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Sample records for adolescent depressive disorders

  1. Major Depressive Disorder in Adolescence: The Role of Subthreshold Symptoms

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    Georgiades, Katholiki; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Monroe, Scott M.; Seeley, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the longitudinal association between individual subthreshold symptoms and onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. Method: Data for analysis come from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project, a prospective epidemiological study of psychological disorders among adolescents, ages 14 to 18 years, from the…

  2. Recurrent abdominal pain in adolescents with anxiety and depression disorders

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    Fastralina Fastralina; Sri Sofyani; M. Joesoef Simbolon; Iskandar Z. Lubis

    2013-01-01

    Background Anxiety and depression disorders in adolescents may affect their academic performances and social functioning at school. Adolescents with these disorders sometimes develop recurrent abdominal pain (RAP). Objective To assess the occurence of recurrent abdominal pain among adolescents with anxiety and depression disorders Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from August to September 2009 in 12-18 year-old adolescents from 3 junior high schools and 3 se...

  3. Recurrent abdominal pain in adolescents with anxiety and depression disorders

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    Fastralina; Sri Sofyani; M. Joesoef Simbolon; Iskandar Z. Lubis

    2013-01-01

    Background Anxiety and depression disorders in adolescents may affect their academic performances and social functioning at school. Adolescents with these disorders sometimes develop recurrent abdominal pain (RAP). Objective To assess the occurence of recurrent abdominal pain among adolescents with anxiety and depression disorders Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from August to September 2009 in 12–18 year-old adolescents from 3 junior high schools and 3 senior high school...

  4. Differences in the clinical characteristics of adolescent depressive disorders.

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    Karlsson, Linnea; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Heilä, Hannele; Holi, Matti; Kiviruusu, Olli; Tuisku, Virpi; Ruuttu, Titta; Marttunen, Mauri

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to analyze differences in clinical characteristics and comorbidity between different types of adolescent depressive disorders. A sample of 218 consecutive adolescent (ages 13-19 years) psychiatric outpatients with depressive disorders was interviewed for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II diagnoses. We obtained data by interviewing the adolescents themselves and collecting additional background information from the clinical records. Lifetime age of onset for depression, current episode duration, frequency of suicidal behavior, psychosocial impairment, and the number of current comorbid psychiatric disorders varied between adolescent depressive disorder categories. The type of co-occurring disorder was mainly consistent across depressive disorders. Minor depression and dysthymia (DY) presented as milder depressions, whereas bipolar depression (BPD) and double depression [DD; i.e., DY with superimposed major depressive disorder (MDD)] appeared as especially severe conditions. Only earlier lifetime onset distinguished recurrent MDD from first-episode MDD, and newly emergent MDD appeared to be as impairing as recurrent MDD. Adolescent depressive disorder categories differ in many clinically relevant aspects, with most differences reflecting a continuum of depression severity. Identification of bipolarity and the subgroup with DD seems especially warranted. First episode MDD should be considered as severe a disorder as recurring MDD. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Exercise for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders: A Feasibility Study

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    Richard R. Dopp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms and decreased aerobic exercise, yet the relationship between exercise and clinical depression among adolescents requires further examination. This study assessed the feasibility of a 12-week intervention designed to increase exercise for adolescents with depressive disorders: Will a teenager with depression exercise? Methods. Participants were 13 adolescents with depression reporting low levels of aerobic exercise. They completed a 12-week intervention (15 supervised exercise sessions and 21 independent sessions. Exercise was measured through the aerobic exercise Questionnaire, actigraphy, and heart-rate monitoring. Depression was measured with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale, Revised, and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report. Results. All participants who started the intervention completed the protocol, attending all supervised exercise sessions. Actigraphy verified 81% adherence to the protocol’s independent sessions. Analysis of secondary outcomes showed a significant increase in exercise levels and a significant decrease in depression severity. Initially, ten participants were overweight or obese, and three were healthy weight. After 12 weeks of exercise, the number of participants in the healthy-weight category doubled. Conclusions. Adolescents suffering from depression can complete a rigorous protocol requiring structured increases in aerobic exercise. Participants showed significant increases in exercise, and significant decreases in depressive symptoms.

  6. Depressed Adolescents and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders: Are There Differences in the Presentation of Depression?

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    Small, David Marc; Simons, Anne D.; Yovanoff, Paul; Silva, Susan G.; Lewis, Cara C.; Murakami, Jessica L.; March, John

    2008-01-01

    Patterns and correlates of comorbidity, as well as differences in manifest depressive profiles were investigated in a sample of depressed adolescents. A sub-sample of the youth were characterized as belonging to either a "Pure" depression group, an "Internalizing" group (depression and co-occurring internalizing disorders), or an "Externalizing"…

  7. Brief Report: Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder

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    Champagne, Katelynn; Burkhouse, Katie L.; Woody, Mary L.; Feurer, Cope; Sosoo, Effua; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) bias serves as a state-like marker of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence or whether it would also be observed in currently nondepressed adolescents with a history of MDD. We examined differences in OGM to positive and negative cue words between adolescents (aged 11–18 years) with current MDD (n = 15), remitted MDD (n = 25), and no history of any depressive disorder (n = 25). Youth and their parents were administered a structured diagnostic interview and adolescents completed the autobiographical memory test. Compared to never depressed adolescents, adolescents with current or remitted MDD recalled less specific memories in response to positive and negative cue words. The difference between the two MDD groups was small and nonsignificant. These findings suggest that OGM is not simply a state-like marker in currently depressed adolescents, but is also evident in adolescents with remitted MDD, indicating that it may represent a trait-like vulnerability that increases risk for relapse. PMID:27498000

  8. [Symptomatology and psychosocial adaptation in adolescents with depressive disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviour disorder].

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    Toupin, Jean; Le Corff, Yann; Pauzé, Robert

    2008-01-01

    To describe symptomatology and specific psychological, social, and academic adaptation in adolescents with depressive disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviour disorder, as well as their family situation. Using binomial logistic regressions, this study compares adolescents with depressive disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviour disorder (n=25) with adolescents with the same behaviour problems but no comorbid depressive disorder (n=99). Sex-specific interaction impacts are examined. While both groups have several similar characteristics, youth with a dual diagnosis have more oppositional symptoms and poorer self-esteem. Analyses show no interaction impact from sex variable. Adolescents in both groups would benefit from similar interventions regarding disruptive behaviour disorders and some related problems, such as using psychoactive drugs, socializing with delinquent peers, and difficulty functioning in school. Adolescents with a comorbid depressive disorder need special attention, given the more significant oppositional symptomatology and the poorer self-esteem.

  9. Executive Attention Impairment in Adolescents With Major Depressive Disorder.

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    Sommerfeldt, Sasha L; Cullen, Kathryn R; Han, Georges; Fryza, Brandon J; Houri, Alaa K; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Neural network models that guide neuropsychological assessment practices are increasingly used to explicate depression, though a paucity of work has focused on regulatory systems that are under development in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsystems of attention related to executive functioning including alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks, as well as sustained attention with varying working memory load, in a sample of depressed and well adolescents. Neuropsychological functioning in 99 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 63 adolescent healthy controls (M = 16.6 years old) was assessed on the Attention Network Test (ANT) and the Continuous Performance Test, Identical Pairs. Adolescents with MDD, particularly those who were not medicated, were slower to process conflict (slower reaction time on the Executive Attention scale of the ANT) compared to controls, particularly for those who were not undergoing psychopharmacological treatment. Tentative evidence also suggests that within the MDD group, orienting performance was more impaired in those with a history of comorbid substance use disorder, and alerting was more impaired in those with a history of a suicide attempt. Adolescents with depression showed impaired executive attention, although cognitive performance varied across subgroups of patients. These findings highlight the importance of examining neurocognitive correlates associated with features of depression and suggest an avenue for future research to help guide the development of interventions.

  10. Association between obesity and depressive disorder in adolescents at high risk for depression.

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    Hammerton, G; Thapar, A; Thapar, A K

    2014-04-01

    To examine the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and depressive disorder in adolescents at high risk for depression. Prospective longitudinal 3-wave study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression. Replication in population-based cohort study. Three hundred and thirty-seven families where offspring were aged 9-17 years at baseline and 10-19 years at the final data point. Replication sample of adolescents from population-based cohort study aged 11-13 years at first assessment and 14-17 years at follow-up. High risk sample used BMI, skin-fold thickness, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV)-defined major depressive disorder and depression symptoms using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA). Replication sample used BMI, DSM-IV depressive disorder and depression symptoms using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). Two hundred and eighty-nine adolescents were included in the primary analyses. The mean BMI for each age group in this sample were significantly higher than population norms. There was no significant longitudinal association between categories of weight (or BMI) and new onset depressive disorder or depression symptoms. Similar results were found for skin-fold thickness. The association was also tested in a replication population-based sample and found to be non-significant in the subsample of offspring with mothers who had experienced recurrent depression in the past. BMI at age 12 years was, however, a significant predictor of depression symptoms but not of depressive disorder at age 15 years for the total unselected population. BMI does not significantly predict the development of depression in the offspring of parents with recurrent depression.

  11. Pharmacological Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder in Adolescents

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    Rachel L. Farley

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD affects a significant number of adolescents today. Its consequences (including social isolation, failure to achieve crucial developmental milestones, and suicide mandate close attention in clinical practice. While tricyclics and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs have been used infrequently and with questionable efficacy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, particularly fluoxetine, consistently have been shown to be of benefit in treating outpatient adolescents with MDD. Despite some success with other drugs in its class, fluoxetine remains the only SSRI that is FDA approved for treatment of children and adolescents with depression. A review of recent studies is presented, including the controversy regarding the relationship of antidepressants and suicidal behavior in this patient population.

  12. Association among depressive disorder, adjustment disorder, sleep disturbance, and suicidal ideation in Taiwanese adolescent.

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    Chung, Ming-Shun; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Sun, Wen-Jung; Lin, Chieh-Nan; Kuo, Chien-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Che; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Cheng, Hui-Ping; Chou, Pesus

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association among depressive disorder, adjustment disorder, sleep disturbance, and suicidal ideation in Taiwanese adolescent. We recruited 607 students (grades 5-9) to fill out the investigation of basic data and sleep disturbance. Psychiatrists then used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Kid to interview these students to assess their suicidal ideation and psychiatric diagnosis. Multiple logistic regression with forward conditionals was used to find the risk factors for multivariate analysis. Female, age, depressive disorder, adjustment disorder, and poor sleep all contributed to adolescent suicidal ideation in univariate analysis. However, poor sleep became non-significant under the control of depressive disorder and adjustment disorder. We found that both depressive disorder and adjustment disorder play important roles in sleep and adolescent suicidal ideation. After controlling both depressive disorder and adjustment disorder, sleep disturbance was no longer a risk of adolescent suicidal ideation. We also confirm the indirect influence of sleep on suicidal ideation in adolescent. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescence predicts onset of major depressive disorder through early adulthood.

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    Meinzer, Michael C; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Seeley, John R; Gau, Jeff M; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waxmonsky, James G

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed in mid-adolescence and the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) through early adulthood in a large school-based sample. A secondary aim was to examine whether this relationship was robust after accounting for comorbid psychopathology and psychosocial impairment. One thousand five hundred seven participants from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project completed rating scales in adolescence and structured diagnostic interviews up to four times from adolescence to age 30. Adolescents with a lifetime history of ADHD were at significantly higher risk of MDD through early adulthood relative to those with no history of ADHD. ADHD remained a significant predictor of MDD after controlling for gender, lifetime history of other psychiatric disorders in adolescence, social and academic impairment in adolescence, stress and coping in adolescence, and new onset of other psychiatric disorders through early adulthood (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.04, 3.06). Additional significant, robust predictors of MDD included female gender, a lifetime history of an anxiety disorder, and poor coping skills in mid-adolescence, as well as the onset of anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, and substance-use disorder after mid-adolescence. A history of ADHD in adolescence was associated with elevated risk of MDD through early adulthood and this relationship remained significant after controlling for psychosocial impairment in adolescence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Additional work is needed to identify the mechanisms of risk and to inform depression prevention programs for adolescents with ADHD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Study of the Predictive Validity of the Children's Depression Inventory for Major Depression Disorder in Puerto Rican Adolescents

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    Rivera-Medina, Carmen L.; Bernal, Guillermo; Rossello, Jeannette; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the predictive validity of the Children's Depression Inventory items for major depression disorder (MDD) in an outpatient clinic sample of Puerto Rican adolescents. The sample consisted of 130 adolescents, 13 to 18 years old. The five most frequent symptoms of the Children's Depression Inventory that best predict the…

  15. Subthreshold Depressive Disorder in Adolescents: Predictors of Escalation to Full-Syndrome

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    Klein, Daniel N.; Shankman, Stewart A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.

    2009-01-01

    The risk for the onset of full-syndrome depressive disorders from the subtreshold depressive disorder in adolescents is found to be at 67 percent. The variables that predict the progression to the full onset are: severity of depressive symptoms, medical conditions/ symptoms, history of suicidal ideation, history of anxiety disorder, and familial…

  16. Pain and Sleep-Wake Disturbances in Adolescents with Depressive Disorders

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    Murray, Caitlin B.; Murphy, Lexa K.; Palermo, Tonya M.; Clarke, Gregory M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) assess and compare sleep disturbances (including daytime and nighttime sleep patterns) in adolescents with depressive disorders and healthy peers, (b) examine the prevalence of pain in adolescents with depressive disorders and healthy peers, and (c) examine pubertal development, pain intensity, and depressive…

  17. A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for the Development of Depression and Disordered Eating in Adolescents

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    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…

  18. Comparison of demographic and clinical characteristics between children and adolescents with major depressive disorder.

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    Fu-I, Lee; Wang, Yuan Pang

    2008-06-01

    To compare clinical characteristics of major depressive disorder symptoms between children and adolescents. The subjects were 58 patients of a Child and Adolescent Affective Disorder Clinic consecutively admitted during a six-month period. Children aged 5-9 years old and adolescents from 10-17 years old currently meeting DSM-IV criteria diagnosis of major depressive disorder were chosen. Current MDD diagnosis and depressive psychopathology were assessed by a clinical interview and the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-DSM-IV version. The Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised Version and the Children Global Assessment Scale rated the severity and global functioning of major depressive disorder. The most common depressive symptoms were: anhedonia (72.4%), depressed mood (72.4%), decreased concentration (62.1%), and irritability (58.6%). The intensity of depressive episodes of this sample ranged from mild to moderate. Fifty percent reported thoughts of death, and 29.3% presented a variety of psychotic symptoms. When compared with children, adolescents reported a significantly more depressed mood (p = 0.043), lower self-esteem (p = 0.002), and had more difficulty concentrating (p = 0.020). Female adolescents had lower self-esteem (p = 0.003), and male adolescents showed more decreased concentration (p = 0.016). This study suggests that age and gender differences might influence the clinical presentation of major depressive disorder in children and adolescents. Further studies with larger samples are needed.

  19. An Efficacy/effectiveness Study of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Adolescents with Comorbid Major Depression and Conduct Disorder.

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    Rohde, Paul; Clarke, Gregory N.; Mace, David E.; Jorgensen, Jenel S.; Seeley, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effectiveness of the Adolescent Coping With Depression (CWD-A) course, a cognitive-behavioral group intervention for depressed adolescents with comorbid conduct disorder. Method: Between 1998 and 2001, 93 nonincarcerated adolescents (ages 13-17 years) meeting criteria for major depressive disorder and conduct disorder were…

  20. Face Emotion Processing in Depressed Children and Adolescents with and without Comorbid Conduct Disorder

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    Schepman, Karen; Taylor, Eric; Collishaw, Stephan; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Studies of adults with depression point to characteristic neurocognitive deficits, including differences in processing facial expressions. Few studies have examined face processing in juvenile depression, or taken account of other comorbid disorders. Three groups were compared: depressed children and adolescents with conduct disorder (n = 23),…

  1. Depression and Its Measurement in Verbal Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Gotham, Katherine; Unruh, Kathryn; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In a sample of 50 verbally fluent adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (age: 16-31 years; verbal IQ: 72-140), we examined the pattern of response and associations between scores on common measures of depressive symptoms, participant characteristics, and clinical diagnosis of depressive disorders. Beck Depression Inventory--Second…

  2. Evidence for increased glutamatergic cortical facilitation in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder.

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    Croarkin, Paul E; Nakonezny, Paul A; Husain, Mustafa M; Melton, Tabatha; Buyukdura, Jeylan S; Kennard, Betsy D; Emslie, Graham J; Kozel, F Andrew; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2013-03-01

    Converging lines of evidence implicate the glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Transcranial magnetic stimulation cortical excitability and inhibition paradigms have been used to assess cortical glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated tone in adults with major depressive disorder, but not in children and adolescents. To compare measures of cortical excitability and inhibition with 4 different paradigms in a group of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder vs healthy controls. Cross-sectional study examining medication-free children and adolescents (aged 9-17 years) with major depressive disorder compared with healthy controls. Cortical excitability was assessed with motor threshold and intracortical facilitation measures. Cortical inhibition was measured with cortical silent period and intracortical inhibition paradigms. University-based child and adolescent psychiatry clinic and neurostimulation laboratory. Twenty-four participants with major depressive disorder and 22 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Patients with major depressive disorder were medication naive and had moderate to severe symptoms based on an evaluation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist and scores on the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Motor threshold, intracortical facilitation, cortical silent period, and intracortical inhibition. Compared with healthy controls, depressed patients had significantly increased intracortical facilitation at interstimulus intervals of 10 and 15 milliseconds bilaterally. There were no significant group differences in cortical inhibition measures. These findings suggest that major depressive disorder in children and adolescents is associated with increased intracortical facilitation and excessive glutamatergic activity.

  3. Onset of Alcohol or Substance Use Disorders Following Treatment for Adolescent Depression

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    Curry, John; Silva, Susan; Rohde, Paul; Ginsburg, Golda; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Kirchner, Jerry; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Feeny, Norah; Albano, Anne Marie; Lavanier, Sarah; Reinecke, Mark; Jacobs, Rachel; Becker-Weidman, Emily; Weller, Elizabeth; Emslie, Graham; Walkup, John; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Burns, Barbara; Wells, Karen; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested whether positive response to short-term treatment for adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) would have the secondary benefit of preventing subsequent alcohol use disorders (AUD) or substance use disorders (SUD). Method: For 5 years, we followed 192 adolescents (56.2% female; 20.8% minority) who had participated in…

  4. Eating disorder symptom trajectories in adolescence: effects of time, participant sex, and early adolescent depressive symptoms.

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    Allen, Karina L; Crosby, Ross D; Oddy, Wendy H; Byrne, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of developmental risk for eating disorders and eating disorder symptoms. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and trajectory of five core eating disorder behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting, following strict dietary rules, and hard exercise for weight control) and a continuous index of dietary restraint and eating, weight and shape concerns, in a cohort of male and female adolescents followed from 14 to 20 years. It also aimed to determine the effect of early adolescent depressive symptoms on the prevalence and trajectory of these different eating disorder symptoms. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective cohort study that has followed participants from pre-birth to age 20 years. An adapted version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire was used to assess eating disorder symptoms at ages 14, 17 and 20 years. The Beck Depression Inventory for Youth was used to assess depressive symptoms at age 14. Longitudinal changes in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms were tested using generalised estimating equations and linear mixed models. Symptom trajectories varied according to the eating disorder symptom studied, participant sex, and the presence of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. For males, eating disorder symptoms tended to be stable (for purging, fasting and hard exercise) or decreasing (for binge eating and global symptom scores) from 14 to 17 years, and then stable to 20 years. For females, fasting and global symptom scores increased from age 14 to peak in prevalence at age 17. Rates of binge eating in females were stable from age 14 to age 17 and increased significantly thereafter, whilst rates of purging and hard exercise increased from age 14 to age 17, and then remained elevated through to age 20. Depressive symptoms at age 14 impacted on eating disorder symptom trajectories in females, but not in males. Prevention

  5. Bone Density Characteristics and Major Depressive Disorder in Adolescents

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    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Mendes, Nara; Russell, Melissa; Herzog, David B.; Klibanski, Anne; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    Objective Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common during adolescence, a time period characterized by rapid bone mineral accrual. MDD has recently been associated with lower bone mineral density in adults. Our objective was to determine whether MDD is associated with bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, vitamin D and gonadal steroids in adolescents. Methods Sixty five adolescents 12 to 18 years of age (32 boys: 16 with MDD and 16 controls, and 33 girls: 17 with MDD and 16 controls) were included in a cross-sectional study. BMD and body composition were obtained by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Estradiol, testosterone, 25-OH vitamin D levels and P1NP, a marker of bone formation, and CTX, a marker of bone resorption, were measured. Results Boys with MDD had significantly lower BMD at the hip (Mean [SD] of 0.99 [0.17] vs. 1.04 [0.18] g/cm2; BMI-adjusted p=0.005) and femoral neck (0.92 [0.17] vs. 0.94 [0.17] g/cm2; adjusted; BMI-adjusted p=0.024) compared to healthy controls after adjusting for BMI. This significant finding was maintained after also adjusting for lean mass and bone age (hip: p=0.007; femoral neck: p=0.020). In girls, there were no significant differences in BMD between the girls with MDD and the controls after adjusting for BMI (p-values>.17). Conclusions Male adolescents with MDD have significantly lower BMD as compared to healthy controls after adjusting for body mass and maturity. This association is not observed in girls. PMID:23362498

  6. Maltreatment and Depression in Adolescent Sexual Offenders with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Walters, Jessica Bleil; Hughes, Tammy L.; Sutton, Lawrence R.; Marshall, Stephanie N.; Crothers, Laura M.; Lehman, Cathryn; Paserba, Dave; Talkington, Vanessa; Taormina, Rochelle; Huang, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported presence and severity of abuse, neglect, and depressive symptoms for 43 adolescents adjudicated delinquent due to a sexual offense. Twenty-seven of the adolescent sexual offenders were also diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, and 16 did not carry an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Both groups…

  7. Bias to negative emotions: a depression state-dependent marker in adolescent major depressive disorder.

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    Maalouf, Fadi T; Clark, Luke; Tavitian, Lucy; Sahakian, Barbara J; Brent, David; Phillips, Mary L

    2012-06-30

    The aim of the current research was to examine for the first time the extent to which bias to negative emotions in an inhibitory control paradigm is a state or trait marker in major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents. We administered the affective go/no go task which measures the ability to switch attention to or away from positive or negative emotional stimuli to 40 adolescents with MDD (20 in acute episode (MDDa) and 20 in remission (MDDr)) and 17 healthy controls (HC). MDDa were significantly faster on the shift to negative target blocks as compared to shift to positive target blocks while HC and MDDr displayed the opposite pattern as measured by an "emotional bias index" (EBI=latency (shift to negative targets)-latency (shift to positive targets)). There was also a trend for an effect of group on commission errors, suggesting more impulsive responding by MDDa than both MDDr and HC independently of stimulus valence throughout the task. Negative bias was not associated with depression severity or medication status. In conclusion, bias to negative emotional stimuli appears to be present in the acute stage of MDD and absent in remission suggesting that it is a depression state-specific marker of MDD in adolescents. Latency emerges as a better proxy of negative bias than commission errors and accuracy on this inhibitory control task in adolescents with MDD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Low rates of depressed mood and depression diagnoses in a clinic review of children and adolescents with autistic disorder.

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    Henry, Charles A; Nowinski, Lisa; Koesterer, Karmen; Ferrone, Christine; Spybrook, Jessaca; Bauman, Margaret

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression diagnoses and related clinical data in an outpatient sample of youth with autistic disorder. Records of 123 psychiatrically referred children and adolescents with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of autistic disorder were examined. Mood disorder diagnoses and chief complaints along with family mood disorder history were the primary variables analyzed. Four subjects (3%) presented with depressed mood. Irritability complaints were frequent (n=78, 63%). Six subjects (5%) received a mood disorder diagnosis; all with mood disorder, not otherwise specified. No subjects received a depressive disorder diagnosis. Family history of mood disorders was common. Findings raise questions about the appropriate characterization and potential misdiagnoses of depression in youth with autistic disorder.

  9. Early adolescent substance use as a risk factor for developing conduct disorder and depression symptoms.

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    Wymbs, Brian T; McCarty, Carolyn A; Mason, W Alex; King, Kevin M; Baer, John S; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Conduct disorder and depression symptoms are well-established risk factors for substance use during adolescence. However, few investigations have examined whether early substance use increases adolescents' risk of developing conduct disorder/depression symptoms. Using the Developmental Pathways Project sample of 521 middle school students (51.6% male), we tested whether substance use (indicated by alcohol and marijuana use, and use-related impairment) in 8th and 9th grade increased risk of conduct disorder and depression symptoms in 9th and 12th grade over and above prior symptoms. We examined whether associations between substance use and conduct disorder/depression symptoms were consistent across self- or parent-reported symptoms and whether associations were moderated by gender. Analyses indicated that, over and above prior symptoms, elevated substance use in 8th grade predicted elevated conduct disorder symptoms in 9th grade, and substance use in 9th grade predicted conduct disorder symptoms in 12th grade. In contrast, substance use failed to predict later depression symptoms independent of prior symptoms. These findings were consistent across self- and parent-reported conduct disorder/depression symptoms. With one exception (association between substance use in 8th grade and self-reported conduct disorder symptoms in 9th grade), relations between early substance use and later conduct disorder symptoms did not differ between boys and girls. Study findings underscore the unique contribution of substance use during early adolescence to the development of conduct disorder symptoms by late adolescence.

  10. Selective Neurocognitive Impairments in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

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    Han, Georges; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Jepsen, Susie; Ballard, Kristin; Nelson, Megan; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Cullen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether major depression in adolescence is characterized by neurocognitive deficits in attention, affective decision making, and cognitive control of emotion processing. Neuropsychological tests including the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs, the Attention Network…

  11. Attentional Functions in Children and Adolescents with ADHD, Depressive Disorders, and the Comorbid Condition

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    Gunther, Thomas; Konrad, Kerstin; De Brito, Stephane A.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Vloet, Timo D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depressive disorders (DDs) often co-occur in children and adolescents, but evidence on the respective influence of these disorders on attention parameters is inconsistent. This study examines the influence of DDs on ADHD in a model-oriented approach that includes selectivity and…

  12. Social phobia, depression and eating disorders during middle adolescence: longitudinal associations and treatment seeking.

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    Ranta, Klaus; Väänänen, Juha; Fröjd, Sari; Isomaa, Rasmus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri

    2017-11-01

    Longitudinal associations between social phobia (SP), depression and eating disorders (EDs), and the impact of antecedent SP and depression on subsequent treatment seeking for EDs have rarely been explored in prospective adolescent population studies. We aimed to examine these associations in a large-scale follow-up study among middle adolescents. We surveyed 3278 Finnish adolescents with a mean age of 15 years for these disorders. Two years later, 2070 were reached and again surveyed for psychopathology and treatment seeking. Longitudinal associations between the self-reported disorders and treatment-seeking patterns for self-acknowledged ED symptoms were examined in multivariate analyses, controlling for SP/depression comorbidity and relevant socioeconomic covariates. Self-reported anorexia nervosa (AN) at age 15 years predicted self-reported depression at age 17 years. Furthermore, self-reported SP at age 15 years predicted not seeking treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN) symptoms, while self-reported depression at age 15 years predicted not seeking treatment for AN symptoms during the follow-up period. Adolescents with AN should be monitored for subsequent depression. Barriers caused by SP to help seeking for BN, and by depression for AN, should be acknowledged by healthcare professionals who encounter socially anxious and depressive adolescents, especially when they present with eating problems.

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of depressive disorders in early adolescents in central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Bo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of depressive disorders among adolescents has varied across studies. The present study aims to assess current and lifetime prevalence and characteristics of adolescent Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Dysthymia and Depression NOS among adolescents in Central Norway in addition to socio-demographics and use of mental health care. Method In the Youth and Mental Health Study a representative sample of 2432 junior high school students (mean age 14.9 years, SD = 0.6 from two counties in Central Norway were screened with the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ. A subset of 345 of these adolescents (72.5% girls, 220 high scorers (MFQ = > 26, 74 middle scorers (MFQ 7-25, and 50 low scorers (MFQ Results Almost one in four subjects (23% had life-time depression. Prevalences of current Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Dysthymia and "Double depression" were 2.6%, 1.0% and 0.6%, respectively, and for Depression NOS 6.3%. All depressive disorders were characterized by long duration of episodes with large variations, and for any depressive disorder onset before 12 years of age. In multivariate analyses MDD and Dysthymia were most strongly associated with gender and not living with both biological parents. There was no gender difference for Depression NOS. Although a considerable number of depressed subjects had received mental health care, the reason for contact with services was seldom due to affective symptoms. Less than 20% had been in contact with specialist mental health services. Conclusion High rates of Depression NOS, early onset of depressive episodes, long duration, and low use of specialized services point to the need for improved diagnostic assessment and treatment for young individuals.

  14. Depression as a Moderator of Sociocultural Influences on Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Females and Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…

  15. Body-Related Social Comparison and Disordered Eating among Adolescent Females with an Eating Disorder, Depressive Disorder, and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Le Grange

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC and eating disorders (EDs by: (a comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD, and no psychiatric history; and (b investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12–18 (25 per diagnostic group. To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others’. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE. Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001. Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01, and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC.

  16. Body-related social comparison and disordered eating among adolescent females with an eating disorder, depressive disorder, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Andrea E; Zaitsoff, Shannon L; Taylor, Andrew; Menna, Rosanne; Le Grange, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC) and eating disorders (EDs) by: (a) comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD), and no psychiatric history; and (b) investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12-18 (25 per diagnostic group). To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others'. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001). Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01), and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC.

  17. Neural correlates of self-perceptions in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Kailyn A L; Colcombe, Stan; Henderson, Sarah E; Alonso, Carmen M; Milham, Michael P; Gabbay, Vilma

    2016-06-01

    Alteration in self-perception is a salient feature in major depression. Hyperactivity of anterior cortical midline regions has been implicated in this phenomenon in depressed adults. Here, we extend this work to depressed adolescents during a developmental time when neuronal circuitry underlying the sense of self matures by using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and connectivity analyses. Twenty-three depressed adolescents and 18 healthy controls (HC) viewed positive and negative trait words in a scanner and judged whether each word described them ('self' condition) or was a good trait to have ('general' condition). Self-perception scores were based on participants' endorsements of positive and negative traits during the fMRI task. Depressed adolescents exhibited more negative self-perceptions than HC. Both groups activated cortical midline regions in response to self-judgments compared to general-judgments. However, depressed adolescents recruited the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus more for positive self-judgments. Additionally, local connectivity of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex was reduced during self-reflection in depressed adolescents. Our findings highlight differences in self-referential processing network function between depressed and healthy adolescents and support the need for further investigation of brain mechanisms associated with the self, as they may be paramount to understanding the etiology and development of major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Neural correlates of self-perceptions in adolescents with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailyn A.L. Bradley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alteration in self-perception is a salient feature in major depression. Hyperactivity of anterior cortical midline regions has been implicated in this phenomenon in depressed adults. Here, we extend this work to depressed adolescents during a developmental time when neuronal circuitry underlying the sense of self matures by using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and connectivity analyses. Twenty-three depressed adolescents and 18 healthy controls (HC viewed positive and negative trait words in a scanner and judged whether each word described them (‘self’ condition or was a good trait to have (‘general’ condition. Self-perception scores were based on participants’ endorsements of positive and negative traits during the fMRI task. Depressed adolescents exhibited more negative self-perceptions than HC. Both groups activated cortical midline regions in response to self-judgments compared to general-judgments. However, depressed adolescents recruited the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus more for positive self-judgments. Additionally, local connectivity of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex was reduced during self-reflection in depressed adolescents. Our findings highlight differences in self-referential processing network function between depressed and healthy adolescents and support the need for further investigation of brain mechanisms associated with the self, as they may be paramount to understanding the etiology and development of major depressive disorder.

  19. Brief report: Overgeneral autobiographical memory in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Katelynn; Burkhouse, Katie L; Woody, Mary L; Feurer, Cope; Sosoo, Effua; Gibb, Brandon E

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) bias serves as a state-like marker of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence or whether it would also be observed in currently nondepressed adolescents with a history of MDD. We examined differences in OGM to positive and negative cue words between adolescents (aged 11-18 years) with current MDD (n = 15), remitted MDD (n = 25), and no history of any depressive disorder (n = 25). Youth and their parents were administered a structured diagnostic interview and adolescents completed the autobiographical memory test. Compared to never depressed adolescents, adolescents with current or remitted MDD recalled less specific memories in response to positive and negative cue words. The difference between the two MDD groups was small and nonsignificant. These findings suggest that OGM is not simply a state-like marker in currently depressed adolescents, but is also evident in adolescents with remitted MDD, indicating that it may represent a trait-like vulnerability that increases risk for relapse. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. One Factor or Two Parallel Processes? Comorbidity and Development of Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, William W., III; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Muris, Peter; van Hoof, Anne; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study investigates whether anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms of adolescents from the general community are best described by a model that assumes they are indicative of one general factor or by a model that assumes they are two distinct disorders with parallel growth processes. Additional analyses were conducted to explore…

  1. Mental State Decoding in Adolescent Boys with Major Depressive Disorder versus Sex-Matched Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, William; Sharp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Several adult depression studies have investigated mental state decoding, the basis for theory of mind, using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Findings have been mixed, but a comprehensive study found a greater severity of depression to be associated with poorer mental state decoding. Importantly, there has yet to be a similar study of adolescent depression. Converging evidence suggests that atypical mental state decoding may have particularly profound effects for psychosocial functioning among depressed adolescent boys. Adolescent boys with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 33) and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 84) completed structured clinical interviews, self-report measures of psychopathology and the Child Eyes Test (CET). The MDD group performed significantly better than HCs on the CET overall (p = 0.002), underscored by greater accuracy for negatively valenced items (p = 0.003). Group differences on items depicting positive (p = 0.129) and neutral mental states (p = 0.081) were nonsignificant. Enhanced mental state decoding among depressed adolescent boys may play a role in the maintenance of and vulnerability to adolescent depression. Findings and implications are discussed. Limitations of this study include a reliance on self-report data for HC boys, as well as a lack of 'pure' depression among the boys with MDD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Risk of developing major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders among adolescents and adults with atopic dermatitis: a nationwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Ming; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Bai, Ya-Mei; Su, Tung-Ping; Li, Cheng-Ta; Yang, Albert C; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Chen, Mu-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested a comorbid association between atopic dermatitis (AD) and depressive disorder as well as anxiety disorders, but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 8208 AD patients aged 12 and older without psychiatric history and age-/sex-matched (1:1) controls between 1998 and 2008 were enrolled in our study and followed to the end of 2011. Subjects who developed major depression, any depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders during the follow-up were identified. The Cox regression analysis after adjusting for demographic data and atopic comorbidities demonstrated that patients with AD had an elevated risk of developing major depression (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.56, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.64-11.84), any depressive disorder (HR: 5.44, 95% CI: 3.99-7.44), and anxiety disorders (HR: 3.57, 95% CI: 2.55-4.98). Stratified by age group, both adolescents and adults with AD were prone to developing major depression (HR: 4.26, 95% CI: 1.39-13.13; HR: 7.56, 95% CI: 3.75-15.23), any depressive disorder (HR: 4.38, 95% CI: 2.09-9.18; HR: 5.66, 95% CI: 4.01-7.99), and anxiety disorders (HR: 5.40, 95% CI: 2.02-14.39; HR: 3.36, 95% CI: 2.38-4.80). AD in both adolescence and adulthood increased the risk of developing major depression, any depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders in later life. Further studies would be required to clarify the possible underlying mechanism between AD and depression as well as anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Predicting placebo response in adolescents with major depressive disorder: The Adolescent Placebo Impact Composite Score (APICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonezny, Paul A; Mayes, Taryn L; Byerly, Matthew J; Emslie, Graham J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a composite scoring system to predict the probability of placebo response in adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Participants of the current study were 151 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) who were randomized to the placebo arm (placebo transdermal patches) of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the selegiline transdermal patch with placebo (DelBello et al., 2014). The primary outcome of response was defined as a CGI-I score of 1 or 2 (very much or much improved) at week 12 (study-end) or exit. As a first step, a multiple logistic mixed model was used to estimate the odds of placebo response from each predictor in the model, including age, CDRS-R total at baseline (depressive symptom severity), history of recurrent depression (yes vs. no), sex (female vs. male), and race (non-Caucasian vs. Caucasian). On the basis of the initial logistic mixed model analysis, we then constructed an Adolescent Placebo Impact Composite Score (APICS) that became the sole predictor in a re-specified Bayesian logistic regression model to estimate the probability of placebo response. Finally, the AUC for the APICS was tested against a nominal area of 0.50 to evaluate how well the APICS discriminated placebo response status. Among the 151 adolescents, with a mean age of 14.6 years (SD = 1.6) and a mean baseline CDRS-R total of 60.6 (SD = 12.1), 68.2% were females, 50.3% was Caucasian, and 39.7% had a history of recurrent depression. Placebo response rate was 58.3%. Based on the logistic mixed model, the re-specified equation with the highest discriminatory ability to estimate the probability of placebo response was APICS = age + (0.32 × CDRS-R Total at baseline) + (-2.85 × if female) + (-5.50 × if history of recurrent depression) + (-5.85 × if non-Caucasian). The AUC for this model was 0.59 (p = .049). Within a Bayesian decision-theoretic framework, in 95.5% of the time, the 10,000 posterior Monte Carlo samples suggested

  4. Normative data for female adolescents with eating disorders on the Children's Depression Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hunna J; Egan, Sarah J; Limburg, Karina; Hoiles, Kimberley J

    2014-09-01

    Given the importance of assessing depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adolescents with eating disorders (EDs), the aim was to provide normative data on the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) for female adolescents presenting for treatment of an ED. The data source was the Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders (HOPE) Project registry (N = 1000), a prospective, ongoing registry study comprising consecutive pediatric tertiary ED referrals. Females (N = 256; 12-17 years) with DSM-5 EDs completed the CDI at intake. Results on the CDI revealed a pattern of increasing depressive scores with age and higher scores among patients with anorexic spectrum disorders. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was high and had the same pattern as CDI scores. The mean score on the CDI in the sample was higher than community samples and clinical samples of adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and other clinical disorders. Females adolescents with EDs are at high-risk of depression and suicidal ideation. These data provide information about variation in CDI scores to guide clinicians in interpretation of scores. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The role of depressive symptoms in treatment of adolescent cannabis use disorder with N-Acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, Rachel L; Gilmore, Amanda K; Gray, Kevin M

    2018-05-21

    Relative to adults, adolescents are at greater risk of developing a cannabis use disorder (CUD) and risk may be exacerbated by co-occurring depressive symptoms. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), an over-the-counter antioxidant, is thought to normalize glutamate transmission. Oxidative stress and glutamate transmission are disrupted in both depression and CUD. Thus, NAC may be particularly effective at promoting cannabis abstinence among adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms. Secondary analyses were conducted using a sub-sample of adolescents with CUD (N = 74) who participated in an 8-week randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial examining the efficacy of NAC for cannabis cessation. It was hypothesized that NAC would reduce severity of depressive symptoms, and that decreases depressive symptom severity would mediate decreases in positive weekly urine cannabinoid tests (11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol). Additionally, it was expected that adolescents with greater severity of baseline depressive symptoms would be more likely to become abstinent when assigned NAC relative to placebo. Results from linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations did not suggest that NAC reduced severity of depressive symptoms, and the hypothesis that NAC's effect on cannabis cessation would be mediated by reduced depressive symptoms was not supported. However, an interaction between treatment condition and baseline severity of depressive symptoms as a predictor of weekly urine cannabinoid tests was significant, suggesting that NAC was more effective at promoting abstinence among adolescents with heightened baseline depressive symptoms. These secondary findings, though preliminary, suggest a need for further examination of the role of depressive symptoms in treatment of adolescent CUD with NAC. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Child behavior checklist profiles in adolescents with bipolar and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, Kukju; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Kee Jeong; Joo, Yeonho; Kim, Hyo-Won

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profiles in youths with bipolar and depressive disorders. Seventy-four subjects with a mean age of 14.9±1.6years (36 boys) with mood disorders and their parents were recruited from September 2011 to June 2013 in the Department of Psychiatry, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Diagnosis of mood disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorder was confirmed by child psychiatrists using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). The parents of the subjects completed the Parent General Behavior Inventory-10-item Mania Scale (P-GBI-10M), Parent-version of Mood Disorder Questionnaire (P-MDQ), ADHD rating scale (ARS) and CBCL. The adolescents completed the 76-item Adolescent General Behavior Inventory (A-GBI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Adolescent-version of Mood Disorder Questionnaire (A-MDQ). When adjusted for gender and the comorbidity with ADHD, the Withdrawn and Anxious/Depressed subscale scores of the CBCL were higher in subjects with bipolar disorder than in those with depressive disorder. Higher scores of A-GBI Depressive subscale, A-MDQ and BDI were shown in subjects with bipolar disorder than in those with depressive disorder. There was no significant difference on CBCL-DP, P-GBI-10M, P-MDQ, A-GBI Hypomanic/Biphasic subscale and ARS between two groups. All eight subscales of the CBCL positively correlated with the P-GBI-10M and P-MDQ scores, and seven of all eight subscales of the CBCL positively correlated with A-GBI Depressive and Hypomanic/Biphasic subscales. The BDI score was positively associated with the Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, Anxious/Depressed, and Social Problems subscale scores. CBCL-DP score was strongly correlated with manic/hypomanic symptoms measured by P-GBI-10M and P-MDQ (r=0.771 and 0.826). This study suggests that the CBCL could be used for measuring mood symptoms and combined psychopathology

  7. Delinquency, depression, and substance use disorder among child welfare-involved adolescent females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalayants, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Although adolescents with delinquency are known to have higher-than-average rates of depression or substance use disorder (SUD), research on the topic is inconsistent. It remains unclear weather depression or SUD leads to delinquency, whether delinquency leads to depression or SUD, or whether there is bi-directionality. Utilizing the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (Wave I: 2008–2009; Wave II: 18 months later: N = 5872), we used logistic regression to predict depression from delinquency (and vice versa), and SUD from delinquency (and vice versa). After inclusion of control variables, we found that females with minor theft in Wave I were more than 4 times as likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.34; 95% CI: 1.10–17.16) as females without minor theft to be depressed in Wave II, and those with public disorder in Wave I were almost 3 times as likely (aOR = 2.74; 95% CI: 1.03–7.30) as those without public disorder to have SUD in Wave II. Overall delinquency also predicted depression or SUD, and SUD predicted delinquency. Practitioners could address risk for depression or SUD among child welfare-involved adolescent females by focusing on overall delinquency or on specific types of delinquency (minor theft for depression and public disorder for SUD) and by offering interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) that have been shown to be effective in preventing depression or SUD. In addition, with respect to our finding that SUD predicts delinquency among adolescent females, practitioners can help prevent delinquency by offering interventions (e.g., intensive outpatient treatments) that have well documented effectiveness in addressing SUD. PMID:24060474

  8. Delinquency, depression, and substance use disorder among child welfare-involved adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalayants, Marina; Prince, Jonathan D

    2014-04-01

    Although adolescents with delinquency are known to have higher-than-average rates of depression or substance use disorder (SUD), research on the topic is inconsistent. It remains unclear weather depression or SUD leads to delinquency, whether delinquency leads to depression or SUD, or whether there is bi-directionality. Utilizing the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (Wave I: 2008-2009; Wave II: 18 months later: N=5872), we used logistic regression to predict depression from delinquency (and vice versa), and SUD from delinquency (and vice versa). After inclusion of control variables, we found that females with minor theft in Wave I were more than 4 times as likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=4.34; 95% CI: 1.10-17.16) as females without minor theft to be depressed in Wave II, and those with public disorder in Wave I were almost 3 times as likely (aOR=2.74; 95% CI: 1.03-7.30) as those without public disorder to have SUD in Wave II. Overall delinquency also predicted depression or SUD, and SUD predicted delinquency. Practitioners could address risk for depression or SUD among child welfare-involved adolescent females by focusing on overall delinquency or on specific types of delinquency (minor theft for depression and public disorder for SUD) and by offering interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) that have been shown to be effective in preventing depression or SUD. In addition, with respect to our finding that SUD predicts delinquency among adolescent females, practitioners can help prevent delinquency by offering interventions (e.g., intensive outpatient treatments) that have well documented effectiveness in addressing SUD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationships among depression, anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived social support in adolescents with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Savaş; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Akça, Ömer Faruk; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Hergüner, Sabri

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationships of depression, anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived social support with conversion symptoms in adolescents with conversion disorder (CD). Fifty outpatients, aged 8-18 years, who had been diagnosed with CD and members of a control group were assessed using the psychological questionnaires. Compared with controls, adolescents with CD scored higher on the Child Depression Inventory (CDI), Screen for Child Anxiety-related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI) total, CASI physical and cognitive subscales, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support family subscale. Multiple regression analysis showed that CDI, CASI total, and CASI cognitive scores predicted the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ) scores and that CDI and CASI total scores predicted the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI) scores of subjects. This study suggest that adolescents with CD had poor psychosocial well-being, and depression, global anxiety sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns are related to conversion symptoms.

  10. Psychotherapy, Pharmacotherapy, and Their Combination for Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikita; Reece, John

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis aims to inform clinical practice of treatment strategies for adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). The efficacy of three empirically validated treatments was compared to determine the most effective treatment. These were: cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)…

  11. Prevalence, 20-month incidence and outcome of unipolar depressive disorders in a community sample of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, AJ; Wittchen, HU; Schuster, P

    Background. This article presents prospective longitudinal findings on prevalence, incidence, patterns of change and stability of depressive disorders in a community sample of 1228 adolescents. Methods. Data were collected at baseline and follow-up (20 months later) in a representative population

  12. Psychopathology in adolescent offspring of parents with panic disorder, major depression, or both: a 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Micco, Jamie A; Henin, Aude; Petty, Carter; Faraone, Stephen V; Mazursky, Heather; Bruett, Lindsey; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F; Biederman, Joseph

    2012-11-01

    The authors examined the specificity and course of psychiatric disorders from early childhood through adolescence in offspring of parents with confirmed panic disorder and major depressive disorder. The authors examined rates of psychiatric disorders at 10-year-follow-up (mean age, 14 years) in four groups: offspring of referred parents with panic and depression (N=137), offspring of referred parents with panic without depression (N=26), offspring of referred parents with depression without panic (N=48), and offspring of nonreferred parents with neither disorder (N=80). Follow-up assessments relied on structured interviews with the adolescents and their mothers; diagnoses were rated present if endorsed by either. Parental panic disorder, independently of parental depression, predicted lifetime rates in offspring of multiple anxiety disorders, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Parental depression independently predicted offspring bipolar, drug use, and disruptive behavior disorders. Parental panic and depression interacted to predict specific phobia and major depressive disorder. Phobias were elevated in all at-risk groups, and depression was elevated in both offspring groups of parents with depression (with or without panic disorder), with the highest rates in the offspring of parents with depression only. Parental depression independently predicted new onset of depression, parental panic disorder independently predicted new onset of social phobia, and the two interacted to predict new onset of specific phobia and generalized anxiety disorder. At-risk offspring continue to develop new disorders as they progress through adolescence. These results support the need to screen and monitor the offspring of adults presenting for treatment of panic disorder or major depressive disorder.

  13. Dual Disorders in Adolescent Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van West, D.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents who abuse substances is the rule rather than the exception, and common comorbidities include depression, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, conduct disorder, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Among adolescents, the presence of both mental

  14. Mechanisms underlying the comorbidity between depressive and addictive disorders in adolescents: interactions between stress and HPA activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Uma; Hammen, Constance L; Poland, Russell E

    2009-03-01

    Depression may be a precursor to substance use disorder in some youngsters, and substance abuse might complicate the subsequent course of depression. This study examined whether hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and stressful life experiences are related to the development of substance use disorder in depressed and nondepressed adolescents, and whether substance use disorder predicts a worsening course of depression. Urinary-free cortisol was measured for 3 nights in 151 adolescents with no prior history of substance use disorder (55 depressed, 48 at high risk for depression, and 48 normal subjects). Information was obtained on recent stressful life experiences. The participants were followed for up to 5 years to assess the onset of substance use disorder, course of depression, and stressful experiences. The relationships among depression, cortisol as a measure of HPA activity, stressful experiences, and substance use disorder were examined. Elevated cortisol was associated with onset of substance use disorder. Stressful life experiences moderated this relationship. Cortisol and stress accounted for the effects of a history or risk of depression on the development of substance use disorder. Substance use disorder was associated with higher frequency of subsequent depressive episodes. Higher cortisol prior to the onset of substance use disorder may indicate vulnerability to substance use disorder. Stressful experiences increase the risk for substance use disorder in such vulnerable youth. The high prevalence of substance use disorders in depressed individuals may be explained, in part, by high levels of stress and increased HPA activity.

  15. Cumulative effect of multiple trauma on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Sharain; Mkabile, Siyabulela G; Fincham, Dylan S; Ahmed, Rashid; Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya

    2009-01-01

    Recent literature has indicated that exposure to multiple traumatic events in adults is associated with high levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. Against the backdrop of stressful life events and childhood abuse and neglect, we investigated the cumulative effect of multiple trauma exposure on PTSD, anxiety, and depression in an adolescent sample. One thousand one hundred forty 10th-grade learners from 9 Cape Town (South Africa) schools completed questionnaires on stressful life experiences; trauma exposure; and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Our population of interest for this study was adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 years who had been exposed to serious, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, qualifying traumatic events. The final sample size was thus 922. Rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, and anxiety were high. Controlling for sex, stressful life experiences in the past year, and childhood adversity, we found an effect of cumulative trauma exposure effect on PTSD and depression, with an increase in the number of traumas linearly associated with an increase in symptoms of PTSD (F((4,912)) = 7.60, P cumulative effect on anxiety. Our findings indicate that adolescents exposed to multiple traumas are more likely to experience more severe symptoms of PTSD and depression than those who experience a single event, with this effect independent of childhood adversity and everyday stressful life experiences. Exposure to multiple trauma, however, does not seem to be associated with more severe anxiety symptoms.

  16. "Loser" or "Popular"?: Neural response to social status words in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Kerestes, Rebecca; Griffith, Julianne M; Dahl, Ronald E; Ladouceur, Cecile D

    2017-12-01

    Concerns about social status are ubiquitous during adolescence, with information about social status often conveyed in text formats. Depressed adolescents may show alterations in the functioning of neural systems supporting processing of social status information. We examined whether depressed youth exhibited altered neural activation to social status words in temporal and prefrontal cortical regions thought to be involved in social cognitive processing, and whether this response was associated with development. Forty-nine adolescents (ages 10-18; 35 female), including 20 with major depressive disorder and 29 controls, were scanned while identifying the valence of words that connoted positive and negative social status. Results indicated that depressed youth showed reduced late activation to social status (vs neutral) words in the superior temporal cortex (STC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC); whereas healthy youth did not show any significant differences between word types. Depressed youth also showed reduced late activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and fusiform gyrus to negative (vs positive) social status words; whereas healthy youth showed the opposite pattern. Finally, age was positively associated with MPFC activation to social status words. Findings suggest that hypoactivation in the "social cognitive brain network" might be implicated in altered interpersonal functioning in adolescent depression. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Timing of first exposure to maternal depression and adolescent emotional disorder in a national Canadian cohort.

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    Kiyuri Naicker

    Full Text Available Correlations have been reported between behavioral and cognitive outcomes in adolescence and exposure to maternal depression during the first postpartum year, but the effects of timing of maternal depression during subsequent exposure periods have rarely been controlled for. This study aims to methodically investigate the importance of timing of initial exposure to maternal depression with respect to adolescent mental health outcomes.This study used data on 937 children from the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth (NLSCY, a nationally-representative longitudinal survey established in 1994 by Statistics Canada. Ordinal logistic regression was used to confirm associations between adolescent emotional disorder (at 12-13 years and initial exposure to maternal depression during 2-year intervals from birth to adolescence. Following their initial exposure to maternal depression, children were dropped from subsequent cycles. Stressful life events, chronic health conditions, maternal alcohol use, maternal marital status, gender, and SES were included as covariates.The results indicated that adolescents who were initially exposed to maternal depression between the ages of 2-3 years and 4-5 years had a two-fold increase in odds of emotional disorder. No increase in odds was observed in those initially exposed during the first postpartum year or later in childhood.The results demonstrate that a sensitive period of initial exposure to maternal depression may occur between the ages of 2 and 5, and not during the first year of life indicated by previous research. These findings are congruent with the literature on emotional and behavioral development in early childhood.

  18. Risk Factors for Depression in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-la-Iglesia, Myriam; Olivar, José-Sixto

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) in the following aspects. (1) Prevalence. It was concluded that there are an elevated depression rate and the need for longitudinal studies to determine prevalence and incidence based on functioning level, autistic symptoms, gender, age, type of depression, prognosis, duration, and treatment. (2) Explicative Hypotheses and Vulnerability. The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3) Risk of Suicide. The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4) Depressive Symptoms. Indicators for early detection are proposed and their overlap with HFASD is analysed, examining the assessment techniques used and arguing that specific adapted tests are needed. PMID:26413564

  19. Comorbidity of Drug Abuse in Adolescents: Screening for Depression, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Conduct Disorder

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    Ali Reza Jazayeri

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen comorbidity with substance abuse in adolescents. Among different disorders, 3 disorders of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, conduct disorder, and depression were studied in a sample of Iranian adolescents.   Materials & Methods: A total of 33 substance abusers, 35 criminal substance abusers, 34 non-substance abusers were selected from Tehran correctional and rehabilitation center for adolescents and 33 normal subjects (girl and boy were studied from schools of Tehran south using Achenbach youth self-report questionnaire (YSR (Achenbach, 1991, demographic and history of drug abuse questionnaire (designed by researchers. Results: There was a significant different regarding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder between two groups of substance abuser and non-substance abuser, but the difference was not significant between boys and girls. Regarding conduct disorder, there was a significant difference between two sexes. In boys, there was a significant difference between substance abusers and normal groups. In depression disorder, the difference between two sexes was significant regarding boys differences were observed between three groups selected from correctional and rehabilitation center and normal group regarding girls, there was a significant difference between substance abusers with criminals and normal group. Conclusion: Apparently, these 3 disorders have shown significant difference between two sexes. ADHD pattern was the same in two sexes. There was a significant difference between two sexes with regard to depression and conduct disorder. In both sexes, ADHD was not correlated with substance abuse. The conduct disorder was not related to substance abuse in both sexes and depression disorder was only related to substance abuse in girls. Considering the youth self-report test (YSR, there is a special mental profile for substance abusers, which separates them from non-substance abusers.

  20. Sleep Disturbance Predicts Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depressive Symptoms: A Cohort Study of Chinese Adolescents.

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    Fan, Fang; Zhou, Ya; Liu, Xianchen

    2017-07-01

    To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between sleep disturbance and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms in a large cohort of adolescents exposed to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. Participants were 1,573 adolescents (mean age at initial survey = 15.0 years, SD = 1.3 years; 46% male) in the Wenchuan Earthquake Adolescent Health Cohort (WEAHC) in Dujiangyan, China, 20 km away from the east epicenter. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Self-Rating Scale, and Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children were used to assess participants' sleep, PTSD symptoms, and depressive symptoms, respectively, at 12 months (T12m) and 24 months (T24m) after the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12, 2008. At T12m and T24m, 38.3% and 37.5% of participants reported sleep disturbance, 22.5% and 14.0% reported PTSD symptoms, and 41.0% and 38.3% reported depressive symptoms, respectively. The prevalence rates of PTSD and depressive symptoms at T12m and T24m significantly increased with sleep disturbance and short sleep duration. After adjusting for demographics, earthquake exposure, and PTSD/depressive symptoms at T12m, sleep disturbance at T12m was significantly associated with increased risk for PTSD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.80; 95% CI, 1.17-2.75) and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.14-2.02) at T24m. Furthermore, sleep disturbance predicted the persistence of PTSD (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.43-3.85) and depressive symptoms (OR = 2.41; 95% CI, 1.80-3.24). Sleep disturbance, PTSD, and depressive symptoms were prevalent and persistent in adolescents at 12 and 24 months after exposure to the Wenchuan earthquake. Sleep disturbance predicts the development and persistence of PTSD and depressive symptoms. Early assessment and treatment of sleep disturbance may be an important strategy for prevention and intervention of PTSD and depression in adolescent trauma survivors. © Copyright 2017 Physicians

  1. Adolescent Mental Health Literacy: Young People's Knowledge of Depression and Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Meredith E; Ravid, Ariel; Gibb, Brandon; George-Denn, Daniel; Bronstein, Laura R; McLeod, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Understanding why nearly 80% of youth ages 6-18 years with a mental disorder fail to receive treatment represents an important public health priority. International data suggest that underrecognition of mental illness and the need for treatment are barriers to service utilization. This study extends work to a U.S. sample of 1,104 adolescents. High School students were invited to participate in a self-report study assessing knowledge and beliefs regarding mental illness. Participants completed the survey in groups at school and read vignettes portraying peers experiencing major depression, social anxiety disorder, and a situation where the individual has to cope with a common life stressor followed by a series of questions in reference to each vignette. Adolescents had better recognition of depression than social anxiety disorder and were more likely to recommend seeking help for it. However, mental health literacy of American adolescents and suggest potential points for intervention. Pending replication of the findings herein, efforts to help adolescents recognize mental health problems and to increase the likelihood of recommending professional help will be important. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reciprocal associations between depressive symptoms and disordered eating among adolescent girls and boys: a multiwave, prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Fátima; Wichstrøm, Lars; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Symptoms of depression and eating disorders increase during adolescence, particularly among girls, and they tend to co-occur. Despite this evidence, there is meager research on whether depression increases the risk of future eating pathology, or vice versa, and we do not know whether these processes are different for adolescent girls and boys. Accordingly, this study explored the prospective reciprocal associations between depressive symptoms and disordered eating at different time points from preadolescence to mid-adolescence and tested the moderator effect of gender on these associations. A community-based sample of Spanish youth (N = 942, 49 % female) was assessed at ages of approximately 10-11 (T1), 12-13 (T2), 14-15 (T3), and 16-17 (T4) years. The bidirectional relationships between depressive symptoms and disordered eating were estimated in an autoregressive cross-lagged model with latent variables. A unidirectional, age-specific association between depressive symptoms at T1 and disordered eating at T2 was found. No other significant cross-lagged effect emerged, but the stability of the constructs was considerable. Gender did not moderate any of the links examined. Regardless of gender, the transition from childhood to adolescence appears to be a key period when depressive symptoms foster the development of disordered eating. These findings suggest that early prevention and treatment of depression targeting both girls and boys may result in lower levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescence.

  3. Stability and Change in Personality Disorder Symptoms in 1-Year Follow-up of Depressed Adolescent Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandholm, Thea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Pankakoski, Maiju; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri

    2017-01-01

    We investigated stability and change in personality disorder (PD) symptoms and whether depression severity, comorbid clinical psychiatric disorders, and social support predict changes in personality pathology among adolescent outpatients. The 1-year outcome of PD symptoms among consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients with depressive disorders (N = 189) was investigated with symptom count of depression, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and perceived social support as predictors. An overall decrease in PD symptoms in most PD categories was observed. Decreases in depression severity and in number of comorbid diagnoses correlated positively with decreases in PD symptoms of most PD categories. Social support from close friends predicted a decrease in schizotypal and narcissistic, whereas support from family predicted a decrease in paranoid symptoms. Our results suggest that among depressed adolescent outpatients, PD symptoms are relatively unstable, changes co-occuring with changes/improvement in overall psychopathology. Social support seems a possibly effective point for intervention efforts regarding positive outcome of PD symptoms.

  4. Ventral Striatum Functional Connectivity as a Predictor of Adolescent Depressive Disorder in a Longitudinal Community-Based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pedro Mario; Sato, João R; Salum, Giovanni A; Rohde, Luis A; Gadelha, Ary; Zugman, Andre; Mari, Jair; Jackowski, Andrea; Picon, Felipe; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Stringaris, Argyris

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have implicated aberrant reward processing in the pathogenesis of adolescent depression. However, no study has used functional connectivity within a distributed reward network, assessed using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI), to predict the onset of depression in adolescents. This study used reward network-based functional connectivity at baseline to predict depressive disorder at follow-up in a community sample of adolescents. A total of 637 children 6-12 years old underwent resting-state fMRI. Discovery and replication analyses tested intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) among nodes of a putative reward network. Logistic regression tested whether striatal node strength, a measure of reward-related iFC, predicted onset of a depressive disorder at 3-year follow-up. Further analyses investigated the specificity of this prediction. Increased left ventral striatum node strength predicted increased risk for future depressive disorder (odds ratio=1.54, 95% CI=1.09-2.18), even after excluding participants who had depressive disorders at baseline (odds ratio=1.52, 95% CI=1.05-2.20). Among 11 reward-network nodes, only the left ventral striatum significantly predicted depression. Striatal node strength did not predict other common adolescent psychopathology, such as anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and substance use. Aberrant ventral striatum functional connectivity specifically predicts future risk for depressive disorder. This finding further emphasizes the need to understand how brain reward networks contribute to youth depression.

  5. Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacqueline A.; Russell, Samantha; Rasor, Kaitlin

    2017-01-01

    Depression is among the most common mental disorders in the United States. Its diagnosis is often related to impairment of functioning across several domains, including how an individual thinks, feels, and participates in daily activities. Although depression has a relatively high prevalence among adults, the rate is alarmingly higher among…

  6. Impulsivity in adolescents with major depressive disorder: A comparative tunisian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemakhem, Khaoula; Boudabous, Jaweher; Cherif, Leila; Ayadi, Hela; Walha, Adel; Moalla, Yousr; Hadjkacem, Imen; Ghribi, Farhat

    2017-08-01

    The association between impulsivity and depressive disorders in adolescence has been little studied at the literature and in our country, yet impulsivity is a major risk factor for suicide. Thus we aimed on this study to evaluate impulsivity in 25 adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder MDD compared to a control sample and to analyze the correlations between impulsivity and clinical features of MDD. Employing a matched case-control design, participants included 25 adolescents with MDD and 75 controls. We have administered the Barratt Impulsivity Scale BIS-11 for the two groups to evaluate impulsivity. Semi structured interviews according DSM 5 criteria were conducted for adolescents with MDD. The Child Depressive Inventory CDI was used to measure depressive symptoms in the control sample. Adolescents with MDD were more impulsive compared to controls according to the BIS-11 in its three domains: motor (24.96±6.26 against 20.6±4.84; p=0.000), attentional (20.88±5.03 against 16.64±3.2; p=0.000) and non planning (28.2±7.26 against 24.44±4.32; p=0.02). Impulsivity was not correlated with clinical features of MDD (suicide attempts, psychiatric comorbidities, antidepressant medication …). Adolescents with MDD seem to be more impulsive than control subjects regardless their clinical features. Whether it is a specific characteristic or a symptom among others of MDD, impulsivity predicts health-related behaviors and associated damage that need to be detected and prevented in time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Anxiety and depression among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The roles of behavioral temperamental traits, comorbid autism spectrum disorder, and bullying involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Fan Hu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the associations of behavioral temperamental traits, comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and bullying involvement with anxiety and depression among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged 11–18 years diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their severities of anxiety and depression were assessed. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of anxiety and depression. The results show that adolescents with ADHD who reported a higher behavioral inhibition system (BIS score, had comorbid ASD, and were bullying victims, reported more severe anxiety and depressive symptoms. Adolescents with ADHD who bullied others reported more severe depressive symptoms than those who did not bully. The results of this study indicated that behavioral temperamental traits on the BIS, comorbid ASD, and bullying involvement were significantly associated with anxiety and depression among the adolescents with ADHD.

  8. Higher risk of developing major depression and bipolar disorder in later life among adolescents with asthma: a nationwide prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested an immunological dysfunction in mood disorders, but rarely have investigated the temporal association between allergic diseases and mood disorders. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we attempted to investigate the association between asthma in early adolescence and the risk of unipolar depression and bipolar disorder in later life. In all, 1453 adolescents with asthma aged between 10 and 15 years and 5812 age-/gender-matched controls were selected in 1998-2000. Subjects with unipolar depression and bipolar disorder that occurred up to the end of follow-up (December 31 2010) were identified. Adolescents with asthma had a higher incidence of major depression (2.8% vs. 1.1%, p bipolar disorder (1.0% vs. 0.3%, p adolescence was associated with an increased risk of developing major depression (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-2.89), any depressive disorder (HR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.27-2.37), and bipolar disorder (HR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.01-5.07), after adjusting for demographic data and comorbid allergic diseases. Adolescents with asthma had an elevated risk of developing mood disorders in later life. Further studies would be required to investigate the underlying mechanisms for this comorbid association and elucidate whether prompt intervention for asthma would decrease the risk of developing mood disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Familial and Clinical Correlates in Depressed Adolescents with Borderline Personality Disorder Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marc Guile

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chart review is a low-cost, but highly informative, method to describe symptoms, treatment and risk factors associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD and to adapt screening and intervention to clinical reality. Previous chart review studies report more aggressiveness/anger and psychotic features in youths with BPD. They show that adverse family environment and parental psychopathology constitute important factors for BPD pathology. Objectives: To examine clinical characteristics of depressed BPD adolescents (12-17 years old outpatients according to gender and to explore variables which are associated with BPD traits. Methods: A retrospective chart review using the Child and Adolescent Version of the Retrospective Diagnostic Instrument for Borderlines was conducted on 30 depressed BPD adolescents with BPD traits and 28 non-BPD depressed patients without BPD traits. Participants who reached the C-DIB threshold for BPD were included in the BPD traits group. The Child and Adolescent Version of the Retrospective Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines was used to determine the presence of BPD. Comparisons analyses were performed using Pearson’s Chi-square test. Associated factors were determined using regression analyses. Results: BPD traits participants outpatients were characterised by higher family problems (parental psychopathology, parent disagreement/argument, parent-child relational problem, more aggressive symptoms, and higher rates of family intervention and hospitalisation. A number of familial factors (parental history of delinquency, substance use, or personality disorders, having siblings, parental disagreement/argument in boys were associated with BPD symptomatologytraits. Attention seeking and problematic functioning (does not adapt well to group activities were also associated with BPD traits. Discussion: Our study stresses the need to assess BPD traits in adolescent psychiatric evaluation, especially in

  10. Inflexible Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tiffany C; Sacchet, Matthew D; Connolly, Colm G; Margulies, Daniel S; Tymofiyeva, Olga; Paulus, Martin P; Simmons, Alan N; Gotlib, Ian H; Yang, Tony T

    2017-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) maturation during adolescence contributes to or underlies the development of major depressive disorder (MDD) during this sensitive period. The ACC is a structure that sits at the intersection of several task-positive networks (eg, central executive network, CEN), which are still developing during adolescence. While recent work using seed-based approaches indicate that depressed adolescents show limited task-evoked vs resting-state connectivity (termed 'inflexibility') between the ACC and task-negative networks, no study has used network-based approaches to investigate inflexibility of the ACC in task-positive networks to understand adolescent MDD. Here, we used graph theory to compare flexibility of network-level topology in eight subregions of the ACC (spanning three task-positive networks) in 42 unmedicated adolescents with MDD and 53 well-matched healthy controls. All participants underwent fMRI scanning during resting state and a response inhibition task that robustly engages task-positive networks. Relative to controls, depressed adolescents were characterized by inflexibility in local efficiency of a key ACC node in the CEN: right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/medial frontal gyrus (R dACC/MFG). Furthermore, individual differences in flexibility of local efficiency of R dACC/MFG significantly predicted inhibition performance, consistent with current literature demonstrating that flexible network organization affords successful cognitive control. Finally, reduced local efficiency of dACC/MFG during the task was significantly associated with an earlier age of depression onset, consistent with prior work suggesting that MDD may alter functional network development. Our results support a neurodevelopmental hypothesis of MDD wherein dysfunctional self-regulation is potentially reflected by altered ACC maturation.

  11. Comorbidity Among Depression, Conduct Disorder, and Drug Use From Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Examining the Role of Violence Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Tracy, Melissa; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Galea, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    We assessed relations among depression, conduct disorder, and drug use from adolescence to young adulthood, and evaluated whether exposure to violence contributed to disorder co-occurrence. We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Respondents were 12–15 years old in 1995–1997 (N = 1,517), and were reinterviewed in 1997–2000 (n = 1,315), and 2000–2002 (n = 1,210). We examined exposure to violence at ages 12–15 and 14–17, and depression, conduct disorder, and drug use at ages 14–17 and 17–20. Multivariate transition models revealed an association between prior conduct disorder and drug use, as well as a relationship between prior depression and conduct disorder. Adolescent exposure to violence was associated with higher odds of conduct disorder and drug use but not depression. Comorbid relations between conduct disorder and drug use were independent of prior exposure to violence. Although preventing adolescent exposure to violence may reduce the risk of conduct disorder and drug use by young adulthood, future research needs to investigate alternative determinants of sequential comorbidity among depression, conduct disorder, and drug use in adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:22147426

  12. Exposure to maternal pre- and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms: risk for major depression, anxiety disorders, and conduct disorder in adolescent offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasheen, Cristie; Richardson, Gale A; Kim, Kevin H; Larkby, Cynthia A; Swartz, Holly A; Day, Nancy L

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluated whether exposure to maternal pre- or postnatal depression or anxiety symptoms predicted psychopathology in adolescent offspring. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify trajectories of pre- and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms in 577 women of low socioeconomic status selected from a prenatal clinic. Logistic regression models indicated that maternal pre- and postnatal depression trajectory exposure was not associated with offspring major depression, anxiety, or conduct disorder, but exposure to the high depression trajectory was associated with lower anxiety symptoms in males. Exposure to medium and high pre- and postnatal anxiety was associated with the risk of conduct disorder among offspring. Male offspring exposed to medium and high pre- and postnatal anxiety had higher odds of conduct disorder than did males with low exposure levels. Females exposed to medium or high pre- and postnatal anxiety were less likely to meet conduct disorder criteria than were females with lower exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effect of pre- and postnatal anxiety trajectories on the risk of conduct disorder in offspring. These results suggest new directions for investigating the etiology of conduct disorder with a novel target for intervention.

  13. Moderators of fluoxetine treatment response for children and adolescents with comorbid depression and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschtritt, Matthew E; Pagano, Maria E; Christian, Kelly M; McNamara, Nora K; Stansbrey, Robert J; Lingler, Jacqui; Faber, Jon E; Demeter, Christine A; Bedoya, Denise; Findling, Robert L

    2012-06-01

    Our recent 8-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine in adolescents (ages 12-17 years) with comorbid depression and substance use disorder (SUD) did not detect a significant antidepressant treatment effect. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to explore moderators of the effect of fluoxetine in this sample. Static moderators measured at baseline were depression chronicity and hopelessness severity; time-varying moderators measured at baseline and weekly during the 8-week trial period were alcohol and marijuana use severity. Treatment effects on depression outcomes were examined among moderating subgroups in random effects regression models. Subjects assigned to fluoxetine treatment with chronic depression at baseline (p = .04) or no more than moderate alcohol use during the trial (p = .04) showed significantly greater decline in depression symptoms in comparison to placebo-assigned subgroups. The current analysis suggests that youth with chronic depression and no more than moderate alcohol consumption are likely to respond better to treatment with fluoxetine compared with placebo than youth with transient depression and heavy alcohol use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neural activity to intense positive versus negative stimuli can help differentiate bipolar disorder from unipolar major depressive disorder in depressed adolescents: a pilot fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diler, Rasim Somer; de Almeida, Jorge Renner Cardoso; Ladouceur, Cecile; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Phillips, Mary

    2013-12-30

    Failure to distinguish bipolar depression (BDd) from the unipolar depression of major depressive disorder (UDd) in adolescents has significant clinical consequences. We aimed to identify differential patterns of functional neural activity in BDd versus UDd and employed two (fearful and happy) facial expression/ gender labeling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to study emotion processing in 10 BDd (8 females, mean age=15.1 ± 1.1) compared to age- and gender-matched 10 UDd and 10 healthy control (HC) adolescents who were age- and gender-matched to the BDd group. BDd adolescents, relative to UDd, showed significantly lower activity to both intense happy (e.g., insula and temporal cortex) and intense fearful faces (e.g., frontal precentral cortex). Although the neural regions recruited in each group were not the same, both BDd and UDd adolescents, relative to HC, showed significantly lower neural activity to intense happy and mild happy faces, but elevated neural activity to mild fearful faces. Our results indicated that patterns of neural activity to intense positive and negative emotional stimuli can help differentiate BDd from UDd in adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antidepressants for depressive disorder in children and adolescents: a database of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqing; Zhou, Xinyu; Pu, Juncai; Zhang, Hanping; Yang, Lining; Liu, Lanxiang; Zhou, Chanjuan; Yuan, Shuai; Jiang, Xiaofeng; Xie, Peng

    2018-05-31

    In recent years, whether, when and how to use antidepressants to treat depressive disorder in children and adolescents has been hotly debated. Relevant evidence on this topic has increased rapidly. In this paper, we present the construction and content of a database of randomised controlled trials of antidepressants to treat depressive disorder in children and adolescents. This database can be freely accessed via our website and will be regularly updated. Major bibliographic databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and LiLACS), international trial registers and regulatory agencies' websites were systematically searched for published and unpublished studies up to April 30, 2017. We included randomised controlled trials in which the efficacy or tolerability of any oral antidepressant was compared with that of a control group or any other treatment. In total, 7377 citations from bibliographical databases and 3289 from international trial registers and regulatory agencies' websites were identified. Of these, 53 trials were eligible for inclusion in the final database. Selected data were extracted from each study, including characteristics of the participants (the study population, setting, diagnostic criteria, type of depression, age, sex, and comorbidity), characteristics of the treatment conditions (the treatment conditions, general information, and detail of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy) and study characteristics (the sponsor, country, number of sites, blinding method, sample size, treatment duration, depression scales, other scales, and primary outcome measure used, and side-effect monitoring method). Moreover, the risk of bias for each trial were assessed. This database provides information on nearly all randomised controlled trials of antidepressants in children and adolescents. By using this database, researchers can improve research efficiency, avoid inadvertent errors and easily focus on the targeted subgroups in

  16. Prospective inter-relationships between late adolescent personality and major depressive disorder in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S; DiRago, A C; Iacono, W G

    2014-02-01

    A well-established body of literature demonstrates concurrent associations between personality traits and major depressive disorder (MDD), but there have been relatively few investigations of their dynamic interplay over time. Prospective inter-relationships between late-adolescent personality and MDD in early adulthood were examined in a community sample of male and female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS; n = 1252). Participants were classified into naturally occurring MDD groups based on the timing (adolescent versus adult onset) and course (chronic/recurrent versus remitting) of MDD. MDD diagnoses were assessed at ages 17, 20, 24 and 29 years, and personality traits [negative emotionality (NEM), positive emotionality (PEM) and constraint (CON)] were assessed at ages 17, 24 and 29 years. Multilevel modeling (MLM) analyses indicated that higher age-17 NEM was associated with the subsequent development of MDD, and any MDD, regardless of onset or course, was associated with higher NEM up to age 29. Moreover, the chronic/recurrent MDD groups failed to show the normative decrease in NEM from late adolescence to early adulthood. Lower age-17 PEM was also associated with the subsequent development of MDD but only among the chronic/recurrent MDD groups. Finally, the adolescent-onset MDD groups reported lower age-17 CON relative to the never-depressed and adult-onset MDD groups. Taken together, the results speak to the role of personality traits for conferring risk for the onset of MDD in late adolescence and early adulthood, in addition to the pernicious implications of chronic/recurrent MDD, particularly when it onsets during adolescence, for adaptive personality development.

  17. Altered neural processing of reward and punishment in adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, I; Bakos, S; Kohls, G; Bartling, J; Schulte-Körne, G; Greimel, E

    2018-05-01

    Altered reward and punishment function has been suggested as an important vulnerability factor for the development of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Prior ERP studies found evidence for neurophysiological dysfunctions in reinforcement processes in adults with MDD. To date, only few ERP studies have examined the neural underpinnings of reinforcement processing in adolescents diagnosed with MDD. The present event-related potential (ERP) study aimed to investigate neurophysiological mechanisms of anticipation and consumption of reward and punishment in adolescents with MDD in one comprehensive paradigm. During ERP recording, 25 adolescents with MDD and 29 healthy controls (12-17 years) completed a Monetary Incentive Delay Task comprising both a monetary reward and a monetary punishment condition. During anticipation, the cue-P3 signaling attentional allocation was recorded. During consumption, the feedback-P3 and Reward Positivity (RewP) were recorded to capture attentional allocation and outcome evaluation, respectively. Compared to controls, adolescents with MDD showed prolonged cue-P3 latencies to reward cues. Furthermore, unlike controls, adolescents with MDD displayed shorter feedback-P3 latencies in the reward versus punishment condition. RewPs did not differ between groups. It remains unanswered whether the observed alterations in adolescent MDD represent a state or trait. Delayed neural processing of reward cues corresponds to the clinical presentation of adolescent MDD with reduced motivational tendencies to obtain rewards. Relatively shorter feedback-P3 latencies in the reward versus punishment condition could indicate a high salience of performance-contingent reward. Frequent exposure of negatively biased adolescents with MDD to performance-contingent rewards might constitute a promising intervention approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Parenting to Reduce Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Scale: Assessing parental concordance with parenting guidelines for the prevention of adolescent depression and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairead C. Cardamone-Breen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite substantial evidence demonstrating numerous parental risk and protective factors for the development of adolescent depression and anxiety disorders, there is currently no single measure that assesses these parenting factors. To address this gap, we developed the Parenting to Reduce Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Scale (PRADAS as a criterion-referenced measure of parental concordance with a set of evidence-based parenting guidelines for the prevention of adolescent depression and anxiety disorders. In this paper, we used a sample of Australian parents of adolescents to: (1 validate the PRADAS as a criterion-referenced measure; (2 examine parental concordance with the guidelines in the sample; and (3 examine correlates of parental concordance with the guidelines. Methods Seven hundred eleven parents completed the PRADAS, as well as two established parenting measures, and parent-report measures of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Six hundred sixty adolescent participants (aged 12–15 also completed the symptom measures. Concordance with the guidelines was assessed via nine subscale scores and a total score. Reliability of the scores was assessed with an estimate of the agreement coefficient, as well as 1-month test-retest reliability. Convergent validity was examined via correlations between the scale and two established parenting measures. Results One proposed subscale was removed from the final version of the scale, resulting in a total of eight subscales. Reliability was high for the total score, and acceptable to high for seven of the eight subscales. One-month test-retest reliability was acceptable to high for the total score. Convergent validity was supported by moderate to high correlations with two established measures of parenting. Overall, rates of parental concordance with the guidelines were low in our sample. Higher scores were associated with being female and higher levels of parental education

  19. Depressão e doença bipolar na infância e adolescência Bipolar disorder and depression in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dênio Lima

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este estudo buscou a revisão da história, conceitos, categorias diagnósticas, epidemiologia, fatores genéticos e neurobiológicos, assim como fatores predisponentes e modalidades de tratamento desses transtornos. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada uma revisão extensa da literatura sobre depressão infantil e transtorno bipolar. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A depressão infantil e o transtorno bipolar estão associados a fatores genéticos, temperamento, eventos adversos da vida, divórcio, problemas acadêmicos, abuso físico e sexual e fatores neurobiológicos. O tratamento pode ser realizado, na maioria das vezes, com medicações e psicoterapia. CONCLUSÕES: São transtornos importantes, muitas vezes de difícil diagnóstico, que, uma vez reconhecidos e tratados, irão minorar o sofrimento de crianças e adolescentes. O pediatra poderá intervir orientando a família nos casos leves, mas deve ficar atento àqueles que necessitam de outros tipos de tratamento.OBJECTIVES: To provide a historical review of childhood depression and bipolar disorder, covering concepts, diagnostic categories, epidemiology, genetic and neurobiological aspects as well as predisposing factors and treatment modalities. SOURCES OF DATA: Extensive review of the literature on child depression and bipolar disorder. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Child depression and bipolar disorder are associated with genetic factors, mood, adverse life events, divorce, academic problems, physical and sexual abuse, and neurobiological factors. Treatment usually includes medication and psychotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: These are important childhood disorders whose diagnosis is often difficult. The identification and treatment of depression and bipolar disorder reduces the suffering of affected children and adolescents. The pediatrician can intervene by orienting the family in mild cases, but must be alert to cases requiring more aggressive treatment.

  20. Comorbidity of ADHD and subsequent bipolar disorder among adolescents and young adults with major depression: a nationwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Pan, Tai-Long; Su, Tung-Ping; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have found that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and adolescence is associated with an increased risk of major depression and bipolar disorder in later life. However, the effect of ADHD comorbidity on the diagnostic conversion to bipolar disorder among patients with major depression is still uncertain. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 58,023 subjects bipolar disorder during the follow-up to the end of 2011 were identified. Adolescents and young adults who had major depression with ADHD comorbidity had an increased incidence of subsequent bipolar disorder (18.9% versus 11.2%, p bipolar disorder among those with major depression, adjusting for demographic data and psychiatric comorbidities. Patients with comorbid diagnoses of major depression and ADHD had an increased risk of diagnostic conversion to bipolar disorder compared to those who had major depression alone. Further studies would be required to validate this finding and to investigate the possible underlying mechanisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Potential Mediators of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents With Comorbid Major Depression and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Noah K.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Clarke, Gregory N.; Stice, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Several possible mediators of a group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depressed adolescents were examined. Six measures specific to CBT (e.g., negative cognitions, engagement in pleasurable activities) and 2 nonspecific measures (therapeutic alliance, group cohesion) were examined in 93 adolescents with comorbid major depressive disorder…

  2. Antidepressant use in children and adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder: what can we learn from published data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of major depression disorder (MDD) in youths are likely to be devastating for both the patient and his/her family. Thus, this review analyzes systematically the effectiveness of antidepressant drugs (ADDs) in managing such patients. Medical literature reporting primary data on use of ADDs in children and adolescents was identified through searches (1966-January 2010) of MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and The Cochrane Library databases. Additional studies were manually identified from the reference lists of published articles. Search terms (variously combined) were: children, childhood, adolescents, adolescence, MDD, mood/affective disorders, depression, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) SSRIs, Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), noradrenergic/specific serotoninergic antidepressants (NaSSA). A separate search was conducted to complete the profile of effectiveness of each single antidepressant agent. 43 peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria. Reviewed information does not definitively support the use of antidepressants in children younger than 10 years old. In contrast, robust information suggests that fluoxetine should be considered as first-line agent in depressed adolescents whose clinical conditions require psychopharmacological approach. Depressed children should be primarily approached with non-pharmacological interventions that should include the evaluation of potential parental psychiatric disorders. In adolescents with MDD, the decision to use fluoxetine should be associated with specific social and health protocols focused to reinforce self-esteem, improve the quality of relationships with parents and peers, facilitate healthy life-style changes, and identify the potential onset/worsening of suicidality.

  3. Comorbidity Among Depression, Conduct Disorder, and Drug Use From Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Examining the Role of Violence Exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Tracy, Melissa; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    We assessed relations among depression, conduct disorder, and drug use from adolescence to young adulthood, and evaluated whether exposure to violence contributed to disorder co-occurrence. We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Respondents were 12–15 years old in 1995–1997 (N = 1,517), and were reinterviewed in 1997–2000 (n = 1,315), and 2000–2002 (n = 1,210). We examined exposure to violence at ages 12–15 and 14–17, and depression, conduct disorder, and...

  4. A Model of Therapist Competencies for the Empirically Supported Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Child and Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sburlati, Elizabeth S.; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    While a plethora of cognitive behavioral empirically supported treatments (ESTs) are available for treating child and adolescent anxiety and depressive disorders, research has shown that these are not as effective when implemented in routine practice settings. Research is now indicating that is partly due to ineffective EST training methods,…

  5. A qualitative study of the prodrome to first-episode major depressive disorder in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Sheriff, Rebecca J; McGorry, Patrick D; Cotton, Sue; Yung, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Currently, we lack a clear picture of the evolution of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents. The period of disturbance preceding MDD can be conceptualised as the prodrome. The aim of the study was to explore the prodrome of first-episode MDD retrospectively in a group of help-seeking adolescents using qualitative methodologies. Consecutively referred adolescents (15-18 years of age) with first-episode MDD were recruited for this study from Orygen Youth Health, Melbourne, Vic., Australia. After using quantitative methodologies to confirm the index episode of MDD and measure the extent of recovery, the prodrome was investigated in depth using qualitative techniques. Twenty-nine adolescents (20 females and 9 males) and 7 informants (6 mothers and 1 grandmother) participated. All 29 participants had a prodrome of varying lengths (between 6 days and 4 years). The most noticeable symptoms initially were perplexity and confusion and, thereafter, sadness and irritability. A common pattern was a reduction in their ability to fulfil their role accompanied by guilt, self-blame and reduced self-esteem. Around half of the participants had increased thoughts of suicide and increased anxiety. There were gender differences in the patterns of symptoms noticed, with males more commonly noticing a change in how they related to the world and females more commonly noticing a change in the way that they related to others. All informants noticed a prodrome of varying lengths; in 2 cases longer, in 2 cases shorter and in 3 cases around the same time period as that noticed by the participant. The changes most commonly noticed by informants were sadness, upset, irritability and reduced self-esteem. The symptoms were fewer in number and sometimes varied from those noticed by the adolescents themselves. Whilst we recognise that this study is vulnerable to autobiographical bias, we took all reasonable measures to minimise this. Symptoms not included in the diagnostic criteria for

  6. Mediating and Moderating Role of Depression, Conduct Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Developing Adolescent Substance Use Disorders: A Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouichi Yoshimasu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the mediating/moderating effects of common internalizing /externalizing disorders on the association between ADHD and adolescent substance use disorders (SUD in a population-based birth cohort.Among 5718 children in the birth cohort, 343 ADHD incident cases and 712 matched controls were identified. Psychiatric diagnoses prior to age 19 were classified into DSM-IV categories. The association between ADHD and SUD was summarized (hazard ratios (HR, 95% CI. The effect of depression, CD/ODD, anxiety was evaluated separately.Assessment of the joint effects of ADHD and each psychiatric disorder did not support a moderating effect of these disorders on SUD on additive scale. However, the association between ADHD and SUD was partially explained by a mediating role of these psychiatric disorders.For clinicians our results emphasize that depression (or CD/ODD confers greater risk for SUD than ADHD alone. Early detection/treatment of SUD among adolescents with depression (or CD/ODD is crucial regardless of ADHD.

  7. Mediating and Moderating Role of Depression, Conduct Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Developing Adolescent Substance Use Disorders: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Barbaresi, William J; Colligan, Robert C; Voigt, Robert G; Weaver, Amy L; Katusic, Slavica K

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the mediating/moderating effects of common internalizing /externalizing disorders on the association between ADHD and adolescent substance use disorders (SUD) in a population-based birth cohort. Among 5718 children in the birth cohort, 343 ADHD incident cases and 712 matched controls were identified. Psychiatric diagnoses prior to age 19 were classified into DSM-IV categories. The association between ADHD and SUD was summarized (hazard ratios (HR), 95% CI). The effect of depression, CD/ODD, anxiety was evaluated separately. Assessment of the joint effects of ADHD and each psychiatric disorder did not support a moderating effect of these disorders on SUD on additive scale. However, the association between ADHD and SUD was partially explained by a mediating role of these psychiatric disorders. For clinicians our results emphasize that depression (or CD/ODD) confers greater risk for SUD than ADHD alone. Early detection/treatment of SUD among adolescents with depression (or CD/ODD) is crucial regardless of ADHD.

  8. Suicidal ideation, deliberate self-harm behaviour and suicide attempts among adolescent outpatients with depressive mood disorders and comorbid axis I disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuisku, Virpi; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Karlsson, Linnea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Holi, Matti; Ruuttu, Titta; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Marttunen, Mauri

    2006-06-01

    We aimed to analyse and compare prevalence and associated clinical features of suicidal ideation, self-harm behaviour with no suicidal intent and suicide attempts among adolescent outpatients with depressive mood disorders with or without comorbidity. A sample of 218 consecutive adolescent outpatients aged 13-19 years with depressive mood disorders was interviewed using K-SADS-PL for DSM-IV Axis I diagnoses. They filled out self-report questionnaires assessing depressive and anxiety symptoms. Suicidal behaviour was assessed by K-SADS-PL suicidality items. Half of the subjects reported suicidal ideation or behaviour. There was no difference in prevalence of suicidal behaviour between non-comorbid and comorbid mood disorder groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses produced the following associations: (1) suicidal ideation with self-reported depressive symptoms and poor psychosocial functioning, (2) deliberate self-harm behaviour with younger age and poor psychosocial functioning, and (3) suicide attempts with self-reported depressive symptoms and poor psychosocial functioning. Depressed mood disorders, whether comorbid or not, are associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Diagnostic assessment should be supplemented by self-report methods when assessing suicidal behaviour in depressed adolescents.

  9. Gene expression in blood of children and adolescents: Mediation between childhood maltreatment and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindola, Leticia Maria; Pan, Pedro Mario; Moretti, Patricia Natalia; Ota, Vanessa Kiyomi; Santoro, Marcos Leite; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Gadelha, Ary; Salum, Giovanni; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Mari, Jair Jesus; Brentani, Helena; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Brietzke, Elisa; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Sato, João Ricardo; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Belangero, Sintia Iole

    2017-09-01

    Investigating major depressive disorder (MDD) in childhood and adolescence can help reveal the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to MDD, since early stages of disease have less influence of illness exposure. Thus, we investigated the mRNA expression of 12 genes related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, inflammation, neurodevelopment and neurotransmission in the blood of children and adolescents with MDD and tested whether a history of childhood maltreatment (CM) affects MDD through gene expression. Whole-blood mRNA levels of 12 genes were compared among 20 children and adolescents with MDD diagnosis (MDD group), 49 participants without MDD diagnosis but with high levels of depressive symptoms (DS group), and 61 healthy controls (HC group). The differentially expressed genes were inserted in a mediation model in which CM, MDD, and gene expression were, respectively, the independent variable, outcome, and intermediary variable. NR3C1, TNF, TNFR1 and IL1B were expressed at significantly lower levels in the MDD group than in the other groups. CM history did not exert a significant direct effect on MDD. However, an indirect effect of the aggregate expression of the 4 genes mediated the relationship between CM and MDD. In the largest study investigating gene expression in children with MDD, we demonstrated that NR3C1, TNF, TNFR1 and IL1B expression levels are related to MDD and conjunctly mediate the effect of CM history on the risk of developing MDD. This supports a role of glucocorticoids and inflammation as potential effectors of environmental stress in MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Study Rate of Major Depression in Children and Adolescents with Tourette\\'s Disorder

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    Nasrin Amiri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tourette disorder composed of history of multiple motor tics and at least a vocal tic during a period of such disorder. Many reports have investigated in co– morbid major depressive disorder, and studies signify such importance of early diagnosis and treatment. So diagnosis of major depressive disorder when it is comorbid with Tourette disorder considered to be important in our society as well. Materials & Methods: 30 cases of Tourette disorder who refferred to a child psychiatry center were studied during a period of one year in a descriptive. Cross sectional study. At the same time” 30 cases matched by age and sex were chosen as our control group from Tehran public schools. There were 25 boys and 5 girls in each group “with age rang of 8 to 18 years. A semistructural questionnaire of kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia was used to investigate the presence of major depressive disorder in both groups. Statistical tests including MC- Nemar exact test were used for statistical analysis. Results: 23/3% of Tourette group patients were diagnosed as major depressive while 3.3% of the control group was diagnosed as major depressive disorder” . Conclusion: As given the high association rate for Tourette disorder and major depressive disorder. It is suggested to investigate all cases of Tourette disorder for possible major depressive disorder.

  11. Risk of developing major depression and bipolar disorder among adolescents with atopic diseases: A nationwide longitudinal study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Han-Ting; Lan, Wen-Hsuan; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Su, Tung-Ping; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei; Chen, Mu-Hong

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have found an increased prevalence of atopic diseases among patients with major depression and bipolar disorder. But the temporal association between atopic diseases in adolescence and the subsequent risk of developing mood disorders has been rarely investigated. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Databases, 5075 adolescents with atopic diseases (atopic cohort) and 44,729 without (non-atopic cohort) aged between 10 and 17 in 2000 were enrolled into our study and followed to the end of 2010. Subjects who developed major depression or bipolar disorder during the follow-up were identified. The atopic cohort had an increased risk of developing major depression (HR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.93~3.11) and bipolar disorder (HR: 2.51, 95% CI: 1.71~3.67) compared to the non-atopic cohort, with a dose-dependent relationship between having a greater number of atopic comorbidities and a greater likelihood of major depression (1 atopic disease: HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.29~2.50; 2 atopic comorbidities: HR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.93~3.04;≥3 atopic comorbidities: HR: 3.79, 95% CI: 3.05~4.72) and bipolar disorder (HR: 1.40, 95% CI: 0.57~3.44; HR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.68~4.68; HR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.69~5.38). Having atopic diseases in adolescence increased the risk of developing major depression and bipolar disorder in later life. Further studies may be required to clarify the underlying mechanism between atopy and mood disorders, and to investigate whether prompt intervention may decrease the risk of subsequent mood disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder: Neuroimaging Evidence of Sex Difference during an Affective Go/No-Go Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jie-Yu; Hagan, Cindy C; Murray, Graham K; Graham, Julia M E; Ooi, Cinly; Tait, Roger; Holt, Rosemary J; Elliott, Rebecca; van Nieuwenhuizen, Adrienne O; Bullmore, Edward T; Lennox, Belinda R; Sahakian, Barbara J; Goodyer, Ian M; Suckling, John

    2017-01-01

    Compared to female major depressive disorder (MDD), male MDD often receives less attention. However, research is warranted since there are significant sex differences in the clinical presentation of MDD and a higher rate of suicide in depressed men. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study with a large sample addressing putative sex differences in MDD during adolescence, a period when one of the most robust findings in psychiatric epidemiology emerges; that females are twice as likely to suffer from MDD than males. Twenty-four depressed and 10 healthy male adolescents, together with 82 depressed and 24 healthy female adolescents, aged 11-18 years, undertook an affective go/no-go task during fMRI acquisition. In response to sad relative to neutral distractors, significant sex differences (in the supramarginal gyrus) and group-by-sex interactions (in the supramarginal gyrus and the posterior cingulate cortex) were found. Furthermore, in contrast to the healthy male adolescents, depressed male adolescents showed decreased activation in the cerebellum with a significant group-by-age interaction in connectivity. Future research may consider altered developmental trajectories and the possible implications of sex-specific treatment and prevention strategies for MDD.

  13. Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder: Neuroimaging Evidence of Sex Difference during an Affective Go/No-Go Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Yu Chuang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Compared to female major depressive disorder (MDD, male MDD often receives less attention. However, research is warranted since there are significant sex differences in the clinical presentation of MDD and a higher rate of suicide in depressed men. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study with a large sample addressing putative sex differences in MDD during adolescence, a period when one of the most robust findings in psychiatric epidemiology emerges; that females are twice as likely to suffer from MDD than males. Twenty-four depressed and 10 healthy male adolescents, together with 82 depressed and 24 healthy female adolescents, aged 11–18 years, undertook an affective go/no-go task during fMRI acquisition. In response to sad relative to neutral distractors, significant sex differences (in the supramarginal gyrus and group-by-sex interactions (in the supramarginal gyrus and the posterior cingulate cortex were found. Furthermore, in contrast to the healthy male adolescents, depressed male adolescents showed decreased activation in the cerebellum with a significant group-by-age interaction in connectivity. Future research may consider altered developmental trajectories and the possible implications of sex-specific treatment and prevention strategies for MDD.

  14. Examination of cumulative effects of early adolescent depression on cannabis and alcohol use disorder in late adolescence in a community-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Isaac C; Fleming, Charles B; Vander Stoep, Ann; Nicodimos, Semret; Zheng, Cheng; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Although they often co-occur, the longitudinal relationship between depression and substance use disorders during adolescence remains unclear. This study estimated the effects of cumulative depression during early adolescence (ages 13-15 years) on the likelihood of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) at age 18. Prospective cohort study of youth assessed at least annually between 6th and 9th grades (~ age 12-15) and again at age 18. Marginal structural models based on a counterfactual framework that accounted for both potential fixed and time-varying confounders were used to estimate cumulative effects of depressive symptoms over early adolescence. The sample originated from four public middle schools in Seattle, Washington, USA. The sample consisted of 521 youth (48.4% female; 44.5% were non-Hispanic White). Structured in-person interviews with youth and their parents were conducted to assess diagnostic symptom counts of depression during early adolescence; diagnoses of CUD and AUD at age 18 was based the Voice-Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Cumulative depression was defined as the sum of depression symptom counts from grades 7-9. The past-year prevalence of cannabis and alcohol use disorder at the age 18 study wave was 20.9 and 19.8%, respectively. A 1 standard deviation increase in cumulative depression during early adolescence was associated with a 50% higher likelihood of CUD [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07, 2.10]. Although similar in direction, there was no statistically significant association between depression and AUD (PR = 1.41; 95% CI = 0.94, 2.11). Further, there were no differences in associations according to gender. Youth with more chronic or severe forms of depression during early adolescence may be at elevated risk for developing cannabis use disorder compared with otherwise similar youth who experience fewer depressive symptoms during early adolescence. © 2017 Society

  15. Plasma fluoxetine concentrations and clinical improvement in an adolescent sample diagnosed with major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez, Ana; Mas, Sergi; Plana, Maria Teresa; Gassó, Patricia; Méndez, Iria; Torra, Mercè; Arnaiz, Joan Albert; Lafuente, Amàlia; Lázaro, Luisa

    2014-06-01

    Fluoxetine (FLX) has been one of the most widely studied selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in adolescents. Despite its efficacy, however, 30% to 40% of patients do not respond to treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether clinical improvement or adverse events are related to the corrected dose of FLX at 8 and 12 weeks after starting treatment in a sample of adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or generalized anxiety disorder. Seventy-four subjects aged between 10 and 17 years participated in the study. Clinical improvement was measured with the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, whereas the UKU (Udvalg for Klinske Undersogelser) scale was administered to assess adverse effects of treatment. Fluoxetine per kilograms of body weight was related to serum concentration of FLX, NORFLX (norfluoxetine), FLX + NORFLX, and FLX/NORFLX. No relationship was found between dose-corrected FLX levels and therapeutic or adverse effects. No differences in serum concentrations were found between responders and nonresponders to treatment. Sex differences were observed in relation to dose and FLX serum concentration. The analysis by diagnosis revealed differences in FLX dose between obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and both generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder patients. Fluoxetine response seems to be influenced by factors such as sex, diagnosis, or certain genes that might be involved in the drug's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Clinical and pharmacogenetic studies are needed to elucidate further the differences between treatment responders and nonresponders.

  16. Relation of Early Menarche to Depression, Eating Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Comorbid Psychopathology among Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2001-01-01

    Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…

  17. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

  18. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why. Depression symptoms in children and teens Common signs and ... in normal activities, and avoidance of social interaction. Depression symptoms in older adults Depression is not a ...

  19. Eating disorders with and without comorbid depression and anxiety: similarities and differences in a clinical sample of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Elizabeth K; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Labuschagne, Zandre; Loeb, Katharine L; Sawyer, Susan M; Le Grange, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to describe and compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with an eating disorder (ED) and comorbid depression or anxiety. Data were drawn from intake assessments of children and adolescents at a specialist ED clinic. Demographic characteristics (e.g. age and gender) and clinical characteristics (e.g. body mass, binge eating and purging) were compared between 217 ED participants without comorbidity, 32 with comorbid anxiety, 86 with comorbid depression and 36 with comorbid anxiety and depression. The groups with comorbid depression had more complex and severe presentations compared with those with an ED and no comorbid disorder and those with comorbid anxiety alone, especially in regard to binge eating, purging, dietary restraint and weight/shape concerns. Depression and anxiety were differentially related to clinical characteristics of EDs. The findings have implications for understanding the relations between these disorders and their potential to impact outcome of ED treatments. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  20. Nurses' experiences of the use of an Internet-based support system for adolescents with depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurki, Marjo; Anttila, Minna; Koivunen, Marita; Marttunen, Mauri; Välimäki, Maritta

    2018-09-01

    Internet-based applications are potentially useful and effective interventions to reach and support adolescents with mental health problems. Adolescents' commitment to the use of a new Internet-based intervention is closely related to the support they receive from healthcare professionals. This study describes nurses' experiences of the use of an Internet-based support system for adolescents with depressive disorders. Qualitative descriptive study design including individual interviews with nine nurses at two psychiatric outpatient clinics. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used as the theoretical background of the study. Nurses described several benefits of using the Internet-based support system in the care of adolescents with depressive disorders if the nurses integrate it into daily nursing practices. As perceived disadvantages the nurses thought that an adolescent's mental status might be a barrier to working with the support system. Perceived enablers could be organizational support, nurses' attitudes, and technology-related factors. Nurses' attitudes were identified as a barrier to supporting adolescents' use of the Internet-based support system. The findings suggest that the implementation plan and support from the organization, including that from nurse managers, are crucial in the process of implementing a technology-based support system.

  1. [Depression and Anxiety Disorders and Associated Factors in the Adolescent Colombian Population, 2015 National Mental Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Bohórquez, Adriana; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Rondón, Martín; Bautista, Nubia; Rengifo, Herney; Medina Rico, Mauricio

    2016-12-01

    There was a prevalence of mental disorders of 17% in adolescents in the past year. These tended to be chronic and their appearance at this age is associated with a worse prognosis than those in adulthood. To determine the prevalence and mental factors associated with major depression and anxiety disorders. Data were obtained from the IV National Mental Health Survey representing 5 regions. A structured computerised survey was conducted using the Computer Assisted Personal Interview-Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Adolescent Version (CAPI-CIDI-A), focused on the most common depression and anxiety disorders. It included a sample of 1754 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old. The prevalence of any disorder at some point in life was 7.2% (95%CI, 5.8-8.9). The most common disorder corresponded to social phobia manifested sometime in life in 4.8% (95%CI, 3.7-6.2). Less frequent were panic disorder in girls (0.2%; 95% CI, 0.1-1.0) and other bipolar disorders in boys (0.2%; 95%CI, 0.1-0.7). Among the associated factors of suffering from any disorder were, being female (OR=2.1), having little family support (OR=2.0), having witnessed at least one traumatic event (OR=2.6), and having had a previous suicide attempt (OR=3.4). Participation in at least one group was a protective factor (OR=0.5). Mental disorders of anxiety and depression represent a major burden of disease for Colombia. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk behaviors for eating disorders and depressive symptoms: a study of female adolescents in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between depressive symptoms and eating disorders in female adolescents. The sample included 371 girls ranging from 12 to 16 years of age in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and Major Depression Inventory (MDI to evaluate eating disorders and depressive symptoms, respectively. The linear regression model showed that 18% of the EAT-26 scores were influenced by MDI (F(1, 370 = 14.18; p = 0.001. Moreover, the findings indicated a statistically significant association between depressive symptoms and eating disorders (χ2 = 14.71; Wald = 12.90; p = 0.001. The authors concluded that depressive symptoms were related to eating disorders in female adolescents. Thus, girls with some level of depression showed a greater tendency to adopt disordered eating as a daily habit.

  3. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of antidepressants, psychological interventions, and their combination for depressive disorder in children and adolescents: protocol for a network meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Xinyu; Cipriani, Andrea; Zhang, Yuqing; Cuijpers, Pim; Hetrick, Sarah E.; Weisz, John R.; Pu, Juncai; Giovane, Cinzia Del; Furukawa, Toshiaki A.; Barth, Jürgen; Coghill, David; Leucht, Stefan; Yang, Lining; Ravindran, Arun V.; Xie, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Depressive disorder is common in children and adolescents, with important consequences and serious impairments in terms of personal and social functioning. While both pharmacological and psychological interventions have been shown to be effective, there is still uncertainty about the

  4. Dietary intake in population-based adolescents: support for a relationship between eating disorder symptoms, low fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K L; Mori, T A; Beilin, L; Byrne, S M; Hickling, S; Oddy, W H

    2013-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the dietary intake and nutritional status of community-based individuals with eating disorders. This research aimed to: (i) describe the dietary intake of population-based adolescents with an eating disorder and (ii) examine associations between eating disorder symptoms, fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms in adolescents with and without an eating disorder. Data were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a population-based cohort study that has followed participants from birth to young adulthood. This research utilised self-report data from the 17-year Raine Study assessment. Participants comprised 429 female adolescents who completed comprehensive questionnaire measures on dietary intake, eating disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Adolescents with an eating disorder (n = 66) reported a significantly lower intake of total fat, saturated fat, omega-6 fatty acid, starch, vitamin A and vitamin E compared to adolescents without an eating disorder (n = 363). Adolescents with an eating disorder and pronounced depressive symptoms (n = 23) also reported a significantly lower intake of polyunsaturated fat and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid than adolescents with an eating disorder but no marked depression (n = 43). In the eating disorder sample but not the control sample, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid correlated significantly and negatively with eating disorder symptoms and with depressive symptoms. Support is provided for a relationship between low omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms in adolescents with eating disorders. Research is needed to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of fatty acid supplementation in this high-risk group. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Resilience in high-risk adolescents of mothers with recurrent depressive disorder: The contribution of fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahedy, Liam; Harold, Gordon T; Maughan, Barbara; Gardner, Frances; Araya, Ricardo; Bevan Jones, Rhys; Hammerton, Gemma; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2018-06-01

    This study examines the role of paternal emotional support as a resilience promoter in offspring of mothers with depression by considering the role of fathers' mental health and the quality of the couple relationship. Two hundred and sixty-five mothers with recurrent unipolar depression, partners and adolescents from Wales were assessed. Paternal emotional support, couple relationship quality, and paternal depression were assessed at baseline; adolescent mental health symptoms were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment at follow-up. Results showed evidence of an indirect pathway whereby couple relationship quality predicted paternal emotional support (β = -.21, 95% CI [-.34, -.08]; p = .002) which in turn predicted adolescent depression (β = -.18, 95% CI [-.33, -.04]; p = .02), but not disruptive behaviours (β = -.08, 95% CI [-.22, .07]; p = .30), after controlling for relevant confounders. The findings highlight that fathers and the broader family system play an important role in enhancing resilience to depression symptoms in at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Subthreshold depression in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselhoeft, Rikke; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Heiervang, Einar

    2013-01-01

    Depressive disorders are disabling conditions striking at all ages. In adults, subthreshold depression (SD) is viewed as being on a continuum with major depressive disorder (MDD). Whether this holds for children and adolescents, is still unclear. We performed the first systematic review of SD...

  7. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your mood. Chronic pain causes a number of problems that can lead to depression, such as trouble sleeping and stress. Disabling pain can cause low self-esteem due to work, legal or financial issues. Depression ...

  8. [Association between MAOA-u VNTR polymorphism and its interaction with stressful life events and major depressive disorder in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Yu, Shun-Ying; Liang, Shan; Ding, Jun; Feng, Zhe; Yang, Fan; Gao, Wei-Jia; Lin, Jia-Ni; Huang, Chun-Xiang; Liu, Xue-Jun; Su, Lin-Yan

    2013-07-01

    To investigate whether the genetic polymorphism, upstream variable number of tandem repeats (uVNTR), in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents and to test whether there is gene-environment interaction between MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism and stressful life events (SLEs). A total of 394 Chinese Han subjects, including 187 adolescent patients with MDD and 207 normal students as a control group, were included in the study. Genotyping was performed by SNaP-shot assay. SLEs in the previous 12 months were evaluated. The groups were compared in terms of the frequency distributions of MAOA-uVNTR genotypes and alleles using statistical software. The binary logistic regression model of gene-environment interaction was established to analyze the association of the gene-environment interaction between MAOA-u VNTR genotypes and SLEs with adolescent MDD. The distribution profiles of MAOA-u VNTR genotypes and alleles were not related to the onset of MDD, severity of depression, comorbid anxiety and suicidal ideation/behavior/attempt in adolescents. The gene-environment interaction between MAOA-u VNTR genotypes and SLEs was not associated with MDD in male or female adolescents. It is not proven that MAOA-u VNTR polymorphism is associated with adolescent MDD. There is also no gene-environment interaction between MAOA-u VNTR polymorphism and SLEs that is associated with adolescent MDD.

  9. Self-esteem and social support as moderators of depression, body image, and disordered eating for suicidal ideation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M; Decker, Kristina M

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated risk factors for suicidal ideation in a community sample of 392 adolescents (males 51.9 %; females 48.1 %), while also evaluating self-esteem, perceived parent support, and perceived peer support as protective factors and potential moderators between suicidal ideation and the 3 risk factors. Disordered eating, depression, parent support, and peer support were found to be significant predictors of current suicidal ideation, but body satisfaction was not. The relationship between depression and suicidal ideation was significantly moderated by both self-esteem and parent support, while the relationship between disordered eating and suicidal ideation was significantly moderated by peer support. Results underscore the importance of examining protective factors for suicide risk, as they have the potential to reduce suicidal ideation in adolescents.

  10. The mediational significance of negative/depressive affect in the relationship of childhood maltreatment and eating disorder features in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, C J; Ansell, E B; Fehon, D C; Grilo, C M

    2011-03-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for eating disorder and negative/depressive affect appears to mediate this relation. However, the specific elements of eating- and body-related psychopathology that are influenced by various forms of childhood maltreatment remain unclear, and investigations among adolescents and men/boys have been limited. This study investigated the mediating role of negative affect/depression across multiple types of childhood maltreatment and eating disorder features in hospitalized adolescent boys and girls. Participants were 148 adolescent psychiatric inpatients who completed an assessment battery including measures of specific forms of childhood maltreatment (sexual, emotional, and physical abuse), negative/depressive affect, and eating disorder features (dietary restriction, binge eating, and body dissatisfaction). Findings suggest that for girls, negative/depressive affect significantly mediates the relationships between childhood maltreatment and eating disorder psychopathology, although effects varied somewhat across types of maltreatment and eating disorder features. Generalization of mediation effects to boys was limited.

  11. Very early predictors of adolescent depression and suicide attempts in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E; Applegate, Brooks; Dahlke, Allison; Overmyer, Meghan; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2010-10-01

    Major depression and dysthymia in adolescence are associated with substantial disability, need for mental health services, and risk for recurrence. Concrete suicidal ideation and attempts during adolescence are particularly associated with significant distress, morbidity, and risk for completed suicide. To test the hypothesis that young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for depression and suicidal ideation and attempts during adolescence and to identify early predictors of which young children with ADHD are at greatest risk. Prospective follow-up study. Chicago, Illinois, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Patients  A cohort of 125 children who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD at 4 to 6 years of age and 123 demographically matched comparison children without ADHD were prospectively followed up in 7 structured diagnostic assessments of depression and suicidal behavior in assessment years 6 through 14, spanning 9 through 18 years of age. DSM-IV criteria for depressive disorders and suicidal behavior. Children with ADHD at 4 to 6 years of age were at greatly increased risk for meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression or dysthymia (hazard ratio, 4.32) and for attempting suicide (hazard ratio, 3.60) through the age of 18 years relative to comparison children. There were marked variations in risk for these outcomes among children with ADHD, however. Within the ADHD group, children with each subtype of ADHD were at risk but for different adverse outcomes. Girls were at greater risk for depression and suicide attempts. Maternal depression and concurrent child emotional and behavior problems at 4 to 6 years of age predicted depression and suicidal behavior. All subtypes of ADHD in young children robustly predict adolescent depression and/or suicide attempts 5 to 13 years later. Furthermore, female sex, maternal depression, and concurrent symptoms at 4 to 6 years of age predict which children with ADHD are at greatest risk for

  12. Risk Factors of Post-traumatic Stress and Depressive Disorders in Longmenshan Adolescents After the 2013 Lushan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping; Wang, Yan; Tang, Wanjie

    2018-03-06

    This study examined the severity of post-traumatic stress and depressive disorders in Longmenshan adolescents after the 2013 Lushan earthquake, as well as relationships among earthquake-related exposure, post-earthquake negative factors, previous exposure to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, and level of earthquake impact (city). A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adolescents in Lushan (n = 1416), Baoxing (n = 1102) and Tianquan (n = 1265) at 3 years after the Lushan earthquake. Respondents were evaluated using the Earthquake Experience Scale, the Adolescent Self-rating Life Events Checklist (ASLEC), the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13), and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (KADS-6). High levels of post-traumatic stress and depression symptoms were found among adolescents in the most heavily affected cities, and these symptoms were more severe in respondents exposed to the 2008 earthquake. PTSD correlated most strongly with earthquake exposure, whereas depression correlated most strongly with psychosocial stressors following the event.

  13. Emotion socialization in the context of risk and psychopathology: Mother and father socialization of anger and sadness in adolescents with depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Allen, Nicholas; Leve, Craig; Davis, Betsy; Sheeber, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This study examined parental emotion socialization processes associated with adolescent unipolar depressive disorder. Adolescent participants (N=107; 42 boys) were selected either to meet criteria for current unipolar depressive disorder or to be psychologically healthy as defined by no lifetime history of psychopathology or mental health treatment and low levels of current depressive symptomatology. A multisource/method measurement strategy was used to assess mothers' and fathers' responses to adolescent sad and angry emotion. Each parent and the adolescents completed questionnaire measures of parental emotion socialization behavior, and participated in meta-emotion interviews and parent-adolescent interactions. As hypothesized, parents of adolescents with depressive disorder engaged in fewer supportive responses and more unsupportive responses overall relative to parents of nondepressed adolescents. Between group differences were more pronounced for families of boys, and for fathers relative to mothers. The findings indicate that parent emotion socialization is associated with adolescent depression and highlight the importance of including fathers in studies of emotion socialization, especially as it relates to depression.

  14. Suicidal Ideation, Depression, and Conduct Disorder in a Sample of Adolescent and Young Adult Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Julie; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon; Silberg, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disturbance is likely explained in part by correlated genetic and environmental risk factors. Little is known about the specific nature of these associations. Structured interviews on 2,814 twins from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and Young…

  15. Altered insular activation and increased insular functional connectivity during sad and happy face processing in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henje Blom, Eva; Connolly, Colm G; Ho, Tiffany C; LeWinn, Kaja Z; Mobayed, Nisreen; Han, Laura; Paulus, Martin P; Wu, Jing; Simmons, Alan N; Yang, Tony T

    2015-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and occurs commonly first during adolescence. The insular cortex (IC) plays an important role in integrating emotion processing with interoception and has been implicated recently in the pathophysiology of adult and adolescent MDD. However, no studies have yet specifically examined the IC in adolescent MDD during processing of faces in the sad-happy continuum. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the IC during sad and happy face processing in adolescents with MDD compared to healthy controls (HCL). Thirty-one adolescents (22 female) with MDD and 36 (23 female) HCL underwent a well-validated emotional processing fMRI paradigm that included sad and happy face stimuli. The MDD group showed significantly less differential activation of the anterior/middle insular cortex (AMIC) in response to sad versus happy faces compared to the HCL group. AMIC also showed greater functional connectivity with right fusiform gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus in the MDD compared to HCL group. Moreover, differential activation to sad and happy faces in AMIC correlated negatively with depression severity within the MDD group. Small age-range and cross-sectional nature precluded assessment of development of the AMIC in adolescent depression. Given the role of the IC in integrating bodily stimuli with conscious cognitive and emotional processes, our findings of aberrant AMIC function in adolescent MDD provide a neuroscientific rationale for targeting the AMIC in the development of new treatment modalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sleep problems predict comorbid externalizing behaviors and depression in young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W

    2015-08-01

    Children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience high rates of sleep problems and are also at increased risk for experiencing comorbid mental health problems. This study provides an initial examination of the 1-year prospective association between sleep problems and comorbid symptoms in youth diagnosed with ADHD. Participants were 81 young adolescents (75 % male) carefully diagnosed with ADHD and their parents. Parents completed measures of their child's sleep problems and ADHD symptoms, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, and general externalizing behavior problems at baseline (M age = 12.2) and externalizing behaviors were assessed again 1 year later. Adolescents completed measures of anxiety and depression at both time-points. Medication use was not associated with sleep problems or comorbid psychopathology symptoms. Regression analyses indicated that, above and beyond demographic characteristics, ADHD symptom severity, and initial levels of comorbidity, sleep problems significantly predicted greater ODD symptoms, general externalizing behavior problems, and depressive symptoms 1 year later. Sleep problems were not concurrently or prospectively associated with anxiety. Although this study precludes making causal inferences, it does nonetheless provide initial evidence of sleep problems predicting later comorbid externalizing behaviors and depression symptoms in youth with ADHD. Additional research is needed with larger samples and multiple time-points to further examine the interrelations of sleep problems and comorbidity.

  17. Neurocognitive Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Wall

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is estimated that 30% to 40% of adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD do not receive full benefit from current antidepressant therapies. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a novel therapy approved by the US FDA to treat adults with MDD. Research suggests rTMS is not associated with adverse neurocognitive effects in adult populations; however, there is no documentation of its neurocognitive effects in adolescents. This is a secondary post hoc analysis of neurocognitive outcome in adolescents who were treated with open label rTMS in two separate studies. Methods: Eighteen patients (mean age, 16.2 ± 1.1 years; 11 females, 7 males with MDD who failed to adequately respond to at least 1 antidepressant agent were enrolled in the studies. Fourteen patients completed all 30 rTMS treatments (5 days/week, 120% of motor threshold, 10 Hz, 3,000 stimulations per session applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC. Depression was rated using the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R. Neurocognitive evaluation was performed at baseline and after completion of 30 rTMS treatments with the Children’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test (CAVLT and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (DKEFS Trail Making Test. Results: Over the course of 30 rTMS treatments, adolescents showed a substantial decrease in depression severity and a statistically significant improvement in memory and delayed verbal recall. Other learning and memory indices and executive function remained intact. Neither participants nor their family members reported clinically meaningful changes in neurocognitive function. Conclusion: These preliminary findings suggest rTMS does not adversely impact neurocognitive functioning in adolescents and may provide subtle enhancement of verbal memory as measured by the CAVLT. Further controlled investigations are warranted to confirm and extend these findings.

  18. Co-occurring symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a population-based sample of adolescents screened for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Astri J; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Sørensen, Lin; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2016-02-25

    Depression is common in adolescents, with a gender bias towards girls. Symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to co-occur in depressed adolescents. This may be related to common features between the two symptom domains, but co-occurring ADHD symptoms may also inflate the severity of depression. The present study investigates the frequency and influence of ADHD symptoms co-occurring with depression in a gender balanced population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents. A sample of 9614 adolescents (16-19 years) completed a questionnaire including the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (sMFQ) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), with items reflecting symptoms associated with depression and ADHD, respectively. The sMFQ sum score was used as a proxy for severity of depression, and adolescents with a score equal to or above the 90th percentile were defined as depressed. A high response on any of the ASRS items was used to define the presence of an ADHD symptom, and the number of high scores was used to indicate severity. ADHD symptoms were frequently reported by the adolescents, with a higher frequency in girls than in boys. The gender differences were, however, minor when the analysis was restricted to the adolescents defined as depressed. Each severe symptom reported on the ASRS contributed significantly to increase the sum score on the sMFQ, and more than 20 % of the adolescents defined as depressed reported six or more symptoms within the ASRS inattention subscale. The results emphasize the importance of screening for symptoms associated with ADHD when assessing adolescents presenting symptoms indicating depression. Although girls reported higher frequency of symptoms within both domains, the gender bias was dependent on the overall symptom severity. Awareness of co-occurrence of symptoms and gender biases are of importance for both clinical work and future research on mental health and service use in

  19. Help-Seeking by Young People with Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Michael G.; Sawyer, Alyssa C. P.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders commonly occur for the first time during adolescence and often become a recurring source of distress and impairment. Unfortunately, only a small proportion of adolescents with depressive disorders receive help from professional services, and there is evidence that adolescents with higher levels of depressive symptoms may be…

  20. Associations between substance use disorders and major depression in parents and late adolescent-emerging adult offspring: an adoption study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marmorstein, N. R.; Iacono, W. G.; McGue, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To examine whether major depressive disorder (MDD) and substance use disorders [SUDs: specifically, nicotine dependence (ND), alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and cannabis use disorders (CUDs)] in parents predicted increased risk for these disorders in late adolescentemerging adult offspring and...

  1. Impact of oppositional defiant disorder dimensions on the temporal ordering of conduct problems and depression across childhood and adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie; Feng, Xin; Burke, Jeff; Battista, Deena R; Loeber, Rolf; Keenan, Kate

    2011-10-01

    Little is known about the role of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) dimensions on the temporal unfolding of conduct disorder (CD) and depression in girls between childhood and adolescence. The year-to-year associations between CD and depressive symptomatology were examined using nine waves of annually collected data (ages 8 through 16 years) from 1215 participants of the Pittsburgh Girls Study. A series of autoregressive path models were tested that included ODD-Emotion Dysregulation (ODD-ED) and ODD-Defiance, as time-varying covariates on CD predicting depression severity in the following year, and vice versa. Conduct problems, depression, and ODD dimensions were relatively stable throughout childhood and adolescence, and a moderate degree of covariance was observed between these variables. Path analyses showed that CD often preceded depression across this developmental period, although the effect sizes were small. There was less consistent prediction from depression to CD. The overlap between ODD-ED and CD partially explained the prospective relations from CD to depression, whereas these paths were fully explained by the overlap between ODD-ED and depression. The overlap between ODD-Defiance and CD did not account for the prospective relations from CD to depression. In contrast, the overlap between ODD-Defiance and depression accounted for virtually all paths from CD to depression. Accounting for the overlap between ODD dimensions and both CD and depression eliminated all significant predictive paths. Symptoms of CD tend to precede depression in girls during childhood and adolescence. However, covariance between depression and both ODD-ED and ODD-Defiance accounts for these prospective relations. ODD dimensions should be assessed when evaluating risk for comorbid depression in girls with conduct problems, and emotion dysregulation and defiance aspects of ODD should be identified as targets for treatment in order to prevent depression in the future. © 2011 The

  2. Childhood depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselhöft, Rikke Thaarup

    2016-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a frequent and painful mental disorder considered among the five leading causes of disability in Western countries by the World Health Organization. MDD occurs at all ages, but childhood onset MDD has a more severe course with longer depressive episodes, more suicidality, and more frequent hospitalization, than later onset MDD. Childhood seems to be a window of opportunity for prevention of mental disorders, and subsequently prevention of MDD onset in childhood is recommended. Feasible prevention targets either individuals who present early signs of a given disorder but have not reached diagnostic threshold (indicated prevention) or individuals who are at increased risk for a disorder due to risk factor exposure (selective prevention). Indicated prevention is rational also for depressive disorders, because subthreshold depression (SD) in adults is found to be a precursor to MDD. The purpose of this thesis was to provide information necessary for the prevention of MDD onset in childhood. First, we examined whether the literature supports that SD is a MDD precursor also in children (systematic review). Second, we explored the risk that gender might constitute for pre-pubertal and post-pubertal onset MDD (register study). Third, we estimated the prevalence of SD and MDD in a large-scale pre-pubertal sample, and compared the clinical features of SD and MDD and potential risk factors (population-based study). The systematic review of the literature showed that SD in children and adolescents presents analogous comorbidity and symptom patterns (including self-harm symptoms). It also supports that SD is a precursor to MDD in children and adolescents causing poor outcomes like psychopathology, functional impairment and high use of health service. In the register study of Danish children and adolescents, we found a higher incidence of clinical MDD for girls after puberty compared to boys. Before puberty however, we demonstrated that boys

  3. Effects of psycho-education plus basic cognitive behavioural therapy strategies on medication-treated adolescents with depressive disorder in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Ehimwenma W; Ani, Cornelius; Bella-Awusah, Tolulope; Omigbodun, Olayinka

    2018-04-11

    Limited data exists on psychological interventions for adolescent depression in African countries such as Nigeria. This study therefore investigates the effects of a psychological intervention that includes psycho-education and basic elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) on depressed medication-treated adolescents in Nigeria. This was a pre-post one-group intervention study of 18 adolescents aged 13-18 years with clinically diagnosed depressive disorder, attending a specialist psychiatric hospital. They had been on antidepressants for 3 months or longer. Depressive symptoms, knowledge of depression, hope, and attitudes towards treatment adherence were measured at baseline and repeated at 1 and 4 weeks post-intervention. The adolescents received four sessions of a group-based manualised intervention focused on psycho-education and basic CBT strategies. Statistically significant reductions in depressive symptoms were recorded, as were improvements in the adolescents' knowledge of depression, hope, and attitude towards treatment adherence one week after the intervention (all p = 0.001). All differences were sustained at 4 weeks post-intervention. Participants' satisfaction with the intervention was high. This study suggests that adding psycho-education with elements of CBT to antidepressant treatment is feasible, acceptable and can produce further benefits to depressed adolescents in this region.

  4. Annual Research Review: Transdiagnostic neuroscience of child and adolescent mental disorders--differentiating decision making in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Cortese, Samuele; Fairchild, Graeme; Stringaris, Argyris

    2016-03-01

    alternatives). In CD, it is reckless and insensitive to negative consequences. In depression, it is disengaged, perseverative, and pessimistic, while in anxiety, it is hesitant, risk-averse, and self-deprecating. A survey of current empirical indications related to these disorder-specific hypotheses highlights the limited and fragmentary nature of the evidence base and illustrates the need for a major research initiative in decision making in childhood disorders. The final section highlights a number of important additional general themes that need to be considered in future research. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. Self perception score from zero to ten correlates well with standardized scales of adolescent self esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disorders risk, depression, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2009-01-01

    The ability to quickly and reliably assess mental health status would assist health workers, educators and youth workers to provide appropriate early intervention for adolescents. To investigate the validity of a simple self perception score out of ten by correlating the self perception scores of adolescents from a normal, community sample of adolescents with their scores on standardized mental health measures. Study group was 470 early adolescent students aged 11.0-14.5 years from grades 7 and 8 in two secondary schools. Self perception was self reported using a score of zero to ten points, and the scores were then correlated with scores on the Harter Self Perception Profile, Beck Junior Depression, Speilberger State and Trait Anxiety and the Eating Disorders Inventory. A High Risk group (self perception adolescents also had poor self esteem and risk for depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. Self perception scores correlated positively with self esteem and self concept subscales and it was negatively associated with depression, state and trait anxiety, and EDI scores. Of the 15.1% high risk adolescents in the overall sample, 78% scored below the group average on the mean of all Harter Self Concept scores; 70% scored above average for Beck Depression; 64% and 74% scored above average on Speilberger State/Trait Anxiety respectively; 80% scored higher than the average on the group mean EDI. A self perception score from zero to ten can be a simple and accurate way of gaining an initial insight into the current mental health status of adolescents.

  6. Predicting borderline personality disorder symptoms in adolescents from childhood physical and relational aggression, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Boylan, Khrista; Duku, Eric; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-08-01

    Developmental cascade models linking childhood physical and relational aggression with symptoms of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; assessed at ages 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14) to borderline personality disorder (BPD) features (assessed at age 14) were examined in a community sample of 484 youth. Results indicated that, when controlling for within-time covariance and across-time stability in the examination of cross-lagged relations among study variables, BPD features at age 14 were predicted by childhood relational aggression and symptoms of depression for boys, and physical and relational aggression, symptoms of depression, and symptoms of ADHD for girls. Moreover, for boys BPD features were predicted from age 10 ADHD through age 12 depression, whereas for girls the pathway to elevated BPD features at age 14 was from depression at age 10 through physical aggression symptoms at age 12. Controlling for earlier associations among variables, we found that for girls the strongest predictor of BPD features at age 14 was physical aggression, whereas for boys all the risk indicators shared a similar predictive impact. This study adds to the growing literature showing that physical and relational aggression ought to be considered when examining early precursors of BPD features.

  7. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, I. S.; Horwood, L. J.; Fergusson, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    . The implications of these findings for the role of parent-child attachment in mitigating the adverse effects of early anxiety/withdrawal are discussed. It is concluded that positive parent-child attachment in adolescence may act as a compensatory factor which buffers the adverse effects of childhood anxiety......Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which...... positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate the risk of later internalising disorders amongst children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal using data from a 30 years longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort. The findings of this study showed that: (a) increasing rates of early...

  8. The impact of borderline personality disorder and sub-threshold borderline personality disorder on the course of self-reported and clinician-rated depression in self-harming adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramleth, Ruth-Kari; Groholt, Berit; Diep, Lien M; Walby, Fredrik A; Mehlum, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Studies on adults suggest that the presence of comorbid depression and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is associated with an elevated risk of self-harming behaviours and that self-harming behaviours, when present, will have higher severity. This comorbidity, furthermore, complicates clinical assessments, which may be an obstacle to early identification and proper intervention. Adolescents who self-harm frequently report high levels of depressive symptoms, but this is often not reflected in the clinicians' assessment. BPD is still a controversial diagnosis in young people, and less is known about the clinical significance of comorbid BPD in adolescent populations.The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of BPD on the assessment and course of self-reported and clinician-rated depression in self-harming adolescents before and after a treatment period of 19 weeks. We hypothesized that, compared to adolescents without BPD, adolescents with BPD would self-report higher levels of depression at baseline, and that they would have less reduction in depressive symptoms. A total of 39 adolescents with depressive disorders and BPD-traits participating in a randomised controlled trial on treatment of self-harm with Dialectical Behaviour Therapy adapted for Adolescents or enhanced usual care were included. Adolescents with full-syndrome BPD ( n  = 10) were compared with adolescents with sub-threshold BPD ( n  = 29) with respect to their self-reported and clinician-rated depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and global level of functioning at baseline, and after 19 weeks of treatment (end of trial period). At baseline, adolescents with full-syndrome BPD self-reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation compared to adolescents with sub-threshold BPD, whereas the two groups were rated as equally depressed by the clinicians. At trial completion, all participants had a significant reduction in suicidal ideation

  9. ‘Mom—I don’t want to hear it’: Brain response to maternal praise and criticism in adolescents with major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Hwa; Elliott, Rosalind D.; Hooley, Jill M.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Barber, Anita; Siegle, Greg J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recent research has implicated altered neural response to interpersonal feedback as an important factor in adolescent depression, with existing studies focusing on responses to feedback from virtual peers. We investigated whether depressed adolescents differed from healthy youth in neural response to social evaluative feedback from mothers. During neuroimaging, twenty adolescents in a current episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) and 28 healthy controls listened to previously recorded audio clips of their own mothers’ praise, criticism and neutral comments. Whole-brain voxelwise analyses revealed that MDD youth, unlike controls, exhibited increased neural response to critical relative to neutral clips in the parahippocampal gyrus, an area involved in episodic memory encoding and retrieval. Depressed adolescents also showed a blunted response to maternal praise clips relative to neutral clips in the parahippocampal gyrus, as well as areas involved in reward and self-referential processing (i.e. ventromedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and thalamus/caudate). Findings suggest that maternal criticism may be more strongly encoded or more strongly activated during memory retrieval related to previous autobiographical instances of negative feedback from mothers in depressed youth compared to healthy youth. Furthermore, depressed adolescents may fail to process the reward value and self-relevance of maternal praise. PMID:28338795

  10. 'Mom-I don't want to hear it': Brain response to maternal praise and criticism in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Elliott, Rosalind D; Hooley, Jill M; Dahl, Ronald E; Barber, Anita; Siegle, Greg J

    2017-05-01

    Recent research has implicated altered neural response to interpersonal feedback as an important factor in adolescent depression, with existing studies focusing on responses to feedback from virtual peers. We investigated whether depressed adolescents differed from healthy youth in neural response to social evaluative feedback from mothers. During neuroimaging, twenty adolescents in a current episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) and 28 healthy controls listened to previously recorded audio clips of their own mothers' praise, criticism and neutral comments. Whole-brain voxelwise analyses revealed that MDD youth, unlike controls, exhibited increased neural response to critical relative to neutral clips in the parahippocampal gyrus, an area involved in episodic memory encoding and retrieval. Depressed adolescents also showed a blunted response to maternal praise clips relative to neutral clips in the parahippocampal gyrus, as well as areas involved in reward and self-referential processing (i.e. ventromedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and thalamus/caudate). Findings suggest that maternal criticism may be more strongly encoded or more strongly activated during memory retrieval related to previous autobiographical instances of negative feedback from mothers in depressed youth compared to healthy youth. Furthermore, depressed adolescents may fail to process the reward value and self-relevance of maternal praise. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Trait and facet-level predictors of first-onset depressive and anxiety disorders in a community sample of adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Brandon L; Kotov, Roman; Perlman, Greg; Watson, David; Klein, Daniel N

    2017-09-20

    Individual differences in neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness are associated with, and may predict onset of, internalizing disorders. These general traits can be parsed into facets, but there is a surprising paucity of research on facet risk for internalizing disorders. We examined general traits and facets of neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness in predicting first onsets of depressive and anxiety disorders. A community sample of 550 adolescent females completed general and facet-level personality measures and diagnostic interviews. Interviews were re-administered 18 months later. First onsets of depressive disorders were predicted by neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Facets predicting first onset of depression included depressivity (neuroticism facet) and lower positive emotionality and sociability (extraversion facets). First onsets of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were predicted by neuroticism, and particularly the facet of anxiousness. First onsets of social phobia were predicted at the facet level by anxiousness. First onsets of specific phobia were predicted by neuroticism, low conscientiousness, and all neuroticism facets. In multivariate analyses, first onsets of depression were uniquely predicted by depressivity, and onsets of GAD and social phobia were uniquely predicted by anxiousness over and above the general trait of neuroticism. General traits predict first onsets of depressive and anxiety disorders. In addition, more specific associations are evident at the facet level. Facets can refine our understanding of the links between personality and psychopathology risk, and provide finer-grained targets for personality-informed interventions.

  12. Prevention and Intervention of Depression in Asian-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieu, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…

  13. Bright light therapy versus physical exercise to prevent co-morbid depression and obesity in adolescents and young adults with attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayer, J.S.; Hees, K.; Medda, J.; Grimm, O.; Asherson, P.; Bellina, M.; Colla, M.; Ibanez, P.; Koch, E.; Martinez-Nicolas, A.; Muntaner-Mas, A.; Rommel, A.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Ruiter, S.W. de; Ebner-Priemer, U.W.; Kieser, M.; Ortega, F.B.; Thome, J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Kuntsi, J.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Reif, A.; Freitag, C.M.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk for major depression and obesity is increased in adolescents and adults with attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adolescent ADHD predicts adult depression and obesity. Non-pharmacological interventions to treat and prevent these co-morbidities are urgently

  14. Effects of a brief cognitive behavioural therapy group intervention on baseline brain perfusion in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka; Abler, Birgit; Grön, Georg; Plener, Paul; Straub, Joana

    2017-04-12

    A number of neuroimaging studies have identified altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in adult samples, particularly in the lateral prefrontal, cingular and temporal regions. In contrast, neuroimaging investigations in adolescents with MDD are rare, although investigating young patients during a significant period of brain maturation might offer valuable insights into the neural mechanisms of MDD. We acquired perfusion images obtained with continuous arterial spin labelling in 21 medication-naive adolescents with MDD before and after a five-session cognitive behavioural group therapy (group CBT). A control group included medication-naive patients under treatment as usual while waiting for the psychotherapy. We found relatively increased rCBF in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; BA 46), the right caudate nucleus and the left inferior parietal lobe (BA 40) after CBT compared with before CBT. Relatively increased rCBF in the right DLPFC postgroup CBT was confirmed by time (post vs. pre)×group (intervention/waiting list) interaction analyses. In the waiting group, relatively increased rCBF was found in the thalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24). The relatively small number of patients included in this pilot study has to be considered. Our findings indicate that noninvasive resting perfusion scanning is suitable to identify CBT-related changes in adolescents with MDD. rCBF increase in the DLPFC following a significant reduction in MDD symptoms in adolescents might represent the core neural correlate of changes in 'top-down' cognitive processing, a possible correlate of improved self-regulation and cognitive control.

  15. The Role of Body Image and Disordered Eating as Risk Factors for Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    There is much empirical literature on factors for adolescent suicide risk, but body image and disordered eating are rarely included in these models. In the current study, disordered eating and body image were examined as risk factors for suicide ideation since these factors are prevalent in adolescence, particularly for females. It was…

  16. Genetic and environmental influences on the codevelopment among borderline personality disorder traits, major depression symptoms, and substance use disorder symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A; Verhulst, Brad; Webber, Troy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G; Hicks, Brian M

    2018-02-01

    Although borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits decline from adolescence to adulthood, comorbid psychopathology such as symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol use disorder (AUD), and drug use disorders (DUDs) likely disrupt this normative decline. Using a longitudinal sample of female twins (N = 1,763), we examined if levels of BPD traits were correlated with changes in MDD, AUD, and DUD symptoms from ages 14 to 24. A parallel process biometric latent growth model examined the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the relationships between developmental components of these phenotypes. Higher BPD trait levels predicted a greater rate of increase in AUD and DUD symptoms, and higher AUD and DUD symptoms predicted a slower rate of decline of BPD traits from ages 14 to 24. Common genetic influences accounted for the associations between BPD traits and each disorder, as well as the interrelationships of AUD and DUD symptoms. Both genetic and nonshared environmental influences accounted for the correlated levels between BPD traits and MDD symptoms, but solely environmental influences accounted for the correlated changes between the two over time. Results indicate that higher levels of BPD traits may contribute to an earlier onset and faster escalation of AUD and DUD symptoms, and substance use problems slow the normative decline in BPD traits. Overall, our data suggests that primarily genetic influences contribute to the comorbidity between BPD features and substance use disorder symptoms. We discuss our data in the context of two major theories of developmental psychopathology and comorbidity.

  17. Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Co-development between Borderline Personality Disorder Traits, Major Depression Symptoms, and Substance Use Disorder Symptoms from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Verhulst, Brad; Webber, Troy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Hicks, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    Although borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits decline from adolescence to adulthood, comorbid psychopathology such as symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol use disorder (AUD), and drug use disorders (DUDs) likely disrupt this normative decline. Using a longitudinal sample of female twins (N = 1,763), we examined if levels of BPD traits were correlated with changes in MDD, AUD, and DUD symptoms from ages 14–24. A parallel process biometric latent growth model examined the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the relationships between developmental components of these phenotypes. Higher BPD trait-levels predicted a greater rate of increase in AUD and DUD symptoms, and higher AUD and DUD symptoms predicted a slower rate of decline of BPD traits from ages 14–24. Common genetic influences accounted for the associations between BPD traits and each disorder, as well as the interrelationships of AUD and DUD symptoms. Both genetic and nonshared environmental influences accounted for the correlated levels between BPD traits and MDD symptoms, but solely environmental influences accounted for the correlated changes between the two over time. Results indicate that higher levels of BPD traits may contribute to an earlier onset and faster escalation of AUD and DUD symptoms, and substance use problems slow the normative decline in BPD traits. Overall, our data suggests that primarily genetic influences contribute to the comorbidity between BPD features and substance use disorder symptoms. We discuss our data in the context of two major theories of developmental psychopathology and comorbidity. PMID:28420454

  18. FKBP5 and specific microRNAs via glucocorticoid receptor in the basolateral amygdala involved in the susceptibility to depressive disorder in early adolescent stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Wang, Rui; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Dexiang; Jiang, Hong; Pan, Fang

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to stressful events induces depressive-like symptoms and increases susceptibility to depression. However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Studies reported that FK506 binding protein51 (FKBP5), the co-chaperone protein of glucocorticoid receptors (GR), plays a crucial role. Further, miR-124a and miR-18a are involved in the regulation of FKBP5/GR function. However, few studies have referred to effects of early life stress on depressive-like behaviours, GR and FKBP5, as well as miR-124a and miR-18a in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) from adolescence to adulthood. This study aimed to examine the dynamic alternations of depressive-like behaviours, GR and FKBP5, as well as miR-124a and miR-18a expressions in the BLA of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats and dexamethasone administration rats during the adolescent period. Meanwhile, the GR antagonist, RU486, was used as a means of intervention. We found that CUMS and dexamethasone administration in the adolescent period induced permanent depressive-like behaviours and memory impairment, decreased GR expression, and increased FKBP5 and miR-124a expression in the BLA of both adolescent and adult rats. However, increased miR-18a expression in the BLA was found only in adolescent rats. Depressive-like behaviours were positively correlated with the level of miR-124a, whereas GR levels were negatively correlated with those in both adolescent and adult rats. Our results suggested FKBP5/GR and miR-124a in the BLA were associated with susceptibility to depressive disorder in the presence of stressful experiences in early life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Grobler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment guideline draws on several international guidelines: (iPractice Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association (APAfor the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, SecondEdition;[1](ii Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of DepressiveDisorders by the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the CanadianNetwork for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT;[2](iiiNational Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines;[3](iv RoyalAustralian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Clinical PracticeGuidelines Team for Depression (RANZCAP;[4](v Texas MedicationAlgorithm Project (TMAP Guidelines;[5](vi World Federation ofSocieties of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP Treatment Guideline forUnipolar Depressive Disorder;[6]and (vii British Association forPsychopharmacology Guidelines.[7

  20. Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Status during the Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters (TASA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Stanley, Barbara; Bukstein, Oscar; Kennard, Betsy D.; Compton, Scott; Coffey, Barbara; Cwik, Mary F.; Posner, Kelly; Wagner, Ann; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Capasso, Lisa; Mayes, Taryn; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake; Barnett, Shannon; Zelazny, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the course of depression during the treatment of adolescents with depression who had recently attempted suicide. Method: Adolescents (N = 124), ages 12 to 18 years, with a 90-day history of suicide attempt, a current diagnosis of depressive disorder (96.0% had major depressive disorder), and a Children's Depression Rating…

  1. Effectiveness of depression and anxiety prevention in adolescents with high familial risk: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasing, Sanne P.A.; Creemers, Daan H.M.; Janssens, Jan M A M; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depression and anxiety disorders during adolescence can have detrimental consequences. Both disorders are related to negative outcome in various areas during adolescence and are also predictive of depression and anxiety disorders later in life. Especially parental psychopathology and

  2. Pituitary gigantism presenting with depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis in an Asian adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Ng, Sohching; Chen, Chih-Hung; Chang, Chen-Nen; Chou, Chi-Hsiang; Weng, Wei-Chieh; Yeh, Chih-Hua; Lin, Jen-Der

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is seldom described in young patients with pituitary gigantism. Here, we describe the case of a 17-year-old Taiwanese boy who developed depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at the presentation of pituitary gigantism. The boy complained of lethargy and dysphoric mood in June 2008. He presented at the emergency department with epigastralgia and dyspnea in January 2009. Results of laboratory tests suggested type 1 diabetes mellitus with DKA. However, serum C-peptide level was normal on follow-up. Although he had no obvious features of acral enlargement, a high level of insulin-like growth factor 1 was detected, and a 75 g oral glucose suppression test showed no suppression of serum growth hormone levels. A pituitary macroadenoma was found on subsequent magnetic resonance imaging. The pituitary adenoma was surgically removed, followed by gamma-knife radiosurgery, and Sandostatin long-acting release treatment. He was then administered metformin, 500 mg twice daily, and to date, his serum glycohemoglobin has been <7%.

  3. The death(s) of close friends and family moderate genetic influences on symptoms of major depressive disorder in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheyara, S; Klump, K L; McGue, M; Iacono, W G; Burt, S A

    2011-04-01

    Prior work has suggested that genetic influences on major depressive disorder (MDD) may be activated by the experience of negative life events. However, it is unclear whether these results persist when controlling for the possibility of confounding active gene-environment correlations (rGE). We examined a sample of 1230 adopted and biological siblings between the ages of 10 and 20 years from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. MDD was measured via a lifetime DSM-IV symptom count. Number of deaths experienced served as our environmental risk experience. Because this variable is largely independent of the individual's choices/behaviors, we were able to examine gene-environment interactions while circumventing possible rGE confounds. Biometric analyses revealed pronounced linear increases in the magnitude of genetic influences on symptoms of MDD with the number of deaths experienced, such that genetic influences were estimated to be near-zero for those who had experienced no deaths but were quite large in those who had experienced two or more deaths (i.e. accounting for roughly two-thirds of the phenotypic variance). By contrast, shared and non-shared environmental influences on symptoms of MDD were not meaningfully moderated by the number of deaths experienced. Such results constructively replicate prior findings of genetic moderation of depressive symptoms by negative life events, thereby suggesting that this effect is not a function of active rGE confounds. Our findings are thus consistent with the notion that exposure to specific negative life events may serve to activate genetic risk for depression during adolescence.

  4. Subthreshold depression in adolescence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertha, Eszter A; Balázs, Judit

    2013-10-01

    In adolescence, the number of depressive symptoms is rising notably. Individuals may have relevant depressive symptoms without meeting the full criteria of a major depressive episode (MDE), a condition referred to as subthreshold depression (sD). This article presents a review on adolescent sD examining the prevalence, the quality of life (QoL), the risk of developing MDE, and preventive programs available for adolescents living with sD. A systematic literature search from the year of the introduction of Diagnostic and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) until 2012 (18 years) was conducted with a special focus on adolescent sD. Data from 27 studies were included into this review. The results show high prevalence of sD among adolescents, with a negative impact on QoL, and provide evidence that sD is a significant risk indicator of later MDE; therefore, individuals with sD represent good targets for preventive interventions. Our review highlights the fact that sD is a significant health problem among adolescents indeed, and adolescents with sD could be a subgroup of youth, who need further help to reduce their clinically significant depressive symptoms for the successful prevention of a later MDE.

  5. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with anxiety, depression and self-esteem among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the associations of the severity of Internet addiction symptoms with various dimensions of anxiety (physical anxiety symptoms, harm avoidance, social anxiety, and separation/panic) and depression symptoms (depressed affect, somatic symptoms, interpersonal problems, and positive affect) and self-esteem among adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their severity of Internet addiction symptoms was assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem were assessed using the Taiwanese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. The association between the severity of Internet addiction symptoms and anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem were examined using multiple regression analyses. The results indicated that higher physical symptoms and lower harm avoidance scores on the MASC-T, higher somatic discomfort/retarded activity scores on the CES-D, and lower self-esteem scores on the RSES were significantly associated with more severe Internet addiction symptoms. Prevention and intervention programs for Internet addiction in adolescents with ADHD should take anxiety, depression, and self-esteem into consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Are child and adolescent responses to placebo higher in major depression than in anxiety disorders? A systematic review of placebo-controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cohen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a previous report, we hypothesized that responses to placebo were high in child and adolescent depression because of specific psychopathological factors associated with youth major depression. The purpose of this study was to compare the placebo response rates in pharmacological trials for major depressive disorder (MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and other anxiety disorders (AD-non-OCD. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reviewed the literature relevant to the use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents with internalized disorders, restricting our review to double-blind studies including a placebo arm. Placebo response rates were pooled and compared according to diagnosis (MDD vs. OCD vs. AD-non-OCD, age (adolescent vs. child, and date of publication. From 1972 to 2007, we found 23 trials that evaluated the efficacy of psychotropic medication (mainly non-tricyclic antidepressants involving youth with MDD, 7 pertaining to youth with OCD, and 10 pertaining to youth with other anxiety disorders (N = 2533 patients in placebo arms. As hypothesized, the placebo response rate was significantly higher in studies on MDD, than in those examining OCD and AD-non-OCD (49.6% [range: 17-90%] vs. 31% [range: 4-41%] vs. 39.6% [range: 9-53], respectively, ANOVA F = 7.1, p = 0.002. Children showed a higher stable placebo response within all three diagnoses than adolescents, though this difference was not significant. Finally, no significant effects were found with respect to the year of publication. CONCLUSION: MDD in children and adolescents appears to be more responsive to placebo than other internalized conditions, which highlights differential psychopathology.

  7. Typical patterns of disordered eating among Swedish adolescents: associations with emotion dysregulation, depression, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Erika; Daukantaitė, Daiva; Johnsson, Per

    2016-01-01

    Using the person-oriented approach, we determined the relationships between four indicators (restraint and eating, shape, and weight concerns) of disordered eating (DE), as measured by the self-reported Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), to identify typical DE patterns. We then related these patterns to clinical EDE-Q cut-off scores and emotion dysregulation, depression, self-esteem, and two categories of DE behaviors (≥2 or ≤1 "yes" responses on the SCOFF questionnaire). Typical patterns of DE were identified in a community sample of 1,265 Swedish adolescents ( M age  = 16.19, SD  = 1.21; age range 13.5-19 years) using a cluster analysis. Separate analyses were performed for girls ( n  = 689) and boys ( n  = 576). The cluster analysis yielded a six-cluster solution for each gender. Four of the six clusters for girls and five for boys showed scores above the clinical cut-off on at least one of the four DE indicators. For girls, the two clusters that scored above the clinical cut-offs on all four DE indicators reported severe psychological problems, including high scores on emotion dysregulation and depression and low scores on self-esteem. In contrast, for boys, although two clusters reported above the clinical cut-off on all four indicators, only the cluster with exceedingly high scores on shape and weight concerns reported high emotion dysregulation and depression, and extremely low self-esteem. Furthermore, significantly more girls and boys in the most problematic DE clusters reported ≥2 "yes" responses on the SCOFF questionnaire (as opposed to ≤1 response), indicating clear signs of DE and severe psychological difficulties. We suspect that the various problematic DE patterns will require different paths back to a healthy diet. However, more research is needed to determine the developmental trajectories of these DE patterns and ensure more precise clinical cut-off scores, especially for boys. Comprehensive understanding

  8. Comorbidity of PTSD, Major Depression, and Substance Use Disorder Among Adolescent Victims of the Spring 2011 Tornadoes in Alabama and Joplin, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zachary W; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Sumner, Jennifer A; McCauley, Jenna L; Cohen, Joseph R; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to estimate the prevalence of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive episode (MDE), and substance use disorder (SUD); and (2) to identify risk factors for patterns of comorbidity among adolescents affected by disasters. A population-based sample of 2,000 adolescents (51% female; 71% Caucasian, 26% African American) aged 12 to 17 years (M = 14.5, SD = 1.7) and their parents was recruited from communities affected by the spring 2011 tornadoes in Alabama and Joplin, Missouri. Participants completed structured telephone interviews assessing demographic characteristics, impact of disaster, prior trauma history, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive episode (MDE), and substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms. Prevalence estimates were calculated for PTSD + MDE, PTSD + SUD, MDE + SUD, and PTSD + MDE + SUD. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for each comorbidity profile. Overall prevalence since the tornado was 3.7% for PTSD + MDE, 1.1% for PTSD + SUD, 1.0% for MDE + SUD, and 0.7% for PTSD + MDE + SUD. Girls were significantly more likely than boys to meet criteria for PTSD + MDE and MDE + SUD (ps < .05). Female gender, exposure to prior traumatic events, and persistent loss of services were significant risk factors for patterns of comorbidity. Parental injury was associated with elevated risk for PTSD + MDE. Adolescents should be evaluated for comorbid problems, including SUD, following disasters so that appropriate referrals to evidence-based treatments can be made. Results suggest that screening procedures to identify adolescents at risk for comorbid disorders should assess demographic characteristics (gender), impact of the disaster on the family, and adolescents' prior history of stressful events.

  9. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of antidepressants, psychological interventions, and their combination for depressive disorder in children and adolescents: protocol for a network meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyu; Cipriani, Andrea; Zhang, Yuqing; Cuijpers, Pim; Hetrick, Sarah E; Weisz, John R; Pu, Juncai; Giovane, Cinzia Del; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Barth, Jürgen; Coghill, David; Leucht, Stefan; Yang, Lining; Ravindran, Arun V; Xie, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Depressive disorder is common in children and adolescents, with important consequences and serious impairments in terms of personal and social functioning. While both pharmacological and psychological interventions have been shown to be effective, there is still uncertainty about the balance between these and what treatment strategy should be preferred in clinical practice. Therefore, we aim to compare and rank in a network meta-analysis (NMA) the commonly used psychological, pharmacological and combined interventions for depressive disorder in children and adolescents. Methods and analysis We will update the literature search of two previous NMAs for the identification of trials of antidepressant and psychotherapy alone for depressive disorder in children and adolescents. For identification of trials of combination interventions, seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LiLACS) will be searched from date of inception. We will also search ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and check relevant reports on the US Food and Drug Administration website for unpublished data. Building on our previous findings in the field, we will include any commonly prescribed oral antidepressants and any manualised or structured psychotherapies, as well as their combinations. Randomised controlled trials assessing any active intervention against active comparator or pill placebo/psychological controls in acute treatment for depressive disorder in children and adolescents will be included. The primary outcomes will be efficacy (mean change in depressive symptoms), and acceptability of treatment (dropout rate due to any cause). The secondary outcomes will be remission rate, tolerability of treatment (dropouts for adverse events), as well as suicide-related outcomes (suicidal behaviour or ideation). We will perform Bayesian NMAs for all relative outcome

  10. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of antidepressants, psychological interventions, and their combination for depressive disorder in children and adolescents: protocol for a network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyu; Cipriani, Andrea; Zhang, Yuqing; Cuijpers, Pim; Hetrick, Sarah E; Weisz, John R; Pu, Juncai; Giovane, Cinzia Del; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Barth, Jürgen; Coghill, David; Leucht, Stefan; Yang, Lining; Ravindran, Arun V; Xie, Peng

    2017-08-11

    Depressive disorder is common in children and adolescents, with important consequences and serious impairments in terms of personal and social functioning. While both pharmacological and psychological interventions have been shown to be effective, there is still uncertainty about the balance between these and what treatment strategy should be preferred in clinical practice. Therefore, we aim to compare and rank in a network meta-analysis (NMA) the commonly used psychological, pharmacological and combined interventions for depressive disorder in children and adolescents. We will update the literature search of two previous NMAs for the identification of trials of antidepressant and psychotherapy alone for depressive disorder in children and adolescents. For identification of trials of combination interventions, seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LiLACS) will be searched from date of inception. We will also search ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and check relevant reports on the US Food and Drug Administration website for unpublished data. Building on our previous findings in the field, we will include any commonly prescribed oral antidepressants and any manualised or structured psychotherapies, as well as their combinations. Randomised controlled trials assessing any active intervention against active comparator or pill placebo/psychological controls in acute treatment for depressive disorder in children and adolescents will be included. The primary outcomes will be efficacy (mean change in depressive symptoms), and acceptability of treatment (dropout rate due to any cause). The secondary outcomes will be remission rate, tolerability of treatment (dropouts for adverse events), as well as suicide-related outcomes (suicidal behaviour or ideation). We will perform Bayesian NMAs for all relative outcome measures. Subgroup analyses and

  11. Depressive and bipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2005-01-01

    of the patients (40-80%) had erroneous views as to the effect of antidepressants. Older patients (over 40 years of age) consistently had a more negative view of the doctor-patient relationship, more erroneous ideas concerning the effect of antidepressants and a more negative view of antidepressants in general....... Moreover, their partners agreed on these negative views. Women had a more negative view of the doctor-patient relationship than men, and patients with a depressive disorder had a more negative view of antidepressants than patients with bipolar disorder. The number of psychiatric hospitalizations......BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that attitudes and beliefs are important in predicting adherence to treatment and medication in depressive and bipolar disorders. However, these attitudes have received little study in patients whose disorders were sufficiently severe to require...

  12. Bipolar disorder in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippis, Melissa; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2013-08-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious psychiatric condition that may have onset in childhood. It is important for physicians to recognize the symptoms of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents in order to accurately diagnose this illness early in its course. Evidence regarding the efficacy of various treatments is necessary to guide the management of bipolar disorder in youth. For example, several medications commonly used for adults with bipolar disorder have not shown efficacy for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. This article reviews the prevalence, diagnosis, course, and treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents and provides physicians with information that will aid in diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Examining Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory as a Risk Factor for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Adhip; Rice, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying risk factors for adolescent depression is an important research aim. Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a feature of adolescent depression and a candidate cognitive risk factor for future depression. However, no study has ascertained whether OGM predicts the onset of adolescent depressive disorder. OGM was…

  14. The role of the mother-child relationship for anxiety disorders and depression: results from a prospective-longitudinal study in adolescents and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselmann, Eva; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to examine whether (a) low child valence (emotional connectedness) within the mother-child relationship increases the risk for offspring depression, (b) low child potency (individual autonomy) increases the risk for offspring anxiety, and (c) maternal psychopathology pronounces these associations. We used data from a prospective-longitudinal study of adolescents (aged 14-17 at baseline) and their mothers (N = 1,015 mother-child dyads). Anxiety disorders and depression were assessed repeatedly over 10 years in adolescents (T0, T1, T2, T3) and their mothers (T1, T3) using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Valence and potency were assessed in mothers (T1) with the Subjective Family Image Questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression were used to estimate associations between low child valence/potency and offspring psychopathology (cumulated lifetime incidences; adjusted for sex and age). In separate models (low valence or low potency as predictor), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.26 per SD), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety (OR = 1.24) and depression (OR = 1.24). In multiple models (low valence and low potency as predictors), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.19), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety only (OR = 1.22). Low child potency interacted with maternal anxiety on predicting offspring depression (OR = 1.49), i.e. low child potency predicted offspring depression only in the presence of maternal anxiety (OR = 1.33). These findings suggest that low child valence increases the risk for offspring depression, while low child potency increases the risk for offspring anxiety and depression and interacts with maternal psychopathology on predicting offspring depression.

  15. Association between Anger Rumination and Autism Symptom Severity, Depression Symptoms, Aggression, and General Dysregulation in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shivani; Day, Taylor N.; Jones, Neil; Mazefsky, Carla A.

    2017-01-01

    Rumination has a large direct effect on psychopathology but has received relatively little attention in autism spectrum disorder despite the propensity to perseverate in this population. This study provided initial evidence that adolescents with autism spectrum disorder self-report more anger-focused rumination than typically developing controls,…

  16. A technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission tomography study in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutus, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erciyes University School of Medicine, Kayseri (Turkey); Kibar, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cukurova University School of Medicine, Kayseri (Turkey); Sofuoglu, S.; Basturk, M.; Goenuel, A.S. [Department of Psychiatry, Erciyes University School of Medicine, Kayseri (Turkey)

    1998-06-01

    We have not encountered any brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) study performed in adolescent depressed patients in the literature. Therefore, we used technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) brain SPET in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) to examine the possible changes in cerebral perfusion and the possible association between perfusion indices and clinical variables. Fourteen adolescent out-patients (nine females, five males; mean{+-}SD age: 13.11{+-}1.43 years; range: 11-15 years) fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for MDD and 11 age-matched healthy control subjects (six females, five males; mean{+-}SD age: 13.80{+-}1.60 years; range: 12-15 years) were included in the study. {sup 99}Tc-HMPAO brain SPET was performed twice in the patient group and once in the control group. The first SPET investigation was performed under non-medicated conditions and the second was performed after depressive symptoms had subsided. A relative perfusion index (PI) was calculated as the ratio of regional cortical activity to the whole brain activity. We found significant differences between the PI values of the untreated depressed patients and those of the controls, indicating relatively reduced perfusion in the left anterofrontal and left temporal cortical areas. No significant differences in regional PI values were found between the remitted depressed patients and the controls. Our study suggests that adolescent patients with MDD may have regional cerebral blood flow deficits in frontal regions and a greater anterofrontal right-left perfusion asymmetry compared with normal subjects. The fact that these abnormalities in perfusion indices have a trend toward normal values with symptomatic improvement suggests that they may be state-dependent markers for adolescent MDD. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 37 refs.

  17. A technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission tomography study in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutus, A.; Kibar, M.; Sofuoglu, S.; Basturk, M.; Goenuel, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    We have not encountered any brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) study performed in adolescent depressed patients in the literature. Therefore, we used technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) brain SPET in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) to examine the possible changes in cerebral perfusion and the possible association between perfusion indices and clinical variables. Fourteen adolescent out-patients (nine females, five males; mean±SD age: 13.11±1.43 years; range: 11-15 years) fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for MDD and 11 age-matched healthy control subjects (six females, five males; mean±SD age: 13.80±1.60 years; range: 12-15 years) were included in the study. 99 Tc-HMPAO brain SPET was performed twice in the patient group and once in the control group. The first SPET investigation was performed under non-medicated conditions and the second was performed after depressive symptoms had subsided. A relative perfusion index (PI) was calculated as the ratio of regional cortical activity to the whole brain activity. We found significant differences between the PI values of the untreated depressed patients and those of the controls, indicating relatively reduced perfusion in the left anterofrontal and left temporal cortical areas. No significant differences in regional PI values were found between the remitted depressed patients and the controls. Our study suggests that adolescent patients with MDD may have regional cerebral blood flow deficits in frontal regions and a greater anterofrontal right-left perfusion asymmetry compared with normal subjects. The fact that these abnormalities in perfusion indices have a trend toward normal values with symptomatic improvement suggests that they may be state-dependent markers for adolescent MDD. (orig.)

  18. Traumatic severity and trait resilience as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhua Ying

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the associations between trauma severity, trait resilience, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depressive symptoms among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake, China. METHODS: 788 participants were randomly selected from secondary schools in the counties of Wenchuan and Maoxian, the two areas most severely affected by the earthquake. Participants completed four main questionnaires including the Child PTSD Symptom Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children, the Connor and Davidson's Resilience Scale, and the Severity of Exposure to Earthquake Scale. RESULTS: After adjusting for the effect of age and gender, four aspects of trauma severity (i.e., direct exposure, indirect exposure, worry about others, and house damage were positively associated with the severity of PTSD and depressive symptoms, whereas trait resilience was negatively associated with PTSD and depressive symptoms and moderated the relationship between subjective experience (i.e., worry about others and PTSD and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Several aspects (i.e., direct exposure, indirect exposure, worry about others, and house damage of earthquake experiences may be important risk factors for the development and maintenance of PTSD and depression. Additionally, trait resilience exhibits the beneficial impact on PTSD and depressive symptoms and buffers the effect of subjective experience (i.e., worry about others on PTSD and depressive symptoms.

  19. The short-term safety and efficacy of fluoxetine in depressed adolescents with alcohol and cannabis use disorders: a pilot randomized placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingler Jacqui

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine whether fluoxetine was superior to placebo in the acute amelioration of depressive symptomatology in adolescents with depressive illness and a comorbid substance use disorder. Methods Eligible subjects ages 12–17 years with either a current major depressive disorder (MDD or a depressive disorder that were also suffering from a comorbid substance-related disorder were randomized to receive either fluoxetine or placebo in this single site, 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The primary outcome analysis was a random effects mixed model for repeated measurements of Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R scores compared between treatment groups across time. Results An interim analysis was performed after 34 patients were randomized. Based on the results of a futility analysis, study enrollment was halted. Twenty-nine males and 5 females were randomized to receive fluoxetine (n = 18 or placebo (n = 16. Their mean age was 16.5 (1.1 years. Overall, patients who received fluoxetine and placebo had a reduction in CDRS-R scores. However, there was no significant difference in mean change in CDRS-R total score in those subjects treated with fluoxetine and those who received placebo (treatment difference = 0.19, S.E. = 0.58, F = 0.14, p = .74. Furthermore, there was not a significant difference in rates of positive urine drug toxicology results between treatment groups at any post-randomization visit (F = 0.22, df = 1, p = 0.65. The main limitation of this study is its modest sample size and resulting low statistical power. Other significant limitations to this study include, but are not limited to, the brevity of the trial, high placebo response rate, limited dose range of fluoxetine, and the inclusion of youth who met criteria for depressive disorders other than MDD. Conclusion Fluoxetine was not superior to placebo in alleviating depressive symptoms or in decreasing

  20. Disordered eating among Swedish adolescents : Associations with emotion dysregulation, depression and self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Erika

    2017-01-01

    The path to an eating disorder (ED) always leads through a borderland, which, in this thesis, is referred to as disordered eating (DE) (Neumark-Sztainer, Wall, Eisenberg,Story, & Hannan, 2006; Waaddegaard, Thoning, & Petersson, 2003). In this borderland, people tend to make unhealthy eating choices, such as greatly reducing their food intake, self-inducing vomiting, or engaging in binge eating, but not to the extent that they would receive an ED diagnosis. Nevertheless, DE can have a ...

  1. Substance Use and the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Vitiello, Benedetto; Ryan, Neal; Birmaher, Boris; Mayes, Taryn; Onorato, Matthew; Zelazny, Jamie; Brent, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Despite the known association between substance use disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD) among adolescents, little is known regarding substance use among adolescents with MDD. Method: Youths with MDD who had not improved after an adequate selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor trial (N = 334) were enrolled in the Treatment of…

  2. Prior Interpersonal Violence Exposure and Experiences During and After a Disaster as Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Among Adolescent Victims of the Spring 2011 Tornadoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Heidi; Zuromski, Kelly L; Galea, Sandro; Price, Matthew; Gilmore, Amanda K; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Ruggiero, Kenneth

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the current report was to examine prior history of exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV), as compared with prior accident or prior disaster exposure, experiences during and after a disaster, and demographic variables as predictors of past month posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression severity among adolescents exposed to the tornadoes in Alabama and Missouri. IPV exposure has been consistently identified as a unique category of potentially traumatic events (PTE) that significantly increases risk for development of PTSD and other difficulties relative to other event types among adolescents. A population-based sample of adolescents and caregivers ( N = 2,000) were recruited randomly from tornado-affected communities in Alabama and Joplin, Missouri. Participants completed structured telephone interviews on an average of 8.8 months posttornado. Prior history of IPV was prevalent (36.5%), as was reported history of accidents (25.9%) and prior disaster exposure (26.9%). Negative binomial regression analyses with PTSD and depression symptom counts for past month as outcome variables indicated that history of predisaster IPV was most robustly related to PTSD and depression symptoms, such that those with a history of IPV endorsed over 3 times the number of symptoms than those without IPV history. Final model statistics indicated that female gender, physical injury to caregiver, concern about others' safety, prior disaster, prior accident, and prior IPV exposure were also related to PTSD. Predictors of depression symptoms were similar with the exception that concern about others' safety was not a predictor and age was a predictor in the final model. It is important to evaluate potential additive effects of IPV history in addition to recent disaster exposure variables and to consider such history when developing interventions aimed to reduce or prevent symptoms of PTSD and depression among adolescents recently exposed to disaster.

  3. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Adolescent Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Hwallip; Kim, Daeho; Park, Yong Chon

    2008-01-01

    While cognitive behavior therapy is considered to be the first-line therapy for adolescent depression, there are limited data on whether other psychotherapeutic techniques are also effective in treating adolescents with depression. This report suggests the potential application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for treatment of depressive disorder related, not to trauma, but to stressful life events. At present, EMDR has only been empirically validated for only trauma-re...

  4. Adolescents with current major depressive disorder show dissimilar patterns of age-related differences in ACC and thalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy C. Hagan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The depressed adolescent brain shows dissimilar age-related and symptom-sensitive patterns of GMV differences compared with controls. The thalamus and ACC may comprise neural markers for detecting these effects in youth. Further investigations therefore need to take both age and level of current symptoms into account when disaggregating antecedent neural vulnerabilities for MDD from the effects of MDD on the developing brain.

  5. Quantitative EEG and neurofeedback in children and adolescents: anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, comorbid addiction and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Deborah R; Thatcher, Robert W; Lubar, Joel

    2014-07-01

    This article explores the science surrounding neurofeedback. Both surface neurofeedback (using 2-4 electrodes) and newer interventions, such as real-time z-score neurofeedback (electroencephalogram [EEG] biofeedback) and low-resolution electromagnetic tomography neurofeedback, are reviewed. The limited literature on neurofeedback research in children and adolescents is discussed regarding treatment of anxiety, mood, addiction (with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), and traumatic brain injury. Future potential applications, the use of quantitative EEG for determining which patients will be responsive to medications, the role of randomized controlled studies in neurofeedback research, and sensible clinical guidelines are considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate…

  7. [Dysfunctional resting-state connectivity of default mode network in adolescent patients with first-episode drug-naive major depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S Y; Zhu, Y; Wang, Y L; Lü, P P; Zuo, W B; Li, F Y

    2017-12-05

    Objective: To study resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of default mode network (DMN) in adolescent patients with first-episode drug-naive major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: We enrolled thirty first-episode and drug-naive adolescent MDD patients and twenty-nine adolescent healthy control (HC) participants in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. There were no differences in age, sex, and education between the MDD and HC group. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) was performed. We selected posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) of DMN as regions of interests (ROI). The differences of these regions from the whole brain functional connectivity were analyzed. The relations between abnormalities in FCs of DMN and clinical variables were further investigated. Results: Compared to the HCs, the MDD patients had congruently reduced FCs between the PCC and cerebellum, temporal cortices, occipital cortices, fusiform, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. MPFC not only had reduced FCs with fusiform, temporal cortices, anterior cingulate cortex, but also had enhanced FCs with occipital cortices, parietal cortices, and precentral gyrus. In addition, the increased FC between the right MPFC and right precentral gyrus was positive correlated with Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) scores ( r =0.38, P =0.04). The reduced FC between the left middle temporal gyrus and left PCC as well as the enhanced FC between the right middle cingulum and right MPFC were positive correlated with the duration of depression since onset ( r =0.39, P =0.03; r =0.38, P =0.04). Conclusions: These findings show dysfunctional DMN connectivity of adolescent MDD patients. Neurodevelopmental abnormalities in DMN may present in adolescent MDD.

  8. The stress-reward-mentalizing model of depression: An integrative developmental cascade approach to child and adolescent depressive disorder based on the research domain criteria (RDoC) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Patrick; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-10-09

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) propose a much-needed change in approach to the study of vulnerability factors implicated in mental disorders, shifting away from a categorical, disease-oriented model to a dimensional approach that focuses on underlying systems implicated in psychopathology. In this paper we illustrate this approach with a focus on the emergence of depression in childhood and adolescence. Based on evolutionary biological and developmental psychopathology considerations, we present an integrative developmental cascade model of depression that essentially suggests that depression emerges out of a three-pronged series of interacting impairments in the domains of stress regulation, reward, and mentalizing. We discuss the relation of these impairments to the five domains proposed by RDoC. We also focus on how this model may explain in large part the marked comorbidity of depression with other psychiatric disorders, as well as with functional somatic and somatic disorders. Limitations of this theoretical approach are discussed, as well as implications for the development, evaluation, and dissemination of interventions aimed at preventing or treating depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adolescent depression, family psychopathology and parent/child relations: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Séguin, Monique; Manion, Ian; Cloutier, Paula; McEvoy, Lisa; Cappelli, Mario

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate family psychopathology and relationships between family members. Three groups of adolescents were interviewed: 1) currently depressed adolescents who have at least one parent who had/or is still experiencing a mood disorder, 2) currently depressed adolescents whose parents were never diagnosed with a mood disorder, 3) never-depressed control adolescents. Personal interview data was obtained from the proband, their parent(s) and one sibling. Findi...

  10. Depressive disorder due to craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, S A; Taylor, D G; Hirsch, S R

    1995-01-01

    Secondary causes of depression are legion, and must always be considered in patients presenting with features atypical of primary idiopathic depressive disorder. The case described is that of a middle-aged woman presenting initially with a major depressive disorder who was subsequently found to have a craniopharyngioma, leading to a revised diagnosis of mood disorder due to the tumour. Some features of the presentation might have led to earlier diagnosis had their localizing significance been recognized. Diencephalic lesions should always be considered in patients presenting with the hypersomnic-hyperphagic variant of depressive disorder. Images Figure 1 PMID:8544149

  11. Subjective and objective binge eating in relation to eating disorder symptomatology, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem among treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Ciao, Anna C; Accurso, Erin C; Pisetsky, Emily M; Peterson, Carol B; Byrne, Catherine E; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the importance of the distinction between objective (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) among 80 treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa. We explored relationships among OBEs, SBEs, eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem using two approaches. Group comparisons showed that OBE and SBE groups did not differ on ED symptoms or self-esteem; however, the SBE group had significantly greater depression. Examining continuous variables, OBEs (not SBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in global ED pathology, vomiting, and self-esteem. SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in restraint and depression. Both OBEs and SBEs accounted for significant unique variance in eating concern; neither accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, laxative use, diuretic use, or driven exercise. Loss of control, rather than amount of food, may be most important in defining binge eating. Additionally, OBEs may indicate broader ED pathology, while SBEs may indicate restrictive/depressive symptomatology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  12. Childhood antecedents of adolescent personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, D P; Cohen, P; Skodol, A; Bezirganian, S; Brook, J S

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the childhood antecedents of personality disorders that are diagnosed in adolescence. A randomly selected community sample of 641 youths was assessed initially in childhood and followed longitudinally over 10 years. Childhood behavior ratings were based on maternal report; diagnoses of adolescent personality disorders were based on data obtained from both maternal and youth informants. Four composite measures of childhood behavior problems were used: conduct problems, depressive symptoms, anxiety/fear, and immaturity. Adolescent personality disorders were considered present only if the disorders persisted over a 2-year period. For all analyses, personality disorders were grouped into the three clusters (A, B, and C) of DSM-III-R. Logistic regression analyses indicated that all four of the putative childhood antecedents were associated with greater odds of an adolescent personality disorder 10 years later. Childhood conduct problems remained an independent predictor of personality disorders in all three clusters, even when other childhood problems were included in the same regression model. Additionally, depressive symptoms emerged as an independent predictor of cluster A personality disorders in boys, while immaturity was an independent predictor of cluster B personality disorders in girls. No moderating effects of age at time of childhood assessment were found. These results support the view that personality disorders can be traced to childhood emotional and behavioral disturbances and suggest that these problems have both general and specific relationships to adolescent personality functioning.

  13. Diagnosis of depression among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haavet, Ole Rikard; Christensen, Kaj Aage Sparle; Sirpal, Manjit

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of the study is to improve general practitioners' diagnoses of adolescent depression. Major depression is ranked fourth in the worldwide disability impact. METHOD: Validation of 1) three key questions, 2) SCL-dep6, 3) SCL-10, 4) 9 other SCL questions and 5) WHO-5...... in a clinical study among adolescents. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) is to be used as the gold standard interview. The project is a GP multicenter study to be conducted in both Norway and Denmark. Inclusion criteria are age (14-16) and fluency in the Norwegian and Danish language...

  14. Obesity and depression in adolescence and beyond: reciprocal risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, N R; Iacono, W G; Legrand, L

    2014-07-01

    Obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD) are associated, but evidence about how they relate over time is conflicting. The goal of this study was to examine prospective associations between depression and obesity from early adolescence through early adulthood. Participants were drawn from a statewide, community-based, Minnesota sample. MDD and obesity with onsets by early adolescence (by age 14), late adolescence (between 14 and 20) and early adulthood (ages 20-24) were assessed via structured interview (depression) and study-measured height and weight. Cross-sectional results indicated that depression and obesity with onsets by early adolescence were concurrently associated, but the same was not true later in development. Prospective results indicated that depression by early adolescence predicted the onset of obesity (odds ratio (OR)=3.76, confidence interval =1.33-10.59) during late adolescence among female individuals. Obesity that developed during late adolescence predicted the onset of depression (OR=5.89, confidence interval=2.31-15.01) during early adulthood among female individuals. For girls, adolescence is a high-risk period for the development of this comorbidity, with the nature of the risk varying over the course of adolescence. Early adolescent-onset depression is associated with elevated risk of later onset obesity, and obesity, particularly in late adolescence, is associated with increased odds of later depression. Further investigation into the mechanisms of these effects and the reasons for the observed gender and developmental differences is needed. Prevention programs focused on early-onset cases of depression and adolescent-onset cases of obesity, particularly among female individuals, may help in reducing risk for this form of comorbidity.

  15. Major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in intermittent explosive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Gustavo C; Seger, Liliana; Grant, Jon E; Tavares, Hermano

    2018-04-01

    It is estimated that between 1.7 and 2.6 million people have had intermittent explosive disorder (IED) during their life in the United States alone. Co-occurring psychiatric disorders are very common in IED, being major depressive disorder arguably the most common. The objective of this study was to examine the clinical correlates of IED and depressive manifestations in 74 treatment-seeking subjects. After controlling for confounders, there were associations between major depressive disorder and severity of depressive symptoms, and (a) higher assault scores, (b) more severe hostile behavior and (c) worse social adjustment. Management of depressive symptoms may be an important for IED treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mood disorders in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Botter Maio Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification and treatment of mood disorders in children and adolescents has grown over the last decades. Major depression is one of the most common and debilitating disorders worldwide, imposing a massive burden to the youth population. Bipolar disorder is being increasingly recognized as having its roots early in life, and its presentation during childhood and adolescence has been submitted to extensive research. This review aims to highlight clinical aspects of the current knowledge on mood disorders in the pediatric population, presenting updated information on epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and management strategies. Limitations of available evidence and future directions of research in the field are also discussed.

  17. Affective disorders in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Burgić-Radmanović

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Affective disorders in childhood have been more intensively studied in the last three decades. They can be recognized among the children of all ages, but are more frequent among the older children. The main characteristics of mood disorders are similar among children, adolescents and adults, although development factors affect their clinical features. Development factors affect the manifestation of all symptoms. Two main criteria for these disorders in childhood are mood disorders, such as reduced or elevated mood and irritability. These symptoms may result in social or academic damage. Depression among children is a wide-spread, family and recurrent condition, which continues episodically in adulthood. Depression is frequently associated with other psychiatric disorders, increasing the risk of suicidal behaviour, misuse of psychoactive substances and behavioural disorders. Depression in childhood brings about worse psychosocial, academic and family functioning. Family, social and environmental factors have a significant role in affective disorders of children and young people.

  18. “Loser” or “Popular”?: Neural response to social status words in adolescents with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Silk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about social status are ubiquitous during adolescence, with information about social status often conveyed in text formats. Depressed adolescents may show alterations in the functioning of neural systems supporting processing of social status information. We examined whether depressed youth exhibited altered neural activation to social status words in temporal and prefrontal cortical regions thought to be involved in social cognitive processing, and whether this response was associated with development. Forty-nine adolescents (ages 10–18; 35 female, including 20 with major depressive disorder and 29 controls, were scanned while identifying the valence of words that connoted positive and negative social status. Results indicated that depressed youth showed reduced late activation to social status (vs neutral words in the superior temporal cortex (STC and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC; whereas healthy youth did not show any significant differences between word types. Depressed youth also showed reduced late activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and fusiform gyrus to negative (vs positive social status words; whereas healthy youth showed the opposite pattern. Finally, age was positively associated with MPFC activation to social status words. Findings suggest that hypoactivation in the “social cognitive brain network” might be implicated in altered interpersonal functioning in adolescent depression. Keywords: Depression, Adolescence, Social status, Social brain, Neuroimaging

  19. Subjective and Objective Binge Eating in Relation to Eating Disorder Symptomatology, Depressive Symptoms, and Self-Esteem Among Treatment-Seeking Adolescents with Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Ciao, Anna C.; Accurso, Erin C.; Pisetsky, Emily M.; Peterson, Carol B.; Byrne, Catherine E.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the importance of the distinction between objective (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) among 80 treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN). We explored relationships among OBEs, SBEs, eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem using two approaches. Group comparisons showed that OBE and SBE groups did not differ on ED symptoms or self-esteem; however, the SBE group had significantly greater depression. Examining continuous variables, OBEs (not SBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in global ED pathology, vomiting, and self-esteem. SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in restraint and depression. Both OBEs and SBEs accounted for significant unique variance in eating concern; neither accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, laxative use, diuretic use, or driven exercise. Loss of control, rather than amount of food, may be most important in defining binge eating. Additionally, OBEs may indicate broader ED pathology while SBEs may indicate restrictive/depressive symptomatology. PMID:24852114

  20. Adolescent depression, family psychopathology and parent/child relations: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguin, Monique; Manion, Ian; Cloutier, Paula; McEvoy, Lisa; Cappelli, Mario

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate family psychopathology and relationships between family members. Three groups of adolescents were interviewed: 1) currently depressed adolescents who have at least one parent who had/or is still experiencing a mood disorder, 2) currently depressed adolescents whose parents were never diagnosed with a mood disorder, 3) never-depressed control adolescents. Personal interview data was obtained from the proband, their parent(s) and one sibling. Findings suggest that parental psychopathology, parent-child relations and life events are all relevant factors in adolescent depression and should be considered in combination for assessment, prevention and intervention efforts.

  1. Eating Disorders in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to International Classification of Diseases by World Health Organization, eating disorders are behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances [1]. Eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, atypical bulimia nervosa, overeating associated with other psychological disturbances and vomiting associated with other psychological disturbances [1]. Maladaptive eating pattern and inadequate physical activity are seen in adolescents with eating disorders and obesity [2]. Those with comorbid eating disorder and obesity have a poorer prognosis and are at higher risk for future medical problems.

  2. Addictive Disorders in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Anh; Moukaddam, Nidal; Toledo, Alexander; Onigu-Otite, Edore

    2017-09-01

    Addictive disorders in youth represent a dynamic field characterized by shifting patterns of substance use and high rates of experimentation, while retaining the risky behaviors and negative outcomes associated with established drug classes. Youth/adolescents are also at the forefront of use of new technologies, and non-substance-related disorders are pertinent. These disorders present with similar pictures of impairment, and can be diagnosed following the same principles. An underlying mental disorder and the possibility of a dual diagnosis need to be assessed carefully, and optimal treatment includes psychosocial treatments with applicable pharmacologic management, the latter representing an expanding field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Autobiographical memory in depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuchowicz, Paulina; Jasionowska, Justyna; Gałecki, Piotr; Talarowska, Monika

    2017-08-21

    Contemporary research studies regarding autobiographical memory (AM) indicate that its deficits have a significant impact on the development of mental disorders. We find particularly many reports regarding the comorbidity of AM deficits and depressive disorders. The characteristic feature of AM in the people suffering from depressive disorders is the presence of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM), i.e. the reminiscences which contain a summary of many emotion-laden situations, yet without significant detail. This type of reminiscences is observed in the patients with depressive disorders and the ones susceptible to the disease but not experiencing presently an episode of depression, as well as the ones being in the phase of disease remission. In recent years, the interest in the significance of negative thinking processes, such as ruminations, as risk factors in the development of depression has been growing. It is emphasized that they are significantly associated with the occurrence of OGM. Research shows that people suffering from OGM and characterised by a rumination-based style of processing experience a greater number of depressive episodes. There are also research studies which confirm that the activities aimed at reducing the number of ruminations influence an improvement of the detail level of reminiscences. These data may serve as valuable therapeutic advice in depression disorders. The aim of the paper is to present results of contemporary research regarding mutual interrelations between autobiographical memory dysfunctions and the occurrence of symptoms of depression and its course.

  4. Psychiatric Disorders Associated with the Onset and Persistence of Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaider, Talia I.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cockell, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a prospective longitudinal study to investigate whether anxiety, depressive, personality, or substance abuse disorders increase risk for onset of bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED) during adolescence. Findings for 201 adolescents suggest that adolescents with chronic depressive symptoms may be at elevated risk for the…

  5. Evaluation of a spirituality informed e-mental health tool as an intervention for major depressive disorder in adolescents and young adults - a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickhi, Badri; Kania-Richmond, Ania; Moritz, Sabine; Cohen, Jordan; Paccagnan, Patricia; Dennis, Charlotte; Liu, Mingfu; Malhotra, Sonya; Steele, Patricia; Toews, John

    2015-12-24

    Depression in adolescents and young adults is a major mental health condition that requires attention. Research suggests that approaches that include spiritual concepts and are delivered through an online platform are a potentially beneficial approach to treating/managing depression in this population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an 8-week online spirituality informed e-mental health intervention (the LEAP Project) on depression severity, and secondary outcomes of spiritual well-being and self-concept, in adolescents and young adults with major depressive disorder of mild to moderate severity. A parallel group, randomized, waitlist controlled, assessor-blinded clinical pilot trial was conducted in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The sample of 62 participants with major depressive disorder (DSM-IV-TR) was defined by two age subgroups: adolescents (ages 13 to 18 years; n = 31) and young adults (ages 19 to 24 years; n = 31). Participants in each age subgroup were randomized into the study arm (intervention initiated upon enrolment) or the waitlist control arm (intervention initiated after an 8-week wait period). Comparisons were made between the study and waitlist control arms at week 8 (the point where study arm had completed the intervention and the waitlist control arm had not) and within each arm at four time points over 24-week follow-up period. At baseline, there was no statistical difference between study and waitlist participants for both age subgroups for all three outcomes of interest. After the intervention, depression severity was significantly reduced; comparison across arms at week 8 and over time within each arm and both age subgroups. Spiritual well-being changes were not significant, with the exception of an improvement over time for the younger participants in the study arm (p = 0.01 at week 16 and p = 0.0305 at week 24). Self-concept improved significantly for younger participants immediately after the

  6. Adolescent Depressed Mood and Parental Unhappiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasko, David S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A set of self-report scales on depression, parental happiness, intimacy, social support, self-esteem, and risk-taking behavior was administered to 455 adolescents to determine the role of depression with the other variables. Depressed adolescents were found to be less intimate with parents, felt less social support, and had lower self-esteem.…

  7. Preventing Adolescent Social Anxiety and Depression and Reducing Peer Victimization: Intervention Development and Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the…

  8. Cognitive Behavior Therapies (CBT) in Childhood and Adolescent Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgün Öngider

    2014-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to review efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) on childhood and adolescence in mood and anxiety disorders. Many researches have shown that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can be effective in the treatment of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents. Child and adolescent depression and anxiety are frequent disorders which may have a recurring and chronic course. PsycINFO, Medline and the Turkish P...

  9. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Considerations for Research in Adolescent Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent depression is a prevalent disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. Current treatment interventions do not target relevant pathophysiology and are frequently ineffective, thereby leading to a substantial burden for individuals, families, and society. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex undergoes extensive structural and functional changes. Recent work suggests that frontolimbic development in depressed adolescents is delayed or aberrant. The judicious application of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to the prefrontal cortex may present a promising opportunity for durable interventions in adolescent depression. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS applies a low-intensity, continuous current that alters cortical excitability. While this modality does not elicit action potentials, it is thought to manipulate neuronal activity and neuroplasticity. Specifically, tDCS may modulate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and effect changes through long-term potentiation or long-term depression-like mechanisms. This mini-review considers the neurobiological rationale for developing tDCS protocols in adolescent depression, reviews existing work in adult mood disorders, surveys the existing tDCS literature in adolescent populations, reviews safety studies, and discusses distinct ethical considerations in work with adolescents.

  10. Distinctions of bipolar disorder symptoms in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiene, Devika; Leskauskas, Darius; Markeviciūte, Aurelija; Klimavicius, Dalius; Adomaitiene, Virginija

    2008-01-01

    Bipolar disorder in adolescents is a serious mental illness with problematic diagnosis that adversely affects social, academic, emotional, and family functioning. The objective of this study was to analyze features of premorbid and clinical symptoms, comorbidity, and course of bipolar disorder in adolescence. Data for analysis were collected from all case histories (N=6) of 14-18-year-old patients, hospitalized with diagnosis of bipolar disorder in the Unit of Children's and Adolescents' Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Hospital of Kaunas University of Medicine, during the period from 2000 to 2005. Analysis of bipolar disorder course showed that five patients previously had been diagnosed with an episode of depression. The most frequent symptoms typical to bipolar disorder were disobedience and impulsive behavior, rapid changes of mood. The most common premorbid features were frequent changes of mood, being active in communication, hyperactive behavior. Adolescence-onset bipolar disorder was frequently comorbid with emotionally instable personality disorder, borderline type. Findings of the study confirm the notion that oppositional or impulsive behavior, rapid changes of mood without any reason, dysphoric mood and euphoric mood episodes with increased energy were cardinal symptoms of bipolar disorder with mania in adolescents. Most frequent premorbid features of these patients were quite similar to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder making differential diagnosis problematic.

  11. [Bipolar disorder in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Julie; Milhet, Vanessa; Consoli, Angèle; Cohen, David

    2014-04-01

    Juvenile mania is a concept widely developed but also highly debated since the 1990s. In the heart of this debate, Severe Mood Dysregulation (SMD) and "Temper Dysregulation disorder with Dysphoria" (recently integrated in DSM-5) showed their interest. Actually, the objective is to distinguish two clinical phenotypes in order to avoid confusion between (1) what would raise more of mood dysregulation with chronic manic like symptoms, and (2) bipolar disorder type I with episodic and acute manic episodes. Therapeutic stakes are major. In adolescents, even if DSM adult diagnostic criteria can be used and bipolar disorder type I clearly established, differential diagnostic at onset between acute manic episode and schizophrenia onset remain sometimes difficult to assess. Furthermore, it is crucial to better assess outcome of these adolescents, in terms of morbidity and potential prognosis factors, knowing that a younger age at onset is associated with a poorer outcome according to several adult studies. Therapeutic implications could then be drawn.

  12. Cognitive Measures of Adolescent Depression: Unique or Unitary Constructs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Silva, Susan G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Tonev, Simon; Hoyle, Rick H.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Reinecke, Mark A.; Curry, John F.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of several self-report questionnaires assessing depression-relevant cognitions frequently employed in clinical research was examined in a sample of 390 adolescents (M age =14.54; 216 girls; 74% Caucasian) with current major depressive disorder enrolled in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study. A four-factor solution resulted, accounting for 65% of the total variance. The factors were labeled (a) Cognitive Distortions and Maladaptive Beliefs, (b) Cognitive Avoidance, (c) Positive Outlook, and (d) Solution-Focused Thinking. Internal consistencies for the factor-based composite scores were .83, .85, .84, and .82, respectively. Girls endorsed more negative cognitions than boys on three of the four factors. Maladaptive cognitions were positively related to severity of depression and predicted treatment response. Taken together, findings indicated that there are four distinct domains of cognitions that are present among adolescents with depression that are tapped by several widely used self-report measures of cognitions. PMID:20183663

  13. Vision in depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubl, E.; Tebartz Van Elst, L.; Ebert, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Reduced dopaminergic transmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression. Furthermore, dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in the physiology of visual contrast sensitivity (CS). To test the hypothesis that altered dopaminergic neurotransmissi...

  14. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishola Rawatlal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may increase risk for depressive symptoms or may reduce such risk. Adolescent-parent attachment, adolescent-perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates of depressive symptom presentation within this age group. Methods. Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female from each family. Adolescents were in Grade 7 (n=175 or Grade 10 (n=31. Data were collected through home interviews. The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI, Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR, Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment.  Results. Two models were examined: one with adolescent report of depressive symptoms as the outcome and a second with parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms as the outcome. The model predicting adolescent-reported depressive symptoms was significant with older age, higher levels of avoidant attachment, and higher levels of youth-reported dysfunctional family interaction associated with more depressive symptomatology. In the model predicting parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms only higher levels of dysfunctional family interaction, as reported by the parent, were associated with higher levels of internalising symptoms. Conclusion. Positive family communication, cohesion and support predictive of a secure parent-adolescent attachment relationship reduced the risk of a depressive symptom outcome. Secure adolescents were able to regulate their emotions, knowing that they could seek out secure base attachment relations

  15. Are Adolescent Girls More Depressive than Adolescent Boys in Turkey?

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice Odacı

    2011-01-01

    Depression is a serious mental health problem that affects people of all ages, including children and adolescents. Studies showed that female gender is one of the risk factors may influence the development of depression in adolescents. However, some of the studies from Turkey suggested that gender does not lead to any significant difference in the youth depression level. Therefore, the presented study investigated whether girls differ from boys in respect of depression. T...

  16. Predictors of Suicide Attempts in Clinically Depressed Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt groups and we examined significant predictors of suicide attempts. Gender differences in suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were also analyzed. Among 106 depressed participants, 50 (47.2%) adolescents were classified in the suicide attempt group. Generally, the suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt group shared similar clinical characteristics. The suicide attempt group had more females, more major depressive disorder diagnoses, more depressive episodes, and higher suicidal ideation than the non-suicide attempt group. Suicidal ideation was the only significant predictor of suicidal attempt, regardless of gender. Higher suicidal ideation frequency scores and more non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors were shown in the female suicide attempt group than the male suicide attempt group. It is recommended that suicidal ideation be assessed regularly and managed rigorously to decrease suicide risks in depressive adolescents. PMID:27776392

  17. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwallip; Kim, Daeho; Park, Yong Chon

    2008-03-01

    While cognitive behavior therapy is considered to be the first-line therapy for adolescent depression, there are limited data on whether other psychotherapeutic techniques are also effective in treating adolescents with depression. This report suggests the potential application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for treatment of depressive disorder related, not to trauma, but to stressful life events. At present, EMDR has only been empirically validated for only trauma-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Two teenagers with major depressive disorder (MDD) underwent three and seven sessions of EMDR aimed at memories of stressful life events. After treatment, their depressive symptoms decreased to the level of full remission, and the therapeutic gains were maintained after two and three months of follow up. The effectiveness of EMDR for depression is explained by the model of adaptive information processing. Given the powerful effects observed within a brief period of time, the authors suggest that further investigation of EMDR for depressive disorders is warranted.

  18. Emerging from Depression: Treatment of Adolescent Depression Using the Major Treatment Models of Adult Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kathleen M.

    Noting that adolescents who commit suicide are often clinically depressed, this paper examines various approaches in the treatment of depression. Major treatment models of adult depression, which can be directly applied to the treatment of the depressed adolescent, are described. Major treatment models and selected research studies are reviewed in…

  19. Psychodynamic treatment of depressed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemporad, J R

    1988-09-01

    Depression may be conceptualized as the response to the loss of meaning or satisfaction sufficient to affect the individual's optimal view of the self. At each stage of the life cycle, the failure to achieve developmental tasks threatens the concept of the self, producing a phase-specific vulnerability to depression. Adolescence presents particular stresses by forcing the youngster to relinquish the relative familiarity and security of a childhood psychosocial role and create a sense of self independent of family, without childhood denial mechanisms, and of value to a new peer culture. Most individuals experience a sense of loss, confusion, apprehension, and dysphoria during this difficult period of transition. Many who seek psychotherapy require only a secure holding environment that will support their self-esteem as they create new avenues of worth and satisfaction. A few, however, are so hampered by psychosocial limitations that they cannot master this developmental passage without more extensive therapeutic assistance.

  20. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF DEPRESSION IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Depressive disorders in adolescents are a major cause of concern. As these disorders are subject to high recurrences in adulthood. The risk factors have to be identified and prompt treatment should be initiated. 15% have depression and 56% have depressive symptoms. The causes ranged from financ ial, broken homes, or death in the family, chronic illness. Symptoms of depression were unhappiness, restlessness, agitation, anger, dis interest in a pleasurable job. In the schools failure, in academics, in 47% girls lead to depression, partiality, abuse , was also contributing factors. Several studies, in particular, a study from Delhi showed depression to be the 3rd leading cause of death. Our study showed 6% , 12% had problems at home, 73% had clear idea about future plans. The problem should be identified and a team of psychiatrics, psychologists, pediatrician should bring down the problem.

  1. Depression during gestation in adolescent mothers interferes with neonatal neurobehavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carvalho de Moraes Barros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the neurobehavior of neonates born to adolescent mothers with and without depression during gestation. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included healthy term neonates born to adolescent mothers with untreated depression during gestation, without exposure to legal or illicit drugs, and compared them with infants born to adolescent mothers without psychiatric disorders. Maternal psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1 and neonatal neurobehavior by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS at 24 to 72 hours of life. Neurobehavioral outcomes were analyzed by ANOVA adjusted for confounders. Results: 37 infants born to mothers with depression during gestation were compared to 332 infants born to mothers without psychiatric disorders. Infants of mothers with depression had smaller head circumferences. Significant interactions of maternal depression and male gender, gestational age > 40 weeks, regional anesthesia during delivery, vaginal delivery, and infant head circumference ≥ 34 cm were found. Worse performance was noted in the following neonatal neurobehavioral parameters: arousal, excitability, lethargy, hypotonicity, and signs of stress and abstinence. Conclusion: Infants born to adolescent mothers with depression exhibit some behavioral changes in the first days of life. These changes are associated with infant sex, gestational age, type of anesthesia, mode of delivery, and head circumference.

  2. Depression and Anxiety Prevention Based on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for At-Risk Adolescents: A Meta-Analytic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sanne P. A. Rasing; Sanne P. A. Rasing; Daan H. M. Creemers; Daan H. M. Creemers; Jan M. A. M. Janssens; Ron H. J. Scholte; Ron H. J. Scholte

    2017-01-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders during adolescence. During this life phase, the incidence of these clinical disorders rises dramatically, and even more adolescents suffer from symptoms of depression or anxiety that are just below the clinical threshold. Both clinical and subclinical levels of depression or anxiety symptoms are related to decreased functioning in various areas, such as social and academic functioning. Prevention of depression and anx...

  3. Eating disorder not otherwise specified in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Kamryn T; Celio Doyle, Angela; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B; le Grange, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    To examine the frequency, type, and clinical severity of eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in adolescents seeking treatment through an outpatient eating disorders service. Two hundred eighty-one consecutive referrals to an eating disorders program were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and self-report measures of depression and self-esteem. The majority of adolescents presented with EDNOS (59.1%; n = 166) relative to anorexia nervosa (AN; 20.3%; n = 57) and bulimia nervosa (BN; 20.6%; n = 58). Most EDNOS youths could be described as subthreshold AN (SAN; 27.7%; n = 46), subthreshold BN (SBN; 19.9%; n = 33), EDNOS purging (27.7%; n = 46), or EDNOS bingeing (6.0%; n = 10); yet 31 (18.7%) could not be categorized as such (EDNOS "other"). Overall differences in eating disorder pathology, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem emerged between the EDNOS types, wherein adolescents with EDNOS bulimic variants (SBN, EDNOS purging, and EDNOS bingeing) had more pathology than youths with SAN or EDNOS "other." There were no differences in these variables between AN and SAN; in contrast, compared with BN, youths with EDNOS bulimic variants reported lower EDE scores and higher self-esteem, although there were no between-group differences in depression. As in adults with eating disorders, EDNOS predominates and is heterogeneous with regard to eating disorder pathology and associated features in an adolescent clinical sample. Lack of differences between AN and SAN suggests that the strict criteria for AN could be relaxed; differences between BN and EDNOS bulimic variants do not support their combination.

  4. Epidemiology of major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegenga, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious health problem and will be the second leading cause of burden of disease worldwide by 2030. To be able to prevent MDD, insight into risk factors for the onset of MDD is of clear importance. On the other hand, if onset of MDD has occurred, one may argue

  5. Depression and auto-aggressiveness in adolescents in Zagreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripković, Mara; Vuković, Iris Sarajlić; Frančišković, Tanja; Pisk, Sandra Vuk; Krnić, Silvana

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the frequency of depression among the general population of adolescents who were high school students in the city of Zagreb. As depression is associated with increased suicidal risk we wanted to check to what extent depression, as an emotional problem among youth, is associated with auto-aggression in the general population of adolescents. The study was conducted on a sample of high school students in Zagreb and it included 701 students of both genders aged from 14-19 years of age. To test the depression a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered for youth between 11-18 years of age (Youth Self Report for ages 11-18). To test auto-aggression a Scale of Auto-destructiveness (SAD) was used. Results obtained by this study show that about 20.7% of high school students have mild and borderline depressive disorders while moderate or severe depression shows about 5% of them, whereby depression is statistically significant among girls who, on average, report more symptoms of depression. It has also been proven a significant impact of depression levels (F (2,423)=35.860, p<0.001) on auto-aggression in subjects of both genders. In both genders, moderately depressed show more auto destructiveness than those without depression symptoms (p<0.01). In the group of heavily depressed (n=30), significantly higher self-destructiveness is shown by girls (p<0.01). The data suggest the importance of early recognition, understanding and treatment of depressive symptoms in adolescents in order to reduce the risk of subsequent chronic psychosocial damage.

  6. Psychosocial Interventions in Depressive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Basogul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, improvements in effective psychosocial interventions in the prevention and treatment of depression are remarkable. The World Health Organization stated that major depression affects children, adults and the elderly and is the leading cause of approximately 12% of all disabilities around the World. Medical expenses, loss of workforce, suicide risk, the risk of relapse or recurrence are taken into account, depression is an issue that needs to be handled with utmost care for health care workers especially psychiatric nurses. The purpose of this literature review is to examine psychosocial interventions and effectiveness of these interventions for depressive disorders shows a gradual increase in prevalence in worlwide. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 1-15

  7. Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…

  8. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Panic Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Panic Disorder In Children And Adolescents No. 50; Updated July 2013 Panic disorder is a common and treatable disorder. Children and adolescents with panic disorder have unexpected and repeated periods ...

  10. Eating disorder pathology in elite adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Hermann-Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Diehl, Katharina; Schneider, Sven; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate eating disorder pathology in German elite adolescent athletes. Evidence suggests that eating disorder pathology is more common in adult elite sports, especially in female athletes and in sports emphasizing leanness. There is a scarcity of studies in elite adolescent athletes who are in a vulnerable developmental stage and are affected by general as well as sport-specific risk factors. Our data was derived from the German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL) which conducted a survey in 1138 elite adolescent athletes. In this sample, we assessed body weight, weight control behavior, body acceptance and screened overall for core symptoms of eating disorders, depression and anxiety. We performed a tree analysis to identify high risk groups for eating disorder pathology. High risk groups comprised (a) athletes competing in weight dependent sports, and among athletes competing in disciplines other than weight dependent sports (b) athletes who are high on negative affectivity, (c) female athletes and (d) male athletes competing in endurance, technical or power sports. Athletes competing in weight dependent disciplines reported wide spread use of compensatory behaviors to influence body weight. Athletes reporting eating disorder pathology showed higher levels of depression and anxiety than athletes without eating disorder pathology. Increased psychosocial burden in athletes with eating disorder pathology suggests that eating disorder symptoms should not be accepted as an unproblematic and functional part of elite sports. The prevention and management of eating disorder pathology is especially important in weight dependent sports. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:553-562). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Low perceived social support predicts later depression but not social phobia in middle adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    V??n?nen, Juha-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2014-01-01

    Social phobia and depression are common and highly comorbid disorders in adolescence. There is a lack of studies on possible psychosocial shared risk factors for these disorders. The current study examined if low social support is a shared risk factor for both disorders among adolescent girls and boys. This study is a part of the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study's two-year follow-up. We studied cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived social support with social phobia, ...

  12. Low perceived social support predicts later depression but not social phobia in middle adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Social phobia and depression are common and highly comorbid disorders in adolescence. There is a lack of studies on possible psychosocial shared risk factors for these disorders. The current study examined if low social support is a shared risk factor for both disorders among adolescent girls and boys. This study is a part of the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study's two-year follow-up. We studied cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived social support with so...

  13. [Vulnerability to depression in children and adolescents: update and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Michel, G; Mouren-Siméoni, M-C

    2002-01-01

    Depression in children and adolescents is associated with poor psychosocial functioning, high psychiatric comorbidity, risk of recurrent episodes or onset of bipolar disorder. These findings emphasize the importance of early identification of children and adolescents having elevated risk for future depression and further development, evaluation and greater availability of prevention strategies. Our review aims an update about depressive vulnerability in children and adolescents in the perspective of better identification of at-risk populations and targeting of prevention programs. Psychopathology, in particular anxiety and disruptive disorders are well identified risk-factors for later depression. Subclinical depressive symptomatology, also termed "demoralization", also identifies high-risk populations, likely to become incident cases of depression. It is still unclear whether this condition is prodromal depression, a specific clinical entity or the expression of biological and/or cognitive vulnerability. Familial risk for depressive disorders involves both genetic and psychosocial factors. Marital discord, poor communication and dysfunctional parenting practices are often present in families with affective disorders and can be implicated in increased depressive vulnerability in the offspring. Research on individual vulnerability in children and adolescents has focused on temperamental and cognitive characteristics. Temperament traits describe individual differences in reactivity and behavior. High emotionality, defined as the tendency to become upset easily and intensely has been associated with an increased risk for subsequent major depression. However, as the majority of high scorers will not become depressive cases, emotionality should not be the only criterion for selection of at-risk populations. Cognitive style including poor self esteem, low social competence and negative attributions are also associated with increased likelihood of depressive symptoms, but

  14. The Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program: Adapting Behavioral Activation as a Treatment for Depression in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Elizabeth; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Schloredt, Kelly; Martell, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac; Hubley, Samuel; Dimidjian, Sona

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine implementation feasibility and initial treatment outcomes of a behavioral activation (BA) based treatment for adolescent depression, the Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program (A-BAP). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 60 clinically referred adolescents with a depressive disorder who were randomized to receive either 14 sessions of A-BAP or uncontrolled evidenced-based practice for depression. The urban sample was 64% female, predominantly Non-Hispanic White (67%), and had an average age of 14.9 years. Measures of depression, global functioning, activation, and avoidance were obtained through clinical interviews and/or through parent and adolescent self-report at preintervention and end of intervention. Intent-to-treat linear mixed effects modeling and logistic regression analysis revealed that both conditions produced statistically significant improvement from pretreatment to end of treatment in depression, global functioning, and activation and avoidance. There were no significant differences across treatment conditions. These findings provide the first step in establishing the efficacy of BA as a treatment for adolescent depression and support the need for ongoing research on BA as a way to enhance the strategies available for treatment of depression in this population.

  15. Differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, R M

    2014-12-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder spend approximately half of their lives symptomatic and the majority of that time suffering from symptoms of depression, which complicates the accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Challenges in the differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are reviewed, and the clinical utility of several screening instruments is evaluated. The estimated lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder (i.e., unipolar depression) is over 3 and one-half times that of bipolar spectrum disorders. The clinical presentation of a major depressive episode in a bipolar disorder patient does not differ substantially from that of a patient with major depressive disorder (unipolar depression). Therefore, it is not surprising that without proper screening and comprehensive evaluation many patients with bipolar disorder may be misdiagnosed with major depressive disorder (unipolar depression). In general, antidepressants have demonstrated little or no efficacy for depressive episodes associated with bipolar disorder, and treatment guidelines recommend using antidepressants only as an adjunct to mood stabilizers for patients with bipolar disorder. Thus, correct identification of bipolar disorder among patients who present with depression is critical for providing appropriate treatment and improving patient outcomes. Clinical characteristics indicative of bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder identified in this review are based on group differences and may not apply to each individual patient. The overview of demographic and clinical characteristics provided by this review may help medical professionals distinguish between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Several validated, easily administered screening instruments are available and can greatly improve the recognition of bipolar disorder in patients with depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Teacher and Parent Ratings of Children with Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Richard E.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Cantwell, Dennis P.; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum

    2007-01-01

    The fields of child psychology and psychiatry have not yet established the clinical presentation in school of children and adolescents who have been diagnosed as having a depressive disorder. To address this issue, the authors used teacher ratings on scale oriented to the third, revised edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  17. Trajectories of Individual Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Gender and Family Relationships as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Depressive syndrome and disorders increase substantially during adolescence. Little is known, however, about how "individual" symptoms of depression change over the course of this developmental period. The present study examined within-person changes in symptom severity of each individual symptom of depression, utilizing longitudinal…

  18. Changes in Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents with ASD Completing the PEERS® Social Skills Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, Hillary K.; McVey, Alana J.; Dolan, Bridget K.; Willar, Kirsten S.; Pleiss, Sheryl; Karst, Jeffrey S.; Carson, Audrey M.; Caiozzo, Christina; Vogt, Elisabeth M.; Yund, Brianna D.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan

    2018-01-01

    Depression is a common concern among people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is often associated with social skills and relationship challenges. The present data, from a randomized controlled trial, examined the effect of PEERS® on self-reported depressive symptoms via the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) among 49 adolescents with ASD.…

  19. Sexual Orientation and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Gilman, Stephen E; Haynie, Denise L; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2018-05-01

    Sexual orientation disparities in adolescent depressive symptoms are well established, but reasons for these disparities are less well understood. We modeled sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into young adulthood and evaluated family satisfaction, peer support, cyberbullying victimization, and unmet medical needs as potential mediators. Data were from waves 2 to 6 of the NEXT Generation Health Study ( n = 2396), a population-based cohort of US adolescents. We used latent growth models to examine sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms in participants aged 17 to 21 years, conduct mediation analyses, and examine sex differences. Relative to heterosexual adolescents, sexual minority adolescents (those who are attracted to the same or both sexes or are questioning; 6.3% of the weighted sample) consistently reported higher depressive symptoms from 11th grade to 3 years after high school. Mediation analyses indicated that sexual minority adolescents reported lower family satisfaction, greater cyberbullying victimization, and increased likelihood of unmet medical needs, all of which were associated with higher depressive symptoms. The mediating role of cyberbullying victimization was more pronounced among male than female participants. Sexual minority adolescents reported higher depressive symptoms than heterosexual adolescents from late adolescence into young adulthood. Collectively, low family satisfaction, cyberbullying victimization, and unmet medical needs accounted for >45% of differences by sexual orientation. Future clinical research is needed to determine if interventions targeting these psychosocial and health care-related factors would reduce sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms and the optimal timing of such interventions. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Depression in Adolescents with ASD: A Pilot RCT of a Group Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santomauro, Damian; Sheffield, Jeanie; Sofronoff, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a potentially life threatening affective disorder that is highly prevalent in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a cognitive behavioural intervention for depression in adolescents with ASD. Participants were randomly assigned to the…

  1. Gender-Related Risk and Protective Factors for Depressive Symptoms and Disordered Eating in Adolescence: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The interplay between intrapersonal risk (low self-esteem, perfectionism and body dissatisfaction) and interpersonal protection (social support) appears relevant for delineating gender-specific pathways that lead to both depressive and eating psychopathology. The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine gender differences in the levels of…

  2. Parental separation in childhood as a risk factor for depression in adulthood: a community-based study of adolescents screened for depression and followed up after 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Hannes; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Päären, Aivar; Jonsson, Ulf

    2017-03-29

    Earlier research has investigated the association between parental separation and long-term health outcomes among offspring, but few studies have assessed the potentially moderating role of mental health status in adolescence. The aim of this study was to analyze whether parental separation in childhood predicts depression in adulthood and whether the pattern differs between individuals with and without earlier depression. A community-based sample of individuals with adolescent depression in 1991-93 and matched non-depressed peers were followed up using a structured diagnostic interview after 15 years. The participation rate was 65% (depressed n = 227; non-depressed controls n = 155). Information on parental separation and conditions in childhood and adolescence was collected at baseline. The outcome was depression between the ages 19-31 years; information on depression was collected at the follow-up diagnostic interview. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. Our analyses showed that depressed adolescents with separated parents had an excess risk of recurrence of depression in adulthood, compared with depressed adolescents with non-separated parents. In addition, among adolescents with depression, parental separation was associated with an increased risk of a switch to bipolar disorder in adulthood. Among the matched non-depressed peers, no associations between parental separation and adult depression or bipolar disorder were found. Parental separation may have long-lasting health consequences for vulnerable individuals who suffer from mental illness already in adolescence.

  3. The Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skill Training (IPT-AST) in Preventing Depression: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Sarah Shankman

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent depression is a prevalent and debilitating disorder that is associated with social and academic impairment, suicidality, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and high-risk behaviors (Horowitz, Garber, Ciesla, Young, & Mufson, 2007). Yet many adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms do not receive adequate services, and those that do…

  4. Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, William; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A sample of 132 junior high school students completed a biographical data sheet, short forms of the Beck Depression Inventory, a Sensation-Seeking Scale, the Family Environment Scale, a social support index, and a life stress inventory, to determine to what extent depression in young adolescents could be predicted. (Author/PN)

  5. Overgeneral autobiographical memory and chronic interpersonal stress as predictors of the course of depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Griffith, James W; Mineka, Susan; Rekart, Kathleen Newcomb; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle G

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) predicts the course of depression in adolescents. As part of a larger longitudinal study of risk for emotional disorders, 55 adolescents with a past history of major depressive disorder or minor depressive disorder completed the Autobiographical Memory Test. Fewer specific memories predicted the subsequent onset of a major depressive episode (MDE) over a 16-month follow-up period, even when covarying baseline depressive symptoms. This main effect was qualified by an interaction between specific memories and chronic interpersonal stress: Fewer specific memories predicted greater risk of MDE onset over follow-up at high (but not low) levels of chronic interpersonal stress. Thus, our findings suggest that OGM, in interaction with chronic interpersonal stress, predicts the course of depression among adolescents, and highlight the importance of measuring interpersonal stress in OGM research. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  6. Major depression in mothers predict reduced ventral striatum activation in adolescent female offspring with and without depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior research has identified reduced reward-related brain activation as a promising endophenotype for the early identification of adolescents with major depressive disorder. However, it is unclear whether reduced reward-related brain activation constitutes a true vulnerability for major depressive ...

  7. Transcranial magnetic stimulation potentiates glutamatergic neurotransmission in depressed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croarkin, Paul E; Nakonezny, Paul A; Wall, Christopher A; Murphy, Lauren L; Sampson, Shirlene M; Frye, Mark A; Port, John D

    2016-01-30

    Abnormalities in glutamate neurotransmission may have a role in the pathophysiology of adolescent depression. The present pilot study examined changes in cortical glutamine/glutamate ratios in depressed adolescents receiving high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Ten adolescents with treatment-refractory major depressive disorder received up to 30 sessions of 10-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation at 120% motor threshold with 3000 pulses per session applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Baseline, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans of the anterior cingulate cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were collected at 3T with 8-cm(3) voxels. Glutamate metabolites were quantified with 2 distinct proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequences in each brain region. After repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and at 6 months of follow-up, glutamine/glutamate ratios increased in the anterior cingulate cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with both measurements. The increase in the glutamine/glutamate ratio reached statistical significance with the TE-optimized PRESS sequence in the anterior cingulate cortex. Glutamine/glutamate ratios increased in conjunction with depressive symptom improvement. This reached statistical significance with the TE-optimized PRESS sequence in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may modulate glutamate neurochemistry in depressed adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Depressive disorders and the menopause transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza, Plácido; García-Portilla, María P; Llaneza-Suárez, David; Armott, Begoña; Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2012-02-01

    Depressive disorders and symptoms are common among middle-aged women. The effects of hormones on depression remain unclear. This review aims to clarify the nature of depressive disorders during the menopause transition as well as their links with climacteric syndrome, sexuality, cardiovascular risk and cognitive function. The recent literature on depressive disorders and menopause is reviewed. Women are more vulnerable than men to depressive disorders. Endocrine influences have been postulated but differences in, for example, coping style and response to stress may also contribute to the gender difference in the prevalence of depressive disorders. Gender differences in socialization may lead to higher rates of depression in women. There are data top suggest that menopause and depression are associated, although there is not a common clear causative factor. Women with climacteric symptoms (hot flushes, night sweats, vaginal dryness and dyspareunia) are more likely to report anxiety and/or depressive symptoms. Bothersome vasomotor symptoms could be associated with sleep disturbances, which in turn can increase reports of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Biopsychosocial and partner factors have a significant influence on middle-aged women's sexuality and depressive disorders, and most antidepressants can have a negative effect on sexual response. Lastly, studies have consistently shown that women with high levels of depressive symptoms are at greater cardiovascular risk and have poorer cognitive function than non-depressed women. At present, a direct relationship between psychiatric symptoms and hormonal changes such as estrogen decrease has not been clearly found. Stress, educational level, ethnicity, socioeconomic factors and partner status may influence the prevalence and clinical course of both menopause symptoms and depressive disorders. Since in many cases depression is a lifelong condition, and is associated with severe comorbid conditions, further studies are

  9. Korean Medication Algorithm for Depressive Disorders 2017: Third Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong Seok; Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Park, Young-Min; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Won; Shim, Se-Hoon; Lee, Jung Goo; Jon, Duk-In

    2018-01-01

    Objective In 2002, the Korean Society for Affective Disorders developed the guidelines for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), and revised it in 2006 and 2012. The third revision of these guidelines was undertaken to reflect advances in the field. Methods Using a 44-item questionnaire, an expert consensus was obtained on pharmacological treatment strategies for MDD 1) without or 2) with psychotic features, 3) depression subtypes, 4) maintenance, 5) special populations, 6) the choice of an antidepressant (AD) regarding safety and adverse effects, and 7) non-pharmacological biological therapies. Recommended first, second, and third-line strategies were derived statistically. Results AD monotherapy is recommended as the first-line strategy for non-psychotic depression in adults, children/adolescents, elderly adults, patient with persistent depressive disorder, and pregnant women or patients with postpartum depression or premenstrual dysphoric disorder. The combination of AD and atypical antipsychotics (AAP) was recommended for psychotic depression in adult, child/adolescent, postpartum depression, and mixed features or anxious distress. Most experts recommended stopping the ongoing initial AD and AAP after a certain period in patients with one or two depressive episodes. As an MDD treatment modality, 92% of experts are considering electroconvulsive therapy and 46.8% are applying it clinically, while 86% of experts are considering repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation but only 31.6% are applying it clinically. Conclusion The pharmacological treatment strategy in 2017 is similar to that of Korean Medication Algorithm for Depressive Disorder 2012. The preference of AAPs was more increased. PMID:29397669

  10. Motivational interviewing with a depressed adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Amanda E

    2009-11-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a potentially useful tool for clinicians who are exploring ways to improve treatment outcomes with depressed clients. MI techniques may be particularly appropriate with depressed adolescents, for whom motivation to engage in therapy is often a problem and who often experience ambivalence about life choices. The present article presents a case description of MI with a depressed adolescent who was ambivalent about what life change to pursue. MI was used to help the client identify conflicts between her values, learn how they were contributing to her distress, and move toward resolving them. Advantages and limitations of these techniques are discussed.

  11. Bright light therapy versus physical exercise to prevent co-morbid depression and obesity in adolescents and young adults with attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jutta S; Hees, Katharina; Medda, Juliane; Grimm, Oliver; Asherson, Philip; Bellina, Mariano; Colla, Michael; Ibáñez, Pol; Koch, Elena; Martinez-Nicolas, Antonio; Muntaner-Mas, Adrià; Rommel, Anna; Rommelse, Nanda; de Ruiter, Saskia; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W; Kieser, Meinhard; Ortega, Francisco B; Thome, Johannes; Buitelaar, Jan K; Kuntsi, Jonna; Ramos-Quiroga, J Antoni; Reif, Andreas; Freitag, Christine M

    2018-02-26

    The risk for major depression and obesity is increased in adolescents and adults with attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adolescent ADHD predicts adult depression and obesity. Non-pharmacological interventions to treat and prevent these co-morbidities are urgently needed. Bright light therapy (BLT) improves day-night rhythm and is an emerging therapy for major depression. Exercise intervention (EI) reduces obesity and improves depressive symptoms. To date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has been performed to establish feasibility and efficacy of these interventions targeting the prevention of co-morbid depression and obesity in ADHD. We hypothesize that the two manualized interventions in combination with mobile health-based monitoring and reinforcement will result in less depressive symptoms and obesity compared to treatment as usual in adolescents and young adults with ADHD. This trial is a prospective, pilot phase-IIa, parallel-group RCT with three arms (two add-on treatment groups [BLT, EI] and one treatment as usual [TAU] control group). The primary outcome variable is change in the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology total score (observer-blinded assessment) between baseline and ten weeks of intervention. This variable is analyzed with a mixed model for repeated measures approach investigating the treatment effect with respect to all three groups. A total of 330 participants with ADHD, aged 14 - obesity, ADHD symptoms, general psychopathology, health-related quality of life, neurocognitive function, chronotype, and physical fitness are explored after the end of the intervention and at the 12-week follow-up. This is the first pilot RCT on the use of BLT and EI in combination with mobile health-based monitoring and reinforcement targeting the prevention of co-morbid depression and obesity in adolescents and young adults with ADHD. If at least medium effects can be established with regard to the prevention of depressive symptoms and

  12. Depressed suicide attempters with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Maria; Stanley, Barbara; Ystgaard, Mette; Mehlum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder are well-established risk factors for suicidal behavior. This study compared depressed suicide attempters with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder with respect to additional diagnoses, global functioning, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, history of traumatic exposure, and suicidal behavior. Adult patients consecutively admitted to a general hospital after a suicide attempt were interviewed and assessed for DSM-IV diagnosis and clinical correlates. Sixty-four patients (71%) were diagnosed with depression; of them, 21 patients (32%) had posttraumatic stress disorder. There were no group differences in social adjustment, depressive symptoms, or suicidal intent. However, the group with comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had more additional Axis I diagnoses, a higher degree of childhood trauma exposure, and more often reported previous suicide attempts, non-suicidal self-harm, and vengeful suicidal motives. These findings underline the clinical importance of diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in suicide attempters.

  13. Epidemiology of major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Stegenga, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious health problem and will be the second leading cause of burden of disease worldwide by 2030. To be able to prevent MDD, insight into risk factors for the onset of MDD is of clear importance. On the other hand, if onset of MDD has occurred, one may argue that different course patterns of MDD can be identified and that it is essential to examine their relationship to symptoms and function over time. Insight into these course patterns could assist in p...

  14. Depression and Self-Esteem in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripković, Ingrid; Roje, Romilda; Krnić, Silvana; Nazor, Mirjana; Karin, Željka; Čapkun, Vesna

    2015-06-01

    Depression prevalence has increased in the last few decades, affecting younger age groups. The aim of this research was to determine the range of depression and low self-esteem in elementary school children in the city of Split. Testing was carried out at school and the sample comprised 1,549 children (714 boys and 832 girls, aged 13). Two psychological instruments were used: the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) and the Children and Adolescent Depression Scale (SDD). The average value of scores obtained by SEI test was 17.8 for all tested children. No statistically significant difference was found be-tween boys and girls. It was found that 11.9% of children showed signs of clinically significant depression, and 16.2% showed signs of depression. Statistically significant association between low self-esteem and clinically significant depression was found. No statistically significant difference among boys and girls according to dimension of cognitive depression was found, whereas statistically significant level of emotional depression was higher in girls than boys. It was found that both dimensions of depression decreased proportionally with the increase of SEI test score values: cognitive and emotional dimension of depression. The results of this study show that it is necessary to provide early detection of emotional difficulties in order to prevent serious mental disorders. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  15. Friendships and Family Support Reduce Subsequent Depressive Symptoms in At-Risk Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laura van Harmelen

    Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS consists of child family adversities (CFA: negative experiences that happened within the family environment and/or peer bullying. ELS plays an important role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms and clinical disorders. Identifying factors that may reduce depressive symptoms in adolescents with ELS may have important public mental health implications.We used structural equation modelling and examined the impact of adolescent friendships and/or family support at age 14 on depressive symptoms at age 17 in adolescents exposed to ELS before age 11. To this end, we used structural equation modelling in a community sample of 771 adolescents (322 boys and 477 girls from a 3 year longitudinal study. Significant paths in the model were followed-up to test whether social support mediated or moderated the association between ELS and depressive symptoms at age 17.We found that adolescent social support in adolescence is negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in boys and girls exposed to ELS. Specifically, we found evidence for two mediational pathways: In the first pathway family support mediated the link between CFA and depressive symptoms at age 17. Specifically, CFA was negatively associated with adolescent family support at age 14, which in turn was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In the second pathway we found that adolescent friendships mediated the path between peer bullying and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational bullying was negatively associated with adolescent friendships at age 14, which in turn were negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In contrast, we did not find a moderating effect of friendships and family support on the association between CFA and depressive symptoms.Friendships and/or family support in adolescence mediate the relationship between ELS and late adolescent depressive symptoms in boys and girls. Therefore

  16. "Subthreshold" depression: is the distinction between depressive disorder not otherwise specified and adjustment disorder valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer H; Dalrymple, Kristy; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane

    2013-05-01

    Patients with clinically significant symptoms of depression who do not meet the criteria for major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder are considered to have subthreshold depression. According to DSM-IV, such patients should be diagnosed with depressive disorder not otherwise specified (NOS) if the development of the symptoms is not attributable to a stressful event or with adjustment disorder if the symptoms follow a stressor. Research on the treatment of subthreshold depression rarely addresses the distinction between depressive disorder NOS and adjustment disorder. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we examined the validity of this distinction. From December 1995 to June 2011, 3,400 psychiatric patients presenting to the Rhode Island Hospital outpatient practice were evaluated with semistructured diagnostic interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders and measures of psychosocial morbidity. Slightly less than 10% (n = 300) of the 3,400 patients were diagnosed with depressive disorder NOS or adjustment disorder with depressed mood. The patients with depressive disorder NOS were significantly more often diagnosed with social phobia (P depressive disorder NOS reported more anhedonia, increased appetite, increased sleep, and indecisiveness, whereas the patients with adjustment disorder reported more weight loss, reduced appetite, and insomnia. There was no significant difference between the groups in overall level of severity of depression or impaired functioning. The patients with depressive disorder NOS had a nonsignificantly elevated morbid risk of depression in their first-degree relatives. Clinically significant subthreshold depression was common in psychiatric outpatients, and the present results support the validity of distinguishing between depressive disorder NOS and adjustment disorder with depressed mood. Future studies of the treatment of subthreshold depression

  17. Maternal and paternal psychosocial risk factors for clinical depression in a Norwegian community sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerup, T; Lydersen, S; Wallander, J; Sund, A M

    2015-01-01

    Parental characteristics can increase the risk of the development of adolescent depression. In this study, we focus on the parental factors of parents in a non-intact relationship, dissatisfaction with personal economy, physical illness or disability, and internalizing and externalizing problems. The aim is to examine which of these parental risk factors, separately for mothers and fathers, are associated with clinical depression in adolescents in a community sample. In the Youth and Mental Health study, 345 adolescents (mean age ± standard deviation 15.0 ± 0.6 years, range 13.8-16.6 years; 72.5% girls) and their parents (79% at least one parent) completed questionnaires and the diagnostic interview Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). Adolescents were classified into current major depressive disorder or dysthymia (n = 46), depression not otherwise specified (n = 48), or no depression (n = 251). The parental risk factors were based on interview and the Adult Self-Report. Risk factors associated with mothers (n = 267) and fathers (n = 167) were separately analyzed using ordinal logistic regression with current depression category as the dependent variable. All analyses were adjusted for youth sex and age. Mothers' economical dissatisfaction, physical illness/disability, internalizing problems and externalizing problems were associated with adolescent current depression (P ≤ 0.02). Adjusting for all other factors, only mothers' internalizing problems (P depression. Fathers' risk factors were not associated with adolescent depression. Characteristics of mothers are associated with adolescent current depression. Mothers' internalizing problems is independently strongly associated with increased risk of current adolescent depression. Clinicians should assess mothers' mental health when treating depressed adolescents.

  18. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Lowers Elevated Functional Connectivity in Depressed Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayanti Chattopadhyay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Imaging studies have implicated altered functional connectivity in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD. Whether similar dysfunction is present in adolescent patients is unclear. The degree of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC may reflect abnormalities within emotional (‘hot’ and cognitive control (‘cold’ neural systems. Here, we investigate rsFC of these systems in adolescent patients and changes following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI was acquired from adolescent patients before CBT, and 24-weeks later following completed therapy. Similar data were obtained from control participants. Cross-sectional Cohort: From 82 patients and 34 controls at baseline, rsFC of the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and pre-frontal cortex (PFC was calculated for comparison. Longitudinal Cohort: From 17 patients and 30 controls with longitudinal data, treatment effects were tested on rsFC. Patients demonstrated significantly greater rsFC to left amygdala, bilateral supragenual ACC, but not with PFC. Treatment effects were observed in right insula connected to left supragenual ACC, with baseline case-control differences reduced. rsFC changes were significantly correlated with changes in depression severity. Depressed adolescents exhibited heightened connectivity in regions of ‘hot’ emotional processing, known to be associated with depression, where treatment exposure exerted positive effects, without concomitant differences in areas of ‘cold’ cognition.

  19. Adolescent depression. Epidemiology, nosology, life stress and social network. Minireview based on a doctoral thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, G

    1998-01-01

    The study engaged a total population of 16-17-year-old urban high-school students and 2300 (93%) were screened for depression and previous suicide attempts. Adolescents with high depression scores in self-evaluation (12.3%) or reporting previous suicide attempts (2.4%) were diagnostically interviewed together with one control for each, matched for gender and educational program. After the interview self-ratings were completed regarding social network, family climate, and life events. Major depression was prevalent during the last year in 5.8% and during life time in 11.4%, 4 girls for every boy. A depression with remaining symptoms for a year or more was the most common type. Dysthymia without major depressive episodes was diagnosed in 1.1%, two girls for every boy. Short hypomanic episodes had been experienced by 13.2% of those with major depressive disorder. Anxiety disorder was comorbid to depression in one half and conduct disorder in one forth of the depressed adolescents. Alcohol was abused by 6.5% and used regularly by another 12%. Other drugs were used by 6.5% of depressed adolescents and not at all by controls. The depressed used tobacco twice as frequently as non-depressed. Social network and family climate were compared within the originally matched pairs. Adolescents with long-lasting depressions had a smaller and unsatisfying social network. They also had experienced many stressful life events related to family adversities, while those with shorter depressive episodes had stress related to the peer group. Depressed adolescents with comorbid conduct disorder reported insufficient support from the close network and a more negative family climate.

  20. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  1. Analysis of Family Functioning and Parent-Child Relationship between Adolescents with Depression and their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; DU, Wenyong; Gao, Yan; Ma, Changlin; Ban, Chunxia; Meng, Fu

    2017-12-25

    Drug therapy combined with family therapy is currently the best treatment for adolescent depression. Nevertheless, family therapy requires an exploration of unresolved problems in the family system, which in practice presents certain difficulties. Previous studies have found that the perceptual differences of family function between parents and children reflect the problems in the family system. To explore the characteristics and role of family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. The general information and clinical data of the 93 adolescents with depression were collected. The Family Functioning Assessment Scale and Parent-child Relationship Scale were used to assess adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. a) The dimensions of family functioning in adolescents with depressive disorder were more negative in communication, emotional response, emotional involvement, roles, and overall functioning than their parents. The differences were statistically significant. Parent-child relationship dimensions: the closeness and parent-child total scores were more negative compared with the parents and the differences were statistically significant. b) All dimensions of parent-child relationship and family functioning in adolescents with depression except the time spent together were negatively correlated or significantly negatively correlated. c) The results of multivariate regression analysis showed: the characteristics of family functioning, emotional involvement, emotional response, family structure, and income of the adolescents with depressive disorder mainly affected the parent-child relationship. There were perceptual differences in partial family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Unclear roles between family members, mutual entanglement, too much or too little emotional investment, negligence of inner feelings

  2. Analysis of Family Functioning and Parent-Child Relationship between Adolescents with Depression and their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, Qing; DU, Wenyong; GAO, Yan; MA, Changlin; BAN, Chunxia; MENG, Fu

    2017-01-01

    Background Drug therapy combined with family therapy is currently the best treatment for adolescent depression. Nevertheless, family therapy requires an exploration of unresolved problems in the family system, which in practice presents certain difficulties. Previous studies have found that the perceptual differences of family function between parents and children reflect the problems in the family system. Aims To explore the characteristics and role of family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Methods The general information and clinical data of the 93 adolescents with depression were collected. The Family Functioning Assessment Scale and Parent-child Relationship Scale were used to assess adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Results a) The dimensions of family functioning in adolescents with depressive disorder were more negative in communication, emotional response, emotional involvement, roles, and overall functioning than their parents. The differences were statistically significant. Parent-child relationship dimensions: the closeness and parent-child total scores were more negative compared with the parents and the differences were statistically significant. b) All dimensions of parent-child relationship and family functioning in adolescents with depression except the time spent together were negatively correlated or significantly negatively correlated. c) The results of multivariate regression analysis showed: the characteristics of family functioning, emotional involvement, emotional response, family structure, and income of the adolescents with depressive disorder mainly affected the parent-child relationship. Conclusions There were perceptual differences in partial family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Unclear roles between family members, mutual entanglement, too much or too little emotional

  3. Neurobiology of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Villanueva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We survey studies which relate abnormal neurogenesis to major depressive disorder. Clinically, descriptive gene and protein expression analysis and genetic and functional studies revised here show that individual alterations of a complex signaling network, which includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; the production of neurotrophins and growth factors; the expression of miRNAs; the production of proinflammatory cytokines; and, even, the abnormal delivery of gastrointestinal signaling peptides, are able to induce major mood alterations. Furthermore, all of these factors modulate neurogenesis in brain regions involved in MDD, and are functionally interconnected in such a fashion that initial alteration in one of them results in abnormalities in the others. We highlight data of potential diagnostic significance and the relevance of this information to develop new therapeutic approaches. Controversial issues, such as whether neurogenesis is the basis of the disease or whether it is a response induced by antidepressant treatments, are also discussed.

  4. Depressive Disorders in Primary Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorilehto, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study (PC-VDS) is a naturalistic and prospective cohort study concerning primary care patients with depressive disorders. It forms a collaborative research project between the Department of Mental and Alcohol Research of the National Public Health Institute, and the Primary Health Care Organization of the City of Vantaa. The aim is to obtain a comprehensive view on clinically significant depression in primary care, and to compare depressive patients in prima...

  5. The use of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of resistant depression in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto-Hicks X

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Hamill-Skoch,1 Paul Hicks,2 Ximena Prieto-Hicks11Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ, USAAbstract: Major depressive disorder often begins in adolescence, is chronic and recurrent, and heightens an individual's risk for major depressive disorder in adulthood. Treatment-resistant depression is a problem for a significant minority of adolescents. Few studies have examined treatments for treatment-resistant depression among adolescents, and even fewer have examined the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a monotherapy or in combination with pharmacological treatments. Mental health professionals have a strong interest in understanding what treatments are appropriate for adolescents who are treatment resistant. Preliminary evidence from current published trials indicates that the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy in combination with antidepressant medication yields the best outcome for treatment-resistant depression in adolescents. Secondary analyses also suggest that the utility of cognitive behavioral therapy can be increased by ensuring adolescents receive a therapeutic dose of treatment sessions (more than nine sessions and the inclusion of two treatment components: social skills and problem solving training. Guidelines for clinicians as well as areas for future research are discussed.Keywords: cognitive behavior therapy, treatment-resistant depression, adolescent depression

  6. Depression and coping in subthreshold eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennard, E Eliot; Richards, C Steven

    2013-08-01

    The eating disorder literature has sought to understand the role of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses and coping in relation to eating disorders. The present research extends these findings by studying the relationships among depression, coping, and the entire continuum of disordered eating behaviors, with an emphasis on subthreshold eating disorders. 109 undergraduate females completed questionnaires to assess disordered eating symptoms, depressive symptoms, and the use of active and avoidant coping mechanisms. Hypotheses were tested using bivariate linear regression and multivariate linear regression. Results indicated that depression was a significant predictor of disordered eating symptoms after controlling for relationships between depression and coping. Although avoidant coping was positively associated with disordered eating, it was not a significant predictor after controlling for depression and coping. Previous research has found associations between depression and diagnosable eating disorders, and this research extends those findings to the entire continuum of disordered eating. Future research should continue to investigate the predictors and correlates of the disordered eating continuum using more diverse samples. Testing for mediation and moderation among these variables may also be a fruitful area of investigation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Adolescent Motherhood and Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…

  8. Effect of Major Depression on the Self-Image of Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Veijo; Laukkanen, Eila; Peiponen, Sirkka; Lehtonen, Johannes; Viinamaki, Heimo

    2001-01-01

    Studied the specific impact of major depressive disorder (MDD) on the self-image of adolescent boys and girls seeking outpatient treatment. Compared 68 adolescents with MDD and 39 with no psychiatric illness. Self-image among MDD patients was in general poorer than in the comparison group. The effect of MDD was more negative for girls than boys,…

  9. Precursors in adolescence of adult-onset bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, Ayako; Sabet, Julia A; Sjöqvist, Hugo; Melinder, Carren; Brummer, Robert J; Montgomery, Scott

    2017-08-15

    Although the estimated contribution of genetic factors is high in bipolar disorder, environmental factors may also play a role. This Swedish register-based cohort study of men examined if physical and psychological characteristics in late adolescence, including factors previously linked with bipolar disorder (body mass index, asthma and allergy), are associated with subsequent bipolar disorder in adulthood. Unipolar depression and anxiety are analysed as additional outcomes to identify bipolar disorder-specific associations. A total of 213,693 men born between 1952 and 1956, who participated in compulsory military conscription assessments in late adolescence were followed up to 2009, excluding men with any psychiatric diagnoses at baseline. Cox regression estimated risk of bipolar disorder, depression and anxiety in adulthood associated with body mass index, asthma, allergy, muscular strength stress resilience and cognitive function in adolescence. BMI, asthma and allergy were not associated with bipolar disorder. Higher grip strength, cognitive function and stress resilience were associated with a reduced risk of bipolar disorder and the other disease outcomes. The sample consisted only of men; even though the characteristics in adolescence pre-dated disease onset, they may have been the consequence of prodromal disease. Associations with body mass index and asthma found by previous studies may be consequences of bipolar disorder or its treatment rather than risk factors. Inverse associations with all the outcome diagnoses for stress resilience, muscular strength and cognitive function may reflect general risks for these psychiatric disorders or intermediary factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrating Optimal Screening, Intervention, and Referral for Postpartum Depression in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Leigh; Wedgeworth, Monika; Turner, Adeline

    2018-06-01

    According to the World Health Organization, 10% to 13% of postpartum women develop a mental disorder, mainly depression. This number is higher in developing countries. This percentage increases in adolescents and symptoms in adolescents tend to be overlooked. These disorders can be treated successfully if detected early, which will in turn prevent more severe symptoms from developing. This article provides evidence-based clinical best practices for the assessment and early recognition of postpartum depression, specifically in adolescents. In addition, suggestions for integration into practice and recommendations for interprofessional collaboration are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. In Search of HPA Axis Dysregulation in Child and Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerry, John D.; Hastings, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in adults with major depressive disorder is among the most consistent and robust biological findings in psychiatry. Given the importance of the adolescent transition to the development and recurrence of depressive phenomena over the lifespan, it is important to have an integrative…

  12. Altered White Matter Microstructure in Adolescents with Major Depression: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kathryn R.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Muetzel, Ryan; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Houri, Alaa; Kurma, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Major depressive disorder (MDD) occurs frequently in adolescents, but the neurobiology of depression in youth is poorly understood. Structural neuroimaging studies in both adult and pediatric populations have implicated frontolimbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which measures white…

  13. Predicting Time to Recovery Among Depressed Adolescents Treated in Two Psychosocial Group Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Kaufman, Noah K.; Clarke, Gregory N.; Stice, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Aims were to identify the demographic, psychopathology, and psychosocial factors predicting time to major depressive disorder (MDD) recovery and moderators of treatment among 114 depressed adolescents recruited from a juvenile justice center and randomized to a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) condition or a life skills-tutoring control…

  14. The Association between Perceived Maternal and Paternal Psychopathology and Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasing, S.P.A.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We

  15. Effective Components of TORDIA Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Clarke, Greg N.; Weersing, V. Robin; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Shamseddeen, Wael; Porta, Giovanna; Berk, Michele; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham J.; Keller, Martin B.; Wagner, Karen D.; Brent, David A.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we conducted a secondary analysis of the Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) study to explore the impact of specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment components on outcome. In TORDIA, 334 youths (ages 12 to 18 years) with major depressive disorder who had failed to respond to an adequate…

  16. INFLEXIBLE COGNITION PREDICTS FIRST ONSET OF MAJOR DEPRESSIVE EPISODES IN ADOLESCENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P; Connolly, Samantha L; Burke, Taylor A; Hamilton, Jessica L; Hamlat, Elissa J; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-04-19

    Major depressive disorder often is characterized by a lack of cognitive and emotional flexibility, resulting in an impaired ability to adapt to situational demands. Adolescence is an important period of risk for the first onset of depression, yet relatively little is known about whether aspects of inflexibility, such as rumination and deficits in attentional shifting, could confer risk for the development of the disorder during this time. In the present study, a sample of 285 never-depressed adolescents completed self-report and behavioral measures of rumination and attentional shifting at a baseline visit, followed by up to 4 years of annual prospective follow-up diagnostic assessments. Survival analyses indicated that adolescents with greater levels of rumination or poorer attentional shifting experienced a shorter time until the first onset of major depressive episodes, even after accounting for baseline symptoms and demographic characteristics. Although girls were twice as likely as boys to experience the first onset of depression, rumination predicted a shorter time until depression onset only for boys. Rumination and attentional shifting were not correlated and predicted time until onset of major depression independently of one another. These results provide evidence that components of cognition that are characterized by rigidity and perseveration confer risk for the first onset of major depression during adolescence. Evaluating rumination and attentional shifting in adolescence may be useful in identifying individuals who are at risk for depression and who may benefit from interventions that target or alter the development of these characteristics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Bullying, Depression, and Suicidality in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin S.; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association between bullying behavior and depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents. Method: A self-report survey was completed by 9th-through 12th-grade students (n = 2342) in six New York State high schools from 2002 through 2004. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the association…

  18. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  19. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their sample, the depression rate was still higher in their adolescent sample compared ..... KwaZulu-Natal provincial Department of Education, as well as the. Ethics Review ... obtained from the relevant school authorities, teachers and parents. ..... Integrative guide for the 1991 CBCL 4-18, YSR, and TRF profiles. Burlington,.

  20. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders amongst Adolescents in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahrivar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among 12 to 17 years old adolescents in urban areas of Tehran. "nMethod: In this study, 1105 adolescents (12 -17 years old were selected from 250 clusters of the entire 22 municipality areas of Tehran using a multistage sampling method. After responding to the Farsi version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report version, the Farsi version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL was administered to 273 adolescents and their families. The prevalence of adolescent psychiatric disorders was determined using the results of K-SADS-PL. "nResults: There were not any statistically significant differences between the sexes in the frequency of psychiatric disorders except for ADHD which was observed more frequently in boys. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, depressive disorders and separation anxiety disorder. "nConclusion: The frequency of psychiatric disorders among the adolescents in Tehran's urban areas was comparable to the reports from other countries. However, using methods to deal with missing data makes these prevalence rates somehow higher.

  1. Association Between Childhood to Adolescent Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Trajectories and Late Adolescent Disordered Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Zeynep; Javaras, Kristin N; Baker, Jessica H; Thornton, Laura M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Bulik, Cynthia M; Larsson, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    Disordered eating is more prevalent among adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms show strong associations with disordered eating, but few investigations of these associations have been longitudinal. Thus, we examined the effect of childhood to adolescent inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom trajectories on late adolescent disordered eating. We used growth mixture modeling to identify distinct inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom trajectories (called "classes") across three time points (ages 8-9, 13-14, and 16-17 years) in the Swedish Twin study of CHild and Adolescent Development. The resulting classes were used to predict Eating Disorder Inventory-2 Bulimia, Drive for Thinness, and Body Dissatisfaction subscales at age 16-17 years, with adjustment for sex and body mass index at age 16-17 years. The combined inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom trajectory classes included: a "low symptom" class characterized by low inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity throughout childhood/adolescence; a "predominantly inattention" class characterized by elevated inattention, but not hyperactivity/impulsivity, throughout childhood/adolescence; a "predominantly hyp/imp" class characterized by elevated hyperactivity/impulsivity, but not inattention, throughout childhood/adolescence; and a "both inattention and hyp/imp" class characterized by elevated inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity throughout childhood/adolescence. After adjusting for sex and body mass index or sex and anxiety/depression symptoms, the "both inattention and hyp/imp" (vs. "low symptom") class predicted significantly higher Eating Disorder Inventory-2 subscale scores during late adolescence. Increased vigilance for disordered eating among children who have both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms throughout childhood and adolescence could aid in early identification of eating

  2. Income inequality within urban settings and depressive symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Dunn, Erin C; Gilman, Stephen E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Molnar, Beth E

    2016-10-01

    Although recent evidence has shown that area-level income inequality is related to increased risk for depression among adults, few studies have tested this association among adolescents. We analysed the cross-sectional data from a sample of 1878 adolescents living in 38 neighbourhoods participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. Using multilevel linear regression modelling, we: (1) estimated the association between neighbourhood income inequality and depressive symptoms, (2) tested for cross-level interactions between sex and neighbourhood income inequality and (3) examined neighbourhood social cohesion as a mediator of the relationship between income inequality and depressive symptoms. The association between neighbourhood income inequality and depressive symptoms varied significantly by sex, with girls in higher income inequality neighbourhood reporting higher depressive symptom scores, but not boys. Among girls, a unit increase in Gini Z-score was associated with more depressive symptoms (β=0.38, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.47, p=0.01) adjusting for nativity, neighbourhood income, social cohesion, crime and social disorder. There was no evidence that the association between income inequality and depressive symptoms was due to neighbourhood-level differences in social cohesion. The distribution of incomes within an urban area adversely affects adolescent girls' mental health; future work is needed to understand why, as well as to examine in greater depth the potential consequences of inequality for males, which may have been difficult to detect here. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Research on depression in adolescents in Peru: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonatan Steeven Navarro-Loli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression in adolescents is a multicausal phenomenon and a predictor of social problems and other disorders. Thus, it is considered a public health problem. This investigation aims to systematically review the characteristics of the scientific articles about depression in Peruvian adolescents published in Peruvian and non-Peruvian journals. The search was performed in the databases of SciELO, Latindex, Redalyc, Scopus, PubMed, and through Google, using a combination of keywords related to the construct, the sample and its origin. The unit of analysis consisted of 21 articles. The reviewed articles showed inconsistency in the reporting and bibliographic support of the research designs, sampling procedures, psychometric properties of the instruments, instruments used to assess the construct which were not evaluated in our context, and cut-off points obtained in other countries’ samples. Therefore, we can state that the reviewed articles do not fully comply with the publication standards proposed by the American Psychological Association.

  4. Perceived Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Depressive Symptoms after a One Year Follow-Up during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Baya, Diego; Mendoza, Ramon; Paino, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Research to date has identified various risk factors in the emergence of depressive disorders in adolescence. There are very few studies, however, which have analyzed the role of perceived emotional intelligence in depressive symptoms longitudinally during adolescence. This work aimed to analyze longitudinal relationships between perceived…

  5. Depression and Anxiety among Transitioning Adolescents and College Students with ADHD, Dyslexia, or Comorbid ADHD/Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Gregg, Noel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate depressive and anxious symptomatology among transitioning adolescents and college students with ADHD, dyslexia, or comorbid ADHD/dyslexia. Method: Transitioning adolescents and college students with these disorders along with a non-ADHD/dyslexia college sample completed self-report measures of depression and anxiety.…

  6. Family functioning and the course of adolescent bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Aimee E; Judd, Charles M; Axelson, David A; Miklowitz, David J

    2012-12-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder, using longitudinal measures of family cohesion, adaptability, and conflict. Parent- and adolescent-reported symptom and family functioning data were collected from 58 families of adolescents with bipolar disorder (mean age =14.48±1.60; 33 female, 25 male) who participated in a 2-year randomized trial of family-focused treatment for adolescents (FFT-A). Cohesion and adaptability scores did not significantly change over the course of the study. Parent-reported conflict prior to psychosocial treatment moderated the treatment responses of families, such that high-conflict families participating in FFT-A demonstrated greater reductions in conflict over time than low-conflict families. Moreover, adolescent mania symptoms improved more rapidly in low-conflict than in high-conflict families. For all respondents, cohesion, adaptability, and conflict were longitudinally correlated with adolescents' depression scores. Finally, decreases in parent-reported conflict also predicted decreases in adolescents' manic symptoms over the 2-year study. Findings suggest that family cohesion, adaptability, and conflict may be useful predictors of the course of adolescent mood symptoms. Family conflict may be an important target for family intervention in early onset bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Commentary: Transdiagnostic neuroscience of child and adolescent mental disorders--differentiating decision-making in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, depression and anxiety. A commentary on Sonuga-Barke et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2016-03-01

    Sonuga-Barke, Cortese, Fairchild, and Stringaris offer us new insights not only on the neuropsychological processes and neurobiological mechanisms involved in the decision-making process but also how some of the most relevant child mental disorders might impact this process through a very comprehensive review of the pertinent literature. Although it is difficult to select specific points for discussing in a so dense review, I would like to highlight some aspects for 'whetting readers appetite' and seduce them to be in contact with the fascinating neurobiology behind an essential aspect of our lives. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  8. High psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Hasan; Duzman Mutluer, Tuba; Kose, Cigdem; Zoroglu, Salih

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate psychiatric comorbidity rates and patterns in a sample of clinically referred adolescents diagnosed with dissociative disorders (DD) by using a structured interview. All participants completed a comprehensive test battery, which consisted of a questionnaire for sociodemographic data and clinical history, Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index, Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire and the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale. Diagnosis was made by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime Version. A total of 25 adolescent subjects aged 12-18 years participated in the study. Ten adolescents were diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder and 15 of them were diagnosed as having dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders findings. Adolescents with dissociative identity disorder were found to have higher scores on the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index than the dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified group. Sexual and physical abuses were also found to be among the main traumatic events. Incest was reported in six cases of the study sample. All subjects had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric diagnoses were major depressive disorder (n = 25; 100%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 22; 88%). High psychiatric comorbidity rates were found in adolescents diagnosed with DD. A prevalent history of abuse and traumatic events was represented. Clinicians should be aware of the impacts of DD on adolescents' mental health. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  9. What characteristics of primary anxiety disorders predict subsequent major depressive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Antje; Goodwin, Renee D; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Beesdo, Katja; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind

    2004-05-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the associations between specific anxiety disorders and the risk of major depressive disorder and to explore the role of various clinical characteristics of anxiety disorders in these relationships using a prospective, longitudinal design. The data are from a 4-year prospective, longitudinal community study, which included both baseline and follow-up survey data on 2548 adolescents and young adults aged 14 to 24 years at baseline. DSM-IV diagnoses were made using the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The presence at baseline of any anxiety disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2 [95% CI = 1.6 to 3.2]) and each of the anxiety disorders (specific phobia, OR = 1.9 [95% CI = 1.3 to 2.8]; social phobia, OR = 2.9 [95% CI = 1.7 to 4.8]; agoraphobia, OR = 3.1 [95% CI = 1.4 to 6.7]; panic disorder, OR = 3.4 [95% CI = 1.2 to 9.0]; generalized anxiety disorder, OR = 4.5 [95% CI = 1.9 to 10.3]) was associated with a significantly (p depressive disorder. These associations remained significant after we adjusted for mental disorders occurring prior to the onset of the anxiety disorder, with the exception of the panic disorder association. The following clinical characteristics of anxiety disorders were associated with a significantly (p depressive disorder: more than 1 anxiety disorder, severe impairment due to the anxiety disorder, and comorbid panic attacks. In the final model, which included all clinical characteristics, severe impairment remained the only clinical characteristic that was an independent predictor of the development of major depressive disorder (OR = 2.2 [95% CI = 1.0 to 4.4]). Our findings suggest that anxiety disorders are risk factors for the first onset of major depressive disorder. Although a number of clinical characteristics of anxiety disorders appear to play a role in the association between anxiety disorders and depression, severe impairment is the strongest predictor of major depressive disorder.

  10. Adolescent Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muuss, Rolf E.

    1985-01-01

    Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…

  11. DSM-5: proposed changes to depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Jerome C

    2012-03-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is currently undergoing a revision that will lead to a fifth edition in 2013. Proposed changes for DSM-5 include the creation of several new categories of depressive disorder. Some nosologists have expressed concern that the proposed changes could yield many 'false-positive diagnoses' in which normal distress is mislabeled as a mental disorder. Such confusion of normal distress and mental disorder undermines the interpretability of clinical trials and etiological research, causes inefficient allocation of resources, and incurs risks of unnecessary treatment. To evaluate these concerns, I critically examine five proposed DSM-5 expansions in the scope of depressive and grief disorders: (1) a new mixed anxiety/depression category; (2) a new premenstrual dysphoric disorder category; (3) elimination of the major depression bereavement exclusion; (4) elimination of the adjustment disorder bereavement exclusion, thus allowing the diagnosis of subsyndromal depressive symptoms during bereavement as adjustment disorders; and (5) a new category of adjustment disorder related to bereavement for diagnosing pathological non-depressive grief. I examine each proposal's face validity and conceptual coherence as well as empirical support where relevant, with special attention to potential implications for false-positive diagnoses. I conclude that mixed anxiety/depression and premenstrual dysphoric disorder are needed categories, but are too broadly drawn and will yield substantial false positives; that the elimination of the bereavement exclusion is not supported by the evidence; and that the proposed elimination of the adjustment-disorder bereavement exclusion, as well as the new category of grief-related adjustment disorder, are inconsistent with recent grief research, which suggests that these proposals would massively pathologize normal grief responses.

  12. Comorbid personality disorders among patients with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nahathai Wongpakaran, Tinakon Wongpakaran, Vudhichai Boonyanaruthee, Manee Pinyopornpanish, Suthi Intaprasert Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Purpose: To investigate the personality disorders (PDs diagnosed in patients with depressive disorders.Material and methods: This study included a cross-sectional analysis, and was an extension of the Thai Study of Affective Disorder (THAISAD project. Eighty-five outpatients with depressive disorders were interviewed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess for depression, in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision and using the Thai version of the Structured Clinical Interview for PDs to assess for PD.Results: Seventy-seven percent of the patients had at least one PD, 40% had one PD and 60% had two or more PDs (mixed cluster. The most common PDs found were borderline PD (20% and obsessive–compulsive PD (10.6%, while the occurrence of avoidant PD was low when compared to the findings of previous, related studies. Among the mixed cluster, cluster A combined with cluster C was the common mix. Both dysthymic disorder and double depression were found to have a higher proportion of PDs than major depressive disorder (85.7% versus 76.1%. Dependent PD was found to be less common in this study than in previous studies, including those carried out in Asia.Conclusion: The prevalence of PDs among those with depressive disorder varied, and only borderline PD seems to be consistently high within and across cultures. Mixed cluster plays a prominent role in depression, so more attention should be paid to patients in this category. Keywords: personality disorders, depressive disorder, prevalence, Asian, mixed cluster, SCID-II

  13. Differential Reporting of Adolescent Stress as a Function of Maternal Depression History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Shapero, Benjamin G; Burke, Taylor A; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    The depression-distortion hypothesis posits that depressed mothers report child characteristics in a negatively-biased manner, motivating research on discrepant reporting between depressed mothers and their children. However, the literature has predominately focused on report discrepancies of youth psychopathological and behavioral outcomes, with limited focus on youth stress despite the marked increase of stressful events during adolescence. The current study investigated whether the presence versus absence of a maternal history of major depressive disorder differentially influenced reporting of adolescent stress when compared to her child's report, utilizing a community sample of diverse adolescents. As hypothesized, mothers with a history of depression were more likely to report more youth stress than their children reported. Specifically, mothers with a history of depression were more likely than nondepressed mothers to report more familial, social, and youth-dependent stressors relative to their children; nondepressed mothers were more likely to report less independent stressors than their children.

  14. Problematic eating behaviors in adolescents with low self-esteem and elevated depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Elizabeth A; Gamboz, Julie; Johnson, Jeffrey G

    2008-12-01

    Previous research has indicated that low self-esteem may be an important risk factor for the development of eating disorders. Few longitudinal studies have examined the relationships between low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and eating disorders in adolescents. The present study investigated whether low self-esteem was associated with depressive symptoms and problematic eating behaviors. Measures of low self-esteem and problematic eating behaviors were administered to a sample of 197 adolescent primary-care patients. Depressive symptoms and problematic eating behaviors were assessed ten months later. Youths with low self-esteem were at greater risk for high levels of depressive symptoms and eating disorder symptoms. In addition, depressive symptoms mediated the association of low self-esteem with problematic eating behaviors.

  15. Severity of depressive episodes during the course of depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L.V.

    2008-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether the severity of depressive episodes changes during the course of depressive disorder. Aims To investigate whether the severity of depressive episodes increases during the course of illness. Method Using a Danish nationwide case register, all psychiatric inpatients...... and out-patients with a main ICD-10 diagnosis of a single mild, moderate or severe depressive episode at the end of first contact were identified. Patients included in the study were from the period 1994-2003. Results A total of 19 392 patients received a diagnosis of a single depressive episode at first...... contact. The prevalence of severe depressive episodes increased from 25.5% at the first episode to 50.0% at the 15th episode and the prevalence of psychotic episodes increased from 8.7% at the first episode to 25.0% at the 15th episode. The same pattern was found regardless of gender, age at first contact...

  16. Severity of depressive episodes during the course of depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether the severity of depressive episodes changes during the course of depressive disorder. AIMS: To investigate whether the severity of depressive episodes increases during the course of illness. METHOD: Using a Danish nationwide case register, all psychiatric in......-patients and out-patients with a main ICD-10 diagnosis of a single mild, moderate or severe depressive episode at the end of first contact were identified. Patients included in the study were from the period 1994-2003. RESULTS: A total of 19 392 patients received a diagnosis of a single depressive episode at first...... contact. The prevalence of severe depressive episodes increased from 25.5% at the first episode to 50.0% at the 15th episode and the prevalence of psychotic episodes increased from 8.7% at the first episode to 25.0% at the 15th episode. The same pattern was found regardless of gender, age at first contact...

  17. Randomized controlled trials of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor in treating major depressive disorder in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis of efficacy and acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New generation antidepressant therapies, including serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRIs, were introduced in the late 1980s; however, few comprehensive studies have compared the benefits and risks of various contemporary treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD in young patients. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases was conducted from 1970 to January 2015. Only clinical trials that randomly assigned one SNRI or placebo to patients aged 7 to 18 years who met the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder were included. Treatment success, dropout rate, and suicidal ideation/attempt outcomes were measured. Primary efficacy was determined by pooling the risk ratios (RRs of treatment response and remission. Acceptability was determined by pooling the RRs of dropouts for all reasons and for adverse effects as well as suicide-risk outcomes. Five trials with a total of 973 patients were included. SNRIs were not significantly more effective than placebo for treatment response but were for remission. The comparison of patients taking SNRIs that dropped out for all reasons and those taking placebo did not reach statistical significance. Significantly more patients taking SNRIs dropped out for adverse effects than those taking placebo. No significant difference was found in suicide-related risk outcomes. SNRI therapy does not display a superior efficacy and is not better tolerated compared to placebo in these young patients. However, duloxetine has a potential beneficial effect for depression in young populations, showing a need for further research.

  18. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III

    2007-01-01

    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  19. Depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents: a multi-informant and multi-methods approach to diagnostic classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew James Lewis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Informant discrepancies have been reported between parent and adolescent measures of depressive disorders and suicidality. We aimed to examine the concordance between adolescent and parent ratings of depressive disorder using both clinical interview and questionnaire measures and assess multi-informant and multi-method approaches to classification.Method: Within the context of assessment of eligibility for a randomized clinical trial, 50 parent–adolescent pairs (mean age of adolescents = 15.0 years were interviewed separately with a structured diagnostic interview for depression, the KID-SCID. Adolescent self-report and parent-report versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire were also administered. We examined the diagnostic concordance rates of the parent vs. adolescent structured interview methods and the prediction of adolescent diagnosis via questionnaire methods.Results: Parent proxy reporting of adolescent depression and suicidal thoughts and behavior is not strongly concordant with adolescent report. Adolescent self-reported symptoms on depression scales provide a more accurate report of diagnosable adolescent depression than parent proxy reports of adolescent depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-report measures can be combined to improve the accuracy of classification. Parents tend to over report their adolescent’s depressive symptoms while under reporting their suicidal thoughts and behavior.Conclusion: Parent proxy report is clearly less reliable than the adolescent’s own report of their symptoms and subjective experiences, and could be considered inaccurate for research purposes. While parent report would still be sought clinically where an adolescent refuses to provide information, our findings suggest that parent reporting of adolescent suicidality should be interpreted with caution.

  20. Subthreshold depression in children and adolescents - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselhoeft, Rikke; Sørensen, Merete J; Heiervang, Einar R; Bilenberg, Niels

    2013-10-01

    Depressive disorders are disabling conditions striking at all ages. In adults, subthreshold depression (SD) is viewed as being on a continuum with major depressive disorder (MDD). Whether this holds for children and adolescents, is still unclear. We performed the first systematic review of SD in subjects below 18 years, in order to explore if childhood SD and MDD share causal pathways, phenomenology and outcomes, supporting a dimensional view. A critical systematic review in accordance with preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. A review protocol was developed a priori, and all reports were assessed by two reviewers. The literature search generated 941 eligible references and 24 studies were included. Although diagnostic criteria for SD showed great variability, similarities for SD and MDD were striking. Both were common conditions with similar risk factor patterns. Clinical characteristics in both groups were depressed mood, suicidal ideation and high comorbidity. Outcomes were almost equally poor, with increased psychiatric morbidity and health service use. SD intervention studies showed promising results. Reports with data on SD not reported in keywords or abstract may have been missed by the search strategy. A dimensional view of depressive disorders is also supported in children and adolescents, suggesting SD to be a precursor to MDD. Although SD is a somewhat milder condition than MDD, it has severe outcomes with psychopathology and impairment. There is a need of identifying cost-efficient and longlasting interventions in order to prevent development of early SD into MDD. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Eating disorders in adolescents and their repercussions in oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Rosana; Couto, Geraldo; Sougey, Everton

    2010-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of oral alterations related to eating disorders and associated factors. A cross-sectional study including 650 adolescents aged from 12 to 16 was carried out through self-report questionnaires (EAT-26; BITE and self-rating hamilton depression questionnaire, SRHDQ) and dental examination. Significant associations were observed in mucositis, cheilitis, hypertrophy of salivary glands, and dental erosions. The prevalence of adolescents at risk for eating disorders was of 33.1%, according to EAT-26 and 1.7% (high scores) and 36.5% (medium scores), in BITE, higher among 13-year-old females, with brothers, parents or responsible person who are illiterate, being the youngest child, living in a residence of at most two rooms and who showed depressive symptoms. All these factors showed significant relation to eating disorders. Presence of oral alterations is associated to symptoms of eating disorders, helping precocious detection of sub clinical cases.

  2. Two Prospective Studies of Changes in Stress Generation across Depressive Episodes in Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Hellman, Natalie; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    The stress generation hypothesis was tested in two different longitudinal studies examining relations between weekly depression symptom ratings and stress levels in adolescents and emerging adults at varied risk for depression. Participants in Study 1 included 240 adolescents who differed with regard to their mother’s history of depressive disorders. Youth were assessed annually across 6 years (Grades 6 through 12). Consistent with the depression autonomy model, higher numbers of prior major depressive episodes (MDEs) were associated with weaker stress generation effects, such that higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted increases in levels of dependent stressors for adolescents with ≤ 2 prior MDEs, but depressive symptoms were not significantly related to dependent stress levels for youth with ≥ 3 prior MDEs. In Study 2, participants were 32 remitted-depressed and 36 never-depressed young adults who completed a psychosocial stress task to determine cortisol reactivity and were re-assessed for depression and stress approximately eight months later. Stress generation effects were moderated by cortisol responses to a laboratory psychosocial stressor, such that individuals with higher cortisol responses exhibited a pattern consistent with the depression autonomy model, whereas individuals with lower cortisol responses showed a pattern more consistent with the depression sensitization model. Finally, comparing across the two samples, stress generation effects were weaker for older participants and for those with more prior MDEs. The complex, multi-factorial relation between stress and depression is discussed. PMID:25422968

  3. depressive and post- traumatic stress disorder symptoms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alcohol disorder can both serve to initiate the other. ... (unlike that previously identified), and a J-shaped association between binge drinking frequency and depressive symptoms and ..... O'Donnell K, Wardle J, Dantzer C, Steptoe A. Alcohol.

  4. Sex Differences in Internalizing Problems during Adolescence in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Tasha M.; Winter-Messiers, Mary Ann; Gibson, Brandon; Schmidt, Alexandra M.; Herr, Cynthia M.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that the double hit conferred by sex and diagnosis increases the risk for internalizing disorders in adolescent females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In a sample of 32 adolescents with ASD and 32 controls, we examined the effects of sex, diagnostic factors, and developmental stages on depression and anxiety. A 3-way…

  5. Depression and Anxiety as Possible Mediators of the Association between Smoking and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, Gilat L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Hossain, Shahadut; Johnson, Joy L.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between depression and anxiety and adolescents' smoking status, and to determine whether depression or anxiety mediate the association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and smoking. A cross-sectional survey of tobacco use was conducted in regional school districts…

  6. DYNAMICS OF DEPRESSION AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislava Stoyanova; Venka Petrova

    2015-01-01

    Depression becomes more and more typical for adolescence. The study of dynamics of depression during the teenage years is important for differentiation of the most vulnerable periods for development of depression in this age and to be pointed out some factors that could contribute to triggering, preventing or recovering depression. This study of dynamics of depression was based on Developmental theories of dynamics of depression that relate depression to some vulnerable age groups and on the ...

  7. Migraine symptomatology and major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Lannie; Penninx, Brenda; Nyholt, Dale R.; Distel, Marijn A.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Johannes H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    Introduction and objective: Migraine and major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently co-occur, but it is unclear whether depression is associated with a specific subtype of migraine. The objective of this study was to investigate whether migraine is qualitatively different in MDD patients (N = 1816)

  8. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Child Conflict and Child Depression Through Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R; Wilson, Sylia; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2016-04-04

    Few studies have investigated potential gender differences in the genetic and environmental influences on the prospective associations between parent-child conflict and later depression, a notable gap given substantial gender differences in rates of depression and suggestive evidence of differences in the etiology of depression among females and males. To fill this gap, we evaluated whether the prospective relationship between parent-child conflict and major depressive disorder symptoms varied as a function of parent-child gender composition. A combined twin and adoption sample was used (53% female; 85% European ancestry), containing 1,627 adolescent sibling pairs (789 monozygotic twin pairs, 594 dizygotic/full-biological pairs, 244 genetically unrelated pairs) with assessments at two time points in adolescence (approximate ages 15 and 18). Prospective associations between parent-child conflict and subsequent adolescent depression were explained predominately through common genetic influences for mother-daughter and mother-son pairs but less so for father-daughter and father-son pairs. Results support the notion that processes of gene-environment correlation involved in the prospective associations between parent-child conflict, and later adolescent depression appear to be less relevant to father-child relationships in comparison to mother-child relationships. Notably, results did not show that parent-child conflict was more relevant to the etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) for girls than boys; gender differences in depression do not appear to be due to differences in the associations between parent-child conflict and child depression.

  9. Prognostic significance of functional somatic symptoms in adolescence: a 15-year community-based follow-up study of adolescents with depression compared with healthy peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohman Hannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of population-based long-term longitudinal research on mental health status and functional physical/somatic symptoms. Little is known about the long-term mental health outcomes associated with somatic symptoms or the temporal relationship between depression and such symptoms. This 15-year study followed up adolescents with depression and matched controls, screened from a population-based sample, who reported different numbers of somatic symptoms. Methods The total population of 16–17-year-olds in Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depression in 1991–1993. Adolescents who screened positive and an equal number of healthy controls took part in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. In addition, 21 different self-rated somatic symptoms were assessed. Sixty-four percent of those adolescents participated in a follow-up structured interview 15 years later. Results Somatic symptoms in adolescence predicted depression and other adult mental disorders regardless of the presence of adolescent depression. In adolescents with depression, the number of functional somatic symptoms predicted, in a dose response relationship, suicidal behavior, bipolar episodes, and psychotic episodes as well as chronic and recurrent depression. Contrary to expectations, the somatic symptoms of abdominal pain and perspiration without exertion better predicted depression than all DSM-IV depressive symptoms. Abdominal pain persisted as an independent strong predictor of depression and anxiety, even after controlling for other important confounders. Conclusions Somatic symptoms in adolescence can predict severe adult mental health disorders. The number of somatic symptoms concurrent with adolescent depression is, in a stepwise manner, linked to suicidal attempts, bipolar disorders, psychotic disorders, and recurrent and chronic depression. These findings can be useful in developing treatment guidelines for patients with somatic symptoms.

  10. Pathways linking parental divorce with adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseltine, R H

    1996-06-01

    This article examines the intervening pathways linking parental divorce with adolescent depression, using both cross-sectional and prospective data from a study of high school students in the Boston metropolitan area. Overall, findings reveal that parental divorce is linked with adolescent depression in two ways: (1) it is a source of numerous secondary problems and stresses that are causally related to depression, and (2) it alters youths' reactivity to these stresses, in some cases enhancing, but in other cases mitigating, their depressive effects. Analyses demonstrated the central role of economic hardship in linking family status with depression, with the strength of this indirect pathway partly attributable to the greater vulnerability of youths in single-parent families to financial stresses. In contrast, family conflict did not account for the distress of youths in single-parent families, largely because of their immunity to the effects of such conflict. Finally, prospective data failed to support the hypothesis that differences between youths in single-parent and intact families predate the divorce.

  11. Longitudinal Evaluation of the Role of Academic and Social Impairment and Parent-Adolescent Conflict in the Development of Depression in Adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadeh, Hana-May; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Langberg, Joshua M; Eddy, Laura D; Oddo, Lauren; Molitor, Stephen J; Evans, Steven W

    2017-09-01

    Older adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a significantly increased likelihood of developing comorbid depression. It is important to evaluate factors during the early adolescent period that may contribute to this risk. A predominant theory is that impairment and failure experiences lead to the development of low-self efficacy and depression, and that parent and family factors also play a role. In a sample of 326 young adolescents with ADHD ( Mage = 12), the present study evaluated whether parent-adolescent conflict mediated the association between social and academic impairment and the development of depression. This study builds upon prior work by evaluating these associations longitudinally and by using a multi-rater approach, including the parent, adolescent, and teacher perspectives. Social and academic impairment directly predicted depression controlling for baseline levels of depression and change in ADHD symptoms. The association between social impairment and depression was partially mediated by parent-adolescent conflict. Mediation through conflict was not found for academic impairment, and the association between academic impairment and depression was no longer significant when accounting for conflict. These findings highlight the importance of social impairment in the development of depression in adolescents with ADHD. Caregivers may play an important role in determining whether adolescents with ADHD internalize social impairment and failure experiences and develop depressive symptoms. Implications of these findings in terms of the importance of interventions focused on parent-adolescent conflict are discussed.

  12. Whiplash-associated disorders: who gets depressed? Who stays depressed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Linda J.; Cassidy, J. David; Côté, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Depression is common in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Our objectives were to identify factors associated with depressive symptomatology occurring in the initial stages of WAD, and to identify factors predicting the course of depressive symptoms. A population-based cohort of adults sustaining traffic-related WAD was followed at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Baseline measures (assessed a median of 11 days post-crash) included demographic and collision-related factors, prior health, and initial post-crash pain and symptoms. Depressive symptomatology was assessed at baseline and at each follow-up using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We included only those who participated at all follow-ups (n = 3,452; 59% of eligible participants). Using logistic regression, we identified factors associated with initial (post-crash) depression. Using multinomial regression, we identified baseline factors predicting course of depression. Courses of depression were no depression; initial depression that resolves, recurs or persists, and later onset depression. Factors associated with initial depression included greater neck and low back pain severity, greater percentage of body in pain, numbness/tingling in arms/hand, dizziness, vision problems, post-crash anxiety, fracture, prior mental health problems, and poorer general health. Predictors of persistent depression included older age, greater initial neck and low back pain, post-crash dizziness, vision and hearing problems, numbness/tingling in arms/hands, anxiety, prior mental health problems, and poorer general health. Recognition of these underlying risk factors may assist health care providers to predict the course of psychological reactions and to provide effective interventions. PMID:20127261

  13. Storm in My Brain: Kids and Mood Disorders (Bipolar Disorder and Depression)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Kids and Mood Disorders (Bipolar Disorder and Depression) What is a mood disorder? Everyone feels sad, ... one part of bipolar disorder, also called manic depression. In bipolar disorder, moods change between mania (excited ...

  14. Cortical thickness predicts the first onset of major depression in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foland-Ross, Lara C; Sacchet, Matthew D; Prasad, Gautam; Gilbert, Brooke; Thompson, Paul M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-11-01

    Given the increasing prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder and recent advances in preventative treatments for this disorder, an important challenge in pediatric neuroimaging is the early identification of individuals at risk for depression. We examined whether machine learning can be used to predict the onset of depression at the individual level. Thirty-three never-disordered adolescents (10-15 years old) underwent structural MRI. Participants were followed for 5 years to monitor the emergence of clinically significant depressive symptoms. We used support vector machines (SVMs) to test whether baseline cortical thickness could reliably distinguish adolescents who develop depression from adolescents who remained free of any Axis I disorder. Accuracies from subsampled cross-validated classification were used to assess classifier performance. Baseline cortical thickness correctly predicted the future onset of depression with an overall accuracy of 70% (69% sensitivity, 70% specificity; p=0.021). Examination of SVM feature weights indicated that the right medial orbitofrontal, right precentral, left anterior cingulate, and bilateral insular cortex contributed most strongly to this classification. These findings indicate that cortical gray matter structure can predict the subsequent onset of depression. An important direction for future research is to elucidate mechanisms by which these anomalies in gray matter structure increase risk for developing this disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Within-person Changes in Individual Symptoms of Depression Predict Subsequent Depressive Episodes in Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Morris, Matthew C.; Garber, Judy

    2015-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined which individual symptoms of depression uniquely predicted a subsequent Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in adolescents, and whether these relations differed by sex. Adolescents (N=240) were first interviewed in grade 6 (M=11.86 years old; SD = 0.56; 54% female; 81.5% Caucasian) and then annually through grade 12 regarding their individual symptoms of depression as well as the occurrence of MDEs. Individual symptoms of depression were assessed with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and depressive episodes were assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results showed that within-person changes in sleep problems and low self-esteem/excessive guilt positively predicted an increased likelihood of an MDE for both boys and girls. Significant sex differences also were found. Within-person changes in anhedonia predicted an increased likelihood of a subsequent MDE among boys, whereas irritability predicted a decreased likelihood of a future MDE among boys, and concentration difficulties predicted a decreased likelihood of an MDE in girls. These results identified individual depressive symptoms that predicted subsequent depressive episodes in male and female adolescents, and may be used to guide the early detection, treatment, and prevention of depressive disorders in youth. PMID:26105209

  16. Differentiating Adolescent Self-Injury from Adolescent Depression: Possible Implications for Borderline Personality Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hsiao, Ray C.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Yaptangco, Mona; Linehan, Marsha M.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Self-inflicted injury (SII) in adolescence marks heightened risk for suicide attempts, completed suicide, and adult psychopathology. Although several studies have revealed elevated rates of depression among adolescents who self injure, no one has compared adolescent self injury with adolescent depression on biological, self-, and informant-report…

  17. [Enviromental factors related to depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Benítez, Catalina Teresa; García-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Leal-Ugarte, Evelia; Peralta-Leal, Valeria; Durán-González, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    As a result of their high prevalence, mayor depressive disorder single episode (MDDSE); major depressive disorder recurrent episodes (MDDREC); and dysthymia are considered an important public health problem. The objective of this paper was to identify and correlate environmental factors in patients with MDDSE, MDDREC and dysthymia. 121 patients from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social's Subzone General Hospital of San Andres Tuxtla, at Veracruz, were questioned by history with the risk variables. 16 of them were diagnosed with MDDREC, 72 with MDD and 33 with dysthymia; in all of those cases, females prevailed. Depressive disorders were observed more frequently in people over 40 years, married, with medium or low educational level, with dysfunctional family environment, victims of family violence and who were the middle siblings. The main comorbidities that arose were gastrointestinal disorders, obesity and hypertension. 16 of them were diagnosed with MDDREC, 72 with MDD and 33 with dysthymia; in all of those cases, females prevailed. Depressive disorders were observed more frequently in people over 40 years, married, with medium or low educational level, with dysfunctional family environment, victims of family violence and who were the middle siblings. The main comorbidities that arose were gastrointestinal disorders, obesity and hypertension. The main risk factors identified for developing depressive disorders were: being female, over 40 years old and being married. The differences obtained in this study, if it is compared with others, are probably due to sample size, selection criteria and ethnic origin.

  18. Relationship between Comorbidity of Cluster Personality Disorders with Major Depression Disorder and Depression Relapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Tamanaei-Far

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this research studied the relation between cluster B personality disorders and major depression disorder with relapse. Materials & Methods: In this analytical and comparative study, samples consisted of the major depressive disorders patients that had experienced major depression through 5 years ago and were experiencing partial remission in research time. Samples were selected by non probability sampling in outpatient centers. The patients with more than two relapses were assigned as case group and the patients without any relapse were assigned as control group (two groups on the base of demographic in formations were matched. They completed BDI_II and SCID_II to assess cluster B personality disorders, and a questionnaire made by researcher to gather information’s. Results: Comorbidity of borderline personality disorder (P<0.001 and narcissitic personality disorder (P=0.016 with depression in patient with relapse of the depression is more significantly than patients with first episode of depression, but comorbidity of exhibitive personality disorder with depression and relapse had no significant difference between two groups (P=0.401. Conclusion: according to the relationship between narcissistic and borderline personality disorders and the role of them in relapse of depression, for making an effective psychotherapy for depression, it is necessary to consider personality beside special symptoms.

  19. Whiplash-associated disorders: who gets depressed? Who stays depressed?

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Leah A.; Carroll, Linda J.; Cassidy, J. David; Côté, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Depression is common in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Our objectives were to identify factors associated with depressive symptomatology occurring in the initial stages of WAD, and to identify factors predicting the course of depressive symptoms. A population-based cohort of adults sustaining traffic-related WAD was followed at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Baseline measures (assessed a median of 11 days post-crash) included demographic and collision-related factors, prior health, an...

  20. MEDIATOR EFFECTS OF POSITIVE EMOTIONS ON SOCIAL SUPPORT AND DEPRESSION AMONG ADOLESCENTS SUFFERING FROM MOBILE PHONE ADDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Menglong; Jiang, Xia; Ren, Yujia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Depression is a common mental disorder that is widely seen among adolescents suffering from mobile phone addiction. While it is well known that both positive emtions in adolescents wiotions and social support can have a positive impact by helping individuals to maintain a positive attitude, the correlation between positive emotions, social support, and depression among these adolescents remains to be investigated. This study examined the mediator effects of positive emoti...

  1. Preventing Adolescent Social Anxiety and Depression and Reducing Peer Victimization: Intervention Development and Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn

    2016-01-01

    Background Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the development and initial evaluation of a transdiagnostic school-based preventive intervention for adolescents with elevated symptoms of social anxiety and/or depression and elevated peer victimization. We modified Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training for depression, incorporating strategies for dealing with social anxiety and peer victimization. Objective Our open trial assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary benefit of the modified program (called UTalk) for adolescents at risk for SAD or depression and who also reported peer victimization. Method Adolescents (N=14; 13–18 years; 79% girls; 86% Hispanic) were recruited and completed measures of peer victimization, social anxiety, and depression both pre- and post-intervention and provided ratings of treatment satisfaction. Independent evaluators (IEs) rated youths’ clinical severity. The intervention (3 individual and 10 group sessions) was conducted weekly during school. Results Regarding feasibility, 86% of the adolescents completed the intervention (M attendance=11.58 sessions). Satisfaction ratings were uniformly positive. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed significant declines in adolescent- and IE-rated social anxiety and depression and in reports of peer victimization. Additional secondary benefits were observed. Conclusions Although further evaluation is needed, the UTalk intervention appears feasible to administer in schools, with high satisfaction and preliminary benefit. Implications for research on the prevention of adolescent SAD and depression are discussed. PMID:27857509

  2. Depression and anxiety in multisomatoform disorder: Prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Multisomatoform disorder (MSD) is characterised by ≥3 medically inexplicable, troublesome physical symptoms, together with a ≥2-year history of somatisation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in a South African sample MSD, and to compare demographic ...

  3. Major depressive and anxiety disorders in visually impaired older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, H.P.A.; Comijs, H.C.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.; van Nispen, R.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE. We assessed the prevalence of subthreshold depression and anxiety, and major depressive, dysthymic, and anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, and general anxiety disorder) in visually impaired older adults and compared these estimates with those of normally sighted

  4. Promoting homework adherence in cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, Nathaniel J; Shirk, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    This study used prospective, observational methods to evaluate six features of therapist behavior as predictors of homework adherence in cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression, with the goal of identifying therapist strategies with the potential to improve adolescent adherence. Therapist behaviors were expected to interact with initial levels of client resistance or adherence to predict subsequent homework completion. Participants were 50 referred adolescents (33 female, 54% ethnic minority) ages 14 to 18 (M = 15.9) meeting diagnostic criteria for a depressive disorder, and without comorbid psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, or concurrent treatments. Therapist homework-related behaviors were coded from audiotapes of Sessions 1 and 2 and used to predict adolescents' homework adherence, coded from audiotapes of Sessions 2 and 3. Several therapist behaviors were predictive of subsequent homework adherence, particularly for initially resistant or nonadherent adolescents. Stronger homework rationale and greater time allocated to explaining homework in Session 1 predicted greater adherence at Session 2, particularly for initially resistant adolescents. Stronger rationale and eliciting reactions/troubleshooting obstacles in Session 2 predicted greater adherence at Session 3, particularly for adolescents who were less adherent to prior homework. Strategies such as providing a strong rationale, allocating more time to assigning homework, and eliciting reactions/troubleshooting obstacles may be effective ways to bolster homework adherence among initially less engaged, depressed teens.

  5. Sexual minority youth and depressive symptoms or depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Mathijs Fg; Stasiak, Karolina; Samra, Rajvinder; Frampton, Christopher Ma; Merry, Sally N

    2017-08-01

    Research has suggested that sexual minority young people are more likely to have depressive symptoms or depressive disorder, but to date most studies in the field have relied on convenience-based samples. This study overcomes this limitation by systematically reviewing the literature from population-based studies and conducting a meta-analysis to identify whether depressive disorder and depressive symptoms are elevated in sexual minority youth. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted and informed by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement to determine if rates of depressive symptoms or depressive disorder differ for sexual minority youth, relative to heterosexual adolescents. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE and ERIC databases were searched. Studies reporting depressive symptom data or the prevalence of depressive disorder in population-based samples of adolescents, which included sexual minority youth and heterosexual young people, were included in the review. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine differences between groups. Twenty-three articles met the inclusion criteria. The proportion of sexual minority youth in the studies ranged from 2.3% to 12%. Sexual minority youth reported higher rates of depressive symptoms and depressive disorder (odds ratio = 2.94, p depressive symptoms when compared to male sexual minority youth (standardized mean difference, d = 0.34, p depressive symptoms or depressive disorder was measured. There is robust evidence that rates of depressive disorder and depressive symptoms are elevated in sexual minority youth in comparison to heterosexual young people. Despite the elevated risk of depressive symptoms or depressive disorder for sexual minority youth, the treatment for this group of young people has received little attention.

  6. Anxiety and depression: One, two or three disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novović Zdenka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with theoretical psychiatric proposals about relations between anxiety and depressive disorders. Three theoretical positions developed on the basis of numerous evidence on relationship of anxiety and depressive disorders: unitaristic (anxious and depressive disorders represent one disorder with different clinical pictures or phases of the disorder, pluralistic (there are two classes of disorders with clearly recognizable boundaries and anxious-depressive position (mixed anxious-depressive disorder represents also a single disorder. Possible reasons for antagonisms, connections (i.e. lack of connections to some proposals of psychologists are commented upon, as well as the significance of this problem for classification of mental disorders in general.

  7. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  8. RSA fluctuation in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, Jonathan; Clift, April; Bolden, Sarah; Salomon, Kristen

    2007-05-01

    Cardiac vagal control, as measured by indices of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), has been investigated as a marker of impaired self-regulation in mental disorders, including depression. Past work in depressed samples has focused on deficits in resting RSA levels, with mixed results. This study tested the hypothesis that depression involves abnormal RSA fluctuation. RSA was measured in depressed and healthy control participants during rest and during two reactivity tasks, each followed by a recovery period. Relative to controls, depressed persons exhibited lower resting RSA levels as well as less RSA fluctuation, primarily evidenced by a lack of task-related vagal suppression. Group differences in RSA fluctuation were not accounted for by differences in physical health or respiration, whereas group differences in resting RSA level did not survive covariate analyses. Depression may involve multiple deficits in cardiac vagal control.

  9. Anxiety and depression: One, two or three disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Novović Zdenka

    2004-01-01

    The study deals with theoretical psychiatric proposals about relations between anxiety and depressive disorders. Three theoretical positions developed on the basis of numerous evidence on relationship of anxiety and depressive disorders: unitaristic (anxious and depressive disorders represent one disorder with different clinical pictures or phases of the disorder), pluralistic (there are two classes of disorders with clearly recognizable boundaries) and anxious-depressive position (mixed anxi...

  10. Functional MRI of emotional memory in adolescent depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary J. Holt

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that during adolescence neurophysiological activity associated with emotional memory differs in those with depression compared to controls and may be age sensitive.

  11. Development of an Adolescent Depression Ontology for Analyzing Social Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyesil; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Song, Tae-Min; Jeon, Eunjoo; Kim, Ae Ran; Lee, Joo Yun

    2015-01-01

    Depression in adolescence is associated with significant suicidality. Therefore, it is important to detect the risk for depression and provide timely care to adolescents. This study aims to develop an ontology for collecting and analyzing social media data about adolescent depression. This ontology was developed using the 'ontology development 101'. The important terms were extracted from several clinical practice guidelines and postings on Social Network Service. We extracted 777 terms, which were categorized into 'risk factors', 'sign and symptoms', 'screening', 'diagnosis', 'treatment', and 'prevention'. An ontology developed in this study can be used as a framework to understand adolescent depression using unstructured data from social media.

  12. Eating Disorders in Child and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Onal Sonmez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are relatively common and serious disorders in adolescent and pre-adolescent age. The aim of this review is to update new findings related with mostly seen feeding and eating disorders in child and adolescents. The article focuses specifically on anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 301-316

  13. Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents : Gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman-Peeters, K.M.; Ormel, J.; van Sonderen, E.L.; den Boer, J.A.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hartman, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In offspring of depressed parents a second parent with emotional problems is likely to increase risk of emotional disorder. This effect may however differ between sons and daughters and between offspring of depressed fathers and offspring of depressed mothers. In adolescent and young-adult offspring

  14. Prevalence and correlates of body dysmorphic disorder in a community sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sophie C; Turner, Cynthia M; Mond, Jonathan; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2017-06-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder typically begins in adolescence, yet little is known about the prevalence and correlates of the disorder in this age group. The current study aimed to explore the presenting features of adolescents meeting probable criteria for body dysmorphic disorder in a large community sample, and compare levels of comorbid psychopathology, quality of life and mental health service use between adolescents with probable body dysmorphic disorder and those without. Questionnaires were completed at school by 3149 adolescents: 63% male, aged 12-18 years ( M = 14.58). These assessed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) body dysmorphic disorder criteria, past mental health service use and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders. In male participants, additional measures assessed quality of life, muscularity concerns, emotional symptoms, peer problems, conduct problems and hyperactivity. The prevalence of probable body dysmorphic disorder was 1.7%; there was no sex difference in prevalence, but older adolescents reported higher prevalence than younger adolescents. Probable body dysmorphic disorder participants reported substantially elevated levels of psychopathology, quality of life impairment and mental health service use compared to non-body dysmorphic disorder participants. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in adolescents is similar to adult samples, and probable body dysmorphic disorder is associated with comorbidity, distress and functional impairment in a community sample. Further research is required to better understand the presentation of body dysmorphic disorder in adolescents, and to improve diagnosis and treatment.

  15. [Clinical study of comparing comorbidity between depression and neurological disorder with depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; He, Mao-Lin; Li, Shun-Wei

    2010-01-26

    To compare the clinical traits in comorbidity between depression and neurological disorder with depressive disorder and explore the characteristic of the outpatients with neurological disorder comorbidity in depression. According to Diagnosis and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorder-IV (DSM-IV) criteria, outpatients were diagnosed as depressive disorder at Departments of Neurology and Psychology. We used HAMD-17 scale to evaluate the patient's severity. There was no statistical difference in severity of depression in two groups. But the clinical traits showed significant differences between two outpatient groups: the outpatients with neurological disorder comorbidity in depression were elder, had more somatic disorders and a higher retard symptom factor score while the other are relative younger, have less physical disorders and higher the core symptom factor score on the other hand. The patients of comorbidity between depression and neurological disorders have unique clinical traits. Thus it will be helpful to improve the identification of diagnosis and choose an appropriate treatment if we know the differences well.

  16. Physical Exercise as an Adjunct Treatment for Adolescent Depression

    OpenAIRE

    SARA RADOVIC

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that exercise is effective in the treatment of depression amongst adults, however limited research has explored the role of exercise in the treatment of adolescent depression. This thesis demonstrated that an individualised, self-directed exercise intervention is feasible and effective in reducing depressive symptoms amongst depressed adolescents. Additionally, this thesis demonstrated that mental health clinicians hold favourable attitudes towards the use of exercise in the...

  17. The Association between Depression and Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müsemma Karabel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Depression, a challenging disorder, affects 1–6% of adolescents and early onset often predicts more serious manifestations in later life. Elevated Parathyroid hormone (PTH, parathormone levels have reported among adults with depression. In this study, the roles of 25(OH D (vitamin D and parathormone during adolescence, in which the frequency of depression is high, were studied. Materials and Methods Patients who were followed-up jointly at both clinics and whose 25(OH D and PTH levels were evaluated and questioned "Depression Scale for Children" for depression at the same time, were included in the study. Cases’ socio-demographic data, 25(OH D and PTH levels and Depression Scale’ scores were recorded. Results Depression was diagnosed in 35 (25.3% of the 138 patients. No differences were found between vitamin D and parathormone in terms of age and gender in groups either with or without depression. Negative correlation was found between the vitamin D levels and depression score in the group with depression   (r=-0.368; P=0.03. A significant and positive correlation was found between the PTH levels and depression score (r=0.399; P=0.018. A significant and negative correlation was found between 25(OH D and PTH levels. Conclusion Even if clinical depression is absent, the frequency of depressive symptoms is increased with decreased vitamin D levels and increased PTH levels, independent of other factors.  The prevention of depression, specifically in adolescents, is important to decrease possible suicidal and homicidal thoughts that might arise during adulthood, and substance abuse. Maintaining vitamin D support during adolescence, as with the first year of life, is necessary for both the prevention and treatment of depression.

  18. Current comorbidity among consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients with DSM-IV mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Linnea; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Ruuttu, Titta; Kiviruusu, Olli; Heilä, Hannele; Holi, Matti; Kettunen, Kirsi; Tuisku, Virpi; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Törrönen, Johanna; Marttunen, Mauri

    2006-06-01

    To compare selected characteristics (age, sex, age of onset for depression, impairment, severity of depression, somatic comorbidity, and treatment status) of adolescents with currently comorbid and non-comorbid depression. A sample of 218 consecutive adolescent (13-19 years) psychiatric outpatients with depressive disorders, and 200 age- and sex-matched school-attending controls were interviewed for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II diagnoses. Current comorbidity, most commonly with anxiety disorders, was equally frequent (>70%) in outpatients and depressed controls. Younger age (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.08, 0.51) and male gender (OR 0.02; 95% CI 0.09, 0.55) were associated with concurrent disruptive disorders. Current comorbidity with substance use disorders (SUD) was independent of age (OR 1.13; 95% CI 0.51, 2.49) and sex (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.22, 1.17). Personality disorders associated with older age (OR 2.06; 95% CI 1.10, 3.86). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, impairment (GAF depression and lifetime age of onset for depression were not. Adolescent depression presents with age- and sex-dependent patterns of multiple co-occurring problem areas. While many clinical characteristics of adolescent depression are not affected by comorbidity, comorbidity associates with increased impairment.

  19. Relationship between social phobia and depression differs between boys and girls in mid-adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Fröjd, Sari; Ranta, Klaus; Marttunen, Mauri; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2011-09-01

    Earlier studies suggest that social phobia (SP) and depression (DEP) often have their onset in adolescence, and are highly comorbid, with SP mainly preceding depression. There is a lack of population-based prospective studies among adolescents vulnerable to both disorders, taking into account possible gender differences in the relationship between the two. This study is part of a prospective Adolescent Mental Health Cohort (AMHC) study. Subjects are 9th grade pupils (mean age 15.5 years (sd 0.39)) responding to a survey conducted 2002-2003 (T1) and a 2-year follow-up 2004-2005 (T2) (N=2038). Social phobia was measured by the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) and depression by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13). Risk for depression at T2 by SP at T1 was elevated only among boys (OR 3.6, 95% C.I. 1.507-8.579, p=0.004), whereas among girls, risk for SP at T2 by DEP at T1 was elevated (OR 7.8, 95% CI 4.529-13.391, pdepression in adolescence seems different for boys and girls. Further studies are needed to explore factors explaining the different course of these disorders among boys and girls. Clinicians need to be alert to comorbidity when examining an adolescent with SP or depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Internet Use, Depression, and Anxiety in a Healthy Adolescent Population: Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Robyn Pauline; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael

    2018-05-22

    Psychiatric disorders, including conduct disturbances, substance abuse, and affective disorders, emerge in approximately 20% of adolescents. In parallel with the rise in internet use, the prevalence of depression among adolescents has increased. It remains unclear whether and how internet use impacts mental health in adolescents. We assess the association between patterns of internet use and two mental health outcomes (depression and anxiety) in a healthy adolescent population. A total of 126 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 15 years were recruited. Participants reported their typical computer and internet usage patterns. At baseline and one-year follow-up, they completed the Beck Depression Index for primary care (BDI-PC) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory for Primary Care (BAI-PC). Individual linear regressions were completed to determine the association between markers of internet use at baseline and mental health outcomes at one-year follow-up. All models controlled for age, gender, and ethnicity. There was an inverse correlation between minutes spent on a favorite website per visit and BAI-PC score. No association was found between internet use and BDI-PC score. There is no relationship between internet use patterns and depression in adolescents, whereas internet use may mitigate anxiety in adolescents with higher levels of baseline anxiety. ©Robyn Pauline Thom, David S Bickham, Michael Rich. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 22.05.2018.

  1. Cognitive hypnotherapy for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladin, Assen

    2012-04-01

    Since the publication of the special issue on cognitive hypnotherapy in the Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly (1994), there have been major developments in the application of hypnosis to the treatment of depression. However, there is no "one-size-fits-all" treatment for depressive disorders as the conditions represent a complex set of heterogeneous symptoms, involving multiple etiologies. It is thus important for therapists to promote a multimodal approach to treating depressive disorders. This article describes cognitive hypnotherapy (CH), an evidence-based multimodal psychological treatment that can be applied to a wide range of depressed patients. CH combines hypnosis with cognitive behavior therapy as the latter provides the best integrative lodestone for assimilating empirically supported treatment techniques derived from various psychotherapies.

  2. Validity and reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale on Colombians adolescent students Validez y confiabilidad de la escala del Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression en estudiantes adolescentes de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    José Fidel Latorre; Álvaro Andrés Navarro-Mancilla; Mauricio Escobar; Jorge Augusto Franco; Paul Anthony Camacho; Germán Eduardo Rueda-Jaimes

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Major depressive disorder is the second major cause of adolescent psychological incapacitation in Latin-America. However, scales for detecting these disorders have not been validated for screening adolescents in Colombia.
    Objective. The validity and reliability of a Spanish translation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies (CES-D)-Depression scale was assessed in adolescent students.
    Materials and methods. A validation study for a diagnostic scale was per...

  3. Axis I anxiety and mental health disorders among stuttering adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Anthony; Menzies, Ross G; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Lowe, Robyn; Iverach, Lisa; Heard, Robert; Block, Susan

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate anxiety and psychological functioning among adolescents seeking speech therapy for stuttering using a structured, diagnostic interview and psychological questionnaires. This study also sought to determine whether any differences in psychological status were evident between younger and older adolescents. Participants were 37 stuttering adolescents seeking stuttering treatment. We administered the Computerized Voice Version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, and five psychometric tests. Participants were classified into younger (12-14 years; n=20) and older adolescents (15-17 years; n=17). Thirty-eight percent of participants attained at least one diagnosis of a mental disorder, according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; APA, 2000), with the majority of these diagnoses involving anxiety. This figure is double current estimates for general adolescent populations, and is consistent with our finding of moderate and moderate-severe quality of life impairment. Although many of the scores on psychological measures fell within the normal range, older adolescents (15-17 years) reported significantly higher anxiety, depression, reactions to stuttering, and emotional/behavioral problems, than younger adolescents (12-14 years). There was scant evidence that self-reported stuttering severity is correlated with mental health issues. There are good reasons to believe these results are conservative because many participants gave socially desirable responses about their mental health status. These results reveal a need for large-scale, statistically powerful assessments of anxiety and other mental disorders among stuttering adolescents with reference to control populations. The reader will be able to: (a) explain the clinical importance of assessing for mental health with stuttering adolescents, (b) state the superior method for adolescent mental

  4. Etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Filgueiras, Juliana Fernandes; Oliveira, Fernanda da Costa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to construct an etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls. A total of 1,358 adolescent girls from four cities participated. The study used psychometric scales to assess disordered eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, media pressure, self-esteem, mood, depressive symptoms, and perfectionism. Weight, height, and skinfolds were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%F). Structural equation modeling explained 76% of variance in disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 74.50; p = 0.001). The findings indicate that body dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between media pressures, self-esteem, mood, BMI, %F, and disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 59.89; p = 0.001). Although depressive symptoms were not related to body dissatisfaction, the model indicated a direct relationship with disordered eating behaviors (F(2, 1,356) = 23.98; p = 0.001). In conclusion, only perfectionism failed to fit the etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

  5. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients.

  6. Neural Reward Processing Mediates the Relationship between Insomnia Symptoms and Depression in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casement, Melynda D; Keenan, Kate E; Hipwell, Alison E; Guyer, Amanda E; Forbes, Erika E

    2016-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that insomnia may disrupt reward-related brain function-a potentially important factor in the development of depressive disorder. Adolescence may be a period during which such disruption is especially problematic given the rise in the incidence of insomnia and ongoing development of neural systems that support reward processing. The present study uses longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that disruption of neural reward processing is a mechanism by which insomnia symptoms-including nocturnal insomnia symptoms (NIS) and nonrestorative sleep (NRS)-contribute to depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Participants were 123 adolescent girls and their caregivers from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. NIS and NRS were assessed annually from ages 9 to 13 years. Girls completed a monetary reward task during a functional MRI scan at age 16 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed at ages 16 and 17 years. Multivariable regression tested the prospective associations between NIS and NRS, neural response during reward anticipation, and the mean number of depressive symptoms (omitting sleep problems). NRS, but not NIS, during early adolescence was positively associated with late adolescent dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) response to reward anticipation and depressive symptoms. DMPFC response mediated the relationship between early adolescent NRS and late adolescent depressive symptoms. These results suggest that NRS may contribute to depression by disrupting reward processing via altered activity in a region of prefrontal cortex involved in affective control. The results also support the mechanistic differentiation of NIS and NRS. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. The Roles of Sex, Gender, and Coping in Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cindy Ellen; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Froh, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of coping and masculinity in higher rates of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls, as compared to boys. A model was designed and tested through path analysis, which involved the variables of sex, gender, problem-focused coping, rumination, and distraction. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale and the Bem…

  8. Sex differences in adolescent depression: do sex hormones determine vulnerability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naninck, E.F.G.; Lucassen, P.J.; Bakker, J.

    2011-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common, costly and severe psychopathologies worldwide. Its incidence, however, differs significantly between the sexes, and depression rates in women are twice those of men. Interestingly, this sex difference emerges during adolescence. Although the adolescent period is

  9. Components of Adolescent Depression in a Cross-Cultural Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Margaret

    Alaska has the highest rate in the nation of depression, alcohol and drug abuse, and adolescent suicide. The prevention of depression and suicide is complex because of many impinging variables. Data from a sample of 40 adolescents referred to a residential treatment center in Alaska revealed that a rapid change in life style of the Alaskan natives…

  10. Social Skills Training to Reduce Depression in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Michael K.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluated efficacy of Structured Learning Therapy (SLT), which focuses on developing social competencies, self-evaluation skills, and appropriate affective expression, in treating adolescent depression. Findings from 18 adolescents randomly assigned to either SLT treatment or control group suggest that SLT reliably reduced depression in males and…

  11. Depressive personality and treatment outcome in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Andrew G; Quilty, Lena C; Vachon, David D; Bagby, R Michael

    2010-06-01

    Depressive personality disorder (DPD) is currently included in the DSM-IV Appendix B, Criteria Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study. Evidence of the clinical utility of DPD will likely play an important role in the determination of whether it warrants inclusion in future editions of DSM. The current investigation examines the capacity of DPD traits to predict overall and preferential treatment outcome for patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) (N = 120) using data from a randomized control trial, which included cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy (IPT), and antidepressant medication (ADM) treatment arms. Patients were treated for 16-20 weeks and completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders Questionnaire (SCID-II/PQ) and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression immediately before and after treatment. Higher scores on a dimensionalized SCID-II/PQ subscale assessing DPD traits were associated with poor outcome for IPT, but not CBT or ADM. This result remained after accounting for variance associated with other personality disorder (PD) traits; none of the other 10 main text PDs predicted treatment outcome.

  12. Personal and Perceived Depression Stigma among Arab Adolescents: Associations with Depression Severity and Personal Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa Ali; Silva, Susan G; Smoski, Moria J; Noonan, Devon; Simmons, Leigh Ann

    2017-10-01

    In Arab communities, the selection, utilization, and attitudes towards mental health services are substantially affected by existing mental illness stigma. However, little is known about how the stigma of depression manifests among Arab adolescents, which makes it difficult to design, implement, and disseminate effective anti-stigma interventions for this vulnerable population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine levels of depression stigma among Arab adolescents. The specific aims were to (1) describe the severity of personal and perceived depression stigma among Arab adolescents and its relationship to severity of depression, and (2) determine characteristics associated with severity of depression stigma among Arab adolescents. This study was conducted in Jordan, a Middle Eastern Arab country. A nationally representative, school-based survey was utilized. A total of 2349 Jordanian adolescents aged 12-17 completed and returned the survey packets, which included measures on individual characteristics, depression severity, and depression stigma. The majority of the adolescents (88%) reported scores indicating moderate to high depression stigma. Adolescents reported higher rates of perceived stigma than personal stigma. Depression stigma was not significantly associated with severity of depression, but with adolescent's sex, age, region of residence, parents' education, and history of mental health problem. This is the first Arab study to isolate the influence of adolescent depression and personal characteristics on personal and perceived depression stigmas, and highlight the presence of these distinctions early in adolescence. Such distinction can inform the design and implementation of policies and interventions to reduce both personal and perceived stigma. The study provides important recommendations on when, how, and why to utilize school settings for anti-depression stigma interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with depression symptoms among school-going adolescents in Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalugya-Sserunjogi, Joyce; Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Ovuga, Emilio; Kiwuwa, Steven M; Musisi, Seggane; Nakimuli-Mpungu, Etheldreda

    2016-01-01

    Depression in adolescents constitutes a global public health concern. However, data on its prevalence and associated factors are limited in low income countries like Uganda. Using a cross-sectional descriptive study design, 519 adolescent students in 4 secondary schools in Mukono district, Uganda, were randomly selected after meeting study criteria. The 4 school types were: boarding mixed (boys and girls) school; day mixed school; girls' only boarding school; and, boys' only boarding school. The 519 participants filled out standardized questionnaires regarding their socio-demographic characteristics and health history. They were then screened for depression using the Children Depression Inventory (CDI) and those with a cut-off of 19 were administered the Mini International Neuro-Psychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents 2.0 (MINI-KID), to ascertain the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM IV) diagnostic types of depression and any co morbidity. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with significant depression symptoms (a score of 19 or more on the CDI). There were 301 (58 %) boys and 218 (42 %) girls with age range 14-16 years and a mean age of 16 years (SD 2.18). Of 519 participants screened with the CDI, 109 (21 %) had significant depression symptoms. Of the 109 participants with significant depression symptoms, only 74 were evaluated with the MINI-KID and of these, 8 (11 %) met criteria for major depression and 6 (8 %) met criteria for dysthymia. Therefore, among participants that were assessed with both the CDI and the MINI-KID (n = 484), the prevalence of depressive disorders was 2.9 %. In this sample, 15 (3.1 %) reported current suicidal ideation. In the logistic regression analyses, significant depression symptoms were associated with single-sex schools, loss of parents and alcohol consumption. This is a cross-sectional study therefore, causal relationships are difficult to

  14. Construct Validity of Adolescent Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Elkins, Irene J.; Legrand, Lisa; Peuschold, Dawn; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosed in adolescence. Boys and girls were grouped by history of DSM-III-R conduct disorder (CD) and ASPD: Controls (n = 340) had neither diagnosis; CD Only (n = 77) had CD by age 17 but no ASPD through age 20; Adolescent ASPD (n = 64) had ASPD by age 17. The…

  15. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Child Conflict and Child Depression Through Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Wilson, Sylia; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Few studies have investigated potential gender differences in the genetic and environmental influences on the prospective associations between parent-child conflict and later depression, a notable gap given substantial gender differences in rates of depression and suggestive evidence of differences in the etiology of depression among females and males. To fill this gap, we evaluated whether the prospective relationship between parent-child conflict and major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms varied as a function of parent-child gender composition. Method A combined twin and adoption sample was used (53% female; 85% European ancestry), containing 1,627 adolescent sibling pairs (789 monozygotic twin pairs, 594 dizygotic/full-biological pairs, 244 genetically unrelated pairs) with assessments at two time points in adolescence (ages ~15 to ~18). Results Prospective associations between parent-child conflict and subsequent adolescent depression were explained predominately through common genetic influences for mother-daughter and mother-son pairs, but less so for father-daughter and father-son pairs. Conclusion Processes of gene-environment correlation involved in the prospective associations between parent-child conflict and later adolescent depression appear to be less relevant to father-child relationships in comparison to mother-child relationships. Notably, results did not show parent-child conflict was more relevant to the etiology of MDD for girls than boys; gender differences in depression do not appear to be due to differences in the associations between parent-child conflict and child depression. PMID:27043719

  16. Spirituality Moderates Hopelessness, Depression, and Suicidal Behavior among Malaysian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Mansor Abu; Abdollahi, Abbas

    2017-06-01

    Suicide is an important public health problem for adolescents, and it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the etiology of suicide among adolescent students. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the associations between hopelessness, depression, spirituality, and suicidal behavior, and to examine spirituality as a moderator between hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among 1376 Malaysian adolescent students. The participants completed measures of depression, hopelessness, daily spiritual experience, and suicidal behavior. Structural equation modeling indicated that adolescent students high in hopelessness and depression, but also high in spirituality, had less suicidal behavior than others. These findings reinforce the importance of spirituality as a protective factor against hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among Malaysian adolescent students.

  17. The relationship of impulsivity and cortical thickness in depressed and non-depressed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradkin, Yuli; Khadka, Sabin; Bessette, Katie L; Stevens, Michael C

    2017-10-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is recognized to be heterogeneous in terms of brain structure abnormality findings across studies, which might reflect previously unstudied traits that confer variability to neuroimaging measurements. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between different types of trait impulsivity and MDD diagnosis on adolescent brain structure. We predicted that adolescents with depression who were high on trait impulsivity would have more abnormal cortical structure than depressed patients or non-MDD who were low on impulsivity. We recruited 58 subjects, including 29 adolescents (ages 12-19) with a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of MDD and a history of suicide attempt and 29 demographically-matched healthy control participants. Our GLM-based analyses sought to describe differences in the linear relationships between cortical thickness and impulsivity trait levels. As hypothesized, we found significant moderation effects in rostral middle frontal gyrus and right paracentral lobule cortical thickness for different subscales of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. However, although these brain-behavior relationships differed between diagnostic study groups, they were not simple additive effects as we had predicted. For the middle frontal gyrus, non-MDD participants showed a strong positive association between cortical thickness and BIS-11 Motor scores, while MDD-diagnosed participants showed a negative association. For Non-Planning Impulsiveness, paracentral lobule cortical thickness was observed with greater impulsivity in MDD, but no association was found for controls. In conclusion, the findings confirm that dimensions of impulsivity have discrete neural correlates, and show that relationships between impulsivity and brain structure are expressed differently in adolescents with MDD compared to non-MDD.

  18. Orbitofrontal cortex activity and connectivity predict future depression symptoms in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwen; Narayanan, Ananth; Perlman, Greg; Luking, Katherine; DeLorenzo, Christine; Hajcak, Greg; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2017-10-01

    Major depressive disorder is a leading cause of disability worldwide; however, little is known about pathological mechanisms involved in its development. Research in adolescent depression has focused on reward sensitivity and striatal mechanisms implementing it. The contribution of loss sensitivity to future depression, as well as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) mechanisms critical for processing losses and rewards, remain unexplored. Furthermore, it is unclear whether OFC functioning interacts with familial history in predicting future depression. In this longitudinal study we recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while 229 adolescent females with or without parental history of depression completed a monetary gambling task. We examined if OFC blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response and functional connectivity during loss and win feedback was associated with depression symptoms concurrently and prospectively (9 months later), and whether this relationship was moderated by parental history of depression. Reduced OFC response during loss was associated with higher depression symptoms concurrently and prospectively, even after controlling for concurrent depression, specifically in adolescents with parental history of depression. Similarly, increased OFC-posterior insula connectivity during loss was associated with future depression symptoms but this relationship was not moderated by parental history of depression. This study provides the first evidence for loss-related alterations in OFC functioning and its interaction with familial history of depression as possible mechanisms in the development of depression. While the current fMRI literature has mainly focused on reward, the present findings underscore the need to include prefrontal loss processing in existing developmental models of depression.

  19. [Overgeneral autobiographical memory in depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Tarcísio Gomes; Kurtinaitis, Laila da Camara Lima; Cantilino, Amaury; Vasconcelos, Maria Carolina Souto de; Hazin, Izabel; Sougey, Everton Botelho

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to review studies focusing on the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive disorders. Such characteristic has attracted attention because of its relationship with a poor ability to solve problems and to imagine the future, as well as with the maintenance and a poor prognosis of depression. Data were collected through a systematic search on LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, and IBECS databases, and also on the health sciences records of Portal de Periódicos da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), a Brazilian journal database, focusing on articles published between 2000 and 2010. The following keywords were used: memória autobiográfica, supergeneralização da memória autobiográfica, and memória autobiográfica e depressão in Portuguese; and autobiographical memory, overgeneral autobiographical memory, and autobiographical memory and depression in English. Following application of exclusion criteria, a total of 27 studies were reviewed. Overgeneral autobiographical memory has been investigated in several depressive disorders. However, further longitudinal studies are required to confirm the relevant role of this cognitive characteristic in anamnesis and in the treatment of mood disorders.

  20. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    OpenAIRE

    Lipps, Garth; Lowe, Gillian A; Gibson, Roger C; Halliday, Sharon; Morris, Amrie; Clarke, Nelson; Wilson, Rosemarie N

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academ...

  1. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  2. Clinical Perspective Level of depression among adolescents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... or differences between these two groups. Conclusions: The findings of the study suggest that religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) in Pakistan are inclined to have higher levels of depression than their dominant counterparts (Muslim adolescents). Journal of Child & Adolescent Mental Health 2012, 24(2): ...

  3. Are Anxiety and Depression the Same Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of co-morbidity in Anxiety and Depression as disorders leads to questions about the integrity of their present taxonomies in mental health diagnostics. At face value the two appear to have discrete differences, yet nonetheless demonstrate a high co-morbidity rate and shared symptoms implying pathological similarities rather than that of chance. Reviewing evidence from behavioural, neural, and biological sources that elaborate on the aspects of these two constructs, helps to illustrate the nature of these apparent differences and similarities. Integrating evidence from the anxiety and depression literature with the pathological process best illustrated by the burnout theory, alongside with support from the neurobiology of anxiety and stress, presents a proposition of a basic and natural anxiety pathology that when excessive, may result in the symptoms psychology has come to know as representative of anxiety and depressive disorders.

  4. Autobiographical memory dysfunctions in depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarowska, Monika; Berk, Michael; Maes, Michael; Gałecki, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is a ubiquitous human experience that belongs to long-term declarative memory. It plays interpersonal and intrapsychic functions. The main aim of this study is to present results of contemporary research on AM in recurrent depressive disorders. The available research literature suggests that AM dysfunctions are a precursor and risk factor for recurrent depressive disorders and that they also appear to be a consequence of depressive symptoms in a bidirectional and interacting manner. These data suggest that AM might be a viable therapeutic target for cognitive remediation strategies, given the impact of cognition on diverse clinical outcomes. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  5. Depression and Anxiety Prevention Based on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for At-Risk Adolescents: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne P. A. Rasing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders during adolescence. During this life phase, the incidence of these clinical disorders rises dramatically, and even more adolescents suffer from symptoms of depression or anxiety that are just below the clinical threshold. Both clinical and subclinical levels of depression or anxiety symptoms are related to decreased functioning in various areas, such as social and academic functioning. Prevention of depression and anxiety in adolescents is therefore imperative. We conducted a meta-analytic review of the effects of school-based and community-based prevention programs that are based on cognitive behavioral therapy with the primary goal preventing depression, anxiety, or both in high risk adolescents. Articles were obtained by searching databases and hand searching reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. The selection process yielded 32 articles in the meta-analyses. One article reported on two studies and three articles reported on both depression and anxiety. This resulted in a total of 36 studies, 23 on depression and 13 on anxiety. For depression prevention aimed at high risk adolescents, meta-analysis showed a small effect of prevention programs directly after the intervention, but no effect at 3–6 months and at 12 months follow-up. For anxiety prevention aimed at high risk adolescents, no short-term effect was found, nor at 12 months follow-up. Three to six months after the preventive intervention, symptoms of anxiety were significantly decreased. Although effects on depression and anxiety symptoms were small and temporary, current findings cautiously suggest that depression and anxiety prevention programs based on CBT might have small effects on mental health of adolescents. However, it also indicates that there is still much to be gained for prevention programs. Current findings and possibilities for future research are discussed in order to further

  6. The prospective association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Robert E; Duong, Hao T

    2014-02-01

    To examine the prospective, reciprocal association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents. A community-based two-wave cohort study. A metropolitan area with a population of over 4 million. 4,175 youths 11-17 at baseline, and 3,134 of these followed up a year later. Depression is measured using both symptoms of depression and DSM-IV major depression. Sleep deprivation is defined as ≤ 6 h of sleep per night. Sleep deprivation at baseline predicted both measures of depression at follow-up, controlling for depression at baseline. Examining the reciprocal association, major depression at baseline, but not symptoms predicted sleep deprivation at follow-up. These results are the first to document reciprocal effects for major depression and sleep deprivation among adolescents using prospective data. The data suggest reduced quantity of sleep increases risk for major depression, which in turn increases risk for decreased sleep.

  7. Comparison of demographic and clinical characteristics between children and adolescents with major depressive disorder Comparação de características demográficas e clínicas entre crianças e adolescentes com transtorno depressivo maior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Fu-I

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical characteristics of major depressive disorder symptoms between children and adolescents. METHOD: The subjects were 58 patients of a Child and Adolescent Affective Disorder Clinic consecutively admitted during a six-month period. Children aged 5-9 years old and adolescents from 10-17 years old currently meeting DSM-IV criteria diagnosis of major depressive disorder were chosen. Current MDD diagnosis and depressive psychopathology were assessed by a clinical interview and the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-DSM-IV version. The Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised Version and the Children Global Assessment Scale rated the severity and global functioning of major depressive disorder. RESULTS: The most common depressive symptoms were: anhedonia (72.4%, depressed mood (72.4%, decreased concentration (62.1%, and irritability (58.6%. The intensity of depressive episodes of this sample ranged from mild to moderate. Fifty percent reported thoughts of death, and 29.3% presented a variety of psychotic symptoms. When compared with children, adolescents reported a significantly more depressed mood (p = 0.043, lower self-esteem (p = 0.002, and had more difficulty concentrating (p = 0.020. Female adolescents had lower self-esteem (p = 0.003, and male adolescents showed more decreased concentration (p = 0.016. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that age and gender differences might influence the clinical presentation of major depressive disorder in children and adolescents. Further studies with larger samples are needed.OBJETIVO: Comparar as características clínicas de transtorno depressivo maior entre crianças e adolescentes. MÉTODO: Amostra constituída de 58 sujeitos admitidos consecutivamente em um serviço especializado em transtornos do humor na infância e adolescência durante um período de 6 meses. Foram considerados crianças sujeitos com idade entre 5 e 9 anos, e adolescentes aqueles com idade

  8. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

  9. Prevalence and Predictors of PTSD and Depression among Adolescent Victims of the Spring 2011 Tornado Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zachary W.; Sumner, Jennifer A.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Grös, Kirstin; Paul, Lisa A.; Welsh, Kyleen E.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relatively few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episode (MDE) in disaster-affected adolescents. Fewer still have administered diagnostic measures or studied samples exposed to tornadoes, a common type of disaster. Further, methodologic problems limit the…

  10. Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder : findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaal, L.; Veltman, D. J.; van Erp, T. G. M.; Saemann, P. G.; Frodl, T.; Jahanshad, N.; Loehrer, E.; Tiemeier, H.; Hofman, A.; Niessen, W. J.; Vernooij, M. W.; Ikram, M. A.; Wittfeld, K.; Grabe, H. J.; Block, A.; Hegenscheid, K.; Voelzke, H.; Hoehn, D.; Czisch, M.; Lagopoulos, J.; Hatton, S. N.; Hickie, I. B.; Goya-Maldonado, R.; Kraemer, B.; Gruber, O.; Couvy-Duchesne, B.; Renteria, M. E.; Strike, L. T.; Mills, N. T.; de Zubicaray, G. I.; McMahon, K. L.; Medland, S. E.; Martin, N. G.; Gillespie, N. A.; Wright, M. J.; Hall, G.B.; MacQueen, G. M.; Frey, E. M.; Carballedo, A.; van Velzen, L. S.; van Tol, M. J.; van der Wee, N. J.; Veer, I. M.; Walter, H.; Schnell, K.; Schramm, E.; Normann, C.; Schoepf, D.; Konrad, C.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.

    The pattern of structural brain alterations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unresolved. This is in part due to small sample sizes of neuroimaging studies resulting in limited statistical power, disease heterogeneity and the complex interactions between clinical

  11. Differences in the ICD-10 diagnostic subtype of depression in bipolar disorder compared to recurrent depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H.M.; Christensen, E.M.; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with bipolar depression and patients with recurrent depressive disorder present with different subtypes of depressive episode as according to ICD-10. Sampling and Methods: All patients who got a diagnosis of bipolar affective...... disorder, current episode of depression, or a diagnosis of recurrent depressive disorder, current episode of depression, in a period from 1994 to 2002 at the first outpatient treatment or at the first discharge from psychiatric hospitalization in Denmark were identified in a nationwide register. Results......: Totally, 389 patients got a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, current episode of depression, and 5.391 patients got a diagnosis of recurrent depressive disorder, current episode of depression, at first contact. Compared with patients with a diagnosis of recurrent depressive disorder, patients with bipolar...

  12. Altered cerebral perfusion in executive, affective, and motor networks during adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tiffany C; Wu, Jing; Shin, David D; Liu, Thomas T; Tapert, Susan F; Yang, Guang; Connolly, Colm G; Frank, Guido K W; Max, Jeffrey E; Wolkowitz, Owen; Eisendrath, Stuart; Hoeft, Fumiko; Banerjee, Dipavo; Hood, Korey; Hendren, Robert L; Paulus, Martin P; Simmons, Alan N; Yang, Tony T

    2013-10-01

    Although substantial literature has reported regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities in adults with depression, these studies commonly necessitated the injection of radioisotopes into subjects. The recent development of arterial spin labeling (ASL), however, allows noninvasive measurements of rCBF. Currently, no published ASL studies have examined cerebral perfusion in adolescents with depression. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine baseline cerebral perfusion in adolescent depression using a newly developed ASL technique: pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL). A total of 25 medication-naive adolescents (13-17 years of age) diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 26 well-matched control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Baseline rCBF was measured via a novel PCASL method that optimizes tagging efficiency. Voxel-based whole brain analyses revealed significant frontal, limbic, paralimbic, and cingulate hypoperfusion in the group with depression (p region-of-interest analyses revealed amygdalar and insular hypoperfusion in the group with depression, as well as hyperperfusion in the putamen and superior insula (p networks. Dysfunction in these regions may contribute to the cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor symptoms commonly present in adolescent depression. These findings point to possible biomarkers for adolescent depression that could inform early interventions and treatments, and establishes a methodology for using PCASL to noninvasively measure rCBF in clinical and healthy adolescent populations. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Depression in adolescence:testing a social skills deficit theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107292300

    2017-01-01

    C145. DEPRESSION IN ADOLESCENCE:TESTING A SOCIAL SKILLS DEFICIT THEORYVan Beek, Y. Utrecht University, NetherlandsThe Social Skill Deficit Model for depression suggeststhat less optimal social skills lead to negativefeedback of others, which in turn results in negativeself-views and depression.

  14. Posttraumatic Stress, Depression, and Coping Following the 2015 Nepal Earthquake: A Study on Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Asmita; Kar, Nilamadhab

    2018-05-24

    The study aimed to gather data on posttraumatic stress and depression in adolescents following the 2015 Nepal earthquake and explore the adolescents' coping strategies. In a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study about 1 year after the earthquake, adolescents in two districts with different degrees of impact were evaluated for disaster experience, coping strategies, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression measured with the Child Posttraumatic Stress Scale and the Depression Self Rating Scale. In the studied sample (N=409), the estimated prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (43.3%) and depression (38.1%) was considerable. Prevalence of PTSD was significantly higher in the more affected area (49.0% v 37.9%); however, the prevalence figures were comparable in adolescents who reported a stress. The prevalence of depression was comparable. Female gender, joint family, financial problems, displacement, injury or being trapped in the earthquake, damage to livelihood, and fear of death were significantly associated with a probable PTSD diagnosis. Various coping strategies were used: talking to others, praying, helping others, hoping for the best, and some activities were common. Drug abuse was rare. Most of the coping strategies were comparable among the clinical groups. A considerable proportion of adolescents had posttraumatic stress and depression 1 year after the earthquake. There is a need for clinical interventions and follow-up studies regarding the outcome. Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 7.

  15. Parental monitoring protects against the effects of parent and adolescent depressed mood on adolescent drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lourah M; Becker, Sara J; Spirito, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    Parental monitoring is a well-established protective factor for adolescent drinking. This study examined whether parental monitoring protected against three common risk factors for alcohol use in a sample of high-risk adolescents: parental depressed mood, adolescent depressed mood, and parental alcohol use. Participants included 117 adolescents (mean age=15.5; 52% female) who presented to the hospital emergency department due to an alcohol-related event and their primary parent/guardian. Adolescents completed self-report measures of alcohol use frequency, depressed mood, and parental monitoring, while parents completed self-report measures of problematic alcohol use and depressed mood. Hierarchical regression confirmed that parental monitoring was associated with lower frequency of adolescent alcohol use, even after controlling for the three risk factors. Significant interactions were found between parental monitoring and both adolescent and parental depressed mood. Parental monitoring had significant protective effects against drinking frequency among adolescents with higher levels of depressed mood, but not among adolescents with lower levels of depressed mood. By contrast, parental monitoring only had protective effects among those parents with lower levels of depressed mood. Parental problematic alcohol use did not affect the relationship between parental monitoring and adolescent alcohol use. Our results suggest that adolescents with high levels of depressed mood may be more likely to benefit from parental monitoring, whereas parents with high levels of depressed mood may be less likely to monitor effectively. Interventions targeting parental monitoring in high-risk adolescents should take into account the influence of both adolescent and parental depressed mood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cortical thickness differences between bipolar depression and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Martin J; Chhetry, Binod Thapa; Oquendo, Maria A; Sublette, M Elizabeth; Sullivan, Gregory; Mann, J John; Parsey, Ramin V

    2014-06-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a psychiatric disorder with high morbidity and mortality that cannot be distinguished from major depressive disorder (MDD) until the first manic episode. A biomarker able to differentiate BD and MDD could help clinicians avoid risks of treating BD with antidepressants without mood stabilizers. Cortical thickness differences were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging in BD depressed patients (n = 18), MDD depressed patients (n = 56), and healthy volunteers (HVs) (n = 54). A general linear model identified clusters of cortical thickness difference between diagnostic groups. Compared to the HV group, the BD group had decreased cortical thickness in six regions, after controlling for age and sex, located within the frontal and parietal lobes, and the posterior cingulate cortex. Mean cortical thickness changes in clusters ranged from 7.6 to 9.6% (cluster-wise p-values from 1.0 e-4 to 0.037). When compared to MDD, three clusters of lower cortical thickness in BD were identified that overlapped with clusters that differentiated the BD and HV groups. Mean cortical thickness changes in the clusters ranged from 7.5 to 8.2% (cluster-wise p-values from 1.0 e-4 to 0.023). The difference in cortical thickness was more pronounced when the subgroup of subjects with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) was compared to the MDD group. Cortical thickness patterns were distinct between BD and MDD. These results are a step toward developing an imaging test to differentiate the two disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Clinical Presentation and Course of Depression in Youth: Does Onset in Childhood Differ from Onset in Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmaher, Boris; Williamson, Douglas E.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Axelson, David A.; Kaufman, Joan; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ryan, Neal D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To simultaneously and prospectively compare the clinical presentation, course, and parental psychiatric history between children and adolescents with major depressive disorder. Method: A group of prepubertal children (n = 46) and postpubertal adolescents (n = 22) were assessed with structured interviews for psychopathology and parental…

  18. Treatment outcomes for substance abuse among adolescents with learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jennifer W; Buka, Stephen L; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; McCormick, Marie C

    2006-07-01

    This paper assesses whether chemically dependent adolescents with comorbid learning disorders (LDs) derived less effective treatment results when compared to chemically dependent adolescents without LD and examines the moderating effects of prior treatments, treatment length, and treatment completion. Two hundred one adolescents were recruited between 1992 and 1993 from Massachusetts residential treatment centers and subsequently followed up 6 months after enrollment. Compared to chemically dependent teenagers without LD, those with LD were twice as likely to re-use substances at least once by follow-up. LD teenagers were more likely to attend Alcoholics/Narcotics Anonymous if they had prior admissions to treatment programs and longer treatment length. LD teenagers who completed treatment also experienced a greater decrease in current depression compared to LD teenagers not completing the treatment. This study is the first to consider outcomes of substance abuse treatment for adolescents with LD and contributes to the growing literature on comorbidity and substance abuse treatment.

  19. Bullying at School--An Indicator of Adolescents at Risk for Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rimpela, Matti; Rantanen, Paivi; Rimpela, Arja

    2000-01-01

    Surveys Finnish adolescents about bullying and victimization in relations to psychosomatic symptoms, depression, anxiety, eating disorders and substance use. Anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic symptoms were most frequent among bully-victims and equally common among bullies and victims. Argues that bullying should be seen as an indicator of…

  20. Family Heritage and Depression Guides: Family and Peer Views Influence Adolescent Attitudes about Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Agnor, Chrystal

    2007-01-01

    While adolescents tend to under-use professional mental health services for depression, they informally seek health-related information from parents and peers. In this study, we interviewed 15 adolescents to examine how the views and behaviours of others influence teens' decisions about seeking care for depression. Using a grounded theory…

  1. Prevalence of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riahi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often associated with other psychological problems. Objectives The present study aimed to study the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD who admitted to Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods This was a descriptive/analytic cross-sectional study carried out on 118 outpatient children and adolescents who were selected by convenient sampling. The data were collected using the questionnaire, designed by authors, and were analyzed through descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results The prevalence of comorbid disorders were as follows: anxiety disorders (48.3%; depression (20.33%; bipolar disorder (17.79%; obsessive-compulsive (47.45%; tic and tourette (35.59%, oppositional defiant disorder (43.22%; conduct disorder (11.01%; urinary incontinence (58.47%; communication disorder (9.32%; and learning disorder (21.18%. There was no significant difference between females and males with respect to the prevalence of comorbid disorders. Conclusions Similar to previous studies, we found some comorbid psychiatric disorders with ADHD. The treatment of the disorder can be improved, by more attention to comorbid psychiatric disorders, early diagnosis of them, and using distinct and specific treatment for everyone.

  2. Pituitary gland volume in adolescent and young adult bipolar and unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Frank P; Leslie, Ronald; Rosenberg, David R; Kusumakar, Vivek

    2008-02-01

    Few studies have examined pituitary gland size in mood disorders, particularly in adolescents. We hypothesized increase in the pituitary gland size in early-onset mood disorders. Thirty subjects between the ages of 13 and 20 years participated in the study. Three groups (control, bipolar I depression and unipolar depression) of 10 subjects each (4 male, 6 female) underwent volumetric magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T. Analysis of covariance (covarying for age, sex and intracranial volume) revealed a significant difference in pituitary gland volume amongst the groups [F(2,24) = 7.092, p = 0.014]. Post hoc analysis revealed that controls had a significantly smaller pituitary gland volume than both bipolar patients (p = 0.019) and depressed patients (p = 0.049). Bipolar and depressed subjects did not differ significantly from each other with regard to pituitary gland volume (p = 0.653). Control females had larger pituitary glands than control males [F(1,8) = 10.523, p = 0.012], but no sex differences were noted in the mood disorder groups. Pituitary glands are enlarged in adolescents with mood disorders compared to controls. Healthy young females have larger pituitary glands than males, but such a difference is not evident in individuals with unipolar depression or bipolar disorder. These findings provide new evidence of abnormalities of the pituitary in early onset mood disorders, and are consistent with neuroendocrine dysfunction in early stages of such illnesses.

  3. State-Dependent Differences in Emotion Regulation Between Unmedicated Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, M.M.; Mocking, R.J.T.; Koeter, M.W.; Wingen, G. van; Wit, S.J. de; Heuvel, O.A. van den; Veltman, D.J.; Ruhe, H.G.; Schene, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are difficult to distinguish clinically during the depressed or remitted states. Both mood disorders are characterized by emotion regulation disturbances; however, little is known about emotion regulation differences between MDD

  4. State-Dependent Differences in Emotion Regulation Between Unmedicated Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, Maria M.; Mocking, Roel J. T.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; van Wingen, Guido; de Wit, Stella J.; van den Heuvel, Odile A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Schene, Aart H.

    IMPORTANCE Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are difficult to distinguish clinically during the depressed or remitted states. Both mood disorders are characterized by emotion regulation disturbances; however, little is known about emotion regulation differences between MDD

  5. State-Dependent Differences in Emotion Regulation Between Unmedicated Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, M.M.; Mocking, R.J.T.; Koeter, M.W.J.; van Wingen, G.; de Wit, S.J.; van den Heuvel, O.A.; Veltman, D.J.; Ruhe, H.G.; Schene, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are difficult to distinguish clinically during the depressed or remitted states. Both mood disorders are characterized by emotion regulation disturbances; however, little is known about emotion regulation differences between MDD

  6. Family functioning mediates the association between parental depression and low self-esteem in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Susann; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Knappe, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    The negative impact of parental depression on offsprings' development has been repeatedly documented. There is however little research on the potential pathways contributing to this association. The present study examined the relationship between parental depressive disorders, family functioning and adolescents' self-esteem. A community-based sample of 1040 participants aged 14-17 years and their parents was assessed including direct and indirect information on parental psychopathology based on the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI). Family functioning and youth self-esteem were assessed by self-report questionnaires using the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD) in parents and the "Aussagen-Liste zum Selbstwertgefühl" in adolescents. Findings from multiple regression analyses indicated positive associations between parental depressive disorders and dimensions of dysfunctional family functioning as well as between dysfunctional familial affective involvement and youth's positive self-esteem. The relationship between parental depression and self-esteem was partly mediated by familial affective involvement. Associations may be underestimated, since incidence for depressive disorders spans to the third decade of life. Consensus diagnoses for parental depressive disorders were based on direct and indirect information for maximum use of available data, neglecting familial load, chronicity of parental depressive disorders or comorbid conditions. Thus, specificity of the findings for the family transmission of depressive disorders remains yet to be determined. Findings contribute to understanding of the pathways on how parental depression impairs offsprings' view of themselves, and to consider family functioning as a possible target for preventive interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Does age at onset of first major depressive episode indicate the subtype of major depressive disorder?: the clinical research center for depression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Hahn, Sang-Woo; Hwang, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of age at onset of the first major depressive episode on the clinical features of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large cohort of Korean depressed patients. We recruited 419 MDD patients of age over 18 years from the Clinical Research Center for Depression study in South Korea. At the start of the study, the onset age of the first major depressive episode was self-reported by the subjects. The subjects were divided into four age-at-onset subgroups: childhood and adolescent onset (ages depressive episodes (F=3.475, p=0.016) and higher scores on the brief psychiatric rating scale (F=3.254, p=0.022), its negative symptom subscale (F=6.082, pdepressive episode is a promising clinical indicator for the clinical presentation, course, and outcome of MDD.

  8. Depression, Hopelessness, and Self-Esteem: Accounting for Suicidality in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Galit A.; Overholser, James C.

    1999-01-01

    Depressed adolescents who had never attempted suicide were compared to depressed adolescents who had attempted suicide. Results showed suicidal adolescents experienced significantly greater depression and hopelessness than did nonsuicidal adolescents. However, suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents reported similar low levels of self esteem.…

  9. Depression and Associated Suicidal Behaviour in Children and Adolescents: Current Views and the Problem State Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Rymsha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been performed the analytical analysis of the world literature dedicated to the epidemiology, etiology, current approaches to the pathogenesis, clinical picture and diagnosis criteria for the depressive disorders in children and adolescents as well as the associated suicidal behavior and the social significance of this disease with its consequences. Key recommendations on the treatment and prophylaxis of depression in children and adolescents according to the last evidence-base European and American guidelines are considered.

  10. Differentiating Anxiety and Depression in Relation to the Social Functioning of Young Adolescents With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Vaughn, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined anxiety and depressive symptoms in relation to the social functioning of young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and builds upon prior work by incorporating youths' self-reports of internalizing symptoms and examining distinct anxiety and depression dimensions to increase specificity. Participants were 310 young adolescents (ages 10-14; 71% male, 78% Caucasian) diagnosed with ADHD. Youth provided ratings of anxiety/depression, and parents provided ratings of their own depression. Parents and youth both reported on youths' social skills and perceived social acceptance. Path analyses indicated that above and beyond child demographics, ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptom severity, and parents' own depression, self-reported social anxiety and anhedonia were both associated with lower youth-reported social skills and both parent- and youth-reported social acceptance. Negative self-evaluation was associated with poorer parent-reported social skills. Finally, harm avoidance was positively associated with both youth- and parent-reported social skills. A path analysis using comorbid diagnoses (rather than symptom dimensions) indicated that that having a comorbid disruptive behavior disorder or depression diagnosis (but not a comorbid anxiety diagnosis) was associated with poorer parent-reported social functioning. Results demonstrate that the relation between internalizing symptoms and social functioning among young adolescents with ADHD is nuanced, with social anxiety and anhedonia symptoms associated with lower social skills and social acceptance in contrast to harm avoidance being associated with higher ratings of social skills (and unrelated to social acceptance). In terms of comorbid diagnoses, depression is more clearly related than anxiety to poorer social functioning among young adolescents with ADHD. These results point to the importance of attending to specific facets of anxiety and depression in

  11. An Emotional Go/No-Go fMRI study in adolescents with depressive symptoms following concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rachelle A; Hall, Geoffrey B; Noseworthy, Michael D; DeMatteo, Carol

    2017-10-03

    Following concussion, adolescents may experience both poor inhibitory control and increased depressive symptoms. fMRI research suggests that adolescents with major depressive disorder have abnormal physiological responses in the frontostriatal pathway, and exhibit poorer inhibitory control in the presence of negatively-aroused images. The scarcity of information surrounding depression following concussion in adolescents makes it difficult to identify patients at risk of depression after injury. This is the first study to examine neural activity patterns in adolescents with post-concussive depressive symptoms. To explore the effect of depressive symptoms on inhibitory control in adolescents with concussion in the presence of emotional stimuli using fMRI. Using a prospective cohort design, 30 adolescents diagnosed with concussion between 10 and 17years were recruited. The Children's Depression Inventory questionnaire was used to divide participants into two groups: average or elevated levels of depressive symptoms. Participants completed an Emotional Go/No-Go task involving angry or neutral faces in a 3Telsa MRI scanner. Eleven participants had elevated depressive symptoms, of which 72% were hit in the occipital region of the head at the time of injury. fMRI results from the Emotional Go/No-Go task revealed activity patterns in the overall sample. Faces activated regions associated with both facial and cognitive processing. However, frontal regions that are usually associated with inhibitory control were not activated. Adolescents with elevated levels of depressive symptoms engaged more frontal lobe regions during the task than the average group. They also showed a trend towards worse symptoms following MRI scanning. Adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms engaged brain regions subserving evaluative processing of social interactions. This finding provides insight into the role the environment plays in contributing to the cognitive demands placed on adolescents

  12. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie C. Morse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD], depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. Method A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, M age = 20 from a large public university completed an online survey. Results Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. Conclusion Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use.

  13. Anterior Cingulate Cortex γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Depressed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Vilma; Mao, Xiangling; Klein, Rachel G.; Ely, Benjamin A.; Babb, James S.; Panzer, Aviva M.; Alonso, Carmen M.; Shungu, Dikoma C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Anhedonia, a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD) and highly variable among adolescents with MDD, may involve alterations in the major inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter system of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Objective To test whether anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) GABA levels, measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, are decreased in adolescents with MDD. The associations of GABA alterations with the presence and severity of anhedonia were explored. Design Case-control, cross-sectional study using single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T. Setting Two clinical research divisions at 2 teaching hospitals. Participants Twenty psychotropic medication-free adolescents with MDD (10 anhedonic, 12 female, aged 12–19 years) with episode duration of 8 weeks or more and 21 control subjects group matched for sex and age. Main Outcome Measures Anterior cingulate cortex GABA levels expressed as ratios relative to unsuppressed voxel tissue water (w) and anhedonia scores expressed as a continuous variable. Results Compared with control subjects, adolescents with MDD had significantly decreased ACC GABA/w (t= 3.2; PGABA/w levels compared with control subjects (t=4.08; PGABA/w levels were negatively correlated with anhedonia scores for the whole MDD group (r = −0.50; P = .02), as well as for the entire participant sample including the control subjects (r=−0.54; PGABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, may be implicated in adolescent MDD and, more specifically, in those with anhedonia. In addition, use of a continuous rather than categorical scale of anhedonia, as in the present study, may permit greater specificity in evaluating this important clinical feature. PMID:21969419

  14. Parenting and adolescent antisocial behavior and depression: evidence of genotype x parenting environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Button, Tanya M M; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Hetherington, E Mavis

    2007-04-01

    Little is known about the interplay of genotypes and malleable risk factors in influencing adolescent psychiatric symptoms and disorders. Information on these processes is crucial in designing programs for the prevention of psychiatric disorders. To assess whether latent genetic factors and measured parent-child relationships interact (G x E) in predicting adolescent antisocial behavior and depression. We characterized risk of antisocial behavior and depression in adolescents by means of a genetically informed design. We used in-home questionnaire and observational measures of adolescent outcomes and environmental moderators (parenting), and a latent variable behavior genetic analytic model. A nationally distributed sample recruited from random-digit dialing and national market panels. A total of 720 families with at least 2 children, 9 through 18 years old, stratified by genetic relatedness (monozygotic and dizygotic twins, full biological siblings in nondivorced and stepfamilies, and half-siblings and biologically unrelated siblings in stepfamilies). Antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. There was an interaction of genotype and both parental negativity and low warmth predicting overall antisocial behavior, as well as aggressive and nonaggressive forms of antisocial behavior, but not depression. Genetic influence was greater for adolescent antisocial behavior when parenting was more negative or less warm. Genotype-environment correlation was partialled out in the analysis and thus did not account for the results. This study demonstrates, on the basis of careful measurement and appropriate analytic methods, that a continuous measure of parenting in the normative range moderates the influence of genotype on antisocial behavior.

  15. The comorbid psychiatric symptoms of Internet addiction: attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, social phobia, and hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Hsiu-Yueh; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2007-07-01

    To: (1) determine the association between Internet addiction and depression, self-reported symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), social phobia, and hostility for adolescents; and (2) evaluate the sex differences of association between Internet addiction and the above-mentioned psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. A total of 2114 students (1204 male and 910 female) were recruited for the study. Internet addiction, symptoms of ADHD, depression, social phobia, and hostility were evaluated by the self-report questionnaire. The results demonstrated that adolescents with Internet addiction had higher ADHD symptoms, depression, social phobia, and hostility. Higher ADHD symptoms, depression, and hostility are associated with Internet addiction in male adolescents, and only higher ADHD symptoms and depression are associated with Internet addiction in female students. These results suggest that Internet addiction is associated with symptoms of ADHD and depressive disorders. However, hostility was associated with Internet addiction only in males. Effective evaluation of, and treatment for ADHD and depressive disorders are required for adolescents with Internet addiction. More attention should be paid to male adolescents with high hostility in intervention of Internet addiction.

  16. One-year course and predictors of outcome of adolescent depression: a case-control study in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Linnea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Miettunen, Jouko; Heilä, Hannele; Holi, Matti; Ruuttu, Titta; Tuisku, Virpi; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri

    2008-05-01

    Clinical studies on the outcome of adolescent depression beyond treatment trials are scarce. To investigate the impact of characteristics of the depressive episode and current comorbidity on the 1-year outcome of depression. A sample of 174 consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients (aged 13 through 19 years) and 17 school-derived matched controls, all with unipolar depressive disorders at baseline, were reinterviewed for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders at 12 months. The study was conducted between January 1998 and May 2002. The outpatients had equal recovery rate and episode duration but shorter time to recurrence than the controls. Among the outpatients, Axis II comorbidity predicted shorter time to recurrence (p = .02). Longer time to recovery was predicted by earlier lifetime age at onset for depression (p = .02), poor psychosocial functioning (p = .003), depressive disorder diagnosis (p depressive disorder diagnosis (p = .04). Characteristics of depression generally predicted the outcome better than co-morbidity. Axis II comorbidity has prognostic value in adolescent depression.

  17. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca G. van den Bulk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N = 25, adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N = 19 and healthy controls (N = 26. Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala.

  18. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bulk, Bianca G; Somerville, Leah H; van Hoof, Marie-José; van Lang, Natasja D J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Crone, Eveline A; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD) show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral) in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N=25), adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N=19) and healthy controls (N=26). Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Other Clinically Significant Body Image Concerns in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, Jennifer; Kittler, Jennifer; Phillips, Katharine A.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study assessed prevalence and clinical correlates of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders (ED), and other clinically significant body image concerns in 208 consecutively admitted adolescent inpatients. It was hypothesized that adolescents with BDD would have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidality.…

  20. Perceived Emotional Intelligence as a predictor of Depressive Symptoms after a one year follow-up during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gomez-Baya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research to date has identified various risk factors in the emergence of depressive disorders in adolescence. There are very few studies, however, which have analyzed the role of perceived emotional intelligence in depressive symptoms longitudinally during adolescence. This work aimed to analyze longitudinal relationships between perceived emotional intelligence and depressive symptoms in adolescence, developing an explanatory model of depression following a one-year follow-up. A longitudinal study was carried out with two waves separated by one year, with a sample of 714 Spanish adolescents. The instruments consisted of self-report measures of depressive symptoms and perceived emotional intelligence. Results underlined gender differences in depressive symptoms and emotional intelligence, and indicated that greater emotional intelligence was associated with a lower presence of depressive symptoms after a oneyear follow-up. A multiple partial mediation model was developed to explain longitudinally depressive symptoms based on perceived emotional intelligence skills and depressive symptoms. These contributions underscore the need to design programs to prevent depression in adolescence through the promotion of emotional intelligence.

  1. Major Depression and Conduct Disorder in Youth: Associations with Parental Psychopathology and Parent-Child Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.; Iacono, William G.

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study examined conduct disorder (CD) and major depression (MDD) in adolescents in relationship to parent-child conflict and psychopathology in their parents. Method: Participants were drawn from a population-based sample of twins and their families. Affected participants had lifetime diagnoses of CD and/or MDD; controls had no…

  2. Motor Disorder and Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology: A Monozygotic Co-Twin Control Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall-Jones, Jillian G.; Piek, Jan P.; Rigoli, Daniela; Martin, Neilson C.; Levy, Florence

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between poor motor ability and anxious and depressive symptomatology in child and adolescent monozygotic twins. The co-twin control design was used to explore these mental health issues in MZ twins concordant and discordant for a motor disorder, and controls. This methodology offers the…

  3. Increased frontal sleep slow wave activity in adolescents with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Tesler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep slow wave activity (SWA, the major electrophysiological characteristic of deep sleep, mirrors both cortical restructuring and functioning. The incidence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD substantially rises during the vulnerable developmental phase of adolescence, where essential cortical restructuring is taking place. The goal of this study was to assess characteristics of SWA topography in adolescents with MDD, in order to assess abnormalities in both cortical restructuring and functioning on a local level. All night high-density EEG was recorded in 15 patients meeting DSM-5 criteria for MDD and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The actual symptom severity was assessed using the Children's Depression Rating Scale—Revised (CDRS-R. Topographical power maps were calculated based on the average SWA of the first non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep episode. Depressed adolescents exhibited significantly more SWA in a cluster of frontal electrodes compared to controls. SWA over frontal brain regions correlated positively with the CDRS-R subscore “morbid thoughts”. Self-reported sleep latency was significantly higher in depressed adolescents compared to controls whereas sleep architecture did not differ between the groups. Higher frontal SWA in depressed adolescents may represent a promising biomarker tracing cortical regions of intense use and/or restructuring.

  4. Peer victimization during adolescence: concurrent and prospective impact on symptoms of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapinski, Lexine A; Araya, Ricardo; Heron, Jon; Montgomery, Alan A; Stallard, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Peer victimization is ubiquitous across schools and cultures, and has the potential for long-lasting effects on the well-being of victims. To date, research has focused on the consequences of peer victimization during childhood but neglected adolescence. Peer relationships and approval become increasingly important during adolescence; thus, peer victimization at this age may have a damaging psychological impact. Participants were 5030 adolescents aged 11-16 recruited from secondary schools in the UK. Self-report measures of victimization and symptoms of anxiety and depression were administered on three occasions over a 12-month period. Latent growth models examined concurrent and prospective victimization-related elevations in anxiety and depression symptoms above individual-specific growth trajectories. Peer victimization was associated with a concurrent elevation of 0.64 and 0.56 standard deviations in depression and anxiety scores, respectively. There was an independent delayed effect, with additional elevations in depression and anxiety (0.28 and 0.25 standard deviations) six months later. These concurrent and prospective associations were independent of expected symptom trajectories informed by individual risk factors. Adolescent peer victimization was associated with immediate and delayed elevations in anxiety and depression. Early intervention aimed at identifying and supporting victimized adolescents may prevent the development of these disorders.

  5. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Saavedra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders.

  6. Computerised CBT for depressed adolescents: Randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick; Scott, Rebecca; Eshkevari, Ertimiss; Jatta, Fatoumata; Leigh, Eleanor; Harris, Victoria; Robinson, Alex; Abeles, Paul; Proudfoot, Judy; Verduyn, Chrissie; Yule, William

    2015-10-01

    Depression in adolescents is a common and impairing problem. Effective psychological therapies for depression are not accessed by most adolescents. Computerised therapy offers huge potential for improving access to treatment. To test the efficacy of Stressbusters, a Computerised-CBT (C-CBT) programme for depression in young people. Multi-site, schools-based, RCT of C-CBT compared to Waiting List, for young people (N = 112; aged 12-16) with significant symptoms of depression, using multiple-informants (adolescents, parents, teachers), with follow-up at 3 and 6 months. Relative to being on a Waiting List, C-CBT was associated with statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in symptoms of depression and anxiety according to adolescent self-report; and with a trend towards improvements in depression and anxiety according to parent-report. Improvements were maintained at follow-up. Treatment gains were similar for boys and girls across the participating age range. Treatment effect was partially mediated by changes in ruminative thinking. Teachers rated adolescents as having few emotional or behavioural problems, both before and after intervention. C-CBT had no detectable effect on academic attainment. In the month after intervention, young people who received C-CBT had significantly fewer absences from school than those on the Waiting List. C-CBT shows considerable promise for the treatment of mild-moderate depression in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adolescents accompanying a parent in recyclable trash collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Gabriela B; Pereira, Érico F; Cordeiro, Mara L

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between mental health and poverty has been well documented in adults. However, few studies have addressed how low socioeconomic status and psychosocial vulnerabilities may influence depressive symptoms in adolescents. The current study was carried out in a non-randomly selected sample of 239 adolescents whose parents work as ragpickers (waste collectors for recycling) in Brazil. In-person interviews were conducted, and the presence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation were assessed using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). We observed that 23% (CI ± 5.34) of the adolescents presented with depressive symptoms and 35% (CI ± 6.05) had suicidal ideation. Fatigue or loss of energy (p = .012) and irritable mood (p = .013) were significantly higher among boys than girls according to DSM-IV criteria. However, we found no gender differences in DSM-IV criteria for Major Depressive Disorders (MDD) or Dysthymic Disorder (DD) in diminished interest or pleasure, weight loss or weight gain, decreased appetite, sleep problems, feelings of worthlessness, diminished concentration or ability to think, recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation, or low self-esteem. There were no significant gender differences in total CDI score, however a greater percentage of girls presented with depressed mood than boys (29.9% vs. 17.1%, p < .05).

  8. examining the relationship between anxiety disorders and depression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    It is meaningful to distinguish anxiety and depression both as symptoms and as syndromes ... disorder). Anxiety, as a symptom, is a feeling of apprehension caused by anticipation of danger ... disorder. In medical disorders or substance-.

  9. [Cognition - the core of major depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosan, M; Lemogne, C; Jardri, R; Fossati, P

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive deficits have been only recently recognized as a major phenotype determinant of major depressive disorder, although they are an integral part of the definition of the depressive state. Congruent evidence suggest that these cognitive deficits persist beyond the acute phase and may be identified at all ages. The aim of the current study was to review the main meta-analyses on cognition and depression, which encompasses a large range of cognitive domains. Therefore, we discuss the "cold" (attention, memory, executive functions) and "hot" (emotional bias) cognitive impairments in MDD, as well as those of social cognition domains (empathy, theory of mind). Several factors interfere with cognition in MDD such as clinical (melancholic, psychotic...) features, age, age of onset, illness severity, medication and comorbid condition. As still debated in the literature, the type of relationship between the severity of cognitive symptoms and functioning in depression is detailed, thus highlighting their predictive value of functional outcome, independently of the affective symptoms. A better identification of the cognitive deficits in MDD and a monitoring of the effects of different treatments require appropriate instruments, which may be developed by taking advantage of the increasing success of computing tools. Overall, current data suggest a core role for different cognitive deficits in MDD, therefore opening new perspectives for optimizing the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Responding to the challenge of adolescent perinatal depression ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Evidence shows that a critical gap exists in the management of perinatal ... intervention program for adolescent perinatal depression, and determine the factors required ... Affairs Canada, IDRC, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

  11. Major depression in mothers predicts reduced ventral striatum activation in adolescent female offspring with and without depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Kim, Sohye; Herman, Levi; Pane, Heather; Reuter, Tyson; Strathearn, Lane

    2014-05-01

    Prior research has identified reduced reward-related brain activation as a promising endophenotype for the early identification of adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is unclear whether reduced reward-related brain activation constitutes a true vulnerability for MDD. One way of studying vulnerability is through a high-risk design. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine whether reward-related activation of the ventral striatum is reduced in nondepressed daughters of mothers with a history of MDD (high-risk) similarly to currently depressed adolescent girls, compared with healthy controls. By directly comparing groups with a shared risk profile during differing states, we aimed to shed light on the endophenotypic nature of reduced reward processing for adolescent depression. We compared reward-related neural activity through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) between three groups of female biological offspring (N = 52) of mothers with differential MDD status: (a) currently depressed daughters of mothers with a history of MDD (MDD group; n = 14), (b) age- and socioeconomic status (SES)-matched never-depressed daughters of mothers with a history of MDD (high-risk group; n = 19), and (c) age- and SES-matched control daughters of mothers with no past or current psychopathology in either the mother or the daughter (healthy control group; n = 19). For the outcome phase of the reward task, right-sided ventral striatum activation was reduced for both currently depressed and high-risk girls compared with healthy controls. This ventral striatal activity correlated significantly with maternal depression scores. These findings provide further evidence of aberrant functioning for the United States Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC)-defined domain of positive valence systems as a vulnerability factor for MDD and a

  12. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Depression: Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M. Tracie; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews studies of impact of comorbidity of personality disorders and depression on response to various forms of treatment. Notes that findings support belief that personality disorders are associated with poorer response to treatment for depression. Also notes that limited data available suggest that depression may be positive prognostic…

  13. Social inequality in the prevalence of depressive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I; Thielen, K; Nygaard, Else

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainties exist about the strength of the relation between socioeconomic position and depressive disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between education, occupation, employment and income and depressive disorders measured as minor and major depression, as well as...

  14. "Facebook depression?" social networking site use and depression in older adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenchick, Lauren A; Eickhoff, Jens C; Moreno, Megan A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the association between social networking site (SNS) use and depression in older adolescents using an experience sample method (ESM) approach. Older adolescent university students completed an online survey containing the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression screen (PHQ) and a week-long ESM data collection period to assess SNS use. Participants (N = 190) included in the study were 58% female and 91% Caucasian. The mean age was 18.9 years (standard deviation = .8). Most used SNSs for either 2 hours (n = 16, 8%). The mean PHQ score was 5.4 (standard deviation = 4.2). No associations were seen between SNS use and either any depression (p = .519) or moderate to severe depression (p = .470). We did not find evidence supporting a relationship between SNS use and clinical depression. Counseling patients or parents regarding the risk of "Facebook Depression" may be premature. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Suicidal events in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Silva, Susan G; Rohde, Paul; Kratochvil, Christopher J; Kennard, Betsy D; Reinecke, Mark A; Mayes, Taryn L; Posner, Kelly; May, Diane E; March, John S

    2009-04-21

    The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) database was analyzed to determine whether suicidal events (attempts and ideation) occurred early in treatment, could be predicted by severity of depression or other clinical characteristics, and were preceded by clinical deterioration or symptoms of increased irritability, akathisia, sleep disruption, or mania. TADS was a 36-week randomized, controlled clinical trial of pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatments involving 439 youths with major depressive disorder (DSM-IV criteria). Suicidal events were defined according to the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicidal Assessment. Patients were randomly assigned into the study between spring 2000 and summer 2003. Forty-four patients (10.0%) had at least 1 suicidal event (no suicide occurred). Events occurred 0.4 to 31.1 weeks (mean +/- SD = 11.9 +/- 8.2) after starting TADS treatment, with no difference in event timing for patients receiving medication versus those not receiving medication. Severity of self-rated pretreatment suicidal ideation (Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire adapted for adolescents score > or = 31) and depressive symptoms (Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale score > or = 91) predicted occurrence of suicidal events during treatment (P depression and insufficient improvement without evidence of medication-induced behavioral activation as a precursor. Severity of self-rated suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms predicted emergence of suicidality during treatment. Risk for suicidal events did not decrease after the first month of treatment, suggesting the need for careful clinical monitoring for several months after starting treatment. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  16. Does relational dysfunction mediate the association between anxiety disorders and later depression? Testing an interpersonal model of comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R; Hammen, Constance; Connolly, Nicole Phillips; Brennan, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders tend to precede onset of comorbid depression. Several researchers have suggested a causal role for anxiety in promoting depressive episodes, but few studies have identified specific mechanisms. The current study proposes an interpersonal model of comorbidity, where anxiety disorders disrupt interpersonal functioning, which in turn elevates risk for depression. At age 15 (T1), 815 adolescents oversampled for maternal depression completed diagnostic interviews, social chronic stress interviews, and self-report measures. At age 20 (T2), participants repeated all measures and reported on self-perceived interpersonal problems. At approximately age 23 (T3), a subset of participants (n = 475) completed a self-report depressive symptoms measure. Consistent with other samples, anxiety disorders largely preceded depressive disorders. Low sociability and interpersonal oversensitivity mediated the association between T1 social anxiety disorder and later depression (including T2 depressive diagnosis and T3 depressive symptoms), controlling for baseline. Interpersonal oversensitivity and social chronic stress similarly mediated the association between generalized anxiety disorder before age 15 and later depression. Interpersonal dysfunction may be one mechanism through which anxiety disorders promote later depression, contributing to high comorbidity rates. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome, Depression, Depressive Illness, and Correlates in a Child and Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Renata; Gulisano, Mariangela; Martino, Davide; Robertson, Mary May

    2017-04-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and depression are both common disorders. It has been suggested that depression occurs in 13%-76% GTS patients. Despite this, there are few studies into the specific relationships and correlates between the two disorders. There is only some consensus as to the precise relationship between the two disorders. We undertook the study to investigate the relationship between depressive symptomatology and the core clinical features of GTS in a well-characterized clinical population of youth with this disorder. Our aim was to verify the association between depression and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and explore further other potential associations highlighted in some, but not all, of the studies focused on this topic. Our results demonstrated that (1) the GTS patients were significantly older than the controls, (2) the GTS patients were significantly more depressed than controls, (3) depression was associated with tic severity, (4) the Diagnostic Confidence Index scores were higher in GTS patients without depression, (5) anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and behavioral problems were significantly associated with depression, and (6) finally, patients with GTS and depression have a positive family history of depression. However, obsessionality (CY-BOCS) did not differentiate between depressed and not depressed GTS patients. Depression is common in patients with GTS and occurs significantly more in GTS than in controls. Depression is significantly associated with GTS factors such as tic severity, comorbidity with ADHD, and the presence of coexistent anxiety, CDs, and behavior problems. Depression is importantly significantly associated with a positive family history of depression. Intriguingly, depression in our sample was not related to obsessionality.

  18. Therapy for depression in bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tyuvina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency and safety of different therapy regimens for depression in relation to the clinical type of bipolar affective disorders (BAD and to choose optimal treatment regimens for depression in BAD type I (BADI and BAD type II (BADII.Patients and methods. A total of 65 depressive patients, including 25 with BADI and 37 with BADII, were examined. 212 depressive episodes were analyzed in BAD patients, of them there were 74 with BADI and 138 with BADII. The patients with BADI took a combination of an antidepressant (AD and a normothymic (NT, NT and a neuroleptic (NL, AD, NT and NL. Those with BADII received monotherapy with AD or NL, a combination of AD + NT, AD + NL. The patients' status was clinically evaluated using a specially designed questionnaire and the MADRS and CGI psychometric scales at baseline and then at the end of 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks of therapy.Results. The AD-containing regimens used to treat patients with BADI proved to be more effective; this therapy led to a more marked reduction in depressive symptoms (55.73% in the AD + NT-treated patients; 54.07% in the AD + NT + NL group versus 33.64% in the NT + NL-treated patients, a higher response to therapy, and a larger number of remissions by the end of the investigation (80.0, 72.7, and 33.3%, respectively. Moreover, the incidence of transient hypomanic symptoms did not significantly differ in these groups (20.0, 27.3, and 8.3%, respectively. The depressive patients with BADII generally responded better to different therapy regimens (the reduction in depressive symptoms was 52.08, 58.82, 58.40, and 53.98% in the AD, NL, AD + NT, and AD + NL groups; the remission index by the end of the investigation was 60.6, 92.9, 77.8, and 69.2%, respectively; these patients were seen to have less frequently symptoms of an antipole during their treatment (18.2, 7.1, 0.0, and 15.4%, respectively.Conclusion. The incorporation of AD into a therapy regimen in BAD patients

  19. Adolescent Depression and Time Spent with Parents and Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desha, Laura N.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Ziviani, Jenny M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines adolescent depressive symptoms and the quantity and quality of time spent by adolescents with their parents and siblings. We use measures of the quality of relationships with parents and siblings as proxy indicators for the quality of time spent with these social partners. The study emphasizes the salience of parent…

  20. Peer Contagion and Adolescent Depression: The Role of Failure Anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the mechanisms underlying peer contagion of depressive symptoms in adolescence. Five annual measurements of data were gathered from a large (N = 842) community-based network of adolescents (M = 14.3 years at first measurement). Results showed that, after controlling for selection and deselection of friends on the…

  1. Understanding Depression among Gifted Adolescent Females: Feminist Therapy Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Toni; Howard-Hamilton, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Research on depression among gifted adolescent females is reviewed. A psychotherapeutic model drawing on established feminist therapy strategies is presented for counselors working with gifted adolescent females. The model emphasizes recognizing harmful effects of patriarchal society, supporting females in self-exploration, and pursuing nonsexist…

  2. Cyberbullying Victimisation in Adolescence: Relationships with Loneliness and Depressive Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit; Heiman, Tali; Eden, Sigal

    2012-01-01

    Cyberbullying is deliberate, aggressive activity carried out through digital means. Cybervictimisation in adolescence may be related to negative psychosocial variables such as loneliness and depressive mood. The purpose of the present study, the first of its kind in Israel, was to examine the association between adolescent cybervictimisation and…

  3. School Climate, Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms among Asian American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…

  4. Factors Predicting Rural Chinese Adolescents' Anxieties, Fears and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Zhang, Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study examined age, gender, birth order and self-perceived level of achievement and popularity, as predictors of anxieties, fears and depression in Chinese adolescents. A sample of 398 rural Chinese adolescents participated in this study. Gender, academic performance and popularity have been found to make the greatest contributions to the…

  5. Moderators of the Effects of Indicated Group and Bibliotherapy Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Programs on Adolescents’ Depressive Symptoms and Depressive Disorder Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Stice, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. PMID:26480199

  6. Depression/anxiety disorder and amygdala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    Described and discussed are neuro-imaging studies on the amygdala (Am) concerning its volume, neuro-active drug effect on it and its response to repulsive and attractive stress-evoked character/temperament tests in patients mainly with major depression (MD) and anxiety disorder (AD), by functional MRI (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). A recent trend of volumetry of Am is the voxel-based morphometry by MRI, of which results are still controversial in MD. In contrast, many studies by PET and fMRI using neuro-active drugs have revealed that Am activity in MD is stimulated, and this hyperactivity can be improved by anti-depressive drugs. In addition, difference of activities is suggested in Am left and right hemispheres. The hyperactivity in Am has been reported also in AD and phobic disorders, of which symptoms are conceivably expressed by the sensitivity changes in the cerebral limbic system involving Am. The author considers the central region responsible for the depressive mood is present around cortex of anteroinferior genu of corpus callosum where neuro-network with Am is dense. (R.T.)

  7. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  8. The relationship between adolescent depressive symptomology and substance abuse

    OpenAIRE

    L.G. Blore; S. Schulze; A.C. Lessing

    2004-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the phenomena of adolescent depressive symptomology, substance abuse and the relationship between the two phenomena in a South African context. The influence of moderator variables was also examined. Another objective was to determine risk factors for the before mentioned. This was done by using a questionnaire with a sample of 1298 conveniently selected adolescents in a South African high school. It was determined that adolescents become progressively unhapp...

  9. Sex Differences in Adolescent Depression: Stress Exposure and Reactivity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Mermelstein, Robin; Roesch, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Stress exposure and reactivity models were examined as explanations for why girls exhibit greater levels of depressive symptoms than boys. In a multiwave, longitudinal design, adolescents' depressive symptoms, alcohol usage, and occurrence of stressors were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months later (N=538; 54.5% female; ages 13-18, average…

  10. Social Withdrawal, Friendship, and Depressed Mood in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleva, A.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141299789; van Beek, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107292300

    2017-01-01

    Social withdrawal in children may develop into a depressed mood in early adolescence , through experiences of problematic peer relationships, while friendship may function as a buffer (Rubin, Coplan, & Bowker, 2009). Our study examines the predictive relation between social withdrawal and depressive

  11. Adolescents with Major Depression Demonstrate Increased Amygdala Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tony T.; Simmons, Alan N.; Matthews, Scott C.; Tapert, Susan F.; Frank, Guido K.; Max, Jeffrey E.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Lansing, Amy E.; Brown, Gregory; Strigo, Irina A.; Wu, Jing; Paulus, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional neuroimaging studies have led to a significantly deeper understanding of the underlying neural correlates and the development of several mature models of depression in adults. In contrast, our current understanding of the underlying neural substrates of adolescent depression is very limited. Although numerous studies have…

  12. Visuospatial planning in unmedicated major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder : distinct and common neural correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, M. M.; Koeter, M. W. J.; Veltman, D. J.; Schene, A. H.; Ruhe, H. G.

    Background Cognitive impairments are an important feature of both remitted and depressed major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). In particular, deficits in executive functioning may hamper everyday functioning. Identifying the neural substrates of impaired executive functioning

  13. The depressive personality disorder inventory and current depressive symptoms: implications for the assessment of depressive personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Jude; Huprich, Steven K

    2011-10-01

    The Depressive Personality Disorder Inventory (DPDI; Huprich, Margrett, Barthelemy, & Fine, 1996; see Appendix) was created to assess Depressive Personality Disorder in clinical and nonclinical samples. Since its creation, the DPDI has been used in multiple studies, and the psychometric properties of the measure have generally supported its reliability, convergent validity, and construct validity; however, evidence for the measure's discriminant validity has been mixed. Specifically, the DPDI tends to correlate highly with measures of current depressive symptoms, which limits its efficacy in differentiating current depressive symptoms from a depressive personality structure. A principal components analysis of 362 individuals who completed both the DPDI and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) found that 49% of the variance was accounted for in two components. Seven items from the DPDI loaded more strongly on the first component composed of many BDI-II items. These items were removed in order to create a measure believed to assess DPD without the confounding influence of current depressive symptomology. Principal components analysis of the revised measure yielded three components, accounting for 46% of the variance. The revised DPDI was used to calculate convergent, discriminant, and construct validity coefficients from measures used in former studies. Virtually no improvement in the validity coefficients was observed. It is concluded that assessing DPD via self-report is limited in its utility.

  14. Identification of depressive symptoms during postpartum in adolescent mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Agustinho Cardillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study objectives were to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescent mothers and to characterize them regarding sociodemographic, behavioral and mental health aspects. An observational study, descriptive and cross-sectional, developed in health units with 72 adolescent mothers through the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. Within the participants, 20.8% presented depressive symptoms by the EPDS. The most frequent questions referred to the feelings of guilt, anxiety, and ideas to self-harm. We highlighted the feelings of guilt (60% and feelings of not being worth living (40%. Most participants (73.3% did not recognize to be depressed. The results show the importance to have an individualized prenatal, when is possible to know vulnerabilities, psychosocial and family aspects, to include tracking of depressive symptoms in the anamnesis and, to use it the attention network, the reference and the counter-reference.

  15. Affective Priming in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle eLeMoult

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on cognitive biases in depression has provided considerable evidence for the impact of emotion on cognition. Individuals with depression tend to preferentially process mood-congruent material and to show deficits in the processing of positive material leading to biases in attention, memory, and judgments. More research is needed, however, to fully understand which cognitive processes are affected. The current study further examines the impact of emotion on cognition using a priming design with facial expressions of emotion. Specifically, this study tested whether the presentation of facial expressions of emotion affects subsequent processing of affective material in participants with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy controls (CTL. Facial expressions displaying happy, sad, angry, disgusted, or neutral expressions were presented as primes for 500ms, and participants’ speed to identify a subsequent target’s emotional expression was assessed. All participants displayed greater interference from emotional versus neutral primes, marked by slower response times to judge the emotion of the target face when it was preceded by an emotional prime. Importantly, the CTL group showed the strongest interference when happy emotional expressions served as primes whereas the MDD group failed to show this bias. These results add to a growing literature that shows that depression is associated with difficulties in the processing of positive material.

  16. Bipolar Disorder in Adolescence: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Great Buyck; Taylor, Priscilla; Holt, Jan R.

    2002-01-01

    Due to developmental issues and overlapping symptoms with other disorders, diagnosing bipolar disorder in adolescents is often a confusing and complex process. This article highlights diagnostic criteria, symptoms and behaviors, and the differential diagnosis process. Treatment options are also discussed. (Contains 17 references.) (GCP)

  17. Cognitive coping in anxiety-disordered adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Garnefski, Nadia; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated differences in cognitive coping strategies between anxiety-disordered and non-anxious adolescents. In addition, the interaction effect with gender as well as differences between specific anxiety diagnoses was examined. A clinical sample of 159 anxiety-disordered

  18. Comorbidity of depressive and dermatologic disorders - therapeutic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek, Anamarija; Koić, Oliver; Radanović-Grgurić, Ljiljana; Degmecić, Dunja

    2009-09-01

    Depressive disorders are more common in the population affected with dermatologic disorders. Comorbidity of depression and dermatologic disorders is around 30%. The correlation between depressive and dermatologic disorders still remains unclear. In psychodermatology three disorders are described: a) psychophysiological disorders (both disorders induced and maintained by stressors), b) secondary psychiatric disorders (mental disorder as a result of skin leasions and treatment) and c) primary psychiatric disorders (skin alterations as a result of mental disorders and treatment). In depression and dermatology disorders in which certain precipitating factors are required thereby causing alteration of the patient's immunological identity causing a combination of hereditary features and ones acquired through adaptation occur to cause the disorder to develop. The cytokines are vital in the regulation of the immunology response and are also mediators of non-infective inflammatory processes leading to recurrent hormonal secretion affecting the function of the vegetative and central nervous system leading to so called "sickness behaviour", marked by loss of appetite, anhedonia, anxiety, decrease of concentration and interest along with other changes which generate a picture of depressive disorder. Treatment of depressive and dermatologic disorders is complex and requires an integral therapeutic approach encompassing all aspects of both disorders and their comorbidity. Therefore therapeutic success lies in a team approach to the patient under the auspice of consultative-liason psychiatry by setting the frame for efficient collaboration and bridging the gap between the mental and the physical in everyday clinical practice.

  19. Detailed course of depressive symptoms and risk for developing depression in late adolescents with subthreshold depression: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinnin R

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ran Jinnin,1 Yasumasa Okamoto,1 Koki Takagaki,1 Yoshiko Nishiyama,1 Takanao Yamamura,1 Yuri Okamoto,2 Yoshie Miyake,2 Yoshitake Takebayashi,3 Keisuke Tanaka,4 Yoshinori Sugiura,5 Haruki Shimoda,6 Norito Kawakami,6 Toshi A Furukawa,7 Shigeto Yamawaki1 1Department of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, 2Health Service Center, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 3Risk Analysis Research Center, The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tokyo, Japan; 4Graduated School of Education, Joetsu University of Education, Niigata, Japan; 5Graduated School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 6Department of Mental Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 7Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: Despite its clinical importance, adolescent subthreshold depression remains a largely neglected topic. The aims of this study were to accurately identify the natural course of depressive symptoms and the risk for developing major depressive episode (MDE in late adolescents with subthreshold depression over 1 year.Patients and methods: One hundred and seventy-two participants <20 years of age (mean age: 18.32 years, standard deviation: 0.50, who did not meet the full criteria for an MDE, were selected from 2,494 screened freshmen based on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II. We conducted a cohort study of three groups (low-, middle-, and high-symptom groups divided based on BDI-II scores, over a 1 year period with the use of bimonthly assessments. Temporal changes of depressive symptoms were analyzed using linear mixed modeling and growth mixture modeling.Results: First, we found that late adolescents with subthreshold depression (high depressive symptoms were split between the increasing and decreasing depressive symptoms groups, whereas the majority of the less-symptoms group remained

  20. Cognitive behavioral therapy for depressed adolescents exposed to interpersonal trauma: an initial effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirk, Stephen R; Deprince, Anne P; Crisostomo, Patrice S; Labus, Jennifer

    2014-03-01

    Four clinical trials have shown that a history of interpersonal trauma is associated with diminished response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression. An efficacious CBT protocol for adolescent depression was modified to address cognitive deficits and distortions associated with interpersonal trauma. Initial feasibility, acceptability, and treatment impact of the modified treatment (m-CBT) were evaluated in a randomized effectiveness trial conducted in community clinics. Clients were 43 referred adolescents with a depressive disorder and a history of interpersonal trauma. Adolescents either received m-CBT or usual care (UC) therapy. Results indicated that m-CBT was delivered with good fidelity by community clinicians, but that number of sessions completed was attenuated in both m-CBT and UC. Adolescents reported high levels of treatment satisfaction and acceptability for the new treatment. There were significant reductions in depressive symptoms over time, but no differences in outcomes between groups. Although the new treatment produced promising results, it did not outperform UC. Implications for treatment development are considered. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Psychiatric comorbidities among adolescents with and without anxiety disorders: a community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estácio Amaro da Silva Júnior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate, in a community sample of adolescents, the presence of comorbidities in different anxiety disorders. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, initially composed of 2,457 adolescents, aged between 10-17 years old, from public schools of the area covered by the Basic Health Unit of a university hospital. We applied the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED to assess for anxiety disorders. Then, 138 positive cases in the screening were assessed for mental disorders through the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children – Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL. Results Patients with anxiety disorders had more association with other anxiety disorders, as well as depression, and enuresis. The most common comorbidity described in our study was between generalized anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder (OR = 4.21, 95% CI 1.88, 9.58. Significant association was observed between other disorders such as enuresis and separation anxiety disorder (OR = 3.81, 95% CI 1.16, 12.49, as well as depression and generalized anxiety disorder (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.52, 7.61. Conclusion Our study showed a relevant presence of comorbidities adolescents with anxiety disorders, selected from a community sample, especially regarding other anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  2. Evidence for Broadening Criteria for Atypical Depression Which May Define a Reactive Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Silverstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1 The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2 Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite/weight. (3 Several studies have found atypical depression to be comorbid with headaches, bulimia, and body image issues. (4 Most probands who report atypical depression meet criteria for “somatic depression,” defined as depression associated with several of disordered eating, poor body image, headaches, fatigue, and insomnia. The gender difference in prevalence of atypical depression results from its overlap with somatic depression. Somatic depression is associated with psychosocial measures related to gender, linking it with the descriptions of atypical depression as “reactive” appearing in the studies upon which the original criteria for atypical depression were based. Conclusion. Insomnia, disordered eating, poor body image, and aches/pains should be added as criteria for atypical depression matching criteria for somatic depression defining a reactive depressive disorder possibly distinct from endogenous melancholic depression.

  3. Evidence for Broadening Criteria for Atypical Depression Which May Define a Reactive Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Brett; Angst, Jules

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1) The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2) Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite/weight. (3) Several studies have found atypical depression to be comorbid with headaches, bulimia, and body image issues. (4) Most probands who report atypical depression meet criteria for "somatic depression," defined as depression associated with several of disordered eating, poor body image, headaches, fatigue, and insomnia. The gender difference in prevalence of atypical depression results from its overlap with somatic depression. Somatic depression is associated with psychosocial measures related to gender, linking it with the descriptions of atypical depression as "reactive" appearing in the studies upon which the original criteria for atypical depression were based. Conclusion. Insomnia, disordered eating, poor body image, and aches/pains should be added as criteria for atypical depression matching criteria for somatic depression defining a reactive depressive disorder possibly distinct from endogenous melancholic depression.

  4. Turning depression inside out : Life events, cognitive emotion regulation and treatment in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Stikkelbroek, Y.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    In view of the large burden of disease for the depressed adolescents, their families and society as a whole, studies on risk factors and mechanisms for development of a depression, as well as effect studies concerning specific treatment procedures for adolescents with depression, are definitely needed. This thesis combines several research questions targeting different concepts in relation to depression, namely risk factors and development of adolescent depression and the treatment of adolesc...

  5. Subclinical depression in Urban Indian adolescents: Prevalence, felt needs, and correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Meghna; Manjula, M.; Vijay Sagar, K. John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subclinical depression in adolescents constitutes a risk factor for future clinical depression and hence warrants examination. However, there is a paucity of research that documents subclinical depression among adolescents in India. Objectives: (a) To investigate the prevalence of subclinical depression in urban school-going adolescents; (b) to investigate the problems and felt needs of these adolescents; (c) to examine depression-related variables; and (d) to examine the relation...

  6. Gender, Social Support, and Depression in Criminal Justice Involved Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jennifer E.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Miranda, Robert; Rizzo, Christie J.; Justus, Alicia N.; Clum, George

    2010-01-01

    Knowing where criminal justice involved teens look for support and whether those supports reduce depression has important and possibly gender-specific treatment implications for this vulnerable population. This study examines the relationships between social support and depression in a mixed-gender sample of 198 incarcerated adolescents. Greater support from families and overall and greater satisfaction with supports predicted lower depression for boys and girls. Support from siblings and ext...

  7. A Multi-Family Group Intervention for Adolescent Depression: The BEST MOOD Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Lucinda A; Lewis, Andrew J; Toumbourou, John W; Knight, Tess; Bertino, Melanie D; Pryor, Reima

    2017-06-01

    Depression is the most common mental disorder for young people, and it is associated with educational underachievement, self-harm, and suicidality. Current psychological therapies for adolescent depression are usually focused only on individual-level change and often neglect family or contextual influences. The efficacy of interventions may be enhanced with a broader therapeutic focus on family factors such as communication, conflict, support, and cohesion. This article describes a structured multi-family group approach to the treatment of adolescent depression: Behaviour Exchange Systems Therapy for adolescent depression (BEST MOOD). BEST MOOD is a manualized intervention that is designed to address both individual and family factors in the treatment of adolescent depression. BEST MOOD adopts a family systems approach that also incorporates psychoeducation and elements of attachment theories. The program consists of eight multifamily group therapy sessions delivered over 2 hours per week, where parents attend the first four sessions and young people and siblings join from week 5. The program design is specifically aimed to engage youth who are initially resistant to treatment and to optimize youth and family mental health outcomes. This article presents an overview of the theoretical model, session content, and evaluations to date, and provides a case study to illustrate the approach. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  8. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized......-limbic network with hyper-activity in limbic and ventral prefrontal regions paired with hypo-activity of dorsal prefrontal regions subserve these abnormalities. A cross-talk of 'hot' and 'cold' cognition disturbances in MDD occurs. Disturbances in 'hot cognition' may also contribute to the perpetuation......' cognition deficits in healthy relatives of patients with MDD. Taken together, these findings suggest that abnormalities in 'hot' cognition may constitute a candidate neurocognitive endophenotype for depression....

  9. The Direct/Indirect Association of ADHD/ODD Symptoms with Self-esteem, Self-perception, and Depression in Early Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kita, Yosuke; Inoue, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to reveal the influences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms on self-esteem and self-perception during early adolescence and to clarify the spillover effect of self-esteem on depressive symptoms. ADHD symptoms in 564 early adolescents were evaluated via teacher-rating scales. Self-esteem and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-reported scales. We analyzed the relationships among these symptoms using...

  10. Mediator Effects of Positive Emotions on Social Support and Depression among Adolescents Suffering from Mobile Phone Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menglong; Jiang, Xia; Ren, Yujia

    2017-06-01

    Depression is a common mental disorder that is widely seen among adolescents suffering from mobile phone addiction. While it is well known that both positive emtions in adolescents wiotions and social support can have a positive impact by helping individuals to maintain a positive attitude, the correlation between positive emotions, social support, and depression among these adolescents remains to be investigated. This study examined the mediator effects of positive emotions on the relationship between social support and depression among adolescents suffering from mobile phone addiction. For this study, conducted in 2016, we selected 1,346 adolescent students from three middle schools (ranging from Junior Grade One to Senior Grade Three) in Hunan Province of China, to participate in the survey. Participants were selected using the stratified cluster random sampling method, and all participants remained anonymous throughout the study. Each participant completed the Self-made General Situation Questionnaire, the Social Support Rating Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the Mobile Phone Addiction Tendency Scale. There was significant positive correlation between positive emotions and social support. Both positive emotions and social support demonstrated significant negative correlation with depression. Positive emotions had partial mediator effects on the relationship between social support and depression (Pphone addiction. Social support contributes to positive emoth mobile phone addiction, thereby reducing their levels of depression. These findings suggest that more support and care should be given to this particular adolescent population.

  11. A longitudinal examination of stress generation in depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliaszek, Amanda A; Zinbarg, Richard E; Mineka, Susan; Craske, Michelle G; Griffith, James W; Sutton, Jonathan M; Epstein, Alyssa; Hammen, Constance

    2012-02-01

    The current study compared two competing theories of the stress generation model of depression (stress causation vs. stress continuation) using interview-based measures of episodic life stress, as well as interpersonal and noninterpersonal chronic life stress. We also expanded on past research by examining anxiety disorders as well as depressive disorders. In addition, we examined the role of neuroticism and extraversion in these relationships. Participants were 627 adolescents enrolled in a two-site, longitudinal study of risk factors for depressive and anxiety disorders. Baseline and follow-up assessments were approximately one year apart. Results supported the stress causation theory for episodic stress generation for anxiety disorders, with neuroticism partially accounting for this relationship. The stress causation theory was also supported for depression, but only for more moderate to severe stressors; neuroticism partially accounted for this relationship as well. Finally, we found evidence for interpersonal and noninterpersonal chronic life stress continuation in both depressive and anxiety disorders. The present findings have implications regarding the specificity of the stress generation model to depressive disorders, as well as variables involved in the stress generation process. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Development of a potential screening measure for adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taouk, Mona; Meiser, Bettina; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Dudley, Michael; Mitchell, Philip B

    2017-06-01

    Few adolescent-specific depression screening instruments have been developed in recent years using multi-method approaches (qualitative and quantitative), and some of those available have limitations with an adolescent audience. We describe the development of a potential measure - the Taouk Scale for Adolescent Depression. Draft items were informed by findings from focus groups and reviews by adolescents and healthcare professionals, resulting in a provisional 97-item scale. This was administered to a nation-wide sample of 3087 secondary students. Exploratory factor analysis was used in a development subset to examine dimensionality of items and reduce their number, with the final item set evaluated in a validation subset. Four reliable factors - negative outlook, emotional distress, behavioural changes and cognitive and somatic disturbances - were obtained from the exploratory factor analysis, resulting in a 28-item instrument, which was corroborated by confirmatory factor analysis. The final scale includes a number of novel items not included in current measures, i.e., whether respondents wear more black clothing than usual, deliberately damage property, take more risks, 'space out' at school and are engaged in substance abuse and/or increased sexual activity. The Taouk Scale for Adolescent Depression demonstrated sound psychometric properties and may have utility for future screening and future epidemiological purposes. It appears to be a valid and reliable screening instrument for adolescent depression that includes a number of novel items. Further research is necessary to confirm its criterion validity in clinically depressed samples.

  13. Major Depressive Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Do the Sexual Dysfunctions Differ?

    OpenAIRE

    Kendurkar, Arvind; Kaur, Brinder

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are known to have significant impact on sexual functioning. They have been studied individually. Therefore, this study was planned to compare the sexual dysfunction between MDD, OCD, and GAD with healthy subjects as controls.

  14. A Randomized Depression Prevention Trial Comparing Interpersonal Psychotherapy--Adolescent Skills Training to Group Counseling in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jami F; Benas, Jessica S; Schueler, Christie M; Gallop, Robert; Gillham, Jane E; Mufson, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Given the rise in depression disorders in adolescence, it is important to develop and study depression prevention programs for this age group. The current study examined the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group prevention program for adolescent depression, in comparison to group programs that are typically delivered in school settings. In this indicated prevention trial, 186 adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST delivered by research staff or group counseling (GC) delivered by school counselors. Hierarchical linear modeling examined differences in rates of change in depressive symptoms and overall functioning from baseline to the 6-month follow-up assessment. Cox regression compared rates of depression diagnoses. Adolescents in IPT-AST showed significantly greater improvements in self-reported depressive symptoms and evaluator-rated overall functioning than GC adolescents from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. However, there were no significant differences between the two conditions in onset of depression diagnoses. Although both intervention conditions demonstrated significant improvements in depressive symptoms and overall functioning, results indicate that IPT-AST has modest benefits over groups run by school counselors which were matched on frequency and duration of sessions. In particular, IPT-AST outperformed GC in reduction of depressive symptoms and improvements in overall functioning. These findings point to the clinical utility of this depression prevention program, at least in the short-term. Additional follow-up is needed to determine the long-term effects of IPT-AST, relative to GC, particularly in preventing depression onset.

  15. A Randomized Depression Prevention Trial Comparing Interpersonal Psychotherapy—Adolescent Skills Training to Group Counseling in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benas, Jessica S.; Schueler, Christie M.; Gallop, Robert; Gillham, Jane E.; Mufson, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Given the rise in depression disorders in adolescence, it is important to develop and study depression prevention programs for this age group. The current study examined the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group prevention program for adolescent depression, in comparison to group programs that are typically delivered in school settings. In this indicated prevention trial, 186 adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST delivered by research staff or group counseling (GC) delivered by school counselors. Hierarchical linear modeling examined differences in rates of change in depressive symptoms and overall functioning from baseline to the 6-month follow-up assessment. Cox regression compared rates of depression diagnoses. Adolescents in IPT-AST showed significantly greater improvements in self-reported depressive symptoms and evaluator-rated overall functioning than GC adolescents from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. However, there were no significant differences between the two conditions in onset of depression diagnoses. Although both intervention conditions demonstrated significant improvements in depressive symptoms and overall functioning, results indicate that IPT-AST has modest benefits over groups run by school counselors which were matched on frequency and duration of sessions. In particular, IPT-AST outperformed GC in reduction of depressive symptoms and improvements in overall functioning. These findings point to the clinical utility of this depression prevention program, at least in the short-term. Additional follow-up is needed to determine the long-term effects of IPT-AST, relative to GC, particularly in preventing depression onset. PMID:26638219

  16. Comorbid sleep disorders and suicide risk among children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Luby, Joan L; Joshi, Paramjit T; Wagner, Karen D; Emslie, Graham J; Walkup, John T; Axelson, David A; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-12-01

    Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk for suicide. Sleep disturbances are common among youth with bipolar disorder and are also independently implicated in suicide risk; thus, comorbid sleep disorders may amplify suicide risk in this clinical population. This study examined the effects of comorbid sleep disorders on suicide risk among youth with bipolar disorder. We conducted secondary analyses of baseline data from the Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study, a randomized controlled trial of individuals aged 6-15 years (mean ± SD = 10.2 ± 2.7 years) with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder (N = 379). Sleep disorders (i.e., nightmare, sleep terror, and sleepwalking disorders) and suicide risk were assessed via the WASH-U-KSADS and the CDRS-R, respectively. We constructed uncontrolled logistic regression models as well as models controlling for trauma history, a generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) diagnosis, and depression symptoms. Participants with a current comorbid nightmare disorder versus those without were nearly twice as likely to screen positive for suicide risk in an uncontrolled model and models controlling for trauma history, a GAD diagnosis, and depression symptoms. Neither a current comorbid sleep terror disorder nor a sleepwalking disorder was significantly associated with suicide risk. This pattern of findings remained consistent for both current and lifetime sleep disorder diagnoses. Youth with bipolar I disorder and a comorbid nightmare disorder appear to be at heightened suicide risk. Implications for assessment and treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness of group CBT in treating adolescents with depression symptoms: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Bernardo; Massei, Micaela; Arimatea, Emidio; Moltedo-Perfetti, Andrés

    2016-01-20

    Depression is among the most common psychological disorders of adolescents. Its management is based on pharmacological treatment, psychological therapy, or a combination thereof. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most extensively tested intervention for adolescent depression. A PubMed search was conducted for randomized controlled trials (RCT) of the efficacy of CBT in treating adolescents with depressive symptoms published in 2005-2015. Keywords were "cognitive behavioral therapy", "group therapy", "depression" and "adolescent". Of the 23 papers that were retrieved, only six met all inclusion criteria. Three of them reported a significant reduction in depressive symptom severity after either individual or group (G)-CBT compared with the control group, even with a small number of CBT sessions (six rather than 10-12), with a medium or medium-to-large effect size. One study reported improved self-awareness and a significantly greater increase in perceived friend social support compared with bibliotherapy and check with brochure. Two studies reported clinical symptom reduction without significant differences compared with the control group (activity contrast). This review highlighted primarily that very few RCT have applied CBT in adolescents; moreover, it confirmed the effectiveness of G-CBT, especially as psychotherapy, although it was not always superior to other interventions (e.g. other activities in prevention programs). Comparison showed that G-CBT and group interpersonal psychotherapy were both effective in reducing depressive symptoms. Successful G-CBT outcomes were related to the presence of peers, who were an important source of feedback and support to observe, learn, and practice new skills to manage depressive symptoms and improve social-relational skills.

  18. Testing a model of depression among Thai adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatanasin, Duangjai; Thapinta, Darawan; Thompson, Elaine Adams; Thungjaroenkul, Petsunee

    2012-11-01

    This predictive correlational study was designed to test a comprehensive model of depression for Thai adolescents. This sample included 800 high school students in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Data were collected using self-reported measures of depression, negative automatic thoughts, effective social problem solving, ineffective social problem solving, rumination, parental care, parental overprotection, and negative life events. Structural equation modeling revealed that negative automatic thoughts, effective and ineffective social problem solving mediated the effects of rumination, negative life events, and parental care and overprotection on adolescent depression. These findings provide new knowledge about identified factors and the mechanisms of their influence on depression among Thai adolescents, which are appropriate for targeting preventive interventions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Review: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Studies of Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Kondo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper focuses on the application of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS to the study of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD in children and adolescents. Method. A literature search using the National Institutes of Health's PubMed database was conducted to identify indexed peer-reviewed MRS studies in pediatric patients with MDD. Results. The literature search yielded 18 articles reporting original MRS data in pediatric MDD. Neurochemical alterations in Choline, Glutamate, and N-Acetyl Aspartate are associated with pediatric MDD, suggesting pathophysiologic continuity with adult MDD. Conclusions. The MRS literature in pediatric MDD is modest but growing. In studies that are methodologically comparable, the results have been consistent. Because it offers a noninvasive and repeatable measurement of relevant in vivo brain chemistry, MRS has the potential to provide insights into the pathophysiology of MDD as well as the mediators and moderators of treatment response.

  20. Discrepancies Between Perceptions of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms : An Illustration of Polynomial Regression Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, S. A.; Branje, S. J. T.; Hale, W. W.; Goossens, L.; Koot, H. M.; Oldehinkel, A. J.; Meeus, W. H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their

  1. Discrepancies between perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship and early adolescent depressive symptoms : An illustration of polynomial regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, S. A.; Branje, S. J. T.; Hale, W. W.; Goossens, L.; Koot, H. M.; Oldehinkel, A. J.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their

  2. Social problem-solving among adolescents treated for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Weidman, Emily G; Jacobs, Rachel H; Reinecke, Mark A; Silva, Susan G; March, John S

    2010-01-01

    Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire--Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Cheong, Siew Man; Mahadir Naidu, Balkish; Kaur, Gurpreet; Manickam, Mala A; Mat Noor, Malisa; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Depression among adolescents has been recognized as a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the Malaysia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 were analyzed with additional data from the validated DASS21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress) questionnaire. The study revealed that 17.7% of respondents had depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis further showed that feeling lonely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.99; 95% CI = 2.57-3.47), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.63-2.44), using drugs (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.21-2.82), and being bullied (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.60-1.99) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Lack of parental supervision, alcohol use, and tobacco use were also significant risk factors. Addressing depressive symptoms among adolescents may have implications for managing their risks of being bullied and substance use. This study also highlights the need to further investigate depressive symptoms among adolescents of Indian ethnicity. © 2014 APJPH.

  4. Personality traits in the differentiation of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder during a depressive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Jaciana Marlova Gonçalves; dos Passos, Miguel Bezerra; Molina, Mariane Lopez; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos

    2016-02-28

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in personality traits between individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) during a depressive episode, when it can be hard to differentiate them. Data on personality traits (NEO-FFI), mental disorders (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus) and socioeconomic variables were collected from 245 respondents who were in a depressive episode. Individuals with MDD (183) and BD (62) diagnosis were compared concerning personality traits, clinical aspects and socioeconomic variables through bivariate analyses (chi-square and ANOVA) and multivariate analysis (logistic regression). There were no differences in the prevalence of the disorders between socioeconomic and clinical variables. As for the personality traits, only the difference in Agreeableness was statistically significant. Considering the control of suicide risk, gender and anxiety comorbidity in the multivariate analysis, the only variable that remained associated was Agreeableness, with an increase in MDD cases. The brief version of the NEO inventories (NEO-FFI) does not allow for the analysis of personality facets. During a depressive episode, high levels of Agreeableness can indicate that MDD is a more likely diagnosis than BD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Latent Classes of Symptoms related to Clinically Depressed Mood in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Eva Henje; Forsman, Mats; Yang, Tony T; Serlachius, Eva; Larsson, Jan-Olov

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , is based only on adult symptomatology of depression and not adapted for age and gender. This may contribute to the low diagnostic specificity and validity of adolescent MDD. In this study, we investigated whether latent classes based on symptoms associated with depressed mood could be identified in a sample of adolescents seeking psychiatric care, regardless of traditionally defined diagnostic categories. Self-reports of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Development and Well-Being Assessment were collected consecutively from all new patients between the ages of 13 and 17 years at two psychiatric outpatient clinics in Stockholm, Sweden. Those who reported depressed mood at intake yielded a sample of 21 boys and 156 girls. Latent class analyses were performed for all screening items and for the depression-specific items of the Development and Well-Being Assessment. The symptoms that were reported in association with depressed mood differentiated the adolescents into two classes. One class had moderate emotional severity scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and mainly symptoms that were congruent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for MDD. The other class had higher emotional severity scores and similar symptoms to those reported in the first class. However, in addition, this group demonstrated more diverse symptomatology, including vegetative symptoms, suicidal ideation, anxiety, conduct problems, body dysmorphic symptoms, and deliberate vomiting. The classes predicted functional impairment in that the members of the second class showed more functional impairment. The relatively small sample size limited the generalizability of the results of this study, and the amount of items included in the analysis was restricted by the rules of latent class analysis. No conclusions

  6. Association study of obstetrical complication and depressive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the correlation between obstetrical complications and depressive disorder.Methods:Depressive disorder probands and their adult sibling were diagnosed using CCMD-3 criteria.Obstetrical data from maternal reports were scored,applying published scales that take into account number and severity of complication.Results:The scores of obstetric complication and prenatal complications and low birth weight were significantly worse in probands than siblings without depressive disorders.Conclusion:Results suggest obstetric complications are etiologically significant in depressive disorder.

  7. Gender differences in major depressive disorder : Results from the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuch, Jerome J. J.; Roest, Annelieke M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Jonge, Peter

    Background: Although an overall gender difference in prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been well established, several questions concerning gender differences in the clinical manifestation of depression remain. This study aims to identify gender differences in psychopathology,

  8. Recognizing and treating anxiety and depression in adolescents. Normal and abnormal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, A

    2000-07-01

    Recognition of depressive and anxiety disorders in adolescents reduces morbidity, mortality, and lifetime risk for psychiatric illness and maladaptive behaviors. Effective treatments for these disorders are available and are associated with minimal severe side effects. Because adolescents tend to underreport their psychologic distress, screening for these disorders in the primary care setting is incumbent on the clinician. Depression or anxiety may be a primary or a secondary condition--with each other and with other medical illness. Substance abuse, including cigarettes, should not be overlooked as an accompanying risk factor for poor health care habits and as an indicator of degree of family (lack of) support. Adolescents at risk should be screened and their symptoms taken seriously. This brief overview does not focus on the need for primary care clinicians to seek assistance and support of psychiatrists in the diagnosis and development of treatment algorithms. All clinicians should be reminded that judgments about peoples' internal mental states and function are difficult to assess objectively and with compassion. Initial assessment in the primary care setting should include a telephone consultation with a reliable psychiatric colleague and referral for more in-depth evaluation in the event of more complicated course. These disorders need to be treated comprehensively because of the lifelong implications that having a chronic disease bear on the individual and his or her physiology. Primary care clinicians are pivotal instruments in engaging adolescents to embrace appropriate therapeutic measures for their current and future health.

  9. Psycho-endocrine disorders in adolescents with Graves’ disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh.T. Muratova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thyroid dysfunction and mental disorders are common among the general population. In population studies, that thyrotoxicosis has been established to be accompanied by depression and anxiety. The purpose was to study the features of the psycho-emotional state in adolescents with Graves’ disease (GD. Materials and methods. Clinical and hormonal indices and features of the psycho-emotional state were studied in 19 adolescence with Graves’ disease using the Spielberg questionnaire (State Trait Personal Inventory, STPI and the drawing test House-Tree-Man (HTM, proposed by J. Buk. The control group consisted of 12 healthy adolescents without thyroid pathology. Results. The average age of the examined adolescents with Graves’ disease was 13.0 ± 0.6 years; thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed 5.3 times more often in girls compared to boys. Endocrine orbitopathy was diagnosed in 68.4 % of adolescents with thyrotoxicosis. All the examined adolescents with GD had signs of the autonomic nervous system disorder. Also there were identified nonspecific symptoms such as: increased response to suddenness or fear (63.2 %, difficult concentra­ting or emptiness in the head due to worry or anxiety (47.4 %, persistent irritability (94.7 %, difficult falling asleep due to anxiety (63.2 %. The results of the anxiety study by the STPI questionnaire revealed that among children with thyrotoxicosis the phenomena of anxiety and negative emotional experiences predominated (p < 0.05, but cognitive activity was lower (p < 0.05 when compared with those of the control group. While in a group of teenagers with toxic goiter, 100 % of children showed a high level of anxiety (range of scores of 24–40, in this group children with a high degree of negative emotional feelings (68.4 % prevailed; and in the third of children (31.6 % the average degree of negative emotional experiences was diagnosed. At the same time, in the control group 91.7 % of children had high

  10. Mediated moderation of the relation between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms: role of adolescent physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    To examine the mediating effect of family functioning on the relation between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms and determine whether the magnitude of the mediating effect is different for adolescents with and without chronic physical health conditions. Data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. A representative survey of 11,813 adolescents and their mothers was included. Maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms were measured using the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Family functioning was measured using the McMaster Family Assessment Device. Multilevel multiple-group path analysis was used to examine potential mediating and moderating effects. Family functioning measured when adolescents were 14-15 years mediated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms (measured at 10-13 years) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured at 16-19 years) for both adolescents with [αβ = 0.02 (0.02, 0.03)] and without chronic health conditions [αβ = 0.01 (0.00, 0.01)]. These findings provided evidence to suggest mediated moderation, Δαβ = 0.02 (0.01, 0.03), that is, the mediating effect of family functioning was significantly larger for adolescents with chronic health conditions. The mediating effect of family functioning in the relation between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms is larger for adolescents with chronic health conditions. Within the framework of family-centered care, maternal depressive symptoms and family functioning are suitable targets for preventive intervention for adolescents with chronic health conditions.

  11. ADHD in adolescents with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortese Samuele

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of a comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD diagnosis in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, and its impact on the clinical presentation of BPD in adolescents, and to determine which type of impulsivity specifically characterizes adolescents with BPD-ADHD. Methods ADHD diagnoses were sought in a sample of 85 DSM-IV BPD adolescents drawn from the EURNET BPD. Axis-I and -II disorders were determined with the K-SADS-PL and the SIDP-IV, respectively. Impulsivity was assessed with the BIS-11. Results 11% (N = 9 of BPD participants had a current ADHD diagnosis. BPD-ADHD adolescents showed higher prevalence of Disruptive disorders (Chi2 = 9.09, p = 0.01 and a non-significant trend for a higher prevalence of other cluster B personality disorders (Chi2 = 2.70, p = 0.08. Regression analyses revealed a significant association between Attentional/Cognitive impulsivity scores and ADHD (Wald Z = 6.69; p = 0.01; Exp(B = 2.02, CI 95% 1.19-3.45. Conclusions Comorbid ADHD influences the clinical presentation of adolescents with BPD and is associated with higher rates of disruptive disorders, with a trend towards a greater likelihood of cluster B personality disorders and with higher levels of impulsivity, especially of the attentional/cognitive type. A subgroup of BPD patients may exhibit developmentally driven impairments of the inhibitory system persisting since childhood. Specific interventions should be recommended for this subsample of BPD adolescents.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of comorbid depression in a nonclinical online sample with DSM-5 internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Cho, Hyun; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2018-01-15

    We investigated the prevalence and correlates of comorbid depression among patients with internet gaming disorder using the Internet Gaming Disorder scale (IGD-9) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) among nonclinical online survey respondents. Korean adolescents and adults from 14 to 39 years of age were selected. We compared internet gaming use patterns and sociodemographic and clinical variables between patients with internet gaming disorder who had depression and those without depression. In 2016, 7200 people participated in an online survey. Respondents with internet gaming disorder that was comorbid with depression were older, more often female, had greater Internet Addiction Test total scores, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test total scores, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 total scores, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence total scores, and higher Dickman Dysfunctional Impulsivity Instrument dysfunctional subscale scores than those without depression. The binary logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender, problematic alcohol use, anxiety, and a past history of psychiatric counseling or treatment due to internet gaming use were significant predictors for comorbid depression among participants with internet gaming disorder. Depression was a common comorbidity of internet gaming disorder. Internet gaming disorder with comorbid depression was related to more serious psychiatric phenomenology and a greater psychiatric burden. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Trying to fall asleep while catastrophising: what sleep-disordered adolescents think and feel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Rachel M; Lovato, Nicole; Gradisar, Michael; Oliver, Mike; Slater, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Catastrophising is a repetitive cognitive process related to sleep disturbance in adult insomnia patients. More recently catastrophising has been associated with increased sleep disturbances in community samples of children and adolescents, with this association mediated by anxiety and depression. However, there currently is no evidence of these processes outside of community samples; impeding our ability to draw clinical conclusions. Knowledge on such dysfunctional cognitive processes in adolescents experiencing sleep disturbance would be clinically beneficial in aetiology and intervention. Our research examined the link between catastrophising, anxiety, depression and sleep latency in a sample of sleep-disordered adolescents. We also explored specific catastrophising themes which may impact the sleep latency of these adolescents. Forty adolescents (age=15.1±1.5 years, 53% boys) diagnosed with delayed sleep phase disorder completed a 7-day sleep diary, along with measures of anxiety and depression and a catastrophising interview with a trained sleep therapist. Several catastrophisation themes were generated, the most common concerning interpersonal and performance aspects of school. Bootstrapping analyses showed depression did not mediate the relationship between catastrophising and sleep; however, an indirect relationship was found between catastrophising, anticipatory anxiety, and sleep latency. These findings have implications for the role of dysfunctional thinking in prolonging sleep onset for adolescents and providing a clinical framework for health professionals when assessing and treating adolescents with delayed sleep timing. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Distinguishing bipolar II depression from major depressive disorder with comorbid borderline personality disorder: demographic, clinical, and family history differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer H; Morgan, Theresa A; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Dalrymple, Kristy

    2013-09-01

    Because of the potential treatment implications, it is clinically important to distinguish between bipolar II depression and major depressive disorder with comorbid borderline personality disorder. The high frequency of diagnostic co-occurrence and resemblance of phenomenological features has led some authors to suggest that borderline personality disorder is part of the bipolar spectrum. Few studies have directly compared patients with bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. In the present study from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services project, we compared these 2 groups of patients on demographic, clinical, and family history variables. From December 1995 to May 2012, 3,600 psychiatric patients presenting to the outpatient practice at Rhode Island Hospital (Providence, Rhode Island) were evaluated with semistructured diagnostic interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders. The focus of the present study is the 206 patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder and borderline personality disorder (MDD-BPD) and 62 patients with DSM-IV bipolar II depression without borderline personality disorder. The patients with MDD-BPD were significantly more often diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (P depression had a significantly higher morbid risk for bipolar disorder in their first-degree relatives than the MDD-BPD patients (P depression and major depressive disorder with comorbid borderline personality disorder differed on a number of clinical and family history variables, thereby supporting the validity of this distinction. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  15. Cognitive control network connectivity in adolescent women with and without a parental history of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Clasen

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Depressed parents may transmit depression vulnerability to their adolescent daughters via alterations in functional connectivity within neural circuits that underlie cognitive control of emotional information.

  16. Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

  17. Detecting depression among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Ricardo; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Barroilhet, Sergio; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Gaete, Jorge; Montgomery, Alan

    2013-04-23

    Depression among adolescents is common but most cases go undetected. Brief questionnaires offer an opportunity to identify probable cases but properly validated cut-off points are often unavailable, especially in non-western countries. Sex differences in the prevalence of depression become marked in adolescence and this needs to be accounted when establishing cut-off points. This study involved adolescents attending secondary state schools in Santiago, Chile. We compared the self-reported Beck Depression Inventory-II with a psychiatric interview to ascertain diagnosis. General psychometric features were estimated before establishing the criterion validity of the BDI-II. The BDI-II showed good psychometric properties with good internal consistency, a clear unidimensional factorial structure, and good capacity to discriminate between cases and non-cases of depression. Optimal cut-off points to establish caseness for depression were much higher for girls than boys. Sex discrepancies were primarily explained by differences in scores among those with depression rather than among those without depression. It is essential to validate scales with the populations intended to be used with. Sex differences are often ignored when applying cut-off points, leading to substantial misclassification. Early detection of depression is essential if we think that early intervention is a clinically important goal.

  18. Depressive Symptoms Moderate Dating Violence Prevention Outcomes Among Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collibee, Charlene; Rizzo, Christie J; Kemp, Kathleen; Hood, Erik; Doucette, Hannah; Gittins Stone, Daniel I; DeJesus, Brett

    2018-04-01

    Few dating violence prevention programs assess how variations in initial violence risk affects responsiveness. This study examines the efficacy of Date SMART, a dating violence and sexual risk prevention program designed to target high-risk adolescent girls, in preventing dating violence in the context of varying initial levels of depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of N = 109 female adolescents with a history of physical dating violence participated in a randomized controlled trial of the Date SMART program and a knowledge only (KO) comparison. Using baseline depression level as a primary risk factor, a series of multilevel models revealed significant main effects of baseline depression such that higher baseline depression was associated with greater physical dating violence perpetration and victimization. Results also showed a three-way interaction for assessment point, depressive symptoms, and condition for physical dating violence perpetration. Specifically, those with higher baseline depression in Date SMART showed significantly less physical dating violence perpetration at follow-ups compared with those with higher baseline depression in the KO group. This difference in violence reduction between conditions was not observed for those with lower baseline depression. Date SMART appears to effectively reduce physical dating violence perpetration in those with higher levels of initial risk. Current findings support that adolescents with different risk profiles respond differently to violence prevention programs.

  19. Narcissism--An Adolescent Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Margot

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that the adolescent process needs to be accorded its own particularity of reference, especially where narcissism is concerned. The paper draws on literary and clinical examples to describe what is termed the "adolescent organisation". In many ways, this organisation reflects post-Kleinian theory of what constitutes narcissistic…

  20. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the winter. Depression is one part of bipolar disorder. There are effective treatments for depression, including antidepressants, talk therapy, or both. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  1. The Impact on Family Functioning of Social Media Use by Depressed Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis of the Family Options Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J; Knight, Tess; Germanov, Galit; Benstead, Michelle Lisa; Joseph, Claire Ingrid; Poole, Lucinda

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent depression is a prevalent mental health problem, which can have a major impact on family cohesion. In such circumstances, excessive use of the Internet by adolescents may exacerbate family conflict and lack of cohesion. The current study aims to explore these patterns within an intervention study for depressed adolescents. The current study draws upon data collected from parents within the family options randomized controlled trial that examined family based interventions for adolescent depression (12-18 years old) in Melbourne, Australia (2012-2014). Inclusion in the trial required adolescents to meet diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder via the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Disorders. The transcripts of sessions were examined using qualitative thematic analysis. The transcribed sessions consisted of 56 h of recordings in total from 39 parents who took part in the interventions. The thematic analysis explored parental perceptions of their adolescent's use of social media (SM) and access to Internet content, focusing on the possible relationship between adolescent Internet use and the adolescent's depressive disorder. Two overarching themes emerged as follows: the sense of loss of parental control over the family environment and parents' perceived inability to protect their adolescent from material encountered on the Internet and social interactions via SM. Parents within the context of family based treatments felt that prolonged exposure to SM exposed their already vulnerable child to additional stressors and risks. The thematic analysis uncovered a sense of parental despair and lack of control, which is consistent with their perception of SM and the Internet as relentless and threatening to their parental authority and family cohesion.

  2. Distress and functioning in mixed anxiety and depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małyszczak, Krzysztof; Pawłowski, Tomasz

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) with reference to functional characteristics and symptomatic characteristics in comparison with anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and groups showing subthreshold symptoms (exclusively depressive or anxiety related). The present study was carried out in the following three medical settings: two psychiatric and one primary care. Patients seeking care in psychiatric institutions due to anxiety and depressive symptoms and attending primary medical settings for any reason were taken into account. A total of 104 patients (65 women and 39 men, mean age 41.1 years) were given a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Present State Examination questionnaire, a part of Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, Version 2.0. There were no statistically relevant differences between MADD and anxiety disorders in median GHQ score (19 vs 16) and median GAF score (median 68.5 vs 65). When considering depressive disorders the median GHQ score (28) was higher, and median GAF score (59) was lower than that in MADD. In groups with separated subthreshold anxiety or depressive symptoms, median GHQ scores (12) were lower and median GAF scores (75) were higher than that in MADD. The most frequent symptoms of MADD are symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and depression. Mixed anxiety and depressive disorder differs significantly from GAD only in higher rates of depressed mood and lower rates of somatic anxiety symptoms. Distinction from depression was clearer; six of 10 depressive symptoms are more minor in severity in MADD than in the case of depression. Distress and interference with personal functions in MADD are similar to that of other anxiety disorders. A pattern of MADD symptoms locates this disorder between depression and GAD.

  3. ADad 9: Suicidal behavior in Anxiety Disorders among adolescents in a rural community population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar; Nair, M K C; Chandra, Abhiram; Subramaniam, Vinod Shanmukham; Bincymol, K; George, Babu; Samuel, Beulah

    2013-11-01

    The risk of suicidal behavior associated with Anxiety Disorders (AD) among adolescents is known. However, concurrent mood disorders complicate these findings, and no data is available from India as well as from the community. This study aimed to address the suicidal risk associated with AD from different perspectives. The authors prospectively collected data for 500 adolescents in a community with independent, trained raters. Risk for suicidal behavior was measured with SADPERSONS scale, socio-economic status with Modified Kuppuswamy Scale, depression and anxiety disorders with Beck Depression Inventory and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders respectively. The relationship between predictors and need for preventive action was analyzed with univariate and multivariate regression analyses and a predictive model was built. Suicidal behavior was increased by the presence of AD (adjusted OR = 6.28), the number of co-morbid AD (adjusted OR = 2.04), severity of the AD (adjusted OR = 4.98). Being a boy increased the risk of suicidal behavior associated with AD (adjusted OR = 9.37), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (adjusted OR = 5.65), Separation Anxiety Disorder (unadjusted OR = 3.28), Social Anxiety Disorder (unadjusted OR = 5.91) while controlling for the confounding effect of Depressive Disorder. Gender did not have an influence on Panic Disorder. Presence of AD and co-morbid Depressive Disorder significantly contributed to a risk model for suicidal behavior. Anxiety Disorder is associated with the risk for potential suicidal behavior. Adolescent boys with AD and Depressive Disorder need to be identified as the high risk group for suicide prevention in the community.

  4. Depressive symptoms among adolescents and older adults in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; González-Forteza, Catalina; Jiménez-Tapia, Alberto; Gallo, Joseph J; Wagner, Fernando A

    2014-06-01

    Determine the structure of depressive symptoms among adolescents and older adults through the person-centered approach of latent class analysis (LCA). The study is based on data from two independent samples collected in Mexico City (2,444 adolescents and 2,223 older adults) which included the revised version of the CES-D. The presence or absence of depressed mood (dysphoria), diminished pleasure (anhedonia), drastic change in weight, sleep problems, thinking and concentration difficulties, excessive or inappropriate guilt, fatigue, psychomotor agitation/retardation, and suicide ideation were used in LCA to determine the structure of depressive symptoms for adolescents and older adults. Adolescents reported higher excessive or inappropriate guilt compared to older adults, while older adults had higher proportions of anhedonia, sleep problems, fatigue, and psychomotor agitation/retardation. Similar proportions were found in other symptoms. The LCA analysis showed the best fit with four latent classes (LC): LC 1, "symptoms suggestive of major depressive episode (MDE)" with prevalence of 5.9 % (n = 144) and 10.3 % (n = 230) among adolescents and older adults, respectively; LC 2, "probable MDE symptoms" 18.2 % (n = 446) and 23.0 % (n = 512); LC 3, "possible MDE" 27.7 % (n = 676) and 21.8 % (n = 485); LC 4, "without significant depressive symptoms" 48.2 % (n = 1,178) and 44.8 % (n = 996). The differences in item thresholds between the two groups (adolescents vs. older adults) were statistically significant (Wald test = 255.684, df = 1, p depressive symptoms between adolescents and older adults that merit acknowledgment, further study, and consideration of their potential clinical and public health implications.

  5. [Depression among adolescents. A hidden problem for public health and clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Forteza, Catalina; Torre, Alicia Edith Hermosillo de la; Vacio-Muro, María de Los Ángeles; Peralta, Robert; Wagner, Fernando A

    Depression is an important public health problem that requires more and better attention. In the present work we review epidemiologic studies of depression among adolescents in Mexico and discuss strategies that may help in earlier identification and referral of potential cases for timely care. In summary, depressive symptoms are prevalent among adolescents and adults in Mexico as in many other countries, with a higher ratio of female cases. Young people experiencing the most challenging socio-urban situations have higher rates of depression. Even though depressive disorders are more prevalent among females, consequences may be even worse for males. The authors posit that, among males, stigma attached to depression might lead to attempts to hide depressive symptoms by masking them through high-risk behaviors (e.g., alcohol, drug use, and violence, among others). Women may have higher rates of suicide attempts, but the case-fatality rate of suicide attempts is higher among males. Despite of barriers and resource scarcity among healthcare and educational institutions, it is necessary to continue to develop alternatives that will lead to better attention of mental health issues among the youth, even when their mental health needs are not expressed directly or their chief complaints are in regard to "other" health issues. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.

  6. Diagnosis of depression in children and adolescents. Clinical pointers to a difficult diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    It is now accepted that depression can also affect children and adolescents, but its diagnosis is not straightforward. We examined review articles published on this subject over the last 15 years by large specialist groups and multidisciplinary teams. Most studies of symptoms of psychological distress and depression in children are mainly based on clinical experience of specialists and therefore provide only modest evidence. Isolated, transient unhappiness is not in itself a symptom of depression, but recurrent and persistent mood disorders constitute important warning signs. A French consensus jury recommended attentive listening to potentially depressed children, and those closest to them, focusing on phrases that might reflect a loss of interest, enjoyment, self-esteem and self-confidence; feelings of guilt, shame, loss of affection and hope; and morbid or suicidal ideas. British clinical practice guidelines recommend evaluating the severity of a depressive episode on the basis of the type and number of symptoms, and the family context. Scores designed to diagnose depression and assess its severity are controversial. In practice, diagnosis of depression in children and adolescents with persistent psychological distress is not based on a simple list of symptoms. In difficult cases, it is better to adopt a multidisciplinary approach in order to gauge severity and to determine the most appropriate treatment, which, in most cases, does not involve the use of drugs.

  7. Sleep disorders and depressive feelings: a global survey with the Beck depression scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, Melissa; de Weerd, Al

    2003-07-01

    Patients with (chronic) sleep disorders are prone to depression. Until now studies on the prevalence of depression in the various sleep disorders focused mainly on obstructive sleep apnea patients and narcolepsy. Studies in other common sleep disorders are scarce. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of depressive feelings in the various sleep disorders diagnosed in a Center for Sleep and Wake Disorders. We included 917 consecutive patients (age between 14 and 84 years, median age: 49, 396 male and 521 female), seen in our center for sleep and wake disorders during 2001 and first half of 2002. The diagnosis was based on the history taken at the outpatient-clinic and two consecutive 24-h polysomnographic recordings at home (APSG). The final decisions on the diagnosis were made according to the ASDA international classification of sleep disorders. The severity of depressive feelings was based on the Beck depression scale. Overall, the prevalence of depressive feelings was high. There were no significant differences in age and gender. In psychophysiological insomnia, inadequate sleep- and wake hygiene, sleep state misperception and periodic limb movement disorder/restless legs syndrome some form of depression occurred in more than half of the patients. Moderate to severe depression was found in 3.5% of the patients. The study suggests that the use of a depression scale in the daily routine of diagnosing and treating sleep disorders should be encouraged in order to optimise diagnosis and therapy in these patients.

  8. Depression and blood pressure in high-risk children and adolescents: an investigation using two longitudinal cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, Gemma; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; Thapar, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between blood pressure and depressive disorder in children and adolescents at high risk for depression. Design Multisample longitudinal design including a prospective longitudinal three-wave high-risk study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression and an on-going birth cohort for replication. Setting Community-based studies. Participants High-risk sample includes 281 families where children were aged 9–17 years at baseline and 10–19 years at the final data point. Replication cohort includes 4830 families where children were aged 11–14 years at baseline and 14–17 years at follow-up and a high-risk subsample of 612 offspring with mothers that had reported recurrent depression. Main outcome measures The new-onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth edition defined depressive disorder in the offspring using established research diagnostic assessments—the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment in the high-risk sample and the Development and Wellbeing Assessment in the replication sample. Results Blood pressure was standardised for age and gender to create SD scores and child's weight was statistically controlled in all analyses. In the high-risk sample, lower systolic blood pressure at wave 1 significantly predicted new-onset depressive disorder in children (OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96; p=0.029) but diastolic blood pressure did not. Depressive disorder at wave 1 did not predict systolic blood pressure at wave 3. A significant association between lower systolic blood pressure and future depression was also found in the replication cohort in the second subset of high-risk children whose mothers had experienced recurrent depression in the past. Conclusions Lower systolic blood pressure predicts new-onset depressive disorder in the offspring of parents with depression. Further studies are needed to investigate how this association arises. PMID:24071459

  9. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St

  10. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipps Garth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs. Nearly half (52.1% of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p  Conclusions There appears to be an association