.046). Students received no treatment or only pharmacotherapy, were more caught by ODD in comparison with those cases who received both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (P = 0.005, 0.038 and OR = 4.29 and 5.88). Conclusion: About half of students after 6 years are caught by depression or BMD. It reveals the importance of this disorder and its role in making behavioral problems for adolescents in their future. PMID:27308266

  19. Neural Reward Processing Mediates the Relationship between Insomnia Symptoms and Depression in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casement, Melynda D; Keenan, Kate E; Hipwell, Alison E; Guyer, Amanda E; Forbes, Erika E

    2016-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that insomnia may disrupt reward-related brain function-a potentially important factor in the development of depressive disorder. Adolescence may be a period during which such disruption is especially problematic given the rise in the incidence of insomnia and ongoing development of neural systems that support reward processing. The present study uses longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that disruption of neural reward processing is a mechanism by which insomnia symptoms-including nocturnal insomnia symptoms (NIS) and nonrestorative sleep (NRS)-contribute to depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Participants were 123 adolescent girls and their caregivers from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. NIS and NRS were assessed annually from ages 9 to 13 years. Girls completed a monetary reward task during a functional MRI scan at age 16 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed at ages 16 and 17 years. Multivariable regression tested the prospective associations between NIS and NRS, neural response during reward anticipation, and the mean number of depressive symptoms (omitting sleep problems). NRS, but not NIS, during early adolescence was positively associated with late adolescent dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) response to reward anticipation and depressive symptoms. DMPFC response mediated the relationship between early adolescent NRS and late adolescent depressive symptoms. These results suggest that NRS may contribute to depression by disrupting reward processing via altered activity in a region of prefrontal cortex involved in affective control. The results also support the mechanistic differentiation of NIS and NRS. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. [Transcranial direct current stimulation for depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, S; Palm, U; Padberg, F; Bajbouj, M

    2015-12-01

    Major depressive disorders are one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders worldwide but approximately 20-30 % of patients do not respond to standard guideline conform treatment. Recent neuroimaging studies in depressive patients revealed altered activation patterns in prefrontal brain areas and that successful cognitive behavioral therapy and psychopharmacological interventions are associated with a reversal of these neural alterations. Therefore, a direct modulation of prefrontal brain activation by non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) seems to be a promising and innovative approach for the treatment of depressive disorders. In addition, recent neuropsychological findings indicated an augmentation of positive tDCS effects by simultaneous external activation of the stimulated brain area, for example by cognitive training tasks. Based on these findings, the possibility to augment cognitive-emotional learning processes during cognitive behavioral therapy by simultaneous tDCS to increase antidepressive therapeutic effects is discussed in this article.

  1. Axis I anxiety and mental health disorders among stuttering adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Anthony; Menzies, Ross G; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Lowe, Robyn; Iverach, Lisa; Heard, Robert; Block, Susan

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate anxiety and psychological functioning among adolescents seeking speech therapy for stuttering using a structured, diagnostic interview and psychological questionnaires. This study also sought to determine whether any differences in psychological status were evident between younger and older adolescents. Participants were 37 stuttering adolescents seeking stuttering treatment. We administered the Computerized Voice Version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, and five psychometric tests. Participants were classified into younger (12-14 years; n=20) and older adolescents (15-17 years; n=17). Thirty-eight percent of participants attained at least one diagnosis of a mental disorder, according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; APA, 2000), with the majority of these diagnoses involving anxiety. This figure is double current estimates for general adolescent populations, and is consistent with our finding of moderate and moderate-severe quality of life impairment. Although many of the scores on psychological measures fell within the normal range, older adolescents (15-17 years) reported significantly higher anxiety, depression, reactions to stuttering, and emotional/behavioral problems, than younger adolescents (12-14 years). There was scant evidence that self-reported stuttering severity is correlated with mental health issues. There are good reasons to believe these results are conservative because many participants gave socially desirable responses about their mental health status. These results reveal a need for large-scale, statistically powerful assessments of anxiety and other mental disorders among stuttering adolescents with reference to control populations. The reader will be able to: (a) explain the clinical importance of assessing for mental health with stuttering adolescents, (b) state the superior method for adolescent mental

  2. Suicidal behavior in adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, D; Sher, L

    2010-08-01

    Recently, the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescence is higher than the prevalence of PTSD in adult populations. PTSD and suicidality are often found in populations of adolescents presenting with other emotional disorders (particularly mood disorders), traumatic grief, childhood abuse, and/or a family or peer history of suicide. The reasons and developments of the association between PTSD and suicidality in adolescence, however, remain unclear. Core psychobiological changes contributing to PTSD affect emotion, arousal, perception of the self and the world, irritability, impulsivity, anger, aggression and depression. There is evidence that the aforementioned factors, as well as alcohol and other drug use may act to moderate the influence of stressful life events and lead to eventual suicidality. Both PTSD and suicidality in adolescents have also been hypothesized to be a result of exposure to violence and negative coping styles. There are many treatment challenges for these populations, yet the most promising prevention and treatments include suicide risk screenings, suicide education, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, addressing associated coping mechanisms and prescribing anti-depressant and anti-anxiety medications. However, when prescribing medications, physicians do need to be careful to consider the weaknesses and strengths of each of the pharmacological options as they apply to adolescents presenting with PTSD and suicidality.

  3. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients.

  4. Adolescent pregnancy and depression: is there an association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalak, Z; Köşüş, N; Köşüş, A; Hizli, D; Akçal, B; Kafali, H; Canbal, M; Isaoğlu, Ü

    2016-01-01

    The impact of being an adolescent and socio-demographic parameters on depression development during pregnancy were evaluated in this study. Between September 2010 and September 2011, 105 consecutive adolescent women ≤ 17 years of age were defined as the study group and 105 consecutive pregnant women over 18 years of age and matched for gestational age, were defined as the control group. Groups were compared according to depression development. The predictors of depression were analyzed by regression analysis. Median Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) scores in adolescent and control groups were 16 and 6, respectively. The difference was statistically significant. In the adolescent group, 39.0% of patients had mild depression, 37.1% moderate, and 10.5% had severe depression. Only 4.8% of patients in the control group had mild depression while none of the control cases had moderate or severe depression. Multivariate analysis showed that most important factor that was associated with depression development during pregnancy was being an adolescent. Depression risk was increased 18.2-fold in adolescent patients with pregnancy. Therefore psychiatric evaluation should be considered for these patients.

  5. Spirituality Moderates Hopelessness, Depression, and Suicidal Behavior among Malaysian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Mansor Abu; Abdollahi, Abbas

    2017-06-01

    Suicide is an important public health problem for adolescents, and it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the etiology of suicide among adolescent students. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the associations between hopelessness, depression, spirituality, and suicidal behavior, and to examine spirituality as a moderator between hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among 1376 Malaysian adolescent students. The participants completed measures of depression, hopelessness, daily spiritual experience, and suicidal behavior. Structural equation modeling indicated that adolescent students high in hopelessness and depression, but also high in spirituality, had less suicidal behavior than others. These findings reinforce the importance of spirituality as a protective factor against hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among Malaysian adolescent students.

  6. Etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Filgueiras, Juliana Fernandes; Oliveira, Fernanda da Costa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to construct an etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls. A total of 1,358 adolescent girls from four cities participated. The study used psychometric scales to assess disordered eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, media pressure, self-esteem, mood, depressive symptoms, and perfectionism. Weight, height, and skinfolds were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%F). Structural equation modeling explained 76% of variance in disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 74.50; p = 0.001). The findings indicate that body dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between media pressures, self-esteem, mood, BMI, %F, and disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 59.89; p = 0.001). Although depressive symptoms were not related to body dissatisfaction, the model indicated a direct relationship with disordered eating behaviors (F(2, 1,356) = 23.98; p = 0.001). In conclusion, only perfectionism failed to fit the etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

  7. Anxiety and disruptive behavior mediate pathways from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunima; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan; Hartman, Catharina A

    2014-02-01

    The progression to depression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not clearly understood. To clarify this relationship, we tested the following hypotheses in a population-based study: (1) children with ADHD have a higher risk of developing depression than children without ADHD; (2) the pathway from ADHD to depression is mediated (partly) through anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders; and (3) mediation through anxiety is more prevalent in girls, and mediation through disruptive behavior disorders is more prevalent in boys. From October 2008 to September 2010, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess ADHD, major depressive episodes, anxiety disorders, and disruptive behavior disorders in 1,584 participants from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) cohort. Cox regression was used to model the effects of ADHD, anxiety, and disruptive behaviors on depression. Risk of and pathways to depression were studied in both children with ADHD and children with subthreshold ADHD. Comorbid depression was present in 36% of children with a diagnosis of ADHD, 24% of children with subthreshold ADHD, and 14% of children with no ADHD. Anxiety and disruptive behaviors mediated 32% of depression in ADHD. Pathways through anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders were independent of gender. Disruptive behavior disorder was a stronger mediator than anxiety for both genders (all P disruptive behavior disorders are present in a child with ADHD. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  9. Adolescents' Perceptions of Family Connectedness, Intrinsic Religiosity, and Depressed Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Merten, Michael J.; Robinson, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 248 ninth and tenth grade students at public high schools, we examined adolescents' perceptions of family connectedness, intrinsic religiosity, and adolescents' gender in relation to depressed mood and whether intrinsic religiosity and gender moderated the association of aspects of family connectedness to adolescent depressed…

  10. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  11. Adolescents' Perceptions of Family Connectedness, Intrinsic Religiosity, and Depressed Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Merten, Michael J.; Robinson, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 248 ninth and tenth grade students at public high schools, we examined adolescents' perceptions of family connectedness, intrinsic religiosity, and adolescents' gender in relation to depressed mood and whether intrinsic religiosity and gender moderated the association of aspects of family connectedness to adolescent depressed…

  12. The prospective association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Robert E; Duong, Hao T

    2014-02-01

    To examine the prospective, reciprocal association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents. A community-based two-wave cohort study. A metropolitan area with a population of over 4 million. 4,175 youths 11-17 at baseline, and 3,134 of these followed up a year later. Depression is measured using both symptoms of depression and DSM-IV major depression. Sleep deprivation is defined as ≤ 6 h of sleep per night. Sleep deprivation at baseline predicted both measures of depression at follow-up, controlling for depression at baseline. Examining the reciprocal association, major depression at baseline, but not symptoms predicted sleep deprivation at follow-up. These results are the first to document reciprocal effects for major depression and sleep deprivation among adolescents using prospective data. The data suggest reduced quantity of sleep increases risk for major depression, which in turn increases risk for decreased sleep.

  13. Construct Validity of Adolescent Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Elkins, Irene J.; Legrand, Lisa; Peuschold, Dawn; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosed in adolescence. Boys and girls were grouped by history of DSM-III-R conduct disorder (CD) and ASPD: Controls (n = 340) had neither diagnosis; CD Only (n = 77) had CD by age 17 but no ASPD through age 20; Adolescent ASPD (n = 64) had ASPD by age 17. The…

  14. Anxiety- and depressive-like profiles during early- and mid-adolescence in the female Wistar Kyoto rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Deepthi; Sadananda, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Approaches for the development of preclinical models of depression extensively use adult and male animals owing to the discrepancies arising out of the hormonal flux in adult females and adolescents during attainment of puberty. Thus the increased vulnerability of females towards clinical depression and anxiety-related disorders remains incompletely understood. Development of clinical models of depression in adolescent females is essential in order to evolve effective treatment strategies for adolescent depression. In the present study, we have examined the anxiety and depressive-like profiles in a putative animal model of childhood depression, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat, during early adolescence (∼postnatal day 30) and mid-adolescence (∼postnatal day 40). Female adolescent WKY rats, tested on a series of behavioural tests modelling anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours with age-matched Wistars as controls, demonstrated marked differences during early adolescence in a strain- and age-specific manner. Anxiety indices were obtained from exposure to the elevated plus maze, where social communication vide 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations was also assessed, while immobility and other parameters in the forced swim test were screened for depressive-like profiles. Sucrose preference, used as a measure of anhedonia in animals, was lower in WKYs at both ages tested and decreased with age. Anxiety-related behaviours were prominent in WKY rats only during early adolescence. WKY female rats are anxious during early adolescence and exhibit anhedonia as a core symptom of depression during early- and mid-adolescence, thus indicating that inclusion of female animals in preclinical trials is essential and will contribute to gender-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment of adolescent depression in females. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Depression and Anxiety Prevention Based on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for At-Risk Adolescents: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne P. A. Rasing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders during adolescence. During this life phase, the incidence of these clinical disorders rises dramatically, and even more adolescents suffer from symptoms of depression or anxiety that are just below the clinical threshold. Both clinical and subclinical levels of depression or anxiety symptoms are related to decreased functioning in various areas, such as social and academic functioning. Prevention of depression and anxiety in adolescents is therefore imperative. We conducted a meta-analytic review of the effects of school-based and community-based prevention programs that are based on cognitive behavioral therapy with the primary goal preventing depression, anxiety, or both in high risk adolescents. Articles were obtained by searching databases and hand searching reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. The selection process yielded 32 articles in the meta-analyses. One article reported on two studies and three articles reported on both depression and anxiety. This resulted in a total of 36 studies, 23 on depression and 13 on anxiety. For depression prevention aimed at high risk adolescents, meta-analysis showed a small effect of prevention programs directly after the intervention, but no effect at 3–6 months and at 12 months follow-up. For anxiety prevention aimed at high risk adolescents, no short-term effect was found, nor at 12 months follow-up. Three to six months after the preventive intervention, symptoms of anxiety were significantly decreased. Although effects on depression and anxiety symptoms were small and temporary, current findings cautiously suggest that depression and anxiety prevention programs based on CBT might have small effects on mental health of adolescents. However, it also indicates that there is still much to be gained for prevention programs. Current findings and possibilities for future research are discussed in order to further

  16. Depression and Anxiety Prevention Based on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for At-Risk Adolescents: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasing, Sanne P A; Creemers, Daan H M; Janssens, Jan M A M; Scholte, Ron H J

    2017-01-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders during adolescence. During this life phase, the incidence of these clinical disorders rises dramatically, and even more adolescents suffer from symptoms of depression or anxiety that are just below the clinical threshold. Both clinical and subclinical levels of depression or anxiety symptoms are related to decreased functioning in various areas, such as social and academic functioning. Prevention of depression and anxiety in adolescents is therefore imperative. We conducted a meta-analytic review of the effects of school-based and community-based prevention programs that are based on cognitive behavioral therapy with the primary goal preventing depression, anxiety, or both in high risk adolescents. Articles were obtained by searching databases and hand searching reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. The selection process yielded 32 articles in the meta-analyses. One article reported on two studies and three articles reported on both depression and anxiety. This resulted in a total of 36 studies, 23 on depression and 13 on anxiety. For depression prevention aimed at high risk adolescents, meta-analysis showed a small effect of prevention programs directly after the intervention, but no effect at 3-6 months and at 12 months follow-up. For anxiety prevention aimed at high risk adolescents, no short-term effect was found, nor at 12 months follow-up. Three to six months after the preventive intervention, symptoms of anxiety were significantly decreased. Although effects on depression and anxiety symptoms were small and temporary, current findings cautiously suggest that depression and anxiety prevention programs based on CBT might have small effects on mental health of adolescents. However, it also indicates that there is still much to be gained for prevention programs. Current findings and possibilities for future research are discussed in order to further improve the effectiveness

  17. ADHD and bipolar disorder among adolescents: nosology in question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdanowicz, Nicolas; Myslinski, Anne

    2010-11-01

    the double diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, and of bipolar disorder in its depressive or manic phase in children and adolescents is quite common. The present paper examines the clinical descriptions of both disorders, and addresses the methodological and nosological questions they raise. review of the literature from Medline, PsycArticles and PsycInfo data bases using the keywords "ADHD, BPD, Adolescence" as well as review of specialised reference works. whereas the clinical and epidemiological communities posit the case for a bidirectional association between ADHD and BPD, more thorough analyses using both clinical and epidemiological perspectives suggest two distinct entities. Accordingly, we also discuss various theories accounting for the frequent co occurrence of these two diagnoses. the double diagnosis of ADHD and BPD not only raises several hypotheses accounting for the emergence of both these syndromes in the clinical description of the same patient, but also reminds us of the limitations inherent in the nosology of mental disorders.

  18. Prevalence and Predictors of PTSD and Depression among Adolescent Victims of the Spring 2011 Tornado Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zachary W.; Sumner, Jennifer A.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Grös, Kirstin; Paul, Lisa A.; Welsh, Kyleen E.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relatively few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episode (MDE) in disaster-affected adolescents. Fewer still have administered diagnostic measures or studied samples exposed to tornadoes, a common type of disaster. Further, methodologic problems limit the…

  19. New Insights into the Comorbidity between ADHD and Major Depression in Adolescent and Young Adult Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.

  20. Face-Memory and Emotion: Associations with Major Depression in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S.; Lissek, Shmuel; Klein, Rachel G.; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Moulton, John L., III; Guardino, Mary; Woldehawariat, Girma

    2004-01-01

    Background: Studies in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) document abnormalities in both memory and face-emotion processing. The current study used a novel face-memory task to test the hypothesis that adolescent MDD is associated with a deficit in memory for face-emotions. The study also examines the relationship between parental MDD and…

  1. Prevalence and Predictors of PTSD and Depression among Adolescent Victims of the Spring 2011 Tornado Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zachary W.; Sumner, Jennifer A.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Grös, Kirstin; Paul, Lisa A.; Welsh, Kyleen E.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relatively few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episode (MDE) in disaster-affected adolescents. Fewer still have administered diagnostic measures or studied samples exposed to tornadoes, a common type of disaster. Further, methodologic problems limit the…

  2. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

  3. Are Anxiety and Depression the Same Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of co-morbidity in Anxiety and Depression as disorders leads to questions about the integrity of their present taxonomies in mental health diagnostics. At face value the two appear to have discrete differences, yet nonetheless demonstrate a high co-morbidity rate and shared symptoms implying pathological similarities rather than that of chance. Reviewing evidence from behavioural, neural, and biological sources that elaborate on the aspects of these two constructs, helps to illustrate the nature of these apparent differences and similarities. Integrating evidence from the anxiety and depression literature with the pathological process best illustrated by the burnout theory, alongside with support from the neurobiology of anxiety and stress, presents a proposition of a basic and natural anxiety pathology that when excessive, may result in the symptoms psychology has come to know as representative of anxiety and depressive disorders.

  4. Delayed mood transitions in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis defended here is that the process of mood-normalizing transitions fails in a significant proportion of patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Such a failure is largely unrelated to the psychological content. Evidence for the hypothesis is provided by the highly variable an

  5. Paraprofessionals for anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Boer, PCAM; Wiersma, D; Russo, S; van den Bosch, RJ

    2005-01-01

    Background The established mental health care system does not have the resources to meet the extensive need for care of those with anxiety and depressive disorders. Paraprofessionals partially replacing professionals may be cost-effective. Objectives To investigate the effectiveness of any kind of p

  6. Depression Trajectories, Inflammation, and Lifestyle Factors in Adolescence : The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivis, Hester E.; Kupper, Nina; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Bosch, Nienke M.; Riese, Harriette; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In adults, depression and inflammation are bidirectionally related. This association is less clear in adolescents. Moreover, somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms might be differentially related to inflammation. Lifestyle factors, as in adults, may play an important mediating role in

  7. [Psychotherapy of personality disorders in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baader, Aline; Schmeck, Klaus; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    By the current state of knowledge adolescent personality disorders should be taken seriously due to their high prevalence and severe symptomatology. Personality disorders are characterized by a stable pattern of deviation concerning cognition, affectivity, impulse control, and interpersonal relationships and have negative repercussions in psychosocial functioning and subsequent development. There is emerging evidence that personality disorder diagnosis is reliable and valid during adolescence. It is essential to detect youth with personality pathology in order to refer them to specific psychotherapeutic interventions and consequently avoid further chronification and life-long functional impairment. This selective review will give an overview over personality disorders in adolescents as well as according psychotherapeutic interventions.

  8. Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder : findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaal, L.; Veltman, D. J.; van Erp, T. G. M.; Saemann, P. G.; Frodl, T.; Jahanshad, N.; Loehrer, E.; Tiemeier, H.; Hofman, A.; Niessen, W. J.; Vernooij, M. W.; Ikram, M. A.; Wittfeld, K.; Grabe, H. J.; Block, A.; Hegenscheid, K.; Voelzke, H.; Hoehn, D.; Czisch, M.; Lagopoulos, J.; Hatton, S. N.; Hickie, I. B.; Goya-Maldonado, R.; Kraemer, B.; Gruber, O.; Couvy-Duchesne, B.; Renteria, M. E.; Strike, L. T.; Mills, N. T.; de Zubicaray, G. I.; McMahon, K. L.; Medland, S. E.; Martin, N. G.; Gillespie, N. A.; Wright, M. J.; Hall, G.B.; MacQueen, G. M.; Frey, E. M.; Carballedo, A.; van Velzen, L. S.; van Tol, M. J.; van der Wee, N. J.; Veer, I. M.; Walter, H.; Schnell, K.; Schramm, E.; Normann, C.; Schoepf, D.; Konrad, C.; Zurowski, B.; Nickson, T.; McIntosh, A. M.; Papmeyer, M.; Whalley, H. C.; Sussmann, J. E.; Godlewska, B. R.; Cowen, P. J.; Fischer, F. H.; Rose, M.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Thompson, P. M.; Hibar, D. P.

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of structural brain alterations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unresolved. This is in part due to small sample sizes of neuroimaging studies resulting in limited statistical power, disease heterogeneity and the complex interactions between clinical characteristic

  9. Depression, Hopelessness, and Self-Esteem: Accounting for Suicidality in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Galit A.; Overholser, James C.

    1999-01-01

    Depressed adolescents who had never attempted suicide were compared to depressed adolescents who had attempted suicide. Results showed suicidal adolescents experienced significantly greater depression and hopelessness than did nonsuicidal adolescents. However, suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents reported similar low levels of self esteem.…

  10. Impact of childhood trauma on treatment outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C; Simons, Anne D; Nguyen, Lananh J; Murakami, Jessica L; Reid, Mark W; Silva, Susan G; March, John S

    2010-02-01

    The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB), and placebo (PBO). Teens were separated into four trauma history groups: (1) no trauma; (2) trauma, no abuse; (3) physical abuse; (4), and sexual abuse. The effects of treatment and trauma history on depression severity across 12 weeks of acute treatment, as measured by the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), were examined. A significant trauma-by-treatment-by-time interaction indicated that trauma history moderated treatment. The Week 12 primary efficacy findings previously reported by TADS were replicated in the no trauma group (n = 201): COMB = FLX > CBT = PBO. No significant differences in treatment arms were observed among the trauma, no abuse, or physical abuse group. Teens with a history of sexual abuse treated with COMB, FLX, and PBO showed significant and equivalent improvement on the CDRS-R (mean 45). Baseline suicidality and self-reported depression were significantly related to a history of sexual abuse. The study was limited by the level of detail regarding childhood traumatic experiences. Results are discussed in terms of the implications for treating depressed adolescents with traumatic backgrounds.Clinical Trials Registry Information: Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00006286.

  11. Pituitary gland volume in adolescent and young adult bipolar and unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Frank P; Leslie, Ronald; Rosenberg, David R; Kusumakar, Vivek

    2008-02-01

    Few studies have examined pituitary gland size in mood disorders, particularly in adolescents. We hypothesized increase in the pituitary gland size in early-onset mood disorders. Thirty subjects between the ages of 13 and 20 years participated in the study. Three groups (control, bipolar I depression and unipolar depression) of 10 subjects each (4 male, 6 female) underwent volumetric magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T. Analysis of covariance (covarying for age, sex and intracranial volume) revealed a significant difference in pituitary gland volume amongst the groups [F(2,24) = 7.092, p = 0.014]. Post hoc analysis revealed that controls had a significantly smaller pituitary gland volume than both bipolar patients (p = 0.019) and depressed patients (p = 0.049). Bipolar and depressed subjects did not differ significantly from each other with regard to pituitary gland volume (p = 0.653). Control females had larger pituitary glands than control males [F(1,8) = 10.523, p = 0.012], but no sex differences were noted in the mood disorder groups. Pituitary glands are enlarged in adolescents with mood disorders compared to controls. Healthy young females have larger pituitary glands than males, but such a difference is not evident in individuals with unipolar depression or bipolar disorder. These findings provide new evidence of abnormalities of the pituitary in early onset mood disorders, and are consistent with neuroendocrine dysfunction in early stages of such illnesses.

  12. Alcohol use and depression during adolescence and young adulthood: a summary and interpretation of mixed findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, P; Shapero, B; Archibald, A; Dale, C

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) and alcohol misuse are common among adolescents and young adults and are associated with significant personal and societal problems. Similarly, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms are prevalent in this population and when they co-occur with alcohol misuse lead to even more severe consequences. Numerous studies have investigated the association between depressive symptoms, AUD and various drinking behaviors presenting an unclear picture. In this review we summarize studies among adolescents and young adults that have examined these relationships. From this review it emerges that several factors affect results, including study design (cross-sectional vs longitudinal), participants' age (adolescents vs young adults), severity of problems considered (AUD vs heavy drinking; MDD vs depressive symptoms), and gender. Adolescents with AUD are at higher risk for MDD in particular at a younger age. During adolescence, several drinking behaviors, including weekly alcohol use and heavy drinking, increase the risk for depressive symptoms and MDD, while during young adulthood primarily AUD, but not other drinking behaviors, is associated with increased risk for MDD. Gender may have an effect on the association between depression and drinking behaviors but its role is still unclear. Some evidence suggests that the association between AUD and MDD is bidirectional such that mood problems contribute to the onset of alcohol problems and vice-versa. More longitudinal studies are needed to examine these associations in young adults and to clarify the effect of gender on these associations. To date, findings suggest the critical need to reduce any alcohol use at a young age and to treat both depressive symptoms and AUD to prevent the occurrence of comorbid disorders.

  13. Fluoxetine Treatment for Prevention of Relapse of Depression in Children and Adolescents: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Graham J.; Heiligenstein, John H.; Hoog, Sharon L.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Findling, Robert L.; McCracken, James T.; Nilsson, Mary E.; Jacobson, Jennie G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare fluoxetine 20 to 60 mg/day with placebo for prevention of relapse of major depressive disorder in children and adolescents who had achieved Children's Depression Rating Scale, Revised scores of [less than or equal to]28 during treatment with fluoxetine 20 to 60 mg. Method: In this 32-week relapse-prevention phase of a…

  14. The Prevention of Depression and Anxiety in a Sample of High-Risk Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Keith S.; Hopkins, Jamie Ahnberg; Fata, Ladan; Scherrer, Martin; Allan, Lauren C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques in preventing depression and anxiety in a group of adolescent high school students with elevated risk for developing emotional disorders. Students were screened using a measure of depression severity and clinical interview. Following screening procedures,…

  15. Bullying at School--An Indicator of Adolescents at Risk for Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rimpela, Matti; Rantanen, Paivi; Rimpela, Arja

    2000-01-01

    Surveys Finnish adolescents about bullying and victimization in relations to psychosomatic symptoms, depression, anxiety, eating disorders and substance use. Anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic symptoms were most frequent among bully-victims and equally common among bullies and victims. Argues that bullying should be seen as an indicator of…

  16. Family functioning mediates the association between parental depression and low self-esteem in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Susann; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Knappe, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    The negative impact of parental depression on offsprings' development has been repeatedly documented. There is however little research on the potential pathways contributing to this association. The present study examined the relationship between parental depressive disorders, family functioning and adolescents' self-esteem. A community-based sample of 1040 participants aged 14-17 years and their parents was assessed including direct and indirect information on parental psychopathology based on the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI). Family functioning and youth self-esteem were assessed by self-report questionnaires using the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD) in parents and the "Aussagen-Liste zum Selbstwertgefühl" in adolescents. Findings from multiple regression analyses indicated positive associations between parental depressive disorders and dimensions of dysfunctional family functioning as well as between dysfunctional familial affective involvement and youth's positive self-esteem. The relationship between parental depression and self-esteem was partly mediated by familial affective involvement. Associations may be underestimated, since incidence for depressive disorders spans to the third decade of life. Consensus diagnoses for parental depressive disorders were based on direct and indirect information for maximum use of available data, neglecting familial load, chronicity of parental depressive disorders or comorbid conditions. Thus, specificity of the findings for the family transmission of depressive disorders remains yet to be determined. Findings contribute to understanding of the pathways on how parental depression impairs offsprings' view of themselves, and to consider family functioning as a possible target for preventive interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder: Relationship to Acute Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Mayes, Taryn; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Tao, Rongrong; Carmody, Thomas; Emslie, Graham J.

    2008-01-01

    A study examined maternal depressive symptoms at the beginning and end of acute pediatric treatment of children with major depressive disorder (MDD). Results suggested a direct and possible reciprocal association between maternal and child depression severity.

  18. Longitudinal Linkages between Depressive and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Adolescent Survivors Following the Wenchuan Earthquake in China: A Three-Wave, Cross-Lagged Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Liu-Hua; Wu, Xin-Chun; Lin, Chong-De

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationships between depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of adolescent survivors following the Wenchuan earthquake in China. Two-hundred adolescent survivors were reviewed at 12, 18 and 24-months post-earthquake. Depression and PTSD were assessed by two self-report…

  19. Depression and Associated Suicidal Behaviour in Children and Adolescents: Current Views and the Problem State Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Rymsha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been performed the analytical analysis of the world literature dedicated to the epidemiology, etiology, current approaches to the pathogenesis, clinical picture and diagnosis criteria for the depressive disorders in children and adolescents as well as the associated suicidal behavior and the social significance of this disease with its consequences. Key recommendations on the treatment and prophylaxis of depression in children and adolescents according to the last evidence-base European and American guidelines are considered.

  20. [Complementary treatment methods for depression in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolle, Kathrin; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Depressive disorders are among the more common mental illnesses around the world, about 1- 3% of prepubertal children and 6% of postpubertal children and adolescents are affected. They markedly impair psychosocial development and are associated with higher rate of morbidity and mortality throughout life. Many physicians are unsure about which treatment approaches are effective and how the treatment should be planned. A systematic literature search was carried out in electronic databases and study registries and as a manual search. More than 450 studies (mostly randomized controlled trials = RCTs) were identified and summarized in evidence tables. The ensuing recommendations were agreed upon in a consensus conference. The review summarizes the evidence of complementary treatment methods. The evidence for complementary treatment methods (art and music therapy, sleep deprivation, exercise, electroconvulsive therapy, massage, transcranial magnetic stimulation, relaxation, bibliotherapy, computer based therapy, light therapy, omega-3 treatment) is low or there is no evidence due to missing studies or studies of poor quality. For some methods, i. e. light therapy, relaxation and stress reduction and sleep deprivation there is limited indication for effectiveness without sufficient evidence for a practical guidance. There is an urgent need for adequately informative comparative studies on treatment of depression in children and adolescents considering also complementary methods.

  1. Communication about smoking between depressed adolescents and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Suzanne A; Westin, Anna M L; Reamy, Allison M; Reyner, Jacqueline C; Syed, Tahniat; Diamond, Guy S

    2010-03-01

    Better understanding of effective parent-adolescent communication regarding tobacco use could inform smoking cessation intervention. Semistructured interviews related to communication about smoking were conducted with 15 depressed adolescent smokers and their parents, primarily from urban areas. This study, conducted in 2006-2008, was funded by the Pennsylvania Department of Health. Interview transcripts (N = 30) were coded in QSR N6. Quality of communication, rather than content, seemed to determine whether parental communication was effective. Parents reactivity to, or avoidance of, adolescent smoking presented a barrier to effective communication. In this sample, parents and adolescents were more concerned about problems, such as depression, than smoking. Involving parents in adolescent smoking cessation programs may be promising. Parental involvement may include teaching parent-child communication skills, building stronger relational bonds, or helping parents quit simultaneously. Further research is needed to explore whether coupling smoking cessation with depression treatment increases parent and adolescent treatment engagement and effectiveness.

  2. Subcortical volumes differentiate Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and remitted Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchet, Matthew D; Livermore, Emily E; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Glover, Gary H; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-09-01

    Subcortical gray matter regions have been implicated in mood disorders, including Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD). It is unclear, however, whether or how these regions differ among mood disorders and whether such abnormalities are state- or trait-like. In this study, we examined differences in subcortical gray matter volumes among euthymic BD, MDD, remitted MDD (RMD), and healthy (CTL) individuals. Using automated gray matter segmentation of T1-weighted MRI images, we estimated volumes of 16 major subcortical gray matter structures in 40 BD, 57 MDD, 35 RMD, and 61 CTL individuals. We used multivariate analysis of variance to examine group differences in these structures, and support vector machines (SVMs) to assess individual-by-individual classification. Analyses yielded significant group differences for caudate (p = 0.029) and ventral diencephalon (VD) volumes (p = 0.003). For the caudate, both the BD (p = 0.004) and the MDD (p = 0.037) participants had smaller volumes than did the CTL participants. For the VD, the MDD participants had larger volumes than did the BD and CTL participants (ps disorders are characterized by anomalies in subcortical gray matter volumes and that the caudate and VD contribute uniquely to differential affective pathology. Identifying abnormalities in subcortical gray matter may prove useful for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mood disorders.

  3. Substance use disorders in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depressive illness: a registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvåg, Ragnar; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Høye, Anne; Ystrom, Eivind; Surén, Pål; Reneflot, Anne; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2015-08-01

    To compare the prevalence and pattern of comorbid substance use disorders (SUD) between patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depressive illness. Data on presence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and non-alcohol drug use disorder (DUD) were retrieved from the Norwegian Patient Register for individuals born between 1950 and 1989 who in the period 2009-2013 were diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or depressive illness according to the 10th version of the WHO International Classification of Diseases. The prevalence of AUD only, DUD only, or both was compared between men and women across age and diagnostic groups. The prevalence of SUD was 25.1 % in schizophrenia (AUD: 4.6 %, DUD: 15.6 %, AUD and DUD: 4.9 %), 20.1 % in bipolar disorder (AUD: 8.1 %, DUD: 7.6 %, AUD and DUD: 4.4 %), and 10.9 % in depressive illness (AUD: 4.4 %, DUD: 4.3 %, AUD and DUD: 2.2 %). Middle-aged men with bipolar disorder had the highest prevalence of AUD (19.1 %) and young men with schizophrenia had the highest prevalence of DUD (29.6 %). Of the specific DUDs, all but sedative use disorder were more prevalent in schizophrenia than the other groups. Cannabis and stimulant use disorder was found among 8.8 and 8.9 %, respectively, of the men with schizophrenia. The alarmingly high prevalence of DUD among young patients with severe mental disorders should encourage preventive efforts to reduce illicit drug use in the adolescent population.

  4. Cognitive bibliotherapy for mild and moderate adolescent depressive symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, J; Scogin, F; McKendree-Smith, N; Lyman, R D

    1998-08-01

    The efficacy of cognitive bibliotherapy for adolescents experiencing mild and moderate depressive symptomatology was examined with a group of 22 community-dwelling adolescents. Cognitive bibliotherapy was determined to be superior to a delayed-treatment control condition. The treatment produced both statistically and clinically significant improvements in depressive symptoms. Treatment gains were maintained at 1-month follow-up. A significant decrease in dysfunctional thoughts, but not in negative automatic thoughts, was found after treatment. These results contribute to converging evidence on the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatments for adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms.

  5. Prevalence of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riahi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often associated with other psychological problems. Objectives The present study aimed to study the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD who admitted to Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods This was a descriptive/analytic cross-sectional study carried out on 118 outpatient children and adolescents who were selected by convenient sampling. The data were collected using the questionnaire, designed by authors, and were analyzed through descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results The prevalence of comorbid disorders were as follows: anxiety disorders (48.3%; depression (20.33%; bipolar disorder (17.79%; obsessive-compulsive (47.45%; tic and tourette (35.59%, oppositional defiant disorder (43.22%; conduct disorder (11.01%; urinary incontinence (58.47%; communication disorder (9.32%; and learning disorder (21.18%. There was no significant difference between females and males with respect to the prevalence of comorbid disorders. Conclusions Similar to previous studies, we found some comorbid psychiatric disorders with ADHD. The treatment of the disorder can be improved, by more attention to comorbid psychiatric disorders, early diagnosis of them, and using distinct and specific treatment for everyone.

  6. Differential item functioning due to gender between depression and anxiety items among Chilean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Kamata, Akihito

    2012-07-01

    Although much is known about the higher prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders among adolescent females, less is known about the differential item endorsement due to gender in items of scales commonly used to measure anxiety and depression. We conducted a study to examine if adolescent males and females from Chile differed on how they endorsed the items of the Youth Self Report (YSR) anxious/depressed problem scale. We used data from a cross-sectional sample consisting of 925 participants (mean age = 14, SD 1.3, 49% females) of low to lower-middle socioeconomic status. A two-parameter logistic (2PL) IRT DIF model was fit. s revealed differential item functioning (DIF) by gender for six of the 13 items, with adolescent females being more likely to endorse a depression item while males were found more likely to endorse anxiety items. Findings suggest that items found in commonly used measures of anxiety and depression symptoms may not equally capture the true levels of these behavioural problems in adolescent males and females. Given the high levels of mental disorders in Chile and the surrounding countries, further attention should be focused on increasing the number of empirical studies examining potential gender differences in the assessment of mental health problems among Latin American populations to better aid our understanding of the phenomenology and determinants of these problems in the region.

  7. Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Dwight V; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2003-12-01

    There is increased recognition that bipolar disorder has an early age of onset. The prevalence of bipolar disorder in prepubertal children has not been determined, however the prevalence in adolescence is approximately 1%. Bipolar disorder in children poses a diagnostic challenge since the symptoms may differ from those in late adolescence and adulthood. Comorbid disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, further complicate both the diagnosis and course of the disorder. There is increasing evidence of the chronicity and severity of this disorder in youths. Bipolar disorder significantly disrupts a child's psychosocial development including impairments in academic functioning, family functioning, and relationship with peers. Although this disorder has significant morbidity in children and adolescents, there is a paucity of controlled studies to assess the efficacy and safety of mood stabilizers in the treatment of this disorder in youths. The treatment literature consists largely of case studies, retrospective chart reviews, and open-label studies. There is a compelling need for double-blind, placebo-controlled trials to determine whether commonly used medications to treat this disorder are significantly superior to placebo. Since many children in clinical practice require more than one psychotropic medication to adequately manage this disorder, studies of combination treatments are warranted. This review will provide an overview of the literature of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, including discussion of the prevalence, diagnosis, epidemiology, course of the illness, and treatment issues.

  8. Serum proteomic profiling of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, M; Chan, M K; Jansen, R; Lamers, F; Vogelzangs, N; Steiner, J; Leweke, F M; Rothermundt, M; Cooper, J; Bahn, S; Penninx, B W J H

    2015-07-14

    Much has still to be learned about the molecular mechanisms of depression. This study aims to gain insight into contributing mechanisms by identifying serum proteins related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large psychiatric cohort study. Our sample consisted of 1589 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, comprising 687 individuals with current MDD (cMDD), 482 individuals with remitted MDD (rMDD) and 420 controls. We studied the relationship between MDD status and the levels of 171 serum proteins detected on a multi-analyte profiling platform using adjusted linear regression models. Pooled analyses of two independent validation cohorts (totaling 78 MDD cases and 156 controls) was carried out to validate our top markers. Twenty-eight analytes differed significantly between cMDD cases and controls (P depression. Changes were more prominent in cMDD, suggesting that molecular alterations in serum are associated with acute depression symptomatology. These findings may help to establish serum-based biomarkers of depression and could improve our understanding of its pathophysiology.

  9. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Melanie C.; Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]), depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. METHOD A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, Mage = 20) from a large public university completed an online survey. RESULTS Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. CONCLUSION Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use. PMID:27594786

  10. The effect of reboxetine in the treatment of depression in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashakori A.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depressive disorders in children and adolescents are chronic and highly morbid. Few studies are carried out on antidepressant drugs for depressed youths, especially specific noradrenergic agents. Reboxetine is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of reboxetine in childhood and adolescent depression. Methods: Twenty patients of both genders, aged 7-17 years old, with major depressive or dysthymic disorders, as classified by the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, participated in an 8-week clinical trial before-after study of reboxetine. Clinical semistructured interviews, based on the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS, were carried out. Reboxtine was initiated at a dose of 1 mg/day and increased up to 6 mg/day. Patients were assessed for changes in: depressive symptoms using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI and global functioning by the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS. Side effect questionnaire was also administered. Results: There was a significant decrease in the ineffectiveness subscale (C factor of CDI (p=0.006. Although the CDI scores decreased by 32.69%, this change was not significant (p=0.39. No significant change in C-GAS (p=0.2 was observed. Adverse effects were relatively mild to moderate and transient. The most common adverse effects were decreased appetite and sedation. Conclusions: Reboxetine is relatively well tolerated and improves feelings of ineffectiveness among depressed children and adolescents; however it does not improve all depressive symptoms. Double-blind, placebo and active comparator controlled studies and larger sample sizes are indicated.

  11. Increased frontal sleep slow wave activity in adolescents with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Tesler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep slow wave activity (SWA, the major electrophysiological characteristic of deep sleep, mirrors both cortical restructuring and functioning. The incidence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD substantially rises during the vulnerable developmental phase of adolescence, where essential cortical restructuring is taking place. The goal of this study was to assess characteristics of SWA topography in adolescents with MDD, in order to assess abnormalities in both cortical restructuring and functioning on a local level. All night high-density EEG was recorded in 15 patients meeting DSM-5 criteria for MDD and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The actual symptom severity was assessed using the Children's Depression Rating Scale—Revised (CDRS-R. Topographical power maps were calculated based on the average SWA of the first non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep episode. Depressed adolescents exhibited significantly more SWA in a cluster of frontal electrodes compared to controls. SWA over frontal brain regions correlated positively with the CDRS-R subscore “morbid thoughts”. Self-reported sleep latency was significantly higher in depressed adolescents compared to controls whereas sleep architecture did not differ between the groups. Higher frontal SWA in depressed adolescents may represent a promising biomarker tracing cortical regions of intense use and/or restructuring.

  12. A preliminary study of white matter in adolescent depression: relationships with illness severity, anhedonia, and irritability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Henderson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD during adolescence is a common and disabling psychiatric condition; yet, little is known about its neurobiological underpinning. Evidence indicates that MDD in adults involves alterations in white and gray matter; however, sparse research has focused on adolescent MDD. Similarly, little research has accounted for the wide variability of symptom severity among depressed teens. Here we aimed to investigate white matter (WM microstructure between seventeen adolescents with MDD compared to sixteen matched healthy controls (HC using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. We further assessed within the MDD group relationships between WM integrity and depression severity, as well as anhedonia and irritability—two core symptoms of adolescent MDD. As expected, adolescents with MDD manifested decreased WM integrity compared to HC in the anterior cingulum and anterior corona radiata. Within the MDD group, greater depression severity was correlated with reduced WM integrity in the genu of corpus callosum, anterior thalamic radiation, anterior cingulum, and sagittal stratum. However, anhedonia and irritability were associated with alterations in distinct WM tracts. Specifically, anhedonia was associated with disturbances in tracts related to reward processing, including the anterior limb of the internal capsule and projection fibers to the orbitofrontal cortex. Irritability was associated with decreased integrity in the sagittal stratum, anterior corona radiata, and tracts leading to prefrontal and temporal cortices. Overall, these preliminary findings provide further support for the hypotheses that there is a disconnect between prefrontal and limbic emotional regions in depression, and that specific clinical symptoms involve distinct alterations in WM tracts.

  13. Social representations and psychological distress in adolescents with depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper was to understand social representations of depression in high school adolescents in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba. The study included 11 subjects aged between 14 and 17 years with depressive symptons, selected from a group of 296 adolescents. Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Semi-Structured Interview were two of the instruments used in the research, allowing results to indicate that depression is associated with feelings of sadness, such as ...

  14. Diagnosing bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kiki D

    2009-11-01

    Pediatric-onset bipolar disorder is common but often difficult to diagnose in younger patients. Clinicians should be sure to establish the presence of a full manic episode to make the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder. Because adult criteria are used for children and adolescents, clinicians also should be aware of developmental norms that can help to make an accurate diagnosis. Bipolar disorder NOS and other disorders in children and adolescents may be prodromal states for bipolar disorder, especially in the presence of a positive family history. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  15. A psychometric investigation of somatic and emotional symptoms of children and adolescents in Hong Kong : the role of physiological hyperarousal in differentiating anxiety and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Wai-Yee; 梁慧儀

    2013-01-01

    Emotional disorders of anxiety and depression have been recognized as the most prevalent mental disorders in children and adolescents. High rates of co-morbidity between anxiety and depression have been reported in both adults and youths. Clark and Watson (1991) proposed a tripartite model to explain both the overlap and distinctiveness of anxiety and depression. In that model, negative affectivity (NA) is experienced in both anxiety and depression; lack of positive affectivity (PA) is specif...

  16. Family mealtimes and eating psychopathology: the role of anxiety and depression among adolescent girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Hannah J; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-04-01

    Characteristics of family mealtimes are associated with disordered eating behaviours. However, little is known about the relationships between characteristics of family mealtimes and disordered eating attitudes, or how symptoms of anxiety or depression may contribute to these relationships. This study therefore aimed to examine differences between adolescent girls and boys in the relationship between family mealtime characteristics and eating psychopathology, and to explore the influence of anxiety and depression on this relationship. Adolescents (N=535; 286 girls and 249 boys) aged 14-18years completed self-report measures of family mealtime characteristics, eating psychopathology, anxiety and depression. Reports of more frequent family mealtimes, a more positive mealtime atmosphere and a high level of priority placed on mealtimes were all associated with significantly lower levels of eating-disordered attitudes among girls only. For boys, all four mealtime measures (higher mealtime frequency, more positive mealtime atmosphere, greater priority of mealtimes and higher levels of mealtime structure) were associated with lower levels of depression. Among girls, several of the family mealtime and eating psychopathology relationships were partially or fully mediated by either anxiety or depression. While these findings require longitudinal replication, family mealtimes are likely to be important in promoting psychological well-being among both girls and boys. Families should be encouraged to think beyond the frequency of mealtimes and to foster a positive mealtime environment which may help to promote adolescent psychological wellbeing, and might even protect young females against the development of eating psychopathology.

  17. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca G. van den Bulk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N = 25, adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N = 19 and healthy controls (N = 26. Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala.

  18. Correlation between bullying and clinical depression in adolescent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltiala-Heino R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino1, Sari Fröjd21University of Tampere Medical School, Tampere, Finland; 2Tampere School of Public Health, University of Tampere, FinlandAbstract: A literature review of the associations between involvement in bullying and depression is presented. Many studies have demonstrated a concurrent association between involvement in bullying and depression in adolescent population samples. Not only victims but also bullies display increased risk of depression, although not all studies have confirmed this for the bullies. Retrospective studies among adults support the notion that victimization is followed by depression. Prospective follow-up studies have suggested both that victimization from bullying may be a risk factor for depression and that depression may predispose adolescents to bullying. Research among clinically referred adolescents is scarce but suggests that correlations between victimization from bullying and depression are likely to be similar in clinical and population samples. Adolescents who bully present with elevated numbers of psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric and social welfare treatment contacts.Keywords: depression, bullying, adolescence 

  19. Depressive Symptoms, Self-Esteem and Perceived Parent-Child Relationship in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babore, Alessandra; Trumello, Carmen; Candelori, Carla; Paciello, Marinella; Cerniglia, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Early adolescence represents a critical developmental period both from a psychological and a psychopathological point of view. During this period, one of the most common disorders that frequently arise is represented by depression, that tends to become chronic and may produce many subsequent psychosocial impairments. The present study aimed to analyze characteristics of depressive symptoms in an Italian sample of early adolescents, and to explore their connections with self-esteem levels and perceived maternal and paternal emotional availability. 594 adolescents (50% females) with a mean age of 12.11 years (SD = 0.98) were administered the Children's Depression Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the maternal and the paternal forms of the Lum Emotional Availability of Parents. Findings highlighted a slightly higher, though not statistically significant, level of depressive symptoms in girls than in boys. Regression analysis showed that, as far as predictors of depression, self-esteem was the most relevant one, followed by maternal and paternal emotional availability. Our results strongly suggested to plan intervention programs aimed at monitoring early adolescents' self-esteem and supporting relationship with both parents, in order to prevent the emergence of depressive symptoms.

  20. Motor Disorder and Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology: A Monozygotic Co-Twin Control Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall-Jones, Jillian G.; Piek, Jan P.; Rigoli, Daniela; Martin, Neilson C.; Levy, Florence

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between poor motor ability and anxious and depressive symptomatology in child and adolescent monozygotic twins. The co-twin control design was used to explore these mental health issues in MZ twins concordant and discordant for a motor disorder, and controls. This methodology offers the…

  1. Motor Disorder and Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology: A Monozygotic Co-Twin Control Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall-Jones, Jillian G.; Piek, Jan P.; Rigoli, Daniela; Martin, Neilson C.; Levy, Florence

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between poor motor ability and anxious and depressive symptomatology in child and adolescent monozygotic twins. The co-twin control design was used to explore these mental health issues in MZ twins concordant and discordant for a motor disorder, and controls. This methodology offers the…

  2. Longitudinal associations between smoking and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Sarah J; Negriff, Sonya; Dorn, Lorah D; Pabst, Stephanie; Schulenberg, John

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is an important period for initiation of smoking and manifestation of depression, which are often comorbid. Researchers have examined associations between depressive symptoms and smoking to elucidate whether those with increased depressive symptoms smoke more to self-medicate, whether those who smoke experience increased subsequent depressive symptoms, or both. Collectively, there have been mixed findings; however, studies have been limited by (1) cross-sectional or short-term longitudinal data or (2) the use of methods that test associations, or only one direction in the associations, rather than a fully-reciprocal model to examine directionality. This study examined the associations between smoking and depressive symptoms in a sample of adolescent girls using latent dual change scores to model (1) the effect of smoking on change in depressive symptoms, and simultaneously (2) the effect of depressive symptoms on change in smoking across ages 11-20. Data were from a cohort-sequential prospective longitudinal study (N = 262). Girls were enrolled by age cohort (11, 13, 15, and 17 years) and were primarily White (61 %) or African American (31 %). Data were restructured by age. Every 6 months, girls reported depressive symptoms and cigarette use. Results indicated that controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, higher levels of smoking predicted a greater increase in depressive symptoms across adolescence. These findings suggest that a higher level of cigarette smoking does contribute to more depressive symptoms, which has implications for prevention of depression and for intervention and future research.

  3. Pharmacologic treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I; Sassi, Roberto; Diler, Rasim S

    2012-10-01

    This review focuses mainly on published articles regarding the treatment of school-aged children and adolescents with pediatric bipolar disorder. In light of systematic reviews, large randomized controlled trial data are emphasized wherever possible. This review addresses the treatment of acute manic/mixed episodes, including combination treatment, the preliminary literature regarding bipolar depression among youth, treatment in the face of comorbid conditions, and maintenance treatment. Suggestions regarding future directions are offered. A clinical vignette describing a teen with bipolar disorder is presented and bipolar medications, dosing, efficacy, side effects, contraindications, and succinct comments on each medication are summarized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Saavedra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders.

  5. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Kathleen; Molina-Márquez, Ana María; Saavedra, Nicolás; Zambrano, Tomás; Salazar, Luis A

    2016-08-05

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders.

  6. The Development of a Transdiagnostic, Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention for Childhood Anxiety Disorders and Co-Occurring Depression Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Bilek, Emily L.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent and frequently comorbid classes of disorder associated with significant impairment in youth. While current transdiagnostic protocols address a range of potential anxiety and depression symptoms among adult and adolescent populations, there are few similar treatment options for school-aged children with…

  7. The Development of a Transdiagnostic, Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention for Childhood Anxiety Disorders and Co-Occurring Depression Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Bilek, Emily L.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent and frequently comorbid classes of disorder associated with significant impairment in youth. While current transdiagnostic protocols address a range of potential anxiety and depression symptoms among adult and adolescent populations, there are few similar treatment options for school-aged children with…

  8. Interpersonal factors associated with depression in adolescents: are these consistent with theories underpinning interpersonal psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Gabrielle; Spence, Susan H; Donovan, Caroline L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether depressed adolescents differed from non-depressed adolescents in terms of constructs consistent with those that are proposed to underpin interpersonal psychotherapy. In particular, it was hypothesized that compared with non-depressed adolescents, depressed adolescents would demonstrate a greater number of negative life events associated with interpersonal loss and major life transitions, a more insecure attachment style and poorer communication skills, interpersonal relationships and social support. Thirty-one clinically diagnosed depressed adolescents were matched with 31 non-depressed adolescents on age, gender and socio-economic status. The 62 participants were aged between 12 and 19 years and comprised 18 male and 44 female adolescents. On a self-report questionnaire, depressed adolescents reported a greater number of negative interpersonal life events, a less secure attachment style and scored higher on all insecure attachment styles compared with the non-depressed adolescents. In addition, depressed adolescents demonstrated lower levels of social skill (on both adolescent and parent report), a poorer quality of relationship with parents (on both adolescent and parent report) and lower social competence (adolescent report only). Parents of depressed adolescents also reported more negative parental attitudes and behaviours towards their adolescent compared with parents of non-depressed adolescents. Thus, the results of this study are consistent with the constructs underlying interpersonal psychotherapy and suggest their usefulness in the assessment, conceptualization and treatment of adolescent depression. Clinical implications are discussed.

  9. Pathways from maternal depressive symptoms to adolescent depressive symptoms:the unique contribution of irritability symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Y.M.; Leibenluft, E.; Stringaris, A; Edward D Barker

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors tested three possible pathways linking prenatal maternal depressive symptoms to adolescent depressive symptoms. These pathways went through childhood Irritability Symptoms, Anxiety/Depressive Symptoms or Conduct Problems.METHOD: Data were collected from 3,963 mother-child pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Measures include maternal depressive symptoms (pre- and postnatal); toddler temperament (2 years); childhood (7-13 years) ir...

  10. Measurement invariance of the depressive symptoms scale during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Chaiton, Michael; Low, Nancy CP; Contreras, Gisèle; Barnett, Tracie A.,; O’Loughlin, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined (1) the factor structure of a depressive symptoms scale (DSS), (2) the sex and longitudinal invariance of the DSS, and (3) the predictive validity of the DSS scale during adolescence in terms of predicting depression and anxiety symptoms in early adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 1,293 adolescents. Results The analytical sample included 527 participants who provided compl...

  11. CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS IN ADOLESCENTS WITH CHEST PAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Endah Rahayuningsih; Rahmat Budi; Herry Garna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To detect cardiovascular abnormalities in adolescents with chest pain. Methods: In this cross sectional study, the subjects were 25 adolescents with chest pain who came to the Cardiac Center of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung during the period of January 2008 to January 2011. The presence of established cardiovascular disorders were based on history, physical examination, electrocardiography and echocardiography Results: It was found that 13/25 adolesce...

  12. [Cognition - the core of major depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosan, M; Lemogne, C; Jardri, R; Fossati, P

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive deficits have been only recently recognized as a major phenotype determinant of major depressive disorder, although they are an integral part of the definition of the depressive state. Congruent evidence suggest that these cognitive deficits persist beyond the acute phase and may be identified at all ages. The aim of the current study was to review the main meta-analyses on cognition and depression, which encompasses a large range of cognitive domains. Therefore, we discuss the "cold" (attention, memory, executive functions) and "hot" (emotional bias) cognitive impairments in MDD, as well as those of social cognition domains (empathy, theory of mind). Several factors interfere with cognition in MDD such as clinical (melancholic, psychotic...) features, age, age of onset, illness severity, medication and comorbid condition. As still debated in the literature, the type of relationship between the severity of cognitive symptoms and functioning in depression is detailed, thus highlighting their predictive value of functional outcome, independently of the affective symptoms. A better identification of the cognitive deficits in MDD and a monitoring of the effects of different treatments require appropriate instruments, which may be developed by taking advantage of the increasing success of computing tools. Overall, current data suggest a core role for different cognitive deficits in MDD, therefore opening new perspectives for optimizing the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relation Between Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Depressive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, Sayeda Ahmed; Hussien, El-Sayed Saleh; Hamed, Warda Elshahat; Zoromba, Mohamed Ali

    2017-02-01

    The present study aims to assess the emotional intelligence in relation to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with depressive disorders. A descriptive correlational study was utilized with a sample of (106) depressed patients who were diagnosed by a psychiatrist with depressive disorders at psychiatric outpatient clinics in Mansoura University Hospital. Data were collected through assessing socio demographic and clinical characteristics, assessing level of depression using Beck Depression Inventory BDI-II, and assessing emotional intelligence using Barchard emotional intelligence scales. Results revealed that emotional intelligence not related significantly to socio demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with depressive disorders, there is a highly significant relationship between emotional intelligence in relation to level of depression and other practices used to alleviate depression. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct a periodical workshops and training programs for adolescents and young in the universities, schools, social clubs, camps and youth organizations to enhance their emotional intelligence in order to prevent depression. In addition, assessing the effect of emotional intelligence programs on preventing and managing depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative efficacy, acceptability, and safety of medicinal, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and placebo treatments for acute major depressive disorder in children and adolescents: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongfeng; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Xiangrong; Li, Lingjiang

    2014-06-01

    New generation antidepressant therapies, including serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRIs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were introduced in the late 1980s; however, few comprehensive studies compared the benefits and risks of various contemporary treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD) in pediatric patients. Multiple-treatments meta-analysis (MTM) was conducted to assess efficacy, acceptability, and safety of contemporary interventions in children and adolescents with MDD. Cochrane Library, AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, LiLACS, MEDLINE, PSYCINFO, PSYNDEX, and Journal of Medicine and Pharmacy databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing medicinal interventions (citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, mirtazapine, paroxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), combined fluoxetine with CBT, and placebo treatment for acute MDD from January 1988 to March 2013. Treatment success, dropout rate, and suicidal ideation/attempt outcomes were measured. Bayesian methods were used to conduct a MTM including age and funding subgroups. A total of 21 RCTs (4969 participants) were identified. Combined fluoxetine/CBT exhibited the highest efficacy, with fluoxetine alone superior to CBT, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, escitalopram, and placebo treatment. Sertraline, paroxetine, escitalopram, and venlafaxine showed superior acceptability to fluoxetine and combined fluoxetine/CBT. Combined fluoxetine/CBT combination was less safe, though CBT was safer than fluoxetine alone. Combined fluoxetine/CBT, fluoxetine, and mirtazapine exhibited the highest efficacy; sertraline, escitalopram, venlafaxine, and paroxetine were the best tolerated; and mirtazapine and venlafaxine were the safest. Sertraline and mirtazapine exhibited optimally balanced efficacy, acceptability, and safety for first-line acute treatment of child and adolescent MDD.

  15. Disorder-specific cognitive profiles in major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, S.M.; Licht, C.M.M.; Spijker, J; Beekman, A T F; Hardeveld, F.; de Graaf, R.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This investigation examines differences in cognitive profiles in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods: Data were used from subjects with current MDD (n = 655), GAD (n = 107) and comorbid MDD/GAD (n = 266) diagnosis from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument was used to diagnose MDD and GAD. Cognitive profiles were measured using the Leiden Index of Depression S...

  16. [Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, C; Casper, P

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar disorder affects all age categories, included children and adolescents (in this case, prepubertal and early adolescent or PEA-BP). Its diagnosis at this age is difficult for two reasons: first, clinical symptoms are different from these encountered by adults and second, an important psychiatric comorbidity is often observed (especially with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or ADHD). This review presents the clinical presentation, the differential diagnosis, the familial antecedents, the comorbidity and the treatment of the PEA-BP.

  17. Romantic and Sexual Activities, Parent-Adolescent Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Joanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Starr, Lisa R.; Miller, Melissa Ramsay; Yoneda, Athena; Hershenberg, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Building on evidence that romantic experiences are associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence, we examined their bidirectional association, as well as the role of sexual activity and parent-adolescent stress in their association. Data were collected from 71 early adolescent girls (M age 13.45 years; SD = 0.68) and their primary caregiver…

  18. Perceived Parental Monitoring, Adolescent Disclosure, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Chloe A.; Willoughby, Teena

    2011-01-01

    Parental monitoring has long been stressed as an important parenting practice in reducing adolescents' susceptibility to depressive symptoms. Reviews have revealed, however, that measures of monitoring have been confounded with parental knowledge, and that the role of adolescent disclosure has been neglected. In the present study, adolescents (N =…

  19. [Neuropsychological profiles of adolescents with bipolar disorder and adolescents with a high risk of bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakurt, Melih Nuri; Karabekiroğllu, M Z Koray; Yüce, Murat; Baykal, Saliha; Şenses, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    In recent years evidence of an association between bipolar disorder (BD), and specific neuropsychological impairment and familial transmission of BD has been mounting. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and neuropsychological features of BD in adolescents, to assess the clinical and neuropsychological parameters in adolescents with a high risk of familial transmission of BD, and to identify probable early markers of the disorder. The study included 25 patients aged 12-18 years that were diagnosed as BD (case group), 25 adolescents without a mood disorder that had a parent and/or sibling diagnosed as BD, (risk group), and 25 typically developing adolescents (control group). To determine neuropsychological profiles the participants were administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT), and Continuous Performance Test (CPT), and to evaluate clinical and behavioral profiles the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), Parent-Young Mania Rating Scale (P-YMRS), Youth Self-Report (YSR), and Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-48) were administered. The case group performed significantly lower on the WCST, SCWT, and CPT in terms of executive and attention functions, whereas there wasn't a difference between the risk group and control group. In addition, significantly more of the adolescents in the case and risk groups had clinical and behavioral problems than those in the control group. The findings show that behavioral and clinical problems were more common in the risk group than in the control group, and that the frequency of attention and executive function impairment was similar in both of those groups. The findings suggest that BD itself may be associated with attention and executive function impairments, whereas a familial risk of BD may be associated with some behavioral problems. Follow-up and neuroimaging studies conducted with a larger number of participants, and neuropsychological test profiles may provide more

  20. Factors Predicting Rural Chinese Adolescents' Anxieties, Fears and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Zhang, Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study examined age, gender, birth order and self-perceived level of achievement and popularity, as predictors of anxieties, fears and depression in Chinese adolescents. A sample of 398 rural Chinese adolescents participated in this study. Gender, academic performance and popularity have been found to make the greatest contributions to the…

  1. Perfectionism, Rumination, Worry, and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, Gordon L.; Coulter, Lisa-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.; Nepon, Taryn

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined trait perfectionism, automatic perfectionistic thoughts, rumination, worry, and depressive symptoms in early adolescents. A group of 81 elementary school students in Grades 7 and 8 completed 5 questionnaires: the Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory, the Children's Response Styles…

  2. School Climate, Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms among Asian American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…

  3. The Lonely and Gifted Adolescent: Stress, Depression and Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Charles F.; Berndt, David J.

    Loneliness has been implicated as a central causal factor in depression, suicide, social problems, physical illness and general maladjustment. To investigate the correlates of loneliness in gifted adolescents, 175 adolescents (aged 14-17) who had been separated from their homes to participate in a special academic program completed a battery of…

  4. Social inequality in the prevalence of depressive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I; Thielen, K; Nygaard, Else

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainties exist about the strength of the relation between socioeconomic position and depressive disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between education, occupation, employment and income and depressive disorders measured as minor and major depression, as well as...

  5. Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome, Depression, Depressive Illness, and Correlates in a Child and Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Renata; Gulisano, Mariangela; Martino, Davide; Robertson, Mary May

    2017-04-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and depression are both common disorders. It has been suggested that depression occurs in 13%-76% GTS patients. Despite this, there are few studies into the specific relationships and correlates between the two disorders. There is only some consensus as to the precise relationship between the two disorders. We undertook the study to investigate the relationship between depressive symptomatology and the core clinical features of GTS in a well-characterized clinical population of youth with this disorder. Our aim was to verify the association between depression and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and explore further other potential associations highlighted in some, but not all, of the studies focused on this topic. Our results demonstrated that (1) the GTS patients were significantly older than the controls, (2) the GTS patients were significantly more depressed than controls, (3) depression was associated with tic severity, (4) the Diagnostic Confidence Index scores were higher in GTS patients without depression, (5) anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and behavioral problems were significantly associated with depression, and (6) finally, patients with GTS and depression have a positive family history of depression. However, obsessionality (CY-BOCS) did not differentiate between depressed and not depressed GTS patients. Depression is common in patients with GTS and occurs significantly more in GTS than in controls. Depression is significantly associated with GTS factors such as tic severity, comorbidity with ADHD, and the presence of coexistent anxiety, CDs, and behavior problems. Depression is importantly significantly associated with a positive family history of depression. Intriguingly, depression in our sample was not related to obsessionality.

  6. Adolescents with Major Depression Demonstrate Increased Amygdala Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tony T.; Simmons, Alan N.; Matthews, Scott C.; Tapert, Susan F.; Frank, Guido K.; Max, Jeffrey E.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Lansing, Amy E.; Brown, Gregory; Strigo, Irina A.; Wu, Jing; Paulus, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional neuroimaging studies have led to a significantly deeper understanding of the underlying neural correlates and the development of several mature models of depression in adults. In contrast, our current understanding of the underlying neural substrates of adolescent depression is very limited. Although numerous studies have…

  7. Trait Rumination, Depression, and Executive Functions in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Clara A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2014-01-01

    Although deficits in executive functions have been linked with both depression and rumination in adulthood, the nature of the relationship between these constructs is not well understood and remains understudied in adolescence. The present study examined the relationship of rumination and depression to deficits in executive functions in early adolescence, a critical developmental period for the emergence of depression and rumination and the development of executive functions. Participants were 486 early adolescents (52.7% female; 47.1% African American, 48.8% Caucasian; 4.2% Biracial/Multiracial/Other; M age = 12.88 years; SD = .62) and their mothers, recruited through local schools. Measures included (a) a semi-structured diagnostic interview of the mother and adolescent, (b) youth self-report forms assessing depressive symptoms and trait rumination, (c) mother-report forms assessing demographic information, and (d) behavioral tests of executive function (sustained, selective and divided attention, attentional set shifting, and working memory). Gender moderated rumination-set shifting associations, such that rumination predicted better set shifting in boys only. The current level of depressive symptoms moderated rumination-sustained attention associations, such that rumination predicted better sustained attention in those with low levels of depressive symptoms and worse sustained attention in those with high levels of depressive symptoms. Rumination did not predict performance on other measures of executive functions. Likewise, depressive symptoms and diagnosis were not associated with executive functions. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24839132

  8. Impact of Comorbidity in Prevention of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possel, Patrick; Seemann, Simone; Hautzinger, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Despite the well-known relevance of comorbidity, few studies have examined the impact of comorbid anxiety or externalizing symptoms on the prevention of depressive symptoms in adolescents. To replicate earlier positive effects of a cognitive-behavioral prevention program of depressive symptoms and to test the hypothesis that the prevention program…

  9. Emotion socialization within the family environment and adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Orli S; Sheeber, Lisa B; Dudgeon, Paul; Allen, Nicholas B

    2012-08-01

    This review evaluates research addressing the association between parent-child emotional interactions and the development and maintenance of depression in adolescence, with a focus on studies using observational research methods that assess parental responses to children and adolescents' emotional displays. We argue that parental socialization behaviors in response to different emotions expressed by youths may have distinct associations with depressive outcomes. In particular, parental behaviors that reinforce depressive behavior, reciprocate aggression, and fail to positively reinforce positive behavior have each been associated with youth depression. This review identifies a need for more observational research, including prospective, longitudinal studies, to better understand these behaviors, elucidate the directionality of influence between parental socialization behaviors and youth depression, and more clearly identify protective parental socialization behaviors. However, the use of existing findings to inform family-based interventions may improve prevention and treatment efforts directed at youth depression.

  10. Moderators of the Effects of Indicated Group and Bibliotherapy Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Programs on Adolescents’ Depressive Symptoms and Depressive Disorder Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Stice, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. PMID:26480199

  11. Common and Distinct Amygdala-Function Perturbations in Depressed vs Anxious Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesdo, Katja; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Guyer, Amanda E.; McClure-Tone, Erin B.; Monk, Christopher S.; Nelson, Eric E.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Goldwin, Michelle A.; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Leibenluft, Ellen; Ernst, Monique; Pine, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Context Few studies directly compare amygdala function in depressive and anxiety disorders. Data from longitudinal research emphasize the need for such studies in adolescents. Objective To compare amygdala response to varying attention and emotion conditions among adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) or anxiety disorders, relative to adolescents with no psychopathology. Design Case-control study. Setting Government clinical research institute. Participants Eighty-seven adolescents matched on age, sex, intelligence, and social class: 26 with MDD (14 with and 12 without anxiety disorders), 16 with anxiety disorders but no depression, and 45 without psychopathology. Main Outcome Measures Blood oxygen level–dependent signal in the amygdala, measured by means of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. During imaging, participants viewed facial expressions (neutral, fearful, angry, and happy) while attention was constrained (afraid, hostility, and nose-width ratings) or unconstrained (passive viewing). Results Left and right amygdala activation differed as a function of diagnosis, facial expression, and attention condition both when patients with comorbid MDD and anxiety were included and when they were excluded (group × emotion × attention interactions, P≤.03). Focusing on fearful face–viewing events, patients with anxiety and those with MDD both differed in amygdala responses from healthy participants and from each other during passive viewing. However, both MDD and anxiety groups, relative to healthy participants, exhibited similar signs of amygdala hyperactivation to fearful faces when subjectively experienced fear was rated. Conclusions Adolescent MDD and anxiety disorders exhibit common and distinct functional neural correlates during face processing. Attention modulates the degree to which common or distinct amygdala perturbations manifest in these patient groups, relative to healthy peers. PMID:19255377

  12. Detailed course of depressive symptoms and risk for developing depression in late adolescents with subthreshold depression: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinnin R

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ran Jinnin,1 Yasumasa Okamoto,1 Koki Takagaki,1 Yoshiko Nishiyama,1 Takanao Yamamura,1 Yuri Okamoto,2 Yoshie Miyake,2 Yoshitake Takebayashi,3 Keisuke Tanaka,4 Yoshinori Sugiura,5 Haruki Shimoda,6 Norito Kawakami,6 Toshi A Furukawa,7 Shigeto Yamawaki1 1Department of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, 2Health Service Center, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 3Risk Analysis Research Center, The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tokyo, Japan; 4Graduated School of Education, Joetsu University of Education, Niigata, Japan; 5Graduated School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 6Department of Mental Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 7Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: Despite its clinical importance, adolescent subthreshold depression remains a largely neglected topic. The aims of this study were to accurately identify the natural course of depressive symptoms and the risk for developing major depressive episode (MDE in late adolescents with subthreshold depression over 1 year.Patients and methods: One hundred and seventy-two participants <20 years of age (mean age: 18.32 years, standard deviation: 0.50, who did not meet the full criteria for an MDE, were selected from 2,494 screened freshmen based on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II. We conducted a cohort study of three groups (low-, middle-, and high-symptom groups divided based on BDI-II scores, over a 1 year period with the use of bimonthly assessments. Temporal changes of depressive symptoms were analyzed using linear mixed modeling and growth mixture modeling.Results: First, we found that late adolescents with subthreshold depression (high depressive symptoms were split between the increasing and decreasing depressive symptoms groups, whereas the majority of the less-symptoms group remained

  13. Subclinical depression in Urban Indian adolescents: Prevalence, felt needs, and correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Meghna; Manjula, M.; Vijay Sagar, K. John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subclinical depression in adolescents constitutes a risk factor for future clinical depression and hence warrants examination. However, there is a paucity of research that documents subclinical depression among adolescents in India. Objectives: (a) To investigate the prevalence of subclinical depression in urban school-going adolescents; (b) to investigate the problems and felt needs of these adolescents; (c) to examine depression-related variables; and (d) to examine the relation...

  14. [Management of bipolar 1 disorder in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecardeur, L; Benarous, X; Milhiet, V; Consoli, A; Cohen, D

    2014-04-01

    Lifetime prevalence of child and adolescent bipolar 1 disorder (BD1) is nearly 0.1 %. Even though it is not a frequent disorder in young people, there is an increased interest for this disorder at this age, because of the poor outcome, the severe functional impairments and the major risk of suicide. Diagnosis is complex in view of the more frequent comorbidities, the variability with an age-dependant clinical presentation, and the overlap in symptom presentation with other psychiatric disorders (e.g. disruptive disorders in prepubertal the child and schizophrenia in the adolescent). The presentation in adolescents is very similar to that in adults and in prepubertal children chronic persistent irritability and rapid mood oscillation are often at the foreground. For a while, such presentations were considered as BD-not otherwise specified (BD-NOS), which can explain the outburst of the prevalence of bipolar disorder in children in the US. Longitudinal studies that look for the outcome of such emotional dysregulations have not revealed an affiliation with bipolar disorder spectrum, but with depressive disorders in adulthood. The diagnosis of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder was proposed in the DSM-5 to identify these children and to prevent confusion with bipolar disorder. The goals of the pharmacological and psychosocial treatments are to control or ameliorate the symptoms, to avoid new episodes or recurrences, to improve psychosocial functioning and well-being, and to prevent suicide. In the US, lithium and four atypical antipsychotics have been approved by the FDA for 10 to 13-year-olds (risperidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole and quetiapine). In France, only lithium salts (after the age of 16) and aripiprazole (after the age of 13) are recommended. Psychosocial treatments, such as a familial or individual approach are developing. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychosocial Functioning in Depressive Patients: A Comparative Study between Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Major depressive disorder (MDD and bipolar affective disorder (BAD are among the leading causes of disability. These are often associated with widespread impairments in all domains of functioning including relational, occupational, and social. The main aim of the study was to examine and compare nature and extent of psychosocial impairment of patients with MDD and BAD during depressive phase. Methodology. 96 patients (48 in MDD group and 48 in BAD group were included in the study. Patients were recruited in depressive phase (moderate to severe depression. Patients having age outside 18–45 years, psychotic symptoms, mental retardation, and current comorbid medical or axis-1 psychiatric disorder were excluded. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT. Results. Domains of work, interpersonal relationship, life satisfaction, and recreation were all affected in both groups, but the groups showed significant difference in global psychosocial functioning score only (P=0.031 with BAD group showing more severe impairment. Conclusion. Bipolar depression causes higher global psychosocial impairment than unipolar depression.

  16. Treatments in child and adolescent bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Angèle; Deniau, Emmannuelle; Huynh, Christophe; Purper, Diane; Cohen, David

    2007-04-01

    The existence of bipolar disorder in adolescents is now clearly established. However, whether bipolarity exists in children is more controversial. We reviewed the literature on acute and prophylactic treatment of bipolar disorder in youths. The guidelines for the treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents are generally similar to those applied in adult practice. But no evidence-based data support the use of mood stabilisers or antipsychotics since we only found two placebo-randomised controlled trials testing the efficacy of lithium in the paediatric literature. Therefore, we support the view that prescriptions should be limited to the most typical cases. In fact, the use of mood stabilisers or antipsychotics in the treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents appears to be of limited use when a comorbid condition, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, occurs unless aggressive behaviour is the target symptom.

  17. Differences in the ICD-10 diagnostic subtype of depression in bipolar disorder compared to recurrent depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H.M.; Christensen, E.M.; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2008-01-01

    disorder, current episode of depression, were significantly less often outpatients (49.4 vs. 68.0%), significantly more often got a diagnosis of severe depression (42.7 vs. 23.3%) or a diagnosis of depression with psychotic symptoms (14.9 vs. 7.2%). The rate of subsequent hospitalization was increased...... with psychotic symptoms when it occurs as part of a bipolar disorder than as part of a recurrent depressive disorder. Copyright (C) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel Udgivelsesdato: 2008...... for patients with bipolar disorder, current episode of depression, compared with patients with a current depression as part of a recurrent depressive disorder (HR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.20-1.86). Conclusions: The results consistently indicate that a depressive episode is severer and/or more often associated...

  18. A Multi-Family Group Intervention for Adolescent Depression: The BEST MOOD Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Lucinda A; Lewis, Andrew J; Toumbourou, John W; Knight, Tess; Bertino, Melanie D; Pryor, Reima

    2017-06-01

    Depression is the most common mental disorder for young people, and it is associated with educational underachievement, self-harm, and suicidality. Current psychological therapies for adolescent depression are usually focused only on individual-level change and often neglect family or contextual influences. The efficacy of interventions may be enhanced with a broader therapeutic focus on family factors such as communication, conflict, support, and cohesion. This article describes a structured multi-family group approach to the treatment of adolescent depression: Behaviour Exchange Systems Therapy for adolescent depression (BEST MOOD). BEST MOOD is a manualized intervention that is designed to address both individual and family factors in the treatment of adolescent depression. BEST MOOD adopts a family systems approach that also incorporates psychoeducation and elements of attachment theories. The program consists of eight multifamily group therapy sessions delivered over 2 hours per week, where parents attend the first four sessions and young people and siblings join from week 5. The program design is specifically aimed to engage youth who are initially resistant to treatment and to optimize youth and family mental health outcomes. This article presents an overview of the theoretical model, session content, and evaluations to date, and provides a case study to illustrate the approach. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  19. Parent–Teen Interactions as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with Headache

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Amy S.; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated parent–adolescent conflict, family functioning, and adolescent autonomy as predictors of depressive symptoms in adolescents with primary headache. Frequent headaches during adolescence can have a negative impact on activity levels and psychological functioning. Depression is particularly prevalent in adolescents with headache but little research has examined the role of parent–teen interactions in predicting depressive symptoms. Thirty adolescents diagnosed with migrai...

  20. Mediator Effects of Positive Emotions on Social Support and Depression among Adolescents Suffering from Mobile Phone Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menglong; Jiang, Xia; Ren, Yujia

    2017-06-01

    Depression is a common mental disorder that is widely seen among adolescents suffering from mobile phone addiction. While it is well known that both positive emtions in adolescents wiotions and social support can have a positive impact by helping individuals to maintain a positive attitude, the correlation between positive emotions, social support, and depression among these adolescents remains to be investigated. This study examined the mediator effects of positive emotions on the relationship between social support and depression among adolescents suffering from mobile phone addiction. For this study, conducted in 2016, we selected 1,346 adolescent students from three middle schools (ranging from Junior Grade One to Senior Grade Three) in Hunan Province of China, to participate in the survey. Participants were selected using the stratified cluster random sampling method, and all participants remained anonymous throughout the study. Each participant completed the Self-made General Situation Questionnaire, the Social Support Rating Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the Mobile Phone Addiction Tendency Scale. There was significant positive correlation between positive emotions and social support. Both positive emotions and social support demonstrated significant negative correlation with depression. Positive emotions had partial mediator effects on the relationship between social support and depression (Pmobile phone addiction. Social support contributes to positive emoth mobile phone addiction, thereby reducing their levels of depression. These findings suggest that more support and care should be given to this particular adolescent population.

  1. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  2. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  3. [Epidemology and treatment of depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Michael

    2003-01-01

    5-10% of the general population suffer from depressive disorders, one third of which are chronic. Depression impairs the quality of life, and 30.8% of patients show reduced working capacity. Patients are on average 10.9 days per month on sick leave. About half of the depressed patients undergo treatment, contacting general practitioners at an average of 14.5 times, psychotherapists 2 times and psychiatrists 1.4 times per year. Approximately 100 million daily doses of specific antidepressants are prescribed per year in Germany, an amount enough to treat 1% of the general population, which is indicative of an insufficient treatment rate. Pharmacotherapy has been found to be more effective than psychotherapy in acute episodes. However, psychotherapy patients show better long term results in respect to relapses and social adaptation. Due to the large number of depressed patients, general practitioners are the primary therapists. Referral to psychiatrists or psychotherapists is indicated in cases of chronic and complicated courses.

  4. Affective Priming in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle eLeMoult

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on cognitive biases in depression has provided considerable evidence for the impact of emotion on cognition. Individuals with depression tend to preferentially process mood-congruent material and to show deficits in the processing of positive material leading to biases in attention, memory, and judgments. More research is needed, however, to fully understand which cognitive processes are affected. The current study further examines the impact of emotion on cognition using a priming design with facial expressions of emotion. Specifically, this study tested whether the presentation of facial expressions of emotion affects subsequent processing of affective material in participants with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy controls (CTL. Facial expressions displaying happy, sad, angry, disgusted, or neutral expressions were presented as primes for 500ms, and participants’ speed to identify a subsequent target’s emotional expression was assessed. All participants displayed greater interference from emotional versus neutral primes, marked by slower response times to judge the emotion of the target face when it was preceded by an emotional prime. Importantly, the CTL group showed the strongest interference when happy emotional expressions served as primes whereas the MDD group failed to show this bias. These results add to a growing literature that shows that depression is associated with difficulties in the processing of positive material.

  5. Depressed affect and dietary restraint in adolescent boys' and girls' eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nichole R; Shomaker, Lauren B; Pickworth, Courtney K; Grygorenko, Mariya V; Radin, Rachel M; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M; Brady, Sheila M; Courville, Amber B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-08-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17 y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p < .001). Yet, there was no main effect of film condition on EAH (p = .26). Instead, dietary restraint predicted greater EAH among girls, but not boys (p < .001). These findings provide evidence that adolescent girls' propensity to report restrained eating is associated with their greater disinhibited eating in the laboratory. Additional experimental research, perhaps utilizing a more potent laboratory stressor and manipulating both affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence.

  6. Evidence for Broadening Criteria for Atypical Depression Which May Define a Reactive Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Brett; Angst, Jules

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1) The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2) Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite/weight. (3) Several studies have found atypical depression to be comorbid with headaches, bulimia, and body image issues. (4) Most probands who report atypical depression meet criteria for "somatic depression," defined as depression associated with several of disordered eating, poor body image, headaches, fatigue, and insomnia. The gender difference in prevalence of atypical depression results from its overlap with somatic depression. Somatic depression is associated with psychosocial measures related to gender, linking it with the descriptions of atypical depression as "reactive" appearing in the studies upon which the original criteria for atypical depression were based. Conclusion. Insomnia, disordered eating, poor body image, and aches/pains should be added as criteria for atypical depression matching criteria for somatic depression defining a reactive depressive disorder possibly distinct from endogenous melancholic depression.

  7. Evidence for Broadening Criteria for Atypical Depression Which May Define a Reactive Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Silverstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1 The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2 Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite/weight. (3 Several studies have found atypical depression to be comorbid with headaches, bulimia, and body image issues. (4 Most probands who report atypical depression meet criteria for “somatic depression,” defined as depression associated with several of disordered eating, poor body image, headaches, fatigue, and insomnia. The gender difference in prevalence of atypical depression results from its overlap with somatic depression. Somatic depression is associated with psychosocial measures related to gender, linking it with the descriptions of atypical depression as “reactive” appearing in the studies upon which the original criteria for atypical depression were based. Conclusion. Insomnia, disordered eating, poor body image, and aches/pains should be added as criteria for atypical depression matching criteria for somatic depression defining a reactive depressive disorder possibly distinct from endogenous melancholic depression.

  8. A Randomized Depression Prevention Trial Comparing Interpersonal Psychotherapy--Adolescent Skills Training to Group Counseling in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jami F; Benas, Jessica S; Schueler, Christie M; Gallop, Robert; Gillham, Jane E; Mufson, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Given the rise in depression disorders in adolescence, it is important to develop and study depression prevention programs for this age group. The current study examined the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group prevention program for adolescent depression, in comparison to group programs that are typically delivered in school settings. In this indicated prevention trial, 186 adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST delivered by research staff or group counseling (GC) delivered by school counselors. Hierarchical linear modeling examined differences in rates of change in depressive symptoms and overall functioning from baseline to the 6-month follow-up assessment. Cox regression compared rates of depression diagnoses. Adolescents in IPT-AST showed significantly greater improvements in self-reported depressive symptoms and evaluator-rated overall functioning than GC adolescents from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. However, there were no significant differences between the two conditions in onset of depression diagnoses. Although both intervention conditions demonstrated significant improvements in depressive symptoms and overall functioning, results indicate that IPT-AST has modest benefits over groups run by school counselors which were matched on frequency and duration of sessions. In particular, IPT-AST outperformed GC in reduction of depressive symptoms and improvements in overall functioning. These findings point to the clinical utility of this depression prevention program, at least in the short-term. Additional follow-up is needed to determine the long-term effects of IPT-AST, relative to GC, particularly in preventing depression onset.

  9. Depression and intimate relationships of adolescents from divorced families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadžikapetanović, Halima; Babić, Tajib; Bjelošević, Edin

    2017-02-01

    Aim To determine an impact of parental divorce to depression and intimate relationships of young people during adolescence, and prevalence of symptoms of depression and the level of intimacy in relations to adolescents living in intact families and those from divorced families. Methods This prospective descriptive research was conducted on a sample of 168 examinees of which 64 (38.1%) were students of the University Zenica, and 104 (61.9%) high students schools from Zenica and Maglaj cities during May and June 2011. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) II, Miller Social Intimacy Scale and sociodemographic questionnaire were used. Results Adolescents from divorced families had statistically significantly higher level of depression (pintimate relationships, with a legislative introduction of premarital and marriage counseling for parents in the conflict. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  10. Abuse, support, and depression among homeless and runaway adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, W N; Whitbeck, L B; Hoyt, D R

    2000-12-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of social support networks on psychological well-being among 602 homeless and runaway adolescents. The respondents were interviewed in shelters, drop-in centers, and on the streets in cities of four Midwestern states (Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas). The path model was used to test the direct effect of family abuse and precocious independence on adolescent depressive symptoms and indirect effects through social support networks. Results indicate that although abusive family origins contribute directly to depressive symptoms there are indirect effects of family abuse and early independence through social support networks. Family abuse and early independence drive homeless adolescents to rely on peers for social support. While support from friends on the street reduces depression, association with deviant peers increases depression.

  11. Anxiety, depression and behavioral problems among adolescents with recurrent headache: the Young-HUNT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well documented that both anxiety and depression are associated with headache, but there is limited knowledge regarding the relation between recurrent primary headaches and symptoms of anxiety and depression as well as behavioral problems among adolescents. Assessment of co-morbid disorders is important in order to improve the management of adolescents with recurrent headaches. Thus the main purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of recurrent headache with anxiety and depressive symptoms and behavioral problems in a large population based cross-sectional survey among adolescents in Norway. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Norway from 1995 to 1997 (Young-HUNT1). In Young-HUNT1, 4872 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were interviewed about their headache complaints and completed a comprehensive questionnaire that included assessment of symptoms of anxiety and depression and behavioral problems, i.e. conduct and attention difficulties. Results In adjusted multivariate analyses among adolescents aged 12–14 years, recurrent headache was associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.61-2.61, p headache categories; i.e. migraine, tension-type headache and non-classifiable headache. Among adolescents aged 15–17 years there was a significant association between recurrent headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.39-1.93, p headache was significantly associated only with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Non-classifiable headache was associated with attention difficulties and conduct difficulties, but not with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Headache frequency was significantly associated with increasing symptoms scores for anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as attention difficulties, evident for both age groups. Conclusions The results from the present study indicate that both anxiety and depressive symptoms and behavioral problems are

  12. Discrepancies Between Perceptions of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms : An Illustration of Polynomial Regression Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, S A; Branje, S J T; Hale, W W; Goossens, L; Koot, H M; Oldehinkel, A J; Meeus, W H J

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their rel

  13. Discrepancies between perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship and early adolescent depressive symptoms : An illustration of polynomial regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, S. A.; Branje, S. J. T.; Hale, W. W.; Goossens, L.; Koot, H. M.; Oldehinkel, A. J.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their

  14. Personality disorders and social functioning in depressed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, S; Dekker, J; Duijsens, [No Value; de Jonghe, F; de Jong, P; Schouws, S

    2000-01-01

    There is a high level of comorbidity of personality disorders with major depression. Patients who suffer from both depression and an axis II disorder are, in general, more severely ill and ill for longer periods. The presence of personality disorders also has a negative influence on the social funct

  15. Personality disorders and social functioning in depressed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, S; Dekker, J; Duijsens, [No Value; de Jonghe, F; de Jong, P; Schouws, S

    2000-01-01

    There is a high level of comorbidity of personality disorders with major depression. Patients who suffer from both depression and an axis II disorder are, in general, more severely ill and ill for longer periods. The presence of personality disorders also has a negative influence on the social

  16. Depressive Symptoms, Self-Esteem and Perceived Parent–Child Relationship in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babore, Alessandra; Trumello, Carmen; Candelori, Carla; Paciello, Marinella; Cerniglia, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Early adolescence represents a critical developmental period both from a psychological and a psychopathological point of view. During this period, one of the most common disorders that frequently arise is represented by depression, that tends to become chronic and may produce many subsequent psychosocial impairments. The present study aimed to analyze characteristics of depressive symptoms in an Italian sample of early adolescents, and to explore their connections with self-esteem levels and perceived maternal and paternal emotional availability. Methods: 594 adolescents (50% females) with a mean age of 12.11 years (SD = 0.98) were administered the Children’s Depression Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the maternal and the paternal forms of the Lum Emotional Availability of Parents. Results: Findings highlighted a slightly higher, though not statistically significant, level of depressive symptoms in girls than in boys. Regression analysis showed that, as far as predictors of depression, self-esteem was the most relevant one, followed by maternal and paternal emotional availability. Conclusion: Our results strongly suggested to plan intervention programs aimed at monitoring early adolescents’ self-esteem and supporting relationship with both parents, in order to prevent the emergence of depressive symptoms. PMID:27445941

  17. Prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Cheong, Siew Man; Mahadir Naidu, Balkish; Kaur, Gurpreet; Manickam, Mala A; Mat Noor, Malisa; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Depression among adolescents has been recognized as a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the Malaysia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 were analyzed with additional data from the validated DASS21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress) questionnaire. The study revealed that 17.7% of respondents had depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis further showed that feeling lonely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.99; 95% CI = 2.57-3.47), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.63-2.44), using drugs (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.21-2.82), and being bullied (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.60-1.99) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Lack of parental supervision, alcohol use, and tobacco use were also significant risk factors. Addressing depressive symptoms among adolescents may have implications for managing their risks of being bullied and substance use. This study also highlights the need to further investigate depressive symptoms among adolescents of Indian ethnicity.

  18. Risk of Substance Use Disorders in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Biederman, Joseph; Kwon, Anne; Ditterline, Jeffrey; Forkner, Peter; Moore, Hadley; Swezey, Allison; Snyder, Lindsey; Henin, Aude; Wozniak, Janet; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Previous work in adults and youths has suggested that juvenile onset bipolar disorder (BPD) is associated with an elevated risk of substance use disorders (SUD). Considering the public health importance of this issue, the authors now report on a controlled study of adolescents with and without BPD to evaluate the risk of SUD. Method:…

  19. Bipolar and related disorders and depressive disorders in DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łojko,Dorota

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, a version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, having number 5, was published. The DSM is a textbook which aims to present diagnostic criteria for each psychiatric disorder recognized by the U.S. healthcare system. The DSM-5 comprises the most updated diagnostic criteria of psychiatric disorders as well as their description, and provides a common language for clinicians to communicate about the patients. Diagnostic criteria of the DSM-5 have been popular all over the world, including countries where the ICD-10 classification is obligatory, and are widely used for clinical and neurobiological research in psychiatry. In this article, two chapters of the DSM-5 pertained to mood (affective disorders are presented, such as “Bipolar and related disorders” and “Depressive disorders” replacing the chapter titled “Mood disorders” in the previous version of DSM-IV. The aim of this article is to discuss a structure of new classification, to point out differences compared with previous version (DSM-IV. New diagnostic categories, such as e.g. disruptive mood dysregulation disorder or premenstrual dysphoric disorder were depicted as well as some elements of dimensional approach to mood disorders were presented.

  20. Psychiatric comorbidities among adolescents with and without anxiety disorders: a community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estácio Amaro da Silva Júnior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate, in a community sample of adolescents, the presence of comorbidities in different anxiety disorders. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, initially composed of 2,457 adolescents, aged between 10-17 years old, from public schools of the area covered by the Basic Health Unit of a university hospital. We applied the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED to assess for anxiety disorders. Then, 138 positive cases in the screening were assessed for mental disorders through the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children – Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL. Results Patients with anxiety disorders had more association with other anxiety disorders, as well as depression, and enuresis. The most common comorbidity described in our study was between generalized anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder (OR = 4.21, 95% CI 1.88, 9.58. Significant association was observed between other disorders such as enuresis and separation anxiety disorder (OR = 3.81, 95% CI 1.16, 12.49, as well as depression and generalized anxiety disorder (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.52, 7.61. Conclusion Our study showed a relevant presence of comorbidities adolescents with anxiety disorders, selected from a community sample, especially regarding other anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  1. Mediated moderation of the relation between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms: role of adolescent physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    To examine the mediating effect of family functioning on the relation between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms and determine whether the magnitude of the mediating effect is different for adolescents with and without chronic physical health conditions. Data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. A representative survey of 11,813 adolescents and their mothers was included. Maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms were measured using the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Family functioning was measured using the McMaster Family Assessment Device. Multilevel multiple-group path analysis was used to examine potential mediating and moderating effects. Family functioning measured when adolescents were 14-15 years mediated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms (measured at 10-13 years) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured at 16-19 years) for both adolescents with [αβ = 0.02 (0.02, 0.03)] and without chronic health conditions [αβ = 0.01 (0.00, 0.01)]. These findings provided evidence to suggest mediated moderation, Δαβ = 0.02 (0.01, 0.03), that is, the mediating effect of family functioning was significantly larger for adolescents with chronic health conditions. The mediating effect of family functioning in the relation between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms is larger for adolescents with chronic health conditions. Within the framework of family-centered care, maternal depressive symptoms and family functioning are suitable targets for preventive intervention for adolescents with chronic health conditions.

  2. Cognitive control network connectivity in adolescent women with and without a parental history of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Clasen

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Depressed parents may transmit depression vulnerability to their adolescent daughters via alterations in functional connectivity within neural circuits that underlie cognitive control of emotional information.

  3. [The treatment of mood stabilizers in children and adolescents suffering from bipolar affective disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tamar; Shoval, Gal; Weizman, Abraham

    2005-11-01

    Bipolar disorder is defined as a mood disorder. It is characterized by alteration in mood, from elation and/or irritability to depression. The prevalence of this disorder in children and adolescents is 1%, and it disrupts the lives of children and adolescents. The treatment of bipolar disorder includes mood stabilizers. In contrast to the extensive literature in adult bipolar disorder, controlled studies of lithium and anticonvulsants in the management of mood disorders in childhood are scarce. This review summarizes recent clinical pharmacologic studies of mood stabilizers, including lithium and anticonvulsants in the management of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents who suffer from this syndrome. In addition, the authors review new anticonvulsants such as lamotrigine, gabapentin and topiramate as mood stabilizers.

  4. Examining the Factor Structure of Anxiety and Depression Symptom Items Among Adolescents in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The co-occurrence of emotional disorders among adolescents has received considerable empirical attention. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of co-occurring anxiety and depression by examining the factor structure of the Youth Self-Report used with a sample of low-income adolescents from Santiago, Chile. Data from two independent, randomly selected subsamples were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results indicate the best fit for the data is a two-factor model of anxiety and depression symptoms, which factors anxiety and depression into separate latent constructs. Because the findings show that anxiety and depression are not measured by the same factor in this international sample, the results imply that a valid and useful distinction exists between these constructs. That these constructs are found to be separate factors suggests that anxiety and depression may have separate etiologies and consequences, which might be best addressed by separate intervention components. These findings are consistent with the viewpoint that anxiety and depression constructs have similar emotional features and, despite sharing a common underlying internalizing disorder, distinct items capture aspects of each construct.

  5. Hippocampal volume and sensitivity to maternal aggressive behavior: a prospective study of adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Yap, Marie B H; Sheeber, Lisa; Dudgeon, Paul; Yücel, Murat; Pantelis, Christos; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B

    2011-02-01

    It has been suggested that biological factors confer increased sensitivity to environmental influences on depressive symptoms during adolescence, a crucial time for the onset of depressive disorders. Given the critical role of the hippocampus in sensitivity to stress and processing of contextual aspects of the environment, investigation of its role in determining sensitivity to environmental context seems warranted. This study prospectively examined hippocampal volume as a measure of sensitivity to the influence of aggressive maternal behavior on change in depressive symptoms from early to midadolescence. The interaction between aggressive maternal behavior and hippocampal volume was found to predict change in depressive symptoms. Significant sex differences also emerged, whereby only for girls were larger bilateral hippocampal volumes more sensitive to the effects of maternal aggressive behavior, particularly with respect to experiencing the protective effects of low levels of maternal aggressiveness. These findings help elucidate the complex relationships between brain structure, environmental factors such as maternal parenting style, and sensitivity to (i.e., risk for, and protection from) the emergence of depression during this life stage. Given that family context risk factors are modifiable, our findings suggest the potential utility of targeted parenting interventions for the prevention and treatment of adolescent depressive disorder.

  6. High Risk of Depressive Disorders in Patients With Gout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changchien, Te-Chang; Yen, Yung-Chieh; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Liang, Ji-An; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Metabolic abnormalities are common in patients with depressive disorders. However, the relationship between gout and depression is unclear. We explored the causal relationship among gout, antigout medication, and the associated risk of incidental depressive disorders. In this nationwide cohort study, we sampled data from the National Health Insurance Research Database to recruit 34,050 patients with gout as the gout cohort and 68,100 controls (without gout) as the nongout cohort. Our primary endpoint was the diagnosis of depressive disorders during follow-up. The overall study population was followed up until depression diagnosis, withdrawal from the NHI program, or the end of the study. The differences in demographic and clinical characteristics between both cohorts were determined using the Chi-square test for categorical variables and the t-test for continuous variables. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the effect of gout on the risk of depression, represented using the hazard ratio with the 95% confidence interval. Patients with gout exhibited a higher risk of depressive disorders than controls did. The risk of depressive disorders increased with age and was higher in female patients and those with hypertension, stroke, and coronary artery disease. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and prednisolone use was associated with a reduced risk of depression. Patients with gout who had received antigout medication exhibited a reduced risk of depressive disorders compared with nongout patients. Our findings support that gout increases the risk of depressive disorders, and that antigout medication use reduces the risk. PMID:26717394

  7. Review: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Studies of Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Kondo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper focuses on the application of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS to the study of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD in children and adolescents. Method. A literature search using the National Institutes of Health's PubMed database was conducted to identify indexed peer-reviewed MRS studies in pediatric patients with MDD. Results. The literature search yielded 18 articles reporting original MRS data in pediatric MDD. Neurochemical alterations in Choline, Glutamate, and N-Acetyl Aspartate are associated with pediatric MDD, suggesting pathophysiologic continuity with adult MDD. Conclusions. The MRS literature in pediatric MDD is modest but growing. In studies that are methodologically comparable, the results have been consistent. Because it offers a noninvasive and repeatable measurement of relevant in vivo brain chemistry, MRS has the potential to provide insights into the pathophysiology of MDD as well as the mediators and moderators of treatment response.

  8. Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

  9. Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

  10. Gender differences in major depressive disorder : Results from the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuch, Jerome J. J.; Roest, Annelieke M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Jonge, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although an overall gender difference in prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been well established, several questions concerning gender differences in the clinical manifestation of depression remain. This study aims to identify gender differences in psychopathology, treatme

  11. Personality traits in the differentiation of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder during a depressive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Jaciana Marlova Gonçalves; dos Passos, Miguel Bezerra; Molina, Mariane Lopez; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos

    2016-02-28

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in personality traits between individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) during a depressive episode, when it can be hard to differentiate them. Data on personality traits (NEO-FFI), mental disorders (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus) and socioeconomic variables were collected from 245 respondents who were in a depressive episode. Individuals with MDD (183) and BD (62) diagnosis were compared concerning personality traits, clinical aspects and socioeconomic variables through bivariate analyses (chi-square and ANOVA) and multivariate analysis (logistic regression). There were no differences in the prevalence of the disorders between socioeconomic and clinical variables. As for the personality traits, only the difference in Agreeableness was statistically significant. Considering the control of suicide risk, gender and anxiety comorbidity in the multivariate analysis, the only variable that remained associated was Agreeableness, with an increase in MDD cases. The brief version of the NEO inventories (NEO-FFI) does not allow for the analysis of personality facets. During a depressive episode, high levels of Agreeableness can indicate that MDD is a more likely diagnosis than BD.

  12. The Impact on Family Functioning of Social Media Use by Depressed Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis of the Family Options Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J; Knight, Tess; Germanov, Galit; Benstead, Michelle Lisa; Joseph, Claire Ingrid; Poole, Lucinda

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent depression is a prevalent mental health problem, which can have a major impact on family cohesion. In such circumstances, excessive use of the Internet by adolescents may exacerbate family conflict and lack of cohesion. The current study aims to explore these patterns within an intervention study for depressed adolescents. The current study draws upon data collected from parents within the family options randomized controlled trial that examined family based interventions for adolescent depression (12-18 years old) in Melbourne, Australia (2012-2014). Inclusion in the trial required adolescents to meet diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder via the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Disorders. The transcripts of sessions were examined using qualitative thematic analysis. The transcribed sessions consisted of 56 h of recordings in total from 39 parents who took part in the interventions. The thematic analysis explored parental perceptions of their adolescent's use of social media (SM) and access to Internet content, focusing on the possible relationship between adolescent Internet use and the adolescent's depressive disorder. Two overarching themes emerged as follows: the sense of loss of parental control over the family environment and parents' perceived inability to protect their adolescent from material encountered on the Internet and social interactions via SM. Parents within the context of family based treatments felt that prolonged exposure to SM exposed their already vulnerable child to additional stressors and risks. The thematic analysis uncovered a sense of parental despair and lack of control, which is consistent with their perception of SM and the Internet as relentless and threatening to their parental authority and family cohesion.

  13. Association study of obstetrical complication and depressive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the correlation between obstetrical complications and depressive disorder.Methods:Depressive disorder probands and their adult sibling were diagnosed using CCMD-3 criteria.Obstetrical data from maternal reports were scored,applying published scales that take into account number and severity of complication.Results:The scores of obstetric complication and prenatal complications and low birth weight were significantly worse in probands than siblings without depressive disorders.Conclusion:Results suggest obstetric complications are etiologically significant in depressive disorder.

  14. IRRITABILITY IN CHILD AND ADOLESCENT ANXIETY DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Stoddard, Joel; Stringaris, Argyris; Brotman, Melissa A.; Montville, Daniel; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Our objective was to compare self- and parent-reported irritability in youths with anxiety disorders, healthy youths, and those with mood disorders characterized by irritability. Irritability is a common but relatively understudied psychiatric symptom in child and adolescent anxiety disorders. In anxious youths, little is known about the severity of irritability, its impact on functioning, or the effect of informant source on reports of irritability. Method: We compared parent- an...

  15. Sheehan's Syndrome Presenting as Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Mehmood I; Mushtaq, Mohsin Bin; Qazi, Iram; Yousuf, Sameena; Rashid, Aaliya

    2015-01-01

    Sheehan's syndrome or Simmond's disease is a rare endocrine disorder seen in clinical practice. The clinical spectrum is diverse and a high index of suspicion together with a good clinical acumen and proper diagnostic approach helps in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of this endocrinopathy. Sheehan's syndrome presenting as a major depressive disorder finds less mention in the literature. The patient discussed here is a 45-year-old female who had been on antidepressants and psychiatry follow up for a long time until she presented to our Out Patient Department (OPD), where she was evaluated in detail and diagnosed as a case of Sheehan's syndrome. The patient is doing well and is on a regular follow-up with us. Further studies are required to demystify the strength of this association in more detail and to elucidate the possible underlying mechanism.

  16. Psycho-endocrine disorders in adolescents with Graves’ disease

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    Sh.T. Muratova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thyroid dysfunction and mental disorders are common among the general population. In population studies, that thyrotoxicosis has been established to be accompanied by depression and anxiety. The purpose was to study the features of the psycho-emotional state in adolescents with Graves’ disease (GD. Materials and methods. Clinical and hormonal indices and features of the psycho-emotional state were studied in 19 adolescence with Graves’ disease using the Spielberg questionnaire (State Trait Personal Inventory, STPI and the drawing test House-Tree-Man (HTM, proposed by J. Buk. The control group consisted of 12 healthy adolescents without thyroid pathology. Results. The average age of the examined adolescents with Graves’ disease was 13.0 ± 0.6 years; thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed 5.3 times more often in girls compared to boys. Endocrine orbitopathy was diagnosed in 68.4 % of adolescents with thyrotoxicosis. All the examined adolescents with GD had signs of the autonomic nervous system disorder. Also there were identified nonspecific symptoms such as: increased response to suddenness or fear (63.2 %, difficult concentra­ting or emptiness in the head due to worry or anxiety (47.4 %, persistent irritability (94.7 %, difficult falling asleep due to anxiety (63.2 %. The results of the anxiety study by the STPI questionnaire revealed that among children with thyrotoxicosis the phenomena of anxiety and negative emotional experiences predominated (p < 0.05, but cognitive activity was lower (p < 0.05 when compared with those of the control group. While in a group of teenagers with toxic goiter, 100 % of children showed a high level of anxiety (range of scores of 24–40, in this group children with a high degree of negative emotional feelings (68.4 % prevailed; and in the third of children (31.6 % the average degree of negative emotional experiences was diagnosed. At the same time, in the control group 91.7 % of children had high

  17. Comorbid sleep disorders and suicide risk among children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Luby, Joan L; Joshi, Paramjit T; Wagner, Karen D; Emslie, Graham J; Walkup, John T; Axelson, David A; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-07-29

    Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk for suicide. Sleep disturbances are common among youth with bipolar disorder and are also independently implicated in suicide risk; thus, comorbid sleep disorders may amplify suicide risk in this clinical population. This study examined the effects of comorbid sleep disorders on suicide risk among youth with bipolar disorder. We conducted secondary analyses of baseline data from the Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study, a randomized controlled trial of individuals aged 6-15 years (mean ± SD = 10.2 ± 2.7 years) with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder (N = 379). Sleep disorders (i.e., nightmare, sleep terror, and sleepwalking disorders) and suicide risk were assessed via the WASH-U-KSADS and the CDRS-R, respectively. We constructed uncontrolled logistic regression models as well as models controlling for trauma history, a generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) diagnosis, and depression symptoms. Participants with a current comorbid nightmare disorder versus those without were nearly twice as likely to screen positive for suicide risk in an uncontrolled model and models controlling for trauma history, a GAD diagnosis, and depression symptoms. Neither a current comorbid sleep terror disorder nor a sleepwalking disorder was significantly associated with suicide risk. This pattern of findings remained consistent for both current and lifetime sleep disorder diagnoses. Youth with bipolar I disorder and a comorbid nightmare disorder appear to be at heightened suicide risk. Implications for assessment and treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Depressive emotioning in adolescents with cochlear implant and normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Sanem; Arslan, Umut; Belgin, Erol

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the levels of depressive emotioning of adolescents with cochlear implants and the ones who have normal hearing. For this purpose, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale is applied upon the study group which consists of 30 adolescents with cochlear implant between the ages of 12-19 and upon the control group which consists of 60 adolescents having the similar characteristics. The scale is used to evaluate the level of depressive emotioning of adolescents with cochlear implant and with normal hearing. At the end of the application, the scores of these two groups which they got according to their answers were compared statistically. When the results were examined, there seemed to be no significant difference statistically between the depressive emotioning values of the cochlear implant group and the control group. Apart from this, in this study, we examined changes in the level of depressive emotioning according to different variables. As a result, it was found out that in both groups level of depressive emotioning was lower for adolescents who had had preschool education, had brothers/sisters, high level of income, whose father and mother had higher levels of education. On the other hand, the birth sequence and the child's father's profession did not seem to have any effect on the child's level of depressive emotioning. As a result of these findings, it was thought that cochlear implantation had a positive effect on life quality and it was suggested that the adolescents and their families should get assistance from experts about the characteristics and principles of approaching the child in this period. The adolescent should be directed towards social activities and courses, their positive sides should be supported and further studies should be carried out with different case groups on this matter. In addition to, examining the interactions of hearing loss effects can help professionals determine the individuals who are at a higher risk

  19. Association of Fluid Intelligence and Psychiatric Disorders in a Population-Representative Sample of US Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M; Platt, Jonathan; Kaufman, Alan S; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2017-02-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the association of psychiatric disorders with intelligence, few population-based studies of psychiatric disorders have assessed intelligence. To investigate the association of fluid intelligence with past-year and lifetime psychiatric disorders, disorder age at onset, and disorder severity in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. National sample of adolescents ascertained from schools and households from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement, collected 2001 through 2004. Face-to-face household interviews with adolescents and questionnaires from parents were obtained. The data were analyzed from February to December 2016. DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and included a broad range of fear, distress, behavior, substance use, and other disorders. Disorder severity was measured with the Sheehan Disability Scale. Fluid IQ measured with the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, normed within the sample by 6-month age groups. The sample included 10 073 adolescents (mean [SD] age, 15.2 [1.50] years; 49.0% female) with valid data on fluid intelligence. Lower mean (SE) IQ was observed among adolescents with past-year bipolar disorder (94.2 [1.69]; P = .004), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (96.3 [0.91]; P = .002), oppositional defiant disorder (97.3 [0.66]; P = .007), conduct disorder (97.1 [0.82]; P = .02), substance use disorders (alcohol abuse, 96.5 [0.67]; P Intelligence was not associated with posttraumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders other than specific phobia, and was positively associated with past-year major depression (mean [SE], 100 [0.5]; P = .01). Associations of fluid intelligence with lifetime disorders that had remitted were attenuated compared with past-year disorders, with the exception of separation anxiety disorder. Multiple past

  20. A One-Session Human Immunodeficiency Virus Risk-Reduction Intervention in Adolescents with Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurstone, Christian; Riggs, Paula D.; Klein, Constance; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore change in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk among teens in outpatient treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). Method: From December 2002 to August 2004, 50 adolescents (13-19 years) with major depressive disorder, conduct disorder, and one or more non-nicotine SUD completed the Teen Health Survey (THS) at the…

  1. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St

  2. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipps Garth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs. Nearly half (52.1% of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p  Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Vincent.

  3. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among immigrant-origin adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena

    2013-07-01

    Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.

  4. ADHD in adolescents with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortese Samuele

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of a comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD diagnosis in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, and its impact on the clinical presentation of BPD in adolescents, and to determine which type of impulsivity specifically characterizes adolescents with BPD-ADHD. Methods ADHD diagnoses were sought in a sample of 85 DSM-IV BPD adolescents drawn from the EURNET BPD. Axis-I and -II disorders were determined with the K-SADS-PL and the SIDP-IV, respectively. Impulsivity was assessed with the BIS-11. Results 11% (N = 9 of BPD participants had a current ADHD diagnosis. BPD-ADHD adolescents showed higher prevalence of Disruptive disorders (Chi2 = 9.09, p = 0.01 and a non-significant trend for a higher prevalence of other cluster B personality disorders (Chi2 = 2.70, p = 0.08. Regression analyses revealed a significant association between Attentional/Cognitive impulsivity scores and ADHD (Wald Z = 6.69; p = 0.01; Exp(B = 2.02, CI 95% 1.19-3.45. Conclusions Comorbid ADHD influences the clinical presentation of adolescents with BPD and is associated with higher rates of disruptive disorders, with a trend towards a greater likelihood of cluster B personality disorders and with higher levels of impulsivity, especially of the attentional/cognitive type. A subgroup of BPD patients may exhibit developmentally driven impairments of the inhibitory system persisting since childhood. Specific interventions should be recommended for this subsample of BPD adolescents.

  5. Maternal drug abuse versus maternal depression: Vulnerability and resilience among school-age and adolescent offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Luthar, Suniya S.; Sexton, Chris C.

    2007-01-01

    In this study of 360 low-income mother-child dyads, our primary goal was to disentangle risks linked with commonly co-occurring maternal diagnoses: substance abuse and affective/anxiety disorders. Variable- and person-based analyses suggest that, at least through children’s early adolescence, maternal drug use is no more inimical for them than is maternal depression. A second goal was to illuminate vulnerability and protective processes linked with mothers’ everyday functioning, and results s...

  6. Social determinants of adolescent depression: an examination of racial differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respress, Brandon N; Morris, Diana L; Gary, Faye A; Lewin, Linda C; Francis, Shelley A

    2013-07-01

    Conventional behavior theories that assert adolescent risk behaviors are determined by peer and parental relationships are being challenged as research begins to consider broader socioenvironmental factors. This study, using data from the Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (Add Health), Wave II, Public Use Data, and the Social Determinants of Adolescent Risk Behaviors (SDOARB) framework, examines relationships among socioeconomic status (SES), academic performance, perceived peer prejudice, and perceived teacher discrimination as predictors of depressive symptoms among high school adolescents. Overall, the study found that GPA was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms across all three racial groups (Black, White, and Other Minority). Teacher discrimination predicted depressive symptoms among White and Other minority adolescents, but not Black adolescents. These findings suggest the need for interventions within schools for both students and teachers around racial differences in perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. Failure to address overt and covert subtleties of discrimination and prejudice within schools and policies which affect these interpersonal dynamics may have a significant impact on the overall mental wellbeing of adolescents.

  7. Continuity and Discontinuity of Depression from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Mediating and Moderating Effects of Young Adults’ Socioeconomic Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Federick O.; Martin, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data from 467 youth over a 13-year period (late adolescence and young adulthood), the present study investigates three research questions: (1) to what extent do elevations in depressed mood continue (homotypic continuity) from adolescence to young adulthood, (2) to what extent do young adults’ socioeconomic attainments and failures sustain the depressed mood from adolescence to young adulthood and (3) to what extent do young adults’ socioeconomic attainments or failures mediate the continuity and discontinuity of depressive symptoms across this period? The results from our structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses suggest that continuity of depressive symptoms from late adolescence to young adulthood is mediated in part by economic and work achievements or failures of young adults after controlling for adolescent conduct disorder/antisocial behavior, parents’ psychopathology and family adversity. Additionally, the results indicate that the continuity of depressed mood across the early life course is conditioned (stabilized or disrupted) by young adult socioeconomic achievements or failures. PMID:21925725

  8. Prolidase activity in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Demir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prolidase enzyme, which exists in plasma, brain and various organs, is a cytosolic exopeptidase, that divisor the imidodipeptides with carboxyl terminal position of proline and hydroxyproline. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum prolidase activity level in major depressive disorder (MDD. Methods: This study included 22 patients with MDD as the study group, and 26 healthy subjects without any psychiatric disorders as the control group. Each patient underwent a detailed diagnostic evaluation by experienced psychiatrists. The sociodemographic information form given to both patients and the control subjects, while Hamilton Depression Scale Scoring (HDS, Hamilton Anxiety Scale Scoring (HAS, Clinical Global Impression Scoring (CGI applied to patients. Blood samples were obtained for biochemical analyses. Results: The mean age of the patient group was 31.3±10.1 years old, whereas the mean age of the control group was 32.3±8.8 years old. The mean duration of the education for the patient group was 8.1±6.2 years, whereas for the control group was 10.2±3.8 years. There was no significant differences in terms of the mean age of participants and the mean duration of the education between two groups (p>0.05. The level of prolidase activity of patient group was 510.3±480.8 U/L, whereas the level of prolidase activity of control group was 457.8±386.0 U/L. No significant difference was observed in serum prolidase activity between patient and the control groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: In our study similar level of prolidase activity was found in MDD and healthy subjects. We suggest that this finding may be an evidence indicating that MDD and bipolar depression may be different clinical entities. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 296-300

  9. Narcissism--An Adolescent Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Margot

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that the adolescent process needs to be accorded its own particularity of reference, especially where narcissism is concerned. The paper draws on literary and clinical examples to describe what is termed the "adolescent organisation". In many ways, this organisation reflects post-Kleinian theory of what constitutes narcissistic…

  10. Testing the Temporal Relationship Between Maternal and Adolescent Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth C.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Dahne, Jennifer; Stratton, Kelcey J.; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C. W.; Amstadter, Ananda B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Transactional models have been used to explain the relationship between maternal depression and child behavioral problems; however, few studies have examined transactional models for maternal depression and adolescent depression and anxiety. Method Using an autoregressive cross-lagged analysis, we examined the longitudinal association between maternal and adolescent depression to determine the extent to which maternal depression influences adolescent depression and anxiety, and vice versa, over the course of a four-year period. Participants were a community sample of 277 mother-adolescent dyads with offspring aged 10–14 at the first year used in the analyses (43.7% female; 35% African American, 2.9% Hispanic/Latino). Depressive symptoms were assessed using maternal self-report (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale [CESD]; Radloff, 1977), and adolescent depression and anxiety were assessed by self-report (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale [RCADS]; Chorpita, Yim, Moffitt, Umemoto, & Francis, 2000). Results The final model, χ2 (14) = 23.74, p= .05; TLI= .97; CFI= .98; RMSEA= .05, indicated that maternal depression was significantly associated with adolescent depression two years later. Interestingly, adolescent depression did not significantly predict maternal depression, and the association between maternal and adolescent depression was not moderated by gender, age, or ethnicity. The association between maternal depression and adolescent anxiety was weaker than that observed for adolescent depression. Conclusions Results suggest that the transaction model of maternal depression may not extend to adolescent depression and anxiety. Furthermore, maternal depression can have an enduring effect on adolescent depression and continued research and clinical monitoring over extended periods of time is warranted. PMID:24702257

  11. Depression and blood pressure in high-risk children and adolescents: an investigation using two longitudinal cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, Gemma; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; Thapar, Ajay

    2013-09-25

    To examine the relationship between blood pressure and depressive disorder in children and adolescents at high risk for depression. Multisample longitudinal design including a prospective longitudinal three-wave high-risk study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression and an on-going birth cohort for replication. Community-based studies. High-risk sample includes 281 families where children were aged 9-17 years at baseline and 10-19 years at the final data point. Replication cohort includes 4830 families where children were aged 11-14 years at baseline and 14-17 years at follow-up and a high-risk subsample of 612 offspring with mothers that had reported recurrent depression. The new-onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth edition defined depressive disorder in the offspring using established research diagnostic assessments-the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment in the high-risk sample and the Development and Wellbeing Assessment in the replication sample. Blood pressure was standardised for age and gender to create SD scores and child's weight was statistically controlled in all analyses. In the high-risk sample, lower systolic blood pressure at wave 1 significantly predicted new-onset depressive disorder in children (OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96; p=0.029) but diastolic blood pressure did not. Depressive disorder at wave 1 did not predict systolic blood pressure at wave 3. A significant association between lower systolic blood pressure and future depression was also found in the replication cohort in the second subset of high-risk children whose mothers had experienced recurrent depression in the past. Lower systolic blood pressure predicts new-onset depressive disorder in the offspring of parents with depression. Further studies are needed to investigate how this association arises.

  12. Depression and blood pressure in high-risk children and adolescents: an investigation using two longitudinal cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, Gemma; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; Thapar, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between blood pressure and depressive disorder in children and adolescents at high risk for depression. Design Multisample longitudinal design including a prospective longitudinal three-wave high-risk study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression and an on-going birth cohort for replication. Setting Community-based studies. Participants High-risk sample includes 281 families where children were aged 9–17 years at baseline and 10–19 years at the final data point. Replication cohort includes 4830 families where children were aged 11–14 years at baseline and 14–17 years at follow-up and a high-risk subsample of 612 offspring with mothers that had reported recurrent depression. Main outcome measures The new-onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth edition defined depressive disorder in the offspring using established research diagnostic assessments—the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment in the high-risk sample and the Development and Wellbeing Assessment in the replication sample. Results Blood pressure was standardised for age and gender to create SD scores and child's weight was statistically controlled in all analyses. In the high-risk sample, lower systolic blood pressure at wave 1 significantly predicted new-onset depressive disorder in children (OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96; p=0.029) but diastolic blood pressure did not. Depressive disorder at wave 1 did not predict systolic blood pressure at wave 3. A significant association between lower systolic blood pressure and future depression was also found in the replication cohort in the second subset of high-risk children whose mothers had experienced recurrent depression in the past. Conclusions Lower systolic blood pressure predicts new-onset depressive disorder in the offspring of parents with depression. Further studies are needed to investigate how this association arises. PMID:24071459

  13. Spotlight on quetiapine in acute mania and depression associated with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Toni M; Keating, Gillian M

    2006-01-01

    Quetiapine (Seroquel), an atypical antipsychotic with established efficacy in the treatment of schizophrenia, shows efficacy in the treatment of acute mania and depression associated with bipolar disorder.Quetiapine, either as monotherapy or in combination with lithium or divalproex sodium (valproate semisodium), is generally well tolerated and effective in reducing manic symptoms in adult and adolescent patients with acute bipolar mania, and is approved for use in adults for this indication. As monotherapy, the drug is also effective in reducing depressive symptoms in patients with bipolar depression. It is associated with a low incidence of extrapyramidal symptom (EPS)-related adverse events and low EPS ratings in bipolar disorder. Quetiapine thus shows potential in the treatment of bipolar depression, and represents a useful agent for the treatment of acute bipolar mania.

  14. Antidepressant use and salivary cortisol in depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Leonie; Leeds, Caroline; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    Antidepressants are an effective treatment for depressive and anxiety disorders. Those disorders are frequently accompanied by heightened cortisol levels. Antidepressants may affect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, the alteration of which could be partially responsible for treatment

  15. Antidepressant use and salivary cortisol in depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Leonie; Leeds, Caroline; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    2011-01-01

    Antidepressants are an effective treatment for depressive and anxiety disorders. Those disorders are frequently accompanied by heightened cortisol levels. Antidepressants may affect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, the alteration of which could be partially responsible for treatment

  16. Improving validated depression screen among adolescent population in primary care practice using electronic health records (EHR).

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent depression, has been identified as one of the important risk factors for adolescent safety. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends screening the adolescent population for depression with a validated screening tool at least once a year. Given the time constraints in primary care, many physicians tend to rely more on clinical questioning to screen depression.This has the potential to miss many adolescents who may have mild to moderate depression which may prove detriment...

  17. Family-focused treatment for childhood-onset depressive disorders: results of an open trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompson, Martha C; Pierre, Claudette B; Haber, Fawn McNeil; Fogler, Jason M; Groff, April R; Asarnow, Joan R

    2007-07-01

    Study objectives were to develop a treatment manual for a family-focused intervention for depressed school-aged children, evaluate its feasibility and acceptability, and complete an initial open trial to examine treatment effects. Nine young people meeting criteria for depression (major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or depression not otherwise specified), completed a 12-week family intervention, and were assessed immediately and at 9 months following treatment completion. The intervention presented an interpersonal model of how depressive symptoms are maintained, and emphasized developing family strategies for altering interpersonal processes, supporting recovery and enhancing resilience. At posttreatment 66% of the young people had recovered from their depressive episodes; by 9 months posttreatment 77% had recovered. Significant improvements in global functioning were noted. There were no relapses in the follow-up period and no instances of suicidal behavior during the intervention or follow-up. Mothers' and fathers' Child Behavior Checklist reports and children's self reports indicated significant symptom reductions. Exploratory analyses suggest particular benefit for young people with parents high in criticism. The family-focused intervention for childhood-onset depression demonstrated gains similar to those seen with empirically supported treatments for depressed adolescents and superior to those seen in naturalistic studies of depression outcomes. This favorable risk/benefit profile supports the value of a randomized controlled trial.

  18. Desvenlafaxine succinate for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, Beth A; Hazra, Monica; Pollock, Bruce G

    2008-07-01

    Desvenlafaxine (O-desmethylvenlafaxine) is the major active metabolite of venlafaxine. Desvenlafaxine succinate is now undergoing active evaluation for its therapeutic efficacy in a variety of disorders, including major depressive disorder, vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause, fibromyalgia and diabetic neuropathy. Desvenlafaxine is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) with similar activity to its parent compound venlafaxine, and little affinity for other brain targets, including muscarinic, cholinergic, histamine H(1) and alpha-adrenergic receptors. Desvenlafaxine has linear pharmacokinetics, low protein binding, a half-life of approximately 10 hours and is metabolized primarily via glucuronidation, and to a minor extent through CYP3A4. The desvenlafaxine succinate formulation appears to have good oral bioavailability. Clearance rates are reduced in the elderly, those with severe renal dysfunction and those with moderate to severe hepatic dysfunction, which may require dosage adjustments. Three published clinical trials have shown supportive but mixed results for the efficacy of desvenlafaxine in the treatment of major depressive disorder with daily doses ranging from 100 mg to 400 mg. One published clinical trial has shown mixed results for the efficacy of desvenlafaxine in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause with daily doses ranging from 50 mg to 200 mg. In these four clinical trials, desvenlafaxine was associated with several mild adverse effects, with the most common effect being nausea. Less common, but more serious, adverse effects reported in these trials included hypertension, QTc interval prolongation, exacerbation of ischemic cardiac disease, elevated lipids and elevated liver enzymes. The exact nature of these serious adverse effects, including the prevalence, clinical significance and potential risk factors, still needs to be fully elucidated. Desvenlafaxine has a low propensity for pharmacokinetic

  19. Using Music Techniques To Treat Adolescent Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, C. Bret; Robinson, Beth; Bradley, Loretta J.; Davis, Kenneth

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a school-based therapy program using music for teenagers (N=19) who demonstrated depressive symptoms. Pre- and post-testing indicated a significant decrease in depressive symptoms. Offers recommendations for further research. (Author/MKA)

  20. Recognising and responding to adolescent depression in general practice: developing and implementing the Therapeutic Identification of Depression in Young people (TIDY) programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Tami; Iliffe, Steven; Gledhill, Julia; Garralda, M Elena

    2012-10-01

    Rates of depressive disorder in adolescents attending primary care are increasing. Most presentations are for physical complaints and concurrent depressive symptoms go unrecognised and untreated. Primary care practitioners describe reluctance to intervene due to lack of confidence and skills. This paper describes the development and implementation of TIDY (Therapeutic Identification of Depression in Young people), a programme designed by child psychiatrists and general practitioners to improve detection and intervention for depression within ordinary consultations. The paper describes the integration of educational principles and current evidence into the development of the training programme and the intervention package. The content of the intervention is described. For cases of mild to moderate depressive disorder, where patients do not require referral for specialist treatment, practitioners are trained to deliver self-help and coping strategies within a single consultation.

  1. Development of health and depressive symptoms among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Johan Hviid; Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    in a cohort study of Danish adolescents. Methods: The cohort comprised 3,681 individuals born in 1989, 3058 individuals answered the baseline questionnaire in 2004, and 2400 responded to a follow-up questionnaire in 2007, with 2181 individuals participating in both rounds (59% of the original cohort). Social......) deteriorated slightly in adolescents (-0.24; 95% CI = -0.28 to -0.19) across all socioeconomic status (SES) groups and depressive symptoms increased (0.64; 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.75). High household income was protective for decrease in SRH (0.62; 0.43 - 0.91). Negative life-style changes were associated...... with poorer SRH and more depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Self-rated health and depressive symptoms changed to the worse among Danish adolescents from age 15 to 18 years. Negative changes in several lifestyle factors were found to accompany the deterioration of health. This result stresses the intrinsic...

  2. Automaticity in Anxiety Disorders and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Bethany A.; Joormann, Jutta; Steinman, Shari; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the nature of automatic cognitive processing in anxiety disorders and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Rather than viewing automaticity as a unitary construct, we follow a social cognition perspective (Bargh, 1994) that argues for four theoretically independent features of automaticity: unconscious (processing of emotional stimuli occurs outside awareness), efficient (processing emotional meaning uses minimal attentional resources), unintentional (no goal is needed to engage in processing emotional meaning), and uncontrollable (limited ability to avoid, alter or terminate processing emotional stimuli). Our review of the literature suggests that most anxiety disorders are characterized by uncontrollable, and likely also unconscious and unintentional, biased processing of threat-relevant information. In contrast, MDD is most clearly typified by uncontrollable, but not unconscious or unintentional, processing of negative information. For the anxiety disorders and for MDD, there is not sufficient evidence to draw firm conclusions about efficiency of processing, though early indications are that neither anxiety disorders nor MDD are characterized by this feature. Clinical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed and directions for future research are offered. In particular, it is clear that paradigms that more directly delineate the different features of automaticity are required to gain a more comprehensive and systematic understanding of the importance of automatic processing in emotion dysregulation. PMID:22858684

  3. Mindfulness training for adolescents with externalizing disorders and their parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Hoogstad, B.; van Dun, L.; de Schutter, S.E.R.; Restifo, K.

    2008-01-01

    Mindfulness training was evaluated as a new treatment for attention and impulsivity problems in adolescents with a variety of different externalizing disorders: attention deficithyperactivity disorder, oppositional-defiant and/or conduct disorder, and autism spectrum disorder if characterized by

  4. The Relation between Eating- and Weight-Related Disturbances and Depression in Adolescence: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawana, Jennine S.; Morgan, Ashley S.; Nguyen, Hien; Craig, Stephanie G.

    2010-01-01

    Depression often emerges during adolescence and persists into adulthood. Thus, it is critical to study risk factors that contribute to the development of depression in adolescence. One set of risk factors that has been recently studied in adolescent depression research is eating- and weight-related disturbances (EWRDs). EWRDs encompass negative…

  5. The Relation between Eating- and Weight-Related Disturbances and Depression in Adolescence: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawana, Jennine S.; Morgan, Ashley S.; Nguyen, Hien; Craig, Stephanie G.

    2010-01-01

    Depression often emerges during adolescence and persists into adulthood. Thus, it is critical to study risk factors that contribute to the development of depression in adolescence. One set of risk factors that has been recently studied in adolescent depression research is eating- and weight-related disturbances (EWRDs). EWRDs encompass negative…

  6. Processes of Change in CBT of Adolescent Depression: Review and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christian A.; Auerbach, Randy P.; DeRubeis, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of research supports the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression. The mechanisms through which CBT exerts its beneficial effects on adolescent patients suffering from depression, however, remain unclear. The current article reviews the CBT for adolescent depression process literature. Our review…

  7. Processes of Change in CBT of Adolescent Depression: Review and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christian A.; Auerbach, Randy P.; DeRubeis, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of research supports the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression. The mechanisms through which CBT exerts its beneficial effects on adolescent patients suffering from depression, however, remain unclear. The current article reviews the CBT for adolescent depression process literature. Our review…

  8. Child Abuse and Mental Disorders in Iranian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Pirdehghan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Child abuse is a serious social health problem all over the world with important adverse effects. Objectives The aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the relation between mental disorders and child abuse. Materials and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey on 700 students in secondary schools using multiple cluster sampling in Yazd, Iran in 2013. We applied 2 self reported questionnaires: DASS (depression anxiety stress scales-42 for assessing mental disorders (anxiety, stress and depression and a standard self-reported valid and reliable questionnaire for recording child abuse information in neglect, psychological, physical and sexual domains. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software. P-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results There was a statically significant correlation between mental disorder and child abuse score (Spearman rho: 0.2; P-value < 0.001. The highest correlations between mental disorders and child abuse were found in psychological domain, Spearman’s rho coefficients were 0.46, 0.41 and 0.36 for depression, anxiety and stress respectively (P-value < 0.001. Based on the results of logistic regression for mental disorder, females, last born adolescents and subjects with drug or alcohol abuser parents had mental disorder odds of 3, 0.4 and 1.9 times compared to others; and severe psychological abuse, being severely neglected and having sexual abuse had odds 90, 1.6 and 1.5 respectively in another model. Conclusions Programming for mandatory reporting of child abuse by physicians and all health care givers e.g. those attending schools or health centers, in order to prevent or reduce its detrimental effects is useful and success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders.

  9. Effectiveness of the workshop "Adolescent depression: What can schools do?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania eMartinez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescent depression is associated with serious consequences. School staff is in a unique position to screen and refer adolescents with depression in a timely manner, and can collaborate with healthcare teams to assist in the proper management of the disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the results of a workshop that aims to improve the knowledge of adolescent depression among school staff.Material and methods: This was a single-arm trial with a pre-post design. Six workshops were conducted in four cities in Chile. Each workshop lasted four hours. Participatory methodology was used. A 26-item knowledge questionnaire about adolescent depression, with the alternatives I agree, I disagree, and I don’t know was administered to the participants, before and after the workshop.Results: A total of 152 people participated in the trial. Of these, 74.3% were female, and 44.7% were school psychologists, 25.0%, teachers, 17.8%, school counselors, and 5.3%, social workers. On average, there were 69.6% (SD 21.3 correct responses on the initial test, and 91.8% (SD 8.0 on the final test. All items had an increase of correct answers and a decrease of don’t know answers. There were notable increases of correct responses on statements dealing with myths: Antidepressants for the treatment of depression in adolescents must be avoided because they produce dependence (59% to 96% and Depression in adolescence is better defined as a weakness of character than as a disease (75% to 95%. School psychologists scored higher than the other participants on the questionnaire both before and after the workshop.Conclusions: The workshop: Adolescent depression: What can schools do? can improve school staff knowledge of this topic, especially aiding to dispel myths regarding the disease and its treatment. This can help bring about timely case detection and improved collaboration with health team for proper handling of adolescent depression.

  10. Prediction of perinatal depression from adolescence and before conception (VIHCS): 20-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, George C; Romaniuk, Helena; Spry, Elizabeth; Coffey, Carolyn; Olsson, Craig; Doyle, Lex W; Oats, Jeremy; Hearps, Stephen; Carlin, John B; Brown, Stephanie

    2015-08-29

    with no preconception history of mental health problems (adjusted odds ratio 8·36, 95% CI 3·34-20·87). Perinatal depressive symptoms were reported at one or more assessment points in 109 pregnancies; a preconception history of mental health problems was reported in 93 (85%) of these pregnancies. Perinatal depressive symptoms are mostly preceded by mental health problems that begin before pregnancy, in adolescence or young adulthood. Women with a history of persisting common mental disorders before pregnancy are an identifiable high-risk group, deserving of clinical support throughout the childbearing years. Furthermore, the window for considering preventive intervention for perinatal depression should extend to the time before conception. National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia), Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, Colonial Foundation, Australian Rotary Health Research and Perpetual Trustees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Subthreshold body dysmorphic disorder in adolescents: Prevalence and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sophie C; Mond, Jonathan; Turner, Cynthia M; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to establish the prevalence of subthreshold body dysmorphic disorder (subthreshold-BDD) in a community sample of adolescents, and to compare disorder correlates in individuals with subthreshold-BDD to those with probable full-syndrome BDD (probable-BDD) and those without BDD (non-BDD). Self-report questionnaires assessing DSM-IV BDD criteria, past mental health service use, and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders, were completed by 3149 Australian high school students (mean age =14.6 years, 63.5% male). Male participants also completed measures assessing quality of life, muscularity concerns, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and peer problems. The prevalence of subthreshold-BDD was 3.4%, and probable-BDD was 1.7%. Compared to the non-BDD group, subthreshold-BDD was associated with elevated symptoms of comorbid psychopathology and greater past mental health service use, and in male-only measures, with poorer quality of life and elevated muscularity concerns. Subthreshold-BDD participants reported significantly lower mental health service use, and fewer symptoms of depression, eating disorders, and hyperactivity than probable-BDD participants, however, other comorbid symptoms did not differ significantly between these groups. These findings indicate that subthreshold-BDD is associated with substantial difficulties for adolescents in the general community. BDD screening should include subthreshold presentations, as these may be an important target for early intervention programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The neurobiology of self-processing in abused depressed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Karina; Ng, Rowena; Scott, Hannah; Smyda, Garry; Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Malone, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    Maltreatment is associated with chronic depression, high negative self-attributions, and lifetime psychopathology. Adolescence is a sensitive period for the formation of self-concept. Identifying neurobiomarkers of self-processing in depressed adolescents with and without maltreatment may parse the effects of trauma and depression on self-development and chronic psychopathology. Depressed adolescents (n = 86) maltreated due to omission (DO, n = 13) or commission (DCM, n = 28) or without maltreatment (DC, n = 45), and HCs (HC, n = 37) appraised positive and negative self-descriptors in the scanner. DCM and DO showed hypoactivity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) while processing positive versus negative self-descriptors compared to DC youth, who in turn showed reduced dACC recruitment versus HC. HC youth showed the highest activation in the dACC and striatum during positive self-descriptors; these regions showed a linear decline in activity across DC, DO, and DCM. Low dACC activity to positive versus negative self-descriptors was linked to inadequate coregulation of children's emotions by parents. Negative self-cognitions prevalent in DCM and DO adolescents may be perpetuated by activity in the dACC and striatum. Reduced activation of the dACC and striatum for positive self-descriptors, coupled with enhanced activity for negative self-descriptors, may heighten the risk for persistent depression.

  13. Differences between Depression Episodes of Bipolar Disorder I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman Inanc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1975 Fieve and Dunner made the distinction between hypomania and mania as hypomania does not usually cause social and occupational impair-ment and hospitalization is not needed, moreover patients do not experience psychosis. Bipolar disorder type I is defined by the presence of manic and depressive episodes and differs from Bipolar disorder type II characterized with hipomanic and depressive episodes. Bipolar disorder type I and II do not differ in their depressive episodes. It is still point of contention whether bipolar type II is a variant of bipolar disorder type I or is positioned on the spectrum between bipolar type I and unipolar disorder. Even there are some similarities in characteristics of depressive episodes and outcome features of different bipolar disorder subtypes, there are differences that can be useful in differential diagnosis and treatment. This paper aims to focus on those differences between bipolar disorder type I and II.

  14. Markers of Oxidative Stress and Neuroprogression in Depression Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaváková, Magdaléna; Ďuračková, Zdeňka; Trebatická, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Major depression is multifactorial disorder with high prevalence and alarming prognostic in the nearest 15 years. Several mechanisms of depression are known. Neurotransmitters imbalance and imbalance between neuroprogressive and neuroprotective factors are observed in major depression. Depression is accompanied by inflammatory responses of the organism and consequent elevation of proinflammatory cytokines and increased lipid peroxidation are described in literature. Neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression are also associated with telomerase shortening, oxidative changes in nucleotides, and polymorphisms in several genes connected to metabolism of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrion dysfunction is directly associated with increasing levels of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress plays significant role in pathophysiology of major depression via actions of free radicals, nonradical molecules, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Products of oxidative stress represent important parameters for measuring and predicting of depression status as well as for determining effectiveness of administrated antidepressants. Positive effect of micronutrients, vitamins, and antioxidants in depression treatment is also reviewed.

  15. Markers of Oxidative Stress and Neuroprogression in Depression Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Vaváková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is multifactorial disorder with high prevalence and alarming prognostic in the nearest 15 years. Several mechanisms of depression are known. Neurotransmitters imbalance and imbalance between neuroprogressive and neuroprotective factors are observed in major depression. Depression is accompanied by inflammatory responses of the organism and consequent elevation of proinflammatory cytokines and increased lipid peroxidation are described in literature. Neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression are also associated with telomerase shortening, oxidative changes in nucleotides, and polymorphisms in several genes connected to metabolism of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrion dysfunction is directly associated with increasing levels of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress plays significant role in pathophysiology of major depression via actions of free radicals, nonradical molecules, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Products of oxidative stress represent important parameters for measuring and predicting of depression status as well as for determining effectiveness of administrated antidepressants. Positive effect of micronutrients, vitamins, and antioxidants in depression treatment is also reviewed.

  16. Risk Factors Linking Maternal Depressed Mood to Growth in Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Rebecca C.; Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal depression has been implicated in the development of adolescent substance use. Conceptualizing depression as a continuum, the aims of this study are to (a) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood and risk factors associated with adolescent substance use; (b) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood…

  17. Internet addiction, adolescent depression, and the mediating role of life events: finding from a sample of Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linsheng; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Zhihua; Sun, Yehuan; Wu, Hongyan; Ye, Dongqing

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of life events in the relation between Internet addiction and depression using an adolescent sample in China. A total of 3507 urban adolescent students were asked to complete the questionnaires including Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, and demographic characteristics. Path analyses demonstrated that life events fully mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression. Specificity for the mediating role of life events was demonstrated in comparison to alternative competing mediation models. The findings support our hypothesis that the effect of Internet addiction on adolescent depression is mediated by the life events. Further research is required to test the temporal relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression and explore mechanisms underlying the pathways leading to adolescent depression. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. White matter changes in healthy adolescents at familial risk for unipolar depression: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Fan, Xin; Williamson, Douglas E; Rao, Uma

    2011-02-01

    Alterations in white matter integrity of several cortical and subcortical circuits have been reported in relation to unipolar major depressive disorder. It is not clear whether these white matter changes precede the onset of illness. In all, 13 adolescent volunteers with no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder (controls) and 18 adolescent volunteers with no personal history of a psychiatric illness including depression, but who were at high risk for developing unipolar depression by virtue of parental depression (high-risk youth), underwent diffusion tensor imaging studies. An automated tract-based spatial statistics method, a whole-brain voxel-by-voxel analysis, was used to analyze the scans. Population average diffusion parameter values were also calculated for each tract. Adolescents at high risk for unipolar depression had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the left cingulum, splenium of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculi, uncinate, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi than did controls. Altered white matter integrity in healthy adolescents at familial risk for unipolar depression suggests that it might serve as a vulnerability marker for the illness.

  19. Adolescent depression and negative life events, the mediating role of cognitive emotion regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelbroek, Y.A.J.; Bodden, Denise; Kleinjan, Marloes; Reijnders, Mirjam; van Baar, Anneloes

    2016-01-01

    Background: Depression during adolescence is a serious mental health problem. Difficulties in regulating evoked emotions after stressful life events are considered to lead to depression. This study examined if depressive symptoms were mediated by various cognitive emotion regulation strategies after

  20. Prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in Chinese gastroenterological outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Jing; He, Yan-Ling; Ma, Hong; Liu, Zhe-Ning; Jia, Fu-Jun; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Lan

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and physicians’ detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders in gastrointestinal (GI) outpatients across China. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the GI outpatient departments of 13 general hospitals. A total of 1995 GI outpatients were recruited and screened with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The physicians of the GI departments performed routine clinical diagnosis and management without knowing the HADS score results. Subjects with HADS scores ≥ 8 were subsequently interviewed by psychiatrists using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to make further diagnoses. RESULTS: There were 1059 patients with HADS score ≥ 8 and 674 (63.64%) of them undertook the MINI interview by psychiatrists. Based on the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition), the adjusted current prevalence for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and comorbidity of both disorders in the GI outpatients was 14.39%, 9.42% and 4.66%, respectively. Prevalence of depressive disorders with suicidal problems [suicide attempt or suicide-related ideation prior or current; module C (suicide) of MINI score ≥ 1] was 5.84% in women and 1.64% in men. The GI physicians’ detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders accounted for 4.14%. CONCLUSION: While the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders is high in Chinese GI outpatients, the detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders by physicians is low. PMID:22654455